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Sample records for premalignant penile lesions

  1. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  2. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de

    2008-01-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) develops following two different pathways, which have their own premalignant lesions. In the absence of human papilloma virus (HPV), vulvar SCC can develop in a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or both. Th

  3. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de

    2008-01-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) develops following two different pathways, which have their own premalignant lesions. In the absence of human papilloma virus (HPV), vulvar SCC can develop in a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or both. Th

  4. Evidence for immunosurveillance in intestinal premalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, M; Lindberg, K; Karlén, P; Ost, A; Thörn, M; Winqvist, O; Eberhardson, M

    2010-05-01

    The immunosurveillance theory argues that the immune system recognizes tumour-specific antigens expressed by transformed cells, which results in the destruction of cancer precursors before they become clinically manifest. As a model for the development of cancer, we set out to study premalignant lesions and immune responses in sentinel lymph nodes from patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis and progression of mucosal dysplasia. Mesenteric lymph nodes draining dysplastic and normal intestinal segments were identified by sentinel node technique during surgery in 13 patients with ulcerative colitis who were subjected to colectomy because of intestinal dysplasia. T cells were extracted from the lymph nodes and analysed by flow cytometry, and lymphocyte proliferation assays were set up in the presence of extracts from dysplastic and normal intestinal mucosa. Increase in CD4/CD8 ratio was observed in sentinel lymph nodes draining dysplastic epithelium compared to normal mucosa. The increase in CD4(+) T cells in relation to CD8(+) T cells correlated with the degree of dysplasia reflected by a significant increase in the ratio against low-grade dysplasia compared to indefinite dysplastic lesions. The T-cell response was specific to antigens from dysplastic epithelial lining as seen in proliferation assays. The observation suggests an important surveillance role for the immune system against premalignant intestinal lesions in patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis.

  5. Histochemical identification of malignant and premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebow, Charles; Maloney, M. J.

    1991-06-01

    Malignant and transforming cells can be identified by biochemical parameters which can be used to localize lesions in situ for laser surgery. These cells express unique proteins, proteins in unusual quantities, or other biochemical alterations which can be utilized to image lesions of such cells. Several methods have been identified, both in vitro and in vivo, to identify such lesions. Several antibodies were examined for their properties of tissue identification, including CEA, F36/22, and AE1/AE3. F36/22, an antibody developed by M. T. Chu against human breast cancer cells, associated with two lines of oral cancer (KB and HCPC), and against two naturally occurring human oral squamous cell cancers. CEA, an antibody developed against human colon cancer, also reacted against both cell lines and both pathological samples. AE1/AE3, developed against normal fibrous components, also reacted against the samples, but in a much less regular manner. F36/22 associated with the histologically identifiably most dedifferentiated cells at the leading edge of the invading cancer. CEA, on the other hand, associated with more quiescent, older, established cancer cells. This demonstrates that antibodies developed against cancers of different organs can be used to identify a wide variety of cancers, and may have prognostic value. F36/22 coupled to fluorescein was used to identify oral cancer cells. Other properties of cancers and developing cancers can also be exploited to identify cancers, including their over-expression of tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase stimulating hormones such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). A model of premalignant lesion produced in the hamster buccal cheek pouch with 6 week application of DMBA over-expresses constitutive tyrosine kinase which can be demonstrated biochemically. This initiated lesion can be promoted to frank cancer by growth factors released in response to laser surgery. Preliminary results suggest that these lesions can be identified by

  6. Chromosome instability predicts progression of premalignant lesions of the larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Verona E.; Van der Heijden, Stijn J. A.; Haesevoets, Annick; Litjens, Sophie G. H.; Bot, Fredrik J.; Voogd, Adri C.; Chenault, Michelene N.; Hopman, Anton H. N.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Wal, Jacqueline M.; Manni, Johannes J.; Ramaekers, Frans C. S.; Kremer, Bernd; Speel, Ernst-Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    The histopathology of premalignant laryngeal lesions does not provide reliable information on the risk of malignant transformation, hence we examined new molecular markers which can easily be implemented in clinical practice.Dual-target fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1 and

  7. Is endoscopic nodular gastritis associated with premalignant lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, R; Manafi, A; Maghbool, M; Kouhpayeh, A; Mahmoudi, L

    2015-06-01

    Nodularity on the gastric mucosa is occasionally seen in general practice. There is no consensus about the association of nodular gastritis and histological premalignant lesions. This study is designed to investigate the prevalence of histological premalignant lesions in dyspeptic patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Consecutive patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Endoscopic nodular gastritis was defined as a miliary nodular appearance of the gastric mucosa on endoscopy. Biopsy samples of stomach tissue were examined for the presence of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by histology. From 5366 evaluated patients, a total of 273 patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis and 1103 participants as control group were enrolled. H. pylori infection was detected in 87.5% of the patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis, whereas 73.8% of the control group were positive for H. pylori (p gastritis were significantly higher than in the control group. Prevalence of atrophic gastritis and complete intestinal metaplasia were also more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis than in the control group. Dysplasia, incomplete intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection are significantly more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Although further studies are needed before a clear conclusion can be reached, we suggest that endoscopic nodular gastritis might serve as a premalignant lesion and could be biopsied in all patients for the possibility of histological premalignancy, in addition to H. pylori infection.

  8. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T.; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C.

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  9. Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions : Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention...2015 – 31 Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0032 Targeting Premalignant Lesions : Implications for Early Breast...carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to identify peptides that specifically recognize premalignant lesions in the mammary tissue. To achieve this goal, we

  10. Penile lesion from gunshot wound: a 43-case experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Andre G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the main aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 43 patients with gunshot wounds to the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of the lesion, the presence of associated lesions, the performance of complementary exams, surgical treatment, postoperative complications and long term follow-up of 43 patients with penile lesions from gunshot wounds were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 43 cases assessed, 41 were submitted to surgical exploration (95.3% and 2 were submitted to conservative treatment (4.7%. We found penile lesions involving the corpus cavernosum in 37 cases; the remaining 4 patients presented no lesions involving the corpus cavernosum, urethra or testicles but did in the superficial structures. Ten cases presented an association with testicular lesions and 14 cases association with anterior urethral lesions. CONCLUSION: Penile lesions from gunshot wounds should be treated with immediate surgical intervention. In exceptional situations featuring superficial lesions only conservative treatment may be applied.

  11. Sialyl Lewis x expression in cervical scrapes of premalignant lesions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Noé Velázquez-Márquez; Gerardo Santos López; Lucio Jiménez Aranda; Julio Reyes Leyva; Verónica Vallejo Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Sialylated oligosaccharides of glycoproteins and glycolipids have been implicated in tumour progression and metastases. Altered expression of glycosidic antigens has been reported in cervical cancer. In cervix premalignant lesions, an increased expression of sialic acid has been reported. In the present study we determined the expression profiles of the glycosidic antigens Tn, sialyl Tn (sTn), Lewis a (Lea), sialyl Lewis a (sLea), Lewis x (Lex) and sialyl Lewis x (sLex) in cervical scrapes with cytological diagnoses of normal, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL). Cervical scrapings were collected to detect tumour antigens expressions by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. Cytometry analysis of Tn, sTn, Lea and Lex did not reveal differences at the expression level among groups. The number of positive cells to sLea antigen increased in the HGSIL group with respect to the normal group (=0.0495). The number of positive cells to sLex antigen in the samples increased with respect to the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) ( < 0.001, Mann–Whitney U test). The intensity of expression of this antigen increased in the HGSIL samples with respect to normal samples ( < 0.0068). sLex antigen could be a candidate to be used as biomarker for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer.

  12. Efficacy of oral brush cytology in the evaluation of the oral premalignant and malignant lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Babshet, M; Nandimath, K; S K Pervatikar; V G Naikmasur

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, oral brush cytology of premalignant and malignant lesions was performed using tooth brush. The cytopathological diagnosis of brush cytology was compared with that of punch biopsy. The reliability of oral brush cytology using tooth brush was assessed in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: A total of 67 patients, 32 premalignant lesions and other 35 frank oral carcinomas, were included in the study. All patients underwent oral brush ...

  13. Effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laessøe, Line; Sønksen, Jens; Bagi, Per

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions.......We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions....

  14. Antispastic effect of penile vibration in men with spinal cord lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Line; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Biering-Sørensen, F.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the possible antispastic effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in men with spinal cord lesion (SCL).......To evaluate the possible antispastic effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in men with spinal cord lesion (SCL)....

  15. Flow Cytometric Ploidy Determination of Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    However, subjectivity remains an inherent part of the diagnostic process.9 According to Dabelsteen,10 subjectivity is most apparent in the determination...of Silverman 16 and Pindborg43 and Mincer et al.21 that light microscopio features of premalignancy are often not present in original biopsy specimens...was caused either in whole or in part by the presence of doublets was eliminated by syringina,. filtering and visually examining the population. In

  16. Diagnostic efficiency of toluidine blue with Lugol′s iodine in oral premalignant and malignant lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju Kamarthi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In vivo stains are prompt resources, which have emerged, in the recent years, to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early premalignant and malignant lesions. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic efficiency of toluidine blue with Lugol′s iodine in oral premalignancies and malignancies and to evaluate the reliability of in vivo staining with toluidine blue and Lugol′s iodine in the lesions at risk of malignancy. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 30 subjects with clinically suspicious premalignant lesions and 30 subjects with clinically suspicious malignant lesions. All the lesions were stained consecutively with toluidine blue and Lugol′s iodine and the dye retention were recorded with photographs. Depending on the retention of the dyes, the biopsy site was determined. The biopsy specimens were sent for histological confirmation and results were statistically analyzed. Results: The overall diagnostic accuracy of Lugol′s iodine when used consecutively with toluidine blue stain in distinguishing premalignant lesions and malignant lesions was 90%. As the degree of differentiation of malignant lesions progressed toward more severity, they failed to show the retention of Lugol′s iodine and the result was highly significant statistically, with a P value < 0.001. Interpretation and Conclusion: Lugol′s iodine when used with toluidine blue helped in delineating the inflammatory lesions and was the mean source in determining clinically the degrees of differentiation of malignant lesions as the poorly differentiated malignant lesions without glycogen content failed to show Lugol′s iodine retention. Toluidine blue with Lugol′s iodine can be used as a pretherapeutic assessment of the biologic aggressiveness of the disease.

  17. Endoscopic laser treatment in pre-malignant and malignant vocal fold epithelial lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remijn, E.E.; Marres, H.A.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Endoscopic laser treatment was performed in 43 patients with pre-malignant or malignant vocal fold epithelial lesions, 10 were treated with endoscopic laser surgery for dysplasia, 12 for carcinoma in situ (CIS), five for verrucous carcinoma and 16 patients for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Thirty-t

  18. Endoscopic laser treatment in pre-malignant and malignant vocal fold epithelial lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remijn, E.E.; Marres, H.A.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Endoscopic laser treatment was performed in 43 patients with pre-malignant or malignant vocal fold epithelial lesions, 10 were treated with endoscopic laser surgery for dysplasia, 12 for carcinoma in situ (CIS), five for verrucous carcinoma and 16 patients for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

  19. Premalignant and Malignant Skin Lesions in Two Recipients of Vascularized Composite Tissue Allografts (Face, Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kanitakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recipients of solid organ transplants (RSOT have a highly increased risk for developing cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions, favored by the lifelong immunosuppression. Vascularized composite tissue allografts (VCA have been introduced recently, and relevant data are sparse. Two patients with skin cancers (one with basal cell carcinoma and one with squamous cell carcinomas have been so far reported in this patient group. Since 2000 we have been following 9 recipients of VCA (3 face, 6 bilateral hands for the development of rejection and complications of the immunosuppressive treatment. Among the 9 patients, one face-grafted recipient was diagnosed with nodular-pigmented basal cell carcinoma of her own facial skin 6 years after graft, and one patient with double hand allografts developed disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, a potentially premalignant dermatosis, on her skin of the arm and legs. Similar to RSOT, recipients of VCA are prone to develop cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions. Prevention should be applied through sun-protective measures, regular skin examination, and early treatment of premalignant lesions.

  20. Optical coherence tomography accurately identifies patients with penile (pre malignant lesions: A single center prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronni Wessels

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this preliminary study, qualitative and quantitative analysis of OCT-images of suspicious penile lesions shows differences between benign lesions and (pre malignant lesions. These results encourage further research in a larger study population.

  1. PCNA--a cell proliferation marker in vocal chord cancer. Part I: Premalignant laryngeal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignataro, L D; Broich, G; Lavezzi, A M; Biondo, B; Ottaviani, F

    1995-01-01

    Laryngeal hyperkeratotic lesions can progress to fully developed malignant carcinoma in some cases. These premalignant lesions are proliferative disorders whose potential for further tumour progression is perhaps difficult to assess by mere histology. Immunostaining with PCNA, a protein correlated with cell proliferation, has been used to study tissue behavior in 30 cases of premalignant laryngeal vocal chord lesions treated by epithelial stripping in microlaryngoscopy, 15 of whom had no progression and 15 had recurrence and final development of full malignancy. The results showed a statistically significantly higher PCNA-index in the cases which underwent further tumour progression towards malignancy. PCNA testing may thus be suggested as a marker for tumour progression potential and help in determining clinical treatment choices.

  2. [Recommendations for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of pre-malignant lesions and pancreatic adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Richard, Marta; Ginès, Angels; Ayuso, Juan Ramón; Sabater, Luis; Fabregat, Joan; Mendez, Ramiro; Fernández-Esparrach, Glòria; Molero, Xavier; Vaquero, Eva C; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Ferrández, Antonio; Maurel, Joan

    2016-11-18

    Clinical management of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is complex, and requires a multidisciplinary approach. The same applies for the premalignant lesions that are increasingly being diagnosed. The current document is an update on the diagnosis and management of premalignant lesions and adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. A conference to establish the basis of the literature review and manuscript redaction was organized by the Grupo Español Multidisciplinar en Cáncer Digestivo. Experts in the field from different specialties (Gastroenterology, Surgery, Radiology, Pathology, Medical Oncology and Radiation Oncology) met to prepare the present document. The current literature was reviewed and discussed, with subsequent deliberation on the evidence. Final recommendations were established in view of all the above. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Exfoliative cytology and cytocentrifuge preparation of oral premalignant and malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pushpak; Deshmukh, Revati

    2012-01-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology is a sensitive and reliable diagnostic tool for the early diagnosis of oral cancer. Traditional exfoliative cytology, though popular, has limitations which could be overcome using cytocentrifuge preparations. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of cytocentrifuged specimens with that of conventionally prepared smears in the diagnosis of oral premalignancy and malignancy. Exfoliative cytology was performed on 30 patients with oral premalignant and malignant lesions. The yield was smeared immediately onto a slide for conventional exfoliative cytology (group A). The lesion was then scraped again and the yield was suspended in a bottle containing a fixative solution for cytocentrifuge apparatus-assisted smearing (group B). Both smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain and assessed for cellularity, cellular and nuclear morphology, evaluation of mitosis and background. All the criteria assessed were statistically significant (p value of <0.001) in group B except for mitosis, which was significant in group A. Cytocentrifuge preparations can preserve the cellular details and reduce the overlapping of cells, enabling precise interpretation and thus aiding in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Differential Expression of Motility-Related Protein-1 Gene in Gastric Cancer and Its Premalignant Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoXu; JieZheng; WentianLiu; JunXing; YanyunLi; XinGeng; WeimingZhang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify genes related to gastric cancer and to analyze their expression profiles in different gastric tissues. METHODS The differentially expressed cDNA bands were assayed by fluorescent differential display from gastric cancer specimens, matched with normal gastric mucosa and premalignant lesions. The motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) gene expression was studied by Northern blots and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in different kinds of gastric tissue. RESULTS A differentially expressed cDNA fragment showed lower expression in all gastric cancers compared to the normal gastric mucosa and premalignant lesions; and it was found to be homologous to the MRP-1/CD9 gene. Northern blot analysis confirmed the differential expression. RT-PCR analysis showed that the MRP-1/CD9 gene was expressed at a much lower rate in gastric cancers (0.31 +0.18) compared to the matched normal gastric tissue (0.49+0.24) and premalignant lesions (0.47+0.18)(P<0.05). Furthermore, its expression in intestinal-type of gastric cancer (0.38+0.16) was higher than that expressed in a diffuse-type of gastric cancer (0.22±0.17)(P<0.05). CCONCLUSION The MRP-1/CD9 gene expression was down-regulated in gastric cancer and its expression may be related to the carcinogenic process and histological type of gastric cancer.

  5. Laser micro-dissection and qPCR for identifying specific HPV types responsible for malignancy in penile lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebelo, Ramokone L; Thys, Sofie; Benoy, Ina; Depuydt, Christophe E; Bogers, John-Paul; Bida, Meshack N; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to identify specific human papillomavirus (HPV) type responsible for malignancy in penile tissue samples using laser micro-dissection and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The study was based on two pre-malignant and seven malignant penile tissue samples and laser micro-dissection was performed on all. Genotyping was performed on whole tissue sections and laser micro-dissection samples using qPCR. Two whole tissue section samples were HPV negative while seven were HPV positive. In four samples that were single HPV infections with whole tissue section PCR, identical HPV types were confirmed with laser micro-dissection PCR. Clearly confirming that the single HPV type detected is responsible for malignancy. In two samples that had multiple HPV infections with whole tissue section PCR, only one HPV type with the highest viral load was detected with laser micro-dissection PCR, suggesting that the HPV type with the highest viral load is most likely the cause of that particular lesion. HPV 11 and/or HPV 16 were the only types detected with laser micro-dissection PCR in these cases, compared to multiple HPV types (HPV 11, HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 33, HPV 35, and HPV 39) initially detected with whole tissue section PCR. HPV 11 was associated with verrucous lesions while HPV 16 was associated with squamous cell carcinoma and PIN 3 lesions. This study confirms that laser micro-dissection and qPCR are essential tools in identifying the HPV types responsible for malignancy in penile lesions, particularly in samples with multiple infections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Assessment of the natural course and treatment of premalignant uterine cervical lesions in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivančanin Dragiša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Premalignant changes of the uterine cervix occur with similar frequency during pregnancy and in non­pregnant women. Due to the fact that any surgery on the cervix can jeopardize pregnancy, it is important to define the protocol of procedures for the treatment of these changes during pregnancy. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the natural course of premalignant cervical changes during pregnancy and the impact of their treatment on the pregnancy course. Methods. Study involved all patients with colposcopically, cytologically and hystopathologically diagnosed premalignant cervical changes during pregnancy from 2002 to 2008. Patients were divided into two groups according to the applied treatment during pregnancy: surgery or monitoring by regular colposcopic and cytological examinations. The two groups were compared concerning treatment outcome, persistence or regression of changes and pregnancy duration. Results. Study involved 58 patients. Spontaneous remission of lesions occurred after pregnancy in 63.79% of cases. Highgrade squamous intraepithelial lesion (H­SIL demonstrated a higher rate of persistency in comparison with low­grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (L­SIL (χ2=25.115; p<0.05. Only one finding of L­SIL progressed into H­SIL in the monitored group. Patients who underwent conization during pregnancy had a significantly more frequent preterm deliveries (χ2=14.369; p<0.05. Conclusion. The obtained high rate of spontaneous regression of cervical changes after pregnancy as well as the lower incidence of preterm births in patients who were not treated by conization during pregnancy, confirm that patients with premalignant cervical changes should be, if invasion is excluded, under follow­up throughout pregnancy by regular colposcopic and cytological examinations. Therapeutic conization, due to numerous complications, should be performed only when there is a suspected presence of a more severe form of

  7. MCM2 - a promising marker for premalignant lesions of the lung: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Amy F

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because cells progressing to cancer must proliferate, marker proteins specific to proliferating cells may permit detection of premalignant lesions. Here we compared the sensitivities of a classic proliferation marker, Ki-67, with a new proliferation marker, MCM2, in 41 bronchial biopsy specimens representing normal mucosa, metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ. Methods Parallel sections were stained with antibodies against MCM2 and Ki-67, and the frequencies of staining were independently measured by two investigators. Differences were evaluated statistically using the two-sided correlated samples t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results For each of the 41 specimens, the average frequency of staining by anti-MCM2 (39% was significantly (p Conclusions We conclude that MCM2 is detectable in 2-3 times more proliferating premalignant lung cells than is Ki-67. The promise of MCM2 as a sensitive marker for premalignant lung cells is enhanced by the fact that it is present in cells at the surface of metaplastic lung lesions, which are more likely to be exfoliated into sputum. Future studies will determine if use of anti-MCM2 makes possible sufficiently early detection to significantly enhance lung cancer survival rates.

  8. Significance of β-tubulin Expression in Breast Premalignant Lesions and Carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxia Gao; Yun Niu; Xiumin Ding; Yong Yu

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the expression of β-tubulin in premalignant lesions and carcinomas of the breast, and to observe the relationship of its expression with breast cancer pathological features.METHODS The expression of β-tubulin was detected immunohistochemically in 50 specimens of premalignant lesions of the breast (ADH and Peri-PM with ADH), 50 specimens of breast in situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS), and 50 specimens of invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC). Thirty specimens of normal breast tissues served as a control group.RESULTS Immunohistochemical analysis showed that: the differences among the 4 groups (normal breast tissues, breast premalignant lesions, DCIS and IDC, P < 0.05) were significant,and there were also statistically significant differences between any 2 groups (P < 0.05) except for the β-tubulin positive expression comparing DCIS versus IDC (P > 0.05). In addition, β-tubulin was expressed at a higher level in Peri-PM with ADH compared to ADH (P < 0.05). Following the degree of breast epithelial hyperplasia involved, and its development into carcinoma, the β-tubulin positive expression displayed an elevating tendency.We also found a significant positive relationship of β-tubulin expression with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), but no significant correlation with histological grading and nuclear grade.CONCLUSION Centrosome defects may be an early event in the development of breast cancer and they can also promote tumor progression. Studies of aberrations of centrosomal proteins provide a new way to explore the mechanism of breast tumorigenesis.

  9. Prospective study of fruits and vegetables and risk of oral premalignant lesions in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy Nairi; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Zavras, Athanasios; Joshipura, Kaumudi

    2006-09-15

    The authors prospectively evaluated fruit and vegetable consumption and the incidence of oral premalignant lesions among 42,311 US men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Diet was assessed every 4 years by food frequency questionnaires. The authors confirmed 207 cases of clinically or histopathologically diagnosed oral premalignant lesions occurring between 1986 and 2002. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks were calculated from proportional hazards models. Significant inverse associations were observed with citrus fruits, citrus fruit juice, and vitamin-C-rich fruits and vegetables, indicating 30-40% lower risks with greater intakes (e.g., citrus fruit juice quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 relative risk = 0.65, 95% confidence interval: 0.42, 0.99). Inverse associations with fruits did not vary by smoking status and were stronger in analyses of baseline consumption, with a 10-year lag time to disease follow-up (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 relative risk = 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.82; p = 0.01). No associations were observed with total vegetables or with beta-carotene-rich or lycopene-rich fruits and vegetables. For current smokers, green leafy vegetables (ptrend = 0.05) and beta-carotene-rich fruits and vegetables (ptrend = 0.02) showed significant linear trends of increased risk (one additional serving/day relative risk = 1.7). The risk of oral premalignant lesions was significantly reduced with higher consumption of fruits, particularly citrus fruits and juices, while no consistent associations were apparent for vegetables.

  10. Cytomorphometric Analysis of Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions Using Feulgen Stain and Exfoliative Brush Cytology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Shirish Joshi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and accounting for 90% of cancers of oral cavity. Tobacco abuse has been proved to be the major risk factor in the development of OSCC. Despite advances in surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the five year survival rate for oral cancer has not improved significantly over the past several decades and it remains at about 50 to 55%. Cytobrush sampling is more frequently used nowadays for exfoliative cytology, since it maximizes the number of cells obtained, and facilitates their uniform distribution onto the microscope slide, thus probably improving sensitivity.Our study was therefore carried out to analyze the cytomorphometric features of cells obtained by cytobrush and stained with Feulgen stain from oral premalignant and malignant lesions and to find out whether these features could be used to detect dysplasia and malignancy in their early stages. Aims: To analyze the cytomorphological features of cells in smears of oral premalignant and malignant lesions obtained from exfoliative brush cytology using Feulgen stain and to assess the efficacy of the same in detecting dysplasia and malignancy. Methods: Our study comprised of clinically and histopathologically diagnosed sixty cases which were grouped into twenty cases each of tobacco users with lesions (Leukoplakia and Erythroplakia (Group I; tobacco users without lesions (Group II; Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC lesions (Group III; and normal mucosa (Group IV. The epithelial cells from the lesion were collected with a cytobrush and smears were stained with Feulgen stain. The cells were measured using software for their nuclear area, nuclear diameter, cellular area, cellular diameter and nuclear to cellular area ratio (N:C. Results: The exfoliated cells showed similar alterations as those occuring in histopathological sections of premalignant and malignant lesions. The N:C ratio, mean nuclear area and

  11. Preventive Effects of Pentoxifylline on the Development of Colonic Premalignant Lesions in Obese and Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Fukuta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including enhanced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, are closely related to colorectal tumorigenesis. Pentoxifylline (PTX, a methylxanthine derivative, has been reported to suppress the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of PTX on the development of carcinogen-induced colorectal premalignant lesions in obese and diabetic mice. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice, which are severely obese and diabetic, were administered weekly subcutaneous injections of the colonic carcinogen azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight for four weeks and then received drinking water containing 125 or 500 ppm PTX for eight weeks. At the time of sacrifice, PTX administration markedly suppressed the development of premalignant lesions in the colorectum. The levels of oxidative stress markers were significantly decreased in the PTX-treated group compared with those in the untreated control group. In PTX-administered mice, the mRNA expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX-2, interleukin (IL-6, and TNF-α, and the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA-positive cells in the colonic mucosa, were significantly reduced. These observations suggest that PTX attenuated chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, and prevented the development of colonic tumorigenesis in an obesity-related colon cancer model.

  12. 微小RNA与口腔癌前病变%Micro RNAs and oral premalignant lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓寒; 付纪

    2012-01-01

    微小RNA 是非编码单链小分子RNA,通常在转录后水平通过降解抑制目标信使RNA 参与基因调控,目前研究发现微小RNA 与口腔癌关系密切,在某些口腔癌前疾病的癌变过程中发挥着重要作用,此文就微小RNA与口腔癌前病变的关系作一综述.%Micro RNAs are small non-coding RNAs that mediate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by degrading or repressing target messenger RNAs. The current studies showed micro RNAs were related to many oral cancers and played a key role in the tumorigenesis of some oral premalignant lesions. The relationship of micro RNAs and oral premalignant lesions was reviewed in the article.

  13. Preventive Effects of Pentoxifylline on the Development of Colonic Premalignant Lesions in Obese and Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Kazufumi; Shirakami, Yohei; Maruta, Akinori; Obara, Koki; Iritani, Soichi; Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Kochi, Takahiro; Kubota, Masaya; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including enhanced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, are closely related to colorectal tumorigenesis. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative, has been reported to suppress the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of PTX on the development of carcinogen-induced colorectal premalignant lesions in obese and diabetic mice. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice, which are severely obese and diabetic, were administered weekly subcutaneous injections of the colonic carcinogen azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight) for four weeks and then received drinking water containing 125 or 500 ppm PTX for eight weeks. At the time of sacrifice, PTX administration markedly suppressed the development of premalignant lesions in the colorectum. The levels of oxidative stress markers were significantly decreased in the PTX-treated group compared with those in the untreated control group. In PTX-administered mice, the mRNA expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, and TNF-α, and the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in the colonic mucosa, were significantly reduced. These observations suggest that PTX attenuated chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, and prevented the development of colonic tumorigenesis in an obesity-related colon cancer model. PMID:28212276

  14. Does uterine prolapse alter endometrial cyclooxygenase 2 expression and promote the development of premalignant lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Mine; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin; Sahin, Nur; Celik, Esin; Turan, Guluzar Arzu; Guclu, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and its association with the development of premalignant lesions in gland structures of the endometrium in patients with uterine prolapse, a condition which exposes the uterus to mechanical and infectious stress. The study included 102 patients who underwent hysterectomy to correct grade 3-4 uterine prolapse and 105 patients who underwent hysterectomy for other causes. Endometrial gland structures underwent immunohistochemical staining and COX-2 expression was graded. Grades 0 and 1 represent low expression; grades 2 and 3 correspond to high levels of COX-2 expression. The prevalence of grade 2-3 COX-2 expression was significantly higher in the endometrial gland structures of patients with prolapse and hyperplasia compared to the remaining patients (p = 0.014). Grade 0-1 COX-2 expression was significantly more common in the endometrial gland structures of patients without uterine prolapse or hyperplasia (p = 0.004). Among the patients without endometrial hyperplasia, COX-2 expression was elevated in the endometrial gland structures of those with uterine prolapse compared to those without prolapse. Elevated COX-2 expression may explain the presence of unexpected premalignant lesions of the endometrium in patients with uterine prolapse. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for premalignant lesions and noninvasive early gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadettin Hulagu; Ali Erkan Duman; Neslihan Bozkurt; Gokhan Dindar; Tan Attila; Yesim Gurbuz; Orhan Tarcin; Cem Kalayci; Omer Senturk; Cem Aygun; Orhan Kocaman; Altay Celebi; Tolga Konduk; Deniz Koc; Goktug Sirin; Ugur Korkmaz

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the indication, feasibility, safety,and clinical utility of endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) in the management of various gastrointestinalpathologies.METHODS: The medical records of 60 consecutive patients(34 female, 26 male) who underwent ESD at the gastroenterology department of Kocaeli University from2006-2010 were examined. Patients selected for ESDhad premalignant lesions or non-invasive early cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and had endoscopic andhistological diagnoses. Early cancers were considered to be confined to the submucosa, with no lymph node involvement by means of computed tomography andendosonography.RESULTS: Sixty ESD procedures were performed. The indications were epithelial lesions (n = 39) (33/39 adenoma with high grade dysplasia, 6/39 adenoma with low grade dysplasia), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 7),cancer (n = 7) (5/7 early colorectal cancer, 2/7 early gastric cancer), granular cell tumor (n = 3), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 2), and leiomyoma (n = 2). En bloc and piecemeal resection rates were 91.6% (55/60) and 8.3% (5/60), respectively. Complete and incomplete resection rates were 96.6% (58/60) and 3.3%(2/60), respectively. Complications were major bleeding[n = 3 (5%)] and perforations [n = 5 (8.3%)] (4colon, 1 stomach). Two patients with colonic perforations and two patients with submucosal lymphatic and microvasculature invasion (1 gastric carcinoid tumor,1 colonic adenocarcinoma) were referred to surgery.During a mean follow-up of 12 mo, 1 patient with adenoma with high grade dysplasia underwent a second ESD procedure to resect a local recurrence.CONCLUSION: ESD is a feasible and safe method for treatment of premalignant lesions and early malignant gastrointestinal epithelial and subepithelial lesions. Successful en bloc and complete resection of lesions yield high cure rates with low recurrence.

  17. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mamta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here.

  18. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

  19. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-03-23

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here.

  20. Evaluation of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral premalignant and malignant lesions: A cytomorphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Renuka; Singh, Anil; Badni, Manjunath; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Shalini; Verma, Ruchita

    2015-01-01

    Many oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) arise within regions that previously had premalignant lesion. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of premalignant lesions offers the best hope of improving the prognosis in patients with OSCC. Exfoliative cytology is a simple and non-invasive diagnostic technique that could be used for early detection of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the quantitative changes in nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA) and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio (NA/CA) in cytological buccal smears of oral leukoplakia with dysplasia (OLD) and OSCC patients while comparing with normal healthy mucosa. A quantitative study was conducted over 90 subjects including 30 cases each of OLD, OSCC and clinically normal oral mucosa. The smears obtained were stained with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and cytomorphological assessment of the keratinocytes was carried out. The statistical tools included arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test, analysis of variance, Tukey multiple comparison. P < 0.001 was considered as significant. The mean NA of keratinocytes in the normal mucosa was 65.47 ± 4.77 μm(2) while for OLD it was 107.97 ± 5.44 μm(2) and 139.02 ± 8.10 μm(2) for that of OSCC. The differences show a statistically significant increment in NA (P < 0.001). There was significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the CA of keratinocytes from OSCC when compared with those from smears of OLD and normal mucosa with the values of 1535.80 ± 79.38 μm(2), 1078.51 ± 56.65 μm(2) and 769.70 ± 38.77 μm(2) respectively. The NA/CA ratio in the smears from normal oral mucosa, OLD and OSCC showed a mean value of 0.043 ± 0.004, 0.100 ± 0.008, 0.181 ± 0.015 respectively with a significant difference among the groups (P < 0.001). Evaluation of nuclear and CA of keratinocytes by cytomorphometry can serve as a useful adjunct in the diagnosis and prognosis of a dysplastic lesion which may lead to OSCC.

  1. Prognostic value of molecular markers of oral pre-malignant and malignant lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Agus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The representation of oral cancer and precancerous lesions is often undetected until at later stage and the survival rate of oral cancer has remained essentially unchanged over the past three decades. Over 90% of these tumors are squamous cell carcinoma. The American Cancer Society estimates that among 28,900 new cases of oral diagnosis in 2002, nearly 7,400 people will die from this disease. Oral pre-malignant and malignant lesions have multi-step process both at phenotype and genetic levels that influence tumor behavior and genetic mutations. Purpose: The aim of this presentation was to review the current knowledge of prognostic value of tumor marker in order to achieve early detection, prognostic value, proper and accurate treatment of oral cancer. Reviews: Technological advances in molecular biology have greatly increased the number of new molecular markers that can be detected by molecular analysis such as immunohistochemistry (IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and surgical margin analysis that may increase prognosis and treatment of oral cancer. The result of most valuable tumor markers is twenty nine divided into four groups according to their function such as enhancement of tumor growth, tumor suppression and anti tumor defense, including immune response and apoptosis, angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastatic potential, including adhesion molecules and matrix degradation. Conclusion: In general the conclusion is that the location of markers within the tumor and not the quantitative assessment is as same as emphasized. Especially, the analysis of new molecular markers have been used to be of great importance for early detection, surgical margin analysis, prognostication and treatment of oral pre-malignant and cancerous lesion.

  2. Photodynamic detection in visualisation of cutaneous and oral mucosa premalignant and malignant lesions: two clinical cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziólkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata; Gerber, Hanna; Dziedzic, Magdalena

    2008-11-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is promising method of visualisation of premalignant and malignant lesions. PDD is consisted of two main agents: special chemical compound which is called photosensitizer and light. Photosensitizer has affinity to fast proliferating cells such as pre- or malignant. During light irradiation (with proper wavelength - corresponding to absorption peak of photosensitizer) photosensitizer gains energy and passes into excited singlet state S1. Returning to basic singlet state Sn, leads to fluorescence. Due to difference between concentration of photosensitizer in lesion and normal tissue it is possible to obtain high contrast image of lesion. Case #1: 53 years old woman with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in nasal region; 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid as a precursor of photosensitizer on eucerin base was used. Case #2: 57 years old woman with multifocal oral leukoplakia on cheek mucosa and tongue; 2% chlorophyll gel as photosesitizer was used. All photographs were taken in white light without any filter and in blue and UV light with orange filter: in both cases the total area of the lesions appeared to be larger than it has been clinically observed. Thus, the PDD might be helpful in evaluation of margins of surgical excision of such lesions.

  3. EXPRESSION OF p16, CYCLIN D1 AND RB PROTEIN IN GASTRIC CARCINOMA AND PREMALIGNANT LESIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪林; 赵志泉; 季国忠; 范志宁; 金宁; 刘政; 张平; 程铁华

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of p16, cyclin D1 and Rb protein in gastric carcinoma and premalignant lesions including dysplastic gastric mucosa and intestinal metaplasia gastric mucosa. Methods: Using SP immunohistochemical methods, the expression of pl6, cyclin D1 and Rb proteins was detected in 10 specimens of normal gastric mucosa, 15 specimens of dysplastic gastric mucosa, 15 specimens of intestinal metaplasia gastric mucosa, 30 specimens of gastric carcinoma. The clinical characteristics of the 30 patients with gastric carcinoma were analysed to explore the relationship between the parameter detected and biological action of gastric cancer. Results: Expression of p16 protein was detected in 90% of normal gastric mucosa, 86.67% of dysplastic gastric mucosa, 86.67% of intestinal metaplasia gastric mucosa, 36.67% of gastric carcinoma. The positive rate of p16 protein expression in gastric carcinoma is significantly lower than that in normal gastric mucosa and gastric premalignant lesions mucosa (P<0.01). Expression of cyclin D1 protein was detected in 10% of normal gastric mucosa, 20% of dysplastic gastric mucosa, 20% of intestinal metaplasia gastric mucosa, 53.33% of gastric carcinoma. The positive rate of cyclin D1, protein expression in gastric carcinoma is significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa and gastric premalignant lesions mucosa (P<0.05). Expression of Rb protein was detected in 90% of normal gastric mucosa, 80% of dysplastic gastric mucosa, 80% of intestinal metaplasia gastric mucosa, 50% of gastric carcinoma. The positive rate of Rb protein expression in gastric carcinoma is significantly lower than that in normal gastric mucosa (P<0.05). The expression of p16, cyclin D1 gene were associated with the degree of differentiation of gastric carcinoma, lymphnodes metastasis and distant metastasis. Conclusion: p16, Cyclin D1 and Rb gene play important role in gastric carcinoma genesis. The expression of p16, cyclin D1 and Rb gene

  4. Traumatic degloving lesion of penile and scrotal skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Zanettini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avulsions of penile and scrotal skin are uncommon events and are caused mainly by accidents with industrial machines and agricultural machine belts. We report the case of a 30-year old patient with avulsion and traumatic degloving of the penile and scrotal skin, with exposure of the cavernous bodies, spongy body, and testes due to an industrial machine accident. Reconstruction was performed in steps, achieving a satisfactory esthetic result, normal voiding and reestablished sexual function.

  5. In vivo photo-detection of chemically induced premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of the rat palatal mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, JM; Speelman, OC; vanLeengoed, HLLM; Nikkels, PGJ; Roodenburg, JLN; Witjes, MJH; Vermey, A

    1997-01-01

    Photo-detection using in vivo fluorescence was studied for different stages of chemically induced premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the Wistar rat palatal mucosa. It was found that the epithelial dysplasia (numerically expressed in the epithelial atypia index (EAI)) of the ra

  6. The effect of penile vibratory stimulation on male fertility potential, spasticity and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Læssøe, Line; Sønksen, J

    2005-01-01

    Present the possibility for treatment of male infertility, spasticity, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned (SCL) individuals with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS).......Present the possibility for treatment of male infertility, spasticity, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned (SCL) individuals with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS)....

  7. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) immunoreactivity in benign, premalignant and malignant lesions of the gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legan, Mateja; Tevžič, Spela; Tolar, Ana; Luzar, Boštjan; Marolt, Vera Ferlan

    2011-03-01

    GLUT-1 is a transmembrane glucose transport protein that allows the facilitated transport of glucose into cells, normally expressed in tissues which depend mainly on glucose metabolism. Enhanced expression of GLUT-1 can also be found in a large spectrum of carcinomas. This study aimed to investigate GLUT-1 expression in gallbladder tissue: from normal tissue samples, hyperplasias, low-grade and high-grade dysplasias to gallbladder carcinomas. In all, 115 archived samples of gallbladder tissue from 68 patients, presented after cholecystectomy, were immunohistochemically stained for GLUT-1. According to the intensity of GLUT-1 immunoreactivity, samples were divided into negative (stained 0-10% of cells stained), positive with weak to moderate (10-50%) and positive with strong (>50%) GLUT-1 expression. The GLUT-1 immunoreactivity of the samples showed a characteristic increase from premalignant lesions to carcinomas. Normal gallbladder tissue samples did not express GLUT-1 (100%). Weak expression was shown only focally in hyperplasias, but to a greater extent with low-grade dysplasias (20%), high-grade dysplasias (40%) and carcinomas (51.8%). Normal gallbladder tissue is GLUT-1 negative. GLUT-1 expression in carcinoma tissue is significantly higher than in dysplastic lesions. Strong GLUT-1 expression indicates 100% specificity for detecting gallbladder carcinomas. Therefore, GLUT-1 is a candidate as a diagnostic as well as a tissue prognostic marker in gallbladder carcinoma patients.

  8. Tumor-associated macrophages in oral premalignant lesions coexpress CD163 and STAT1 in a Th1-dominated microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazumasa; Haraguchi, Shigeki; Hiori, Miki; Shimada, Jun; Ohmori, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-05

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are implicated in the growth, invasion and metastasis of various solid tumors. However, the phenotype of TAMs in premalignant lesions of solid tumors has not been clarified. In the present study, we identify the phenotype of TAMs in leukoplakia, an oral premalignant lesion, by immunohistochemical analysis and investigate the involvement of infiltrated T cells that participate in the polarization of TAMs. The subjects included 30 patients with oral leukoplakia and 10 individuals with normal mucosa. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were examined for the histological grades, and immunohistochemical analysis was carried out using antibodies against CD68 (pan-MΦ), CD80 (M1 MΦ), CD163 (M2 MΦ), CD4 (helper T cells: Th), CD8 (cytotoxic T cells), CXCR3, CCR5 (Th1), CCR4 (Th2), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1), phosphorylated STAT1 (pSTAT1) and chemokine CXCL9. The differences in the numbers of positively stained cells among the different histological grades were tested for statistical significance using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Correlations between different types of immune cells were determined using Spearman's rank analysis. An increase in the rate of CD163(+) TAM infiltration was observed in mild and moderate epithelial dysplasia, which positively correlated with the rate of intraepithelial CD4(+) Th cell infiltration. Although CCR4(+) cells rarely infiltrated, CXCR3(+) and CCR5(+) cells were observed in these lesions. Cells positive for STAT1 and chemokine CXCL9, interferon- (IFN)-induced gene products, and pSTAT1 were also observed in the same lesions. Double immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the cells that were positive for CD163 were also positive for STAT1. CD163(+) TAMs in oral premalignant lesions coexpress CD163 and STAT1, suggesting that the TAMs in oral premalignant lesions possess an M1 phenotype in a Th1-dominated micromilieu.

  9. Treatment to sustain a Th17-type phenotype to prevent skewing toward Treg and to limit premalignant lesion progression to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M Rita I; Levingston, Corinne A; Johnson, Sara D

    2016-05-15

    While immune suppression is a hallmark of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HSNCC), the immunological impact of premalignant oral lesions, which often precedes development of HNSCC, is unknown. The present study assessed the changes in splenic and draining lymph node CD4(+) cell populations and their production of select cytokines that occur in mice with carcinogen-induced premalignant oral lesions and the changes that occur as lesions progress to oral cancer. These studies found skewing toward Th1 and Th17-type phenotypes in the spleen and lymph nodes of mice with premalignant oral lesions and a shift to Treg as lesions progress to cancer. Since the role of Th17 cells in the progression from premalignant lesions to cancer is not clear, studies determined the immunological and clinical effect of treating mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with a TGF-β type 1 receptor inhibitor plus IL-23 as an approach to sustain the Th17 phenotype. These studies showed that the treatment approach not only sustained the Th17 phenotype, but also increased distal spleen cell and regional lymph node cell production of other stimulatory/inflammatory mediators and slowed premalignant lesion progression to cancer.

  10. Aldose reductase inhibition suppresses azoxymethane-induced colonic premalignant lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ashish; Shoeb, Mohammad; Tammali, Ravinder; Ramana, Kota V; Srivastava, Satish K

    2014-12-01

    Type-2 diabetes and obesity-related metabolic abnormalities are major risk factors for the development of colon cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor, fidarestat, on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic premalignant lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db obese mice. Our results indicate that fidarestat given in the drinking water caused a significant reduction in the total number of colonic premalignant lesions in the AOM treated obese mice. Further, the expression levels of PKC-β2, AKT, COX-2 and iNOS in the colonic mucosa of AOM-treated mice were significantly decreased by fidarestat. The serum levels of IL-1α, IP-10, MIG, TNF-α and VEGF are significantly suppressed in AOM + fidarestat treated obese mice. Fidarestat also decreased the expression of COX-2, iNOS, XIAP, survivin, β-catenin and NF-κB in high glucose-treated HT29 colon cancer cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that fidarestat inhibits the development of colonic premalignant lesions in an obesity-related colon cancer and is chemopreventive to colorectal carcinogenesis in obese individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of folic acid on epithelial apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in premalignant gastric lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Zhong Cao; Wei-Hao Sun; Xi-Long Ou; Qian Yu; Ting Yu; You-Zhen Zhang; Zi-Ying Wu; Qi-Ping Xue; Yun-Lin Cheng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of folic acid on epithelial apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in the tissues of premalignant gastric lesions.METHODS: Thirty-eight patients, with premalignant gastric lesions including 18 colonic-type intestinal metaplasia(IM)and 20 mild or moderate dysplasia, were randomly divided into a treatment group (n = 19) receiving folic acid 10 mg thrice daily and a control group (n = 19) receiving sucralfate 1 000 mg thrice daily for 3 mo. All patients undervvent endoscopies and four biopsies were taken prior to treatment and repeated after concluding therapy.Folate concentrations in gastric mucosa were measured with chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Epithelial apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2 and p53 protein in gastric mucosa were detected with flow cytometric assay.RESULTS: The mean of folate concentration in gastric mucosa was 9.03±3.37 μg/g wet wt in the folic acid treatment group, which was significantly higher than 6.83±3.02 μg/g wet wt in the control group. Both the epithelial apoptosis rate and the tumor suppressor p53expression in gastric mucosa significantly increased after folic acid treatment. In contrast, the expression of Bcl-2oncogene protein decreased after folic acid therapy.CONCLUSION: These data indicate that folic acid may play an important role in the chemoprevention of gastric carcinogenesis by enhancing gastric epithelial apoptosis in the patients with premalignant lesions.

  12. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

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    Mendoza-Catalán Miguel A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Methods Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL, 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766. Results Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Conclusion Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression.

  13. Transition of Immunohistochemical Expression of E-Cadherin and Vimentin from Premalignant to Malignant Lesions of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx

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    Kafil Akhtar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to study the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and vimentin in precancerous lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx and to use the specific pattern of expression to predict invasiveness. Methods: This cross-sectional study looked at 87 cases of oral and oropharyngeal lesions obtained between December 2012 and November 2014 in the Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, India. Fifty-three biopsies from the buccal mucosa, tongue, and pharynx and 34 resected oral specimens were evaluated for premalignant and malignant lesions using hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical stains. Immunohistochemical expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and mesenchymal marker vimentin was evaluated wherever possible. Slides were examined for staining pattern (cytoplasmic or membrane, proportion, and intensity of staining of tumor cells. Patients follow-up and therapy related changes were also studied. Results: There were 64 premalignant and 23 malignant cases in our study with 65 (74.7% cases seen in males and 22 (25.3% cases seen in females. The majority of malignant cases, (n = 15; 64.2% were seen in the fifth and sixth decades of life while most of the premalignant lesions (n = 36; 56.4% were seen in the fourth and fifth decade. Amongst the 64 premalignant oral lesions, leukoplakia comprised of 14 cases (21.9%, of which three cases had associated mild to moderate dysplasia. The majority of premalignant lesions showed strong E-cadherin expression and decreased expression of vimentin with negative and weak expression in both dysplasias and carcinoma in situ (p = 0.013. E-cadherin expression was significantly reduced in invasive carcinomas compared to dysplasias and carcinoma in situ and the difference in immunoreactivity was statistically significant (p < 0.050. Vimentin expression increased as the tumor progressed from dysplasias to carcinoma in

  14. Distinctive immunohistochemical profile of penile intraepithelial lesions: a study of 74 cases.

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    Chaux, Alcides; Pfannl, Rolf; Rodríguez, Ingrid M; Barreto, José E; Velazquez, Elsa F; Lezcano, Cecilia; Piris, Adriano; Netto, George J; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2011-04-01

    Several classification schemes for penile precancerous lesions have been proposed, but none of them seems to correlate with the current understanding of penile cancer pathogenesis. Recently, a system, which takes into account morphologic features and purported etiopathogenesis, was proposed, separating penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) in differentiated and warty/basaloid subtypes. This study was designed to seek an immunohistochemical profile that can be helpful in the classification and differential diagnosis of penile epithelial abnormalities and precancerous lesions using the aforementioned system. The immunohistochemical panel included stains for p16, p53, and Ki-67. For p16 immunostaining, only full-thickness positivity in all epithelial cells was considered as positive; for p53 and Ki-67 immunostaining, patchy or diffuse nuclear positivity above the basal layer was considered as positive. Seventy-four lesions in 59 patients were selected and classified as follows: differentiated PeIN, 34 cases; squamous hyperplasia (SH), 21 cases; basaloid PeIN, 15 cases; and warty PeIN, 4 cases. The mean age of patients was 64 years. Forty-two lesions (56.8%) were located in the glans and 32 (43.2%) in the foreskin. Overexpression of p16 was useful for distinguishing SH from warty/basaloid PeINs (0% vs. 94.7%, P<0.0001) but not SH from differentiated PeINs (0% vs. 5.9%, P=0.519). In addition, p16 allowed the distinction of differentiated and warty/basaloid PeINs (5.9% vs. 94.7%, P<0.0001). Immunohistochemistry results for p53 allowed the separation of SH and differentiated PeIN (9.5% vs. 44.1%, P=0.0078) and SH and warty/basaloid PeIN (9.5% vs. 55.6%, P=0.0042). Ki-67 immunostain was useful for distinguishing SH from differentiated PeIN (52.6% vs. 89.7%, P=0.0062) and SH from PeIN with warty and/or basaloid features (52.6% vs. 100%, P=0.0011). There seems to be a distinctive immunohistochemical profile for associated and precursor epithelial lesions of the penis. SH

  15. Associated factors with cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women community at Sadras, Tamil Nadu

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    Sornam Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the associated factors of cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women residing in the coastal areas of Sadras, Tamil Nadu. Methods: The study was conducted in five fishermen communities under Sadras, a coastal area in Tamil Nadu, India. Two hundred and fifty married fisher women residing in the area. Quantitative descriptive approach with a cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule for identifying the associated factors and Pap smear test was performed for identifying the pre-malignant cervical lesions among the married fisher women. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among 250 women, about six (2.4% of them presented with pre-cancerous lesions such as atypical squamous cell of undifferentiated significance (ASCUS - five (2% and mild dysplasia one (0.4%. Majority of the women, about 178 (71.2% women, had abnormal cervical findings. Statistical analysis showed a significant association of risk factors such as advanced age, lack of education, low socioeconomic status, using tobacco, multiparity, premarital sex, extramarital relationship, using cloth as sanitary napkin, etc. Conclusion: The study findings clearly show the increased vulnerable state of the fisher women for acquiring cervical cancer as they had many risk factors contributing to the same.

  16. Epithelial abnormalities and precancerous lesions of anterior urethra in patients with penile carcinoma: a report of 89 cases.

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    Velazquez, Elsa F; Soskin, Ana; Bock, Adelaida; Codas, Ricardo; Cai, Guoping; Barreto, Jose E; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2005-07-01

    Urethral and penile tissues and their neoplasms are considered anatomically and pathogenetically different. Since we observed urethral dysplastic lesions and some similarities between noninvasive and invasive lesions of the anterior urethra and glans, we designed this study to document epithelial urethral abnormalities in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. We examined urethral epithelia from 170 penectomies with invasive squamous cell carcinoma finding a variety of primary epithelial abnormalities in 89 cases (52%) and secondary invasion of penile carcinoma to urethra in 42 cases (25%). Patients' average age was 68 years. Primary tumors measured 4 cm in average diameter and the majority were squamous cell carcinoma of the usual (67%) or verrucous type (15%). Primary epithelial abnormalities found were squamous intraepithelial lesions, metaplasias and microglandular hyperplasias. Urethral squamous intraepithelial lesions of high grade was found in six patients and of low grade in eight cases. Squamous metaplasia, seen in 69 cases, was the most frequent finding. Metaplasias were classified as nonkeratinizing and keratinizing. Nonkeratinizing metaplasias (57 cases) were variegated in morphology: simplex (26 cases), hyperplastic (12 cases), clear cell (11 cases) and spindle (8 cases). Keratinizing metaplasias (12 cases) showed hyperkeratosis and were more frequently associated with verrucous than nonverrucous penile squamous cell carcinoma. Microglandular hyperplasia was present in eight cases. Lichen sclerosus was associated with simplex squamous metaplasia in four cases. Despite the large size of the primary tumors, direct urethral invasion by penile carcinoma was present in only 25% of the cases. The presence of precancerous lesions in urethra of patients with penile carcinoma indicates urethral participation in the pathogenesis of penile cancer. Simplex squamous metaplasia is a common finding probably related to chronic inflammation. Keratinizing and

  17. Cervical glandular atypia associated with squamous intraepithelial neoplasia: a premalignant lesion?

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    Brown, L J; Wells, M

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have described premalignant changes in the endocervical epithelium, but morphological criteria for the diagnosis of cervical glandular atypia of lesser severity than adenocarcinoma in situ have not been established. Adenocarcinoma in situ is often associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The endocervical mucosa in 105 cases of CIN grade III was evaluated and compared with that of 100 controls. Sixteen cases of cervical glandular atypia and one case of adenocarc...

  18. Male circumcision is associated with a lower prevalence of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions among Kenyan men

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    Backes, Danielle M.; Bleeker, Maaike C.G.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Agot, Kawango; Bailey, Robert C.; Ndinya-Achola, J.O.; Hayombe, Juma; Hogewoning, Cornelis J.A.; Moses, Stephen; Snijders, Peter J.F.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated penile lesions in men may increase the risk of HPV transmission to their female partners. Risk factor data on HPV-associated penile lesions are needed from regions with a high burden of cervical cancer. Visual inspection of the penis was conducted using a colposcope at the 24-month visit among participants in a randomized controlled trial of male circumcision in Kenya, from May 2006 to October 2007. All photos were read independently by two observers for quality control. Penile exfoliated cells sampled from the glans/coronal sulcus and the shaft were tested for HPV DNA using GP5+/6+ PCR and for HPV16, 18 and 31 viral loads using a real time PCR assay. Of 275 men, 151 were circumcised and 124 uncircumcised. The median age was 22 years. Circumcised men had a lower prevalence of flat penile lesions (0.7%) versus uncircumcised (26.0%); adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.003–0.1). Compared to men who were HPV-negative, men who were HPV DNA positive (OR=6.5; 95%CI: 2.4–17.5) or who had high HPV16/18/31 viral load (OR=5.2; 95%CI: 1.1–24.4) had higher odds of flat penile lesions. Among men with flat penile lesions, HPV56 (29.0%) and 16 (25.8%) were the most common types. Flat penile lesions are much more frequent in uncircumcised men, and associated with higher prevalence of HPV and higher viral loads. This study suggests that circumcision reduces the prevalence of HPV-associated flat lesions and may ultimately reduce male to female HPV transmission. PMID:21618520

  19. Kaposi’s sarcoma: An unusual penile lesion in a HIV negative patient

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    Aldo Franco De Rose

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS of the penis is a very rare lesion and it is usually observed in HIV-infected patients. We introduce a case of KS of the penis in a 75 years old HIV negative patient with a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. He came to our attention with a painful ulcerated red lesion on the glans that stretched from the urethral meatus to the coronal skin. This lesion was found to be a KS balanopreputial in the classical variant. Penile KS must be included in the differential diagnosis of genital diseases especially when the clinical features of the lesion are aspecific and diagnosis can be made histologically by performing a biopsy.

  20. Exploring type II microcalcifications in benign and premalignant breast lesions by shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS)

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    Liang, Lijia; Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Haipeng; Xu, Shuping; Zhang, Zhe; Hu, Chengxu; Bi, Lirong; Fan, Zhimin; Han, Bing; Xu, Weiqing

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of type II microcalcifications in fibroadenoma (FB), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) breast tissues has been analyzed by the fingerprint features of Raman spectroscopy. Fresh breast tissues were first handled to frozen sections and then they were measured by normal Raman spectroscopy. Due to inherently low sensitivity of Raman scattering, Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) technique was utilized. A total number of 71 Raman spectra and 70 SHINERS spectra were obtained from the microcalcifications in benign and premalignant breast tissues. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish the type II microcalcifications between these tissues. This is the first time to detect type II microcalcifications in premalignant (ADH and DCIS) breast tissue frozen sections, and also the first time SHINERS has been utilized for breast cancer detection. Conclusions demonstrated in this paper confirm that SHINERS has great potentials to be applied to the identification of breast lesions as an auxiliary method to mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  1. Cervical pre-malignant lesions in HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment Centre in a tertiary hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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    Balandya, Belinda S; Pembe, Andrea B; Mwakyoma, Henry A

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study was to determine proportion of HIV infected women with cervical pre-malignant lesions; and compare the use of Visual Inspection of the cervix after application of Acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolau (Pap) smear in screening for cervical premalignant lesions in HIV positive women attending Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 316 women aged 18-70 years had a Pap smear taken for cytology, followed by spraying onto the cervix with 4% acetic acid and then inspecting it. Cytology was considered negative when there was no Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) lesion reported from the Pap smear taken, and positive if CIN lesion 1, 2 or 3 was reported. Detection of a well-defined, opaque acetowhite lesion close to the squamocolumnar junction or close to the external cervical os constituted a positive VIA. Out of 316 women, 132 women had acetowhite lesions on VIA, making the proportion of abnormal cervical lesions to be 42.4%. One hundred and one out of 312 women (32.4%) had CIN lesions detected on Pap smear. The proportion of agreement between these two tests was 0.3. The proportion of agreement was moderate in women with advanced WHO HIV clinical stage of the disease and in women not on ART (Anti Retroviral Therapy). Women with CD-4 count less than 200 cells/mm3 had more abnormal cervical lesions. There is considerable proportion of HIV positive women with premalignant lesions of the cervix. Considering the proportion of HIV women with abnormal lesions and the difficulty in logistics of doing Pap smear in low resource settings, these results supports the recommendation to introduce screening of premalignant lesions of the cervix using VIA to all HIV infected women.

  2. Calciphylaxis: Temporal Artery Calcification Preceding Widespread Skin Lesions and Penile Necrosis

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    Manzoor A. Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal artery calciphylaxis has rarely been described in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis. We report a case of 72-year-old Caucasian man with multiple comorbidities and end-stage renal disease on dialysis who presented with temporal artery calcification leading to bilateral loss of vision followed by extensive skin lesions including one on glans penis. While on peritoneal dialysis, he developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, had no improvement on high dose steroids, and temporal artery biopsy showed marked calcification without any evidence of vasculitis. Few weeks later on hemodialysis, he developed widespread cutaneous lesions on extremities and penile necrosis with skin biopsy revealing calciphylaxis. On literature review of calciphylaxis in chronic kidney disease, we found only four cases of temporal artery calciphylaxis leading to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and blindness. We believe this is the first case in which the rare temporal artery calciphylaxis and the uncommon penile necrosis are being described together. The objective is to emphasize the need to recognize this condition early in the CKD patients on dialysis presenting with visual symptoms as the different treatment strategies may help prevent complete loss of vision and also modify or prevent a full blown calciphylaxis.

  3. Identification of a novel herpesvirus associated with a penile proliferative lesion in a beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

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    Bellehumeur, Christian; Lair, Stéphane; Romero, Carlos H; Provost, Chantale; Nielsen, Ole; Gagnon, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    The carcass of an adult male beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) was found beach cast in 2008 on the shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary at Rivière-Ouelle, Quebec, Canada. The carcass was transported to the Faculté de médecine vétérinaire of the Université de Montréal for postmortem examination. Aspiration pneumonia was the probable cause of death. Necropsy revealed a focal papilloma-like penile lesion, characterized by focal mucosal thickening with disorganization of the epithelial layers and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. A pan-herpesvirus nested PCR assay on frozen tissue from the penile lesion was positive. The PCR product sequencing revealed a partial herpesvirus DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene sequence of 600 nucleotides. Its nearest nucleotide identity was with the partial DPOL gene of an alphaherpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 5 (79.5% identity). It also shared high identity with several other marine mammal herpesviruses (50.2 to 77.3% identity). This new herpesvirus was tentatively named beluga whale herpesvirus (BWHV). Virus isolation was unsuccessful. The pathogenic potential of BWHV is unknown, but the evaluation of archived tissues suggests that the virus is endemic in the St. Lawrence Estuary beluga population.

  4. Clinical Features of Cutaneous Premalignant Lesions in Busan City and the Eastern Gyeongnam Province, Korea: A Retrospective Review of 1,292 Cases over 19 Years (1995~2013).

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    Choi, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Ho; Song, Ki-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    The global prevalence of premalignant lesions has been continuously increasing in recent years, but there has been little research regarding the distribution and incidence of cutaneous premalignant lesions in Korean populations. We conducted this retrospective study to analyze recent trends in the incidence and clinical patterns of cutaneous premalignant lesions in the Korean population. We reviewed 1,292 cases (3,651 lesions) of patients with cutaneous premalignant lesions, including actinic keratosis (AK) and Bowen's disease (BD), from the Department of Dermatology at Dong-A University Hospital (January 1995 to December 2013). The average cutaneous premalignant lesion annual incidence was 1.82%, and the incidence continuously increased from 0.70% to 4.25% over the study period. The most common cutaneous premalignant lesion was AK (75.85%), followed by BD (24.15%). The mean age of onset was 68.76 years (men, 70.89 years; women, 65.56 years), and the male:female ratio of patients was 1:1.52. Major skin cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, 8.90%), basal cell carcinoma (BCC, 6.42%), and malignant melanoma (MM, 0.70%), were detected in 15.79% of patients with cutaneous premalignant lesions. Three patients (0.23%) were previously diagnosed with both SCC and BCC. In addition, 59.13% of patients had a single lesion, while 40.87% had multiple lesions. Patient age, history of previous skin cancers, and occupation-related exposure to ultraviolet radiation were more common in patients with multiple lesions. Cutaneous premalignant lesion incidence has gradually increased in the Korean population.

  5. [Usefulness of systematic chromoendoscopy with a double dye staining technique for the detection of dysplasia in patients with premalignant gastric lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yep-Gamarra, Víctor; Díaz-Vélez, Cristian; Araujo, Isis; Ginès, Àngels; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Premalignant gastric lesions have an increased risk to develop gastric cancer. To evaluate the usefulness of systematic endoscopy that includes chromoendoscopy with a double dye staining technique for the detection of dysplasia in patients with premalignant gastric lesions. This longitudinal, prospective study was performed in patients with gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia who were referred for endoscopy less than 6 months after the initial diagnosis. The second endoscopy was performed in three phases: phase 1, exhaustive and systematic review of the mucosa with photographic documentation and biopsies of suspicious areas; phase 2, chromoendoscopy with a double dye staining technique using acetic acid 1.2% and indigo carmine 0.5%; phase 3, topographic mapping and random biopsies. A total of 50 patients were included. Nine (18%) had atrophic gastritis, 38 (76%) had intestinal metaplasia, and 3 (6%) had low-grade dysplasia. Systematic endoscopy with chromoendoscopy using a double dye staining technique detected more patients with dysplasia (9 versus 3, plesions (6 vs. 3, p=NS). In one patient, initial low-grade dysplasia was not detected again in the systematic endoscopy, giving a global endoscopic performance for the detection of lesions of 92%. Patients with premalignant gastric lesions have synchronous lesions with greater histological severity, which are detected when systematic endoscopy is conducted with indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  6. Presence of histopathological premalignant lesions and infection caused by high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus in patients with suspicious cytological and colposcopy results: A prospective study

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    Golubović Mileta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In patients with premalignant cervical lesions, human papillomavirus (HPV infection, at any moment, may be spontaneously eliminated, or may persist or transform cervical epithelium from a lower to a higher degree. Due to that, it is necessary to wisely select the patients who are at high risk of cancer development. The aim of the study was to establish the interdependence between a suspicious Papanicolaou (Pap test and colposcopy with the infection caused by high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and the presence of premalignant cervical lesions. Methods. This prospective study used cytological, colposcopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR of high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and histopathological analysis of cervical biopsy specimen. Out of 2,578 female patients sent to cytological analyses in Clinical Center of Montenegro, during 2012, 2013 and 2014, the study included 80 women who had to submit their biopsy specimens due to a suspicious Pap test and atypical colposcopy results. Results. In the group of 80 (3.1%; n = 80/2,578 of the selected female patients with suspicious Pap test and colposcopy, 2/3 or 56 (70% of them had cervicitis, and 1/3 or 24 (30% had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The most common type in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was HPV16 in 8 female patients, ie 61.53% out of the number of infected, or 33.33% out of the total number of premalignant lesions. Conclusion. Patients with suspicious Papanicolaou test, colposcopy results and infection which is caused by high-risk HPV infection (HPV 16 in particular often have premalignant cervical lesions. In these cases, histopathological confirmation of lesions is mandatory, since it serves as a definitive diagnostic procedure.

  7. Vitamin D Repletion Reduces the Progression of Premalignant Squamous Lesions in the NTCU Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Reid, Mary E.; Bogner, Paul N.; Atwood, Kristopher; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemopreventive actions of vitamin D were examined in the N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) mouse model, a progressive model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SWR/J mice were fed a deficient diet (D) containing no vitamin D3, a sufficient diet (S) containing 2000 IU/kg vitamin D3, or the same diets in combination with the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol (C) (80 μg/kg, weekly). The percentage (%) of the mucosal surface of large airways occupied by dysplastic lesions was determined in mice after treatment with a total dose of 15 or 25 μmol NTCU (N). After treatment with 15 μmol NTCU, the % of the surface of large airways containing high-grade dysplastic (HGD) lesions were vitamin D-deficient +NTCU (DN), 22.7 % (p<0.05 compared to vitamin D-sufficient +NTCU (SN)); DN + C, 12.3%; SN, 8.7%; and SN + C, 6.6%. The extent of HGD increased with NTCU dose in the DN group. Proliferation, assessed by Ki-67 labeling, increased upon NTCU treatment. The highest Ki-67 labeling index was seen in the DN group. As compared to SN mice, DN mice exhibited a 3-fold increase (p <0.005) in circulating white blood cells (WBC), a 20% (p <0.05) increase in IL-6 levels, and a 4 -fold (p <0.005) increase in WBC in bronchial lavages. Thus, vitamin D repletion reduces the progression of premalignant lesions, proliferation, and inflammation, and may thereby suppress development of lung SCC. Further investigations of the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D in lung SCC are warranted. PMID:26276745

  8. AVENUES TO EARLY DETECTION OF ORAL PREMALIGNANT AND MALIGNANT LESIONS: A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES

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    Mohsin Muzaffar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : In spite of the advances in the therapy for management of Oral Cancer the prognosis still remains poor. The survival of these patients is highly dependent on the early detection of these lesions and subsequent, prompt treatment. Scalpel biopsy though considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis is invasive and associated with high morbidity and as such is reserved for evaluating highly suspicious lesions. There is a need to devise tests which are non-invasive, highly specific and sensitive and cost effective too. Various diagnostic tests used nowadays for early detection of malignancy include brush biopsy, toluidine blue staining, Lab On a Chip, Saliva based Oral Cancer Diagnosis, Laser Capture Micro dissection, Spectral Cytopathology, A multispectral digital microscope (MDM, Optical coherence tomography, Oral Auto fluorescence. In this review an attempt has been made to examine the role of these tests and technologies and assess their role in early detection of malignancies.

  9. Optical biopsy of pre-malignant or degenerative lesions: the role of the inflammatory process

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Martinho, Herculano

    2011-03-01

    Recent technological advances in fiber optics, light sources, detectors, and molecular biology have stimulated unprecedented development of optical methods to detect pathological changes in tissues. These methods, collectively termed "optical biopsy," are nondestructive in situ and real-time assays. Optical biopsy techniques as fluorescence spectroscopy, polarized light scattering spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, confocal reflectance microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy had been extensively used to characterize several pathological tissues. In special, Raman spectroscopy technique had been able to probe several biochemical alterations due to pathology development as change in the DNA, glycogen, phospholipid, non-collagenous proteins. All studies claimed that the optical biopsy methods were able to discriminate normal and malignant tissues. However, few studies had been devoted to the discrimination of very common subtle or early pathological states as inflammatory process, which are always present on, e.g., cancer lesion border. In this work we present a systematic comparison of optical biopsy data on several kinds of lesions were inflammatory infiltrates play the role (breast, cervical, and oral lesion). It will be discussed the essential conditions for the optimization of discrimination among normal and alterated states based on statistical analysis.

  10. Modeling invasive breast cancer: growth factors propel progression of HER2-positive premalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, C-R; Zeisel, A; Köstler, W J; Lauriola, M; Jacob-Hirsch, J; Haibe-Kains, B; Amariglio, N; Ben-Chetrit, N; Emde, A; Solomonov, I; Neufeld, G; Piccart, M; Sagi, I; Sotiriou, C; Rechavi, G; Domany, E; Desmedt, C; Yarden, Y

    2012-08-01

    The HER2/neu oncogene encodes a receptor-like tyrosine kinase whose overexpression in breast cancer predicts poor prognosis and resistance to conventional therapies. However, the mechanisms underlying aggressiveness of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-overexpressing tumors remain incompletely understood. Because it assists epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuregulin receptors, we overexpressed HER2 in MCF10A mammary cells and applied growth factors. HER2-overexpressing cells grown in extracellular matrix formed filled spheroids, which protruded outgrowths upon growth factor stimulation. Our transcriptome analyses imply a two-hit model for invasive growth: HER2-induced proliferation and evasion from anoikis generate filled structures, which are morphologically and transcriptionally analogous to preinvasive patients' lesions. In the second hit, EGF escalates signaling and transcriptional responses leading to invasive growth. Consistent with clinical relevance, a gene expression signature based on the HER2/EGF-activated transcriptional program can predict poorer prognosis of a subgroup of HER2-overexpressing patients. In conclusion, the integration of a three-dimensional cellular model and clinical data attributes progression of HER2-overexpressing lesions to EGF-like growth factors acting in the context of the tumor's microenvironment.

  11. Potential diagnostic value of P16 expression in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions

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    Narges Izadi-Mood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate the results of the expression of p16INK4a in normal uterine cervical epithelium, low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, high-grade CIN, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, in order to help draw a distinction between low risk and high risk patients with cervical lesions. Materials ans Methods : P16INK4a expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 78 paraffin-embedded tissue samples including 39 normal cervical tissues, 11 low-grade CINs, 11 high-grade CINs, 22 cervical SCCs and 8 cervical adenocarcinomas. Two parameters in immunohistochemical p16 expression were evaluated: percentage of p16-positive cells, and reaction intensity. Results: The p16INK4a expression rate was 81.8% in low-grade CINs, 91% in high-grade CINs, 90% in SCCs and 75% in cervical adenocarcinomas. 10% of normal cervical samples expressed p16. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the histological diagnoses and percentage of positive cells and reaction intensity of p16 (p < 0.005. The intensity of the reaction was the best parameter to evaluate the positivity of p16. Conclusions: Over-expression of the p16INK4a was typical for dysplastic and neoplastic epithelia of the uterine cervix. However, p16INK4a-negative CINs and carcinomas did exist. Although negative p16INK4a expression does not definitely exclude the patient with cervical lesion from the high-risk group, immunohistochemical study for p16INK4a may be used as a supplementary test for an early diagnosis of cervical cancers.

  12. Prospects in the Application of Photodynamic Therapy in Oral Cancer and Premalignant Lesions

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    Rajan Saini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a global health burden with significantly poor survival, especially when the diagnosis is at its late stage. Despite advances in current treatment modalities, there has been minimal improvement in survival rates over the last five decades. The development of local recurrence, regional failure, and the formation of second primary tumors accounts for this poor outcome. For survivors, cosmetic and functional compromises resulting from treatment are often devastating. These statistics underscore the need for novel approaches in the management of this deadly disease. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a treatment modality that involves administration of a light-sensitive drug, known as a photosensitizer, followed by light irradiation of an appropriate wavelength that corresponds to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of tissue oxygen, cytotoxic free radicals that are produced cause direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature, and induction of inflammatory reactions at the target sites. PDT offers a prospective new approach in controlling this disease at its various stages either as a stand-alone therapy for early lesions or as an adjuvant therapy for advanced cases. In this review, we aim to explore the applications of PDT in oral cancer therapy and to present an overview of the recent advances in PDT that can potentially reposition its utility for oral cancer treatment.

  13. Correlation Between Cytological and Histopathological Diagnosis in Premalignant Lesions of the Cervix

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    Cemile YEŞİL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Providing the consistency between the results from cytologic examination (Pap test of cervical lesions with those of follow-up biopsies is an important quality control method. We investigated diagnostic difficulties and reasons in cytohistopathologic practice in this study.Material and Method: We included 43 patients cytologically diagnosed as LSI L or HSI L between 2001-2007 with negative subsequent biopsy results.Results: We were able to gain access to the cytological material of 37 cases and 9 of these received different diagnoses from the initial diagnoses. Re-evaluation of the biopsies provided a diagnosis of SI L in 9 of 43 cases.Conclusion: The reason for the inconsistent histopathologic diagnoses was misinterpreting in 6 cases and microscopic sampling error due to the lack of serial cuts in 3 cases. We detected %21 false negatives on biopsies mostly as a result of misinterpretation. The squamocolumnar junction was not present in 11 cases that had previously been diagnosed as negative. In conclusion, serial cuts must be evaluated by an experienced pathologist specialized in gynecopathology in cervical biopsies with positive cytology results and the absence of the squamocolumnar junction must be reported.

  14. Review of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia as a Premalignant Lesion of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101

  15. Inactivation of SLIT2-ROBO1/2 pathway in premalignant lesions of uterine cervix: clinical and prognostic significances.

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    Sraboni Mitra

    Full Text Available The SLIT2-ROBO1/2 pathways control diverse biological processes, including growth regulation. To understand the role of SLIT2 and ROBO1/2 in cervical carcinogenesis, firstly their RNA expression profiles were screened in 21 primary uterine cervical carcinoma (CACX samples and two CACX cell lines. Highly reduced expressions of these genes were evident. Concomitant alterations [deletion/methylation] of the genes were then analyzed in 23 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and 110 CACX samples. In CIN, SLIT2 was deleted in 22% samples compared to 9% for ROBO1 and none for ROBO2, whereas comparable methylation was observed for both SLIT2 (30% and ROBO1 (22% followed by ROBO2 (9%. In CACX, alteration of the genes were in the following order: Deletion:ROBO1 (48% > SLIT2 (35% > ROBO2 (33%, Methylation:SLIT2 (34% > ROBO1 (29% > ROBO2 (26%. Overall alterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1 (44% and SLIT2 and/or ROBO2 (39% were high in CIN followed by significant increase in stage I/II tumors, suggesting deregulation of these interactions in premalignant lesions and early invasive tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of SLIT2 and ROBO1/2 in CACX also showed reduced expression concordant with molecular alterations. Alteration of all these genes predicted poor patient outcome. Multiparous (≥ 5 women with altered SLIT2 and ROBO1 along with advanced tumor stage (III/IV and early sexual debut (<19 years had worst prognosis. Our data suggests the importance of abrogation of SLIT2-ROBO1 and SLIT2-ROBO2 interactions in the initiation and progression of CACX and also for early diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.

  16. Inactivation of SLIT2-ROBO1/2 pathway in premalignant lesions of uterine cervix: clinical and prognostic significances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sraboni; Mazumder-Indra, Dipanjana; Mondal, Ranajit K; Basu, Partha S; Roy, Anup; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay K

    2012-01-01

    The SLIT2-ROBO1/2 pathways control diverse biological processes, including growth regulation. To understand the role of SLIT2 and ROBO1/2 in cervical carcinogenesis, firstly their RNA expression profiles were screened in 21 primary uterine cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples and two CACX cell lines. Highly reduced expressions of these genes were evident. Concomitant alterations [deletion/methylation] of the genes were then analyzed in 23 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 110 CACX samples. In CIN, SLIT2 was deleted in 22% samples compared to 9% for ROBO1 and none for ROBO2, whereas comparable methylation was observed for both SLIT2 (30%) and ROBO1 (22%) followed by ROBO2 (9%). In CACX, alteration of the genes were in the following order: Deletion:ROBO1 (48%) > SLIT2 (35%) > ROBO2 (33%), Methylation:SLIT2 (34%) > ROBO1 (29%) > ROBO2 (26%). Overall alterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1 (44%) and SLIT2 and/or ROBO2 (39%) were high in CIN followed by significant increase in stage I/II tumors, suggesting deregulation of these interactions in premalignant lesions and early invasive tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of SLIT2 and ROBO1/2 in CACX also showed reduced expression concordant with molecular alterations. Alteration of all these genes predicted poor patient outcome. Multiparous (≥ 5) women with altered SLIT2 and ROBO1 along with advanced tumor stage (III/IV) and early sexual debut (SLIT2-ROBO1 and SLIT2-ROBO2 interactions in the initiation and progression of CACX and also for early diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.

  17. Prospective study of vitamins C, E, and A and carotenoids and risk of oral premalignant lesions in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy Nairi; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Joshipura, Kaumudi

    2007-03-01

    Case-control studies indicate that vitamins C, E, A and carotenoids decrease risk of oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) and oral cancer, but clinical trials have failed to find protective effects of beta-carotene and suggest that vitamin E may increase risk. The authors prospectively evaluated the association between intake of vitamins C, E, A and carotenoids and incidence of OPL. Participants were 42,340 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who provided information on supplement use and diet every 2-4 years by food frequency questionnaire. The authors confirmed 207 clinically or histopathologically diagnosed OPL events occurring between 1986 and 2002 by medical record review. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RR) of OPL were calculated with proportional hazards models. Total intake of vitamin C, vitamin A or carotenoids was not significantly associated with OPL risk. Dietary vitamin C was significantly associated with reduced risk (quintile 5 vs. 1, RR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.85, p(trend) = 0.04), but no association with supplemental vitamin C was observed. Inverse associations were apparent for beta-cryptoxanthin and alpha-carotene intake. No clear relationship emerged with beta-carotene, lycopene or lutein/zeaxanthin. Vitamin E was associated with increased risk (quintile 5 vs. 1, RR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.06-3.19), particularly among current smokers and with supplemental intake (current-smokers, supplement dose tertile 3 vs. 1, RR = 3.07, 95% CI 1.28-7.34, p(trend) = 0.01). For current smokers, beta-carotene also increased risk. Vitamin C from dietary sources, but not supplements, was associated with a reduced risk of OPL. The observed increased risk for current smokers with high vitamin E or beta-carotene intake should be explored further.

  18. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with p53 accumulation in premalignant and malignant gallbladder lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mateja Legan; Bo(s)tjan Luzar; Vera Ferlan Marolt; Andrej C(o)r

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression and p53 accumulation in gallbladder carcinoma and its precursor lesions.METHODS: Sixty-eight gallbladder tissue samples comprising 14 cases of normal gallblader epithelium,27 cases of dysplasia (11 low-grade dyplasia and 16 high-grade dysplasia) and 27 adenocarcinomas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for COX-2 expression and p53 accumulation. The relationship among COX-2 expression, p53 accumulation and clinicopathological characteristics was analysed.RESULTS: COX-2 was expressed in 14.3% of normal gallbladder epithelium, 70.3% of dysplastic epite hiium,and 59.2% of adenocarcinomas. When divided into low- and high-grade dysplasia, COX-2 was positive in 5 (45.4%) cases of low-grade and 14 (87.5%) of highgrade dysplasia (P = 0.019). Accumulation of p53 was detected in 5 (31.2%) cases of high-grade dysplasia and in 13 (48.1%) of carcinomas. No p53 accumulation was found in normal epithelium or low-grade dysplasia. COX-2 overexpression was observed in 17 of 18 (94.4%) cases with p53-accumulation in comparison with 20 (40.0%)out of 50 cases without p53 accumulation (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: The significant differences in COX-2 expression among normal epithelium, low-grade dysplasia and high-grade dysplasia suggest that overexpression of COX-2 enzyme is an early event in gallbladder carcinogenensis. Furthermore, since accumulation of p53 correlates with COX-2 expression, COX-2 overexpression observed in gallbladder high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma might be partly due to the dysfunction of p53.

  19. Co-overexpression of bcl-2 and c-myc in uterine cervix carcinomas and premalignant lesions

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    Z. Protrka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To establish the role of co-overexpression of bcl-2 and c-myc protooncogenes in uterine cervix carcinogenesis, we examined 138 tissue samples of low grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL, high grade SIL, portio vaginalis uteri (PVU carcinoma in situ and PVU carcinoma invasive, stage IA-IIA (study group and 36 samples without SIL or malignancy (control group. The expression of bcl-2 and c-myc was detected immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody. Fisher’s exact test (P<0.05 was used to assess statistical significance. Overexpression of bcl-2 was found to increase in direct relation to the grade of the cervical lesions. High sensitivity was of great diagnostic significance for the detection of these types of changes in the uterine cervix. On the basis of high predictive values it can be said that in patients with bcl-2 overexpression there is a great possibility that they have premalignant or malignant changes in the uterine cervix. Co-overexpression of bcl-2 and c-myc oncogenes was found only in patients with PVU invasive carcinoma (6/26-23.0%. Statistically significant difference was not found in the frequency of co-overexpression in patients with PVU invasive carcinoma in relation to the control group (Fisher’s test; P=0.064. The method's sensitivity of determining these oncogenes with the aim of detecting PVU invasive carcinoma was 23%, while specificity was 72.2%. On the basis of high predictive values (100%, speaking in statistical terms, it can be concluded that all patients with co-overexpression of bcl-2 and c-myc oncogenes will have PVU invasive carcinoma. We confirmed in our research that co-overexpression of bcl-2 and c-myc oncogenes was increased only in PVU invasive carcinoma. However, a more extensive series of samples and additional tests are required to establish the prognostic significance of bcl-2 and c-myc co-overexpression in cervical carcinogenesis.

  20. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in archival samples obtained from patients with cervical pre-malignant and malignant lesions from Northeast Brazil

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    Prado José CM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV is considered as a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of cervical cancer. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV in a series of pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesion cases, to identify the virus genotypes, and to assess their distribution pattern according to lesion type, age range, and other considered variables. The samples were submitted to histopathological revision examination and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the presence of HPV DNA, followed by HPV typing by dot blot hybridisation. Findings Of the analysed samples, 53.7% showed pre-malignant cervical lesions, and 46.3% presented with cervical cancer. Most cancer samples (84.1% were classified as invasive carcinoma. The mean age of these cancer patients was 47.3 years. The overall HPV prevalence was 82.4% in patients with pre-malignant lesions and 92.0% in the cancer patients. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type, followed by HPV 18 and 58, including both single and double infections. Double infection was detected in 11.6% of the samples, and the most common combination was HPV 16+18. Conclusions Cervical cancer appears to occur in women in a lower age range in the studied area, compared to the situation in other Brazilian regions. Furthermore, among the patients with CIN 3 and those with cancer, we observed a higher proportion of married women, women with more than one sexual partner, smokers, and individuals with less than an elementary education, relative to their counterparts. Findings The overall HPV prevalence was 82.4% in patients with pre-malignant lesions and 92.0% in the cervical cancer patients from Northeast Brazil. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type, followed by HPV 18 and 58. The most common double infection was HPV 16+18. Cervical cancer appears to occur in women in a lower age range in the Northeast Brazil. Among the patients with CIN 3 and those with cancer, we observed a higher

  1. Detection, management, and follow-up of pre-malignant cervical lesions and the role for human papillomavirus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamont, D. van; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cytological pathology is common. Prevention of cervical cancer by detecting the disease process at an early and pre-malignant stage is practised globally either through population-based screening programmes (PSP) or through non-organised ones. High-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (

  2. Dose-response relationships of oral habits associated with the risk of oral pre-malignant lesions among men who chew betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Shao-Ching; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi

    2007-08-01

    Betel quid, cigarettes and alcohol are well-recognized risk factors for oral cancer. However, the combined effect of the frequency and duration of these oral habits on the risk for developing oral pre-malignancies among betel quid users has not been fully addressed. In this study, an oral screening programme for men chewing betel quid was carried out by well-trained dentists for early detection of oral pre-malignancy lesions. Using generalized logit model and proportional odds model, we found that, compared with the occasional user, the adjusted odds ratios of developing leukoplakia for men chewing one to 10 pieces of betel quid, 11-20 pieces, and more than 20 pieces per day were estimated as 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-2.81), 2.99 (95% CI 2.06-4.27), and 5.37 (95% CI 3.76-7.47), respectively. The corresponding figures for erythroleukoplakia were 3.69 (95% CI 1.55-8.79), 13.78 (95% CI 5.76-32.98), and 36.64 (95% CI 15.94-84.16), respectively. Similar results were found while the duration was considered. The dose-response relationships were not as noteworthy for cigarette and alcohol drinking.

  3. Analysis of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Values of Smear and Colposcopy in Diagnosis of Premalignant and Malignant Cervical Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Kale, Ahmet; Kuyumcuoğlu, Umur; Bozkurt, Murat; Ağaçayak, Elif; Özekinci, Server; Gül, Talip

    2015-12-10

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to examine the positive and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical colposcopy, the sensitivity and specificity of smear, and to evaluate the correlation with histopathology of abnormal cytology and colposcopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS The criteria for inclusion of patients with unhealthy cervix in the study were: Erosion, Chronic cervicitis, and Healed lacerations, Hypertrophied cervix, bleeding on touch, suspicious growth/ulcer/polyp on the cervix, and abnormal discharges from the cervix. Women with frank carcinoma cervix, pregnant females, patients with bleeding per vaginum at the time of examination, and those who had used vaginal medications, vaginal contraceptives or douches in the last 48 h of examination were excluded from the study. Demographic analysis was performed for 450 patients who were admitted to the clinic. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of patients to identify cervical pathologies of smear and colposcopy were histopathologically calculated. The statistical software package SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Spearman's and Chi-Square tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of smear were 0.57%, 0.76%, 0.26%, 0.92% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of colposcopy were 0.92%, 0.67%, 0.52%, 0.96% respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between abnormal cytology and histopathology, and abnormal colposcopy finding and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. It was concluded that Pap smear, colposcopy and histopathology should be collectively evaluated to evaluate cervical findings in low socio-economic regions.

  4. Distribution and characterization of subtypes of penile intraepithelial neoplasia and their association with invasive carcinomas: a pathological study of 139 lesions in 121 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Velazquez, Elsa F; Amin, Ali; Soskin, Ana; Pfannl, Rolf; Rodríguez, Ingrid M; Barreto, José E; Lezcano, Cecilia; Ayala, Gustavo; Netto, George J; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-07-01

    We are presenting the morphological features of 121 cases of atypical penile intraepithelial lesions. The term penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) was used to encompass all of them, and lesions were classified into 2 major groups, differentiated and undifferentiated. The latter was further divided in warty, basaloid, and warty-basaloid subtypes. Ninety-five cases were associated with invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Differentiated lesions predominated (68%), followed by warty-basaloid (14%), basaloid (11%), and warty (7%) subtypes. Multifocality was found in 15% of the cases. Differentiated lesions were preferentially located in foreskin, whereas warty and/or basaloid subtypes were more prevalent in the glans. The former lesions were preferentially seen in association with keratinizing variants of squamous carcinoma, whereas the latter subtypes were found mostly in conjunction with invasive warty, basaloid, and warty-basaloid carcinomas. Lichen sclerosus was present in 51% of cases of differentiated lesions and absent in warty and/or basaloid subtypes. In summary, PeIN can be classified into 4 distinctive morphological subtypes. The proper pathological characterization of these lesions may provide important clues to the understanding of the pathogenesis and natural history of penile cancer.

  5. Penile Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the discussion with your doctor. Types of penile implants There are two main types of penile implants: ... might help reduce the risk of infection. Comparing implant types When choosing which type of penile implant ...

  6. Colposcopy in pre-malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma: Linking threads of clinical, histopathological and colposcopic inferences

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    Naphade Ujwala

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the degree of abnormality in colposcopic findings can be predicted by the vascular patterns of the lesion, the major advantage of colposcopy is to outline the most suspicious lesion for histologic diagnosis by directed biopsy, which is the mainstay in establishing the correct diagnosis. Colposcopy is valuable in the detection of early cancerous lesions. However the final diagnosis must rely on a meticulous histopathological examination by an expert pathologist.

  7. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for penile lesions/anomalies in a cohort of Brazilian men ≥ 40 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To report the prevalence and risk factors of penile lesions/anomalies in a Metropolitan Brazilian city. Materials and Methods All participants undergoing prostate cancer screening in the city of Curitiba were systematically examined to identify penile lesions including cutaneous mycosis, sexually transmitted diseases, penile cancer, meatal stenosis, hypospadias, and Peyronie's disease. Outcomes of interest included the prevalence and the relative risk and 95% confidence intervals of the lesions/anomalies according to age, school level, race, personal history of diabetes, arterial hypertension, nonspecific urethritis, and vasectomy. Results Balanoposthitis occurred in 11.8% of all participants, with an increased risk in those with diabetes (RR = 1.73, or past history of nonspecific urethritis (RR = 1.58; tinea of the penis was present in 0.2%; condyloma acuminata in 0.5%; herpes virus infection in 0.4%; urethral discharge in 0.2%; genital vitiligo in 0.7%, with an increased prevalence in non-white men (RR = 4.43, and in subjects with lower school level (RR = 7.24; phimosis in 0.5%, with a nearly 7-fold increased risk in diabetics; lichen sclerosus in 0.3%; stenosis of the external urethral meatus in 0.7%, with a higher prevalence in subjects with lichen sclerosus (RR = 214.9, and in those older than 60 years of age (RR = 3.57; hypospadia in 0.6%; fibrosis suggestive of Peyronie's disease in 0.9%, especially in men older than 60 years (RR = 4.59 and with diabetes (RR = 3.91; and penile cancer in 0.06%. Conclusion We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of commonly seen penile diseases in an adult cohort of Brazilian men.

  9. Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  10. La ciclooxigenasa-2 (COX-2 y el factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EFG en lesiones epiteliales orales premalignas Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF in oral premalignant epithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Díaz Prado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones premalignas orales incluyen eritroplasias (manchas rojas y leucoplasias (manchas blancas, las cuales se desarrollan a lo largo de superficies epiteliales. Estas lesiones son considerados marcadores en la "carcinogénesis de campo" ya que pacientes con lesiones premalignas orales pueden desarrollar carcinoma de células escamosas (CCS en el sitio de las lesiones, así como en otros lugares de tracto aerodigestivo superior. Se está haciendo un gran esfuerzo para identificar nuevos biomarcadores SEBs (surrogate endpoint biomarkers para el carcinoma de células escamosas de cabeza y cuello. Los SEBs candidatos para el carcinoma de células escamosas invasivo en el trato aerodigestivo superior deben ser detectables con los cambios moleculares celulares y tisulares que tienen lugar durante la formación del tumor. Entre los diferentes marcadores que se han propuesto hasta la actualidad, la ciclooxigenasa- 2 (COX-2 y el receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGFR parecen ser los más prometedores. COX-2 se sobre expresa durante el proceso tumoral, desde hiperplasia temprana a enfermedad metastásica. EGFR también está anormalmente activado en tumores epiteliales, pues las células de casi todas estas neoplasias expresan altos niveles de este receptor, una característica asociada con un peor pronóstico clínico. En este sentido el tracto aerodigestivo superior proporciona un sistema o modelo único para el estudio de CCS y para la investigación de nuevos candidatos SEBs.Oral premalignant lesions include leukoplakia (white patch and erythroplakia (red patch, which develop on epithelial surfaces. These lesions are markers for field cancerization because patients with oral premalignancy can develop squamous cell carcinoma at the site of the lesion(s and at other sites in the upper aerodigestive tract. An effort is being made to identify surrogate endpoint biomarkers (SEBs for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC

  11. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  12. The variant of pri-mir-26a-1 polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of betel quid-related oral premalignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Mei; Chen, Chien-Chou; Tseng, Yu-Kai; Huang, Sin-Jhih; Liou, Huei-Han; Lee, Yi-Cheng; Lee, Jang-Hwa; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Chen, Hung-Chih; Chi, Chao-Chuan; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Lin, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Ger, Luo-Ping

    2017-06-08

    This case-control study evaluated the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs7372209 (T>C) in pri-mir-26a-1 with the risk and progression of betel quid (BQ)-related oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In total, 597 BQ chewers were recruited: 196 healthy controls, 241 patients with OPLs, and 160 patients with OSCC. Genotypes were determined using the TaqMan real-time assay. The C/T + T/T genotypes and T allele in pri-mir-26a-1 were correlated with a decreased risk of BQ-related OPLs (P = .038 and .005, respectively), oral leukoplakia (P = .01 and .001, respectively), and advanced-stage OSCC (P = .021 and .004, respectively). The effects of the C/T + T/T genotypes and T allele on the decreased risk of OPLs were potent in the older age group (both Pinteraction pri-mir-26a-1 may have a decreased risk of oral leukoplakia, OPLs, and advanced-stage OSCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the molecular pathogenesis and biomarkers of high risk oral premalignant lesions on the basis of long noncoding RNA expression profiling by serial analysis of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongcheng; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Zheng

    2017-04-24

    Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) have malignant transformation potential, with no reliable markers available. This study aimed to assess molecular events to identify biomarkers that can reflect high-risk lesions as predictive factors to tailor clinical decision for patients on the basis of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) expression profiling by serial analysis of gene expression. The GSE31021 and GSE8127 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and lncRNAs were identified using the LIMMA package in R language. The genes targeted by lncRNAs were predicted among screened DEGs using Pearson's correlation. Gene ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were carried out for genes targeted by lncRNAs using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery online tool. A total of 674 DEGs and differentially expressed lncRNAs were screened. Thirty-two interactions of 10 lncRNAs and 524 target genes were predicted. The lncRNA NEAT1 was among the top 10 lncRNAs. The coregulated target genes RP4-684O24, RP11-283I3, and RP11-350G8 were significantly enriched in the immune response and mannosyl-oligosaccharide mannosidase activity. The target genes coregulated by LINC00665 and MIR378D2 were significantly enriched in the ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, ubiquitin-protein ligase activity, and neurotrophin signaling. The lncRNA NEAT1 may play an important role in high-risk lesions. The novel lncRNAs and DEGs identified in OPLs may mediate the immune response and neurotrophin signaling and show ubiquitin ligase activity. These results improve our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OPLs and identify some potential targets for early diagnosis of high risk OPLs.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to

  14. 口腔黏膜肿瘤的光动力治疗%Photodynamic Therapy for Premalignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱海霞; 顾瑛; 王颖; 朱建国; 曾晶; 黄乃艳; 陈虹霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the short-term effect of photodynamic therapy on premalignant and malignant lesions of oral mucosa.Methods One patient with histologically confirmed oral lichen planus and one patient with squamous cell carcinomas were included in the study. PSD-007 at 5 mg/kg body weight was intravenously injected 6 h before laser irradiation. A semiconductor laser emitting at 630 nm was used as a light source. The power density of 150 mW/cm2 was used, the exposure time was 10-30 minutes, and the total light dosage was 90-270 J/cm2 at one light spot. Clinical and pathological examination was conducted 4-5 weeks after PDT to evaluate the short-term effect.Results Eighteen foci in the two patients were treated. Of these foci, 15 got complete remission (CR) after once treatment, two foci got partial remission( PR ) after one treatment, and got CR after a repeat treatment, one focus got partial remission(PR) after the first treatment and became stable disease(SD) at second treatment, and got CR after the third treatment. No significantly adverse events occurred during and after PDT.Conclusions PDT has the advantage of good selectivity, excellent tumor targeting and minimal damage to the function of oral cavity,suggesting that PDT is a sage, effective and minimally invasive procedure for premalignant and malignant lesions of oral mucosa.%目的 观察光动力疗法治疗口腔黏膜癌前病变及口腔癌的临床疗效.方法 临床及病理确诊的口腔黏膜扁平苔藓和鳞癌患者各1例,静脉注射光敏剂PSD-007 5 mg/kg后6 h,应用波长630nm的半导体激光以点状光纤照射,激光功率密度150mW/cm2,每个光斑照射10-30min,能量密度90-270 J/cm2.观察患者术中和术后的不良反应.术后4~5周进行近期临床疗效评价.结果 2例患者累计治疗18处病灶,其中15处病灶经1次治疗,2处病灶经2次治疗,1处病灶经3次治疗后痊愈,未见瘢痕形成.2例患者病灶愈合后均无口腔

  15. DNA Damage Drives an Activin A-Dependent Induction of COX-2 in Premalignant Cells and Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, Colleen; Fessenden, Tim; Pickering, Curtis; Jung, Jason; Singla, Veena; Berman, Hal; Tlsty, Thea

    2010-01-01

    COX-2 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Its overexpression induces numerous tumor-promoting phenotypes and is associated with cancer metastasis and poor clinical outcome. Although COX-2 inhibitors are promising chemotherapeutic and chemopreventative agents for cancer, the risk of significant cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications currently outweighs their potential benefits. Systemic complications of COX-2 inhibition could be avoided by specifically decreasing COX-2 expression in epithelial cells. To that end, we have investigated the signal transduction pathway regulating COX-2 expression in response to DNA damage in breast epithelial cells. In variant human mammary epithelial cells that have silenced p16 (vHMEC), double strand DNA damage or telomere malfunction results in a p53-and activin A-dependent induction of COX-2 and continued proliferation. In contrast, telomere malfunction in HMEC with an intact p16/Rb pathway induces cell cycle arrest. Importantly, in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions, high COX-2 expression is associated with high γH2AX, TRF2, activin A and telomere malfunction. These data demonstrate that DNA damage and telomere malfunction can have both cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous consequences and provides a novel mechanism for the propagation of tumorigenesis. PMID:20028875

  16. DNA damage drives an activin a-dependent induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in premalignant cells and lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, Colleen; Fessenden, Tim; Pickering, Curtis; Jung, Jason; Singla, Veena; Berman, Hal; Tlsty, Thea

    2010-02-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Its overexpression induces numerous tumor-promoting phenotypes and is associated with cancer metastasis and poor clinical outcome. Although COX-2 inhibitors are promising chemotherapeutic and chemopreventative agents for cancer, the risk of significant cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications currently outweighs their potential benefits. Systemic complications of COX-2 inhibition could be avoided by specifically decreasing COX-2 expression in epithelial cells. To that end, we have investigated the signal transduction pathway regulating the COX-2 expression in response to DNA damage in breast epithelial cells. In variant human mammary epithelial cells that have silenced p16 (vHMEC), double-strand DNA damage or telomere malfunction results in a p53- and activin A-dependent induction of COX-2 and continued proliferation. In contrast, telomere malfunction in HMEC with an intact p16/Rb pathway induces cell cycle arrest. Importantly, in ductal carcinoma in situ lesions, high COX-2 expression is associated with high gammaH2AX, TRF2, activin A, and telomere malfunction. These data show that DNA damage and telomere malfunction can have both cell-autonomous and cell-nonautonomous consequences and can provide a novel mechanism for the propagation of tumorigenesis.

  17. Exfoliative cytology as a tool for monitoring pre-malignant and malignant lesions based on combined stains and morphometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Segura, Ignacio; Secchi, Dante; Carrica, Andres; Barello, Rosario; Arbelo, Dario; Burgos, Adriana; Brunotto, Mabel; Zarate, Ana M

    2015-03-01

    Prevention and early diagnosis have the greatest potential for public health and are the most effective method in the long-term to control oral cancer. The aim was to apply PAP staining together with AgNOR staining and morphometric analysis in oral exfoliative cytology, to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these methods in the detection of malignant changes for the purposes of both initial population monitoring and follow-up. AgNOR, Papanicolau, and morphometric tests were conducted in samples of patients with oral cancer, oral potentially malignant disorders and controls (opposite side of lesions). Specificity and sensitivity values for each stain method and the curve under ROC area were estimated. The diagnostic variables which allowed greatest accuracy in identifying malignancy relative to the healthy control were cluster (76.92%), satellite (75.64%), and total (90%). The diagnosis was seen to be associated with PAP and total AgNOR, total AgNOR and PAP, total AgNOR and satellites and clusters, and total AgNOR nuclear area/cytoplasmic area ratio. The total number of AgNOR is a reliable marker for detecting neoplastic cells; this method increases sensitivity and specificity by decreasing the likelihood of false negatives or positives, as the accuracy obtained was 90%. It is also a low-cost, non-invasive, simple methodology that can be recommended to help the early detection of oral cancer and monitoring of patients with a first diagnosis of cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Penile-preserving surgery in penile carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gowardhan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is an uncommon cancer involving the glans, prepuce or both in over 75% cases. Historically, the standard treatment of the primary tumor has been a partial or total penectomy. Although these are still widely practiced procedures for control of the disease, as our understanding of the natural history of the disease has evolved, the treatment options have broadened, focusing more and more on penile-preserving techniques such as Mohs′s micrographic surgery, wide local excision, subtotal and total glansectomy, laser, brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy and topical application of chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-Fluorouracil. Penile-preserving options are increasingly being used as a first-line treatment, not restricted to Tis/Ta tumors, but for T1, T2 and even T3 tumors in selected cases. The metastatic stage of the tumor does not influence the treatment of the primary lesion. In this review, we discuss the various penile-preserving options currently available and their role in the management of penile carcinoma of various stages.

  19. Penile prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Penile prosthesis implantation is recognized as a valid option to obtain an artificial erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse in those patients in which a pharmacological approach is contraindicated or ineffective. Penile prostheses are subbject to continuous development and they are achieving ever better mechanical reliability and safety. The devices are divided into two g...

  20. Promoter Region Hypermethylation and mRNA Expression of MGMT and p16 Genes in Tissue and Blood Samples of Human Premalignant Oral Lesions and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Bhatia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoter methylation and relative gene expression of O6-methyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT and p16 genes were examined in tissue and blood samples of patients with premalignant oral lesions (PMOLs and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR were performed in 146 tissue and blood samples from controls and patients with PMOLs and OSCC. In PMOL group, significant promoter methylation of MGMT and p16 genes was observed in 59% (P=0.0010 and 57% (P=0.0016 of tissue samples, respectively, and 39% (P=0.0135 and 33% (P=0.0074 of blood samples, respectively. Promoter methylation of both genes was more frequent in patients with OSCC, that is, 76% (P=0.0001 and 82% (P=0.0001 in tissue and 57% (P=0.0002 and 70% (P=0.0001 in blood, respectively. Significant downregulation of MGMT and p16 mRNA expression was observed in both tissue and blood samples from patients with PMOLs and OSCC. Hypermethylation-induced transcriptional silencing of MGMT and p16 genes in both precancer and cancer suggests important role of these changes in progression of premalignant state to malignancy. Results support use of blood as potential surrogate to tissue samples for screening or diagnosing PMOLs and early OSCC.

  1. Promoter region hypermethylation and mRNA expression of MGMT and p16 genes in tissue and blood samples of human premalignant oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vikram; Goel, Madhu Mati; Makker, Annu; Tewari, Shikha; Yadu, Alka; Shilpi, Priyanka; Kumar, Sandeep; Agarwal, S P; Goel, Sudhir K

    2014-01-01

    Promoter methylation and relative gene expression of O(6)-methyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) and p16 genes were examined in tissue and blood samples of patients with premalignant oral lesions (PMOLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR were performed in 146 tissue and blood samples from controls and patients with PMOLs and OSCC. In PMOL group, significant promoter methylation of MGMT and p16 genes was observed in 59% (P = 0.0010) and 57% (P = 0.0016) of tissue samples, respectively, and 39% (P = 0.0135) and 33% (P = 0.0074) of blood samples, respectively. Promoter methylation of both genes was more frequent in patients with OSCC, that is, 76% (P = 0.0001) and 82% (P = 0.0001) in tissue and 57% (P = 0.0002) and 70% (P = 0.0001) in blood, respectively. Significant downregulation of MGMT and p16 mRNA expression was observed in both tissue and blood samples from patients with PMOLs and OSCC. Hypermethylation-induced transcriptional silencing of MGMT and p16 genes in both precancer and cancer suggests important role of these changes in progression of premalignant state to malignancy. Results support use of blood as potential surrogate to tissue samples for screening or diagnosing PMOLs and early OSCC.

  2. Detection of different type of human papillomavirus in benign, premalignant and malignant lesions of the larynx%喉癌及喉良性病变中HPV不同亚型的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊福; 周佳青

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测喉癌、癌前病变及喉良性病变HPVDNA表达的阳性率,探讨HPV感染与喉癌发的相关性.方法:运用流式荧光杂交法以及型特异性PCR方法对于46例喉癌组织、14例喉癌前病变组织及19例喉良性病变组织中HPVDNA进行检测分型.结果:运用流式荧光杂交法在79例喉病变标本中检测HPVDNA阳性率为10.13%,其中46例喉癌阳性率为6.52%;癌前病变组阳性率为35.71%;喉良性病变均为阴性.型特异性PCR方法检测出2例喉癌HPV16阳性,与流式荧光杂交法所检测到的2例相同.结论:HPV是喉乳头状瘤的一个独立的致病因素,而与喉癌的发生关系似乎不是很密切,但尚待进一步大样本研究.%Objective;To investigate the role of human papillomavirus in benign,premalignant and malignant le-sions of the larynx. Methods; HPV was detected by flow fluorescent hybridization technology with Luminex multi - an-alytic profiling (xMAP) and Type -Specific PCR on 79 formalin - fixed and paraffin - embedded samples of larynx lesions(include 46 laryngeal cancer - LC,14 premalignant lesions of the larynx - PLL and 19 benign lesions of the larynx - BLL) . Results;HPV prevalence was 10. 13% in these 79 samples by flow fluorescent hybridieation technolo-gy with Luminex multi - analytic profiling,precancer lesions rose to 35. 71% , ;and cancer cases were 6. 52% ; in be-nign laryngeal lesions,HPV prevalence was 0% . HPV16 was detected in the same two positive samples as by flow fluorescent hybridization technology with Luminex multi - analytic profiling by type - Specific PCR. Conclusion; On the basis of the results reported in this study ,it seems that HPV may be considered a cause of laryngeal papillomas a-lone, as already widely reported in literature, but does noi seem to be involved in the genesis of malignant laryngeal le-sions, but it needs further research from large sample.

  3. Diversity of HPV types in cancerous and pre-cancerous penile lesions of South African men: implications for future HPV vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebelo, Ramokone L; Boulet, Gaëlle; Nkosi, Cornelius M; Bida, Mechack N; Bogers, John-Paul; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    This study reports the detection of HPV types from cancerous and pre-cancerous penile lesions that were diagnosed histologically. Sixty-six (22 pre-cancerous and 44 cancerous lesions) tissue biopsies, received between 2004 and 2011 by the Anatomical Pathology Department at Dr. George Mukhari Hospital were selected for this study. Total DNA was extracted and genotyped using type specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 18 HPV types. Of 66 samples, only 51 were included in the analysis. Overall, HPV 11 (50.9%) and HPV 16 (49.1%) showed almost similar incidence in the study patients. In pre-cancerous lesions, HPV 11 was more frequent (80.0%), followed by HPV 31 and HPV 16 at 25.0% each and other HPV types included 35 (15.0%), 59 (15.0%), 53 (10.0%), 33 (10.0%), 18 (5.0%), 51 (5.0%), 52 (5.0%), 56 (5.0%), and 67 (5.0%). For cancerous lesions, HPV 16 was the most detected (62.9%), followed by HPV 11 (34.3%), and other HPV types included 18 (11.4%), 33 (5.7%), 39 (5.7%), 45 (5.7%), 66 (5.7%), 52 (2.9%), 58 (2.9%), 6 (2.9%), and 67 (2.9%). Several lesions demonstrated multiple HPV infections, ranging from two to six different types in one lesion. The study showed high diversity of HPV types in cancerous and pre-cancerous lesions of South African males with the most frequent being HPV types 11 and 16. The data suggest that boys could directly benefit from vaccination as they are exposed to variety of HPV types as early as 10 years of age in Africa.

  4. Surgical Excision of Multiple Penile Syringomas With Scrotal Flap Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Penile syringomas are rare lesions usually occurring in isolation. We report the excision and reconstruction of multiple synchronous penile shaft syringomas with local scrotal flaps. Methods: We report a rare case of excision of multiple penile syringomas and reconstruction with scrotal flaps in a 29-year-old man. Results: Penile syringomas were excised and reconstructed with scrotal flaps in a single-stage procedure. Conclusions: In addition to providing wound coverage, this recon...

  5. Penile reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulio Garaffa; Salvatore Sansalone; David J Ralph

    2013-01-01

    During the most recent years,a variety of new techniques of penile reconstruction have been described in the literature.This paper focuses on the most recent advances in male genital reconstruction after trauma,excision of benign and malignant disease,in gender reassignment surgery and aphallia with emphasis on surgical technique,cosmetic and functional outcome.

  6. Penile prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettocchi, Carlo; Palumbo, Fabrizio; Spilotros, Marco; Palazzo, Silvano; Saracino, Gabriele A; Martino, Pasquale; Battaglia, Michele; Selvaggi, Francesco P; Ditonno, Pasquale

    2010-02-01

    Penile prosthesis implantation is recognized as a valid option to obtain an artificial erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse in those patients in which a pharmacological approach is contraindicated or ineffective. Penile prostheses are subbject to continuous development and they are achieving ever better mechanical reliability and safety. The devices are divided into two general types: semirigid (malleable and mechanical) and inflatables. The AMS® (American Medical Systems) and Coloplast Ltd® produce the majority of inflatable and semirigid devices.Malleable and mechanical prostheses have the disadvantage that the penis is always erect although it can be orientated in different ways, while the advantages are ease of use and the need for a simpler surgical procedure compared with inflatable prostheses. Three-component prostheses are more sophisticated than semirigid devices. The advantages of these devices are that the prosthesis feels softer than semirigid or two-piece devices when deflated, with a better cosmetic result, and it ensures a more natural erection than others kinds of prosthesis. The disadvantages are the possibility of malfunction and the need for a more complicated surgical technique. Implantation of a penile prosthesis can be performed in a short surgical time under locoregional anaesthesia, and for this reason hospitalization is usually brief and the patient can be discharged 2 days after the operation if complications are not evident. Patient and partner satisfaction reflect the quality and the effectiveness of this treatment. Even though the results are positive in the vast majority of patients, the possibility of several complications makes penile prosthesis implantation a delicate kind of surgery. Complications can happen when the operation is carried out, in the peri-operative and in the postoperative period, and include infections, erosions of the prosthesis and mechanical failure in case of inflatable prosthesis. Penile prostheses

  7. Penile arteriography in vasculogenic impotence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Beum; Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Kwan Seh; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    Bifurcation aortography and selective internal pudendal arteriography were performed in 70 impotent men under the impression of vasculogenic impotence. Age range was 6 to 63 years old(average 32). 54 patients had the history of pelvic trauma. The studies were performed under local anesthesia and simultaneous intracavernosal and intraarterial Papavertine injection before filming. To reduce pain and arterial spasm, intraarterial Lidocaine and low osmolarity non-ionic contrast media were used. Arterial lesions were found in 50(93%) traumatic patients and 7(44%) non-traumatic patients. Internal iliac arterial lesion that causing pelvic steal syndrome was noted in 3 traumatic patients. Among trauma related cases there were bilateral arterial lesion in 19 patients and one axis lesion in 31 patients respectively. Among 16 non traumatic patients there were bilateral arterial lesions in 2 patients and unilateral lesion in 5 patients. Irrespective or bilaterally or unilaterally of the lesion, majority of arterial lesions were found at the distal internal pudendal artery or common penile artery level in traumatic patients. On the contrary, penile branch lesion was predominant site in non traumatic patients. With the improved arteriographic technique, selective penile arteriography appears accurate method in the diagnosis of arterial impotence.

  8. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions are associated with changes in the glycosylation pattern of carbohydrates related to ABH blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Clausen, H; Holmstrup, P

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of carbohydrate structures related to the ABO(H) blood group antigen system was studied in biopsies from eight squamous cell carcinomas, and eight erythroplakias with epithelial dysplasia. Twenty oral lesions without histological evidence of malignancy (13 lichen planus lesions...... and 7 homogeneous leukoplakias) were also examined. The distribution of Lex, Ley, H type 2 chain, and N-acetyllactosamine, all type 2 chain carbohydrate structures, was investigated by immunohistological staining using monoclonal antibodies with selected specificity. The histological pattern...

  9. Evaluation of the p16 and Ki-67 Biomarkers as Predictors of the Recurrence of Premalignant Cervical Cancer Lesions after LEEP Conization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Paulo Macêdo de Oliveira; Tafuri, Luciene; Costa, Maria Zélia de Oliveira; Lima, Maria Inês de Miranda; Simões, Renata Toscano

    2017-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the expressions of biomarkers p16 and Ki-67 in low-grade (LG) or high-grade (HG) lesions, and to relate them to risk factors and the recurrence of these lesions. Methods A retrospective case-control study of 86 patients with LG and HG lesions who underwent a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) between 1999 and 2004. The control group was composed of 69 women with no recurrence, and the study group, of 17 patients with recurrence. All patients were followed-up over a two-year period after surgery, and screened every six months, including cytology and colposcopy. Biopsy samples collected from LEEP were submitted to immunohistochemical analysis for p16 and Ki-67. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS, IBM-SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, US), with a significant p ​​p16 and Ki-67, separately or combined, showed no relation to recurrence on the total analysis. However, evaluating specifically HG lesions, the positive expression (2+ and 3+) of p16/Ki-67 was associated with recurrence (0.010). In addition, p16 isolated was also more expressive in HG lesions (2+ and 3 + , p = 0.018), but it was unrelated to recurrence. Conclusion Proteins p16 and Ki-67, both isolated and combined, are not reliable primary markers for the recurrence of cervical lesions in the majority of LG lesions. However, analyzing only the group with prior diagnosis of HG lesions, the expressions of p16 and of p16/Ki-67 were associated with recurrence, and they may be useful in monitoring these cases. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  10. Establishment of novel rat models for premalignant breast disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feng; Ma Zhongbing; Wang Fei; Fu Qinye; Fang Yunzhi; Zhang Qiang; Gao Dezong

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer has become one of the most common malignant tumors among females over the past several years.Breast carcinogenesis is a continuous process,which is featured by the normal epithelium progressing to premalignant lesions and then to invasive breast cancer (IBC).Targeting premalignant lesions is an effective strategy to prevent breast cancer.The establishment of animal models is critical to study the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis,which will facilitate research on breast cancer prevention and drug behaviors.In this study,we established a feasible chemically-induced rat model of premalignant breast cancer.Methods Following the administration of the drugs (carcinogen,estrogen,and progestogen) to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats,tumors or suspicious tumors were identified by palpation or ultrasound imaging,and were surgically excised for pathological evaluation.A series of four consecutive steps were carried out in order to determine the carcinogen:7,12-dimethylbenzaanthracene (DMBA) or 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea,the route of carcinogen administration,the administration period of estrogen and progestogen,and the DMBA dosage.Results Stable premalignant lesions can be induced in SD rats on administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg,administered three times) followed by administration of female hormones 5-day cycle.Results were confirmed by ultrasound and palpation.Conclusion Under the premise of drug dose and cycle,DMBA combined with estrogen and progestogen can be used as a SD rat model for breast premalignant lesions.

  11. Premalignant cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudeja, Vikas; Allen, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Due to increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, asymptomatic pancreatic cysts are frequently being diagnosed. Many of these cysts have premalignant potential and offer a unique opportunity for cancer prevention. Mucinous cystic neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm are the major premalignant cystic neoplasms of pancreas. The prediction of the risk of malignancy (incidental and future risk of malignant transformation) and balancing the risks of watchful waiting with that of operative management with associated mortality and morbidity is the key to the management of these lesions. We review the literature that has contributed to the development of our approach to the management of these cystic neoplasms. We provide an overview of the key features used in diagnosis and in predicting malignancy. Particular attention is given to the natural history and management decision making.

  12. Devastating penile mycosis leading to penile gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombalkar, N N; Vaze, Dhananjay; Guha, Poonam; Dhandore, Priya D; Gurav, Prakash D

    2013-09-01

    Infective penile gangrene is a rare but known complication of circumcision. The causes may vary from neutropenia, diabetes mellitus, and human immunodeficiency virus infection to lymphoproliferative malignancy. Penile mycosis leading to penile gangrene is a rare entity. Only 1 case has been reported in an adult. Juvenile diabetes mellitus is a peculiar predisposing factor for mycotic infections. We report a case of mycotic penile gangrene in a diabetic child to highlight its potentially preventable disastrous outcome.

  13. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FOR EVALUATING VISUAL INSPECTIO N AFTER ACETIC ACID (VIA AND LUGOLS IODINE (VILI APPLICAT ION IN SCREENING OF PREMALIGNANT LESIONS OF CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential of VIA & VILI in the scre ening of preinvasive and invasive lesions in unhealthy cervix and comparing them with colposcopy guided biopsy thereby determining its usefulness in screening. Also to evaluate the correlation of demographic data like age, socioeconomic status, education, residential area, parity, age at marriage, use of various contraceptive methods in pre malignant lesions of cervix. METHODS STUDY was conducted on 200 symptomatic and asymptomatic w omen with abnormal cervices who attended outdoor department of SSMC associated h ospital SGMH. All cases were subjected to Pap smear, VIA, VILI and colposcopy, women with prem alignant lesion were subjected to directed biopsy from suspicious areas and sent for h istopathological examination (HPE. Results of Pap smear, VIA, VILI and colposcopy are compared to HPE report. OBSERVATIONS: On cytology 27.5% of cases had LSIL & HSIL. All were po sitive by VIA & VILI, of which 80% had dysplasia on biopsy. On colposcopy, incidence of CIN wa s 38.5%. all were positive on VIA & VILI, out of which, 76.6% were proved dysplastic on colposco py guided biopsy. VIA when compared with HPR had sensitivity & specificity of 80% & 67% respectively, while that of VILI was found to be 80% & 87% respectively. CONCLUSION: VIA & VILI are simple, inexpensive, low technology test. Both when combined has high sensit ivity as well as specificity. This can be practiced by clinicians and paramedics on wide scale. Another advantage is immediate availability of results, so that treatment can be s tarted during same visit.

  14. An experimental study of the effects of natural carotene on DMBA-induced oral buccal mucosa premalignant lesion in golden hamsters%天然胡萝卜素对金黄地鼠颊粘膜癌前病变逆转作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦枝; 王小玲; 李少成; 李盛琳; 章魁华; 张普洪

    2001-01-01

    Objective The reverting effects of natural carotene on dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA) induced oral premalignant lesion in syrian golden hamsters were studied.Methods The hamsters were divided into,control group of the oral premalignant epithelia,oral administration of natural carotene treated group (15mg/kg/day,5d/week,for 4 weeks) and topical application of membrane of natrual carotene treated group (1cm×1cm/10mg,5d/week,for 4 weeks).Results Both oral administration group and topital administration group showed effective,but oral administration group was a bit superior in treating oral premalignant lesion to topical administration.Conclusion Natural carotene could effectively revert DMBA-induced oral premalignant lesion in hamsters.%目的研究天然胡萝卜素对二甲基苯并蒽(DMBA)诱发的金黄地鼠口腔粘膜癌前病变的逆转作用。方法选用DMBA诱发金黄地鼠口腔粘膜癌前病变模型,用0.5%天然胡萝卜素溶液灌胃口服和口腔局部贴膜进行治疗,光镜下组织观察。结果无论是灌胃治疗组还是口腔贴膜组均显示出明显的治疗效果,灌胃治疗组略优于口腔贴膜组。结论天然胡萝卜素对DMBA诱发的动物口腔癌前病变有逆转作用。

  15. Outcomes of oral squamous cell carcinoma arising from oral epithelial dysplasia: rationale for monitoring premalignant oral lesions in a multidisciplinary clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M W; Field, E A; Field, J K; Risk, J M; Rajlawat, B P; Rogers, S N; Steele, J C; Triantafyllou, A; Woolgar, J A; Lowe, D; Shaw, R J

    2013-10-01

    Surveillance of oral epithelial dysplasia results in a number of newly diagnosed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The clinical stage of oral SCC at diagnosis influences the magnitude of treatment required and the prognosis. We aimed to document the stage, treatment, and outcome of oral SCC that arose in patients who were being monitored for oral epithelial dysplasia in a dedicated multidisciplinary clinic. Those with histologically diagnosed lesions were enrolled on an ethically approved protocol and molecular biomarker study. Details of clinical and pathological TNM, operation, radiotherapy, recurrence, second primary tumour, and prognosis, were recorded in patients whose lesions underwent malignant transformation. Of the 91 patients reviewed (median follow-up 48 months, IQR 18-96), 23 (25%) had malignant transformation. All were presented to the multidisciplinary team with stage 1 disease (cT1N0M0). Of these, 21 were initially treated by wide local excision, 2 required resection of tumour and reconstruction, and 2 required adjuvant radiotherapy. At follow-up 3 had local recurrence, one had regional recurrence, one had metachronous lung cancer, and 5 had second primary oral SCC. There were further diagnoses of oral dysplasia in 5 during follow-up, and it is estimated that 76% of patients will have one or other event in 5 years. Disease-specific survival was 100% and overall survival was 96% (22/23). Median follow-up after diagnosis of oral SCC was 24 months (IQR 11-58). Specialist monitoring of oral epithelial dysplasia by a multidisciplinary team allows oral SCC to be detected at an early stage, and enables largely curative treatment with simple and usually minor surgical intervention. The high incidence of second primary oral SCC in high-risk patients with oral epithelial dysplasia further supports intensive targeted surveillance in this group.

  16. Histomorphometric Analysis of Angiogenesis using CD31 Immunomarker and Mast Cell Density in Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothsna, M; Rammanohar, M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mast cells have been implicated in promoting angiogenesis in malignant tumors of lung, oesophagus and breast, but there are few studies on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCC). Most oral squamous cell carcinomas arise from pre-existing precancerous lesions exhibiting epithelial dysplasia. Aim The present pilot study attempts to compare Mast Cell Density (MCD), Microvessel Density (MVD), Microvessel Area (MVA) histomorphometrically between normal buccal mucosa, severe epithelial dysplasia and OSCC and to correlate the role of mast cells and angiogenesis in tumor progression. Material and Methods The retrospective study was conducted on eight cases of OSCC, eight cases of severe epithelial dysplasia and five cases of normal buccal mucosa. Immunohistochemical staining with anti CD–31, to demonstrate angiogenesis and toluidine blue staining for mast cells were employed. MVA, MVD and MCD were calculated using the measurement tools of the image analysis software and compared between the groups. One way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used for comparing the parameter for multiple groups followed by Games Howell test. To assess the relationship between micro vessel density and mast cell density, Karl Pearson’s correlation was used. Results MCD and MVD increased with disease progression and were statistically higher in OSCC than in severe epithelial dysplasia and normal buccal mucosa (p<0.001). MVA increased from normal to severe dysplasia and decreased from dysplasia to OSCC, may be due to revascularization of tumor tissue. A positive correlation was observed between MCD and MVD in OSCC and dysplasia, though were not statistically significant. Conclusion These findings suggest that mast cells may up regulate angiogenesis in OSCC. MCD and MVD may be used as indicators for disease progression.

  17. Comparative study of effectiveness of Pap smear versus visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol′s iodine for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesion of cervix

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    Shuchi Consul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Cancer of the cervix is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Therefore, to curb the disease, there is a need to develop a screening test that has good sensitivity and specificity. The present study is aimed to compare the effectiveness of the Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA and visual inspection with Lugol′s iodine (VILI for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix; to evaluate the usefulness of VIA and VILI as an adjunct to improve sensitivity of cervical cytology; and to evaluate the role of VILI as a parallel screening method with VIA to enhance its test performance. Design and Setting: This was a prospective, analytical study in which 210 patients of the reproductive age group attending the gynecology OPD were enrolled. Patients and Methods: Patients were first subjected to Pap smear followed by VIA, VILI, colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of lesion, if needed. Data was obtained and statistically analyzed. Results: Of the 210 patients, 34 (16.27% had positive Pap test, 29 (13.87% had positive VIA and 24 (11.43% had positive VILI and 31 (14.75% showed features of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN on colposcopy. Of the total of 48 patients in whom either of the screening tests was positive and had undergone cervical biopsy, one had CIN-3, three had CIN-2, 12 had CIN-1, three had carcinoma in situ CIS and 29 reported normal. In our study, 40 patients were picked up as positive by combination of these tests, of which 19 (47.50% had CIN on biopsy. Conclusion: Our study showed that VIA and VILI had sensitivity comparable to Pap smear and can thus be a suitable potential alternative/adjunctive screening test not only in a resource-poor setting but in well-equipped centers also. And, use of a combination of tests (Pap+VIA+VILI had 100% sensitivity but at cost of low specificity and more false-positive results.

  18. Discussion on the relationship between vocal cord leukoplakia and premalignant lesions and research progress of ;vocal cord leukoplakia%声带白斑与癌前病变关系探讨及其研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚琳(综述); 陈剑秋(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Vocal cord leukoplakia is a white-plaque disease due to long-term stimulation on vocal cords,which includes abnormal epithelial hypertrophy and dysplasia of the vocal cord.The term “white plaque”is clinically describing any white lesion on a mucous membrane that cannot be wiped off or ascribed to any specific condition (eg,Candidal infec-tion).There is a consensus that vocal cord leukoplakia has no histologic implications and synonymous with cancer or malignancy,only as a clinical descriptive diagnosis.In this paper,we reviewed the relationship between vocal cord leu-koplakia and premalignant lesions and the formation mechanism,histopathologic classification,clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal cord leukoplakia.%声带白斑是由刺激因素长期作用于声带黏膜,导致声带黏膜上皮生长异常或成熟异常及过度角化而引起的一种白色斑块样疾病。“白斑”一词,仅为一临床描述性名词,用于描述黏膜上不易擦去的、非特殊病变(例如念珠菌感染)引起的白色病灶。声带白斑多伴有不同程度的不典型增生,有一定的癌变率,但既往将其完全等同于癌前病变有失偏颇,目前已达成共识,认为声带白斑只作为一个临床诊断,本身并无组织病理学暗示。对声带白斑与癌前病变的关系以及声带白斑的形成机制、组织病理学分类、临床诊断及治疗方面进行综述。

  19. Treinamento e critérios padronizados aprimoram o diagnóstico de lesões pré-malignas da mama Training and standardized criteria improve the diagnosis of premalignant breast lesions

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    Marcio de Almeida Salles

    2008-11-01

    histopathological diagnosis of premalignant breast lesions before and after training with diagnostic standardized criteria. METHODS: Slides containing histological sections representative of three kinds of breast lesions (atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ and ductal carcinoma in situ with microinvasion, revised by an international specialist in breast pathology whose diagnoses were considered as golden standard, have been used. The same slides have been evaluated at two different times by five pathologists from the community according to a specific protocol for classifying the lesions. In the first evaluation, the cases were analyzed and classified according to the specific criteria adopted in each service. At the second time, the pathologists were given a tutorial containing diagnostic criteria and representative images, and the lesions were classified again, employing the standardized criteria. Interobserver analysis using percent agreement and weighted Kappa index has been performed. RESULTS: There has been a large diagnostic variation among the pathologists in the initial analysis without the use of standardized diagnostic criteria concerning the diagnostic, nuclear grade and histological grade (weighted Kappa indexes related to diagnosis varied from 0.15 to 0.40. In the second evaluation using standardized criteria, there has been a significant improvement in the diagnostic concordance among the five pathologists concerning the diagnosis, nuclear grade and histological grade (weighted Kappa indexes related to diagnosis have varied from 0.42 to 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: interobserver concordance related to diagnosis and classification of breast premalignant lesions may be improved with specific training and the use of standardized histopathological criteria.

  20. Compulsive masturbation and chronic penile lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Galì, Alessandro; Marino, Silvia; Bramanti, Placido

    2012-06-01

    Chronic penile lymphedema arises from the abnormal retention of lymphatic fluid in the subcutaneous tissues and may be secondary to local and systemic medical conditions such as sexually transmitted diseases, filariasis, malignancy, local radiotherapy, and surgery. This case report aims to consider compulsive masturbation as a possible cause of chronic penile edema. A 40-year-old man was referred to our institute for behavioral disturbance, including compulsive masturbation. Neuropsychiatric evaluation showed moderate mental retardation, mild dysarthria and limb incoordination, anxiety, depressed mood, and impulse dyscontrol. Brain MRI pointed out diffuse white matter lesions. Urogenital examination revealed an uncircumcised penis with non-tender edema of the shaft and prepuce with areas of lichenification. Since the most common local and systemic causes of edema were excluded, chronic penile edema due to compulsive masturbation was diagnosed and the compulsive behavior treated with an antidepressant and low-dose neuroleptics. Compulsive masturbation should be taken into account when counselling patients with penile edema.

  1. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  2. Advances in the pathology of penile carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of penile cancer varies from country to country, with the highest figures reported for countries in Africa, South America, and Asia and lowest in the United States and Europe. Causes of this variation are not clear, but they are thought to be related to human papillomavirus infection, smoking, lack of circumcision, chronic inflammation, and poor genital hygiene. Most penile tumors are squamous cell carcinomas, and a variegated spectrum of distinct morphologies is currently recognized. Each one of these subtypes has distinctive pathologic and clinical features. About half of penile carcinomas are usual squamous cell carcinomas, and the rest corresponds to verrucous, warty, basaloid, warty-basaloid, papillary, pseudohyperplastic, pseudoglandular, adenosquamous, sarcomatoid, and cuniculatum carcinomas. Previous studies have found a consistent association of tumor cell morphology and human papillomavirus presence in penile carcinomas. Those tumors composed of small- to intermediate-sized, basaloid ("blue") cells are often human papillomavirus positive, whereas human papillomavirus prevalence is lower in tumors showing large, keratinizing, maturing eosinophilic ("pink") cells. Human papillomavirus-related tumors affect younger patients, whereas human papillomavirus-unrelated tumors are seen in older patients with phimosis, lichen sclerosus, or squamous hyperplasia. This morphologic distinctiveness is also observed in penile intraepithelial neoplasia. The specific aim of this review is to provide a detailed discussion on the macroscopic and microscopic features of all major subtypes of penile cancer. We also discuss the role of pathologic features in the prognosis of penile cancer, the characteristics of penile precursor lesions, and the use of immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of invasive and precursor lesions.

  3. Chronic penile strangulation

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    Lopes Roberto I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

  4. Leiomyoma on the penile shaft

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    K Gautam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary soft tissue tumors of the penis, such as leiomyomas, are very rare. To the best of our knowledge, less than ten cases have been reported till date. The lesion gradually increases in size and can mimic a malignant lesion. Excisional biopsy and histopathological examination can provide the diagnosis as well as cure, both physical and psychological. We report a case of a penile shaft leiomyoma in a 49 year old male.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11598 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 680-681

  5. Histologic classification of penile intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Elsa F; Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-05-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and their corresponding precancerous lesions can be classified in 2 major groups: human papillomavirus (HPV) related and HPV unrelated. In the former (warty and basaloid SCC), there is a predominance of undifferentiated basaloid cells. In the latter (eg, usual, papillary, and verrucous SCC), the predominant cell is larger with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Based on these morphologic features, a new term, "penile intraepithelial neoplasia" (PeIN), was proposed. PeIN was further subclassified into differentiated and undifferentiated, with the latter being subdivided into basaloid, warty, and warty-basaloid subtypes. Macroscopically, PeIN subtypes are indistinguishable. Microscopically, differentiated PeIN is characterized by acanthosis, parakeratosis, enlarged keratinocytes with abundant "pink" cytoplasm (abnormal maturation), and hyperchromatic cells in the basal layer. In basaloid PeIN the epithelium is replaced by a monotonous population of uniform, small, round, and basophilic cells. Warty PeIN is characterized by a spiky surface, prominent atypical parakeratosis, and pleomorphic koilocytosis. Warty-basaloid PeIN show features of both warty and basaloid PeIN. There is a significant association of subtypes of PeIN with specific variants of invasive SCCs. This is a simple and reproducible nomenclature for penile precancerous lesions based on cell type and differentiation. It takes into account the similarities between vulvar and penile pathology and the hypothesis of a bimodal pathway of penile cancer progression.

  6. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis:a premalignant condition?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mila Ghosh; Puja Sakhuja; Anil KAgarwal

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis, characterized by marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and dense local adhesions. It often mimics a gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), and may coexist with GBC, leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Furthermore, the premalignant nature of this entity is not known. This study was undertaken to assess the p53, PCNA and beta-catenin expression in XGC in comparison to GBC and chronic inflammation. METHODS: Sections from paraffin-embedded blocks of surgically resected specimens of GBC (69 cases), XGC (65), chronic cholecystitis (18) and control gallbladder (10) were stained with the monoclonal antibodies to p53 and PCNA, and a polyclonal antibody to beta-catenin. p53 expression was scored as the percentage of nuclei stained. PCNA expression was scored as the product of the percentage of nuclei stained and the intensity of the staining (1-3). A cut-off value of 80 for this score was taken as a positive result. Beta-catenin expression was scored as type of expression-membranous, cytoplasmic or nuclear staining. RESULTS: p53 mutation was positive in 52% of GBC cases and 3% of XGC, but was not expressed in chronic cholecystitis and control gallbladders. p53 expression was lower in XGC than in GBC (P CONCLUSION: The expression of p53, PCNA and beta-catenin in XGC was significantly different from GBC and similar to chronic cholecystitis, thus indicating the inflammatory nature of XGC and may not support a premalignant nature of the lesion.

  7. Effect of the Premalignant and Tumor Microenvironment on Immune Cell Cytokine Production in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Sara D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); De Costa, Anna-Maria A. [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Young, M. Rita I., E-mail: rita.young@va.gov [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Medical Research Service (151), Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 109 Bee Street, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is marked by immunosuppression, a state in which the established tumor escapes immune attack. However, the impact of the premalignant and tumor microenvironments on immune reactivity has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine how soluble mediators from cells established from carcinogen-induced oral premalignant lesions and HNSCC modulate immune cell cytokine production. It was found that premalignant cells secrete significantly increased levels of G-CSF, RANTES, MCP-1, and PGE{sub 2} compared to HNSCC cells. Splenocytes incubated with premalignant supernatant secreted significantly increased levels of Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokines compared to splenocytes incubated with HNSCC supernatant. These studies demonstrate that whereas the premalignant microenvironment elicits proinflammatory cytokine production, the tumor microenvironment is significantly less immune stimulatory and may contribute to immunosuppression in established HNSCC.

  8. Penile herpes zoster: an unusual location for a common disease

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    Milan Bjekic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is a common dermatological condition which affects up to 20% of the population, most frequently involving the thoracic and facial dermatomes with sacral lesions occurring rarely and only a few reported cases of penile shingles. Case report: We report two cases of unusual penile clinical presentations of varicella zoster virus infection in immunocompetent men. The patients presented with grouped clusters of vesicles and erythema on the left side of penile shaft and posterior aspect of the left thigh and buttock, involving s2-s4 dermatomes. The lesions resolved quickly upon administration of oral antiviral therapy. Conclusion: Penile herpes zoster should not be overlooked in patients with unilateral vesicular rash.

  9. Penile herpes zoster: an unusual location for a common disease

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    Milan Bjekic

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is a common dermatological condition which affects up to 20% of the population, most frequently involving the thoracic and facial dermatomes with sacral lesions occurring rarely and only a few reported cases of penile shingles. Case report: We report two cases of unusual penile clinical presentations of varicella zoster virus infection in immunocompetent men. The patients presented with grouped clusters of vesicles and erythema on the left side of penile shaft and posterior aspect of the left thigh and buttock, involving s2-s4 dermatomes. The lesions resolved quickly upon administration of oral antiviral therapy. Conclusion: Penile herpes zoster should not be overlooked in patients with unilateral vesicular rash.

  10. Prevalência de coilocitose em biópsias penianas de parceiros de mulheres com lesões genitais induzidas pelo HPV Prevalence of koilocytosis in penile biopsies of partners of women with HPV-induced genital lesions

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    Alberto Azoubel Antunes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a prevalência de coilocitose em biópsias penianas de parceiros de mulheres com lesões genitais induzidas pelo HPV e analisar os fatores de risco envolvidos com a infecção peniana. MÉTODOS: foram incluídos neste estudo de coorte transversal 80 parceiros de mulheres com lesões induzidas pelo HPV no período de maio de 2002 a junho de 2003. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 34,1 anos (variando de 16 a 63. Todos os pacientes negavam ou desconheciam qualquer tipo de lesão genital. Foram submetidos à anamnese específica quanto a presença de sintomas uretrais, passado de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST, número de parceiras sexuais, uso de preservativos e postectomia. Posteriormente foram submetidos à peniscopia com a utilização de soluções de ácido acético e azul de toluidina, tendo sido colhido material para biópsia das lesões de aspecto morfológico sugestivo de contaminação por HPV. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste do chi2. RESULTADOS: o exame foi considerado negativo em 24 pacientes (30%. Todos os outros 56 pacientes (70% apresentaram lesões acetobrancas e azul de toluidina positivas. Destes, 53 foram biopsiados, e 41 pacientes (77,3% apresentaram biópsia com alterações histológicas sugestivas de infecção pelo HPV. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência da infecção genital masculina pelo HPV foi de 51,2%, e nenhum fator de risco analisado foi associado com uma maior prevalência da infecção genital pelo vírus.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of koilocytosis in penile biopsies of partners of women with HPV-induced genital lesions, and to analyze the risk factors associated with the penile viral infection. METHODS: a total of 80 partners of HPV-infected women with genital lesions were included in this transversal cohort study. The study was carried out between May 2002 and June 2003. The mean age was 34.1 years (16 to 63. No patient reported any kind of genital lesion

  11. General Information about Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Penile Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Penile Cancer Go to Health Professional ... covered with loose skin called the foreskin . Enlarge Anatomy of the penis. The parts of the penis ...

  12. Large Penile Mass With Unusual Benign Histopathology

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    Nate Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an extremely rare condition presenting as a lesion on the glans penis in older men. Physical exam without biopsy cannot differentiate malignant from nonmalignant growth. We report a case of large penile mass in an elderly male with a history of lichen sclerosis, highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequent surgical removal and biopsy demonstrated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, an unusual benign histopathologic diagnosis with unclear prognosis. We review the literature and discuss options for treatment and surveillance.

  13. Clinicopathological features and histogenesis of penile cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Cecilia; Chaux, Alcides; Velazquez, Elsa F; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2015-05-01

    Cysts arising in the penis are uncommon and can be found anywhere from the urethral meatus to the root of the penis involving glans, foreskin, or shaft. Median raphe cysts account for the majority of penile cystic lesions reported in the literature. As their name suggests, they arise on the ventral midline of the penis that extends from the urethral meatus to the scrotum and perineum. Proposed hypotheses for their origin as well as their diverse morphology are discussed.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyin; Xu, Yipeng; Wang, Hua; Chen, B O; Wang, Zongping; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Shaoxing; Chen, Guiping

    2015-04-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is an extremely rare disease that, at present, has not been well characterized. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment of this carcinoma remain poorly understood, particularly in the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to discuss the methods of diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma in the Chinese population. The clinical and pathological data of 10 patients with penile verrucous carcinoma were analyzed alongside a literature review. All the tumors were exophytic papillary lesions, ranging between 0.4 and 4 cm in diameter and all 10 patients underwent partial penectomy with tumor-negative surgical margins. None of the 10 patients underwent ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy. All patients were regularly followed up for 0.7-9 years, which revealed that no patients developed recurrence, and only one case resulted in mortality due to unassociated causes. It was found that penile verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated disease with low malignant potential and locally aggressive features, which seldom metastasizes to regional lymph nodes or distant regions. However, misdiagnosis may occur due to an incorrect biopsy. Favorable outcomes can be achieved by surgery, even without any adjuvant therapy, but patients should be carefully followed up.

  15. Abnormalities of penile curvature: chordee and penile torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Sylvia; Palmer, Lane S

    2011-07-28

    Congenital chordee and penile torsion are commonly observed in the presence of hypospadias, but can also be seen in boys with the meatus in its orthotopic position. Varying degrees of penile curvature are observed in 4-10% of males in the absence of hypospadias. Penile torsion can be observed at birth or in older boys who were circumcised at birth. Surgical management of congenital curvature without hypospadias can present a challenge to the pediatric urologist. The most widely used surgical techniques include penile degloving and dorsal plication. This paper will review the current theories for the etiology of penile curvature, discuss the spectrum of severity of congenital chordee and penile torsion, and present varying surgical techniques for the correction of penile curvature in the absence of hypospadias.

  16. Abnormalities of Penile Curvature: Chordee and Penile Torsion

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    Sylvia Montag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital chordee and penile torsion are commonly observed in the presence of hypospadias, but can also be seen in boys with the meatus in its orthotopic position. Varying degrees of penile curvature are observed in 4–10% of males in the absence of hypospadias. Penile torsion can be observed at birth or in older boys who were circumcised at birth. Surgical management of congenital curvature without hypospadias can present a challenge to the pediatric urologist. The most widely used surgical techniques include penile degloving and dorsal plication. This paper will review the current theories for the etiology of penile curvature, discuss the spectrum of severity of congenital chordee and penile torsion, and present varying surgical techniques for the correction of penile curvature in the absence of hypospadias.

  17. The penile tourniquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Brian A; Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Mohammed, Mustafa; Persad, Raj A

    2013-01-01

    Tourniquets are commonly used in penile surgery to achieve a bloodless operating field or produce artificial erections intraoperatively. Several techniques have been described, but there is a paucity of data and a lack of guidelines to direct their safe use. In penile surgery, it is the local rather than systemic effects of tourniquet use that are the main concern. Tourniquet time should be kept to a minimum, as the limited data available suggests that reperfusion injury can occur even after short periods of ischaemia. High risk groups such as diabetics and arteriopaths are at particular risk. Further studies are needed to determine safe tourniquet times and pressures. PMID:23542140

  18. 高危HPV病毒第2代杂交捕获法检测应用于宫颈癌以及癌前病变检查%Application of Hybrid Capture 2 for High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Testing in Cervical Cancer and Premalignant Lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉梅; 曹维克

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of hybrid capture 2 (hc2) in detection of high risk HPV in cervical cancer and pre-cancerous cervical lesions. Methods: Cervix exfoliated cells were detected with the second generation of hybrid capture hc2 method, and the diagnostic results such as specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and pedicted value were compared with that of pathological diagnosis respectively. Results: The infection rate of HPV assayed by hc2 was 43. 8% in atypical squamous cell of undetermined signification (ASCUS), 7. 8% in ASCUS-H, 9. 7% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(LSIL), and 28. 7% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) respectively according to TBS diagnosis and classification system. For high grade-squ-mous intraepithelial lesion≥(CIN II ), the specificity, sensitivity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value by hc2 were 66. 7% , 93. 4% , 60. 0% , and 95. 0% respectively. In high virus load assay, there was significant difference between cervical cancer and CIN I (P<0. 01), and between cervical cancer/CIN and NILM group (P<0. 01), but there was no difference be-tween CIN and cervical cancer. Conclusion; The high-risk HPV test with hc2 is still a good method in diagnosing cervical cancer and premalignant lesion. Examining the high-risk HPV viral load with hc2 is related to cervical cancer and premalignant lesions, but not related to the severity of cervical lesions.%目的:探讨高危人类乳头瘤病毒(HPV)第二代杂交捕获实验(hc2)检测应用于宫颈癌以及癌前病变检查中的临床价值.方法:用hc2检测其子宫颈脱落细胞,以病理诊断作为金标准对检测结果进行分析和评价,对其特异度、敏感度、准确性、预测值等检测并分析.结果:hc2法检测高危型HPV的感染状况为无明确意义的非典型细胞的改变(ASCUS)44.7%,不典型鳞状细胞不除外高度病变(ASCUS-H)7.8%,低度鳞状上皮内病变(LSIL)19.7%,高

  19. Molecular Triage of Premalignant Lesions in Liquid-Based Cervical Cytology and Circulating Cell-Free DNA from Urine, Using a Panel of Methylated Human Papilloma Virus and Host Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Valle, Blanca L.; Jedlicka, Anne; Turaga, Nitesh; Folawiyo, Oluwasina; Pirini, Francesca; Lawson, Fahcina; Vergura, Angelo; Noordhuis, Maartje; Dziedzic, Amanda; Perez, Gabriela; Renehan, Marisa; Guerrero-Diaz, Carolina; Rodriguez, Edgar De Jesus; Diaz-Montes, Teresa; Orengo, Jose Rodriguez; Mendez, Keimari; Romaguera, Josefina; Trock, Bruce J.; Florea, Liliana; Sidransky, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinically useful molecular tools to triage women for a biopsy upon referral to colposcopy are not available. We aimed to develop a molecular panel to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher lesions (CIN2(+)) in women with abnormal cervical cytology and high-risk HPV (HPV+)

  20. Abnormalities of Penile Curvature: Chordee and Penile Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Congenital chordee and penile torsion are commonly observed in the presence of hypospadias, but can also be seen in boys with the meatus in its orthotopic position. Varying degrees of penile curvature are observed in 4–10% of males in the absence of hypospadias. Penile torsion can be observed at birth or in older boys who were circumcised at birth. Surgical management of congenital curvature without hypospadias can present a challenge to the pediatric urologist. The most widely used surgical ...

  1. Penile incerceration-A tight affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkizim, Faraj O; Kanyata, Daniel; Githaiga, Joseph; Oliech, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    A patient presents with penile ring incarceration after using it for penile enlargement and prolonging tumescence. We present a case study of removal of the penile ring under local anaesthesia in a setting where cutting tools were inadequate.

  2. Penile incerceration—A tight affair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkizim, Faraj O.; Kanyata, Daniel; Githaiga, Joseph; Oliech, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    A patient presents with penile ring incarceration after using it for penile enlargement and prolonging tumescence. We present a case study of removal of the penile ring under local anaesthesia in a setting where cutting tools were inadequate. PMID:26519807

  3. Squamous morules are functionally inert elements of premalignant endometrial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Chieh; Lomo, Lesley; Baak, Jan P A; Eng, Charis; Ince, Tan A; Crum, Christopher P; Mutter, George L

    2009-02-01

    Squamous morules are a common component of premalignant glandular lesions that are followed by glandular, rather than squamous, carcinomas. We tested the hypothesis that the appearance of glands associated with morules predicts cancer risk, and undertook molecular testing to determine the clonal and hormonal response properties of admixed squamous and glandular elements. A total of 66 patients with squamous morules in an index endometrial biopsy had follow-up clinical data (average follow-up: interval 31 months, 2.5 biopsies) showing development of carcinoma in 11% (7/66) of cases. The histological appearance of morule-associated glands in the index biopsy was significantly associated with this clinical outcome, with the majority (71%, 5/7) of cancer occurrences following an overtly premalignant lesion (endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia) with squamous morules. Eight endometrial intraepithelial neoplasias with squamous morules were examined by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors and mitotic activity (Ki-67 antigen percent stained). Glandular components had abundant estrogen and progesterone receptors, and high levels of mitotic activity in all cases. In sharp contrast, all squamous morules were devoid of sex hormone receptors and had undetectable or extremely low-proliferation rates. When mutated, the same specific PTEN mutation was detected in squamous and glandular elements, indicating that both are of common lineage. The clinical and laboratory data are consistent with a model of morule biology in which squamous morules are a hormonally incompetent subpopulation of endometrial glandular lesions. Isolated morules might result from artifactual displacement from their native glandular context, or selective hormonally induced regression of the glandular but not squamous components over time. Subsequent cancer risk, as promoted by estrogens, is greatest when the glandular component has the appearance of endometrial intraepithelial

  4. The penile tourniquet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian A Parsons; Odunayo Kalejaiye; Mustafa Mohammed; Raj A Persad

    2013-01-01

    Tourniquets are commonly used in penile surgery to achieve a bloodless operating field or produce artificial erections intraoperatively.Several techniques have been described,but there is a paucity of data and a lack of guidelines to direct their safe use.In penile surgery,it is the local rather than systemic effects of tourniquet use that are the main concern.Tourniquet time should be kept to a minimum,as the limited data available suggests that reperfusion injury can occur even after short periods of ischaemia.High risk groups such as diabetics and arteriopaths are at particular risk.Further studies are needed to determine safe tourniquet times and pressures.

  5. Estimation of salivary sialic acid in oral premalignancy and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oral cancer is the most life-threatening disease of oral tissues. In societies where the incidence of oral cancer is high, clinically recognizable premalignant lesions are particularly common. Diagnosing oral cancers at an early stage is critical in improving the survival rate and reducing the morbidity associated with the disease. Alterations in the sialic acid levels in cancer patients have stimulated interest in this sugar residue as a possible tumor marker. Settings and Design: The purpose of this study was to estimate the salivary sialic acid levels in patients with oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate it with their grades to develop a cost-effective and noninvasive diagnostic parameter. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from the groups under study and subjected to biochemical analysis for determination of sialic acid levels. Statistical Analysis Used: The salivary sialic acid levels were correlated with the clinical stage and histological grade by one-way ANOVA (SPSS software version 15. Results: Salivary sialic acid was elevated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC compared to oral premalignancy and control group. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the grades of squamous cell carcinoma, grades of dysplasia in premalignancy, and sialic acid level. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: Evaluation of salivary sialic acid levels in premalignant and malignant lesions can serve as a screening tool. The mortality and morbidity of OSCC can be reduced if the lesions are diagnosed in early precancerous states using such noninvasive diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of the population.

  6. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  7. Penile Rehabilitation and Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Facio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED following treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer, particularly radical prostatectomy (RP, is a major quality of life issue that remains unsatisfactorily addressed. With the introduction and use of cavernous nerve–sparing procedures over the past 25 years, many men recover erections postoperatively that enable sexual intercourse unlike in the prior surgical era, when permanent ED postoperatively was certain. Despite this advance, 26–100% of these patients may never recover normal erectile function (EF. Recent advances in the understanding of ED after RP have stimulated great attention to develop penile rehabilitation programs and neuromodulation. The purpose of penile rehabilitation is to prevent adverse corpus cavernosal tissue structural alterations and thereby maximize the chances of recovering functional erections. Rehabilitation programs are common in clinical practice, but there is no definitive evidence to support their efficacy. Neuromodulation represents another strategy for promoting erection recovery postoperatively. This therapy involves the application of neuroprotective interventions, conceivably targeting biological elements involved in the erection response that are affected by neuropathic injury. Well-conducted, controlled trials with adequate follow-up are required in order to determine the erection preservative benefits of these therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this essay is to describe the mechanisms related to post-RP ED, assess the need for penile rehabilitation and neuromodulation following surgery, and analyze the basic science and clinical trial evidence associated with these applications for preserving EF following prostate cancer treatment.

  8. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  9. EAU guidelines on penile curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzimouratidis, Konstantinos; Eardley, Ian; Giuliano, François; Hatzichristou, Dimitrios; Moncada, Ignacio; Salonia, Andrea; Vardi, Yoram; Wespes, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Penile curvature can be congenital or acquired. Acquired curvature is secondary due to La Peyronie (Peyronie's) disease. To provide clinical guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of penile curvature. A systematic literature search on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of penile curvature was performed. Articles with the highest evidence available were selected and formed the basis for assigning levels of evidence and grades of recommendations. The pathogenesis of congenital penile curvature is unknown. Peyronie's disease is a poorly understood connective tissue disorder most commonly attributed to repetitive microvascular injury or trauma during intercourse. Diagnosis is based on medical and sexual histories, which are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. Physical examination includes assessment of palpable nodules and penile length. Curvature is best documented by a self-photograph or pharmacologically induced erection. The only treatment option for congenital penile curvature is surgery based on plication techniques. Conservative treatment for Peyronie's disease is associated with poor outcomes. Pharmacotherapy includes oral potassium para-aminobenzoate, intralesional treatment with verapamil, clostridial collagenase or interferon, topical verapamil gel, and iontophoresis with verapamil and dexamethasone. They can be efficacious in some patients, but none of these options carry a grade A recommendation. Steroids, vitamin E, and tamoxifen cannot be recommended. Extracorporeal shock wave treatment and penile traction devices may only be used to treat penile pain and reduce penile deformity, respectively. Surgery is indicated when Peyronie's disease is stable for at least 3 mo. Tunical shortening procedures, especially plication techniques, are the first treatment options. Tunical lengthening procedures are preferred in more severe curvatures or in complex deformities. Penile prosthesis implantation is recommended in patients with erectile dysfunction

  10. 甲苯胺蓝活体染色发现早期口腔粘膜癌变的评价%The evaluation of toluidine blue stain in vivo for detecting oral musosa premalignant lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周曾同; 赵亦非

    2001-01-01

    目的 为早期发现口腔粘膜斑纹类疾病中的可疑癌变者,试用Oratest试剂,并对其敏感性和准确率进行评价。方法 采用英国ZILA公司提供的Oratest试剂盒,对19例口腔粘膜斑纹类疾病作常规染色,切取染色后可疑病损区作组织病理检查,将病理诊断结果与染色结果对照比较,研究其相关性。结果 19例中病理诊断有上皮异常增生8例,其中染色阳性6例,阴性2例;无上皮异常增生7例,其染色阳性2例,阴性5例;原位癌4例,其染色阳性3例,阴性1例。观察发现上皮异常增生或原位癌中染色阴性者,其临床表现都有高度增殖性角化现象;而无上皮异常增生的染色阳性者,其临床表现有糜烂或溃疡。结论 Oratest不仅可以有效地提示粘膜癌变,而且对异常增生的上皮细胞也有较高的亲和力。由于上皮异常增生是口腔粘膜由正常跨入癌变的第一步,因而对Oratest染色阳性者应引起高度警惕,其敏感性可达75%,准确率达74%。Oratest作为一种筛选剂对于早期发现口腔粘膜的癌变或癌前病变均有临床意义。%Objective This study was designed to detect the suspectablecarcinogenesis in the patch or stria lesions of human oral mucosa at early stage.Oratest kits were applied for this purpose.The sensitivity and accuracy of this method was also evaluated. Methods 19 patch or stria lesions of human oral mucosa were tested by using Oratest kits which were kindly donated by ZILA Ltd.Com.Biopsies were also conducted in the suspected regions.The correlation analysis between staining and pathological examination was performed. Results 8 samples dysplasia which were revealed by 6 positive and 2 negative staining by using this Oratest examination.While the 7 samples with no dysplasia consisted of 2 positive and 5 negative staining.4 samples were confirmed to be cancer in situ.This included 3 positive and 1 negative staining

  11. Eruption of blood: Arteriovenous malformation of the penile urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joshua T.; Baverstock, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    While arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a common congenital or post-traumatic abnormality, male genital AVMs are rare and have been described in the scrotum or penis in pediatric patients.1,2 We describe a 34-year-old male presenting with recurrent spontaneous penile urethral bleeding found to have an AVM of the penile urethra. While angiography has traditionally been helpful, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can aid in the diagnosis and characterization of these lesions.3 Each case of male genital AVM provides a unique challenge to manage depending on the presenting complaint, as there are no guidelines to direct treatment.4 PMID:28163810

  12. Noninvasive imaging of oral premalignancy and malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Krasieva, T.; Jung, W.; You, J. S.; Chen, Z.; Osann, K.; Tromberg, B.

    2005-04-01

    Objectives: Early detection of cancer and its curable precursors remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Despite significant advances in treatment, oral cancer still results in 10,000 U.S. deaths annually, mainly due to the late detection of most oral lesions. Specific aim was to use a combination of non-invasive optical in vivo technologies to test a multi-modality approach to non-invasive diagnostics of oral premalignancy and malignancy. Methods: In the hamster cheek pouch model (120 hamsters), in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical Doppler tomography (ODT) mapped epithelial, subepithelial and vascular change throughout carcinogenesis in specific, marked sites. In vivo multi-wavelength multi-photon (MPM) and second harmonic generated (SHG) fluorescence techniques provided parallel data on surface and subsurface tissue structure, specifically collagen presence and structure, cellular presence, and vasculature. Images were diagnosed by 2 blinded, pre-standardized investigators using a standardized scale from 0-6 for all modalities. After sacrifice, histopathological sections were prepared and pathology evaluated on a scale of 0-6. ANOVA techniques compared imaging diagnostics with histopathology. 95% confidence limits of the sensitivity and specificity were established for the diagnostic capability of OCT/ODT+ MPM/SHG using ROC curves and kappa statistics. Results: Imaging data were reproducibly obtained with good accuracy. Carcinogenesis-related structural and vascular changes were clearly visible to tissue depths of 2mm. Sensitivity (OCT/ODT alone: 71-88%; OCT+MPM/SHG: 79-91%) and specificity (OCT alone: 62-83%;OCT+MPM/SHG: 67-90%) compared well with conventional techniques. Conclusions: OCT/ODT and MPM/SHG are promising non-invasive in vivo diagnostic modalities for oral dysplasia and malignancy. Supported by CRFA 30003, CCRP 00-01391V-20235, NIH (LAMMP) RR01192, DOE DE903-91ER 61227, NIH EB-00293 CA91717, NSF BES

  13. Penile abscess and necrotizing fasciitis secondary to neglected false penile fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Reshaid Reshaid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile infection and abscess formation have been described in association with priapism, cavernosography, intracavernosal injection therapy, trauma and penile prosthesis. We report a case of penile abscess and necrotizing fasciitis of penile skin in a 37-year-old male, presented 3 weeks after neglected false penile fracture.

  14. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Ralph, David

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP) is believed to include neuropraxia, which leads to temporarily reduced oxygenation and subsequent structural changes in penile tissue. This results in veno-occlusive dysfunction, therefore, penile rehabilitation programmes...... rehabilitation improves erectile function after RP so many times that it becomes a truth even without the proper scientific backing....

  15. [A case report of progressive penile necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Tomomi; Koike, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The penis is provided with blood by multiple arteries. Penile necrosis is uncommon. Penile necrosis sporadically occurs in patients with progressive diabetes mellitus and/or end stage renal failure. Penile necrosis is often considered a poor prognostic feature. We present a case of penile necrosis in a patient with mild diabetes mellitus.

  16. Warty/basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia is more prevalent than differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia in nonendemic regions for penile cancer when compared with endemic areas: a comparative study between pathologic series from Paris and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskin, Ana; Vieillefond, Anicke; Carlotti, Agnes; Plantier, Francoise; Chaux, Alcides; Ayala, Gustavo; Velazquez, Elsa F; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-02-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma shows an ample geographic variation in its prevalence with regions of low (North America, Europe, Japan, and Israel) and high (Africa, Asia, and South America) incidence. However, the geographic variation in the distribution of penile intraepithelial neoplasia is not well established. The aim of the present study was to compare the distribution of in situ and invasive lesions between geographic areas with low (France) and high (Paraguay) penile cancer incidence using a series of consecutive cases. The French series included 86 cases (57 in situ and 29 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma), and the Paraguayan series, 117 cases (31 in situ and 86 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma). Incidence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the overall samples was higher in the Paraguayan series (P < .00001). Comparing the Paraguayan and the French series, differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in the former (65.0% versus 19.8%), whereas lesions showing warty and/or basaloid features predominated in the latter (35.0% versus 80.2%) to a significant level (P < .00001). This distinctive pattern of differential distribution was maintained when cases with associated invasive squamous cell carcinoma were excluded. The pattern of distribution of lichen sclerosus was also distinctive, with a significantly higher prevalence in the Paraguayan population when compared with the French series (32.5% versus 12.8%, P = .0015). In summary, there appears to be a distinctive distribution of penile precursor lesions depending on the geographic region in consideration. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia with warty and/or basaloid features predominated in low-incidence areas, whereas differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in endemic regions for penile cancer. Further prospective studies in matched populations and from different geographic regions are needed to further clarify the reasons for this

  17. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengh are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, EC; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, JF

    2015-01-01

    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie’s disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients’ perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (± interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (± 3) and 14.25 (± 2) cm, respectively (P = 0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5 ± 2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P = 0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P = 0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5 ± 1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman’s correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50

  18. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile length are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E C; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, J F

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie's disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients' perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (±interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (±3) and 14.25 (±2) cm, respectively (P=0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5±2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P=0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P=0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5±1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman's correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50% report a

  19. Management of penile tumours during the Byzantine period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Marios; de Bree, Eelco; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Manios, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    While conventional treatment of penile cancer consists of total penile amputation and bilateral lymphadenectomy, recently a more conservative strategy comprising penile-preserving surgery and selective lymphadenectomy has been applied in order to preserve the penis and to minimize unnecessary inguinal lymphadenectomy. A thorough literature survey was performed to see what was already known of the surgical treatment of penile tumours in ancient times. In the Byzantine period, surgery appeared to have been highly developed, as one may conclude from the surgical material included mainly in the works of Oribasius of Pergamus and Paul of Aegina. Being aware of cancer, they described in their medical encyclopaedias malignant and benign tumours of the prepuce and glans penis, as well as their surgical and non-surgical management. After local excision of malignant tumours, they strongly recommended burning to prevent relapse, whereas they discouraged simultaneous removal of external and internal preputial lesions, because of the risk of perforation of the prepuce. These surprisingly detailed descriptions prove that Byzantine surgery had reached a higher level than commonly supposed. Penile-preserving treatment, which has recently become the therapeutic strategy of choice, was already accomplished in ancient times by using adjuvant thermal or chemical burning after local tumour excision.

  20. Penile revascularization-contemporary update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Dicks; Martin Bastuba; Irwin Goldstein

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary therapies for erectile dysfunction are generally targeted towards older men and universally engage pharmacological and/ or device related treatment options.Penile revascularization,using microvascular arterial bypass surgical techniques,is a non-pharmacological,non-device-related,and reconstructive surgical strategy for men with erectile dysfunction that was first described by Dr Vaclav Michal in 1973.Contemporary penile revascularization attempts to‘cure' pure arteriogenic erectile dysfunction in young men with arterial occlusive pathology in the distal internal pudendal,common penile or proximal cavernosal artery secondary to focal endothelial injury from blunt pelvic,perineal or penile trauma.A microvascular anastomosis is fashioned between the donor inferior epigastric and recipient dorsal penile artery.Increased perfusion pressure is theoretically communicated to the cavernosal artery via perforating branches from the dorsal artery.This article will review the history,indications and pathophysiology of blunt trauma-induced focal arterial occlusive disease in young men with erectile dysfunction,current surgical techniques utilized and results of surgery.Contemporary use of penile revascularization is a logical and wanted therapeutic option to attempt to reverse erectile dysfunction in young men who have sustained blunt pelvic,perineal or penile trauma.

  1. Impact of penile size on male sexual function and role of penile augmentation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Kamal

    2012-08-01

    Penile augmentation is an ongoing debate. Emerging evidence proves a relationship between dissatisfaction with penile size and sexual dysfunction. Despite a widespread belief of the value of penile size, and the prevalent complaint of a "small penis," penile augmentation still stands short of addressing the demand. This report highlights the studies added to medical literature on penile augmentation in 2011-2012, including data on normal penile dimensions and the expected dimensions for a normal person, determination of the prevalence of the dissatisfaction with penile size, its effect on erectile function, female partner's opinion of the value of penile size, as well as further experience with augmentation techniques.

  2. Penile Enhancement Surgery: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta R. Bizic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penile size is a frequently observed concern in men of all ages. The way in which some men see their personality is defined, appraised, or reflected by their penis, with the view that ‘bigger is better’, is termed ‘phallocentrism’. In this review article, we assess the literature and evaluate the evidence on what is ‘normal’ in relation to penile size, and evaluate techniques for penile lengthening and girth augmentation with emphasis on the possible benefits and complications of the procedures reviewed.

  3. Initial symptoms and delay in patients with penile carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeppner, Elisabet; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Windahl, Torgny

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to assess initial symptoms and factors associated with patients' and doctors' delay in penile carcinoma. Fifty consecutive patients with penile carcinoma treated with an organ-sparing technique and nine with partial amputation were enrolled in a prospective study at the Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, between 2005 and 2009. Face-to-face structured interviews in combination with self-assessment forms were used for the patients' descriptions of clinical symptoms, treatment seeking and reasons for delay. Data were also extracted from the medical records confirming time-lag between GP assessment, specialist care and time for diagnosis. Erythema, rash and eczema were the most common initial symptoms (35%). In total, 65% had a patients' delay of more than 6 months, and among these there was a small, but not statistically significant, predominance for pT1 and pTis tumours. Living with a stable partner did not affect the delay. The most common reason for patients' delay was the feeling of embarrassment over symptoms localized in a sexual body area. Nine patients had a doctors' delay of more than 3 months from first special visit to diagnosis. Eight of these patients consulted dermatologists and were subjected to repeated biopsies, leaving premalignant results. A considerable proportion of the patients had a patients' delay of more than 6 months, perhaps due to benign initial symptoms as erythema, rash or eczema. Psychological factors such as embarrassment and denial may also be involved, as well as insufficient awareness or knowledge.

  4. Penile Corporeal Reconstruction during Difficult Placement of a Penile Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Q. Tran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For some patients with impotence and concomitant severe tunical/corporeal tissue fibrosis, insertion of a penile prosthesis is the only option to restore erectile function. Closing the tunica over an inflatable penile prosthesis in these patients can be challenging. We review our previous study which included 15 patients with severe corporeal or tunical fibrosis who underwent corporeal reconstruction with autologous rectus fascia to allow placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis. At a mean follow-up of 18 months (range 12 to 64, all patients had a prosthesis that was functioning properly without evidence of separation, herniation, or erosion of the graft. Sexual activity resumed at a mean time of 9 weeks (range 8 to 10. There were no adverse events related to the graft or its harvest. Use of rectus fascia graft for coverage of a tunical defect during a difficult penile prosthesis placement is surgically feasible, safe, and efficacious.

  5. Penile Enhancement Procedures with Simultaneous Penile Prosthesis Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. Hakky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present an overview of various techniques performed concomitantly during penile prosthesis surgery to enhance penile length and girth. We report on the technique of ventral phalloplasty and its outcomes along with augmentation corporoplasty, suprapubic lipectomy, suspensory ligament release, and girth enhancement procedures. For the serious implanter, outcomes can be improved by combining the use of techniques for each scar incision. These adjuvant procedures are a key addition in the armamentarium for the serious implant surgeon.

  6. Detection of human papillomavirus types in balanitis xerotica obliterans and other penile conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in foreskin biopsies from patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and other penile conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS--Foreskin biopsy specimens from 24 patients with penile lesions and 5 control patients were analysed by type-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS--HPV6 or HPV16 were not detected in patients with BXO. HPV6 was detected in 2 controls. CONCLUSIONS--Genital papilloma...

  7. Discrimination of premalignant conditions of oral cancer using Raman spectroscopy of urinary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Brindha; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-03-01

    Oral cancers are considered to be one of the most commonly occurring malignancy worldwide. Over 70% of the cases report to the doctor only in advanced stages of the disease, resulting in poor survival rates. Hence it is necessary to detect the disease at the earliest which may increase the five year survival rate up to 90%. Among various optical spectroscopic techniques, Raman spectroscopy has been emerged as a tool in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Around 30 - 80% of the malignancies of the oral cavity arise from premalignant lesions. Hence, understanding the molecular/spectral differences at the premalignant stage may help in identifying the cancer at the earliest and increase patient's survival rate. Among various bio-fluids such as blood, urine and saliva, urine is considered as one of the diagnostically potential bio-fluids, as it has many metabolites. The distribution and the physiochemical properties of the urinary metabolites may vary due to the changes associated with the pathologic conditions. The present study is aimed to characterize the urine of 70 healthy subjects and 51 pre-malignant patients using Raman spectroscopy under 785nm excitation, to know the molecular/spectral differences between healthy subjects and premalignant conditions of oral malignancy. Principal component analysis based Linear discriminant analysis were also made to find the statistical significance and the present technique yields the sensitivity and specificity of 86.3% and 92.9% with an overall accuracy of 90.9% in the discrimination of premalignant conditions from healthy subjects urine.

  8. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Our Results in Penile Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Süelözgen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Penile fracture is a urological emergency caused by direct trauma to an erected penis, tearing the tunica albuginea in the corpus cavernosum. The preferred treatment method is draining the hematoma and surgical repair of tunica albuginea tear as soon as possible following diagnosis. Materials and Methods Forty-nine patients who were diagnosed with penile fracture between January 2009 and December 2014 were reviewed. Physical examination was performed to see the extent of penile hematoma, the side of the penile curvature and the presence of blood in the external meatus. Two patients who were diagnosed with urethrorrhagia underwent retrograde urethrogram for urethral injury. In all patients, penile skin was peeled using a circular subcoronal degloving incision and tunica tear was repaired using absorbable suture materials. The patients were then followed for painful erections, penile deformities and erection angles. Results The average age of the 49 patients, who were included in the study, was 36.5 years (21-65. In their etiological questioning, most patients reported the fracture occurring during sexual intercourse. Retrograde urethrography was indicated in 2 patients with blood in the external meatus and were diagnosed with urethral injury. The patients were taken to emergency surgery. Tunica defects varied between 1 and 2 cm. Incomplete urethral injuries were primarily repaired around 18 French Foley catheter. None of the patients reported penile deformity or painful erections. Their erection angles were found to be within the normal range. Conclusion Even though it is a relatively rare condition, penile fractures are so important that might cause serious complications when not treated surgically. A thorough anamnesis and physical examination suffice for diagnosis.

  10. Benign, Premalignant, and Malignant Lesions Encountered in Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra, Rao S.; Kini,

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with several comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea. It is also well established that obese patients have an increased risk of several types of cancer like kidney, pancreas, endometrial, breast, and others. The bariatric surgeon needs to be aware of the problem of benign tumors and cancer in obese patients as well as the optimal management of these conditions that may be present at the time of evaluation for bar...

  11. Observer variability in the histologic assessment of oral premalignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabulut, A; Reibel, J; Therkildsen, M H

    1995-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of oral leukoplakias has a major impact on the assessment of prognosis and treatment planning. We investigated the extent of agreement in grading epithelial dysplasia between pathologists with the same or different educational backgrounds. Two general pathologists and ...

  12. Allelic imbalance in oral lichen planus and assessment of its classification as a premalignant condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Brent T.; Warner, Blake M.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Weghorst, Christopher M.; Shumway, Brian S.; Allen, Carl M.; Kalmar, John R.

    2012-01-01

    OLP is a relatively common immune-mediated mucosal condition with a predilection for middle-aged women. Although classified as a premalignant condition, this classification remains controversial. Using stringent diagnostic criteria, some authors have found that OLP patients are not at increased risk for oral SCC. Credible but limited genetic evidence also indicates that epithelial tissues from OLP patients diagnosed using stringent criteria differs from premalignant or malignant oral lesions but is similar to epithelium from benign oral lesions. To further investigate this genetic line of evidence, biopsy specimens diagnosed as fibroma, OLP, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and SCC were retrieved from the archives of the Oral Pathology Consultants at the Ohio State University. Using laser capture microdissection, tissue of interest was captured from each case and DNA subsequently extracted. Fluorescently labeled PCR primers were used to amplify DNA at 3 tumor suppressor gene loci (3p14.2, 9p21, and 17p13) and evaluated for LOH or microsatellite instability (MSI). OLP was found to be significantly different from low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and SCC when LOH/MSI was found at more than 1 loci (P = .011, P = .032, P = .003), but not different from benign fibromas (P = .395). In agreement with previous studies, well-documented cases of OLP diagnosed using stringent criteria exhibit a genetic profile more similar to a benign or reactive process than a premalignant/malignant one. These findings do not support the classification of OLP as a premalignant condition. PMID:21764610

  13. Surgical Treatment for 11 Cases of Penile Verrucous Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanyu, Sun; Ke, Xu; Jie, Zheng; Guowei, Xia; Zujun, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is a rare, well-differentiated and low-grade tumor. The surgeons are deficiently aware about the biological behavior and the clinicopathological characteristic of this disease, which raises difficulties during the treatment. In our present study, the clinical and pathological data of 11 patients with penile verrucous carcinoma, aged between 49 to 85 years was retrospectively analyzed. The tumors exhibited exophytic, papillary, caulifower-like or verrucose lesions of great dimensions measuring between 2 to 10 cm on the penises. The tumors were located at glans in 6 cases, invaded the coronoid sulcus in 4 cases and invaded the shaft of the penis in 1 case. Eight cases underwent partial penectomy, while the other 3 were treated with local excision. The diagnosis of penile verrucous carcinoma was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the specimens with the negative surgical margins in all the cases. Within the period of 12 to 60 months of follow-up, all the patients were disease-free with no case of recurrence and metastasis. The novel knowledge and experience of the treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma will be a useful clinical guide for surgeons in the future. PMID:22346275

  14. Penile incerceration—A tight affair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraj O. Alkizim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient presents with penile ring incarceration after using it for penile enlargement and prolonging tumescence. We present a case study of removal of the penile ring under local anaesthesia in a setting where cutting tools were inadequate.

  15. Role of oral exfoliative cytology in predicting premalignant potential of oral submucous fibrosis: A short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Jaitley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken with an aim of determining the cytological features observed in mucosal smears of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF patients and comparing them with that of features of normal mucosal cells. The observed features were than analyzed for their reliability in detecting malignant changes in this premalignant condition. Objective of the study was to conduct an oral exfoliative cytology (OEC study on 30 clinically diagnosed cases of OSF and 30 cases of clinically normal mucosa with no other systemic disease. We observed that all the smears from clinically normal buccal mucosa showed Class I cytology. The exfoliated cells were of normal size and shape with normal staining intensity and normal nuclear characteristics. All the 30 cases of our study group showed features suggestive of benign atypical cytological changes (Class II cytology. In the present study, despite the small number of cases, cytological features consistently observed in all the cases, were indicative of a premalignant change and emphasized a regular follow-up of patients. Early detection of a premalignant oral lesion promises to improve the survival rate of patients suffering from these conditions.

  16. Role of oral exfoliative cytology in predicting premalignant potential of oral submucous fibrosis: A short study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitley, Shweta; Agarwal, Pankaj; Upadhyay, Ramballabh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with an aim of determining the cytological features observed in mucosal smears of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients and comparing them with that of features of normal mucosal cells. The observed features were than analyzed for their reliability in detecting malignant changes in this premalignant condition. Objective of the study was to conduct an oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) study on 30 clinically diagnosed cases of OSF and 30 cases of clinically normal mucosa with no other systemic disease. We observed that all the smears from clinically normal buccal mucosa showed Class I cytology. The exfoliated cells were of normal size and shape with normal staining intensity and normal nuclear characteristics. All the 30 cases of our study group showed features suggestive of benign atypical cytological changes (Class II cytology). In the present study, despite the small number of cases, cytological features consistently observed in all the cases, were indicative of a premalignant change and emphasized a regular follow-up of patients. Early detection of a premalignant oral lesion promises to improve the survival rate of patients suffering from these conditions.

  17. Penile cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoughit ECHCHAOUI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign lesions that occur in any part of the body in newborns or in young patients, they are typically capillary or cavernous. Cavernous hemangioma of the penis is extremely rare; and its etiology is not completely understood. Treatment options (surgical excision, laser therapy or sclerotherapy… are controversial and are required if pain, cosmetic defect and/or bleeding during intercourse.                                                  We report a case of a 26 years old man presented with a five years history of a painless lesion on his penis. Physical examination showed an ovoid, solid, 1 x 2 mm in size on the dorsum of penis (Panel A and two elevated irregular lesions on the ventral side (Panel B. The lesions were compressive, nonpulsatile and bluish-red in color with strawberry like appearance. Biopsy and histopathological examination of the lesion revealed a gaping and communicating vessels proliferated in the superficial and medium dermis which is pathognomonic for cavernous hemangioma (Panel C and D. Given the small size, the large number of the lesions, the young age, and the ulceration risk during intercourse if skin graft after excision, Neodymium: YAG laser coagulation was recommended to get a good cosmetic results and sexual function satisfaction.

  18. Conjunctival lesions; a histopathologic review in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Aliakbar-Navahi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Benign lesions were the most common conjunctival lesions with pterygia on top of the list, while intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma were the most common premalignant and malignant lesions, respectively. Conjunctival malignant lesions were more prevalent with older age.

  19. Artificial penile nodules: case reports.

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, K B; Seow, C.S.; Tulip, T; Daniel, M.; Vijayasingham, S M

    1986-01-01

    An interesting cultural practice of implanting foreign bodies under the skin of the penis for enhancing sexual excitement in the man's sexual partner is described. Recognition of this is important to venereologists because of their primary concern with the genital area. The term artificial penile nodule has been suggested for the condition resulting from this practice.

  20. Endoscopic early detection of premalignant changes in stomach with mucosal biopsy in patients with symptomatology of acid peptic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay A. Gujar

    2016-02-01

    Results: Different types of inflammatory lesions of gastric mucosa detected endoscopically and on histopathology in our study. In 7 patients premalignant changes were detected and 7 patients already had gross malignancies in stomach. Out of the total number of biopsies included in the study, we observed lesions of atrophic type in 4 antral biopsies (2.25% and 3 biopsies of the gastric body (1.69%. All were grade 1 as per Sydney classification. Conclusions: Upper endoscopy with histopathology has excellent output to detect early premalignant changes in stomach mucosa, though it is long way to continue this study to correlate both. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 533-539

  1. Stages of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laser surgery : A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor. Cryosurgery : A treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy ...

  2. Enhancement of human papilloma virus type 16 E7 specific T cell responses by local invasive procedures in patients with (pre)malignant cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jeroen; van Baarle, D; Hoogeboom, BN; Reesink, N; Klip, H; Schuuring, E; Nijhuis, E; Pawlita, M; Bungener, L; de Vries-Idema, J; Nijman, H; Miedema, F; Daemen, T; van der Zee, A

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that local invasive procedures may alter the natural course of (pre)malignant cervical disease. This could be due to partial excision of the lesions, or via induction of cellular immunity against human papillomavirus (HPV) by the local invasive procedures. We studied the influe

  3. Acitretin treatment of premalignant and malignant skin disorders in renal transplant recipients: clinical effects of a randomized trial comparing two doses of acitretin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevaux, R.G.L. de; Smit, J.V.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: After renal transplantation, the incidence of premalignant and malignant skin lesions is high. Treatment with acitretin improves the number and aspect of actinic keratoses and appears to reduce the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas, but treatment is hampered by frequent side effect

  4. Isolated penile Kaposi's sarcoma in a HIV-positive patient stable on treatment for three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebari, Dornubari; Gohil, Jesal; Patnaik, Lipsita; Wasef, Wafaa

    2014-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-defining condition. Typically, KS affects the skin with or without visceral involvement. The extensive use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased the incidence of KS amongst the HIV-positive population. We report a case of a 40-year-old man with HIV-1 infection with CD4 count of 551 cells/mm(3)and an undetectable viral load who presented with two skin-coloured KS lesions on the prepuce of the penis. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. He had been commenced on ART three years earlier with a nadir CD4 count of 255 cells/mm(3) He had achieved and maintained viral suppression since commencing ART. The patient was initially treated with cryotherapy and 5% imiquimod as the lesions were presumed to be warts. The lack of response to treatment prompted further investigation. We carried out a literature search of published cases of penile KS over the past 10 years. The majority of articles regarding penile KS were published in the pre-ART era and involved patients with AIDS. Over the past 10 years, published cases of penile KS have almost exclusively been in HIV-negative men. We found 10 published cases of penile KS in HIV-negative men and only one other published case of penile KS in a HIV-positive man, who had severe immune suppression with CD4 count below 200 cells/mm(3) This is the first case report to describe a HIV-positive patient stable on ART with a CD4 count above 200 cells/mm(3)and suppressed HIV-1 viral load, to develop two KS lesions on the penis. Clinicians have to remain suspicious of penile lesions and appreciate the crucial role a biopsy with histopathological analysis plays in confirming a diagnosis. In addition, this case illustrates that unusual presentations of KS can still occur in treated HIV-positive patients with sustained immune recovery.

  5. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, wit...

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in penile cancer cases from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Alves Afonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a potentially mutilating disease. Although its occurrence is relatively rare worldwide, penile cancer rates can be high in developing countries. A few studies have been conducted on the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV in penile carcinoma, which have found HPV present in 30-70% of penile malignant lesions, with a higher prevalence of HPV 16 and 18. It has been assumed that cofactors, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections, may play a role in the progression of penile neoplasia. The aim of this study was to determine HPV and EBV prevalence in 135 penile malignant lesions from Brazilian men through the use of MY09/11 polymerase chain reaction (PCR, type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV prevalence among the men tested was 60.7%. Of the men who tested positive, 27 presented with HPV 16 (29.7%, five with HPV 18 (5.5%, 21 with HPV 45 (23.1% and nine with HPV 6 (9.9%. Seven mixed infections were detected (9.2%, while 11 cases remained untyped (13.4%. Regarding EBV positivity, 46.7% of the samples contained EBV DNA with EBV-1 as the most prevalent type (74.6%. More than 23% of the men were co-infected with both HPV and EBV, while 35% presented exclusively with HPV DNA and 20% presented only with EBV DNA. Penile carcinoma aetiology has not been fully elucidated and the role of HPV and EBV infections individually or synergistically is still controversial. Hence, more studies are needed to determine their possible role in carcinogenesis.

  7. Screening for pre-malignant conditions in the oral cavity of chronic tobacco chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mahawar, Shweta Anand, Umesh Sinha, Madhav Bansal, Sanjay Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a major health problem in tobacco users all over the world. It is one of the ten most common cancers in the world. Oral cancer is almost always preceded by some type of precancerous lesion. The precancerous lesions can be detected upto 15years, prior to their change to an invasive carcinoma. It usually affects between the ages of 15 and 40 years. It may be triggered by factors like frequency and duration of tobacco consumption, alcohol, poor oral hygiene etc. This study was conducted primarily to screen chronic tobacco chewers for the presence of oral pre-malignant conditions and secondly to educate them about the hazards of tobacco and motivate them to quit the habit. This was a cross sectional study conducted at Badi gawaltoli area of Indore. Tobacco chewers using tobacco for more than 5yrs were included in the study. Chronic tobacco chewers were screened for oral pre-malignant lesions followed by an educational intervention about the harmful effects of tobacco. Two follow ups were made to motivate them to quit the habit and to get treatment for their lesions. An open ended semi-structured questionnaire was administered to chronic tobacco chewers to assess their habit of tobacco chewing, smoking, their knowledge regarding lesions in their mouth, hazards of tobacco and any cessation efforts. Among the 80 identified chronic tobacco chewers, 60 were males and 20 were females. Lesions such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia and oral sub-mucosal fibrosis were found in 10 females (50% and 24 males (40%.

  8. Correlation of severity of penile torsion with type of hypospadias & ventral penile curvature and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhat

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Penile torque is more common and severe in distal hypospadias, while ventral curvature is seen more often in proximal hypospadias. The degree of torsion is inversely proportional to the severity of ventral curvature. Techniques for the repair of penile torque and ventral curvature include penile degloving and mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the urethra.

  9. Benign penile skin anomalies in children:a primer for pediatricians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Castagnetti; Mike Leonard; Luis Guerra; Ciro Esposito; Marcello Cimador

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormalities involving the skin coverage of the penis are diffi cult to defi ne, but they can significantly alter penile appearance, and be a cause of parental concern. Data sources: The present review was based on a non-systematic search of the English language medical literature using a combination of key words including "penile skin anomalies" and the specific names of the different conditions. Results: Conditions were addressed in the following order, those mainly affecting the prepuce (phimosis, balanitis xerotica obliterans, balanitis, paraphimosis), those which alter penile configuration (inconspicuous penis and penile torsion), and lastly focal lesions (cysts, nevi and vascular lesions). Most of these anomalies are congenital, have no or minimal influence on urinary function, and can be detected on clinical examination. Spontaneous improvement is possible. In the majority of cases undergoing surgery, the potential psychological implications of genital malformation on patient development are the main reason for treatment, and the age generally recommended for surgery is after 12 months of age. Conclusion: This review provides the pediatrician with a handy tool to identify the most common penile skin anomalies, counsel parents adequately, make sensible and evidence based choices for management, and recognize complications or untoward outcomes in patients undergoing surgery.

  10. Utilidad en la combinación de oligonucleótidos universales para la detección del virus del papiloma humano en cáncer cervicouterino y lesiones premalignas Usefulness of combining universal oligonucleotides in detecting human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Carrillo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia y distribución del virus del papiloma humano en los diferentes estadios que conforman la historia natural del cáncer cérvico uterino, y optimizar la detección mediante el uso de diferentes oligonucleótidos universales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal, descriptivo, en el que las muestras fueron colectadas durante enero a diciembre de 1999. El procesamiento de las muestras y el análisis de los datos se realizaron en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología en la Ciudad de México. Se hizo análisis comparativo con t de Student para valores continuos y con ji cuadrada para proporciones, y análisis de concordancia entre biopsia y exudado cervical con la prueba estadística de Kappa. Para la detección del virus se utilizó la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con oligonucleótidos universales los cuales reconocen diferentes regiones del gen L1 (MY09/11; GP5/6; L1C1/2, y oligonucleótidos específicos para el VPH 16 y el VPH 18, así como secuenciación directa de los productos de la PCR. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 154 muestras: 65 (42.2% citologías normales, 45 (29.2% lesiones de alto y bajo grado, y 44 (28.6% de cáncer invasor. El VPH fue detectado en 95.5% de los casos de cáncer invasor, en 91.6% de lesiones de alto grado, en 66.7% de lesiones de bajo grado y en 23.1% de citologías normales, por la PCR con al menos uno de los juegos de oligonucleótidos utilizados. La detección fue más eficiente en las muestras obtenidas por biopsia que en los exudados cervicovaginales. El porcentaje total de detección del VPH con un juego de oligonucleótidos universales (37.6% aumentó sustancialmente (60.4% al combinarlo con otros dos juegos de oligonucleótidos universales. CONCLUSIONES: La presencia del VPH de alto riesgo es elevada inclusive en mujeres con epitelios cervicales con diagnóstico citológico normal. La detección del VPH mejora al utilizar distintos

  11. Paeonol attenuates aging MRC-5 cells and inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of premalignant HaCaT cells induced by aging MRC-5 cell-conditioned medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Xing, Shangping; Wang, Kun; Yi, Hua; Du, Biaoyan

    2017-08-12

    Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, such as IL-6 and IL-8, are extremely critical in tissue microenvironment. Senescent human fibroblasts facilitate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in premalignant epithelial cells mainly through the secretion of SASP factors. Meanwhile, premalignant human HaCaT Keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells as immortal epithelial cells are susceptible to malignant transformation. Paeonol, an herbal phenolic component found in peonies, exerts anti-aging and anti-tumor efficacies, while the molecular mechanisms of paeonol on EMT in premalignant HaCaT cells induced by SASP factors are unclear. In this study, we first established a senescent human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cell model using hydrogen peroxide evaluated by senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay. Upon paeonol treatment, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in aging MRC-5 cells were significantly decreased via regulation of nuclear translocation of Nrf2. Then we curiously studied whether the aging MRC-5 cell-conditioned medium could induce EMT in premalignant HaCaT cells, and the results showed that paeonol significantly reduced the clonogenic, migratory, and invasive capacities of premalignant HaCaT cells potentially induced by IL-6 and IL-8. Moreover, we found that paeonol notably altered pluripotency of EMT-associated markers via the modulation of ERK and TGF-β1/Smad pathway in premalignant HaCaT cells. These findings suggest that paeonol may be used as an adjuvant therapy for SASP factor-mediated EMT in premalignant lesion.

  12. Penile perception of Koro patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A N

    1989-08-01

    Koro, a state where the perception of penis length decreases due to shrinkage from intra-abdominal traction, constitutes the central pathology. The present study was an attempt to explore the penis perception of the Koro patients by devising a graphomotor projective test, the Draw-a-penis Test (DAPT). DAPT elicited the penis image of the drawer, both of a normal penis and own penis perception. It also elicited the nature of perceptual process concerning the penile state changes, i.e. from flaccid to extended state. This controlled DAPT investigation showed a perceptual abnormality of penis image of Koro patients. They perceived less penis length, both for the penis of a normal person and their own penis and failed to perceive effectively the morphological change of penile states in terms of length increase. This perceptual abnormality in organ image is discussed in relation to the Koro vulnerability and psychopathology.

  13. Glans-preserving surgery for superficial penile cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengchao; Song, Ninghong; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Cheng, Gong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the safety and feasibility of glans-preserving surgery for superficial penile squamous cell carcinoma. Young patients with penile primary tumors exhibiting favorable histologic features were best suited for organ-sparing procedures, enabling them to avoid sexual disturbances. The study included 12 patients, 38-53 years of age (median age 46 years), with superficial lesions involving the glans penis, coronary sulcus, or shaft skin. After clinical staging and grading, those patients were offered a glans-preserving procedure to preserve the normal appearance and functional integrity of the glans penis. Of the 12 patients referred, the tumors were TaG1 in 4 patients, TaG2 in 3, TisG1 in 1, TisG2 in 1, T1G1 in 2, and T1G2 in 1. All patients returned to normal sexual activity 1 month postoperatively. Sexual function and sexual satisfaction were well maintained after surgery. The cosmetic results were considered satisfying/very satisfying by 83% (10 of 12 patients). Follow-up data were available on 12 patients at a mean follow-up of 62.5 months. Only 1 patient had recurrence 6 months after surgery, which was managed by a second glans-preserving surgery without recurrence. With careful patient selection and vigilant follow-up, anatomically suitable superficial penile cancer can be offered this glans-preserving surgery, while preserving function of the penis wherever possible.

  14. Metachronous penile metastasis from rectal cancer after total pelvic exenteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuta Kimura; Dai Shida; Keiichi Nasu; Hiroki Matsunaga; Masahiro Warabi; Satoru Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Despite its abundant vascularization and extensive circulatory communication with neighboring organs,metastases to the penis are a rare event.A 57-yearold male,who had undergone total pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer sixteen months earlier,demonstrated an abnormal uptake within his penis by positron emission tomography/computed tomography.A single elastic nodule of the middle penis shaft was noted deep within Bucks fascia.No other obvious recurrent site was noted except the penile lesion.Total penectomy was performed as a curative resection based on a diagnosis of isolated penile metastasis from rectal cancer.A histopathological examination revealed an increase of well differentiated adenocarcinoma in the corpus spongiosum consistent with his primary rectal tumor.The immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for cytokeratin 20 and negative staining for cytokeratin 7,which strongly supported a diagnosis of penile metastasis from the rectum.The patient is alive more than two years without any recurrence.

  15. Pannus Is the New Prepuce? Penile Cancer in a Buried Phallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Manwaring

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two males presented to our urology department with complaints of bleeding and malodor from buried phallus within a suprapubic fat pad. Although both men had neonatal circumcisions, advanced penile carcinoma was found in both men. Formal penectomies showed high grade, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma invading the corporal bodies and urethra. Buried penis represents a difficulty in early detection of suspicious lesions but may also provide an environment susceptible to poor hygiene and subsequent chronic inflammation. Patients with buried penis may be at a higher risk for development of invasive penile cancer and may benefit from regular and thorough genital exams.

  16. A review of Indian literature for association of smokeless tobacco with malignant and premalignant diseases of head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Datta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, about 60% of tobacco users use smokeless tobacco (ST alone. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in India. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC monograph (Vol 89 found a significant association between ST use and oral cancer. However, only a few articles from India were included in this monograph. To overcome this lacuna, we have reviewed the articles published from India investigating the association between ST use and malignant and premalignant diseases of head and neck region. Data collection has been performed by computer-aided search of the MedLine and PubMed databases using different combinations of the key words. For malignant lesions, only cohort and case control studies were considered for review. For premalignant lesions and dental diseases other than case control studies, some cross-sectional studies have also been reviewed. Studies found a significant association between ST use and cancer of the oral cavity. The association was stronger for the buccal mucosa compared to tongue and for females compared to males. Significant association noted between cancer of the hypopharynx and oropharynx with ST use but no definitive association noted for cancer of the larynx and nasopharynx. Some dental disease and oral premalignant conditions were also associated with ST use. Indian studies suggest ST use is strongly associated with cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx.

  17. Penile squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the literature and case report treated with Mohs micrographic surgery*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionne, Elizabeth; Perez, Caroline; Hui, Andrea; Khachemoune, Amor

    2017-01-01

    The majority of penile carcinoma is squamous cell carcinoma. Although uncommon in the United States, it represents a larger proportion of cancers in the underdeveloped world. Invasive squamous cell carcinoma may arise from precursor lesions or de novo , and has been associated with lack of circumcision and HPV infection. Early diagnosis is imperative as lymphatic spread is associated with a poor prognosis. Radical surgical treatment is no longer the mainstay, and penile sparing treatments now are often used, including Mohs micrographic surgery. Therapeutic decisions should be made with regard to the size and location of the tumor, as well as the functional desires of the patient. It is critical for the dermatologist to be familiar with the evaluation, grading/staging, and treatment advances of penile squamous cell carcinoma. Herein, we present a review of the literature regarding penile squamous cell carcinoma, as well as a case report of invasive squamous cell carcinoma treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. PMID:28225964

  18. Penile pyoderma gangrenosum successfully treated with topical Imiquimod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh P Rathod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum(PG is a rare ulcerating inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis. Genital involvement has been rarely reported. We report such a case of 24- year- old, male patient living with HIV/AIDS(PLHIV who presented with progressive genital ulceration, not responding to oral antibiotics and aciclovir, gradually increasing in size over 15-18 months. Repeated biopsies showed acute on chronic inflammation. The lesion partially responded to oral and topical corticosteroids but soon increased in size after tapering the dosage of the steroids.Then patient was given Imiquimod 5% cream to be applied over the lesion once daily for 2-4 weeks. Lesion cleared completely in 4 weeks and is in remission since last 6 months. The case report highlights the successful use of topical Imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of penile PG.

  19. Penile prosthesis implantation: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M; Montague, D K

    2008-01-01

    Penile prosthesis implantation is the oldest effective treatment for erectile dysfunction. This review examines the past, present and future of penile prosthesis implantation. Advances in prosthetic design and implantation techniques have resulted today in devices that produce nearly normal flaccid and erect states, and have remarkable freedom from mechanical failure. The future of prosthetic design holds promises for even more improvements.

  20. Incidence and cost of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Jorgensen, T. R.; Kofoed, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Besides being a causative agent for genital warts and cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to 40-85% of cases of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer and precancerous lesions. HPV types 16 & 18 in particular contribute to 74-93% of these cases. Overall the number...... of new cases of these four cancers may be relatively high implying notable health care cost to society. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the health care sector costs of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer. Methods: New anogenital cancer patients were identified from the Danish...... anogenital cancers were estimated using regression analysis. Results: The annual incidence of anal cancer in Denmark is 1.9 per 100,000 persons. The corresponding incidence rates for penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer are 1.7, 0.9 and 3.6 per 100,000 males/females, respectively. The total number of new cases...

  1. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1–2 h daily for 6–24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant. PMID:26459782

  2. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Pryor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1-2 h daily for 6-24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8% or the same (46.2% as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5% was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant.

  3. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1-2 h daily for 6-24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant.

  4. Implantation of AMS 700 LGX penile prosthesis preserves penile length without the need for penile lengthening procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Luigi Augusto Negro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP is a well-established definitive solution for erectile dysfunction when conservative treatments fail. Penile implants may shorten the penis. The AMS 700 LGX IPP is in common use but reports on its mechanical reliability, medium-term postsurgical patient satisfaction, and mean penile length preservation are lacking. We investigate the mean penile length, mechanical reliability, and patient satisfaction at 6 and 12 months after implantation of the AMS 700 LGX. This prospective study consecutively enrolled men undergoing first-time IPP implant surgery from February 2009 to April 2012. Stretched flaccid penile length, penile length at 50% and 100% of stiffness (P50 and P100 and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS scores, were measured at 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Of 45 patients who underwent AMS 700 LGX implantation (median age 61 years and completed 6 months′ follow-up, 36 (80% completed the study. A significant difference in stretched flaccid penile length was seen between 6 and 12 months (P = 0.033. P100 was also significantly increased at 6 and 12 months, with a mean 10% increase (1.3 ± 0.4 cm from baseline to 12 months. Differences in mean IIEF scores at 6 and 12 months were significant for the desired domain (P = 0.0001 and for overall satisfaction (P = 0.002; however, mean EDITS scores at 6 and 12 months were not significantly improved. AMS 700 LGX is a powerful tool for preserving penile length in men undergoing penile prosthesis implantation.

  5. Implantation of AMS 700 LGX penile prosthesis preserves penile length without the need for penile lengthening procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Carlo Luigi Augusto; Paradiso, Matteo; Rocca, Alessandro; Bardari, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) is a well-established definitive solution for erectile dysfunction when conservative treatments fail. Penile implants may shorten the penis. The AMS 700 LGX IPP is in common use but reports on its mechanical reliability, medium-term postsurgical patient satisfaction, and mean penile length preservation are lacking. We investigate the mean penile length, mechanical reliability, and patient satisfaction at 6 and 12 months after implantation of the AMS 700 LGX. This prospective study consecutively enrolled men undergoing first-time IPP implant surgery from February 2009 to April 2012. Stretched flaccid penile length, penile length at 50% and 100% of stiffness (P50 and P100) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) scores, were measured at 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Of 45 patients who underwent AMS 700 LGX implantation (median age 61 years) and completed 6 months' follow-up, 36 (80%) completed the study. A significant difference in stretched flaccid penile length was seen between 6 and 12 months (P = 0.033). P100 was also significantly increased at 6 and 12 months, with a mean 10% increase (1.3 ± 0.4 cm) from baseline to 12 months. Differences in mean IIEF scores at 6 and 12 months were significant for the desired domain (P = 0.0001) and for overall satisfaction (P = 0.002); however, mean EDITS scores at 6 and 12 months were not significantly improved. AMS 700 LGX is a powerful tool for preserving penile length in men undergoing penile prosthesis implantation.

  6. Epigenetic mechanisms in penile carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuasne, Hellen; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2013-01-01

    Penile carcinoma (PeCa) represents an important public health problem in poor and developing countries. Despite its unpredictable behavior and aggressive treatment, there have only been a few reports regarding its molecular data, especially epigenetic mechanisms. The functional diversity in diffe......Penile carcinoma (PeCa) represents an important public health problem in poor and developing countries. Despite its unpredictable behavior and aggressive treatment, there have only been a few reports regarding its molecular data, especially epigenetic mechanisms. The functional diversity...... in different cell types is acquired by chromatin modifications, which are established by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and miRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that the dysregulation in these processes can result in the development of several diseases, including...... cancer. Epigenetic alterations, such as the methylation of CpGs islands, may reveal candidates for the development of specific markers for cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. There are a few reports on the epigenetic alterations in PeCa, and most of these studies have only focused on alterations...

  7. Penile anthropometry in North Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilal Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians frequently encounter questions by parents regarding the normal size of a child′s penis. We evaluated normal variations of penile dimensions, correlation of penile length with height, weight, and body mass index (BMI of boys and analyzed the differences in penile dimensions from those reported from other countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at our institution during October 2012-December 2012. A total of 250 subjects (birth to 10 years were evaluated and divided into 10 groups with 1-year interval taking 25 children in each. Penile dimensions measured twice by a single observer with Vernier calipers included the length of flaccid penis fully stretched and diameters at mid-shaft and corona. Diameters were multiplied by pi (π = 3.14 to calculate circumferences. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated. Height, weight, and BMI were noted and statistically correlated with the penile length using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were compared with similar studies reported on other populations in the past and individually evaluated with every study using Student′s t-test. Results: The mean values for the penile length, mid-shaft circumference, and coronal circumference were 3.34, 3.05, 3.29 cm during infancy, 4.28, 3.86, 4.11 cm during 4-5 years, and 5.25, 4.78, 5.05 cm during 9-10 years, respectively. The penile length increased with advancing age in successive age groups, but it did not have a direct correlation with either height, weight, or BMI. Penile dimensions in North Indian children were found to be statistically smaller in comparison with most studies from other countries. Conclusion: We provide the normal range and variations of penile dimensions in North Indian children.

  8. Penile hair tourniquet resulting in hypospadias failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux E Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile hair tourniquet (PHT is a painless form of penile ischemia, typically seen in toddlers with long-haired mothers, caused by entanglement of hair on the balano-prepucial sulcus, normally associated with circumcision. Its association with hypospadias has been reported only once. A school-aged boy admitted for surgery to treat hypospadias failure was incidentally detected to have PHT and severe hourglass deformity of the penis. Urethral anastomosis and glanuloplasty were done after removal of the constricting ring, without complications. Normal erections were reported during follow up. Treatment may involve urethral reconstruction and penile reimplantation in extreme cases.

  9. Penile gangrene in a HIV patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.E. Mubenga

    2016-11-16

    Nov 16, 2016 ... We describe the possibilities of HIV infection-induced penile gangrene. .... The mechanisms are unclear; the hypotheses include dyslipidemias .... smooth muscle cells in vivo and in vitro implications for the pathogen-.

  10. A review of penile elongation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Penile elongation surgery is less commonly performed in the public sector, but involves a collaborative approach between urology and plastic surgery. Congenital and acquired micropenis are the classic surgical indications for penile elongation surgery. The goal of intervention in these patients is to restore a functional penis size in order to allow normal standing micturition, enable satisfying sexual intercourse and improve patient quality of life. Many men seeking elongation actually have normal length penises, but perceive themselves to be small, a psychologic condition termed ‘penile dysmorphophobia’. This paper will review the anatomy and embryology of congenital micropenis and discuss both conservative and surgical management options for men seeking penile elongation therapy. PMID:28217452

  11. Penile autotransplantation in rats: An animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf M Seyam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Penile autotransplantation in rats is feasible and provides the basis for evaluation of the corpora cavernosa in an allotransplantation model. Long-term urethral continuity and dorsal neurovascular bundle survival in this model is difficult to establish.

  12. Ulcerative penile Leishmaniasis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Yesilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile ulcers may be caused by several different agents. Rarely, cutaneous leishmaniasis may also be accompanied by penile ulcers. We report a five-year-old boy with who had an ulcer on the glans penis. Smears from the ulcer demonstrated amastigotes, biopsy showed histopathological features of leishmaniasis and Leishmania was grown in culture. Treatment with meglumine antimoniate injections led to improvement.

  13. Penile Cancer Presenting With Acute Urinary Retantion: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan KAZAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a rare malignancy in our country. Phimosis, , poor hygiene and smoking are major risk factors for penile cancer. Penile cancer in men have a strong correlation with human papilloma virus (HPV infection. Penile cancer is rare in circumcised men, particularly if they are circumcised as newborns. Penile cancer is usually asymptomatic and physical examination is essential for diagnosis. We report a case of penile cancer whose first symptom was acute urinary retention (AUR and review of the literature. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 131-134

  14. Evaluation of the response chemotherapy for penile metastasis of bladder cancer using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Background Metachronous penile metastasis of bladder cancer occurs very rarely. The clinical management of the disease involves complex problems, and the disease is associated with a poor prognosis. The common mode of spread to the penis is by the retrograde venous route. Patients and methods A 68-year-old patient who was diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for staging purposes. An 18 mm intracavernosal metastatic lesion was detected in the penis with a SUVmax of 12.9. Results After the administration of gemcitabine + cisplatin-based chemotherapy, remission was observed in the metastatic penile lesion according to EORTC criteria (12 mm, SUVmax: 9), and second line chemotherapy program was planned. Conclusion Penile metastasis from bladder cancer is an indicator of poor prognosis. The patients with penile metastasis poorly respond to therapy, despite the use of effective systemic chemotherapy. The researchers of the current study achieved a partial response to chemotherapy in the current case of penile metastasis. The disease-specific life expectancy is less than one year in these patients. Radical ablative surgery does not contribute to survival; however, it offers an alternative method in symptomatic patients. PMID:25912005

  15. Premalignant quiescent melanocytic nevi do not express the MHC class I chain-related protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes B. Fuertes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA is an inducible molecule almost not expressed by normal cells but strongly up-regulated in tumor cells. MICA-expressing cells are recognized by natural killer (NK cells, CD8+ aßTCR and ?dTCR T lymphocytes through the NKG2D receptor. Engagement of NKG2D by MICA triggers IFN-? secretion and cytotoxicity against malignant cells. Although most solid tumors express MICA and this molecule is a target during immune surveillance against tumors, it has been observed that high grade tumors from different histotypes express low amounts of cell surface MICA due to a metalloprotease- induced shedding. Also, melanomas develop after a complex process of neotransformation of normal melanocytes. However, the expression of MICA in premalignant stages (primary human quiescent melanocytic nevi remains unknown. Here, we assessed expression of MICA by flow cytometry using cell suspensions from 15 primary nevi isolated from 11 patients. When collected material was abundant, cell lysates were prepared and MICA expression was also analyzed by Western blot. We observed that MICA was undetectable in the 15 primary nevi (intradermic, junction, mixed, lentigo and congenital samples as well as in normal skin, benign lesions (seborrheic keratosis, premalignant lesions (actinic keratosis and benign basocellular cancer. Conversely, a primary recently diagnosed melanoma showed intense cell surface MICA. We conclude that the onset of MICA expression is a tightly regulated process that occurs after melanocytes trespass the stage of malignant transformation. Thus, analysis of MICA expression in tissue sections of skin samples may constitute a useful marker to differentiate between benign and malignant nevi.

  16. Premalignant quiescent melanocytic nevi do not express the MHC class I chain-related protein A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Mercedes B; Rossi, Lucas E; Peralta, Carlos M; Cabrera, Hugo N; Allevato, Miguel A; Zwirner, Norberto W

    2011-01-01

    The MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA) is an inducible molecule almost not expressed by normal cells but strongly up-regulated in tumor cells. MICA-expressing cells are recognized by natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ abTCR and gdTCR T lymphocytes through the NKG2D receptor. Engagement of NKG2D by MICA triggers IFN-g secretion and cytotoxicity against malignant cells. Although most solid tumors express MICA and this molecule is a target during immune surveillance against tumors, it has been observed that high grade tumors from different histotypes express low amounts of cell surface MICA due to a metalloprotease-induced shedding. Also, melanomas develop after a complex process of neotransformation of normal melanocytes. However, the expression of MICA in premalignant stages (primary human quiescent melanocytic nevi) remains unknown. Here, we assessed expression of MICA by flow cytometry using cell suspensions from 15 primary nevi isolated from 11 patients. When collected material was abundant, cell lysates were prepared and MICA expression was also analyzed by Western blot. We observed that MICA was undetectable in the 15 primary nevi (intradermic, junction, mixed, lentigo and congenital samples) as well as in normal skin, benign lesions (seborrheic keratosis), premalignant lesions (actinic keratosis) and benign basocellular cancer. Conversely, a primary recently diagnosed melanoma showed intense cell surface MICA. We conclude that the onset of MICA expression is a tightly regulated process that occurs after melanocytes trespass the stage of malignant transformation. Thus, analysis of MICA expression in tissue sections of skin samples may constitute a useful marker to differentiate between benign and malignant nevi.

  17. Tannic acid binding of cell surfaces in normal, premalignant, and malignant squamous epithelium of the human uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davina, J H; Lamers, G E; van Haelst, U J; Kenemans, P; Stadhouders, A M

    1984-01-01

    Alterations in tannic acid (TA) binding capacity of cell surface carbohydrates in normal, premalignant, and malignant squamous epithelium of the human uterine cervix have been studied using electron microscopic visualization in combination with microdensitometric evaluation. While in normal epithelium there is distinct binding in four to five cell layers of the deep intermediate zone, cells of carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer lesions lack TA binding. In moderate dysplasia an intermediate reacting pattern is found. Deep intermediate cells in areas bordering the carcinoma in situ lesions do not show any binding, although their ultrastructure cannot be distinguished from similar cells in normal tissue. The TA deposition within the deep intermediate zone is probably related to the presence here of glycoprotein-containing membrane-coating granules. The finding that TA binding discriminates between cells in normal squamous epithelium and morphologically normal cells in juxtaposition with lesional areas in premalignant and malignant epithelium opens the possibility for a more reliable cytologic diagnosis of cervical epithelial neoplasia.

  18. Penile manipulation: The most common etiology of penile fracture at our tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jawaid Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile fracture is the disruption of the tunica albuginea with rupture of the corpus cavernosum secondary to blunt trauma to the erect penis. It is an unusual condition, usually underreported. According to the published literature, vigorous vaginal intercourse with women on top position is the most common etiology across the globe including India with Middle Eastern countries being the exception. A total of seven patients of penile fracture presented in emergency in the last 6 months. The etiology was penile manipulation at the time of sexual excitement in six out of seven patients of penile fracture, which was contrary to the literature published except in Middle Eastern countries. All the patients were managed by emergency exploration and repair. Thus, the incidence and etiologies of penile fracture vary according to geographic region, sexual behavior, marital status, and culture.

  19. Penile manipulation: The most common etiology of penile fracture at our tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Jawaid; Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Singh, Rajendra Sinam

    2016-01-01

    Penile fracture is the disruption of the tunica albuginea with rupture of the corpus cavernosum secondary to blunt trauma to the erect penis. It is an unusual condition, usually underreported. According to the published literature, vigorous vaginal intercourse with women on top position is the most common etiology across the globe including India with Middle Eastern countries being the exception. A total of seven patients of penile fracture presented in emergency in the last 6 months. The etiology was penile manipulation at the time of sexual excitement in six out of seven patients of penile fracture, which was contrary to the literature published except in Middle Eastern countries. All the patients were managed by emergency exploration and repair. Thus, the incidence and etiologies of penile fracture vary according to geographic region, sexual behavior, marital status, and culture.

  20. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia with pagetoid features: report of an unusual variant mimicking Paget disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ali; Griffith, Rogers C; Chaux, Alcides

    2014-04-01

    Precancerous lesions of the penis frequently share the morphologic features of the invasive counterpart. We have recently subclassified penile intraepithelial neoplasia into differentiated, warty, and basaloid subtypes, each one with distinctive microscopic morphology. Nevertheless, in our experience, some cases depart from this classification scheme and show unusual morphologic features, hindering the proper diagnosis on routine morphology alone. Herein we present a case of penile intraepithelial neoplasia with a pagetoid growth pattern, closely mimicking Paget disease. We describe the necessary steps to reach the final diagnose, including the use of immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK20, CK34βE12, CAM 5.2, AE1/AE3, CEA, S100, Melan-A, and p63. We also discuss other differential diagnoses that should be considered such as malignant melanoma and urothelial carcinoma in situ with pagetoid spread and less common lesions such as pagetoid dyskeratosis, clear cell papulosis, and mucinous metaplasia.

  1. [Urethral injuries secondary to implantation of penile prosthesis. Analysis of the causes, prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitarelli, Antonio; Divenuto, Lucia; Palminteri, Enzo; Lorusso, Giovanni; Pagliarulo, Arcangelo

    2014-01-01

    Urethral injuries due to penile prosthesis implant represent a rare complication of the intervention to position penile prosthesis, but unfortunately scientific literature about this is poor. This rare complication may occur during surgery and in the postoperative period, both early and late. It recognizes a variety of causes that may include anatomical or functional conditions, for example cavernosal fibrosis or outcomes of inflammations or previous urethral lesions and pathological sensibility due to diabetic neuropathy or other forms of neuropathy including those from spinal cord injury or myelopathy. This review evaluates the possible predisposing conditions, the clinical presentations, and the devices in the surgical procedures to use to minimize the risk of onset of this lesions and the measures to take if they occur.

  2. Axial penile rigidity influences patient and partner satisfaction after penile prosthesis implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Al Ansari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penile prosthesis implantation is one of the treatment choices that is kept for patients who were not satisfied with other treatments. Although penile prosthesis satisfaction rates are higher, there are some dissatisfied patients. The patients’ reasons are mostly shortness and softness of implanted prosthesis. It was previously demonstrated that penile axial rigidity of more than 500 grams is enough for successful vaginal intromission. To our knowledge, there is no study comparing axial rigidity of penile prosthesis and satisfaction. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether axial rigidity of penile prosthesis had impact on patient and partner satisfaction. Materials and Methods: We enrolled one hundred patients who were implanted penile prosthesis before to evaluate their penile axial rigidity. We used Rigidometry (by using the digital inflection rigidometer to assess the minimal axial pressure to bend the implanted penis. Results: We demonstrated that mean axial pressure to bend the implanted penis was 984.8 ± 268.7 grams. Overall satisfaction score with the penile prosthesis implant was 4.55 and 4.49 (out of 5 in patients and partners, respectively. In total, seven men were unsatisfied with their implant and reported a mean satisfaction score of 0.6 ± 0.48 (out of 5. All prostheses types showed good and more than 500 grams axial rigidity. The patients with Ambicor type, which were buckled at about 710.5 grams, showed worse satisfaction rates in comparison to other prostheses in two patients. Digital inflection rigidometer results of other penile prosthesis types in unsatisfied patient were 842.0, 872.0, 887.0 and 920 g. in CX700, Titan, Genesis and Titan OTR, respectively. Conclusion: We demonstrated that dissatisfaction rate was highest in Ambicor prosthesis implanted patients. Additionally, patients with 3-piece penile prosthesis were more satisfied than 2-piece or malleable ones, interestingly, although

  3. Dorsal penile nerves and primary premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-feng; ZHANG Chun-ying; LI Xing-hua; FU Zhong-ze; CHEN Zhao-yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on our clinical experience, the number of dorsal penile nerves in patients with primary premature ejaculation (PPE) is not consistent with the average number (2 branches). In this study, we evaluated the number and distribution of dorsal penile nerves among healthy Chinese adults and patients with PPE.Methods The dorsal nerve of the penis, the deep dorsal vein of the penis, and the dorsal artery of the penis between the deep fascia of the penis and the albuginea penis were carefully educed, observed, and counted in 38 adult autopsy specimens. The number and distribution of the dorsal penile nerve in 128 surgical patients with PPE were determined. Results The numbers of dorsal penile nerves of the 38 cases were as follows:7 branches in 1 case; 6 branches in 1 case; 5 branches in 6 cases; 4 branches in 9 cases; 3 branches in 14 cases; and 2 branches in 7 cases. Most of the dorsal nerves were parallel to each other and in the dorsum of the penis. In only 8 cases, the branches were connected by some communicating branches. In 4 cases, 1 or 2 thin dorsal nerves continued their pathway over the ventral aspect of the penis. The average number of branches of the dorsal penile nerve in patients with PPE was 7.16. Conclusions Based on the study of 38 cases, the average number of dorsal penile nerves was 3.55 branches and that of patients with PPE was greater. These preliminary results suggest that the excessive dorsal penile nerves may have an impact on PPE via increased sensitivity and provide topographic data for the possible treatment of PPE.

  4. A Rare Case of Penile Lymphangioma Circumscriptum Treated with the Split-Thickness Skin Grafting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Hamidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC is an uncommon type of microcystic lymphatic malformation involving the skin and mucosa caused by saccular dilatation of lymphatic channels. Patients may suffer from edema, vesiculopustular lesions and lymphatic leakage. There are many treatment methods for the management of lymphangioma circumscriptum. In this paper, we present a 10-year-old patient who had penile edema treated with split-thickness skin grafting technique.

  5. Penile prosthesis surgery in the management of erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We reviewed retrospectively the use of penile prostheses, including the indications and complications of penile prosthesis surgery. Methods We identified publications and the reported advances in penile prosthesis surgery between 1987 and 2012 in Pub-Med, and published information from American Medical Systems, Inc. (Minnetonka, MN, USA) and Coloplast Corporation (Humlebaek, Denmark), using the keywords ‘penile prosthesis’, ‘erectile dysfunction’, ‘mechanical reliability’, ‘compl...

  6. Breast Reconstruction for Premalignant and Malignant Disease—An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Apfelberg, David B.; Maldowney, Bart; Laub, Donald R.; Maser, Morton R.; Lash, Harvey

    1981-01-01

    New concepts in the control of breast cancer and improvements in plastic surgery techniques have facilitated subsequent breast reconstruction. In a six-year period 72 breast reconstructions were carried out in 57 women after surgical treatment for premalignant or malignant breast disease and, in some cases, radiation therapy. The average age of the patients was 48 years and the average interval between the primary cancer operation and breast reconstruction was 42 months. Our experience in the...

  7. Three-component hydraulic penile prosthesis malfunction due to penile fibrolipoma secondary to augmentative phalloplasty: A case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonini, Gabriele; Vicini, Patrizio; De Berardinis, Ettore; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Gentile, Vincenzo; Perito, Paul

    .... After six months from removing of the mass, the penile elongation and penile enlargement were stable, the prostheses were correctly functioning and the patient was satisfied with his sexual intercourse and life...

  8. Priapism secondary to penile metastasis of rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Chan Park; Wook Hyun Lee; Min Kyu Kang; Suk Young Park

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic penile carcinoma is rare and usually originates from genitourinary tumors. The presenting symptoms or signs have been described as nonspecific except for priapism. Rectal adenocarcinoma is a very unusual source of metastatic penile carcinoma. We report a case of metastatic penile carcinoma that originated from the rectum. Symptomatic improvement occurred with palliative radiotherapy.

  9. 21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in...

  10. 21 CFR 876.3350 - Penile inflatable implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penile inflatable implant. 876.3350 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3350 Penile inflatable implant. (a) Identification. A penile inflatable implant is a device that consists of two inflatable...

  11. Successful Replantation of Amputated Penile Shaft following Industrial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salehipour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Penile amputation is an uncommon urological emergency. Although rare, traumatic amputation of penis is a challenging injury to treat. However, modern microsurgical reconstruction techniques have improved success rate of penile replantation and become the procedure of choice for managing these patients. Herein, we report on a case of penile amputation following an industrial accident.

  12. Penile Rehabilitation after Pelvic Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed.

  13. Penile carcinoma arising in balanitis xerotica obliterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolamali, S I; Pakianathan, M

    2006-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is an uncommon cancer, though in one study it accounted for 90% of all penile cancers. Its association with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a rare though recognized occurrence. We describe a case of a 46-year-old Caucasian male who first presented to our open-access clinic with a mild phimosis. An elective circumcision was performed and histological examination of the circumcision specimen showed BXO. He was lost to follow-up but re-presented three years later with a persistent tender penile ulcer which on biopsy showed no obvious sinister pathology. He returned a further two years later with a short history of bleeding from the ulcer, and another biopsy now confirmed penile squamous cell carcinoma. Our case emphasizes the importance of regular review of patients with BXO, in particular those with persistent symptoms.

  14. Functional penile reconstruction: What do we have as on today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ghanem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile reconstructive surgeries are performed mainly as radical treatment for conditions associated with congenital abnormalities of the urethra or penis, after penile trauma, penile cancer, short penis, corporal fibrosis and in cases of gender reassignment. In this article, we review the controversial penile augmentation topic, clarifying how most workers disagree with its scientific basis. We also highlight recent advances in surgical techniques in treatment of penile injuries and those employed for female-to-male sex reassignment procedures. We also propose a practical approach for evaluating and counseling patients complaining of a small sized penis.

  15. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  16. Pulsative hematoma: A penile fracture complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nale Đorđe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fracture of the penis is a direct blunt trauma of the erect or semi-erect penis. It can be treated by conservative or surgical means. Retrospective analyses of conservative penile fracture treatment reveal frequent immediate and later complications. Case report. We presented a 41- year-old patient with pulsative hematoma caused by an unusual fracture of the penis. Fracture had appeared 40 days before the admittance during a sexual intercourse. The patient was treated surgically. Conclusion. Pulsative hematoma (pulsative diverticulum is a very rare, early complication of a conservatively treated penile fracture. Surgical treatment has an advantage over surgical one, which was confirmed by our case report.

  17. Penile Epidermal Cyst: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraguru, Veerapandian; Prabhu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal cysts also known as epidermoid cysts, is one of the common benign tumours presenting anywhere in the body. However, epidermal cyst in the penis is very rare. This condition in children is usually congenital due to abnormal embryologic closure of the median raphe; hence, it is termed as median raphe cysts (MRCs). Penile epidermal cysts may occur in adults following trauma or surgery due to epidermal elements being trapped within closed space. During wound healing, trapped squamous epithelium, undergoing keratinisation leads to cyst formation. Here, we report a rare case of patient with a penile epidermoid cyst whose main complaints was discomfort during coitus. PMID:27437298

  18. To Study the Prevalence of Premalignancies in Teenagers having Betel, Gutkha, Khaini, Tobacco Chewing, Beedi and Ganja Smoking Habit and Their Association with Social Class and Education Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Srivastava, Vinay

    2014-05-01

    Premalignant oral lesions are usually associated with noxious oral addiction habits. These habits are common in both, high as well as low socioeconomic status but education status of parent and patients significantly affects the development of noxious oral addictions. A total of 872 patients (cases and controls) were included in the study. Social class was determined as per modified Prasad's classification (1970) with price index correction of 2004. Prevalence of lichen planus, to be only 0.4 and 2.6% present in groups III and IV of cases, and submucous fibrosis (SMF) - stromal one lanocytic foci - was 2.4% in male (group III) whereas it was not found in female cases (group IV). Teenagers having higher frequency and longer duration of noxious habits were more prone for development of premalignant lesions. 0.6% of leukoplakia, 0.3% erythroplakia, 0.7% lichen planus and 0.7% submucous fibrosis were present in 872 observed patients of control and cases. How to cite this article: Srivastava VK. To Study the Prevalence of Premalignancies in Teenagers having Betel, Gutkha, Khaini, Tobacco Chewing, Beedi and Ganja Smoking Habit and Their Association with Social Class and Education Status. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):86-92.

  19. Penile Traumatic Neuroma: A Late Complication of Penile Dorsal Neurotomy to Treat Premature Ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Jun Park; Tae Nam Kim; Seung Ryong Baek; Kyung Min Lee; Kyung-Un Choi; Nam Cheol Park, MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic neuroma is a reactive process caused by the regeneration of an injured nerve that usually forms a nodular proliferation of small nerve bundles. Penile traumatic neuroma is rare; only a few cases related to circumcision have been reported. Aim: To report on a case of traumatic neuroma in the penis after selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN) to treat premature ejaculation. Methods: The penile traumatic neuroma was successfully removed by excision and confirmed by histop...

  20. Penile intracavernosal pillars: lessons from anatomy and potential implications for penile prosthesis placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M J; Weinberg, A C; Deibert, C M; Hernandez, K; Alukal, J; Zhao, L; Wilson, S K; Egydio, P H; Valenzuela, R J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to anatomically describe the relationship of penile intracavernosal pillars to penile surgery, specifically corporal dilation during penile prosthesis placement. Corpora cavernosa from four embalmed male cadavers were dissected and subjected to probe dilation. Corpora were cross-sectioned and examined for the gross presence and location of pillars and dilated spaces. Infrapubic penile prosthesis insertion was performed on one fresh-frozen cadaveric male pelvis, followed by cross-sectioning. A single patient had intracavernosal pillars examined intraoperatively during Peyronie's plaque excision and penile prosthesis insertion. Intracavernosal pillars were identified in all cadavers and one surgical patient, passing obliquely from the dorsolateral tunica albuginea across the sinusoidal space to the ventral intercorporal septum. This delineated each corpus into two potential compartments for dilation: dorsomedial and ventrolateral. Dorsal dilation seated instruments and prosthetics satisfactorily in the dorsal mid glans and provided additional tissue coverage over weak ventral areas of the tunica albuginea, while ventrolateral dilation appeared to result in ventral seating and susceptibility to perforation. Intracavernosal pillars are an important anatomic consideration during penile prosthesis placement. Dorsal dilation appears to result in improved distal seating of cylinder tips, which may be protective against tip malposition, perforation or subsequent erosion.

  1. Penile Enlargement : From Medication to Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, Helena M.; Balkema, G. T.; Pascal, A. L.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Nijman, J. M.; Van Driel, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Penis lengthening pills, stretch apparatus, vacuum pumps, silicone injections, and lengthening and thickening operations are available for men who worry about their penis size. Surgery is thus far the only proven scientific method for penile enlargement. In this article, we consider patient

  2. Overview of Contemporary Penile Rehabilitation Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hinh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction affects a considerable number of men and is a significant quality of life issue. There has been a substantial amount of research on the treatment of post-prostatectomy ED, and now there is a rising interest in the concept of penile rehabilitation. The goal of penile rehabilitation is to moderate the destructive processes that occur after prostatectomy in order to preserve erectile function, either through spontaneous or assisted means. Methods. We reviewed published data and experiences of post-prostatectomy penile rehabilitation using regimented interventions of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, vacuum erectile device, and intracavernosal agents, and we present and analyze the research conducted. Results. These studies show improved objective and subjective clinical outcomes in regards to physical parameters, sexual satisfaction, and rates of spontaneous erections. Conclusion. These studies are often limited by small size, study period, and study design. There continues to be a need for large, randomized, placebo controlled trials with adequate followup to fully evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the various proposed penile rehabilitation regiments before a clear standard can be established.

  3. Penile hair coil strangulation of the child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    We report the case of a child with a delayed presentation of penile strangulation with a coil of hair that resulted in a complete ... erection in some of them and with autoerotic intentions in others. ... in children with underlying urological problems.

  4. Penile Cancer: Contemporary Lymph Node Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jonathan S; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bozin, Mike; Cabarkapa, Sonja; Chen, Emily; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    In penile cancer, the optimal diagnostics and management of metastatic lymph nodes are not clear. Advances in minimally invasive staging, including dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy, have widened the diagnostic repertoire of the urologist. We aimed to provide an objective update of the recent trends in the management of penile squamous cell carcinoma, and inguinal and pelvic lymph node metastases. We systematically reviewed several medical databases, including the Web of Science® (with MEDLINE®), Embase® and Cochrane databases, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The search terms used were penile cancer, lymph node, sentinel node, minimally invasive, surgery and outcomes, alone and in combination. Articles pertaining to the management of lymph nodes in penile cancer were reviewed, including original research, reviews and clinical guidelines published between 1980 and 2016. Accurate and minimally invasive lymph node staging is of the utmost importance in the surgical management of penile squamous cell carcinoma. In patients with clinically node negative disease, a growing body of evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsies. Dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy exposes the patient to minimal risk, and results in superior sensitivity and specificity profiles compared to alternate nodal staging techniques. In the presence of locoregional disease, improvements in inguinal or pelvic lymphadenectomy have reduced morbidity and improved oncologic outcomes. A multimodal approach of chemotherapy and surgery has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with advanced disease. Recent developments in lymph node management have occurred in penile cancer, such as minimally invasive lymph node diagnosis and intervention strategies. These advances have been met with a degree of controversy in the contemporary literature. Current data suggest that dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy provides excellent

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laser surgery : A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor. Cryosurgery : A treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy ...

  6. The gene expression of oral squamous cells carcinomas and buccal mucosa premalignant lesions and the research on the difference of cellular pathways%口腔鳞状细胞癌和颊黏膜癌前病变基因表达和细胞通路的差异性研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福军; 张国栋; 杨凯; 梅杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To screen and analysis the virulent genes and pathways in golden hamster cheek pouch mucosa precan-cerous lesions and squamous cell carcinomas.Methods The experimental models of golden hamster cheek pouch mucosa precancer-ous lesions and squamous cell carcinomas were induced by DMBA.The total RNA of precancerous lesions and squamous cell carci-nomas of golden hamster cheek pouch was extracted and the cRNA was labeled by Cy3.Then gene chip was used to screen the dif-ferentially expressed genes.At last,the Gene Ontology and pathway was used to analysis the biology function of important virulent genes.Meanwhile,we confirmed the correctness of the results by using the RT-PCR.Results A total of 1 981 differentially ex-pressed genes were detected during the process from precancerous lesions to squamous cell carcinomas (120 genes remained known).One thousand and thirty-seven genes were up-regulated and 944 genes down-regulated.GO analysis showed that these dif-ferentially expressed genes mainly related to the macromolecular metabolism,signal transduction and so on.Pathway analysis showed that 9 pathways were significant changes.14 genes were enriched in above 9 change pathways.Conclusion There were 1 981 differentially expressed genes and 9 abnormal changes pathways during the process from precancerous lesions to squamous cell carcinomas,in which 14 differentially expressed genes led to changes in cellular pathways.These genes might be likely to have the important pathogenic genes in the process of transformation.%目的:筛选出口腔鳞状细胞癌与颊黏膜癌前病变组织中的差异基因,并进行生物信息分析,探讨癌前病变转向鳞癌的分子机制。方法通过二羟甲基丁酸(DMBA)诱导金黄地鼠来建立颊黏膜癌前病变和鳞癌模型,提取病变组织总 RNA,合成单标 Cy3荧光标记的 cRNA,采用基因芯片技术,筛选出两组模型口腔组织中表达差异的基因,对筛选出的差异基因进行功能分

  7. Isolated Penile Torsion in Brothers: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Gunduz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Penile torsion can be congenital and associated with hypospadias and chordee, or can be acquired after circumcision. The incidence of isolated neonatal penile torsion was 1.7 to 27% in the literature. The majority were between 10 and deg; and 20 and deg;. Generally, torsion was to the left in cases. The techniques for correction of penile torsion described in the literature are penile de-gloving and reattaching of skin, resection of Buck's fascia incising the base of the penis and removing angular ellipses of corporeal tissue with subsequent plication of tunica, and dorsal dartos flap rotation in severe cases. In conclusion, penile torsion may be familial. Therefore, brothers should be examined carefully. The degloving and realignment technique is successful in isolated penile torsion. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 122-124

  8. Isolated Penile Torsion in Brothers: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Penile torsion can be congenital and associated with hypospadias and chordee, or can be acquired after circumcision. The incidence of isolated neonatal penile torsion was 1.7 to 27% in the literature. The majority were between 10 and deg; and 20 and deg;. Generally, torsion was to the left in cases. The techniques for correction of penile torsion described in the literature are penile de-gloving and reattaching of skin, resection of Buck's fascia incising the base of the penis and removing an...

  9. Synergism of clinical evaluation and penile sonographic imaging in diagnosis of penile fracture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Jibril

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Penile fracture is an uncommon urologic emergency, and is the traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea covering the corpus cavernosa. This usually occurs following blunt trauma sustained during coitus, masturbation or self-manipulations to hide or suppress an erection. Clinical diagnosis can often be easily made with typical history and examination findings. However, the patient may present atypically and/or with a suspicion of associated urethral injury. The roles of various diagnostic investigations are being evaluated in these situations. Case presentation We report the case of a 31-year-old African man with penile fracture and suspected associated urethral injury that occurred after self-manipulations to hide an erection. Conclusions Penile ultrasound and sonourethrography provide useful additional diagnostic information to supplement clinical history and physical examination findings and can be performed easily, at low cost and with no delays to surgery.

  10. Penile Injuries in Wild and Domestic Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Ulrike; Isernhagen, Marie; Stefanski, Volker; Ritzmann, Mathias; Kress, Kevin; Hein, Charlotte; Zöls, Susanne

    2016-03-25

    In boars, sexually motivated mounting can not only cause problems such as lameness, but penile injuries are also reported. The relevance of penis biting in boars is discussed controversially, but reliable data is missing. In the present study, boars ( n = 435) and barrows ( n = 85) from experimental farms were therefore evaluated for scars, fresh wounds and severe injuries of the penis. Similarly, 321 boars from 11 farms specializing in pork production with boars, and 15 sexually mature wild boars from the hunting season of 2015/16 were included in the study. In domestic boars, a high incidence of penile injuries was obvious (76.6%-87.0% of animals with scars and/or wounds at experimental farms, 64.0%-94.9% at commercial farms). The number of boars with severe injuries was in a similar range in both groups (7.3% vs. 9.3%). At commercial farms, the number of scars but not that of fresh wounds increased per animal with age by 0.3 per week. Moreover, raising boars in mixed groups led to about a 1.5 times higher number of scars than in single-sex groups. In wild boars, a considerable proportion of animals (40%) revealed penile injuries, which were even severe in three animals. We therefore conclude that penis biting is a highly relevant and severe welfare problem in the male pig population, but this phenomenon is not limited to intensive production systems.

  11. Effect of androgen deprivation on penile ultrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-JunSHEN; Xie-LaiZHOU; Ying-LiLU; Zhao-DianCHEN

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the ultrastructural changes of penile corpus cavernosum and tunica albuginea in rats treated with castration or finasteride.Methods:Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats of nine weeks old were randomly divided into three groups with 6 rats each,Group A served as the control,Group B was castrated and Group C,treated with finasteride,Four weeks later,rats were anesthetized and blood samples obtained for the determination of serum testosterone(T)and dihydrotestosterone(DHT) levels;penile tissues were taken for scanning electron microscopy.Results:The T,free T and DHT levels in Group B and the DHT level in Group C were significantly lower than those in Group A(P0.05).Elastic fibers in the tunica albuginea of Group A were very rich and arranged regularly and undulatedly,but in Group B,most of the elastic fibers were replaced by collagenous fibers.In Group C,the tunica albuginea was mainly composed of thick and irregular-arranged collagenous fibers.In Group A,there were abundant smooth muscle fibers in the trabeculae of corpus cavernosum,but they were much less in Group C and scarce or even disappeared in Group B.In Groups B and C,the diminished/disappeared smooth muscle fibers were replaced by irregularly arranged collagenous fibers.Conclusion:In rats,androgen is essential for maintaining the normal structure of penile tunica albuginea and corpus carvenosum.

  12. Clinical Outcomes of Penile Prosthesis Implantation Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Dede

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluating the outcomes of in­flatable penile prosthesis implantations and partner sat­isfaction. Methods: Data of 52 patients who underwent penile prosthesis implantation in single center between May 2010 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Types of prosthesis, complication and satisfaction rates of patients were recorded by EDITS (Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction questionnaire was used. Results: The mean age was 49.2±14.7 years for patients. The mean follow-up durations for 34.3±12.5 months. The mean hospital stay was 3.84±1.52 days. Evaluating of the couples satisfaction revealed that 44 (84% of the patient were very satisfied. There was not any complication and no patient need to underwent revision surgery. Conclusion: Inflatable penile prosthesis implants, with high levels of treatment success, patient and partner sat­isfaction, are effective and safe options for treatment of organic erectile dysfunction with acceptable complication and revision rates.

  13. Three-component hydraulic penile prosthesis malfunction due to penile fibrolipoma secondary to augmentative phalloplasty: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Antonini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomas are an infrequent type of lipomas. We describe a case of a man suffering from subcutaneous penile fibrolipoma, who twelve months earlier has been submitted to augmentative phalloplasty due to aesthetic dysmorphophobia. The same patient three years earlier has been submitted to three-component hydraulic penile prostheses implantation due to erectile dysfunction. After six months from removing of the mass, the penile elongation and penile enlargement were stable, the prostheses were correctly functioning and the patient was satisfied with his sexual intercourse and life. The diagnostics and surgical characteristics of this case are reported.

  14. The effects of androgen on penile reflex, erectile responseto electrical stimulation and penile NOS activity in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SeongIISeo

    1999-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of androgen on penile erection through the reflex arc and penile corpus cavernosum,and study the respective roles of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in penile erection ira rats. Methods:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated and implanted with silastic brand silicone tube containing T or DHT, with orwithout daily injections of a 5a-reductase inhibitor, MKM-434. The penile reflex, erectile response to electrical stimula-tion (ES) of the cavernous nerves and penile nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) activity were observed under varying andro-genic status. Results: Penile reflex erection in the rat was, on the whole, related to serum T levels though the numberof glans engorgernents was not. The number of cups and flips was significantly decreased by castration, and restoredto the control level by T supplementation. Erectile response to ES and NOS activity in penile tissue was also related toserum T level. T administered together with a ,5a-reductase inhibitor no longer restored the number of reflex erection,erectile responses to ES and NOS activity in the corpus cavemosum. Conclusion: Androgen influenced the penile re-flex arc, corpus cavemosum, and the perinea] striated muscles, ha reflex erection, erectile response to ES and penileNOS activity in the rat, T seeras to be first conyerted to DHT, the more active androgen modality. (Asian JAndrol1999Dec; 1: 169-174)

  15. Adjunctive aids for the detection of oral premalignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Charanya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer greatly decreases the morbidity and mortality rates and thereby increases the 5-year survival rates. In developing countries like India where the disease is highly prevalent focus is mainly on decreasing the mortality rates which can be easily achieved by detection at an asymptomatic stage. Visual examination has been the standard screening method for screening oral cancer through several decades, and it is well known that conventional visual examination is limited to subjective interpretation and cannot be easily achieved in certain anatomical sites. As a solution to all these adjunctive techniques have emerged, and it has been widely used. An effort is made through this paper to review the most commonly used adjunctive aids for the detection of premalignancy and cancer.

  16. 鸟氨酸脱羧酶和c-myc在胃癌及其癌前病变组织中的表达及意义%Expression of ornithine decarboxylase and c-myc in gastric cancer and premalignant lesions and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小娟; 王云溪

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect the expression of ODC and c-myc in chronic superficial gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, atypical hy-perplasia and gastric carcinoma, to explore the correlation and significance of the expression of ODC and c-myc in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions.Methods:The expressions of ODC and c-myc were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in 18 cases of chronic superficial gastritis( CSG) , 18 chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia CAG( with IM) ,12 gastric dysplasia ( DYS) and 30 gastric carcinoma ( GC) , to explore the correlation between ODC and c-myc and their relationship with precancerous gastric le-sions.Results:The expression of ODC in CAG with IM, DYS and GC was significantly higher than that in CSG(P<0.01).The expres-sion of c-myc was significantly higher in GC comparing with CSG and CAG with IM (P<0.01).In addition, ODC and c-myc positive immunostaining rates were significantly higher in poorly-differentiated GC than in well-differentiated GC (P<0.01).The expression of ODC was positively correlated with c-myc at different stages of gastric carcinogenesis.Conclusions:ODC may play an important role as carcinogenic factor, and c-myc promotes cell proliferation by inducing ODC expression.Detecting both markers together may help in ear-ly diagnosis of gastric carcinoma.%及蛋白的表达。结果:ODC mRNA及蛋白在萎缩性胃炎肠化生( CAG与IM)、不典型增生( DYS)及胃癌( GC)组织中的表达水平显著高于浅表性胃炎(CSG)(P<0.01)。 c-myc mRNA及蛋白在胃癌(GC)组织中的表达水平显著高于浅表性胃炎(CSG)、萎缩性胃炎肠化生(CAG with IM)(P<0.01),ODC和c-myc在中低分化腺癌的表达水平显著高于高分化腺癌(P<0.05)。 ODC与c-myc在胃粘膜癌变多阶段中的表达呈正相关( P<0.01)。结论:ODC作为致癌因子在胃癌发生中有重要作用,且c-myc通过促进ODC的

  17. Expressão de galectina-3 e beta-catenina em lesões pré-malignas e carcinomatosas de língua de camundongos Galectin-3 and beta-catenin expression in premalignant and carcinomatous lesions in tongue of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Moreira de Almeida Sant'ana

    2011-02-01

    . Altered galectin-3 and beta-catenin expressions have been described in different tumors, however, there are no studies evaluating their expression in dysplasias and carcinomas induced in carcinogenic tongue models. OBJECTIVES: To study galectin-3 and beta-catenin expressions in dysplasias and carcinomas experimentally induced in mouse tongue. METHODS: Twenty C57Bl/6 male mice were treated with 4NQO in their drinking water for 16 weeks and sacrificed at weeks 16 and 32. Tongues were removed, routinely processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to detect dysplasias and carcinomas. An immunohistochemical assay was performed to determine the level of positivity for galectin-3 and beta-catenin in these lesions as well as their correlation in carcinomas. RESULTS: The number of mice affected by carcinomas increased from week 16 to week 32 (22.2% vs. 88.9% and the number affected by dysplasias decreased (66.7% vs. 11.1%. There was an increase in non-membranous beta-catenin- and cytoplasmic galectin-3-positive cells in dysplasias and carcinomas, although this difference was not statiscally significant. Nonetheless, there was a significant increase of nuclear galectin-3-positive cells in the evolution from dysplasia to carcinoma (p = 0.04. There was no correlation between beta-catenin and galectin-3. CONCLUSION: Wnt signaling pathway is active in both dysplasias and carcinomas and the increase of nuclear galectin-3-positive cells in carcinomas suggests its influence on malignant transformation in the tongue epithelium.

  18. Penile calciphylaxis: a life-threatening condition successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gagangeet; Gini, Marcelo Barrios; Ranade, Aditi; Djebali, David; Smith, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Calciphylaxis or calcific uremic arteriolopathy is a life-threatening condition that predominantly affects patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. A prevalence of up to 4% and a 6-month mortality rate of up to 80% have been reported in those with proximal disease (thighs, abdomen wall, and buttocks). Penile calciphylaxis is very rare but has a mortality rate of 69% within 6 months. Its treatment is controversial. For small lesions, conservative treatment with local wound care and debridement may suffice. Partial or complete penectomy may be needed for more extensive lesions, and especially those associated with signs of local infection. In addition to surgical intervention, as with any other case of calcific uremic arteriolopathy, the cornerstones of therapy should be to keep serum phosphorus sodium thiosulfate was used in addition to the standard medical and surgical therapy. Two months after surgery, the patient's wound completely healed and he has experienced no new lesions over the past 11 months.

  19. Hidden penile fracture: An unusual presentation and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Sagar; George, Arun Jacob Philip; Singh, J Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Penile fractures, a not so uncommon urological emergency, mostly present with a characteristic history and physical examination. Here, we present an atypical case where even in the absence of physical findings, a characteristic history led us to penile exploration and timely repair, highlighting the importance of careful history-taking in these cases.

  20. Evaluation of sexual functions and sexual behaviors after penile brachytherapy in men treated for penile carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Patrice Njomnang; Delaunay, Boris; Nasr, Elie Bou; Delannes, Martine; Soulie, Michel; Huyghe, Eric

    2014-01-01

    To assess sexual functions and behaviors of men treated by penile brachytherapy for a cancer of the penis. Thirty eight men (19 patients treated by penile brachytherapy for a cancer of the penis and 19 age paired-matched controls) participated in a survey about sexuality. The mean age of patients and controls were 73.2 +/- 11.7 and 70.0 +/- 10.5 years, respectively (NS). Controls were men without penile pathology, without history of cancer and no evidence of cognitive impairment. All agreed to participate in the survey about sexuality using 2 questionnaires : the IIEF questionnaire, which explores 4 domains of sexual functions, namely erection, satisfaction, orgasm and desire, and a questionnaire created using the BASIC IDEA grid, which addresses nine domains: behavior, affect, sensation, self-image, cognition, interpersonal, drugs, expectation and attitude. Patients had better scores than controls in 3 domains of the IIEF: erection, desire and satisfaction. These results contrasted with the frequency of intercourse and the quality of erection (evaluated through the BASIC IDEA questionnaire) that were not significantly different between the two populations. Patients also had significantly higher frequency of masturbation (p sexual performance and higher expected satisfaction for future life (p: 0.021) than controls. Penile brachytherapy is a treatment of cancer of the penis that seems to have a moderated impact on sexual functions since most of sexual scores are not inferior in these patients than in age pair-matched controls.

  1. Thrombophlebitis of the penile superficial vein, penile mondor's disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Doo Sang; Shin, Hyung Chul; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Soonchunhyang University, Chunan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Cheol [Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    Mondor's disease is commonly known as thrombophlebitis of the superficial vein in the breast, and this disease occurs rarely in the penis. Despite extensive information about the clinical presentation and course of this disease, imaging findings for this disease are limited. We report gray scale and power Doppler sonographic findings of penile Mondor's disease.

  2. Penile constriction injury: An experience of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Somaji Sawant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile injury due to constriction by a foreign object is a rare known complication, commonly seen in pediatric age group. We report four cases of penile constriction injury in adults due to various foreign objects and different indications. Between October 2014 and March 2016, four patients (mean age 42.5 years presented with penile constriction injury with duration at presentation ranging from 18 h to 2 months. One patient had complete transection of the corpus and penile urethra. Three patients were managed successfully with daily dressings followed by split-skin grafting in one patient. One patient required delayed primary suturing after the resolution of local edema. The outcome was satisfactory in all patients with retained erectile function. Early medical attention and management is the key to success in penile constriction injury cases and to avoid complications and morbidity. Prompt removal can be challenging in cases of metal foreign bodies.

  3. Developments in the pathology of penile squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Velazquez, Elsa F; Algaba, Ferran; Ayala, Gustavo; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2010-08-01

    Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the epithelium covering glans, coronal sulcus, and foreskin. Several histologic subtypes have been described, each with distinctive clinicopathologic and outcome features. The most common subtype is the usual SCC, representing one half to two thirds of penile carcinomas. Penile verruciform tumors encompass verrucous, warty (condylomatous), and papillary, not otherwise specified, carcinomas. As a group, verruciform tumors are low grade, with low metastatic and mortality rates. In contrast, basaloid and sarcomatoid carcinomas are among the most aggressive penile tumors. Other SCC variants, such as carcinoma cuniculatum and pseudohyperplastic, adenosquamous and acantholytic carcinomas, are rare. The most relevant clinicopathologic and outcome features are outlined for each of these SCC subtypes, and an algorithm that might aid the pathologist in the histologic classification is presented. In addition, recommendations for handling penile cancer specimens, frozen section specimens, and pathology reports are provided.

  4. Penile enlargement with methacrylate injection: is it safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cesar Miranda Torricelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXTPenis size is a great concern for men in many cultures. Despite the great variety of methods for penile augmentation, none has gained unanimous acceptance among experts in the field. However, in this era of minimally invasive procedure, injection therapy for penile augmentation has become more popular. Here we report a case of methacrylate injection in the penis that evolved with penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. This work also reviews the investigation and management of this pathological condition.CASE REPORTA 36-year-old male sought medical care with a complaint of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction after methacrylate injection. The treatment administered was surgical removal. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were reached after two months.CONCLUSIONSThere is a need for better structured scientific research to evaluate the outcomes and complication rates from all penile augmentation procedures.

  5. Penile nodules in the penal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jack; Horowitz, David

    2012-05-01

    The insertion of inert spherical objects under the skin of the penile shaft with the intent of enhancing the sexual experience of one's partner has been reported mostly among Southeast Asian men. This practice is gaining popularity among the Hispanic jail population and prison inmates in southern California. We present a case series of 4 inmate patients with genital modifications (artificial penis nodules [APNs]), including one patient with vitiligo that was induced by his APN. Additionally, we review the literature pertaining to this practice and the relevant clinical implications.

  6. Fate of premalignant clones during the asymptomatic phase preceding lymphoid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulés, Vincent; Pomier, Carole; Sibon, David; Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Reichert, Michal; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Willems, Luc; Mortreux, Franck; Wattel, Eric

    2005-02-15

    Almost all cancers are preceded by a prolonged period of clinical latency during which a combination of cellular events helps move carcinogen-exposed cells towards a malignant phenotype. Hitherto, investigating the fate of premalignant cells in vivo remained strongly hampered by the fact that these cells are usually indistinguishable from their normal counterparts. Here, for the first time, we have designed a strategy able to reconstitute the replicative history of the bona fide premalignant clone in an animal model, the sheep experimentally infected with the lymphotropic bovine leukemia virus. We have shown that premalignant clones are early and clearly distinguished from other virus-exposed cells on the basis of their degree of clonal expansion and genetic instability. Detectable as early as 0.5 month after the beginning of virus exposure, premalignant cells displayed a two-step pattern of extensive clonal expansion together with a mutation load approximately 6 times higher than that of other virus-exposed cells that remained untransformed during the life span of investigated animals. There was no fixation of somatic mutations over time, suggesting that they regularly lead to cellular death, partly contributing to maintain a normal lymphocyte count during the prolonged premalignant stage. This equilibrium was finally broken after a period of 18.5 to 60 months of clinical latency, when a dramatic decrease in the genetic instability of premalignant cells coincided with a rapid increase in lymphocyte count and lymphoma onset.

  7. Penile lichen sclerosus: An urologist's nightmare! - A single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitendra Pratap; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Goel, Hemant Kumar; Vijay, Mukesh Kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Sudip; Kundu, Anup Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Penile lichen sclerosus (LS) is a nagging condition and its progression result in devastating urinary and sexual problems and reduction in the quality-of-life. This study has been carried out to present our experience about this disease with simultaneous review of the available literature. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been done at a tertiary care center of eastern India. The data of 306 patients affected with LS were analyzed for clinical presentation, physical examination, investigations, and treatment offered. Results: Presenting symptoms were non-specific. The prepuce was most commonly involved location followed by glans and meatus. Urethral involvement was not isolated as the primary site. Circumcision was done in 237 patients, while 63 patients underwent meatotomy. Thirty-six of 39 cases of LS induced stricture were treated with buccal mucosal graft (BMG) either in one stage or in two stages. Conclusion: LS varies from being a highly aggressive disease of the penis and anterior urethra to a burnt out condition affecting just the meatus and surrounding glans. Early diagnosis and treatment are required to prevent its complication and associated morbidity. Management depends on the anatomical location of lesion, extent of involvement, rapidity of progression and its severity. Use of BMG in LS induced urethral stricture has shown encouraging results. PMID:26229314

  8. Reflectance confocal microscopic evaluation of nonmelanocytic lip lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağcı, Işın Sinem; Gürel, Mehmet Salih; Aksu, Ayşe Esra Koku; Erdemir, Aslı Turgut; Yüksel, Esma İnan; Başaran, Yeliz Karakoca

    2017-07-05

    Lips display various benign and malignant lesions. Considering their functional and cosmetic importance, noninvasive diagnostic methods are required. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has already been reported to be useful in the evaluation of various skin lesions. The aim of this study was to define the RCM features of nonmelanocytic lip lesions, compare them with healthy lip, and demonstrate the applicability of RCM as a noninvasive diagnostic method for nonmelanocytic lip lesions. Sixty-seven patients with premalignant/malignant, inflammatory, and infectious lip lesions and twenty-one healthy volunteers were included in the study. Following clinical and RCM examination, histopathological confirmation was obtained in all lesions except herpes labialis, verrucae, and aphthae. RCM features of individual lesions and corresponding groups were evaluated and compared. Pleomorphism was the common feature of premalignant/malignant lesions. Dermal invasion of dyskeratotic keratinocytes was visualized in all squamous cell carcinoma lesions. Spongiosis and inflammatory cells were the common features of inflammatory lesions. Hypergranulosis and necrotic keratinocytes were highly specific for lichen planus. The most specific features for discoid lupus erythematosus were irregular pattern, follicular plugs, and perifollicular inflammatory cells. Virus-infected keratinocytes were visualized in herpes and verrucae. RCM features showed high sensitivity and specificity to detect nonmelanocytic lip lesions. Although the penetration is limited to the papillary dermis in nonmucosal skin, imaging down to the mid-dermis with satisfactory resolution was possible on the lips.

  9. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

  10. Helicobacter pylori : Epidemiology, Premalignant Gastric Lesions, and Associations with Non-gastric Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. den Hollander (Wouter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the current epidemiology of H. pylori in a multi-ethnic Western city (Rotterdam, the Netherlands). It further examines the associations of H. pylori with non-gastric disease, like asthmatic conditions, pregnancy complications and obesity. The studies include a

  11. Chronic inflammation, apoptosis and (pre-)malignant lesions in the gastro-intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, CJ; Kleibeuker, JH; Jansen, PLM; Moshage, H

    2004-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions are characterized by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), resulting in the expression of NF-kappaB-regulated, inflammation-related genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). Expression of these ge

  12. Premalignant Lesions of the Anal Canal and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Juan Lucas

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare tumor. However, its incidence has been increasing in men and women over the past 25 years worldwide. Risk factors associated with this cancer are those behaviors that predispose individuals to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and immunosuppression. Anal cancer is generally preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), which is most prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men. High-risk patients may benefit from screening. The most common presentation is rectal bleeding, which is present in nearly 50% of patients. Twenty percent of patients have no symptoms at the time of presentation. Clinical staging of anal cancer requires a digital rectal exam and a positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Endorectal/endoanal ultrasound appears to add more-specific staging information when compared with digital rectal examination alone. Treatment of anal cancer prior to the 1970s involved an abdominoperineal resection. However, the current standard of care for localized anal cancer is concurrent chemoradiation therapy, primarily because of its sphincter-saving and colostomy-sparing potential. Studies have addressed alternative chemoradiation regimens to improve the standard protocol of fluorouracil, misogynic, and radiation, but no alternative regimen has proven superior. Surgery is reserved for those patients with residual disease or recurrence. PMID:22942800

  13. Helicobacter pylori : Epidemiology, Premalignant Gastric Lesions, and Associations with Non-gastric Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. den Hollander (Wouter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the current epidemiology of H. pylori in a multi-ethnic Western city (Rotterdam, the Netherlands). It further examines the associations of H. pylori with non-gastric disease, like asthmatic conditions, pregnancy complications and obesity. The studies include a

  14. Serum retinol level in patients with colorectal premalignant and malignant lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrowski, J; Janik, P.; Nowacki, M.; Janczewska, I; Przybyszewska, M.; Szaniawska, B.; Bartnik, W.; Butruk, E

    1987-01-01

    Serum retinol levels were determined by a fluorometric method in patients with colorectal cancer or polyps and those with inflammatory bowel disease. Serum retinol levels in patients with benign or malignant colorectal polyps and stage B cancer (modified Dukes' classification) were similar to those found in controls. By contrast, serum retinol levels were significantly lower in patients with Dukes' stage C or D. Among cancer patients that were followed after surgical treatment serum retinol l...

  15. The possible premalignant character of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der E.H.; Schepman, K.P.; Waal, van der I.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The possible malignant transformation of oral lichen planus (OLP) is the subject of an ongoing and controversial discussion in the literature. The main criticism of studies on this subject relates to the lack of sufficient data to support the initial diagnosis of OLP in cases that finall

  16. A new surgical method for penile girth enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoge; Tao, Ling; Cao, Chuan; Shi, Haishan; Li, Le; Chen, Liang; Li, Shirong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We developed a new surgical model of penile girth enhancement in dog, with minimal damage, fewer complications, and high success rate, to enable the experimental investigation of penile implants. Methods: We obtained materials for penile girth enhancement by processing the pericardium and blood vessel wall collected from pigs. Incisions were made at the penile bulb for the implantation of the materials, and facilitate observation and data collection, based on the anatomical features of dog’s penis. We measured the girth of the flaccid penis before and after the operation, and erectile function at 1-month postoperation. In addition to evaluation of recovery from the incision and local pathological changes, ultrasonic examination was performed to monitor the long-term changes associated with implantation. Results: The mean girth of the flaccid penis significantly increased from 7.37±0.40 cm before the operation, to 8.70±0.56 cm postoperation. Dogs resumed normal mating at 1 month after the operation, without any significant change in the mating time. Ultrasonic examination clearly illustrated the implants, and helped in the measurement of the distance between the materials and the baculum. Conclusion: Chinese Rural dog is a promising animal model for penile girth enhancement surgery. The findings demonstrated that surgical implantation into penile bulb was associated with less damage, faster postoperative recovery, and higher success. For the first time, ultrasonic examination provided objective data on the surgical outcomes of penile girth enhancement. PMID:26379868

  17. Obesity is associated with increased risk of invasive penile cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kerri T; McDowell, Bradley D; Button, Anna; Smith, Brian J; Lynch, Charles F; Gupta, Amit

    2016-07-13

    To validate the association between obesity and penile cancer at a population level, we conducted a matched case-control study linking the Iowa Department of Motor Vehicles Drivers' License Database (DLD) with cancer surveillance data collected by the State Health Registry of Iowa (SHRI). All men diagnosed with invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma from 1985 to 2010 were identified by SHRI. Two hundred sixty-six cancer cases and 816 cancer-free male controls, selected from the Iowa DLD, were matched within 5-year age and calendar year strata. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported height and weight from the DLD. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between BMI and the risk of developing invasive penile cancer. Obesity was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing penile cancer. For every five-unit increase in BMI the risk of invasive penile cancer increased by 53 % (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.29-1.81, p obesity and higher risk of invasive penile cancer and advanced cancer stage at diagnosis in a hospital-based retrospective study. This population-based study confirms an association between obesity and invasive penile cancer.

  18. Melanocortin Receptors, Melanotropic Peptides and Penile Erection

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen H.; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Balse-Srinivasan, Preeti; Hruby, Victor J.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Wessells, Hunter

    2009-01-01

    Penile erection is a complex physiologic event resulting from the interactions of the nervous system on a highly specialized vascular organ. Activation of central nervous system melanocortinergic (MC) receptors with either endogenous or synthetic melanotropic ligands may initiate and/or facilitate spontaneous penile erection. While the CNS contains principally the MC3 and MC4 receptor subtypes, there is conflicting data as to which receptor mediates erection. Although the MC4R is emerging as the principle effector of MC induced erection, the role of the MC3R is poorly understood. Manipulation of each receptor subtype with newly synthesized receptor specific agonists and antagonists, as well as knockout mice, has elucidated their individual contributions. Novel data from our laboratories suggests that antagonism of forebrain MC3R may enhance melanocortin-induced erections. Furthermore, melanocortin agents may interact with better-studied systems such as oxytocinergic pathways at the hypothalamic, brainstem or spinal level. Current therapies for erectile dysfunction target end organ vascular tissue. Manipulation of MC receptors may provide an alternative, centrally mediated therapeutic approach for erectile and other sexual dysfunctions. The non-specific “superpotent” MC agonist, PT-141, which is the carboxylate derivative of MT-II, has reached phase II human trials. Through their centrally mediated activity, melanocortin agonists have potential to treat erectile dysfunction as well as possible applications to the unmet medical needs of decreased sexual motivation and loss of libido. PMID:17584130

  19. Imaging of penile traumas - therapeutic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, Michele; Calderan, Loretta; Cova, Maria Assunta [Universita di Trieste, UCO di Radiologia, Trieste (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    Injury to the penis may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating trauma. Nonpenetrating injury to the erect penis can produce albugineal tear, intracavernous hematoma or extraalbugineal hematoma from rupture of the dorsal vessels. Nonpenetrating injury to the flaccid penis usually follows blunt perineal traumas producing extratunical or cavernosal haematomas, or cavernosal artery tear followed by high flow priapism. Differential diagnosis between albugineal tear and other penile injuries must be obtained as soon as possible, since early surgical repair of albugineal tear reduces significantly the rate of postraumatic curvature and fibrosis. Ultrasonography (US) is able to detect the exact site of the tear in most patients as an interruption of the thin echogenic line of the tunica albuginea. Other imaging techniques are rarely required in the clinical practice. Color Doppler US is the imaging modality of choice to evaluate patients with high flow priapism. Focal or diffuse cavernosal fibrosis can be identified with US as echogenic areas in the cavernosal bodies. Postraumatic erectile dysfunction can result from fibrotic changes, nerve and vascular impairment or both. Doppler evaluation of penile vasculature is required in young patients with postraumatic impotence before surgical revascularization procedures. (orig.)

  20. Penile implants among prisoners-a cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Yap

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We report the prevalence of penile implants among prisoners and determine the independent predictors for having penile implants. Questions on penile implants were included in the Sexual Health and Attitudes of Australian Prisoners (SHAAP survey following concerns raised by prison health staff that increasing numbers of prisoners reported having penile implants while in prison. METHODS: Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI of a random sample of prisoners was carried out in 41 prisons in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia. Men were asked, "Have you ever inserted or implanted an object under the skin of your penis?" If they responded Yes: "Have you ever done so while you were in prison?" Univariate logistic regression and logistic regression were used to determine the factors associated with penile implants. RESULTS: A total of 2,018 male prisoners were surveyed, aged between 18 and 65 years, and 118 (5.8% reported that they had inserted or implanted an object under the skin of their penis. Of these men, 87 (73% had this done while they were in prison. In the multivariate analysis, a younger age, birth in an Asian country, and prior incarceration were all significantly associated with penile implants (p<0.001. Men with penile implants were also more likely to report being paid for sex (p<0.001, to have had body piercings (p<0.001 or tattoos in prison (p<0.001, and to have taken non-prescription drugs while in prison (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Penile implants appear to be fairly common among prisoners and are associated with risky sexual and drug use practices. As most of these penile implants are inserted in prison, these men are at risk of blood borne viruses and wound infection. Harm reduction and infection control strategies need to be developed to address this potential risk.

  1. Diminished nocturnal penile tumescence in depression: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, M E; Reynolds, C F; Jennings, J R; Frank, E; Garamoni, G L; Nofzinger, E A; Fascizka, A L; Kupfer, D J

    1992-06-01

    A descriptive study was conducted in a new sample of 51 men with DSM-III-R research diagnostic criteria (RDC) major depression in order to replicate earlier observations that measures of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) and penile rigidity are disturbed in depressive states. When compared to both the age-equated patient (n = 34) and normal control (n = 28) groups reported in our 1988 study, the new sample manifested significant abnormalities of NPT and diminished penile rigidity. Such disturbances were not, however, significantly correlated with psychobiological indicators of severe or endogenous depression.

  2. Penile Replantation After Five Hours of Warm Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. Facio Jr.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence, this event may occur as a result of self-mutilation among individuals with psychiatric disturbances or due to work-related accidents, iatrogenic injuries or the actions of individuals motivated by jealously, rage and feelings of betrayal. In western societies, most penile amputations are the result of self-aggression during a psychotic episode, the treatment of victims involves resuscitation, stabilization and immediate psychiatric support. The amputated tissue must be preserved under hypothermic conditions. Micro-surgery is currently the most widely employed method for penile replantation. This paper describes a successful case of penile replantation following 5 hours of warm ischemia.

  3. Effect of sildenafil citrate on penile erection of rhesus macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-BinHuang; Cheng-LiangXiong; Cheng-GaoYu; Jie-LingZhou; Ji-YunShen

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effect of sildenafil citrate on penile erection of male rhesus macaque. Methods:Twenty Macaca mulatta were divided into the sildenafil treated and the control groups of l0 animals each. The penile size, the corpus cavernosal electromyogram (EMG) and the intra-corpus cavernosal pressure (ICP) were determined. Results: The diameter of penis and the ICP were significantly increased and the corpus cavernosal EMG significantly reduced in the sildenafil group. Conclusion: Sildenafil citrate increases the penile size and ICP and reduces the corpus cavernosal EMG in male rhesus macaque. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 233-235)

  4. Local Excision for the Treatment of Penile Verrucous Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Dong In; Choi, Sang Kyu; Kim, Soon Heum; Kim, Cheol Keun; Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong Sup

    2017-07-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is known for its favorable biologic behavior and lack of metastatic potential. For preservation of function, treatment has been focused on partial penectomy. Despite partial penectomy for preservation of minimal functional and aesthetic aspects, patients have experienced psychosexual problems. A 73-year-old man had a cauliflower-like verrucous carcinoma on the penile glans and coronary sulcus diagnosed by using excisional biopsy. He underwent degloving excision to save the penile shaft and glans penis. Surgical margin was 3 mm. He had been tumor-free at the 2-year follow-up. For maximum preservation of the functional and aesthetic aspects, we recommend degloving excision.

  5. Local Excision for the Treatment of Penile Verrucous Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong In Jo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Penile verrucous carcinoma is known for its favorable biologic behavior and lack of metastatic potential. For preservation of function, treatment has been focused on partial penectomy. Despite partial penectomy for preservation of minimal functional and aesthetic aspects, patients have experienced psychosexual problems. A 73-year-old man had a cauliflower-like verrucous carcinoma on the penile glans and coronary sulcus diagnosed by using excisional biopsy. He underwent degloving excision to save the penile shaft and glans penis. Surgical margin was 3 mm. He had been tumor-free at the 2-year follow-up. For maximum preservation of the functional and aesthetic aspects, we recommend degloving excision.

  6. Ultrasonographic study of subcutaneous penile granuloma secondary to silicone injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Dell'Atti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penile augmentation has been reported in the literature by injecting various materials. This study reports our experience in management of penile augmentation complications associated with selfpenile injection of silicone liquid. After a careful ultrasound study, the penile skin was excised through a circumferential sub-coronal incision and dissected with the silicon mass. Histology was well-compatible with silicone granulomas. The patient was discharged after 24 hours. Ultrasonography has permitted preoperatively to determine if the plane between the indurated inflammatory tissue and the Buck’s fascia was preserved for the complete surgical excision of affected tissue.

  7. AMS 700 inflatable penile prosthesis with InhibiZone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Stephen E; Carson, Culley C

    2010-05-01

    Inflatable penile prostheses are the definitive therapy for erectile dysfunction refractory to medical therapy. For years mechanical malfunction was the most common cause of device failure, but recent advances in design have largely eliminated this, and now infection is the most significant problem with these implants. Antibiotic-coated medical devices, such as central venous and bladder catheters, have proven effective in reducing bacterial colonization and biofilm formation, leading to decreased rates of infection. In 2001, American Medical Systems (AMS) released its AMS 700 series penile prosthesis impregnated with a proprietary combination of the antibiotics rifampin and minocycline, called InhibiZone. Multiple studies have found that this device significantly reduces infection rates in men receiving penile prostheses. In July 2009, the US FDA approved the AMS 700 with InhibiZone as the only inflatable penile prosthesis with clinical evidence showing significant reduction in the rate of revision surgery due to infection.

  8. A case report of severe Aspergillus flavus penile infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Kun Li; Xiang Wang; Qiang Ding

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Sir, My name is Xiang Wang, from the Department of Urology of Huashan Hospital at Fudan University in China. In this letter, we present our experience with the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with severe penile aspergillosis.

  9. Incidence of penile curvature in various forms of hypospadias

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the penis, characterised by ectopically positioned urethral meatus and associated anomalies (cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia, penile curvature). Proximal forms of hypospadias, as severe cases, are particularly accompanied by penile curvature (chordee). Distal types are considered to be mild degrees. Objective. To determine the incidence of congenital curvature within various forms of hypospadias in order to signify preoperative and intraope...

  10. Two Fungal Infections of Inflatable Penile Prostheses in Diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittney H. Cotta, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This report supports the emerging literature that the flora of IPP infections is changing. We suggest considering adding antifungal agents to antibiotic coatings, dips, or washout solutions at the time of penile prosthesis surgery in diabetic patients. Cotta BH, Butcher M, Welliver C, McVary K, and Köhler T. Two fungal infections of inflatable penile prostheses in diabetics. Sex Med 2015;3:339–342.

  11. Diagnostic problems in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-05-01

    Penile precancerous and invasive lesions exhibit a variegated morphology. Although the diagnosis and classification of penile tumors is straightforward in most cases, a few entities are problematic, especially to pathologists from countries in which penile cancer is rarely encountered. The differential diagnosis of squamous hyperplasias from differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia or from extremely low-grade invasive neoplasms (eg, pseudohyperplastic and verrucous carcinomas) may be particularly difficult. Similarly, given the morphologic features shared by all verruciform tumors (ie, verrucous, warty, papillary, and cuniculatum carcinomas, along with giant condylomas), it is challenging at times to distinguish one from another. At the other end of the spectrum, because of their lack of differentiation, it is sometimes difficult to classify high-grade carcinomas, such as basaloid and sarcomatoid, which may have etiologic/prognostic implications. Penile mixed tumors, harboring more than 1 histologic subtype and grade, constitute a frequent finding in routine pathology. The recognition of distinctive morphologic patterns and histologic grades in these tumors is important because these features could be related to etiologic factors, such as human papillomavirus infection, or they could influence outcome. Penile tumors with glandular features (eg, adenosquamous and mucoepidermoid carcinomas), although rare, may be confused with the more common pseudoglandular (adenoid, acantholytic) variant of squamous cell carcinomas, their main mimicker. In this review we provide clues that may help in the differential diagnosis of these lesions.

  12. Animal models for studying penile hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HiroyaMizusawa; OsamuIshizuka

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for the study of erectile function monitoring the changes in intracavernous pressure(ICP)during penile erection was reviewed.The development of new modwls using small commercially-available experimen-tal animals,rats and mice,in the last edcade facilitated in vivo investigation of erectile physiology.The technique enabled to evaluate even subtle erectile responses by analyzing ICPand systemic blood pressure,Moreover,the method has been well improved and studies using conscious animal models without the influence of any drug or anesthesia are more appropriate in exploring the precise physiological and pharmacological mechanisms in erection.Also,more natural and physiological sexual arousal instead of electrical or pharmacological stimulation is desirable in most of the studies.This article reviewed the development of ICPstudies in rats and mice.

  13. Penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, M E; Almohsen, A E-R M; El Shahid, A R; Abd Al-Sameaa, M T; Mostafa, T

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men. Two thousand physically normal men (22-40 years) were subjected to measurement of stretched penile length, glans penis, testis size, index finger, weight, height, span, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio. The mean stretched penile length of the studied subjects was 13.84 ± 1.35 cm (range 12-19 cm), and the mean glans penis length was 2.6 ± 0.4 cm (range 1.7-3.8 cm). Penile length demonstrated positive significant correlation with glans penis length, index finger length, BMI and significant negative correlation with waist/hip ratio. On the other hand, penile length demonstrated nonsignificant correlation with age, weight, height, waist circumference, span or testicular size. It is concluded that the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men is mostly related to glans penis and index finger lengths.

  14. Insight into the number of pre-malignancies and malignancies of the skin in a hospital population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsingen, M.C.J. van; Seubring, I.; Maessen-Visch, B.; Lavrijsen, S.; Bergen, B. van; Groenewoud, J.; Gerritsen, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin cancer incidence is rising, placing a burden on healthcare systems worldwide. This problem may even be more extensive than expected, since registration of (pre)malignancies of the skin is poor. OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the numbers of (pre)malignancies in patients with acti

  15. Penile fracture and its treatment: Is retrograde urethrograghy necessary for management of penile fracture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalati Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Penile fracture, being defined as rupture of the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum, is uncommon. Here, we analyze fi ndings on our patients during a 10-year period and evaluate the role of retrograde urethrography. Methods: From February 2002 to April 2012, 116 patients were admitted with penile fracture at Ghaem Medical Center. Patient history and physical examination were taken at their admittance to detect probable urethral injury. Before surgery, retrograde urethrography was performed in all patients. The size and site of the tunical rupture were recorded. Then the rupture of tunica albuginea was sutured with nonabsorbable (3-0 nylon sutures and the ties were placed on the internal surface (continuous method. All patients were followed up for 12 months. Results: Patients' mean age was(32.78±10.61 years and ranged (16-62 years. The mechanism of trauma was sexual intercourse in 103 patients (89% and sturbation in 13 patients (11%. The most common site of injury found after exploration was right (55% and lateral (74% of the corpus cavernosum. The size of the tunical rupture was from 0.5 to 3.0 cm (mean 0.88±0.72. Three of the patients had Marphan's syndrome. Urethral injury was detected by retrograde urethrography in 4 patients (3% who had macroscopic hematuria and urethrorrhagia. During 12 months follow-up, no complication was seen. Conclusion: There is no need to perform retrograde urethrography unless the patients have gross hematuria or urethrorrhagia. The key to success in treatment of penile fracture is to achieve a rapid diagnosis based on history and a physical examination, avoid unnecessary imaging tests and perform immediate surgery to reconstruct the site of injury. Key words: Penis; Radiography; Urogenital system; Treatment outcome

  16. Penile fracture and its treatment:Is retrograde urethrograghy necessary for management of penile fracture?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Ahmadnia; Mehdi Younesi Rostami; Ali Kamalati; Mohammad Mehdi Imani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Penile fracture, being defined as rupture of the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum, is uncommon. Here, we analyze findings on our patients during a 10-year period and evaluate the role of retrograde urethrography. Methods: From February 2002 to April 2012, 116 patients were admitted with penile fracture at Ghaem Medical Center. Patient history and physical examination were taken at their admittance to detect probable urethral injury. Before surgery, retrograde urethrography was performed in all patients. The size and site of the tunical rupture were recorded. Then the rupture of tunica albuginea was sutured with nonabsorbable (3-0 nylon) sutures and the ties were placed on the internal surface (continuous method). All patients were followed up for 12 months. Results: Patients' mean age was (32.78±10.61) years and ranged (16-62) years. The mechanism of trauma was sexual intercourse in 103 patients (89%) and masturbation in 13 patients (11%). The most common site of injury found after exploration was right (55%) and lateral (74%) of the corpus cavernosum. The size of the tunical rupture was from 0.5 to 3.0 cm (mean 1.88±0.72). Three of the patients had Marphan's syndrome. Urethral injury was detected by retrograde urethrography in 4 patients (3%) who had macroscopic hematuria and urethrorrhagia. During 12 months follow-up, no complication was seen. Conclusion: There is no need to perform retrograde urethrography unless the patients have gross hematuria or urethrorrhagia. The key to success in treatment of penile fracture is to achieve a rapid diagnosis based on history and a physical examination, avoid unnecessary imaging tests and perform immediate surgery to reconstruct the site of injury.

  17. Relationship between penile size and somatometric parameters in 2276 healthy young men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Söylemez, H; Atar, M; Sancaktutar, A A; Penbegül, N; Bozkurt, Y; Onem, K

    The aim of this study was to determine the average penile length of a group of healthy, young Turkish men, and to investigate the relationship between penile length and somatometric parameters in the same group...

  18. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Tanis, P.J.; Jansen, L.; Nieweg, O.E. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Meinhardt, W.; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    2001-05-01

    basin. It is concluded that penile lymphoscintigraphy is a valid and well-tolerated method for lymphatic mapping and SN identification. Although bilateral early inguinal drainage is the most frequent pattern, late imaging is recommended principally in patients with initial unilateral drainage in order to exclude delayed lymph node filling in the contralateral groin. SN identification may lead to a more accurate staging and avoid extensive lymph node dissection in the majority of patients with penile carcinoma. (orig.)

  19. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Rafiei, MD; Tariq S. Hakky, MD; Daniel Martinez, MD; Justin Parker, MD; Rafael Carrion, MD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. Aim: To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. Methods: A 33‐year‐old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, h...

  20. One-stage correction of chordee and 180-degree penile torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, J F; Bissada, N K

    1976-06-01

    The surgical management of a patient with 180-degree penile torsion, balanitic hypospadias, and chordee is presented. Complete resolution of the torsion was effected by completely reflecting the penile skin. Correction of the penile curvature was accomplished simultaneously by freeing the corpora spongiosa from the corpora cavernosa.

  1. Penile and scrotal lymphedema as an unusual presentation of Crohn's disease: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, W; Wiegman, M J; Damstra, R J

    2012-03-01

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory intestinal disease that primarily causes abdominal pain and diarrhea. We report a male patient who presented with penile and scrotal lymphedema and inguinal fistulas as the first manifestations of Crohn's disease. Extraintestinal or metastatic Crohn's disease initially presenting as genital lymphedema with fistula formation is rare. Skin lesions in extraintestinal Crohn's disease typically show non-caseating, sarcoidal granulomas with numerous foreign body- and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells, which are separated from intestinal involvement by normal skin. Treatment options are limited and include multi-immunosuppressant medications.

  2. Imaging in primary penile cancer: current status and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, Rohit; Taylor, Ben [Christie, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sangar, Vijay [Christie, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Penile cancer is a rare neoplasm in the developed world. Clinical assessment often results in inaccurate staging and radiological techniques have a key role in staging and postoperative assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicts penile anatomy in detail and is the most accurate technique for local staging and postoperative follow-up. MRI and ultrasound (US), although helpful for assessment of lymph nodes, are not reliable enough for accurate nodal staging. US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), however, remains a valuable tool to confirm metastases in suspicious inguinal nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy with dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) is a promising technique used to predict occult lymph node metastases. Novel imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) and nanoparticle enhanced MRI have high sensitivity and specificity for lymph node metastases but their availability is limited and clinical utility is not fully established. The radiologist needs to be familiar with the normal penile anatomy, imaging appearances of pre- and post-treatment penile cancer, and the advantages and limitations of the available imaging techniques. This review highlights the above points and presents a systematic approach to make the best use of imaging in the management of patients with penile cancer. (orig.)

  3. The role of HPV in diagnosis and management of cervical premalignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamont, D. van

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cytological pathology is not uncommon. Prevention of cervical cancer by detection of the disease in an early and pre-malignant stage is practised globally either through population-based screening programmes or more optimistically non-organised ones. High-grade cervical intraepithelial neop

  4. Clinical experiences with optical coherence tomography in epithelial (pre)malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Ronni

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to differentiate between normal tissue and (pre)malignant tissue in epithelial cancers. It can be divided in research performed in the genital area and the field of melanoma. Chapter 2 describes the principles of the OCT-tec

  5. Clinical experiences with optical coherence tomography in epithelial (pre)malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Ronni; Wessels, R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to differentiate between normal tissue and (pre)malignant tissue in epithelial cancers. It can be divided in research performed in the genital area and the field of melanoma. Chapter 2 describes the principles of the OCT-techn

  6. Effect of aging on penile ultrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-Jun SHEN; Xiao-Dong JIN; Zhao-Dian CHEN; Yuan-He SHI

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To clarify whether there are anatomical changes in tunica albuginea and corpora cavemosa in aged rats. Methods: Seventeen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups based on age. Group A consisted of young rats (9 weeks), Group B, middle aged rats (14 weeks) and Group C, old rats (62 weeks). The penile samples were obtained and observed under a scanning electron microscope. Results: The thickness (mean ± SD) of the tunica albuginea was 0.14 ± 0.02, 0.16 ± 0.03 and 0.06 ± 0.02 mm in Groups A, B and C, respectively. The tunica albuginea of group C was significantly thinner than those of the other two groups ( P < 0.05) and the elastic fibers were diminished in the old rats. In the corpora cavemosa of old rats, the intracavemous pillars were irregular, in which many large collagen fibers could be observed, and the smooth muscle and elastic fibers were reduced. Conclusion: In old rats, the tunica albuginea became thinner with diminished elastic fibers; the collagen fibers of corpora cavemosa were increased while the smooth muscle and elastic fibers were reduced.

  7. Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: clinical implications for physicians and surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery.

  8. Prevention and Treatment of Postoperative Complications of the Penile Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余墨声; 陕声国; 赵月强; 吴晓蔚; 周立纯; 龙道畴

    2003-01-01

    Summary: To explore the cauls of the postoperative complications of the penile elongation and themeasures to prevent them in order to raise the success rate of the penile elongation. 1 000 patientswho had received the penile elongation were reviewed and analyzed for the causes of postoperativecomplications, and the measures of prevention and treatment were discussed. Our results showedthat, of the 1 000 cases, 64 had the postoperative complications, including 20 cases of edema of pre-puce, 15 cases of flap necrosis, 12 hematoma, 9 infections, and 8 cases of fat and clumsy penis. It isconcluded that correct operative manipulation, strict aseptic measures and necessary postoperativecare and management could avoid or reduce the postoperative complications. When complications hap-pened, a satisfactory result can be achieved with timely and correct treatment in the majority of thepatients.

  9. Radiation Dose–Volume Effects and the Penile Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Mack; Nam, Jiho; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Naqa, Issam El; Deasy, Joseph O.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2016-01-01

    The dose, volume, and clinical outcome data for penile bulb are reviewed for patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy. Most, but not all, studies find an association between impotence and dosimetric parameters (e.g., threshold doses) and clinical factors (e.g., age, comorbid diseases). According to the data available, it is prudent to keep the mean dose to 95% of the penile bulb volume to <50 Gy. It may also be prudent to limit the D70 and D90 to 70 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively, but coverage of the planning target volume should not be compromised. It is acknowledged that the penile bulb may not be the critical component of the erectile apparatus, but it seems to be a surrogate for yet to be determined structure(s) critical for erectile function for at least some techniques. PMID:20171507

  10. Incidence of penile curvature in various forms of hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the penis, characterised by ectopically positioned urethral meatus and associated anomalies (cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia, penile curvature. Proximal forms of hypospadias, as severe cases, are particularly accompanied by penile curvature (chordee. Distal types are considered to be mild degrees. Objective. To determine the incidence of congenital curvature within various forms of hypospadias in order to signify preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of chordee as a part of hypospadias repair. Methods. The total of 454 patients with hypospadias were treated surgically in a five-year period (2001-2006. at the University Children's Hospital of Belgrade. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgeon who had treated them. Only the first group of patients was tested for chordee as a part of standard procedure and complete treatment. In both groups we analyzed the number of patients treated for penile curvature within various types of hypospadias. We also compared scores in the two groups using Fisher test and χ2-test. Results. Scanning retrospective, 104 cases (22.9% of diagnosed and surgically corrected chordee were determined. In 31.6% of patients from the first group and 11.6% of patients from the second group we diagnosed and corrected some form of penile curvature was. Chordee was significantly more frequent in the first group, regarding hypospadias in general (p<0.01, as well as distal (p<0.05 and mid shaft forms (p<0.01. Conclusion. Penile curvature is not uncommon in hypospadias. In this study we report a significantly higher frequency as related to the patients in the second group who were not tested for curvature during hypospadias treatment. This is why standard techniques in hypospadias repair should definitely include the diagnosis and surgical correction of penile curvature.

  11. Advances in Surgical Reconstructive Techniques in the Management of Penile, Urethral, and Scrotal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickell, Michael; Beilan, Jonathan; Wallen, Jared; Wiegand, Lucas; Carrion, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    This article reviews the most up-to-date surgical treatment options for the reconstructive management of patients with penile, urethral, and scrotal cancer. Each organ system is examined individually. Techniques and discussion for penile cancer reconstruction include Mohs surgery, glans resurfacing, partial and total glansectomy, and phalloplasty. Included in the penile cancer reconstruction section is the use of penile prosthesis in phalloplasty patients after penectomy, tissue engineering in phallic regeneration, and penile transplantation. Reconstruction following treatment of primary urethral carcinoma and current techniques for scrotal cancer reconstruction using split-thickness skin grafts and flaps are described.

  12. Femoral Metastasis from Penile Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Braumann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Penile cancer rarely gives symptomatic skeletal metastases. Methods. We present 2 patients with squamous carcinoma of the penis who were surgically treated for metastases in the femur. Results. Both patients had pathological fractures and were operated on. In one case, the skeletal metastasis preceded any lymphatic spread of the disease, suggesting early haematogenous dissemination. Conclusions. Endoprosthetic reconstruction resulted in pain relief and restored the ambulatory capacity. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility for symptomatic bone metastases with a risk for pathological fracture in patients with penile cancer.

  13. Femoral Metastasis from Penile Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braumann, Laura; Tsagozis, Panagiotis; Wedin, Rikard; Brosjö, Otte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Penile cancer rarely gives symptomatic skeletal metastases. Methods. We present 2 patients with squamous carcinoma of the penis who were surgically treated for metastases in the femur. Results. Both patients had pathological fractures and were operated on. In one case, the skeletal metastasis preceded any lymphatic spread of the disease, suggesting early haematogenous dissemination. Conclusions. Endoprosthetic reconstruction resulted in pain relief and restored the ambulatory capacity. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility for symptomatic bone metastases with a risk for pathological fracture in patients with penile cancer.

  14. Penile cutaneous horn: An enigma-newer insights and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliaperumal Karthikeyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn refers to unusually cohesive keratinized material and not a true pathologic diagnosis. Though cutaneous horn has been described at various sites, horn over the penis is very rare and represents the most unusual site. The role of chronic irritation, phimosis, surgical trauma and radiotherapy have been implicated in penile horn formation. Penile horns present as elongated, keratinous, white or yellowish projections that range from a few millimeters to centimeters in size arising from the glans penis. Histopathology of the keratotic mass reveals nothing but keratin. The underlying mass may vary from verruca vulgaris to squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment is based on the pathology.

  15. Overexpression of ANXA1 in Penile Carcinomas Positive for High-Risk HPVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Mota, Mânlio Tasso de Oliveira; Babeto, Érica; Candido, Natália Maria; Girol, Ana Paula; Mendiburu, Carlos Fabian; Bonilha, Jane Lopes; Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; Rosa, Bruno Miziara; Thomé, Jorge Alberto; Medeiros, Gustavo Hernandez Américo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Guimarães, Gustavo Cardoso; de Arruda, José Germano Ferraz; Oliani, Sonia Maria; Villa, Luisa Lina; Vassallo, José; Rahal, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of penile cancer varies between populations but is rare in developed nations. Penile cancer is associated with a number of established risk factors and associated diseases including phimosis with chronic inflammation, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, poor hygiene and smoking. The objective of this study was to identify genes related to this type of cancer. The detection of HPV was analyzed in 47 penile squamous cell carcinoma samples. HPV DNA was detected in 48.9% of penile squamous cell carcinoma cases. High-risk HPV were present in 42.5% of cases and low-risk HPV were detected in 10.6% of penile squamous cell carcinomas. The RaSH approach identified differential expression of Annexin A1 (ANXA1), p16, RPL6, PBEF1 and KIAA1033 in high-risk HPV positive penile carcinoma; ANXA1 and p16 were overexpressed in penile squamous cells positive for high-risk HPVs compared to normal penile samples by qPCR. ANXA1 and p16 proteins were significantly more expressed in the cells from high-risk HPV-positive penile carcinoma as compared to HPV-negative tumors (p<0.0001) independently of the subtype of the carcinoma. Overexpression of ANXA1 might be mediated by HPV E6 in penile squamous cell carcinoma of patients with high-risk HPVs, suggesting that this gene plays an important role in penile cancer. PMID:23341933

  16. Penile representations in ancient Greek art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2013-12-01

    The presentation of the cult of phallus in ancient Greece and the artistic appearance of the phenomenon on vase figures and statues, as indicative of the significant role of the male genitalia in all fertility ceremonies. The examination of a great number of penile representations from the ancient Greek pottery and sculpture and the review of the ancient theater plays (satiric dramas and comedies ). Phallus in artistic representation is connected either with gods of fertility, such as the goat-footed and horned Pan or the ugly dwarf Priapus or the semi-animal nailed figures Satyrs, devotees of the god Dionysus accompanying him in all ritual orgiastic celebrations. Phallus also symbolizes good luck, health and sexuality: people bear or wear artificial phalli exactly like the actors as part of their costume or carry huge penises during the festive ritual processions. On the contrary, the Olympic gods or the ordinary mortals are not imaged ithyphallic; the ideal type of male beauty epitomized in classical sculpture, normally depicts genitals of average or less than average size. It is noteworthy that many of these images belong to athletes during or immediately after hard exercise with the penis shrunk. The normal size genitalia may have been simply a convention to distinguish normal people from the gods of sexuality and fertility, protectors of the reproductive process of Nature. The representation of the over-sized and erected genitalia on vase figures or statues of ancient Greek art is related to fertility gods such as Priapus, Pan and Satyrs and there is strong evidence that imagination and legend were replacing the scientific achievements in the field of erectile function for many centuries.

  17. CO2 laser in malignant lesions of the larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annyas, A A; Van Overbeek, J J; Escajadillo, J R; Hoeksema, P E

    1984-06-01

    The CO2 laser is being used in several otolaryngology departments around the world. Clinical experience has shown that it is a unique surgical tool in the management of benign and in some malignant lesions of the larynx. Until now, little has been written about its indications in patients with carcinomas of the larynx. The purpose of this paper is to present our experience with 58 patients with various premalignant and malignant lesions of the larynx in which the CO2 laser was employed as a curative or palliative debulking procedure.

  18. Positive lymphoscintigraphy (ILS) and negative computed tomography for metastatic penile cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantis, Athanasios; Sountoulides, Petros; Kalaitzis, Christos; Boussios, Nikolaos; Giannakopoulos, Stelios; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    Penile carcinoma usually occurs in older than 40 years men with an incidence in western communities of 0.5 to 1.6 per 100,000 men per year while in developing countries the rate is much higher in men. Extensive lymph node dissection of lymphatic inguinal metastases evident by inguinal lymphoscintigraphy (ILS) induces improved overall survival. A 75 years old male with penile squamous cell carcinoma stage pT2N0M0 of less than 2cm diameter, with tumor invasion of the penis corpora underwent partial penectomy with a 2-cm disease-free margin. Three months postoperation, computed tomography (CT) was negative for local recurrence or distant metastases. A dynamic ILS was performed after local anaesthesia and intradermal injection of 80MBq of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid at the lower edge of the left and right inguinal ducts. The lymphatic chain and a hot spot suggestive of a first draining lymph node appeared after 15min on the right inguinal region in the second zone according to Daseler mapping. The left inguinal area was negative for sentinel node (SN). In view of this finding an exploratory laparotomy was performed and pathology showed that this lymph node that was probably a SN was infiltrated by the squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was upstaged to T2N1M0 and scheduled to receive adjuvant chemotherapy with two courses of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. While T1 and T2 tumours of diameters 2cm, T3 tumours, and T4 tumours are treated with glans amputation and/or partial or total penile amputation. Imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scan do not always give accurate staging information, because positive findings are usually found only in patients with clinically palpable, enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Computed tomography and MRI have low sensitivity to identify occult metastases, because they present criteria for malignant involvement mainly based on the size of the lesions. The main pitfall of these diagnostic modalities is due to occult

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Penile Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a man more likely to develop penile cancer. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a group of more than ... likely to get and stay infected with the human papilloma virus (HPV), even after accounting for differences in ...

  20. Penile shaft sinus: A sequalae of circumcision in urethral duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman O Abdur-Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral duplication (UD is rare congenital anomalies with varied presentation. Careful clinical evaluation of children by specialist would enhance diagnosis, adequate management and reduce occurrence of complication. We present a 12-year-old boy with chronic post circumcision ventral penile sinus that was successfully managed for urethral duplication.

  1. Safety and efficacy outcomes of ZSI 475 penile prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewniewski, Mariusz; Ostrowski, Ireneusz; Pottek, Tobias; Neugart, Frank; Ciechan, Janusz; Llorens, Christophe; Rozanski, Waldemar

    2017-04-20

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate safety and efficacy of ZSI 475 hydraulic penile prosthesis three components. Preparation, procedure and functional results are similar to AMS 700 and Coloplast Titan. This study was conducted from September 2012 to December 2016. From September 2012 to December 2016, 29 ZSI 475 hydraulic penile prostheses three components were implanted by six surgeons in 28 patients in five European centres. Mean age of patients was 60 years old (44-75). Standard peno-scrotal incision procedure was performed for the 28 patients. Erectile function was assessed by IIEF-5 self-administered questionnaire. Median follow-up was 35.11 months (8-47). Postoperative complications were limited to scrotal pump torsion that required a revision, an armed tubing breakage and a scrotal haematoma. At the end of follow-up, 100% of patients had a functional prosthesis and 92.86% were satisfied. Implantation, risks of complications, functional outcome and patient satisfaction with penile implant ZSI 475 are similar to standard hydraulic penile implants three components as AMS 700 and Coloplast Titan.

  2. Ultrastructural changes of penile tunica albuginea in aiabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-LiLu; Zhou-JunShen; HuaWang; Shan-WenChen; Xie-LaiZhou; Zhao-DianChen

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To clarify the ultrastructural changes of penile tunica albuginea (TA) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Intraperitoneal injection of STZ was used to induce diabetes mellitus (DM) in 12 Sprague Dawley rats. Ten rats (age and weight-matched) were used as control. Blood samples from the tail snips of the rats were used for the determination of serum glucose levels with SureStep Plus Blood Meter. At week 4 and 10 after the injection, half of the rats in each group were sacrificed and penile samples were obtained from the middle third of the penile shaft for the examination of TA under scanning electron microscopy. Results: In the diabetic group, the serum glucose levels were higher (P<0.01 at both time points) and the TA were thinner (P<0.05) than those of the controls.In the control group, the fibers of TA were rich and arranged regularly and undulated, while in the diabetic group, the fibers were diminished, lost the undulations and were arranged irregularly. Conclusion: In rats, DM appeared to impair the penile TA ultrastructures and this impairment could contribute to diabetic erectile dysfunction in part by impairing the veno-occlusive function. (Asian J Andro12004 Dec;6:365-368)

  3. Penile torsion correction by diagonal corporal plication sutures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent W. Snow

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Penile torsion is commonly encountered. It can be caused by skin and dartos adherence or Buck’s fascia attachments. The authors suggest a new surgical approach to solve both problems. If Buck’s fascia involvement is demonstrated by artificial erection then a new diagonal corporal plication suture is described to effectively solve this problem.

  4. Congenital fistula of the penile urethra: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunc Ozdemir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urethral fistulous opening to the penile shaft with or without chordee is extremely rare. Here, a 4-year-old boy with congenital urethral fistula is reported. English literature was reviewed for the former similar cases. Historical analysis showed that no appropriate nomenclature occurred for this isolated anomaly.

  5. The role of HPV in diagnosis and management of cervical premalignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Hamont, D. van

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cytological pathology is not uncommon. Prevention of cervical cancer by detection of the disease in an early and pre-malignant stage is practised globally either through population-based screening programmes or more optimistically non-organised ones. High-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) detected by cervical cytological screening are extensively visualised by colposcopy and successively treated by, for instance, large loop electro-surgical excision of the transformation...

  6. Penile prosthesis implant: scientific advances and technological innovations over the last four decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Despite introduction of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and intracavernosal vasoactive agents, penile prosthesis implant remains a relevant and desired option with sales of penile prostheses continue to stay high, as many men became refractory to medical therapy and/or seeking a more effective and permanent therapy. There are two types of penile prosthesis implants: inflatable and non-inflatable types, and the inflatable penile implants can be subdivided into single-, two- and three-piece devices. Non-inflatable penile prosthesis (non-IPP) may be referred to as semi-rigid rod or malleable prosthesis. IPP is considered a superior option to malleable prosthesis as it produces penile rigidity and flaccidity that closely replicates a normal penile erectile function. Since the introduction of IPP by Scott in 1973, surgical landscape for penile prosthesis implantation has changed dramatically. Advances in prosthesis design, device technologies and surgical techniques have made penile prosthesis implant a more natural, durable and reliable device. The following article reviews the scientific advances and technological innovation in modern penile prosthesis implants over the last four decades. PMID:28217449

  7. Advanced endoscopic ultrasound management techniques for preneoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel; Bharmal, Sheila; Duman, Deniz Guney; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Turner, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions can be benign, premalignant or malignant. The recent increase in detection and tremendous clinical variability of pancreatic cysts has presented a significant therapeutic challenge to physicians. Mucinous cystic neoplasms are of particular interest given their known malignant potential. This review article provides a brief but comprehensive review of premalignant pancreatic cystic lesions with advanced endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) management approaches. A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane, OVID and EMBASE databases. Preneoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions include mucinous cystadenoma and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. The 2012 International Sendai Guidelines guide physicians in their management of pancreatic cystic lesions. Some of the advanced EUS management techniques include ethanol ablation, chemotherapeutic (paclitaxel) ablation, radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy. In future, EUS-guided injections of drug-eluting beads and neodymium:yttrium aluminum agent laser ablation is predicted to be an integral part of EUS-guided management techniques. In summary, International Sendai Consensus Guidelines should be used to make a decision regarding management of pancreatic cystic lesions. Advanced EUS techniques are proving extremely beneficial in management, especially in those patients who are at high surgical risk. PMID:27574295

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laser surgery : A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor. Cryosurgery : A treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy ...

  9. An unusual delayed complication of paraffin self-injection for penile girth augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Siati, Mario; Selvaggio, Oscar; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Liuzzi, Giuseppe; Massenio, Paolo; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Cormio, Luigi

    2013-12-01

    Penile self-injection of various oils is still carried out among Eastern Europe people for penile girth augmentation despite the potential destructive complications of this practice are well known. Penile reactions to such foreign bodies include scarring, abscess formation, ulceration, and even Fournier's gangrene; voiding problems due to mineral oil self-injection have been reported only once. To our knowledge, we describe the first case of paraffin self-injection for penile girth augmentation presenting with acute urinary retention. A 27-year-old Romanian man presented with severe penile pain and acute urinary retention five years after having practiced repeated penile self-injections of paraffin for penile girth augmentation. The penile shaft was massively enlarged, fibrotic and phymotic; urethral catheterization failed due to severe stricture of the proximal pendulum urethra. The patients refused placement of a suprapubic catheter and underwent immediate penile surgical exploration. The scarred tissue between dartos and Buck's fascia and a fibrotic ring occluding the urethra were removed and the penile skin reconstructed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of paraffinoma. The patient resumed normal voiding immediately after catheter removal on second postoperative day; he was very pleased with cosmetic, sexual and voiding results at six weeks, six months and 1 year follow-up. The present report describes a novel complication of penile self-injection for penile girth augmentation. Because of the increasing number of patients seeking penile augmentation, physicians dealing with sexual medicine should pay more attention to such request to prevent the use of non medical treatments that can turn into medical disasters.

  10. A penile spine/vibrissa enhancer sequence is missing in modern and extinct humans but is retained in multiple primates with penile spines and sensory vibrissae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L Reno

    Full Text Available Previous studies show that humans have a large genomic deletion downstream of the Androgen Receptor gene that eliminates an ancestral mammalian regulatory enhancer that drives expression in developing penile spines and sensory vibrissae. Here we use a combination of large-scale sequence analysis and PCR amplification to demonstrate that the penile spine/vibrissa enhancer is missing in all humans surveyed and in the Neandertal and Denisovan genomes, but is present in DNA samples of chimpanzees and bonobos, as well as in multiple other great apes and primates that maintain some form of penile integumentary appendage and facial vibrissae. These results further strengthen the association between the presence of the penile spine/vibrissa enhancer and the presence of penile spines and macro- or micro- vibrissae in non-human primates as well as show that loss of the enhancer is both a distinctive and characteristic feature of the human lineage.

  11. White Lesions in the Oral Cavity: A Clinicopathological Study from a Tertiary Care Dermatology Centre in Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    S M Simi; G Nandakumar; T S Anish

    2013-01-01

    Context: White lesions in the oral cavity may be benign, pre-malignant or malignant. There are no signs and symptoms which can reliably predict whether a leukoplakia will undergo malignant change or not. Many systemic conditions appear initially in the oral cavity and prompt diagnosis and management can help in minimizing disease progression and organ destruction. Aim : The aim of the paper was to study the clinical and histopathological patterns of white lesions in the oral cavity presented ...

  12. Protective Effects of B Vitamins and Antioxidants on the Risk of Arsenic-Related Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Background An estimated 25–40 million of the 127 million people of Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic from drinking groundwater. The mitigating effects of diet on arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions are largely unknown. Objectives The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin) and antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) on arsenic-related skin lesions. Methods We per...

  13. Use of inflatable penile prostheses AMS CX with momentary squeeze in a patient with Peyronie’s disease after removal of two previously implanted penile prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Vicini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peyronie's disease (PD is a fibrotic wound-healing condition of the tunica albuginea that results in penile deformity, curvature, hinging, narrowing and shortening, penile pain, and in some cases, erectile dysfunction (ED. Surgery remains the gold standard treatment option, ensuring the faster and trustworthy treatment. For those patients who have erectile dysfunction and PD, penile prosthesis placement with straightening procedure is the best method to solve both diseases. The aim of this article is to present the use of hydraulic penile prostheses AMS CX with Momentary Squeeze associated with a complete isolation of the neurovascular bundle in a complex case after removal of two previously implanted prostheses in a man suffering from Peyronie’s disease and erectile dysfunction. Material and method: A 50 year-old patient underwent two previous prosthetic implants in another hospital. The first implantation was performed using an infrapubic approach followed by placement of a three-component hydraulic penile prosthesis. After six months the prosthesis was removed using an infra-pubic approach and two soft prosthesis Virilis II were implanted during the same surgery. One year after the second operation we implanted a hydraulic penile prosthesis AMS CX with Mo - mentary Squeeze after complete isolation of the neurovascular bundle, fixing the two crural tips at the same level of albuginea of the two corpora cavernosa. Result: Twelve months after surgery the penis was completely straight without penile shortening and the patient was fully satisfied with his sexual life. Conclusion: The procedure enabled a perfect alignment of the cylinders along the longitudinal axis and penile prosthetic symmetry to obtain a good penile rigidity and a perfect penile straightening.

  14. US and MRI Findings of Penile Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ha Yeun [Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Metastatic tumors of the penis originating from the gastrointestinal tract are rare clinical conditions. We experienced a case of penile metastasis in a 59-year-old man who underwent an abdomino-peritoneal resection for a moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the rectum 4 years earlier. We report penile ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings on this uncommon metastatic penile tumor from a rectal adenocarcinoma and briefly review radiologic findings and relevant literature

  15. Venous Ligation: A Novel Strategy for Glans Enhancement in Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Geng-Long Hsu; Hill, James W.; Cheng-Hsing Hsieh; Shih-Ping Liu; Chih-Yuan Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Although penile implantation remains a final solution for patients with refractory impotence, undesirable postoperative effects, including penile size reduction and cold sensation of the glans penis, remain problematic. We report results of a surgical method designed to avoid these problems. From 2003 to 2013, 35 consecutive patients received a malleable penile implant. Of these, 15 men (the enhancing group) were also treated with venous ligation of the retrocoronal venous plexus, deep dorsal...

  16. Do adult men with untreated ventral penile curvature have adverse outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vani; Breyer, Benjamin; Copp, Hillary L; Baskin, Laurence; Disandro, Michael; Schlomer, Bruce J

    2016-02-01

    Congenital ventral penile curvature without hypospadias is often treated surgically in childhood. The history of untreated ventral curvature is unknown. This study's aim was to examine the association of untreated ventral penile curvature with various sexual and psychosexual outcomes. An electronic survey was advertised to men older than 18 years on Facebook. Men with possible ventral penile curvature identified themselves by choosing sketches that most closely represented their anatomy. Outcomes assessed included: Sexual Health Inventory for Men, difficulty of intercourse because of curvature, International Prostate Symptom Score, Penile Perception Score, psychosexual milestones, paternity, infertility, sitting to urinate, and the CDC HRQOL-4 module. Among participants, 81 out of 684 men (11.8%) reported untreated ventral penile curvature. Participants with self-reported curvature noted more difficulty with intercourse because of curvature (4.5 vs 4.9, p < 0.001), more unhealthy mental days (8.6 vs 6.2, p = 0.02), and increased dissatisfaction with penile self-perception compared with men without reported curvature (8.6 vs 9.5, p < 0.001). Men with possible untreated ventral curvature reported worse penile perception scores, more mentally unhealthy days, and increased difficulty with intercourse secondary to curvature compared with men without curvature. A limitation to this study is selection bias; responses collected were self-reported from survey volunteers. Additionally, the question identifying ventral penile curvature is not validated but performed well in pretesting. Most questions were from validated surveys, but some were modeled after validated surveys and/or contained high face validity types of questions. Men with possible untreated ventral penile curvature reported more dissatisfaction with penile appearance, increased difficulty with intercourse, and more unhealthy mental days. Given high success rates, low complications, and improved outcomes after

  17. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Rafiei, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation. Sex Med 2014;2:182–185.

  18. Complete penile amputation during ritual neonatal circumcision and successful replantation using postoperative leech therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Omaya I; Fox, Janelle A; Gander, Brian H; Grunwaldt, Lorelei J; Cannon, Glenn M

    2014-08-01

    Circumcision is the most common surgical procedure in males in the United States, and minor complications are not uncommon. Major complications like partial penile amputations have been reported with successful replantation. Complete penile amputations in adult males have been described, and successful replantation has been reported with increasing success. We report a case of complete penile amputation at the penopubic junction using a Mogen clamp in a 7-day-old neonate with replantation using postoperative leech therapy. To our knowledge this is the first time leech therapy has been used postoperatively for neonatal penile amputation.

  19. Hypothesis of human penile anatomy, erection hemodynamics and their clinical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng-Long Hsu

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To summarize recent advances in human penile anatomy, hemodynamics and their clinical applications. Methods:Using dissecting, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy the fibroskeleton structure, penile venous vasculature,the relationship of the architecture between the skeletal and smooth muscles, and erection hemodynamics were studied on human cadaveric penises and clinical patients over a period of 10 years. Results: The tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa is a bi-layered structure with inner circular and outer longitudinal collagen bundles. Although there is no bone in the human glans, a strong equivalent distal ligament acts as a trunk of the glans penis. A guaranteed method of local anesthesia for penile surgeries and a tunical surgery was developed accordingly. On the venous vasculature it is elucidated that a deep dorsal vein, a couple of cavernosal veins and two pairs of para-arterial veins are located between the Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Furthermore, a hemodynamic study suggests that a fully rigid erection may depend upon the drainage veins as well, rather than just the intracavernosal smooth muscle. It is believed that penile venous surgery deserves another look, and that it may be meaningful if thoroughly and carefully performed. Accordingly, a penile venous surgery was developed. Conclusion: Using this new insight into penile anatomy and physiology, exact penile curvature correction, refined penile implants and promising penile venous surgery, as well as a venous patch, for treating Peyronie's deformity might be performed under pure local anesthesia on an outpatient basis.

  20. Penile prosthesis implantation in the era of medical treatment for erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Drogo K

    2011-05-01

    Penile prosthesis implantation, the oldest of the modern treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED), still plays an important role despite the advent of less invasive alternatives. For some men with ED, penile prosthesis implantation is the only effective or acceptable treatment. Penile prosthesis implantation remains a viable option in the contemporary management of ED as evidenced by annual penile prosthesis implantation cases in the United States rising from 17,540 in 2000 to 22,420 in 2009. Improvements in prosthesis design and implantation techniques have resulted in significant increases in device survival and patient satisfaction.

  1. Isolated pump erosion of an inflatable penile prosthesis through the scrotum in a diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidh A. Talib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Isolated pump erosion is a rare complication in patients with inflatable penile prosthesis. We describe a case of a diabetic patient who underwent inflatable penile prosthesis implantation with subsequent isolated pump erosion. Repeated attempts of conservative repair of the erosion failed. Finally, the inflatable penile prosthesis was replaced with a malleable one to avoid new pump erosion. In case of isolated pump erosion, replacement of the inflatable penile prosthesis with a malleable one looks to be a good alternative salvage treatment for the patient.

  2. Penile strangulation and necrosis due to condom catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Heval S; İrkoren, Saime; Sivrioğlu, Nazan

    2015-06-01

    Condom catheters are often used in the management of male urinary incontinence, and are considered to be safe. As condom catheters are placed on the male genitalia, sometimes adequate care is not taken after placement owing to poor medical care of debilitated patients and feelings of embarrassment and shame. Similarly, sometimes the correct size of penile sheath is not used. Strangulation of penis due to condom catheter is a rare condition; only few such cases have been reported in the literature. Proper application and routine care of condom catheters are important in preventing this devastating complication especially in a neurologically debilitated population. We present a case of penile necrosis due to condom catheter. We will also discuss proper catheter care and treatment of possible complications.

  3. Ischemic Gangrene of the Glans following Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Borja García Gómez; Javier Romero Otero; Laura Díez Sicilia; Estibaliz Jiménez Alcaide; Eduardo García-Cruz; Alfredo Rodríguez Antolín

    2013-01-01

    The development of ischemic gangrene of the penis following implantation of prosthesis is unusual, and very few cases are available in the literature. As a result, no established treatment protocol is available. We report our experience within a case of gangrene of the glans following implantation of a three-component prosthesis. We present a 53-year-old male, smoker with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, who underwent surgery for the insertion of a penile prosthesis with 3 components to cor...

  4. Femoral Metastasis from Penile Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Braumann; Panagiotis Tsagozis; Rikard Wedin; Otte Brosjö

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Penile cancer rarely gives symptomatic skeletal metastases. Methods. We present 2 patients with squamous carcinoma of the penis who were surgically treated for metastases in the femur. Results. Both patients had pathological fractures and were operated on. In one case, the skeletal metastasis preceded any lymphatic spread of the disease, suggesting early haematogenous dissemination. Conclusions. Endoprosthetic reconstruction resulted in pain relief and restored the ambulatory capacit...

  5. Distal corporoplasty for distal cylinders extrusion after penile prosthesis implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino, Maurizio; Chiancone, Francesco; Battaglia, Gaetano; Pucci, Luigi; Fedelini, Paolo

    2017-02-03

    Distal extrusion of cylinders is a potential complication of the penile prosthesis implantation. Several methods have been proposed for repairing a distal penile erosion. We present our preliminary experience in "Distal corporoplasty" technique. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients whose underwent a distal corporoplasty with simultaneous reimplantation of an "AMS 700 inflatable penile prosthesis (LGX)" from January 2013 to November 2015 at our hospital. All procedures were performed by a single surgical team. Intraoperative and postoperative complications have been classified and reported according to Satava6 and Clavien-Dindo (CD) system.7 Mean values with standard deviations (±SD) were computed and reported for all items. Mean age of the patients was 53.61 (±11.90) years. Mean body max index (BMI) was 24.22 (±2.51). Mean operative time was 85.2 (±13.1) minutes. Blood losses were minimal. No intraoperative complications are reported according to Satava classification. Four out of 18 patients (22.22%) experienced postoperative complications according to CD system. All patients had sexual intercourse for the first time postsurgery after a mean of 59.11 ± 2.08 days. Mean follow-up was 22.11 (±9.95). Distal extrusion of cylinders is a potential complication of the penile prosthesis implantation. Distal corporoplasty was first described by Mulcahy. He reported a series of 14 patients with a follow-up of about 2 years with optimal functional outcomes. Moreover, distal corporoplasty resulted in shorter operative time, better function, less pain, and fewer recurrences than Gortex windsock repair.10 In our experience, distal corporoplasty is a simple and safe procedure in the treatment of distal cylinders extrusion when the prosthetic material is not exposed to the exterior.

  6. Aphallia (Penile agenesis: A preliminary report of three cases

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    Prashant Sadashiv Patil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphallia (penile agenesis is an extremely rare abnormality with the reported incidence of 1 in 30 million births. The cause of this anomaly is associated with no genital tubercle formation or its development impairment. The majority of patients have 46XY Karyotype. The scrotum, testes and testicular function are usually normal. We report the preliminary experience with 3 cases of aphallia in different age groups along with a review of the literature.

  7. Combined modality therapy for locally advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrick, T J; Wheeler, W; Riemenschneider, H

    1993-12-01

    We report here a patient who presented with locally advanced Jackson Stage IV penile squamous cell carcinoma who was managed with preoperative 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C chemotherapy, and concurrent radiation therapy. He experienced an excellent partial response which allowed more limited surgery than would otherwise be indicated. He is still alive and well 5 years after completion of his treatment without side effects, local recurrence, or distant metastatic disease.

  8. Penile squamous cell carcinoma arising from balanitis xerotica obliterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, H B; Miller, O F; Tyler, W B

    1993-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising from balanitis xerotica obliterans is rarely reported. We describe an 83-year-old man in whom metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma developed after 18 years of observation for balanitis xerotica obliterans. It is important to recognize the possibility of this uncommon complication of balanitis xerotica obliterans, because survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma depends on early diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Are buckling force measurements reliable in nocturnal penile tumescence studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, E A; Fasiczka, A L; Thase, M E; Reynolds, C F; Frank, E; Jennings, J R; Garamoni, G L; Matzzie, J V; Kupfer, D J

    1993-02-01

    The study of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) is frequently used to evaluate male erectile dysfunction. Buckling force, a measure of rigidity, is an important part of this evaluation, but its reliability is unknown. Accordingly, we studied the reliability of buckling force measurement and the stability of "maximum buckling force" between consecutive NPT series repeated in the same subject. For individual subjects, we correlated buckling forces for separate episodes of sleep-related tumescence that were of comparable fullness (0-100%) as rated by a technician's visual estimates. For healthy control subjects, test-retest correlations were > 0.8 both within-night and across study series separated by an average of 70 weeks. In depressed men, correlations within nights were > 0.9, but fell to 0.64 across study series separated by an average of 21 weeks. Despite the high reliability of buckling force measurement, we found little stability of "maximum buckling force" between NPT series for individual subjects. Considerable variability in the maximum degree of penile rigidity was seen over time despite a constant level of reported daytime erectile function. We conclude that although penile rigidity is one of the more important variables in the assessment of male erectile dysfunction and can be measured reliably, the instability of maximum rigidity during sleep-related erections suggests that it is, at best, an imprecise correlate of daytime erectile function.

  10. Ischemic Gangrene of the Glans following Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Gómez, Borja; Romero Otero, Javier; Díez Sicilia, Laura; Jiménez Alcaide, Estibaliz; García-Cruz, Eduardo; Rodríguez Antolín, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The development of ischemic gangrene of the penis following implantation of prosthesis is unusual, and very few cases are available in the literature. As a result, no established treatment protocol is available. We report our experience within a case of gangrene of the glans following implantation of a three-component prosthesis. We present a 53-year-old male, smoker with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, who underwent surgery for the insertion of a penile prosthesis with 3 components to correct his erectile dysfunction and severe Peyronie's disease. The procedure was carried out without incidents. During the postoperative period, the patient began to complain from penile and perineal pain. He developed avascular necrosis of the glans. The necrosed area was excised. Four weeks later, he developed fever and perineal pain arriving to the emergency room with the prosthesis extruding through the glans. He had emergency surgery to remove the prosthesis plus surgical lavage and was prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Four weeks later, the penis was completely revascularized and reepithelialized. Ischemic gangrene following penile prosthesis implantation takes place in patients with poor peripheral vascularisation. Diabetes mellitus has been the common denominator to all of the reported cases. PMID:23956919

  11. Ischemic Gangrene of the Glans following Penile Prosthesis Implantation

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    Borja García Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of ischemic gangrene of the penis following implantation of prosthesis is unusual, and very few cases are available in the literature. As a result, no established treatment protocol is available. We report our experience within a case of gangrene of the glans following implantation of a three-component prosthesis. We present a 53-year-old male, smoker with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, who underwent surgery for the insertion of a penile prosthesis with 3 components to correct his erectile dysfunction and severe Peyronie's disease. The procedure was carried out without incidents. During the postoperative period, the patient began to complain from penile and perineal pain. He developed avascular necrosis of the glans. The necrosed area was excised. Four weeks later, he developed fever and perineal pain arriving to the emergency room with the prosthesis extruding through the glans. He had emergency surgery to remove the prosthesis plus surgical lavage and was prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Four weeks later, the penis was completely revascularized and reepithelialized. Ischemic gangrene following penile prosthesis implantation takes place in patients with poor peripheral vascularisation. Diabetes mellitus has been the common denominator to all of the reported cases.

  12. Autopsy findings in 14 patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Reuter, Victor; Lezcano, Cecilia; Velazquez, Elsa; Codas, Ricardo; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe pathologic features found at autopsy of 14 patients with penile cancer. Nine patients died from disseminated disease; 5 of them presented local/regional recurrences. Five patients died from other causes, 2 of them postoperatively. Local recurrence sites were corpus cavernosum, Buck's fascia and urethra, regional skin, and prostate. Metastatic sites were lymph nodes (9 cases), liver (7 cases), lungs (6 cases), heart (5 cases), adrenals, bone and skin (3 cases each), thyroid and brain (2 cases each), and pancreas, spleen, and pleura (1 case each). Patients with heart metastasis had arrhythmias. Patients who died and who did not die from penile cancer had different profiles: low-grade superficial tumors with usual and warty subtypes versus high-grade deeply invasive basaloid or hybrid verrucous/sarcomatoid carcinomas. A natural history model for penile cancer routes of spread is proposed: local intrapeneal, regional and systemic nodes, regional skin, liver, lungs, heart, and other multiple sites.

  13. Surgical reimplantation of penile glans amputation in children during circumcision

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    Bouassida Khaireddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circumcision is one of the oldest and most commonly performed surgical procedures. Unfortunately, various complications may occur during circumcision, ranging from trivial to tragic such as penile amputation which is a serious complication and a challenging injury to treat. We describe two cases of non-microsurgical successful reattachment of a distal penile glans which were amputated during circumcision. In the first case, a 5-year-old child underwent circumcision by an urologist under local anesthesia. In the second one, a 3-year-old child underwent circumcision by a general practitioner who used to make circumcision. In this article, the literature is reviewed; results and potential complications of this surgery are also discussed. Glans sensation was present, early morning erection was maintained, and there was an erectile response during penile manipulation in both cases. Although circumcision is not technically difficult, it should be taken seriously. The use of microsurgical reattachment is not always possible, especially in pediatric cases; it also requires special equipment and training.

  14. Normal and variations of internal pudendal artery in penile arteriography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang [College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    Appreciation of the type and frequency of normal variations is important because branching patterns of internal pudendal artery (IPA) are highly variable and frequently differed from the classic description of anatomy. And these variations could be easily confused with arterial obstruction or abnormality. We analyzed 34 normal internal pudendal arteries from 17 men who were not believed to have arteriogenic impotence. The technique of studies were superselective IPA selection of catheter, and simultaneous infusion of intracavernosal and intraarterial papaverine with intraarterial lidocaine, under local anesthesia. The type and frequency of variations were 2 cases of hypoplastic dorsal penile artery (DPA) (6%), 1 case of one penile artery supplying both DPA (3%), 2 cases of accessory IPA (6%), and 4 cases of two DPA from one IPA (12%), 19 cases of two or more deep cavernosal artery from one IPA (56%). The overall frequency of both normal IPA in one man was 17.6% (N = 3 from 17 men). We wish anatomic variations and frequency should be fully recognized to avoid errors in interpretation of penile arteriography.

  15. Immunohistochemical profile of the penile urethra and differential expression of GATA3 in urothelial versus squamous cell carcinomas of the penile urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Han, Jeong S; Lee, Stephen; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Sharma, Rajni; Burnett, Arthur L; Cubilla, Antonio L; Netto, George J

    2013-12-01

    The penile urethra has a distinctive morphology not yet fully characterized by immunohistochemistry. In addition, both urothelial and squamous cell carcinomas have been reported in the penile urethra, and the distinction between these 2 tumors might be difficult. The purposes of this study are to assess the histology and immunohistochemical profile (CK20, CK7, p63, and GATA3) of the penile urethra and to assess the usefulness of Trans-acting T-cell-specific transcription factor (GATA3) and human papillomavirus detection in distinguishing urothelial versus squamous cell carcinomas. Normal penile urethra was evaluated in 11 total penectomies. The penile urethra was lined by 2 cell layers: a superficial single layer of CK7+, CK20-, and p63- columnar cells and a deep stratified layer of CK7-, CK20-, and p63+ cubical cells. Both layers were GATA3+, supporting urothelial differentiation. In addition, 2 tissue microarrays and 6 surgical specimens of primary tumors of the penile urethra (3 urothelial and 3 squamous cell carcinomas) were evaluated for GATA3 expression. In the tissue microarrays, 22 of 25 upper tract urothelial carcinomas and 0 of 38 penile squamous cell carcinomas were GATA3+. In the surgical specimens, GATA3 was positive in all urothelial carcinomas and negative in all squamous cell carcinomas. Human papillomavirus was detected in 2 of 3 squamous cell carcinomas and in 0 of 3 of the urothelial carcinomas. In conclusion, the penile urethra is covered by epithelial cells that are unique in morphology and immunohistochemical profile. In addition, our study suggests that GATA3 and human papillomavirus detection are useful markers for distinguishing urothelial carcinomas from squamous cell carcinomas of the penile urethra.

  16. Warburg and Crabtree effects in premalignant Barrett's esophagus cell lines with active mitochondria.

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    Martin T Suchorolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer metabolism, yet relatively little is known about this phenotype at premalignant stages of progression. Periodic ischemia occurs in the premalignant condition Barrett's esophagus (BE due to tissue damage from chronic acid-bile reflux and may select for early adaptations to hypoxia, including upregulation of glycolysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in four cell lines derived from patients with BE (CP-A, CP-B, CP-C and CP-D in response to metabolic inhibitors and changes in glucose concentration. We report that cell lines derived from patients with more advanced genetically unstable BE have up to two-fold higher glycolysis compared to a cell line derived from a patient with early genetically stable BE; however, all cell lines preserve active mitochondria. In response to the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, the most glycolytic cell lines (CP-C and CP-D had the greatest suppression of extra-cellular acidification, but were able to compensate with upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, these cell lines showed the lowest compensatory increases in glycolysis in response to mitochondrial uncoupling by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Finally, these cell lines also upregulated their oxidative phosphorylation in response to glucose via the Crabtree effect, and demonstrate a greater range of modulation of oxygen consumption. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that cells from premalignant Barrett's esophagus tissue may adapt to an ever-changing selective microenvironment through changes in energy metabolic pathways typically associated with cancer cells.

  17. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos associados ao câncer de pênis Clinico-epidemiological aspects associated with penile cancer

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    Angela Adamski da Silva Reis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão bibliográfica foi descrever a epidemiologia, o comportamento biológico dos tumores e os fatores de risco para o câncer de pênis, como a infecção pelo HPV. A fimose e os processos de irritação crônica relacionados à má higiene estão comumente associados com esse tumor, enquanto a circuncisão neonatal protege contra a aparição da doença. Existe forte evidência da associação dos HPV 16 e 18 com o carcinoma peniano em mais de 50% dos casos. Pacientes com lesões penianas suspeitas devem se submeter ao exame físico, geralmente sendo este suficiente para determinar o diagnóstico e o estadiamento, assim como auxiliar na escolha terapêutica.The general objective of this article is to review the current literature regarding the epidemiology, biological behavior and risk factors for penile cancer development, such as HPV infection. Phimosis and chronic irritation related to poor hygiene are commonly associated with penile cancer, whereas neonatal circumcision reduces the relative risk for the disease. There is strong evidence that HPV types 16 and 18 are associated with penile carcinoma in as many as 50% of cases. Patients with penile lesions should undergo physical examination, which is often sufficient to diagnose and to define tumor stagging, as well as contributes to decision-making regarding therapeutical approaches and case management.

  18. [Congenital penile curvature (chordee without hypospadias): surgical treatment for correction of penile curvature and/or buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Presented are the cases of 19 boys with ventral penile curvature without hypospadias. The cases were categorised into three groups according to the severity of the anomaly. In group I were 7 boys with ventral penile curvature affecting the shortening of the frenulum with skin tethering. The anomaly was corrected by fraenulotomy and, in 4 boys, by ventral "V" and "Y" penile skinplasty with excellent cosmetic results. In group II were 10 boys with an evident chordee. In 4 boys, the chordee was of type III according to Devin-Horton. A chordectomy was done with a "V" and "Y" skinplasty with very good result. The remaining 6 cases were chordee type II according to D-H. The same treatment was undertaken here, but with an additional Nesbit's dorsal tunica albuginea plication in 4 boys and a 50% success (3 of 6). In group III were 5 boys, 3 previously failed chordectomy from group II and 2 with "skin urethra" type chordee I according to D-H. All boys in this group were treated for urethroplasty with autologous buccal mucosal graft. Good results were obtained in 3 of 5 (60%). Successful outcome was achieved in both cases with "skin urethra" not previously treated. The results of our urethroplasty with buccal mucosa agree with those in literature. In the treatment of chordee without hypospadias, where it was necessary to reconstruct the urethra there was a constant problem of the shortage of local tissue, so we believe that buccal mucosa is a good choice.

  19. Penile epithelioid sarcoma: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirikci, A.; Bayram, M.; Demirci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey); Bakir, K. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey); Sarica, K. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 38-year-old man with epithelioid sarcoma of the penis is presented. It started as a firm, painless and slowly growing nodule at the base of his penis 6 months previously which caused pain radiating to the testis during coitus. It has been well known that sarcomas may well mimic reactive processes. Initial presentation of epithelioid sarcoma may provoke considerable diagnostic difficulty, and its differentiation from benign lesions, such as Peyronie`s disease and chronic inflammation, may be a clinical problem. In our present report the MR findings are compared with those of the epithelioid sarcomas of various locations reported in the literature and differential diagnosis of the entity is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the MR findings of the epithelioid sarcoma of penis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 16 refs.

  20. F-18 Fluorodeoxy Glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings in a Rare Case of Penile Leiomyosarcoma

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    Kuruva Manohar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a rare entity accounting for only 0.4% all male malignancies. Penile leiomyosarcomas are even rarer with only around 35 cases reported in literature. We report a rare case of penile leiomyosarcoma illustrating F-18 Fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT features and histopathology correlation.

  1. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men

    OpenAIRE

    Anic, Gabriella M; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Rollison, Dana E.; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C.; Baggio, Maria L.; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All le...

  2. Recurrent furunculosis as a cause of isolated penile lymphedema: a case report

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    Sood Suneet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Isolated lymphedema of the penis is extremely rare: combined involvement of the scrotum and penis is the norm. Furunculosis as a cause is not, to our knowledge, previously reported. We present a case of isolated penile lymphedema that responded to excision of lymphedematous tissue and reconstruction with flaps. Case presentation A 32-year-old Arab man presented with a three-year history of a gradually increasing, painless penile swelling. Our patient's main complaint was non-erectile sexual dysfunction. The swelling was preceded by at least three prior episodes of severe furunculosis at the penile root. He had no other contributory past medical or family history. On examination there was gross penile enlargement, maximally at the mid shaft, associated with thickened skin at the sites of prior furunculosis. The glans and scrotum were normal. Both testes were palpable. Serology for filariasis, and urinary tract ultrasound and computed tomography scan were normal. The clinical diagnosis was lymphedema following recurrent penile furunculosis. At operation the lymphedematous tissues were removed. Closure of the penile shaft was accomplished by bilateral advancement of flaps from both ends of the penis. He resumed normal sexual activity one month after surgery. At 12 months, he had a good cosmetic result, with no signs of recurrence. Conclusions Furunculosis at the penile root may result in lymphedema confined to the penile shaft, sparing the scrotum. Excision of abnormal tissue and cover with a skin flap gave excellent cosmetic results, and allowed satisfactory sexual activity.

  3. Clinicopathological Pattern of Penile Cancer in a Tertiary Care Centre in Nepal

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    Dipesh K Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Penile carcinoma is primarily a disease of old. Growth over glans penis is the most common presentation and partial penectomy is feasible in most of the patients to allow oncological cure while preserving the organ for its native function. Keywords: inguinal lymph node dissection; partial penectomy; penile cancer.

  4. Surgical Management of Traumatic Penile Amputation: A Case Report and Review of the World Literature

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    Omer A. Raheem, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: We review the literature and case reports on penile amputation and its etiology, surgical management, variables effecting outcomes, and its complications. Raheem OA, Mirheydar HS, Patel ND, Patel SH, Suliman A, and Buckley JC. Surgical management of traumatic penile amputation: A case report and review of the world literature. Sex Med 2015;3:49–53.

  5. A comprehensive, prospective study of penile dimensions in Chinese men of multiple ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X B; Li, R X; Yang, H N; Dai, J C

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a reference range of penile length and circumference of adult males in China, and to compare the penile dimensions of different ethnical backgrounds. To do this, penile length and circumference measurements were obtained from 5196 healthy males attending the Urology Counseling Clinic. The mean value of penile dimensions was a flaccid length of 6.5 ± 0.7 cm, a stretched length of 12.9 ± 1.2 cm and a flaccid circumference of 8.0 ± 0.8 cm. In the subgroup of 311 males, the mean erectile length was 12.9 ± 1.3 cm and the mean erectile circumference was 10.5 ± 0.9 cm, the mean flaccid and erectile glans lengths were 2.7 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.4 cm, respectively, and the mean flaccid and erectile glans diameters were 2.6 ± 0.2 and 3.4 ± 0.4 cm, respectively. We found that flaccid penile length and circumference varied among different ethnicities. This study established a reference range for penile dimensions, which will help when counseling patients worried about their penile size or seeking penis enlargement surgery. We also found that penile dimensions are different in different ethnicities, but further investigations are needed to validate this.

  6. Penile injury due to blunt trauma after circumcision in a male child: A case report

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    Hulya Ozturk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury in the case presented here is different from the cause of penile trauma. Our case has been exposed to blunt trauma after circumcision. Type developments of the penile trauma, treatment, and precautions have been discussed with the literature.

  7. Human papillomavirus, lichen sclerosus and penile cancer: a study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Depuydt, C.E.; Bogers, J.J.; Noel, J.C.; Delvenne, P.; Marbaix, E.; Donders, A.R.T.; Tjalma, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The prevalence of penile cancer varies between 1.5 (industrialized countries) and 4.5 per 100,000 men (non-industrialized countries). Predominant histological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in 40-46% of cases: penile cancer is considered to beh

  8. Human papillomavirus, lichen sclerosus and penile cancer: a study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Depuydt, C.E.; Bogers, J.J.; Noel, J.C.; Delvenne, P.; Marbaix, E.; Donders, A.R.T.; Tjalma, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The prevalence of penile cancer varies between 1.5 (industrialized countries) and 4.5 per 100,000 men (non-industrialized countries). Predominant histological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in 40-46% of cases: penile cancer is considered to beh

  9. Correlation of Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid for screening of premalignant and malignant lesion of cervix

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    Anshu Singh

    2015-09-01

    Results: The present study was conducted over a period of 6 months among 212 patients age of 18-60 years screened. Positive results obtained from cytology were 26, VIA was positive in 28 women. Cervical biopsy was done in 34 women who had positive results by either test. Histology in 31 cases was suggestive of cervical intraepithelial carcinoma (CIN. Conclusions: VIA, though less specific has comparable sensitivity to Pap smear and may be used as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer. In combination both the tests have a higher predictive accuracy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2382-2385

  10. Fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity : prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lucia Noronha Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: O câncer da boca é um problema de saúde pública, com grande incidência na população brasileira. O paciente afetado geralmente apresenta-se para o tratamento com a doença em estádios avançados, com conseqüente diminuição das taxas de sobrevida. Diante disso, torna-se imprescindível a detecção do câncer de boca em estádios precoces. A espectroscopia de fluorescência é uma ferramenta diagnóstica não invasiva que pode auxiliar na detecção do câncer em tempo real, com o potencial de fornec...

  11. Targeting immune response with therapeutic vaccines in premalignant lesions and cervical cancer: hope or reality from clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vici, P; Pizzuti, L; Mariani, L; Zampa, G; Santini, D; Di Lauro, L; Gamucci, T; Natoli, C; Marchetti, P; Barba, M; Maugeri-Saccà, M; Sergi, D; Tomao, F; Vizza, E; Di Filippo, S; Paolini, F; Curzio, G; Corrado, G; Michelotti, A; Sanguineti, G; Giordano, A; De Maria, R; Venuti, A

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely known as a cause of cervical cancer (CC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPVs related to cancer express two main oncogenes, i.e. E6 and E7, considered as tumorigenic genes; their integration into the host genome results in the abnormal regulation of cell cycle control. Due to their peculiarities, these oncogenes represent an excellent target for cancer immunotherapy. In this work the authors highlight the potential use of therapeutic vaccines as safe and effective pharmacological tools in cervical disease, focusing on vaccines that have reached the clinical trial phase. Many therapeutic HPV vaccines have been tested in clinical trials with promising results. Adoptive T-cell therapy showed clinical activity in a phase II trial involving advanced CC patients. A phase II randomized trial showed clinical activity of a nucleic acid-based vaccine in HPV16 or HPV18 positive CIN. Several trials involving peptide-protein-based vaccines and live-vector based vaccines demonstrated that these approaches are effective in CIN as well as in advanced CC patients. HPV therapeutic vaccines must be regarded as a therapeutic option in cervical disease. The synergic combination of HPV therapeutic vaccines with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunomodulators or immune checkpoint inhibitors opens a new and interesting scenario in this disease.

  12. [Recommendations of the Chilean Association for Digestive Endoscopy for the management of gastric pre-malignant lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollán, Antonio; Cortés, Pablo; Calvo, Alfonso; Araya, Raúl; Bufadel, María Ester; González, Robinson; Heredia, Carolina; Muñoz, Pablo; Squella, Freddy; Nazal, Roberto; Gatica, María de Los Ángeles; Gobelet, Jaquelina; Estay, René; Pisano, Raúl; Contreras, Luis; Osorio, Ingrid; Estela, Ricardo; Fluxá, Fernando; Parra-Blanco, Adolfo

    2014-09-01

    An expert panel analyzed the available evidence and reached a consensus to release 24 recommendations for primary and secondary prevention of gastric cancer (CG) in symptomatic patients, with indication for upper GI endoscopy. The main recommendations include (1) Search for and eradicate H. pylori infection in all cases. (2) Systematic gastric biopsies (Sydney protocol) in all patients over 40 years of age or first grade relatives of patient with CG, to detect gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. (3) Incorporate the OLGA system (Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment) to the pathological report, to categorize the individual risk of CG. (4) Schedule endoscopic follow-up according to the estimated risk of CG, namely annual for OLGA III- IV, every 3 years for OLGA I- II or persistent H. pylori infection, every 5 years for CG relatives without other risk factors and no follow-up for OLGA 0, H. pylori (-). (4) Establish basic human and material resources for endoscopic follow-up programs, including some essential administrative processes, and (5) Suggest the early CG/total CG diagnosis ratio of each institution and the proportion of systematic recording of endoscopic images, as quality indicators. These measures are applicable using currently available resources, they can complement any future screening programs for asymptomatic population and may contribute to improve the prognosis of CG in high-risk populations.

  13. Increased number of IL-2, IL-2 receptor and IL-10 positive cells in premalignant lesions of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindiola, Raimy; Caulejas, Diana; Núñez-Troconis, José; Araujo, Mary; Delgado, Mariela; Mosquera, Jesús

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the involvement of the immune response in the progression of human uterine cervix cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias of the exocervix (CIN 1, 2 and 3), and its relationship with the serum cytokine profiles and human papilomavirus (HPV) infection status. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to study the expression of IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 in human cervical samples from 50 patients and 9 normal controls. Serum IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 were measured by ELISA and HPV DNA and HPV types were identified by PCR. Increased number of IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 positive cells were observed in the cervix from patients with CIN, associated with the grades of dysplasia. A significant correlation was observed between IL-2 and IL-2R (p>0.0001), IL-2 and IL-10 (p>0.0001), as well as IL-10 and IL-2R (p>0.0001). Twenty percent of patients were HPV positive and 84% of those patients were tissue cytokine positive. These results suggest that IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 tissue expression may play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasias.

  14. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis as a Premalignant Biliary Tract Disease: Surveillance and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sumera; Eaton, John E; Gores, Gregory J

    2015-11-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a premalignant biliary tract disease that confers a significant risk for the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The chronic biliary tract inflammation of PSC promotes pro-oncogenic processes such as cellular proliferation, induction of DNA damage, alterations of the extracellular matrix, and cholestasis. The diagnosis of malignancy in PSC can be challenging because inflammation-related changes in PSC may produce dominant biliary tract strictures mimicking CCA. Biomarkers such as detection of methylated genes in biliary specimens represent noninvasive techniques that may discriminate malignant biliary ductal changes from PSC strictures. However, conventional cytology and advanced cytologic techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization for polysomy remain the practice standard for diagnosing CCA in PSC. Curative treatment options of malignancy arising in PSC are limited. For a subset of patients selected by using stringent criteria, liver transplantation after neoadjuvant chemoradiation is a potential curative therapy. However, most patients have advanced malignancy at the time of diagnosis. Advances directed at identifying high-risk patients, early cancer detection, and development of chemopreventive strategies will be essential to better manage the cancer risk in this premalignant disease. A better understanding of dysplasia definition and especially its natural history is also needed in this disease. Herein, we review recent developments in our understanding of the risk factors, pathogenic mechanisms of PSC associated with CCA, as well as advances in early detection and therapies.

  15. Three-dimensional cultures modeling premalignant progression of human breast epithelial cells: role of cysteine cathepsins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Stefanie R.; Sameni, Mansoureh; Blum, Galia; Bogyo, Matthew; Sloane, Bonnie F.; Moin, Kamiar

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B is increased in early stages of human breast cancer. To assess the potential role of cathepsin B in premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells, we employed a 3D reconstituted basement membrane overlay culture model of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells and isogenic variants that replicate the in vivo phenotypes of hyperplasia (MCF10AneoT) and atypical hyperplasia (MCF10AT1). MCF10A cells developed into polarized acinar structures with central lumens. In contrast, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells form larger structures in which the lumens are filled with cells. CA074Me, a cell-permeable inhibitor selective for the cysteine cathepsins B and L, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of MCF10A, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells in 3D culture. We detected active cysteine cathepsins in the isogenic MCF10 variants in 3D culture with GB111, a cell-permeable activity-based probe, and established differential inhibition of cathepsin B in our 3D cultures. We conclude that cathepsin B promotes proliferation and premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells. These findings are consistent with studies by others showing that deletion of cathepsin B in the transgenic MMTV-PyMT mice, a murine model that is predisposed to development of mammary cancer, reduces malignant progression. PMID:23667900

  16. Infrapubic approach for malleable penile implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo L. D. Berg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Today, we find that the implant of malleable prostheses still plays a leading role in the surgical treatment of erectile dysfunction. These may involve patients for which the cosmetic advantages of inflatable devices are not as important as low cost, the easier use and less incidence of mechanical complications in the malleable implants. This paper demonstrates infrapubic approach as a technical option for this kind of implant. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: It offers technical resources and emphasizes the facility in using the method, reducing cutaneous exposure, which diminishes risks of contamination. COMMENTS: As occurs in inflatable implants, when implanting malleable prostheses through the infrapubic access, care must also be taken regarding the possibility of lesion to the vascular-nervous bundle. On the other hand, the approach through the dorsal surface of the corpora cavernosa has a natural capacity for anatomical protection of the urethra, not requiring transurethral catheterization. This benefit is of the utmost importance when considering possible causes of per and postoperative morbidity. Accordingly, we can consider that the infrapubic approach is an effective method and prevails as a technical option for implanting malleable prostheses.

  17. "Bird-Wing" abdominal phalloplasty: A novel surgical technique for penile reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Bajpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe a technique of phalloplasty that is devoid of donor site scarring and suitable for urethral inlay and penile prosthesis in subsequent stages in cases of aphallia. Materials and Methods: Four patients with various disorders of sex development with 46 XY and severe penile deficiency, including one with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome who was initially raised as female, have been operated using a "Bird Wing" lower abdominal skin crease incision. Results: The patients′ age ranged from 6 to 17 years with preoperative stretched penile lengths between 1 and 2.5 cm. Phallic sizes between 7.5 and 12.5 cm was achieved leaving the donor site unremarkable with lower abdominal skin crease linear scar and excellent postoperative recovery. Conclusions: This phalloplasty technique can be utilized as a definitive procedure in many situations of penile insufficiency. Subsequent stages of urethral repair and insertion of penile prosthesis can be easily added.

  18. Prospective investigation of penile length with newborn male circumcision and second to fourth digit ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Kwan; Doo, A. Ram; Kim, Joo Heung; Park, Hyung Sub; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Hwang; Park, Seung Chol; Kim, Myung Ki; Jeong, Young Beom; Kim, Hyung Jim; Kim, Young Gon; Shin, Yu Seob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We prospectively investigated the relationship between newborn male circumcision (NMC) and second to fourth digit ratio with penile length. Methods: As participants for our study, we identified already circumcised young patients who visited our hospital for urological treatment. The age at which the circumcision had been done was assessed. The patients’ height and weight were measured. Second to fourth digit ratio was calculated by measuring the second and fourth digit lengths. The flaccid and erectile penile lengths were measured from the base of the penis to the tip of the glans in standing position. Results: A total of 248 patients were included in our study. In univariate analysis, height, second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were associated with erectile penile length. Among these variables, second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were significant predictive factors for erectile penile length in multivariate analysis. The subjects were divided into two groups, including 72 patients in the NMC group and 176 patients in the non-NMC group. No significant difference was found in height, weight, and second to fourth digit ratio between both groups. However, flaccid (p<0.001) and erectile (p=0.001) penile lengths were shorter in the NMC group than in the non-NMC group. Conclusions: Despite the small number of subjects, this study shows that NMC was associated with shorter penile length. Second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were also significant predictive factors for erectile penile length. Further multicentre studies with larger number of subjects and biochemical analyses are needed for potential clinical applicability. PMID:27695583

  19. Changing pattern of oral cavity lesions and personal habits over a decade: Hospital based record analysis from Allahabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Vatsala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To do a prospective clinicohistological study of premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity, and compare it with a 10-year retrospective data, especially in terms of incidence, age distribution, personal habits, and site and type of lesion. Material and Methods: Sections from 776 lesions of the oral cavity, which included 647 lesions of a 10-year (1993 - 2003 retrospective study and 129 lesions of a one-year (2003 - 2004 prospective study, were observed clinically, and a histological correlation was carried out. Results: Premalignant lesions included 78 cases of leukoplakia, 68 cases of oral submucous fibrosis, and 76 cases of squamous papilloma. Their incidence has increased in the last decade from 0.15 to 0.53. These lesions commonly presented in the fourth decade of life, as white patches in leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis, and as a growth in squamous cell papilloma. Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest lesion (57%. Its incidence has increased significantly in the last decade. The mean age of presentation was the sixth decade. A personal history of tobacco chewing was given by most of the patients in the retrospective group, while the use of pan masala was found to be maximum in the prospective group. The overall agreement between the clinical and histological diagnosis was 95.36% (740 / 776 and the kappa coefficient of agreement was 0.9256. Conclusion: Histology along with a detailed clinical workup was found to be a useful, reliable, and accurate diagnostic technique for lesions of the oral cavity. An increase in premalignant lesions in the prospective study, associated with increased pan masala intake is alarming and needs to be taken care of.

  20. Condylomatous genital lesions in cynomolgus macaques from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ariana; Wood, Charles E; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Chen, Zigui; Domaingue, Marie Claire; Elmore, David; Koenig, Patricia; Wagner, Janice D; Jennings, Ryan N; Burk, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    Genital condyloma-like lesions were observed on male and female cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating from the island of Mauritius. Cytobrush and/or biopsy samples were obtained from lesions of 57 affected macaques. Primary histologic features included eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic penile and vulvar inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia with acanthosis, and increased collagenous stroma. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays to amplify viral DNA revealed the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) DNA but not papillomavirus or poxvirus DNA. Subsequent DNA analyses of 3 genomic regions of LCV identified isolates associated with lesions in 19/25 (76%) biopsies and 19/57 (33%) cytology samples. Variable immunolabeling for proteins related to the human LCV Epstein Barr Virus was observed within intralesional plasma cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells. Further work is needed to characterize the epidemiologic features of these lesions and their association with LCV infection in Mauritian-origin macaques.

  1. An evaluation of the role of nuclear cytoplasmic ratios and nuclear volume densities as diagnostic indicators in metaplastic, dysplastic and neoplastic lesions of the human cheek

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The increase in nuclear cytoplasmic (NIC) ratio is one of the features of cellular atypia which is used in the histopathological assessment of premalignant lesions of the oral mucosa. Since this feature is readily quantifiable using morphometry, we have analysed both N/C and nuclear volume densities in basal and spinous cells from human cheek lesions with and without malignant potential in order to ascertain the validity of this parameter as a predictor. Using ...

  2. Possible Function of Frenulum of Prepuce in Penile Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo SONG; Hui ZHI; Yun LONG; Yong-yan CUI; Zhi-ming CAI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To discuss the possible function of frenulum of prepuce in penile erection.Methods Nine patients had premature ejaculation whose frenula were short. Two patients suffered unsatisfied intercourse whose frenula were injured and departed 12and 6 months ago. Three males endured premature ejaculation whose frenula were hurt in coition 30 min ago. We prolonged short frenulum and reconstructed the ruptured frenulum. To the fresh wound, we debrided the cut, then sutured the injured frenulum vertically.Results Investigated 3 to 6 months, all patients got satisfied sexual intercourse.Conclusion Frenulum is important in erecting time.

  3. Sexing freshwater turtles: penile eversion in Phrynops tuberosus (Testudines: Chelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João F.M. Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we described a noninvasive method for sexing freshwater turtles by stimulating penile eversion. We immobilized the neck and limbs of animals using fingers and, after some seconds, turtles everted their penis. This method was tested in 33 male Phrynops tuberosus, and 28 everted the penis. The efficiency of the method was not dependent of animal size, which reinforces its applicability. Our method allows sexing turtles in the field, avoiding killing the animal or causing major injuries in order to assess the sex.

  4. [Advances in superenzyme gene therapy in penile rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Run, Wang; Yuan, Jiu-Hong

    2013-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an almost unavoidable complication of radical prostatectomy. At present, though the concept of penile rehabilitation (PR) is accepted by most clinicians, the outcomes of erectile function recovery vary widely. Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a prostanoid and a main vasoprotectant which induces smooth muscle relaxation, but not used for replacement therapy because of its high unstability. SuperEnzyme is capable of continuous, specific and targeted promotion of PGI2 synthesis, and helps PR in ED patients after radical prostatectomy. SuperEnzyme gene therapy has a promising prospect for PR and the management of ED. This review updates SuperEnzyme gene therapy in PR.

  5. Penile-preserving surgery for primary urothelial carcinoma of male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoping Tai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary urethral carcinoma is a rare cancer, comprising <1% of all malignancies. The location of this lesion presents a certain dilemma of treatment between efficacy and quality of life. We report an 84-year-old male patient, with a history of chronic hepatitis C, hypertension, and transient ischemic accident, who presented with dysuria and acute urinary retention. The intravenous urography showed mild prostatic enlargement, but no stone or filling defect was noted in the upper urinary tract. On urethrocystoscopy, multiple papillary tumors were found at the pendulous urethra, and the pathology of biopsy confirmed urothelial carcinoma. The patient was admitted, and electroresection with fulguration of urethral tumors was performed owing to the patient's old age and poor performance status. Intraurethral and intravesical chemotherapy with mitomycin C was regularly given at the outpatient clinic. Recurrent urothelial carcinomas were noted twice in the first 2 years of follow up, and repeated transurethral resections were done. Unfortunately, liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed last June, for which he received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. No recurrence of urethral cancer has been found on semiannual cystoscopy in the past 3 years. Penile-preserving surgery is a reasonable surgical option for elderly primary urethral carcinoma patients with acceptable oncological outcome and good quality of life.

  6. Lesiones laborales

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  7. Biomarkers in premalignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract: Studies on Barrett’s esophagus and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we have described our research on genetic abnormalities in (pre)malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The wide variation in biological behavior of cancerous and precancerous conditions may be largely explained by differences in genetic abnormalities. They are a source of

  8. Potentiation of apomorphine effect on sildenafil-induced penile erection in conscious rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-YoungPark; HwancheolSon; SooWoongKim; Jae-SeungPaick

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a possible potentiation effect of apomorphine (APO) on sildenafil-induced penile erection in the conscious rabbit. Methods: Erection of male New Zealand White rabbits (3.5 - 4.0 kg, n=12) was assessed by measuring the length of the uncovered penile mucosa and the duration of erection before and after intravenous administration of agents. After injection of APO (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg), sildenafil was administered intravenously in a dose-response manner (0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg). In additional experiments, the effect of increasing doses of sildenafil in combination with APO on systemic blood pressure was evaluated. Results: Systemic administration of sildenafil induced a dose-dependent increase in the penile length. Intravenous injection of APO alone did not produce any change in the penile length, while significantly enhanced the penile erection induced by sildenafil. The co-administration of 0.1 mg/kg of APO and 1 mg/kg of sildenafil was found to be the most effective combination in producing penile erection. Intravenous administration of sildenafil caused a concentration-dependent decrease in systemic blood pressure, but no additional decrease was observed with co-administration of APO. Conclusion: APO enhances the penile erection induced by sildenafil in the conscious rabbit without causing an additional decrease in blood pressure. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 205-209)

  9. Phalloplasty: A panacea for 46,XY disorder of sex development conditions with penile deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nina; Hoebeke, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In cases of severe penile inadequacy, such as in pathological conditions involving penile amputation (e.g. penile cancer), or in 46,XY disorders of sex development with severe undervirilization or maldevelopment of the penis (e.g. idiopathic micropenis, cloacal exstrophy), standard (surgical) penile lengthening techniques do not provide patients with a phallus suitable for sexual intercourse. Genital dissatisfaction can lead to low self-esteem and psychosexual dysfunction. Therefore, phalloplasty, the gold standard in transgender surgery, may provide a possibility to achieve a satisfactory genital appearance and sexual function. Small series have reported cosmetically acceptable and erogenous sensate neophalli with incorporation of a neourethra to allow voiding in a standing position and with enough bulk to allow penile prosthesis insertion for pleasurable intercourse. Although early results seem promising, further publication of series with large numbers and longer follow-up is needed to evaluate to what extent phalloplasty improves physical and sexual outcomes. Complications are of particular concern because of associated scarring and loss of sensitive tissue. Without full preoperative workups assessing patients' expectations and reasons for undergoing surgery, they may still struggle with self/penile image and with psychological barriers for engaging in sexual activity. Recommendations for the psychosocial management of boys and men with penile deficiency are suggested.

  10. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in invasive penile cancers from a registry-based United States population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Y Hernandez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV is estimated to play an etiologic role in 40%-50% of penile cancers worldwide. Estimates of HPV prevalence in U.S. penile cancer cases are limited. Methods. HPV DNA was evaluated in tumor tissue from 79 invasive penile cancer patients diagnosed in 1998-2005 within the catchment areas of 7 U.S. cancer registries. HPV was genotyped using PCR-based Linear Array and INNO-LiPA assays and compared by demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics and survival. Histological classification was also obtained by independent pathology review. Results. HPV DNA was present in 50 of 79 (63% of invasive penile cancer cases. Sixteen viral genotypes were detected. HPV 16, found in 46% (36/79 of all cases (72% of HPV-positive cases was the most prevalent genotype followed equally by HPV 18, 33, and 45, which each comprised 5% of all cases. Multiple genotypes were detected in 18% of viral positive cases. HPV prevalence did not significantly vary by age, race/ethnicity, population size of geographic region, cancer stage, histology, grade, penile subsite, or prior cancer history. Penile cases diagnosed in more recent years were more likely to be HPV positive. Overall survival did not significantly vary by HPV status. Conclusions. The relatively high prevalence of HPV in our study population provides limited evidence of a more prominent and, possibly, increasing role of infection in penile carcinogenesis in the U.S. compared to other parts of the world.

  11. Penile involvement in Systemic Sclerosis: New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aversa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is a connective tissue disorder featuring vascular alterations and an immunological activation leading to a progressive and widespread fibrosis of several organs such as the skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidney. Men with SSc are at increased risk of developing erectile dysfunction (ED because of the evolution of early microvascular tissutal damage into corporeal fibrosis. The entity of penile vascular damage in SSc patients has been demonstrated by using Duplex ultrasonography and functional infra-red imaging and it is now clear that this is a true clinical entity invariably occurring irrespective of age and disease duration and constituting the ‘‘sclerodermic penis’’. Once-daily phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5 inhibitors improve both sexual function and vascular measures of cavernous arteries by improving surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction, that is, plasma endothelin-1 and adrenomedullin levels, which may play a potential role in preventing progression of penile fibrosis and ED. Also, the beneficial effect of long-term PDE5i add-on therapy to SSc therapy in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon is described.

  12. MRI of penile fracture: diagnosis and therapeutic follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uder, Michael; Gohl, Dietrich; Takahashi, Masahide; Kramann, Bernhard; Schneider, Guenther [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Derouet, Harry [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Urologische Klinik; Defreyne, Luc [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University Hospital of Gent (Belgium)

    2002-01-01

    A rupture of corpus cavernosum (CC) is a rare injury of the erect penis. The present study describes the role of MRI for diagnosis and follow-up of this injury. Four patients with clinically suspected acute penile fractures underwent MRI. Imaging findings were confirmed at surgery. In three patients, follow-up MRI was also available at 1, 6 and 16 weeks after surgical repair. In all patients pre-contrast T1-weighted images (T1WI) clearly disclosed ruptures of CC, which depicted as discontinuity of low signal intensity of the tunica albuginea (TA). Concomitant subcutaneous haematoma were well visualised both on T1-weighted (T1WI) and T2-weighted images, whereas haematoma in CC were optimally demonstrated on contrast-enhanced T1WI. On follow-up MRI all fractures presented similar healing process. Shortly after the repair, the tunical suture showed an increase in signal intensity on pre-contrast T1WI and was strongly enhanced with the administration of contrast material. Then the tear site gradually recovered low signal intensity on all spin-echo sequences by 4 months after surgery. These serial findings may suggest the formation of vascularised granulation tissue during cicatrisation. Magnetic resonance imaging is of great value for the diagnosis and follow-up in patients with penile fracture. (orig.)

  13. Potassium channel agonists cause penile erection in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.; Wang, Run; Kadowitz, Philip J.; Domer, Floyd R.

    2013-01-01

    Using a feline model, erections caused by a new class of vasodilator agents that specifically activate potassium (K+-ATP) channels (lemakalim, nicorandil, and pinacidil) were compared to baseline and maximal erections induced by a standard drug combination (1.65 mg papaverine, 25 μg phentolamine and 0.5 μg PGE1) injected intracavernosally. The responses were characterized by the maximal intracavernosal pressure, the duration of maximal pressure, the total duration of drug effect, the change in penile length, and alterations in systemic arterial blood pressure. All three K+-ATP channel openers caused erections in a dose-dependent manner. All agents caused similar increases in penile length with full erection, but the duration of maximal pressure and duration of action were significantly shorter (P<0.01) than with the standard drug combination. Lemakalim did not decrease systemic blood pressure as did nicorandil, pinacidil, and the standard drug combination. This study supports the use of an in-vivo feline model for the evaluation of vasoactive agents and suggests that a new class of agents can pharmacologically activate the erectile response selectively by an alternate pathway. PMID:25530677

  14. Subarachnoid versus General Anesthesia in Penile Prosthetic Implantation: Outcomes Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard D. Henry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading patient complaint during the perioperative period for penile prosthesis implantation is postoperative pain, while emesis and urticaria also affect the procedure’s perceived success. In analyzing surgical outcomes, assessment of the anesthetic for postoperative pain and side effects should be included. This paper retrospectively reviews 90 consecutive, primary inflatable penile prosthetic operations performed by a single surgeon at one private medical center. Fifty-seven patients were included in final analysis. Patients who had more than one procedure that day or who used chronic pain medication were excluded. The type and amount of each drug used for each respective side effect (within the first 24 hours after procedure were compared to determine relative benefit. Twenty patients received general anesthesia (denoted herein as “GA” and 37 received spinal (or also known as subarachnoid anesthesia (denoted herein as “SA”. Patients receiving GA had significantly greater (P<0.0001 occurrence and amount of intravenous pain treatment than those receiving SA. Patients with SA required less intravenous pain medication and less treatment for nausea/emesis.

  15. Studies on self-esteem of penile size in young Korean military men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HwanchcolSon; HanjooLee; Jung-SikHuh; SooWoongKim; Jae-SeungPaick

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the flaccid and stretched penile sizes of young Korean men and their complexes or pride about their penile size. Methods: After an explanation and agreement to the purpose and methods of this study,123 Korean men in their early 20's visiting the Jinhae Military General Hospital were included in the study. The flaccid penile length, flaccid mid-shaft circumference, stretched length and pre-pubic bone fat pad depth were measured in a warm comfortable environment. The accuracy the subjects assessed their penile size was investigated by asking them to rate their penile size, as ‘very small', ‘small', ‘normal', ‘large' or ‘very large'. All subjects were asked to completethe Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) test. Results: The mean flaccid length, flaccid cireumfereace,stretched length and fat pad depth of the 123 subjects were (6.9 ± 0.8) cm, (8.5 ± 1.1) cm, (9.6± 0.8) cm and (1.1± 0.4) cm, respectively. The answer distribution on penile size was 1 (0.8 %) ‘very small', 29 (23.6 %) ‘small', 86(69.9 %) ‘normal', 6 (4.9 %) ‘large' and 1 (0.8 %)‘'very large'. Subjects who underestimated their penile size showed significantly higher scores on the hypochondriasis (Hs), depression (D) and psychasthenia (Pt) subscales of the MMPI than those in the Unbiased Group (P<0.05). Conclusion: In consultation, with a patient requesting penile augmentation, the urologist should consider the psychologic attitude of the patient to his penile size. (Asian J Androl 2003 Sep, 5: 185-189)

  16. Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult penile length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In Ho Choi; Khae Hawn Kim; Han Jung; Sang Jin Yoon; Soo Woong Kim; Tae Beom Kim

    2011-01-01

    @@ The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a putative biomarker for prenatal testosterone and covaries with the sensitivity of the androgen receptor (AR).Both prenatal testosterone and the AR play a central role in penile growth.In this study,we investigated the relationship between digit ratio and penile length.Korean men who were hospitalized for urological surgery at a single tertiary academic centre were examined in this study,and 1[44]men aged 20 years or older who gave informed consent were prospectively enrolled.Right-hand second- and fourth-digit lengths were measured by a single investigator prior to measurement of penile length.Under anaesthesia,flaccid and stretched penile lengths were measured by another investigator who did not measure nor have any the information regarding the digit lengths.Univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that only height was a significant predictive factor for flaccid penile length (univariate analysis: r=0.185,P=0.026; multivariate analysis:r=0.172,P=0.038) and that only digit ratio was a significant predictive factor for stretched penile length (univariate analysis:r=-0.216,P=0.009; multivariate analysis: r=-0.201,P=0.024; stretched penile length=-9.201 xdigit ratio+20.577).Based on this evidence,we suggest that the digit ratio can predict adult penile size and that the effects of prenatal testosterone may in part explain the differences in adult penile length.

  17. Report of 84 cases of penile Fracture inBeheshti Hospital center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shafi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Penile fracture is the rupture of the corpus cavernousum due to trauma to the erect penis , which has various background etiologies in different countries according to their habits. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the frequency, etiologies and complications of penile fracture in our geographic area.Material and Methods : This analytical-cross sectional study was performed via census sampling among men referred to Sh. Beheshti Hospital of Babol Medical University during 1995 to 2004. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square, Fisher`s exact and T-test using SPSS release 12.Results : 84 patients with penile fracture (mean age of 18.1 years were studied. The frequency was higher in single patients (78% than married ones. The most important complaint of patients with penile fracture was penile pain (36%, hematoma (30%, and penile swelling (12%. Background factors were manipulation of erect penis (74%, sexual intercourse (18% trauma to erect pennies (8%. Urethral ruptures were seen in 8% of all patients with feacture. There were significant differences between urethral rupture and background etiologies (P=0.000 and marrital status (p=0.000 as 90% of the cases were single patient, referred to hospital due to manipulation of erect pennies (P=0.000.Conclusion : High frequency of penile manipulation among young boys in the study area in comparison with other studies results in penile fracture but subsequent urethral rupture was uncommon among men. Better and earlier diagnosis of penile fracture is related to determination of background etologies in the patients.

  18. TNF-alpha stimulates Akt by a distinct aPKC-dependent pathway in premalignant keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    kappaB inhibition and in the presence of p38 blockers. Akt/ERK signalling but not p38 activation was abolished in the presence of the iron chelator desferroxamine that blocks formation of hydroxyl ( OH) radicals. Thus, the TNF-alpha signalling in keratinocytes seems to bifurcate into an aPKC-, NFk......Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an important proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Some of these effects are mediated by the stimulatory effect of this cytokine on the Akt signalling pathway, which...... renders keratinocytes less susceptible to proapoptotic stimuli and enhances cell growth. We have recently shown that TNF-alpha-induced Akt activation may promote the early stages of skin cancer. In this work, we demonstrate that in the premalignant keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, TNF-alpha activates Akt...

  19. DETECTION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS DNA SEQUENCES IN ORAL LESIONS USING POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zarei

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe purpose of the present study was to estimate the frequency of HPV DNA in four groups of oral lesions, including oral squamous cell carcinoma. Sixty paraffin-embedded oral tissue samples were examined for the presence of HPV DNAs using the PCR technique. These specimens were obtained from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, leukoplakia, oral lichen planus (OLP, and pyogenic granuloma (PG. Consensus primers for L1 region (MY09 and MY11 and specific primers were used for detection of HPV DNA sequences in this study. we detected HPV DNA in 60% (9 out of 15 of OSCCs, 26.7% (4 out of 15 of leukoplakia, 13.3% (2 out of 15 of OLPs, and 6.7% (1 out of 15 of PGs. Statistical analysis showed that the prevalence of HPV in OSCC was significantly higher than other groups (P < 0.05. The frequency of HPV-16 and 18 detection in OSCC samples were 40% and 20%, respectively. The prevalence of these high risk HPVs was significantly higher in OSCC group (P < 0.05. The results of the present study show a successive increase of detection rate of HPV-16 and 18 DNAs from low level in samples of pyogenic granuloma and non-premalignant or questionably premalignant lesions of OLP to premalignant leukoplakia and to OSCC."n "n "n "n "n 

  20. A penal problem: the increasing incidence of implantation of penile foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Ryan M; Mostafa, Hesham I; Khan, Omar A; Haselhuhn, Gregory D; Jain, Samay

    2014-12-01

    Our objective is to describe a novel presentation of subcutaneous penile insertion of foreign bodies. This is a practice performed globally and mostly has been reported outside of the United States. We present three cases of incarcerated males that implanted sculpted dominos into the penile subcutaneous tissue. The patients presented with erosion of the foreign bodies through the skin without evidence of infection. We believe that insertion of foreign bodies into penile subcutaneous tissue by incarcerated American males for sexual enhancement is more widespread than previously reported. Erosion is a novel presentation.

  1. Reconstruction of the penile skin loss due to 'radical' circumcision with a full thickness skin graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excessive resection of penile skin is a rare but important complication of circumcision. Penis 'trapping' under the skin and consequent sexual dysfunction occur as a result. Case report. Excessive circumcision with complete resection of the penile skin is shown. Penis, trapped under the skin, was deliberated and skin defect was substituted with the full thickness skin graft. One year after the surgery penis has a good cosmetic appearance, adequate size and sexual function. Conclusion. Full thickness skin graft is a good option for augmentation of the penile skin loss in cases with intact hypodermal tissue and extensive skin loss, for the reconstruction in a single act.

  2. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barbagli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft with the application of glue is preliminary showed and discussed. Two-stage penile urethroplasty is then reported. A detailed description of first-stage urethroplasty according Johanson technique is reported. A second-stage urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft and glue is presented. Finally postoperative course and follow-up are addressed.

  3. Penile Involvement and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder YAVAŞCAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP, characterized by non-thrombocytopenic purpura accompanied by arthritis/arthralgia, gastrointestinal and genitourinary system involvement is the most common vasculitis in childhood. Associated penile involvement is very rare in patients with genitourinary system involvement. We report a 4.5 year-old boy with penile involvement and arthritis after a shortduration remission of HSP. Prednisolone (1mg/kg/day, orally and conservative measures resulted in complete recovery within five days. In conclusion, steroid treatment could be administered in HSP children with penile involvement although controversial.

  4. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kroman, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... the pleomorphic subtype of LCIS was added to histological subtypes. The present work reviews the DBCG guidelines and recommendations concerning CIS adding a brief characterization of the Danish CIS population. It also refers to the introduction of modern molecular pathology and distinction between low...

  5. Pink lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  6. Toxicities and early outcomes in a phase 1 trial of photodynamic therapy for premalignant and early stage head and neck tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Peter H; Quon, Harry; O'Malley, Bert W; Weinstein, Gregory; Chalian, Ara; Malloy, Kelly; Atkins, Joshua H; Sollecito, Thomas; Greenberg, Martin; McNulty, Sally; Lin, Alexander; Zhu, Timothy C; Finlay, Jarod C; Cengel, Keith; Livolsi, Virginia; Feldman, Michael; Mick, Rosemarie; Busch, Theresa M

    2016-04-01

    Management of early superficial lesions in the head and neck remains complex. We performed a phase 1 trial for high-grade premalignant and early superficial lesions of the head and neck using photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Levulan (ALA). Thirty-five subjects with high grade dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or microinvasive (⩽1.5mm depth) squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. Cohorts of 3-6 patients were given escalating intraoperative light doses of 50-200J/cm(2) 4-6h after oral administration of 60mg/kg ALA. Light at 629-635nm was delivered in a continuous (unfractionated) or fractionated (two-part) schema. PDT was delivered to 30/35 subjects, with 29 evaluable. There was one death possibly due to the treatment. The regimen was otherwise tolerable, with a 52% rate of grade 3 mucositis which healed within several weeks. Other toxicities were generally grade 1 or 2, including odynophagia (one grade 4), voice alteration (one grade 3), and photosensitivity reactions. One patient developed grade 5 sepsis. With a median follow-up of 42months, 10 patients (34%) developed local recurrence; 4 of these received 50J/cm(2) and two each received 100, 150, and 200J/cm(2). Ten (34%) patients developed recurrence adjacent to the treated field. There was a 69% complete response rate at 3months. ALA-PDT is well tolerated. Maximum Tolerated Dose appears to be higher than the highest dose used in this study. Longer followup is required to analyze effect of light dose on local recurrence. High marginal recurrence rates suggest use of larger treatment fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicities and early outcomes in a phase 1 trial of photodynamic therapy for premalignant and early stage head and neck tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Peter H.; Quon, Harry; O'Malley, Bert W.; Weinstein, Gregory; Chalian, Ara; Malloy, Kelly; Atkins, Joshua H.; Sollecito, Thomas; Greenberg, Martin; McNulty, Sally; Lin, Alexander; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Cengel, Keith; Livolsi, Virginia; Feldman, Michael; Mick, Rosemarie; Busch, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives Management of early superficial lesions in the head and neck remains complex. We performed a phase 1 trial for high-grade premalignant and early superficial lesions of the head and neck using photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Levulan (ALA). Materials and methods Thirty-five subjects with high grade dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or microinvasive (≤1.5 mm depth) squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. Cohorts of 3–6 patients were given escalating intraoperative light doses of 50–200 J/cm2 4–6 h after oral administration of 60 mg/kg ALA. Light at 629–635 nm was delivered in a continuous (unfractionated) or fractionated (two-part) schema. Results PDT was delivered to 30/35 subjects, with 29 evaluable. There was one death possibly due to the treatment. The regimen was otherwise tolerable, with a 52% rate of grade 3 mucositis which healed within several weeks. Other toxicities were generally grade 1 or 2, including odynophagia (one grade 4), voice alteration (one grade 3), and photosensitivity reactions. One patient developed grade 5 sepsis. With a median follow-up of 42 months, 10 patients (34%) developed local recurrence; 4 of these received 50 J/cm2 and two each received 100, 150, and 200 J/cm2. Ten (34%) patients developed recurrence adjacent to the treated field. There was a 69% complete response rate at 3 months. Conclusions ALA-PDT is well tolerated. Maximum Tolerated Dose appears to be higher than the highest dose used in this study. Longer followup is required to analyze effect of light dose on local recurrence. High marginal recurrence rates suggest use of larger treatment fields. PMID:26865261

  8. Satisfaction and complications with the Titan® one-touch release penile implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeborg, Lisa; Fode, Mikkel; Fahrenkrug, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess complication rates and patient satisfaction with Coloplast Titan® one-touch release (OTR) inflatable penile implants inserted at one university hospital centre between November 2008 and April 2011. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall, 33 patients with orga......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess complication rates and patient satisfaction with Coloplast Titan® one-touch release (OTR) inflatable penile implants inserted at one university hospital centre between November 2008 and April 2011. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall, 33 patients...... with organic erectile dysfunction underwent penile implant surgery during the study period. The Titan OTR inflatable penile implants were inserted using a penoscrotal approach. Patient and partner satisfaction was assessed with the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire...

  9. Penile rehabilitation: the evolutionary concept in the management of erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakky, Tariq S; Baumgarten, Adam S; Parker, Justin; Zheng, Yin; Kongnyuy, Mike; Martinez, Daniel; Carrion, Rafael E

    2014-04-01

    A compromise in erectile function is commonly experienced after radical prostatectomy and has been attributed to injury to vascular, neurogenic, and smooth muscle. The concept of rehabilitation after organ injury is not a novel concept and is one that has been applied to all aspects of medicine. Penile rehabilitation has been classically defined as the use of a device or pharmacologic agent to aid erectile function recovery after radical prostatectomy. Here we redefine penile rehabilitation as the use of any device, medication, or intervention to promote male sexual function as a primer before and after any insult to the penile erectile physiologic axis. We also review the epidemiology, rational and current literature on penile rehabilitation after prostatectomy.

  10. Treatment of penile strangulation by the rotating saw and 4-needle aspiration method: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidh A. Talib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this article was to describe our experience in using rotating saw and also combination of the instrument with 4-needle aspiration. Methods: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed using PubMed. “Penile strangulation, -constriction, -incarceration, -entrapment” were used as search terms, and a manual bibliographic review of cross referenced items was performed. Results: Search results yielded nearly 70 cases of penile strangulation caused by a variety of objects. Various instruments have been described in the literature for their safe removal, each with its own pros and cons. Conclusions: Penile strangulation should be accepted as a self-induced priapism and managed as an emergency in order to preserve erectile function and to prevent penile necrosis. Surgical creativity and patience are necessary in order to have a successful outcome.

  11. Treatment of penile strangulation by the rotating saw and 4-needle aspiration method: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Raidh A; Canguven, Onder; Al Ansari, Abdulla; Shamsodini, Ahmad

    2014-06-30

    The aim of this article was to describe our experience in using rotating saw and also combination of the instrument with 4-needle aspiration. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed using PubMed. "Penile strangulation, -constriction, -incarceration, -entrapment" were used as search terms, and a manual bibliographic review of cross referenced items was performed. Search results yielded nearly 70 cases of penile strangulation caused by a variety of objects. Various instruments have been described in the literature for their safe removal, each with its own pros and cons. Penile strangulation should be accepted as a self-induced priapism and managed as an emergency in order to preserve erectile function and to prevent penile necrosis. Surgical creativity and patience are necessary in order to have a successful outcome.

  12. Penile cancer brachytherapy HDR mould technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center

    OpenAIRE

    Matys, Robert; Kubicka-Mendak, Iwona; Łyczek, Jarosław; Pawłowski, Piotr; Stawiarska, Iwona; Miedzinska, Joanna; Banatkiewicz, Paweł; Łaskawska-Wiatr, Aldona; Wittych, Justyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pictorial essay is to present the mould based HDR brachytherapy technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center for penile cancer patients. We use images to describe this method step by step.

  13. Penile cancer brachytherapy HDR mould technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, Robert; Kubicka-Mendak, Iwona; Lyczek, Jarosław; Pawłowski, Piotr; Stawiarska, Iwona; Miedzinska, Joanna; Banatkiewicz, Paweł; Laskawska-Wiatr, Aldona; Wittych, Justyna

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this pictorial essay is to present the mould based HDR brachytherapy technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center for penile cancer patients. We use images to describe this method step by step.

  14. Pulsed and Color Doppler Sonographic Findings of Penile Mondor' Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hye Yeon; Chung, Dong Jin; Kim, Kum Won; Hwang, Cheol Mog [University of Konyang School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Penile Mondor's disease is a rare disease that's characterized by thrombosis in the dorsal vein of the penis. Doppler ultrasonography (US) clearly visualizes dorsal vein thrombosis and the associated hemodynamic alterations. Previous studies have demonstrated the typical color Doppler US findings of superficial dorsal vein thrombosis without the flow signals in this area, yet this is insufficient to understand the hemodynamics in penile Mondor's disease. We report here for the first time a cavernosal artery flow signal pattern in a penile Mondor's disease patient, in addition to its previously reported classic US findings. In conclusion, the Doppler US findings of thrombus without blood flow in the superficial dorsal vein and the low-flow, high resistance in the cavernosal artery may be suggestive of penile Mondor's disease.

  15. Successful penile reconstruction after multimodal therapy in patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumor originating from the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akino, Tomoshige; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hatanaka, Kanako; Kobayashi, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Nonomura, Katsuya

    2014-06-01

    We herein present an extremely rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor originating in the penis. A 16-year-old male adolescent presented with painful penile swelling. Pathological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetical examinations of the specimens obtained from total penectomy confirmed the diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor. After total penectomy, the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide-based regimen for 48 weeks. As a series of therapies, the patient underwent penile reconstruction surgery after completing adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient has not shown any evidence of recurrence for the 7 years after penile reconstruction surgery, and voiding function is completely normal. A favorable outcome was observed by multimodal therapy including aggressive resection for local control, intensive adjuvant chemotherapy, and penile reconstruction with cosmetic and functional success. Similar therapeutic approaches might be selected for children with primary malignant tumors of the penis.

  16. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in the postsurgical assessment of patients with inflatable penile prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Usmayo, A; Torregrosa Andrés, A; Flores Méndez, J; Luján Marco, S; Rogel Bertó, R

    2017-05-25

    To describe the types of penile prostheses and their components, to review the appropriate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition protocol, and to describe the normal imaging findings and possible complications in patients with inflatable penile implants. Three-piece inflatable penile prostheses are the last link in the treatment chain for erectile dysfunction. They can develop complications, which are classified as non-infectious related to the surgical technique, infectious, or due to mechanical failure of the device. MRI is the most appropriate imaging technique for the postsurgical evaluation of penile prostheses. Images are acquired in three planes using sequences with high spatial resolution, first with the prosthesis at rest and then with the prosthesis activated. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Lesions and Neoplasms of the Penis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S

    2016-01-01

    In addition to practitioners who care for male patients, with the increased use of high-resolution anoscopy, practitioners who care for women are seeing more men in their practices as well. Some diseases affecting the penis can impact on their sexual partners. Many of the lesions and neoplasms of the penis occur on the vulva as well. In addition, there are common and rare lesions unique to the penis. A review of the scope of penile lesions and neoplasms that may present in a primary care setting is presented to assist in developing a differential diagnosis if such a patient is encountered, as well as for practitioners who care for their sexual partners. A familiarity will assist with recognition, as well as when consultation is needed.

  18. The role of cytology in oral lesions: a review of recent improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Historically, sensitivity and specificity of oral cytology is poor. Using conventional oral cytology for the diagnosis of cancer and its precursors has not had the success that cytologists had hoped for; however, with improved methodology, oral cytology has enjoyed a resurgence of interest. This renewed interest is partly due to the introduction of a specialized brush that collects a full-thickness epithelial sample and not just superficially sloughed cells, as well as analysis of that sample with computer assistance; in addition, a variety of adjunctive techniques have been introduced to potentially enhance the diagnosis of the cytologic specimens including DNA analysis, immunocytochemistry, molecular analysis, and liquid-based preparations. An increase in sensitivity (>96%) and specificity (>90%) of the oral brush biopsy with computer-assisted diagnosis has been reported for identification of malignant and premalignant lesions. Brush cytology is valuable to prevent misdiagnosing doubtful oral lesions, i.e., those lesions without a definitive etiology, diagnosing large lesions where excision of the entire tissue is not possible or practicable, evaluating patients with recurrent malignancies, and monitoring premalignant lesions.

  19. Imaging Findings of Sonography and Computed Tomography for a Penile Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin; Chung, Jae Joon; Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Joo Hee [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We report the ultrasonographic and computed tomography (CT) findings of a deep type of penile leiomyosarcoma that helped characterize a penile mass along with a review of the published literature. Leiomyosarcoma of the penis is a very rare disease characterized by a lobulated, expansile, soft tissue mass in CT images, with peripheral rim enhancement and internal homogeneous low density. The ultrasonographic findings revealed a lobulated and heterogeneously hypoechoic solid mass at the distal tip of the penis.

  20. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  1. Successful removal of metal objects causing penile strangulation by a silk winding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanjiang; Dong, Ziqiang; Xiong, Fei; Xie, Zonglan; Wen, Qiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Penile strangulation is a challenge to urologists. The decompression of the penis is required to prevent long-term complications. Metal objects are difficult to remove. Cutting is the most common method described. Appropriate cutting tools may be difficult to obtain, and the process may be time-consuming with the possibility of iatrogenic penile injury. In this paper, we will present a simple method to remove such objects by use a silk winding method and subcutaneous puncture.

  2. Penile Gangrene with Abscess Formation after Modified Al-Ghorab Shunt for Idiopathic Ischemic Priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beneranda S. Ford-Glanton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile gangrene is a rare but unfortunate complication of surgical intervention and priapism shunts. The literature regarding penile gangrene following surgical correction of priapism is sparse, the majority of which dates back to thirty to forty years. Here, we present the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with priapism that required operative management with a modified Al-Ghorab shunt and eventually suffered from complete necrosis of the penis with abscess formation in both corpora cavernosa.

  3. “Bird-Wing” abdominal phalloplasty: A novel surgical technique for penile reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Minu Bajpai

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To describe a technique of phalloplasty that is devoid of donor site scarring and suitable for urethral inlay and penile prosthesis in subsequent stages in cases of aphallia. Materials and Methods: Four patients with various disorders of sex development with 46 XY and severe penile deficiency, including one with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome who was initially raised as female, have been operated using a "Bird Wing" lower abdominal skin crease incision. Results: The patients′ a...

  4. Skin necrosis after self-removal of an artificial penile nodule in a Surinamese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Maarten; Kramp, Kelvin Harvey; Baktawar, Sarwan; Jewbali, Anuska

    2016-06-28

    The implantation of objects in the penis for aesthetic reasons or sexual pleasure is becoming more popular among specific socioethnic groups within both, non-Western and Western countries. The implantation and removal of penile implants is currently often performed unanaesthetised, and in unsterile conditions, putting men who undergo the practice at risk of complications. This paper describes a patient with an infection of the penis after self-removal of a penile implant, requiring urgent medical treatment.

  5. The effect of condoms on penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds in young, heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Janssen, Erick; Kvam, Peter; Amick, Erick E; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the ways in which barrier methods such as condoms may affect penile sensory thresholds has potential relevance to the development of interventions in men who experience negative effects of condoms on sexual response and sensation. A quantitative, psychophysiological investigation examining the degree to which sensations are altered by condoms has, to date, not been conducted. The objective of this study was to examine penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds in both flaccid and erect penises with and without a condom while comparing men who do and those who do not report condom-associated erection problems (CAEP). Penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds were assessed among a total of 141 young, heterosexual men using biothesiometry. An incremental two-step staircase method was used and repeated three times for each of four conditions. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all vibratory assessments. Penile vibratory thresholds were compared using a mixed-model analysis of variance. Penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds with and without a condom, erectile function measured by International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire, and self-reported degree of erection. Significant main effects of condoms (yes/no) and erection (yes/no) were found. No main or interaction effects of CAEP were found. Condoms were associated with higher penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds (F[1,124] = 17.11, P erect penis than with a flaccid penis (F[1,124] = 4.21, P = 0.042). The current study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring penile vibratory thresholds with and without a condom in both erect and flaccid experimental conditions. As might be expected, condoms increased penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds. Interestingly, erections were associated with the highest thresholds. Thus, this study was the first to document that erect penises are less sensitive to vibrotactile stimulation than flaccid penises.

  6. Microneurovascular reimplantation in a case of total penile amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Yogesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Amputation of the penis is a rare condition reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases or small series of patients; the common aetiology is self-mutilating sharp amputation or an avulsion or crush injury in an industrial accident. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. We report here a single case of total amputation of the penis, which was successfully reattached by using a microsurgical technique. After surgery, near-normal appearance and function including a good urine flow and absence of urethral stricture, capabilities of erection and near normal sensitivity were observed.

  7. A new technique for correction of distal penile hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlay, Rohat; Isik, Daghan; Ercel, Coskun; Anlatici, Recep; Isik, Yasemin

    2010-07-01

    The major aims of correction of hypospadias include construction of a neourethra, removal of the chordee, and reduction of the probability of postoperative fistulization. Here, we describe a new technique that can be easily used in cases with subcoronal distal penile hypospadias (even those with chordee) for the construction of the urethra using meatus-based transverse flaps. This new technique was used in 10 patients (mean age, 4.6 years). There were no complications such as fistula formation, chordee recurrence, hematoma formation, or flap necrosis during the follow-up period (mean follow-up period, 13.4 months). We believe that this surgical technique can be used in cases with chordee, carries a low risk of fistula formation, has the advantage of the use of richly vascular flaps for construction of the urethra, and yields a better cosmetic result. Hence, it can safely be used for surgical correction of distal hypospadias.

  8. Pityriasis Versicolor on Penile Shaft in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We

    2012-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

  9. Pityriasis versicolor on penile shaft in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We; Lee, Kyu-Suk

    2012-08-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area.

  10. Human penile erection and organic impotence: normal histology and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, G; Virag, R

    1989-01-01

    A very large amount of human material (7 embryos, 12 stillborns, 12 penes of males aged between 2 and 86 years, as well as bioptical material from 80 subjects affected by impotence problems) has been examined so as to study the penis arterial and venous walls, the blood flow regulation mechanisms and the intracavernal trabecular morphology. The amount of muscle tissue and of collagenous connective tissue has been numerically quantified by computer-assisted methods. This study enables the authors to underline three fundamental facts: (a) it confirms the normal penile erection mechanism, and the consequent theory, (b) it confirms that vascular sclerosis is a systemic phenomenon correlated to age, and that the penis is not exempt, and (c) in the case of impotence problems, the same sclerosis phenomenon may appear at an earlier age, and therefore induce pathological impotence.

  11. Clinical and biological significance of precursor lesions ofintrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is primarily a malignant tumorof older adults most prevalent in Southeast Asia, whereliver fluke infestation is high. However the etiology inwestern countries is unknown. Although the incidence ofextrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has remained constant,incidence of intrahepatic CC (ICC) which differs inmorphology, pathogenesis, risk factors, treatment andprognosis is increasing. While this increase is associatedwith hepatitis C virus infection, chronic nonalcoholicliver disease, obesity, and smoking, the pathogenesisof ICC and molecular alterations underlying the carcinogenesisare not completely elucidated. Benignbiliary lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia,intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, vonMeyenburg complex or bile duct hamartoma, and bileduct adenoma have been associated with ICC. For eachof these entities, evidence suggests or supports a roleas premalignant lesions. This article summarized theimportant biological significance of the precursor lesionsof ICC and the molecular mechanisms that may beinvolved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis.

  12. Awareness of patients about existing oral precancerous lesions/conditions in Nashik city of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Sukdeo Ahire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from premalignant lesions/conditions of oral cavity. Hence, the awareness of such lesions/conditions is important. Aim: To assess the awareness about existing oral precancerous lesions/conditions among patients arriving for dental treatment at a dental hospital, in Nashik city of Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was used to collect information from 80 patients with existing oral precancerous lesions/conditions attending the dental hospital, in Nashik city of Maharashtra. The questionnaire included questions to ascertain information on sociodemographic parameters, awareness, and sources of information about of oral precancerous lesions/conditions, habit of tobacco, areca nut chewing, smoking, alcohol, and combined habits. Results: We found that 40% (n = 32 respondents knew about the existence of lesion in their mouth of which only 50% (out of 40% had thought that it was precancerous lesion/condition. Among all subjects, only 47.5% (n = 38 were aware of oral precancerous lesions/conditions. Television was the major source of information about oral precancerous lesions/conditions almost all the subjects (97.5% wanted more information about oral precancerous lesions/conditions but through television (42.5% and lectures (27.5%. Conclusion: Awareness of patients (coming to hospital about oral precancerous lesions/conditions was found to be low. The people must be made aware of symptoms, signs, and preventive strategies of oral precancerous lesions/conditions through their preferred media – television and lectures.

  13. Vacuum erection devices to treat erectile dysfunction and early penile rehabilitation following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippe, Craig D; Pahlajani, Geetu

    2008-11-01

    Vacuum erection devices (VED) are becoming first-line therapies for erectile dysfunction and preservation (rehabilitation) of erectile function following treatment for prostate cancer. Currently, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have limited efficacy in elderly patients or patients with moderate to severe diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Alternative therapies, such as VED, have emerged as a primary option for patients refractory to oral therapy. VED has also been successfully used in combination treatment with oral therapy and penile injections. More recently, there has been interest in the use of VED in early intervention protocols to encourage corporeal rehabilitation and prevention of post-radical prostatectomy venoocclusive dysfunction. This is evident by the preservation of penile length and girth seen with the early use of the VED following radical prostatectomy. There are ongoing studies to help preserve penile length and girth with early use of VED following prostate brachytherapy and external beam radiation for prostate cancer. Recently, there has also been interest in VED to help maintain penile length following surgical correction of Peyronie's disease and to increase penile size before implantation of the penile prosthesis.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of penile metastases: a report on five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, T.N. [Singapore General Hospital, (Singapore). Department of Diagnostic Radiology; Wakeley, C.J.; Goddard, P. [Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, (United Kingdom). Department of Clinical Radiology

    1999-08-01

    Five cases of penile metastases are presented. Axial and sagittal T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans were performed in all patients. In some, coronal images were also obtained. The penile metastases were most often seen as discrete masses in the corpora cavernosa or corpus spongiosum. An atypical pattern of diffuse infiltration is also illustrated. Limitations of cavernosography, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) are discussed. The magnetic resonance (MR) features of penile metastases and possible role MR may have in the management of these patients are described. Metastatic deposits in the penis are uncommon. First described by Eberth in 1870 in a patient with a primary rectal carcinoma, there have since been over 300 cases reported in the literature. The imaging of penile metastases is, however, less clearly defined. Until now, cavernosography, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) have been used. These techniques have limitations. Only recently has magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) been employed. We describe five cases of penile metastases evaluated with MRI and discuss the role and features of penile metastases on MRI. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 4 figs.

  15. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL INTAKE ON PENILE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of alcohol intake on penile structure and function in rats.Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and alcohol intake group. They were administered with 2 mL of normal saline and 40% alcohol solution respectively through gastric tubes every day. Three months later, the animal model of alcohol intake was evaluated by modified Nayagida's method, and the effects of alcohol on the rats were studied by sexual behavior, the number of apomorphine-induced penile erection,level of testosterone in the sera, and the content of penile smooth muscle.Results The scores of animal model of alcohol intake evaluated by Nayagida's method were 0. 66 ± 2. 05 in the control group and 9. 26 ± 5.50 in the alcohol intake group (P < 0.05 ), which indicated that an animal model of alcohol intake was successfully established. Sexual behavior, the number of apomorphine-induced penile erection, testosterone level in the sera, and the content of penile smooth muscle of the alcohol intake group were all statistically different as compared with the control group ( P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Alcohol intake induces sexual dysfunction in rats, which may be due to the decline of testosterone level in the sera and decline of penile smooth muscle.

  16. Penile curvature: an update for management from 20 years experience in a high volume centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Francesco; Vittori, Matteo; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2016-09-26

    Our aim was to review the literature and discuss about penile curvature in order to have an update for management after 20 years experience in the field.Penile curvature may be congenital or acquired. Congenital penile curvature is a relatively uncommon condition that may present in late adolescent or early adult life. The incidence is estimated to be 0.6 %. On the other side, acquired penile curvature has an overall prevalence of 0.5-13%. Three main factors seem to increase the risk of developing an acquired penile curvature, often related to Peyronie's disease: penile traumatism, genetic and familiar conditions and a history of diseases of the genital tract. In treating Peyronie's disease, no medical therapy is fully effective, and surgery remains the gold standard in cases of severe deformity and/or erectile disfunction. Peyronie's disease is associated with significant psychological stress for patients and their partners. Appropriate treatment should be individualized and tailored to the patient's goals and expectations. There is not the 'best' surgical technique and outcomes are satisfactory when proper treatment decisions are made.

  17. A RARE CASE REPORT OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF URETHRA ARISING FROM SUBSTITUTED PENILE SKIN FLAP WITH BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old male presented with ulcerative growth over dorsal penile shaft along with multiple urethrocutaneous fistula. A total penectomy, scrotal excision and perineal urethrostomy were done. Past history of treatment for penile urethral stricture due to Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO) by substitution urethroplasty using pedicled preputial penile skin flap five years back. On gross as well as histopathological examination, the tumour was found to be arising from the skin ...

  18. PENILE-SCROTAL SKIN FLAP IN PENILE ELONGATION%阴茎根部阴囊皮瓣阴茎延长术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文斌; 朱晓云; 刘治安; 陈晓燕; 候元林

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨使用阴囊皮瓣在阴茎延长术中临床疗效。方法:在阴茎根部背侧作“十”字形切口,并上移1.5cm ,切开皮肤,纵行切开阴茎浅筋膜,并在浅浅筋膜下分离切断浅悬韧带和部分深悬韧带,以阴茎深静脉为限。切底结扎止血后,根据延长海绵体的多少,于阴茎根部拟议设计相应大小的阴囊皮瓣覆盖,阴囊切口直接缝合。结果:对112例的延长,平均延长3-5.0cm ,术后都能保持良好的长度,明显改善性生活的质量。结论:阴囊皮瓣具有血运丰富,易成活、富有弹性、不易回缩、不易留有瘢痕。尤其是感觉良好的优点;因此:在阴茎延长中,选择阴囊皮瓣作为供区覆盖创面较为理想。%Objectives To investigate the clinical theraping effect of penile -scrotal skin flap in penile elongation .Methods In the back of penile root we take a“+”shape incision ,then cut the skin ,penile superficial fascia ,the suspensory ligament of shallow and part of the deep without damaging the deep penile venous .After complete ligation and hemostasis we design the corresponding size of the penile -scrotal skin flap in the penile root to cover the secondary wound according to the size of elongated cavernousbody and suture the scrotal incision derectly . Results 112 cases elongate 3 -5cm on an average ,and the length could be kept well .Their sexy lives are apparently improved .Conclusions The scrotal skin flap has many advantages such as rich blood supply ,easy survival ,good elasticity ,few retraction ,not apprarent scar and espe-cially good feeling .Therefore ,scrotal skin flap is an ideal way to cover the secondary wound in the operation of penile elongation .

  19. Parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscalleda, J. [Hospital Sant Pau, Radiology Department, Neuroradiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    The sellar and parasellar region is an anatomically complex area that represents a crucial crossroad of important adjacent structures, e.g. orbits, cavernous sinus and its content, polygon of Willis, hypothalamus through the pituitary stalk and dural reflections forming the diaphragm sellae and the walls of the cavernous sinuses. Although the cavernous sinus represents the most relevant parasellar structure, from the practical and clinical point of view all the structures that surround the sella turcica can be included in the parasellar region. CT and, mainly, MRI are the imaging modalities to study and characterise the normal anatomy and the majority of processes in this region. We present a practical short review of the most relevant CT and MRI characteristics, such as location, nature of contrast enhancement and presence of cystic components, together with clinical findings, which permit differentiation of the most frequent and less common lesions found in the parasellar region. Learning objectives: A short review of the anatomy and clinical symptoms related to the parasellar region. Radiological characterisation, mainly by MRI, of the many lesions that alter the structure and function of sellar and parasellar anatomy. Description of the MRI features that permit differentiation among less common lesions. (orig.)

  20. High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy in the characterization of urinary metabolites of normal subjects, oral premalignant and malignant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, Elumalai; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-01-01

    Urine has emerged as one of the diagnostically potential bio fluids, as it has many metabolites. As the concentration and the physiochemical properties of the urinary metabolites may vary under pathological transformation, Raman spectroscopic characterization of urine has been exploited as a significant tool in identifying several diseased conditions, including cancers. In the present study, an attempt was made to study the high wavenumber (HWVN) Raman spectroscopic characterization of urine samples of normal subjects, oral premalignant and malignant patients. It is concluded that the urinary metabolites flavoproteins, tryptophan and phenylalanine are responsible for the observed spectral variations between the normal and abnormal groups. Principal component analysis-based linear discriminant analysis was carried out to verify the diagnostic potentiality of the present technique. The discriminant analysis performed across normal and oral premalignant subjects classifies 95.6% of the original and 94.9% of the cross-validated grouped cases correctly. In the second analysis performed across normal and oral malignant groups, the accuracy of the original and cross-validated grouped cases was 96.4% and 92.1% respectively. Similarly, the third analysis performed across three groups, normal, oral premalignant and malignant groups, classifies 93.3% and 91.2% of the original and cross-validated grouped cases correctly.

  1. Epidemiological aspects of penile cancer in Rio de Janeiro: evaluation of 230 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Koifman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine epidemiological characteristics of penile cancer in Rio de Janeiro, its associated risk factors and clinical manifestations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2008 we evaluated 230 patients at three public institutions, considering age, ethnicity, birthplace, marital status, educational level, religion, tobacco smoking, presence of phimosis and practice of circumcision. RESULTS: The ages ranged from 25 to 98 years, with an average of 58.35 years. Of the 230 patients, 167 (72.7% were from the southeast region of Brazil (which includes Rio de Janeiro and 45 (19.5% were from the northeast of the country. Most patients were white (67.3%, married (58.6%, smokers (56.5% and had not completed primary school (71.3%. The predominant religion was Catholic (74.8%. Of the 46 (20% circumcised patients, only 1 (2.2% had undergone neonatal circumcision. Grade I tumors were present in 87 (37.8% of the patients, grade II in 131 (56.9% and grade III in 12 (5.3%. Lymphovascular embolization was observed in 63 (27.3% and koilocytosis in 124 (53.9% patients. Of the total, 41.3% had corpora cavernosa or corpus spongiosum infiltration, and 40 (17.4% had urethral invasion. Prophylactic lymphadenectomy was performed on 56 (36.1%, therapeutic lymphadenectomy on 84 (54.2% and hygienic lymphadenectomy for advanced disease on 15 (9.7% patients. The median time between the lesion onset and clinical diagnosis was 13.2 months. The mean follow up was 28.8 months. CONCLUSION: Most of our patients were born in this state and had low socioeconomic status. Most of them were white men, married, smokers, uncircumcised, of the Catholic faith and in their sixties or older. Their disease was in most cases diagnosed only in the advanced stages.

  2. History, Contemporary Outcomes, and Future of Penile Prostheses: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Landon; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-10-01

    Since their introduction, penile prostheses have consistently remained a superior treatment option for men with erectile dysfunction (ED) refractory to conservative measures. Ongoing enhancements to prosthetic design, materials, and surgical techniques have resulted in improved outcomes. To review available literature on notable historical advancements and improvements of the penile prosthesis, summarize contemporary outcomes of recent devices, and discuss possible future directions of the penile prosthesis. A PubMed search was performed of all articles published from 1960 to present relating to penile prosthesis. Priority was given to series with 12 months of follow-up or greater, larger series, and studies reporting on outcomes of more recent prosthetic models. Main outcomes included historical review of improvements leading to, and contemporary series reporting on rates of mechanical failures, infections, and satisfaction with penile prostheses. Penile prostheses have undergone numerous enhancements since initial reports of synthetic materials utilized in the 1950s. Among others, recent notable device enhancements include Parylene coating, Bioflex® material, Inhibizone(TM) antibacterial impregnation, hydrophilic coating, lockout valves, and easy release pump mechanisms, all of which have improved mechanical reliability, reduced infection rates, and/or improved patient satisfaction with penile prostheses. Contemporary series of 3-piece penile prostheses report mechanical survival of 81-94%, 68-89%, and 57-76% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. Infection rates of current devices are 1-2% in first-time, low-risk populations, and 2-3% for higher risk groups, with patient and partner satisfaction at 92-100% and 91-95%, respectively. Two-piece and malleable devices are associated with slightly higher mechanical reliability and decreased patient satisfaction. Minimal data currently exist on the outcomes of selected patient populations, including Peyronie's disease

  3. Detection of STAT2 in early stage of cervical premalignancy and in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zeng; Li-Hua Gao; Li-Jun Cao; De-Yun Feng; Ya Cao; Qi-Zhi Luo; Ping Yu; Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To measure the expression pattern ofSTAT2 in cervical cancer initiation and progression in tissue sections from patients with cervicitis, dysplasia, and cervical cancer. Methods:Antibody against humanSTAT2 was confirmed by plasmids transient transfection andWestern blot.Immunohistochemistry was used to detectSTAT2 expression in the cervical biopsies by using the confirmed antibody againstSTAT2 as the primary antibody.Results:It was found that the overall rate of positiveSTAT2 expression in the cervicitis, dysplasia and cervical cancer groups were38.5%,69.4% and76.9%, respectively.TheSTAT2 levels are significantly increased in premalignant dysplasia and cervical cancer, as compared to cervicitis(P<0.05). Noticeably,STAT2 signals were mainly found in the cytoplasm, implying thatSTAT2 was not biologically active.Conclusions:These findings reveal an association between cervical cancer progression and augmentedSTAT2 expression.In conclusion,STAT2 increase appears to be an early detectable cellular event in cervical cancer development.

  4. Immune-checkpoint status in penile squamous cell carcinoma: a North American cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Margaret; Taheri, Diana; Ball, Mark W; Bezerra, Stephania M; Del Carmen Rodriguez, Maria; Ricardo, Bernardo F P; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Sharma, Rajni B; Meeker, Alan; Chaux, Alcides; Burnett, Arthur L; Netto, George J

    2017-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is primarily treated by surgical resection. Locally advanced and metastatic diseases require a multidisciplinary treatment approach. However, mortality and morbidity remain high, and novel molecular and immunotherapeutic targets are actively being sought. We investigated the expression of immune-checkpoint markers in penile cancers. Fifty-three invasive penile SCCs diagnosed between 1985 and 2013 were retrieved from our surgical pathology archives. Representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival blocks were used for the construction of 2 high-density tissue microarrays. Tissue microarrays were stained with immunohistochemistry for PD-L1, FOXP3, CD8, and Ki-67. PD-L1 was investigated using rabbit monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody (Cell Signaling, Boston, MA; E1L3N, 1:100). Overall, 21 (40%) of 53 penile SCCs had positive PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 was expressed by a significant proportion of advanced penile SCC. Forty-four percent (15/34) of stage pT2 or more SCC and 38% (6/16) of tumors with lymph node metastasis were positive for PD-L1. PD-L1 expression did not correlate with patient age, tumor location, histologic subtype, tumor stage, anatomic depth of invasion, or tumor grade. FOXP3 expression in tumoral immune cells was found in 26 (49%) of 53 cases. FOXP3 expression in stromal immune cells correlated with tumor thickness (P = .0086). The ratio of CD8/FOXP3 was greater than 1 in 62% of cases in tumor-infiltrating immune cells and 34% of cases in stromal immune cells. Our current study is the largest to assess expression of PD-L1 in a clinically well-annotated North American cohort of penile SCC. Our findings support a rationale for targeting immune-checkpoint inhibitor pathways in advanced penile SCC.

  5. Oral treatment with herbal formula B401 alleviates penile toxicity in aging mice with manganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Ching-Lung; Wang, Sheue-Er; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the roles of nitric oxide synthase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile toxicity of aging mice associated with excess manganese (Mn) treatment and to investigate the effect of oral treatment with the herbal formula B401 in this respect. ICR strain mice were divided into two groups: the vehicle (sham group) and the B401 (50 mg/kg) group. The mice were orally treated for 5 days; then a high single dose of MnCl2 (100 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injection to the mice. One day after MnCl2 treatment, corpora cavernosal tissues of both Mn-treated mice and their controls were simultaneously sampled to examine their immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) production, levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), expression levels of factors governing angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2,4-hydroxynonenal), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha), apoptosis (B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2], Bcl-2-associated X protein [Bax], cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase [c-PARP], cytochrome C, caspase-12, and caspase-3) were evaluated in penile corpus cavernosum of the mice. We found that penile toxicity in the mice was enhanced under excess Mn treatment through reduction of NOS activity and increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the penile cavernous tissue. Furthermore, the penile toxicity in mice with manganism was alleviated by oral B401 treatment through enhancement of both nitric oxide synthesis and angiogenesis, with simultaneous reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile corpus cavernosum. We suggest that the herbal formula B401 may serve as a potential dietotherapeutic supplement for penile toxicity or dysfunction in aging males.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-RAS signaling pathway in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Feng Gou

    Full Text Available Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC is a rare cancer with poor prognosis and limited response to conventional chemotherapy. The genetic and epigenetic alterations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR-RAS-RAF signaling in penile SCC are unclear. This study aims to investigate four key members of this pathway in penile SCC. We examined the expression of EGFR and RAS-association domain family 1 A (RASSF1A as well as the mutation status of K-RAS and BRAF in 150 cases of penile SCC. EGFR and RASSF1A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. KRAS mutations at codons 12 and 13, and the BRAF mutation at codon 600 were analyzed on DNA isolated from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues by direct genomic sequencing. EGFR expression was positive in all specimens, and its over-expression rate was 92%. RASSF1A expression rate was only 3.42%. Significant correlation was not found between the expression of EGFR or RASSF1A and tumor grade, pT stage or lymph node metastases. The detection of KRAS and BRAF mutations analysis was performed in 94 and 83 tumor tissues, respectively. We found KRAS mutation in only one sample and found no BRAF V600E point mutation. In summary, we found over-expression of EGFR in the majority cases of penile SCC, but only rare expression of RASSF1A, rare KRAS mutation, and no BRAF mutation in penile SCC. These data suggest that anti-EGFR agents may be potentially considered as therapeutic options in penile SCC.

  7. Multicenter Investigation of the Micro-Organisms Involved in Penile Prosthesis Infection: An Analysis of the Efficacy of the AUA and EAU Guidelines for Penile Prosthesis Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin S; Phillips, Elizabeth A; Carrasquillo, Robert J; Thornton, Amanda; Greenfield, Jason M; Levine, Laurence A; Alukal, Joseph P; Conners, William P; Glina, Sidney; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Honig, Stanton C; Becher, Edgardo F; Bennett, Nelson E; Wang, Run; Perito, Paul E; Stahl, Peter J; Rosselló Gayá, Mariano; Rosselló Barbará, Mariano; Cedeno, Juan D; Gheiler, Edward L; Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Ralph, David J; Köhler, Tobias S; Stember, Doron S; Carrion, Rafael E; Maria, Pedro P; Brant, William O; Bickell, Michael W; Garber, Bruce B; Pineda, Miguel; Burnett, Arthur L; Eid, J Francois; Henry, Gerard D; Munarriz, Ricardo M

    2017-03-01

    Penile prosthesis infections remain challenging despite advancements in surgical technique, device improvements, and adoption of antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines. To investigate penile prosthesis infection microbiology to consider which changes in practice could decrease infection rates, to evaluate current antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines, and to develop a proposed algorithm for penile prosthesis infections. This retrospective institutional review board-exempt multi-institutional study from 25 centers reviewed intraoperative cultures obtained at explantation or Mulcahy salvage of infected three-piece inflatable penile prostheses (IPPs). Antibiotic usage was recorded at implantation, admission for infection, and explantation or salvage surgery. Cultures were obtained from purulent material in the implant space and from the biofilm on the device. Intraoperative culture data from infected IPPs. Two hundred twenty-seven intraoperative cultures (2002-2016) were obtained at salvage or explantation. No culture growth occurred in 33% of cases and gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were found in 73% and 39% of positive cultures, respectively. Candida species (11.1%), anaerobes (10.5%) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9.2%) constituted nearly one third of 153 positive cultures. Multi-organism infections occurred in 25% of positive cultures. Antibiotic regimens at initial implantation were generally consistent with American Urological Association (AUA) and European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines. However, the micro-organisms identified in this study were covered by these guidelines in only 62% to 86% of cases. Antibiotic selection at admissions for infection and salvage or explantation varied widely compared with those at IPP implantation. This study documents a high incidence of anaerobic, Candida, and methicillin-resistant S aureus infections. In addition, approximately one third of infected penile prosthesis cases had negative cultures

  8. Adjunctive screening devices for oral lesions: their use by Canadian Dental Hygienists and the need for knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronde, D M; Corbett, K K

    2015-12-22

    Screening for oral cancer and other mucosal conditions is a knowledge-to-action objective that should be easy: there is supportive evidence, it is fast and non-invasive, and the oral cavity is easy to visualize. However, over 60% of oral cancers are diagnosed late, when treatment is complex and prognosis poor. Adjunctive screening devices (ASDs), e.g. toluidine blue (TB), fluorescence visualization (FV), chemiluminescence (CL) and brush biopsies, were designed to assess risk of oral lesions or aid in identification and localization of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Little is known on how clinicians feel about using ASDs.

  9. Segmentation and Classification of Skin Lesions Based on Texture Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Gohila vani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer and represents 50% all new cancers detected each year. The deadliest form of skin cancer is melanoma and its incidence has been rising at a rate of 3% per year. Due to the costs for dermatologists to monitor every patient, there is a need for an computerized system to evaluate a patient‘s risk of melanoma using images of their skin lesions captured using a standard digital camera. In Proposed method, a novel texture-based skin lesion segmentation algorithm is used and to classify the stages of skin cancer using probabilistic neural network. Probabilistic neural network will give better performance in this system to detect a lot of stages in skin lesion. To extract the characteristics from various skin lesions and its united features gives better classification with new approached probabilistic neural network. There are five different skin lesions commonly grouped as Actinic Keratosis (AK, Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC, Melanocytic Nevus / Mole (ML, Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC, Seborrhoeic Keratosis (SK. The system will be used to classify the queried images automatically to decide the stages of abnormality. The lesion diagnosis system involves two stages of process such as training and classification. Feature selection is used in the classified framework that chooses the most relevant feature subsets at each node of the hierarchy. An automatic classifier will be used for classification based on learning with some training samples of each stage. The accuracy of the proposed neural scheme is higher in discriminating cancer and pre-malignant lesions from benign skin lesions, and it attains an total classification accuracy is high of skin lesions.

  10. Current Management of Penile Fracture: An Up-to-Date Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marco; Garaffa, Giulio; Castiglione, Fabio; Ralph, David J

    2017-09-02

    Because of the low incidence of penile fracture, many aspects of the diagnostic process and of the surgical and functional outcomes are rarely reported. To systematically review the current literature on the surgical management of penile fracture, focusing on etiology, diagnosis, functional outcomes, and postoperative complications. The present review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) declaration standards for systematic reviews. A systematic search for the terms penile fracture, fracture of penis, trauma of penis, rupture of corpora cavernosa, and immediate management of penile fracture was been carried out in the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, SCOPUS, and Science Citation Index databases. Etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, types of radiologic investigations and their accuracy, surgical approach, suture material used for tunica repair, timing of surgical exploration, intraoperative findings, surgical complications, and functional outcomes. The total number of patients analyzed was 438, and the patients' an average age was 36 years. The most frequent reported cause of penile fracture was sexual intercourse (80% of cases). The most common finding at examination was a penile hematoma (97.5%). Although operator dependent, in experienced hands, ultrasonography was found to be a useful tool in confirming the location of the albuginea tear and identifying the presence of any concomitant urethral injury, helping the surgeon to choose the best surgical approach. Early surgical repair of a penile fracture was found to be a safe procedure, although long-term complications are not uncommon. Tertiary referral centers that managed a larger number of cases seemed to obtain more satisfactory long-term results with a significantly smaller number of complications. A low incidence of postoperative complications and full satisfactory functional outcomes are reported when early repair is

  11. Preservation of penile length after radical prostatectomy: early intervention with a vacuum erection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkin, B L; Christopher, B A

    2007-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy has been shown to have a potential negative impact on penile health. Stretched penile length (SPL), which most closely correlates with erect penile length, was significantly reduced in almost half of men undergoing surgery in several studies. The purpose of this study was to test whether early intervention after surgery with a vacuum erection device could prevent the changes in penile health, as defined by SPL, found in prior studies. Forty-two men with good preoperative sexual function undergoing nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy underwent measurement of SPL preoperative and at 3 months postoperative by a single investigator. Daily use of a vacuum erection device (VED) was begun the day after catheter removal, and continued for 90 days. Men kept a log of their compliance with daily VED use. A decrease in SPL of > or = 1.0 cm was considered significant. Out of 42 men, 39 completed the study. In men who used the VED >50% of possible days, only 1/36 (3%) had a decrease in SPL of > or = 1.0 cm. Of the three men with poor VED compliance, two (67%) had a reduction in SPL of > or = 1.0 cm. When compared to prior studies where 48% of men after surgery had a significant reduction in SPL, early intervention with the daily use of a VED resulted in a significantly lower risk of loss of penile length (PVED should be strongly recommended.

  12. Penile Injuries in Immunocastrated and Entire Male Pigs of One Fattening Farm

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    Simon Reiter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Penile injuries in boars have been discussed as a relevant welfare problem in pork production with entire males (EM. The incidence of penile injuries with immunocastrated boars has not been described so far. Thus, it was the aim of this study to systematically compare frequency and severity of penile injuries in EM and IC. Incidence and size of penile injuries (wounds, scars, hematomas were evaluated in 192 IC and 215 EM from one farm after slaughter (120 kg live weight; four batches (BA in at least weekly intervals over five weeks. 75.8% EM and 48.4% IC showed injuries at the pars libra of the penis. Scars were observed in 71.2% EM and 44.8% IC. Scars/animal were significantly influenced by treatment (IC vs. EM, B and treatment x B and increased with age in EM (BA1: 2.61 ± 3.05; BA4: 3.59 ± 3.47, but not in IC (BA1: 2.00 ± 3.02; BA4: 1.22 ± 1.91. Wounds were obvious in 17.2% EM and 8.3% IC. Wounds/animal were only influenced significantly by treatment and were lower in IC than in EM. Thus, it is concluded that immunocastration reduces the frequency and severity of penile injuries in IC when compared to EM of same age and weight.

  13. Relationship between penile size and somatometric parameters in 2276 healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söylemez, H; Atar, M; Sancaktutar, A A; Penbegül, N; Bozkurt, Y; Onem, K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the average penile length of a group of healthy, young Turkish men, and to investigate the relationship between penile length and somatometric parameters in the same group. The flaccid and stretched length and circumference of the penis was measured in a group of 2276 physically normal, young men. The correlation between penile length and weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of the participants was determined by Pearson's analysis. The mean age of the participants was 21.1 ± 3.1 (18-39) years. The mean flaccid, fully stretched and circumferential length of the participants' penises were 8.95 ± 1.04, 13.98 ± 1.58 and 8.89 ± 0.86 cm, respectively. There was a significant relationship between all of these variables (Psizes and to make convenient decisions in the counseling and/or treatment of people with short penis concerns. Our study provides mean penile lengths in a large sample of healthy, young Turkish men, and the penile dimensions were found to be weakly correlated with somatometric parameters.

  14. Surgical Management of Penile and Preputial Neoplasms in Equine with Special Reference to Partial Phallectomy

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    Awad Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile and preputial neoplasia in horses occurs infrequently and represents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The present study was carried out on a total number of 21 equids (14 stallions and 7 donkeys suffered from different penile and preputial neoplasia. Diagnosis of neoplasms was based up on history of the case, clinical examination as well as histopathological evaluation. Animals with penile and preputial neoplasms were underwent local excision and partial phallectomy with a slightly modified version of the techniques described by William’s. The diagnosed neoplasms were penile and preputial squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; ; sarcoid (; a-fibrosarcoma; and a melanoma. Local excision was curative in all cases except 5 stallions with SCCs. These stallions had extensive damage of the glans penis, free part of the penis and the inner lamina of the internal fold of the prepuce, and they underwent a partial phallectomy with successful outcome. Follow-up information was obtained by visit and telephone inquiries. In conclusion, penile and preputial neoplasms are commonly encountered in elderly male horses and SCCs are the most common type affecting male external genitalia. Partial phallectomy is effective for management of equine neoplasia if they are confined to the glans and body of the penis and there is no proximal spread or involvement to regional lymph nodes.

  15. Warty (condylomatous) squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: a report of 11 cases and proposed classification of 'verruciform' penile tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubilla, A L; Velazques, E F; Reuter, V E; Oliva, E; Mihm, M C; Young, R H

    2000-04-01

    Within the spectrum of penile squamous cell carcinomas, those that we descriptively refer to collectively as the "verruciform" lesions are particularly difficult to subclassify. In a review of 50 such tumors, we found 11 distinctive neoplasms with condylomatous features conforming to the appearance of so-called "warty (condylomatous) carcinoma." The average patient age was 55 years and the average duration of disease was 19 months. The primary tumor involved multiple anatomic sites (glans, coronal sulcus, and foreskin) in seven cases and a single site (glans or foreskin) in four cases. Grossly, white to gray cauliflower-like tumors typically measuring approximately 5 cm were noted. Histologically the tumors were mainly papillomatous with acanthosis and hyperkeratosis. The papillae had prominent fibrovascular cores. The most conspicuous microscopic findings were striking nuclear atypia of koilocytotic type and clear cytoplasm. The interface between tumor and stroma was irregular in the majority of cases; deep invasion of corpus cavernosum was noted in five cases. The differential diagnosis included verrucous carcinoma, low-grade papillary squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified, and giant condyloma acuminatum. Among other differences, the first two lesions show no koilocytotic changes and the last lacks malignant features and irregular stromal invasion. Metastatic spread occurred in two patients; both are alive with evidence of recurrent disease 12 and 72 months after initial diagnosis. A third patient was alive with recurrent disease 12 months after diagnosis. Five patients were free of disease 8, 12, 24, 52, and 108 months after diagnosis. Three patients were lost to follow up. Warty (condylomatous) carcinomas of the penis are morphologically distinctive verruciform neoplasms with features of human papillomavirus-related lesions and should be distinguished from other verruciform tumors so that differences in behavior, if any, between these tumors will

  16. Simultaneous penile prosthesis and male sling/artificial urinary sphincter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominic Lee; Claudio Romero; Frances Alba; O Lenaine Westney; Run Wang

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) from urethral sphincteric deficiency is not an uncommon problem.The commonest etiology is intervention for localized prostate cancer and/or radical cystoprostatectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer.Despite advances in surgical technology with robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and nerve sparingtechniques,the rates of ED and SUI remain relatively unchanged.They both impact greatly on quality of life domains and have been associated with poor performance outcomes.Both the artificial urinary sphincter and penile prosthesis are gold standard treatments with proven efficacy,satisfaction and durability for end-stage SUI and ED respectively.Simultaneous prosthesis implantation for concurrent conditions has been well described,mostly in small retrospective series.The uptake of combination surgery has been slow due in part to technical demands of the surgery and to an extent,a heightened anxiety over potential complications.This paper aims to discuss the technical aspect of concurrent surgery for both disease entity and the current published outcomes of the various surgical techniques with this approach.

  17. Survival impact of early lymph node staging in a national study on 454 Danish men with penile cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J. K.; Krarup, K. P.; Sommer, P.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: In few other cancers lymph node involvement has as clear a prognostic significance as in penile cancer. The latest revision of the Union for International Cancer Control Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) - criteria for penile cancer in 2009 amended the pathological nodal (pN...

  18. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

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    Joaquín V. Gónzalez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  19. Premalignant SOX2 overexpression in the fallopian tubes of ovarian cancer patients: Discovery and validation studies

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    Karin Hellner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current screening methods for ovarian cancer can only detect advanced disease. Earlier detection has proved difficult because the molecular precursors involved in the natural history of the disease are unknown. To identify early driver mutations in ovarian cancer cells, we used dense whole genome sequencing of micrometastases and microscopic residual disease collected at three time points over three years from a single patient during treatment for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC. The functional and clinical significance of the identified mutations was examined using a combination of population-based whole genome sequencing, targeted deep sequencing, multi-center analysis of protein expression, loss of function experiments in an in-vivo reporter assay and mammalian models, and gain of function experiments in primary cultured fallopian tube epithelial (FTE cells. We identified frequent mutations involving a 40 kb distal repressor region for the key stem cell differentiation gene SOX2. In the apparently normal FTE, the region was also mutated. This was associated with a profound increase in SOX2 expression (p < 2−16, which was not found in patients without cancer (n = 108. Importantly, we show that SOX2 overexpression in FTE is nearly ubiquitous in patients with HGSOCs (n = 100, and common in BRCA1-BRCA2 mutation carriers (n = 71 who underwent prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. We propose that the finding of SOX2 overexpression in FTE could be exploited to develop biomarkers for detecting disease at a premalignant stage, which would reduce mortality from this devastating disease.

  20. Novel approach in the management of an oral premalignant condition - A case report

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    Sankaranarayanan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis is a progressive oral disease first described by Pindborg and Sirsat 3 decades ago. It is a premalignant condition. The signs and symptoms depend on the involvement of the different sites in the oral cavity. The patient feels burning sensation for normal diet and trismus which may be so severe. If not properly treated the risk of malignant change in advanced cases of OSMF is relatively high. Wide ranges of treatment such as medical management, surgical therapy and physiotherapy have been attempted in the past, but none of them has proved to be a cure for this chronic fibrotic disease.Histopathologically as the disease progresses, (i change in the morphology of collagen, (ii increased accumulation of amorphous collagen, and (iii decreased collagen degradation results in decrease in number of blood vessels are observed in the affected area compared to the normal area. With an aim of bringing more blood supply to the affected area which is expected to bring ?more nutrients and help in collagen degradation, earlier application of vasodilators and studies with curcumin have been done, but still with - no significant outcome.As an alternative approach to improve the blood circulation, we have tried Autologous bone marrow stem cells which have been earlier applied in several diseases such as ischemic peripheral vascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases etc with proven improvement in angiogenesis. A 38 year old patient with oral submucosal fibrosis, proven by histopathology, and endothelial markers was injected 175 million BMMNCs into the area affected. The paramaters such as blanching, fibrous band have significantly improved, 4 weeks after the injection. We could observe positive changes clinically to prove the improvement. The mouth opening has improved to 35 mm from the previous 30.0 mm. Further histopathology and SEM studies with larger samples are done for establishing stem cell therapy’s safety and efficacy.

  1. Mechanisms Involved in Thromboxane A2-induced Vasoconstriction of Rat Intracavernous Small Penile Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grann, Martin; Comerma Steffensen, Simon Gabriel; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino

    2015-01-01

    relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. Our findings suggest that U46619 contraction depends on Ca2+ influx through L-type and TRP channels, and ROCKdependent mechanisms in penile arteries. Inhibition of the ROCK pathway is a potential approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction associated......Diabetes is associated with erectile dysfunction and with hypercontractility in erectile tissue and this is in part ascribed to increased formation of thromboxane. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key regulator of calcium sensitization and contraction in vascular smooth muscle. This study investigated...... the role of calcium and ROCK in contraction evoked by activation of the thromboxane receptors. Rat intracavernous penile arteries were mounted for isometric tension and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) recording and corpus cavernosum for measurements of MYPT1 phosphorylation. In penile arteries, U46619...

  2. Prepuce and partial penile amputation for treatment of preputial gland neoplasia in two ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Y R A; Lennox, A; Quinton, J F; Schoemaker, N J

    2014-11-01

    Preputial tumours in ferrets are frequently malignant and therefore warrant prompt investigation. As many cases do not respond favourably to surgery, even in combination with radiation therapy, wide surgical resection has been recommended. Such a procedure may necessitate partial or total penile resection but outcomes have thus far not been well described. The current case series describes two ferrets in which surgical resection, including penile amputation, was performed using 10 and 5 mm margins, respectively. In the first case, no recurrence of preputial gland adenocarcinoma was noted for 32 months postsurgery, whereas multiple attempts at surgery and radiation therapy were unsuccessful in the second. These cases suggest that margins of at least 1 cm may help achieve a better outcome. Penile amputation for the treatment of preputial tumours appears to be well tolerated by ferrets, as demonstrated by these cases.

  3. Conservative management of penile trauma may be complicated by abscess formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Bantis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Blunt penile trauma during sexual activity, although highly underreported due to the associated patient embarrassment, constitutes a real urological emergency requiring immediate attention and possibly early surgical intervention. We report a case of a 58-year old man who presented with penile pain following excessive masturbation. Although there were no clinical signs of penile deformity or hematoma, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a rupture in the tunica albuginea. The patient opted for non-surgical management and his recovery period was complicated by the formation of an abscess at the site of the albugineal tear thus prolonging his hospital stay. The abscess was surgically drained and the patient reports to have normal erections at 3-month follow up.

  4. Corporoplasty using bovine pericardium grafts in complex penile prosthesis implantation surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. A. Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is the first, to our knowledge, to propose the use of a bovine pericardium graft in corporoplasty for penile prosthesis implantation. The advantages of bovine pericardium graft have been demonstrated by its use in cardiac surgery, including low cost, biocompatibility, impermeability, resistance to dilatation, flexibility, low likelihood of retraction, absence of antigenic reaction and natural absorption of the tissue. In this paper, we propose the use of this heterologous material graft in corporoplasty for penile prosthesis implantation. Materials and Methods: Five patients with a history of erosion, infection and fibrosis, mean time of follow-up 32 months (range 9-48 months. Bovine pericardium was used to cover large areas of implanted penile prostheses when use of the tunica albuginea was unfeasible. Results: The surgical procedure resulted in no complications in all patients. Conclusions: Bovine pericardium may substitute synthetic and autologous material with the additional advantages of lower cost and greater availability.

  5. A Unique Case of Penile Necrotizing Fasciitis Secondary to Spontaneous Corpus Cavernosal Abscess

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    N. J. Dempster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corpus cavernosal abscess and necrotizing fasciitis occur rarely, and precipitating factors can usually be elicited with careful history and examination. Whilst both conditions share common risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, this is the first reported case of penile necrotizing fasciitis secondary to spontaneous corpus cavernosal abscess in an otherwise healthy patient. A 32-year-old man presented with 4-day history of swollen, painful penis, with ultrasound confirming corpus cavernosal abscess. Biopsies were taken and the cavity aspirated, but, despite intravenous antibiotics, he developed penile necrotizing fasciitis necessitating open cavernostomy and debridement. The overlying skin defect healed by secondary intention, but the patient experienced persistent postoperative erectile dysfunction, so he was referred for penile prosthesis insertion.

  6. 阴茎癌与HPV感染%Penile cancer and human papillomavirus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟建坡; 王建伟

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the major risk factors for penile cancer. This article presents an overview on the biological characteristics of HPVs, HPV infection in penile cancer, possible carcinogenic mechanisms of HPV, prognostic value of HPV in penile cancer, and HPV vaccine.%HPV感染是阴茎癌重要的致病因素之一.本文对HPVs的生物学特性,HPV在阴茎癌中的感染情况,HPV可能的致癌机制,HPV与阴茎癌预后的关系以及HPV疫苗的应用前景等方面进行了综述.

  7. Changes in penile sensitivity following papaverine-induced erection in sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, D L; Leentvaar, E J; Blom, J H; Slob, A K

    1991-10-01

    To understand more clearly the role of penile sensitivity in sexual functioning, changes in penile thresholds resulting from papaverine-induced tumescence were studied in men who were either sexually functional or suffering from erectile dysfunction. Variable vibratory tactile stimulation was applied to 2 different sites, the base and tip of the underside of the penis. With standard psychophysical methodology, subjective thresholds were determined from a minimum of 5 threshold crossings. Results indicated a significant elevation in threshold after intracavernous papaverine injection, even though only partial erection was induced in most subjects. Men with erectile dysfunction had higher thresholds than control subjects but no difference in sensitivity was found between the base and tip of the penis. These findings indicate that low penile sensitivity is characteristic of some, although not all, men experiencing erectile problems and that this sensitivity is even lower during tumescence.

  8. Office-based biopsies for laryngeal lesions: Analysis of consecutive 581 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Wonjae; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Lee, Jin Choon; Lee, Byung Joo; Wang, Soo-Geun; Cho, Jae Keun; Cho, Ilyoung

    2016-11-01

    Office-based biopsy (OBB) is widely used to diagnose suspicious laryngeal lesions. However, its routine use is still controversial and the algorithm for clinical strategy is not concrete. We tried to evaluate the accuracy of OBB as a diagnostic tool for laryngeal malignancy. Medical data of 581 patients undergoing OBB were reviewed. Diagnostic values of OBB were analyzed for malignancy and malignancy/premalignancy. False negative rates (FNRs) were analyzed according to subsites, lesion sizes, and morphology. The collection rate of adequate specimens was 99.1%, and there were no complications during OBB. The false omission rates for malignancy of benign lesion; mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia; and carcinoma in situ (CIS) were 5.1%, 11.9%, 14.3%, 50.0%, and 100.0%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for malignancy in OBB were 78.2%, 100.0%, 100.0%, and 87.3%, respectively. Those for malignancy/premalignancy in OBB were 88.2%, 86.7%, 85.7%, and 89.1%, respectively. The high FNRs were reported in glottis lesions (27.0%) and small lesions below 1 cm (27.5%). Morphologically fungating lesions showed low FNR (9.1%) compared to nonfungating ones. Office-based biopsy could be used as an initial diagnostic tool for laryngeal malignancy for early detection and avoidance of general anesthesia. However, operative re-biopsy should be considered when severe dysplasia or CIS were reported in OBB, or when the lesions are clinically suspicious for malignancy. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2513-2519, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Astrocytes derived from trisomic human embryonic stem cells express markers of astrocytic cancer cells and premalignant stem-like progenitors

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    Iverson Linda E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trisomic variants of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs arise spontaneously in culture. Although trisomic hESCs share many properties with diploid hESCs, they also exhibit features of cancer stem cells. Since most hESC-based therapies will utilize differentiated derivatives, it is imperative to investigate the potential of trisomic hESCs to undergo malignant transformation during differentiation prior to their use in the clinical setting. Methods Diploid and trisomic hESCs were differentiated into astrocytic progenitors cells (APCs, RNA extracted and hybridized to human exon-specific microarrays. Global gene expression profiles of diploid and trisomic APCs were compared to that of an astrocytoma cell line and glioblastoma samples, analyzed by others, using the same microarray platform. Results Bioinformatic analysis of microarray data indicates that differentiated trisomic APCs exhibit global expression profiles with similarities to the malignant astrocytoma cell line. An analogous trend is observed in comparison to glioblastoma samples indicating that trisomic APCs express markers of astrocytic cancer cells. The analysis also allowed identification of transcripts predicted to be differentially expressed in brain tumor stem cells. These data indicate that in vitro differentiation of trisomic hESCs along astrocytic pathways give rise to cells exhibiting properties of premalignant astrocytic stem/progenitor cells. Conclusions Given their occult nature, opportunities to study premalignant stem/progenitor cells in human have been few. The ability to propagate and direct the differentiation of aneuploid hESCs provides a powerful in vitro system for investigating biological properties of human cells exhibiting features of premalignant stem cells. This in vitro culture system can be used to elucidate changes in gene expression occurring enroute to malignant transformation and to identify molecular markers of cancer stem

  10. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. Copyright © 2016 International Society

  11. Semi-rigid penile prosthesis as a salvage management of idiopathic ischemic stuttering priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faddan AA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amr A Faddan, Alexey V Aksenov, Carsten M Naumann, Klaus P Jünemann, Daniar K Osmonov Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany Introduction: Priapism is the persistent erection resulting from dysfunction of the mechanisms that regulate penile swelling, stiffness, and sagging. It is a full or partial erection that persists for a period more than 4 hours beyond sexual stimulation and/or orgasm or is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Ischemic priapism should be managed in a step-by-step fashion. Objective: To demonstrate step-by-step management of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism. We report a case of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism. Moreover, we reviewed different approaches to priapism management in the literature. Case presentation: A 53-year-old male presented with a painful erection of 29 hours’ duration, probably caused by consumption of alcohol. The penile blood gas showed a pH of 7.08, PCO2 of 75 mmHg and PO2 of 39 mmHg. Aspiration was followed by irrigation of an α-adrenergic, Winter and T-shunt operations were preformed, and finally a semi-rigid penile prosthesis was implanted to overcome the refractory stuttering ischemic priapism. Conclusion: In case of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism, immediate implantation of a penile prosthesis is a simple and effective procedure that manages both the acute episode and the inevitable erectile dysfunction that would otherwise occur, while preserving penile length. Keywords: priapism, stuttering priapism, shunting operation, penile prosthesis 

  12. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization (“opening zipper”) opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion (“closing zipper”) closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal “cords”. Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. PMID:27397682

  13. he relationship of body mass index to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys

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    Rizky Adriansyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence suggests that obesity may be related to early onset of puberty in girls. However, few studies have found a link between body mass index (BMI and puberty onset in boys. More study is needed to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume. Objective To investigate the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on adolescent boys aged 9 to 14 years in Secanggang District, Langkat Regency, North Sumatera Province in August 2009. Subject's BMIs were calculated by dividing body weight (BW in kilograms by body height (BH in meters squared. Penile length (cm was measured with a spatula. We took the average of three measurements from the symphysis pubis to the tip of the glans penis. Testicular volume (mL was estimated by palpation using an orchidometer. Pearson's correlation test (r was used to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and BMI to testicular volume. Results There were 108 participants, consisting of 64 primary school students and 44 junior high school students. Subjects' mean age was 11.7 (SD 1.62 years,; mean BW was 35.2 (SD 8.84 kg; mean testicular volume was 3.6 (SD 1.20 mL. We found no significant association between BMI and penile length (r=-0.25, P= 0.006, nor between BMI and testicular volume (r=-021; P=0.09. Conclusion There was no significant relationship of BMI to penile length nor BMI to testicular volume in adolescent boys. [

  14. Kaposi′s sarcoma: HIV-negative man with isolated penile localization

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    Soufiane Mellas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi′s sarcoma is the malignant proliferation of the endothelial cell vessels. Its genesis is still unclear; however, it seems to be related to the herpes virus infection (HHV-8. This neoplasia usually affects the lower limbs and the affected persons are mostly from the Mediterranean region. The exclusive penile localization of the Kaposi′s sarcoma in a patient with a negative HIV serologia is exceptional. Our case is of a 73-year old patient with a negative HIV serology presenting an exclusive penile localization of the Kaposi′s sarcoma treated by radiotherapy.

  15. MR diagnosis of penile agenesis: is it just absence of a phallus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goenka, Ajit; Jain, Vaibhav; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun K. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Bajpai, Minu [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India)

    2008-10-15

    Penile agenesis is an extremely rare anomaly that results from absence of the genital tubercle or its failure to develop into a penis during embryonic life. Associated anomalies of the genitourinary and distal gastrointestinal tracts are frequently present. Imaging modalities, particularly MRI and cystography, play a crucial role in establishing the diagnosis and guiding further management. We report a child with penile agenesis with a urethroanal fistula and a blind-ending anterior urethra who had been reared as a male until presentation. (orig.)

  16. Penile gangrene in diabetes mellitus with renal failure: A poor prognostic sign of systemic vascular calciphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Mohan Agarwal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile gangrene associated with chronic renal failure is very uncommon. A 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, diffuse atherosclerosis, ischemic cardiomyopathy and end-stage renal disease presented with blackening of distal penis for 10 days. His general condition was poor and gangrene of prepuce and glans was noted. Doppler and magnetic-resonance angiography revealed bilateral internal iliac artery obstruction. He underwent trocar suprapubic cystostomy and was planned for partial penectomy. But he died of severe diabetic complications in the interim period. Penile gangrene is a manifestation of widespread vascular calcifications associated with end-stage renal disease and is a marker of poor prognosis.

  17. An innovative surgical technique for treating penile incarceration injury caused by heavy metallic ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S J Baruah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile incarceration injury by heavy metallic ring is a rare genital injury. A man may place metal object for erotic or autoerotic purposes, for masturbation or increasing erection, and due to psychiatric disturbances are some of the reasons for a penile incarceration injury. The incarcerating injury results in reduced blood flow distal to the injury, leading to edema, ischemia, and sometimes gangrene. These injuries are divided into five grades and their treatment options are divided into four groups. Surgical techniques are reserved for the advanced grades (Grades IV and V. We describe an innovative surgical technique, which can be adopted in Grades II and III injuries.

  18. Penile replantation: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gui-zhong; HE Feng; HUANG Guang-ling; MAN Li-bo; LIU Kun; SHEN Yu-ming

    2013-01-01

    Penile amputation and successful replantation is very uncommon,and there is no routine standardized procedures for dealing with this medical condition.Here we report two cases of penile amputation and replantation involving different degrees of vascular insult leading to different pathogenesis,clinical presentation,surgical approach and prognosis.This report described the microsurgical procedure and postoperative care using bipedicled scrotal flap to achieve successful engraftment and function.A review of the published data and future methods to increase success of such surgical procedures is provided.

  19. Penile Dysmorphic Disorder: Development of a Screening Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-11-01

    Penile dysmorphic disorder (PDD) is shorthand for men diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder, in whom the size or shape of the penis is their main, if not their exclusive, preoccupation causing significant shame or handicap. There are no specific measures for identifying men with PDD compared to men who are anxious about the size of their penis but do not have PDD. Such a measure might be helpful for treatment planning, reducing unrealistic expectations, and measuring outcome after any psychological or physical intervention. Our aim was, therefore, to validate a specific measure, termed the Cosmetic Procedure Screening Scale for PDD (COPS-P). Eighty-one male participants were divided into three groups: a PDD group (n = 21), a small penis anxiety group (n = 37), and a control group (n = 23). All participants completed the COPS-P as well as standardized measures of depression, anxiety, social phobia, body image, quality of life, and erectile function. Penis size was also measured. The final COPS-P was based on nine items. The scale had good internal reliability and significant convergent validity with measures of related constructs. It discriminated between the PDD group, the small penis anxiety group, and the control group. This is the first study to develop a scale able to discriminate between those with PDD and men anxious about their size who did not have PDD. Clinicians and researchers may use the scale as part of an assessment for men presenting with anxiety about penis size and as an audit or outcome measure after any intervention for this population.

  20. [Oral medicine 7: white lesions of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visscher, J G A M; van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P

    2013-06-01

    White lesions of the oral mucosa may be due to highly diverse disorders. Most of these disorders are benign but some may be a malignant or premalignant condition. The disease is often confined to the oral mucosa. There are also disorders which are accompanied by skin disorders or systemic diseases. Many white oral mucosa disorders have such characteristic clinical aspects that a diagnosis can be made on clinical grounds only. When the clinical diagnosis is not clear, histopathological examination is carried out. Treatment depends on the histological diagnosis. In some cases, treatment is not necessary while in other cases, treatment is not possible since an effective treatment is not available. Potentially malignant disorders are treated.

  1. 高频超声诊断闭合性阴茎损伤的临床价值%The clinical value of high frequency ultrasound on the diagnosis of blunt penile injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟彬; 朱文军; 金惠红; 徐明民

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高频超声诊断闭合性阴茎损伤的声像图特点及临床价值.方法 对22例临床手术或随访证实的闭合性阴茎损伤患者临床资料及超声图像进行回顾性分析.结果 闭合性阴茎损伤的高频超声图像清晰、典型,常可见白膜及海绵体连续性中断、海绵体血肿、阴茎皮下血肿、尿道回声连续性中断等特征,能准确显示病变的部位、范围及血供情况.结论 高频超声检查简单、高效、非侵入性,在闭合性阴茎损伤诊断中具有较高的临床价值,可作为闭合性阴茎损伤影像学检查的首选方法.%Objective To investigate the clinical value of high frequency ultrasound (HFU) on the diagnosis of blunt penile injury and its image characteristics. Methods The clinical data of 22 patients with blunt penile injury were analyzed retrospectively, including HFU image data. Results The HFU image of blunt penile injury was very clear and typical. It often represented with the interruption of the continuity of visible albuginea and cavernous, cavernous hematoma. subcutaneous hematoma of penis, urinary tract discontinuity echo and so on. It could accurately show the location, extent and blood supply of the lesion. Conclusion HFU is a simple, effective and non-invasive method to the diagnosis of blunt penile injury, which can serve as preferred alternative of the imaging examination on the blunt penile injury.

  2. Special considerations for placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis for the patient with Peyronie's disease: techniques and patient preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons MD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Matthew D Lyons, Culley C Carson III, Robert M Coward Department of Urology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP is the mainstay of surgical treatment for patients with Peyronie's disease (PD and concomitant medication-refractory erectile dysfunction. Special considerations and adjunctive surgical techniques during the IPP procedure are often required for patients with PD to improve residual penile curvature, as well as postoperative penile length. The surgical outcomes and various adjunctive techniques are not significantly different from one another, and selection of the appropriate technique must be tailored to patient-specific factors including the extent of the deformity, the degree of penile shortening, and preoperative patient expectations. The aims of this review were to assess the current literature on published outcomes and surgical techniques involving IPP placement in the treatment of PD. Patient satisfaction and preferences are reported, along with the description and patient selection for surgical techniques that include manual penile modeling, management of refractory curvature with concurrent plication, and correction of severe residual curvature and penile shortening with tunica release and plaque incision and grafting. A thorough description of the available techniques and their associated outcomes may help guide surgeons to the most appropriate choice for their patients. Keywords: Peyronie's disease, outcomes, inflatable penile prosthesis, patient expectation, patient satisfaction 

  3. Proteomic analysis of estrogen response of premalignant human breast cells using a 2-D liquid separation/mass mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Zhu, Kan; Lubman, David M; Miller, Fred R; Shekhar, Malthy P V; Gerard, Brigitte; Barder, Timothy J

    2006-07-01

    A 2-D liquid-phase separation method based on chromatofocusing and nonporous silica RP-HPLC followed by ESI-TOF-MS was used to analyze proteins in whole cell lysates from estrogen-treated and untreated premalignant, estrogen-responsive cell line MCF10AT1 cells. 2-D mass maps in the pH range 4.6-6.0 were generated with good correlation to theoretical M(r) values for intact proteins. Proteins were identified based on intact M(r), pI and PMF, or MS/MS sequencing. About 300 unique proteins were identified and 120 proteins in mass range 5-75 kDa were quantified upon treatment of estrogen. Around 40 proteins were found to be more highly expressed (>four-fold) and 17 were down-regulated (>four-fold) in treated cells. In our study, we found that many altered proteins have characteristics consistent with the development of a malignant phenotype. Some of them have a role in the ras pathway or play an important role in signal pathways. These changed proteins might be essential in the estrogen regulation mechanism. Our study highlights the use of the MCF10AT1 cell line to examine estrogen-induced changes in premalignant breast cells and the ability of the 2-D mass mapping technique to quantitatively study protein expression changes on a proteomic scale.

  4. Penile fracture and testicular rupture must be diagnosed quickly and require surgical intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kercsik, Andreas Robert Sandor; Fode, Mikkel; Joensen, Ulla Nordström;

    2016-01-01

    This article describes penile fracture and testicular rupture and offers recommendations for management. Both conditions occur most commonly after blunt trauma. Diagnosis can be supported by imaging but is usually confirmed on surgical exploration, which in both cases should be carried out prompt...

  5. The role of human papillomavirus infection in the pathogenesis of penile squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that penile cancer follows 2 etiologic pathways, 1 related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the other related to other factors including phimosis, chronic inflammation, and lichen sclerosus. HPV DNA is found in 47% to 48% of all penile tumors, and most of these cases correspond to high-risk genotypes, preferentially HPV-16. HPV status is associated with histologic subtype, with higher detection ratios in warty-basaloid carcinomas and lower detection ratios in keratinizing variants (ie, verrucous, papillary, and usual squamous cell carcinomas). It is the cell type, rather than a distinctive architecture, that is more strongly associated with HPV presence. The detection ratio is higher in tumors composed entirely or partially of cells with basaloid features. In addition, a few studies have evaluated the impact of HPV infection on the prognosis of patients with penile cancer. However, results are controversial, and more data are needed to clarify this matter. A proper understanding of the role of HPV in penile carcinogenesis might help in planning intervention strategies such as vaccination against HPV infection.

  6. Correlation between penile cavernosal artery blood flow and retinal vascular findings in arteriogenic erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Emarah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Emarah1, Shawky M El-Haggar2, Ihab A Osman2, Abdel Wahab S Khafagy21Departments of Ophthalmology, 2Andrology and Sexology, Cairo University Hospital, EgyptObjectives: Arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED is a target organ disease of atherosclerosis, and therefore might be a predictor of systemic atherosclerosis. Being systemic, it might be possible to evaluate the extent of atherosclerosis from retinal vascular findings. We investigated the possible correlation between penile cavernosal artery blood flow and retinal vascular findings in patients with arteriogenic ED.Patients and methods: Sixty patients with ED were divided according to the peak systolic velocity (PSV in their penile cavernosal arteries into two groups; Group A included 30 patients with PSV less than 25 cm/sec, and Group B included 30 patients with PSV more than 35 cm/sec. Blood flow in the penile cavernosal artery was measured with color Doppler ultrasonography. All patients were assessed by ocular fundus examination under amydriatic conditions to evaluate retinal vascular atherosclerotic changes using Hyman’s classification.Results: Evidence of retinal vascular atherosclerotic changes was found in 19 patients (63.3% in Group A and in 10 patients (33.3% in Group B.Conclusions: Our study confirms the possibility of predicting penile arterial vascular status in patients with ED from their retinal vascular findings by using amydriatic simple, practical funduscopy.Keywords: erectile dysfunction, atherosclerosis, retinal vascular atherosclerosis

  7. Prepuce and partial penile amputation for treatment of preputial gland neoplasia in two ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne; Lennox, Angela; Quinton, Jean-François; Schoemaker, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Preputial tumours in ferrets are frequently malignant and therefore warrant prompt investigation. As many cases do not respond favourably to surgery, even in combination with radiation therapy, wide surgical resection has been recommended. Such a procedure may necessitate partial or total penile res

  8. Detection of penile metastasis from bladder cancer using F 18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Lee, Jong Jin [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A 74 year old man who had experienced priapism for 2 months after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer visited our hospital, and underwent metastatic work up {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography(PET/CT)showed diffuse hypermetabolic activity along the penis shaft, which was confirmed as a penile metastasis.

  9. Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Boisen, Kirsten A; Virtanen, Helena E

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infant boys show a brief activation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis shortly after birth, the physiological significance of which is poorly understood. The objective of the study was to investigate the correlation between endogenous testosterone levels and penile size and g...

  10. Penile vibratory stimulation in the treatment of post-prostatectomy incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in the treatment of post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence (UI). METHODS: Patients with post-prostatectomy UI were included in a 12-week trial. A 24-hr pad test and a 72-hr voiding diary were collected at baseline. Participants were randomized ...

  11. One-sheet spiraling full thickness skin graft for penile resurfacing after paraffinoma excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus O.H. Prasetyono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of on-going non-illicit practice of silicone or paraffin injection to enlarge penis, the author reported 3 cases of surgical treatment to resurface the body of the penis after excision of the destructed penile skin using full thickness skin graft. The skin excision was performed technically through penile body degloving procedure. Full thickness skin graft was then applied as a single sheet donor tissue to cover the denuded penile body spirally. The full thickness graft, which is relatively easy to be performed, is no doubt much thinner than a skin flap, while it also bears a smaller degree of secondary contraction than split skin graft. The color of the skin is considerably matched as it comes from the groin, which is a nearby area of penis. The size and skin sensitization of the penis looks to be natural. The only disadvantage is the common possibility of either spiral or circular junctional scar in between graft edges and between the graft and the penile mucosa and skin to develop hypertrophic scar. However, this possible scar problem applies also to any other surgical scar with any donor tissue. Fortunately, the 3 cases posed no scar problem and normal appearance. All the patients have also regained their normal sexual function. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:222-5Keywords: full thickness skin graft, paraffinoma, siliconoma, sexual function

  12. Histological Correlates of Penile Sexual Sensation: Does Circumcision Make a Difference?

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    Guy Cox, MA, DPhil

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Based on histological findings and correlates of sexual function, loss of the prepuce by circumcision would appear to have no adverse effect on sexual pleasure. Our evaluation supports overall findings from physiological measurements and survey data. Cox G, Krieger JN, and Morris BJ. Histological correlates of penile sexual sensation: Does circumcision make a difference? Sex Med 2015;3:76–85.

  13. INTRACAVERNOSAL USE OF ADRENALIN TO INTERRUPT ANAESTHETIC PENILE ERECTION DURING TRANSURETHRAL SURGERY

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    Nirupma Bansal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Intraoperative penile erection is uncommon, but troublesome problem associated with anaesthesia in patients undergoing transurethral surgery. Many methods and drugs have been used in past to solve this problem. Our objective was to find the incidence of intraoperative penile erection and to study the use of intracavernosal injection of adrenalin to solve this problem. Adrenalin is a strong sympathomimetic and an essentially present drug in the operation theatre besides being cheaper. MATERIAL AND METHODS We studied patients who underwent transurethral procedures from March 2007 to March 2009 at Nepalgunj Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kohalpur, Nepal. During this period, three patients developed penile erection following anaesthesia. Out of those three patients, use of intracavernosal adrenalin was studied in two patients in whom masterly inactivity did not resolve the problem. RESULT In one of the patients, detumescence occurred with masterly inactivity and two patients were administered 5µg intracavernosal adrenalin. Detumescence occurred within two minutes without any cardiovascular side effects and procedures could be completed without any complication. CONCLUSION Using intracavernosal adrenalin is safe and effective in treating intraoperative penile erection

  14. Venous ligation: a novel strategy for glans enhancement in penile prosthesis implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Geng-Long; Hill, James W; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Chih-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Although penile implantation remains a final solution for patients with refractory impotence, undesirable postoperative effects, including penile size reduction and cold sensation of the glans penis, remain problematic. We report results of a surgical method designed to avoid these problems. From 2003 to 2013, 35 consecutive patients received a malleable penile implant. Of these, 15 men (the enhancing group) were also treated with venous ligation of the retrocoronal venous plexus, deep dorsal vein, and cavernosal veins. The remaining 20 men formed the control group, treated with only a penile implant. Follow-up ranged from 1.1 to 10.0 years, with an average of 6.7 ± 1.5 years. Although preoperative glanular dimension did not differ significantly between the two groups, significant respective difference at one day and one year postoperatively was found in the glanular circumference (128.8 ± 6.8 mm versus 115.3 ± 7.2 mm and 130.6 ± 7.2 mm versus 100.5 ± 7.3 mm; both Ppenis dimension in implant patients.

  15. Long-term patient satisfaction after surgical correction of penile curvature via tunical plication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Paez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess patient satisfaction and functional results at long term follow-up after surgical correction for Peyronie's disease (PD and congenital penile curvature (CPC with the technique of tunical plication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and two men operated for PD (n = 76 or CPC (n = 26 in four different departments of urology in public hospitals agreed to answer a six-question telephone questionnaire about treatment satisfaction. Tunica albuginea plication procedures represented the standard surgical approach. Subjects under investigation were correction of the deformity, feeling of bumps under the skin, pain during erection, penile sensory changes, development of erectile dysfunction (ED and postoperative ability for complete vaginal intromission. Subjective response rates were compared using the chi square test on the basis of the etiology of the disease (CPC or PD. RESULTS: Significant differences (p < 0.05 between patients with CPC and PD were noticed in the prevalence of postoperative penile deformity, sensory changes, ED and ability to complete vaginal intromission, PD patients always showing a more pessimistic view. No significant differences (p = ns were detected in terms of unpleasant nodes under the penile skin or pain during erection. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcome after surgical correction for PD and CPC with the technique of tunical plication can be poor. Probably patient expectations are above the real performance of surgical techniques. Preoperative information should be more exhaustive.

  16. Own Experience in Treatment of Patients with Penile Cancer Using Photodynamic Therapy

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    Elena Filonenko

    2015-01-01

    radachlorine. All patients had no complications. Complete regression was achieved in 9 patients, and partial regression in 2. Thus, the results showed that photodynamic therapy for penile cancer stage Tis-1N0M0 permits performing organ-preserving treatment with satisfactory oncological results and no impairment of patient’s quality of life.

  17. The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Selvaggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC, to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011 of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual’s goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements.

  18. High Flow Priapism in a Pediatric Patient after Circumcision with Dorsal Penile Nerve Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantony, Joseph J.; Routh, Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first documented case of high flow priapism after circumcision with dorsal penile nerve block. A 7-year-old male who had undergone circumcision three years before presented to our institution with a 3-year history of persistent nonpainful erections. Workup revealed a high flow priapism and, after discussion of the management options, the patient's family elected continued observation. PMID:27648333

  19. Penile metastasis secondary to bladder cancer: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile metastasis secondary to primary bladder cancer is a rare entity and represents a challenging problem. The common mode of spread to the penis is by retrograde venous route. The overall outcome is dismal and most patients will die within 1 year even after optimum treatment. Here, we report two such cases.

  20. Sexual outcomes after partial penectomy for penile cancer: results from a multi-institutional study

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    Salvatore Sansalone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy. Surgical treatment is inevitably mutilating. Considering the strong impact on patients′ sexual life we want to evaluate sexual function and satisfaction after partial penectomy. The patients in this study (n = 25 represented all those who attended our institutions and were diagnosed and treated for penile cancer from October 2011 to November 2013. All patients underwent partial penectomy and followed-up (mean: 14 months; range: 12-25. Sexual presurgical baseline was estimated using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction 15 (IIEF-15. Sexual outcomes of each patient were estimated considering four standardized and validated questionnaires. We analyzed the means and ranges of IIEF-15 including erectile function (IIEF-1-5 and -15, orgasmic function (IIEF-9 and -10, sexual desire (IIEF-11 and -12, intercourse satisfaction (IIEF-6-8, and overall satisfaction (IIEF-13 and -14. Then, we also used Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ, Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS and Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR to evaluate the sexual function and satisfaction of our patients. The final results showed that penile cancer leads to several sexual and psychosexual dysfunctions. Nevertheless, patients who undergo partial penectomy for penile cancer can maintain the sexual outcomes at levels slightly lower to those that existed in the period before surgery.