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Sample records for preliminary weight estimates

  1. Structural Weight Estimation for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeff; Martinovic, Zoran; Su, Philip; Eldred, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes some of the work in progress to develop automated structural weight estimation procedures within the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of the NASA Langley Research Center. One task of the VAB is to perform system studies at the conceptual and early preliminary design stages on launch vehicles and in-space transportation systems. Some examples of these studies for Earth to Orbit (ETO) systems are the Future Space Transportation System [1], Orbit On Demand Vehicle [2], Venture Star [3], and the Personnel Rescue Vehicle[4]. Structural weight calculation for launch vehicle studies can exist on several levels of fidelity. Typically historically based weight equations are used in a vehicle sizing program. Many of the studies in the vehicle analysis branch have been enhanced in terms of structural weight fraction prediction by utilizing some level of off-line structural analysis to incorporate material property, load intensity, and configuration effects which may not be captured by the historical weight equations. Modification of Mass Estimating Relationships (MER's) to assess design and technology impacts on vehicle performance are necessary to prioritize design and technology development decisions. Modern CAD/CAE software, ever increasing computational power and platform independent computer programming languages such as JAVA provide new means to create greater depth of analysis tools which can be included into the conceptual design phase of launch vehicle development. Commercial framework computing environments provide easy to program techniques which coordinate and implement the flow of data in a distributed heterogeneous computing environment. It is the intent of this paper to present a process in development at NASA LaRC for enhanced structural weight estimation using this state of the art computational power.

  2. Modified Weighted Kaplan-Meier Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiq

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In many medical studies majority of the study subjects do not reach to the event of interest during the study period. In such situations survival probabilities can be estimated for censored observation by Kaplan Meier estimator. However in case of heavy censoring these estimates are biased and over estimate the survival probabilities. For heavy censoring a new method was proposed (Bahrawar Jan, 2005 to estimate the survival probabilities by weighting the censored observations by non-censoring rate. But the main defect in this weighted method is that it gives zero weight to the last censored observation. To over come this difficulty a new weight is proposed which also gives a non-zero weight to the last censored observation.

  3. Weighted conditional least-squares estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A two-stage estimation procedure is proposed that generalizes the concept of conditional least squares. The method is instead based upon the minimization of a weighted sum of squares, where the weights are inverses of estimated conditional variance terms. Some general conditions are given under which the estimators are consistent and jointly asymptotically normal. More specific details are given for ergodic Markov processes with stationary transition probabilities. A comparison is made with the ordinary conditional least-squares estimators for two simple branching processes with immigration. The relationship between weighted conditional least squares and other, more well-known, estimators is also investigated. In particular, it is shown that in many cases estimated generalized least-squares estimators can be obtained using the weighted conditional least-squares approach. Applications to stochastic compartmental models, and linear models with nested error structures are considered

  4. On Preliminary Test Estimator for Median

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Takeo; 岡崎, 威生

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss about estimation of median with a preliminary test. Two procedures are presented, one uses Median test and the other uses Wilcoxon two-sample test for the preliminary test. Sections 3 and 4 give mathematical formulations of such properties, including mean square errors with one specified case. Section 5 discusses their optimal significance levels of the preliminary test and proposes their numerical values by Monte Carlo method. In addition to mea...

  5. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of this document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets, impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. The results of the tradeoff studies and evaluations that were performed during the preliminary design are presented in Appendix A to this report. 51 figs., 17 tabs

  6. About an adaptively weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Jean-François

    2009-09-01

    The minimum averaged mean squared error nonparametric adaptive weights use data from m possibly different populations to infer about one population of interest. The definition of these weights is based on the properties of the empirical distribution function. We use the Kaplan-Meier estimate to let the weights accommodate right-censored data and use them to define the weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate. The proposed estimate is smoother than the usual Kaplan-Meier estimate and converges uniformly in probability to the target distribution. Simulations show that the performances of the weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate on finite samples exceed that of the usual Kaplan-Meier estimate. A case study is also presented.

  7. A Procedure for Structural Weight Estimation of Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles (Interim User's Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Zoran N.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This is an interim user's manual for current procedures used in the Vehicle Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, for launch vehicle structural subsystem weight estimation based on finite element modeling and structural analysis. The process is intended to complement traditional methods of conceptual and early preliminary structural design such as the application of empirical weight estimation or application of classical engineering design equations and criteria on one dimensional "line" models. Functions of two commercially available software codes are coupled together. Vehicle modeling and analysis are done using SDRC/I-DEAS, and structural sizing is performed with the Collier Research Corp. HyperSizer program.

  8. A method of estimating log weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles N. Mann; Hilton H. Lysons

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method of estimating the weights of logs before they are yarded. Knowledge of log weights is required to achieve optimum loading of modern yarding equipment. Truckloads of logs are weighed and measured to obtain a local density index (pounds per cubic foot) for a species of logs. The density index is then used to estimate the weights of...

  9. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of the document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets; impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. 75 figs., 48 tabs

  10. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  11. Development of Non-Optimum Factors for Launch Vehicle Propellant Tank Bulkhead Weight Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Wallace, Matthew L.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-optimum factors are used during aerospace conceptual and preliminary design to account for the increased weights of as-built structures due to future manufacturing and design details. Use of higher-fidelity non-optimum factors in these early stages of vehicle design can result in more accurate predictions of a concept s actual weights and performance. To help achieve this objective, non-optimum factors are calculated for the aluminum-alloy gores that compose the ogive and ellipsoidal bulkheads of the Space Shuttle Super-Lightweight Tank propellant tanks. Minimum values for actual gore skin thicknesses and weld land dimensions are extracted from selected production drawings, and are used to predict reference gore weights. These actual skin thicknesses are also compared to skin thicknesses predicted using classical structural mechanics and tank proof-test pressures. Both coarse and refined weights models are developed for the gores. The coarse model is based on the proof pressure-sized skin thicknesses, and the refined model uses the actual gore skin thicknesses and design detail dimensions. To determine the gore non-optimum factors, these reference weights are then compared to flight hardware weights reported in a mass properties database. When manufacturing tolerance weight estimates are taken into account, the gore non-optimum factors computed using the coarse weights model range from 1.28 to 2.76, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.90. Application of the refined weights model yields non-optimum factors between 1.00 and 1.50, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.14. To demonstrate their use, these calculated non-optimum factors are used to predict heavier, more realistic gore weights for a proposed heavy-lift launch vehicle s propellant tank bulkheads. These results indicate that relatively simple models can be developed to better estimate the actual weights of large structures for future launch vehicles.

  12. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P food compared with both WL groups (P food. There was a wide range of underestimation and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss.

  13. Factors Affecting Estimated Fetal Weight Measured by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Energin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the fac­tors that affect the accuracy of estimated fetal weight in ultrasound. Methods: This study was conducted in 3rd degree hospi­tal antenatal outpatient clinic and perinatology inpatient clinic between June 2011 and January 2012. The data were obtained from 165 pregnant women. Inclusion cri­teria were; no additional diseases, giving birth within 48 hours after ultrasound. The same physician executed all ultrasound process. Age, height, weight, obstetric history and obstetric follow –up findings were recorded. Results: Fetal gender, fetal presentation, presence of meconium in amniotic fluid, maternal parity, did not sig­nificantly affect the accuracy of fetal weight estimation by ultrasound. The mean difference between estimated fetal weight and birth weight was 104.48±84 gr in nullipars and 94.2±81 gr in multipars (p=0.44; mean difference was 98.22±79 gr in male babies and 98.15±86 gr in female babies (p=0.99. Mean difference between estimated fetal weight and birth weight was 96.92±81 gr in babies with cephalic presentation and 110.9±90 gr in babies with breech presentation (p=0.53; this difference was 95.36±79 gr in babies with amniotic fluid with meconium and 98.82± 83 gr in babies with amniotic fluid without me­conium (p=0.83. Conclusion: Fetal weight is estimation is one of key points in the obstetrician’s intrapartum managament. And it is important to make fetal weight estimation accurately. In our study, consistent with literature, we observed that fetal gender; meconium presence in amniotic fluid, fetal presentation, maternal parity does not significantly effect the accuracy of fetal weight estimation by ultrasound.

  14. Evaluation of three paediatric weight estimation methods in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Pei Ying; Chong, Shu-Ling; Lek, Ngee; Bautista, Dianne; Ng, Kee Chong

    2013-04-01

    Rapid paediatric weight estimation methods in the emergency setting have not been evaluated for South East Asian children. This study aims to assess the accuracy and precision of three such methods in Singapore children: Broselow-Luten (BL) tape, Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) (estimated weight (kg) = 2 (age + 4)) and Luscombe (estimated weight (kg) = 3 (age) + 7) formulae. We recruited 875 patients aged 1-10 years in a Paediatric Emergency Department in Singapore over a 2-month period. For each patient, true weight and height were determined. True height was cross-referenced to the BL tape markings and used to derive estimated weight (virtual BL tape method), while patient's round-down age (in years) was used to derive estimated weights using APLS and Luscombe formulae, respectively. The percentage difference between the true and estimated weights was calculated. For each method, the bias and extent of agreement were quantified using Bland-Altman method (mean percentage difference (MPD) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA)). The proportion of weight estimates within 10% of true weight (p₁₀) was determined. The BL tape method marginally underestimated weights (MPD +0.6%; 95% LOA -26.8% to +28.1%; p₁₀ 58.9%). The APLS formula underestimated weights (MPD +7.6%; 95% LOA -26.5% to +41.7%; p₁₀ 45.7%). The Luscombe formula overestimated weights (MPD -7.4%; 95% LOA -51.0% to +36.2%; p₁₀ 37.7%). Of the three methods we evaluated, the BL tape method provided the most accurate and precise weight estimation for Singapore children. The APLS and Luscombe formulae underestimated and overestimated the children's weights, respectively, and were considerably less precise. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Sonographic fetal weight estimation using femoral length: Honarvar Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firoozabadi, Raziah Dehghani; Ghasemi, N.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Dehghani

    2007-01-01

    Fetal growth is the result of interactions between various factors and can be estimated by ultrasonic measurements. Fetal femur length is a scale for estimating the fetal weight in individual races because fetal growth patterns differ among different races. This was a prospective study involving 500 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestational age. Real-time sonography was done to measure the femoral length and the weight of the fetus was estimated by the Honarvar 2 equation. The correlation between estimated fetal weight (EFW) and real weight was tested by Pearson correlation coefficient and relationships with the age and BMI of mother, the sex of the neonate and parity were tested by multiple regression. EFW by the Honarvar 2 equation correlated significantly with actual birthweight. Therefore, this equation is valid for fetal weight estimation. It also does not depend on the age and BMI of the mother, sex of the neonate, parity. Ethnicity potentially plays an important role in the fetal weight estimation. The Honarvar formula produced the best estimate of the actual birthweight for Iranian fetuses, and its use is recommended. (author)

  16. [Development of key indicators for nurses performance evaluation and estimation of their weights for management by objectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hwa; Ahn, Sung Hee

    2010-02-01

    This methodological research was designed to develop performance evaluation key indicators (PEKIs) for management by objectives (MBO) and to estimate their weights for hospital nurses. The PEKIs were developed by selecting preliminary indicators from a literature review, examining content validity and identifying their level of importance. Data were collected from November 14, 2007 to February 18, 2008. Data set for importance of indicators was obtained from 464 nurses and weights of PEKIs domain was from 453 nurses, who worked for at least 2 yr in one of three hospitals. Data were analyzed using X(2)-test, factor analysis, and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Based upon Content Validity Index of .8 or above, 61 indicators were selected from the 100 preliminary indicators. Finally, 40 PEKIs were developed from the 61 indicators, and categorized into 10 domains. The highest weight of the 10 domains was customer satisfaction, which was followed by patient education, direct nursing care, profit increase, safety management, improvement of nursing quality, completeness of nursing records, enhancing competence of nurses, indirect nursing care, and cost reduction, in that order. PEKIs and their weights can be utilized for impartial evaluation and MBO for hospital nurses. Further research to verify PEKIs would lead to successful implementation of MBO.

  17. Preliminary cost estimating for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpar, I.V.; Soltz, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry has higher costs for personnel, equipment, construction, and engineering than conventional industry, which means that cost estimation procedures may need adjustment. The authors account for the special technical and labor requirements of the nuclear industry in making adjustments to equipment and installation cost estimations. Using illustrative examples, they show that conventional methods of preliminary cost estimation are flexible enough for application to emerging industries if their cost structure is similar to that of the process industries. If not, modifications can provide enough engineering and cost data for a statistical analysis. 9 references, 14 figures, 4 tables

  18. Estimating correlation and covariance matrices by weighting of market similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael C. M\\"unnix; Rudi Sch\\"afer; Oliver Grothe

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a weighted estimation of correlation and covariance matrices from historical financial data. To this end, we introduce a weighting scheme that accounts for similarity of previous market conditions to the present one. The resulting estimators are less biased and show lower variance than either unweighted or exponentially weighted estimators. The weighting scheme is based on a similarity measure which compares the current correlation structure of the market to the structures at past ...

  19. Backtesting Portfolio Value-at-Risk with Estimated Portfolio Weights

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Pei

    2010-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically analyzes backtesting portfolio VaR with estimation risk in an intrinsically multivariate framework. For the first time in the literature, it takes into account the estimation of portfolio weights in forecasting portfolio VaR and its impact on backtesting. It shows that the estimation risk from estimating the portfolio weights as well as that from estimating the multivariate dynamic model of asset returns make the existing methods in a univariate framew...

  20. Combined Influence of Gestational Weight Gain and Estimated Fetal Weight on Risk Assessment for Small- or Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth Weight: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sarah J; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Kim, Sungduk; Albert, Paul S; Newman, Roger; Grobman, William A; Wing, Deborah A; Grantz, Katherine L

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the frequency with which gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight do not track across gestation and to assess the risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) birth weight as a function of tracking. This study included a pregnancy cohort (2009-2013) of 2438 women from 4 racial/ethnic groups in the United States. We calculated race- and trimester-specific gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight z scores. The prevalence of how often gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight did not or did directly track was examined by grouping z scores into measure-specific categories (1 SD) and then examining 2-measure combinations. Trimester-specific relative risks for SGA and LGA births were estimated with a gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight z score interaction. We estimated coefficients for selected gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight values (-1 SD, 0 SD, and +1 SD) compared with the referent of 0 SD for both measures. Small and large for gestational age were calculated as birth weight below the 10th and at or above the 90th percentiles, respectively. Gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight were within 1 SD 55.5%, 51.5%, and 48.2% of the time in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. There was no significant interaction between gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight on the risk of SGA in the first and second trimesters (interaction term P = .48; P = .79). In the third trimester, there was a significant interaction (P = .002), resulting in a 71% (95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.02) increased risk of SGA when estimated fetal weight was low and gestational weight gain was high. These relationships were similar for the risk of LGA. Deviations in either measure, even in the presence of average gestational weight gain or estimated fetal weight, still suggest an increased risk of SGA and LGA. © 2017 by the American Institute of

  1. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...

  2. Two-step estimation in ratio-of-mediator-probability weighted causal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Edward; Deutsch, Jonah; Hong, Guanglei; Porter, Kristin E; Qin, Xu; Yang, Cheng

    2018-04-15

    This study investigates appropriate estimation of estimator variability in the context of causal mediation analysis that employs propensity score-based weighting. Such an analysis decomposes the total effect of a treatment on the outcome into an indirect effect transmitted through a focal mediator and a direct effect bypassing the mediator. Ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting estimates these causal effects by adjusting for the confounding impact of a large number of pretreatment covariates through propensity score-based weighting. In step 1, a propensity score model is estimated. In step 2, the causal effects of interest are estimated using weights derived from the prior step's regression coefficient estimates. Statistical inferences obtained from this 2-step estimation procedure are potentially problematic if the estimated standard errors of the causal effect estimates do not reflect the sampling uncertainty in the estimation of the weights. This study extends to ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting analysis a solution to the 2-step estimation problem by stacking the score functions from both steps. We derive the asymptotic variance-covariance matrix for the indirect effect and direct effect 2-step estimators, provide simulation results, and illustrate with an application study. Our simulation results indicate that the sampling uncertainty in the estimated weights should not be ignored. The standard error estimation using the stacking procedure offers a viable alternative to bootstrap standard error estimation. We discuss broad implications of this approach for causal analysis involving propensity score-based weighting. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Comparison of Broselow tape measurements versus mother estimations of pediatric weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Pediatric resuscitation is challenging for therapeutic group. The most physicians have limited experience in dealing with this situation. Appropriate dosing of the drugs depends on the body weight of the children that it is usually not feasible. There is need for a fast, convenient and reliable method for body weight estimation in children. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of Broselow tape in children of Bushehr city. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the emergency department of Aliasghar hospital. Children were between 1 month and 14 years. Children with chronic disease, 334, ill children were excluded from study. Estimated weight measured based on Broselow tape and actual weight measured by digital scale, then estimated and actual weight were compared. The results were analyzed by SPSS Software Ver 18 and T-Test, Chi-Square Test. Results: findings showed that 43.2% of total subjects were female Mean of age were 43 months. 72.5% of tape body weights were within  10% error of actual body weights. 78.9% of tape body weight was within  15% error of actual body weights. There was no significant difference between boys and girls. Conclusion: Broslow tape was easy, fast and exact for body weight estimation in emergency situation .it is more exact of body weight estimation by parents or therapeutic group so it helps therapeutic group in emergency department for accounting of medication dosage and equipment sizes.

  4. DEMO maintenance scenarios: scheme for time estimations and preliminary estimates for blankets arranged in multi-module-segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, D.

    2007-01-01

    Previous conceptual studies made clear that the ITER blanket concept and segmentation is not suitable for the environment of a potential fusion power plant (DEMO). One promising concept to be used instead is the so-called Multi-Module-Segment (MMS) concept. Each MMS consists of a number of blankets arranged on a strong back plate thus forming ''banana'' shaped in-board (IB) and out-board (OB) segments. With respect to port size, weight, or other limiting aspects the IB and OB MMS are segmented in toroidal direction. The number of segments to be replaced would be below 100. For this segmentation concept a new maintenance scenario had to be worked out. The aim of this paper is to present a promising MMS maintenance scenario, a flexible scheme for time estimations under varying boundary conditions and preliminary time estimates. According to the proposed scenario two upper, vertical arranged maintenance ports have to be opened for blanket maintenance on opposite sides of the tokamak. Both ports are central to a 180 degree sector and the MMS are removed and inserted through both ports. In-vessel machines are operating to transport the elements in toroidal direction and also to insert and attach the MMS to the shield. Outside the vessel the elements have to be transported between the tokamak and the hot cell to be refurbished. Calculating the maintenance time for such a scenario is rather challenging due to the numerous parallel processes involved. For this reason a flexible, multi-level calculation scheme has been developed in which the operations are organized into three levels: At the lowest level the basic maintenance steps are determined. These are organized into maintenance sequences that take into account parallelisms in the system. Several maintenance sequences constitute the maintenance phases which correspond to a certain logistics scenario. By adding the required times of the maintenance phases the total maintenance time is obtained. The paper presents

  5. Preliminary structural design of composite main rotor blades for minimum weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is developed to perform minimum weight structural design for composite or metallic main rotor blades subject to aerodynamic performance, material strength, autorotation, and frequency constraints. The constraints and load cases are developed such that the final preliminary rotor design will satisfy U.S. Army military specifications, as well as take advantage of the versatility of composite materials. A minimum weight design is first developed subject to satisfying the aerodynamic performance, strength, and autorotation constraints for all static load cases. The minimum weight design is then dynamically tuned to avoid resonant frequencies occurring at the design rotor speed. With this methodology, three rotor blade designs were developed based on the geometry of the UH-60A Black Hawk titanium-spar rotor blade. The first design is of a single titanium-spar cross section, which is compared with the UH-60A Black Hawk rotor blade. The second and third designs use single and multiple graphite/epoxy-spar cross sections. These are compared with the titanium-spar design to demonstrate weight savings from use of this design methodology in conjunction with advanced composite materials.

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of cystic lesions of neurocysticercosis: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffin, Luciana S.; Bacheschi, Luiz A.; Machado, Luis R.; Nobrega, Jose P.S.; Coelho, Christina; Leite, Claudia C.

    2001-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic disease in some developing countries. It has pleomorfic clinical and imaging findings, which are variable from patient to patient. In this preliminary note, we studied the magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of sixteen patients presenting with cystic lesions of this disease diagnosed by clinical and laboratorial findings. All the lesions had hypointense signal and the similar apparent diffusion coefficient values as the cerebrospinal fluid. (author)

  7. Estimates Of Genetic Parameters Of Body Weights Of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    four (44) farrowings were used to estimate the genetic parameters (heritability and repeatability) of body weight of pigs. Results obtained from the study showed that the heritability (h2) of birth and weaning weights were moderate (0.33±0.16 ...

  8. Weighty data: importance information influences estimated weight of digital information storage devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eSchneider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has suggested that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired vs. no information estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1 compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard-drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant, also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiment 2a and 2b. The current work shows that importance influences weight perceptions beyond specific objects.

  9. Weight Estimation Tool for Children Aged 6 to 59 Months in Limited-Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Mark E; Myatt, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    A simple, reliable anthropometric tool for rapid estimation of weight in children would be useful in limited-resource settings where current weight estimation tools are not uniformly reliable, nearly all global under-five mortality occurs, severe acute malnutrition is a significant contributor in approximately one-third of under-five mortality, and a weight scale may not be immediately available in emergencies to first-response providers. To determine the accuracy and precision of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and height as weight estimation tools in children under five years of age in low-to-middle income countries. This was a retrospective observational study. Data were collected in 560 nutritional surveys during 1992-2006 using a modified Expanded Program of Immunization two-stage cluster sample design. Locations with high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition. A total of 453,990 children met inclusion criteria (age 6-59 months; weight ≤ 25 kg; MUAC 80-200 mm) and exclusion criteria (bilateral pitting edema; biologically implausible weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) values). Weight was estimated using Broselow Tape, Hong Kong formula, and database MUAC alone, height alone, and height and MUAC combined. Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight, proportion of estimates accurate to within ± 25% and ± 10% of true weight, weighted Kappa statistic, and Bland-Altman bias were reported as measures of tool accuracy. Standard deviation of mean percentage difference and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reported as measures of tool precision. Database height was a more accurate and precise predictor of weight compared to Broselow Tape 2007 [B], Broselow Tape 2011 [A], and MUAC. Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight was +0.49% (SD = 10.33%); proportion of estimates accurate to within ± 25% of true weight was 97.36% (95% CI 97.40%, 97.46%); and

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to estimate genetic parameters of birth weight (BW, n = 3005), weaning weight (WW, n = 2800), 6 months weight (6 MW, n = 2600), 9 months weight (9 MW, n = 1990) and yearling weight (YW, n = 1450) of Mehraban sheep, collected during 1995 - 2007 at Mehraban sheep Breeding ...

  11. Estimates for the widths of weighted Sobolev classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, Anastasia A

    2010-01-01

    Estimates for the Kolmogorov widths in the L q,v -metric of weighted Sobolev classes as well as for the approximation numbers of the corresponding embedding operators are found. Bibliography: 33 titles.

  12. Improving the Network Scale-Up Estimator: Incorporating Means of Sums, Recursive Back Estimation, and Sampling Weights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Habecker

    Full Text Available Researchers interested in studying populations that are difficult to reach through traditional survey methods can now draw on a range of methods to access these populations. Yet many of these methods are more expensive and difficult to implement than studies using conventional sampling frames and trusted sampling methods. The network scale-up method (NSUM provides a middle ground for researchers who wish to estimate the size of a hidden population, but lack the resources to conduct a more specialized hidden population study. Through this method it is possible to generate population estimates for a wide variety of groups that are perhaps unwilling to self-identify as such (for example, users of illegal drugs or other stigmatized populations via traditional survey tools such as telephone or mail surveys--by asking a representative sample to estimate the number of people they know who are members of such a "hidden" subpopulation. The original estimator is formulated to minimize the weight a single scaling variable can exert upon the estimates. We argue that this introduces hidden and difficult to predict biases, and instead propose a series of methodological advances on the traditional scale-up estimation procedure, including a new estimator. Additionally, we formalize the incorporation of sample weights into the network scale-up estimation process, and propose a recursive process of back estimation "trimming" to identify and remove poorly performing predictors from the estimation process. To demonstrate these suggestions we use data from a network scale-up mail survey conducted in Nebraska during 2014. We find that using the new estimator and recursive trimming process provides more accurate estimates, especially when used in conjunction with sampling weights.

  13. A Systematic Evaluation of Ultrasound-based Fetal Weight Estimation Models on Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitkumar S. Hiwale

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: We found that the existing fetal weight estimation models have high systematic and random errors on Indian population, with a general tendency of overestimation of fetal weight in the LBW category and underestimation in the HBW category. We also observed that these models have a limited ability to predict babies at a risk of either low or high birth weight. It is recommended that the clinicians should consider all these factors, while interpreting estimated weight given by the existing models.

  14. Hydrodynamic characterization and molecular weight estimation of ultrasonically sheared DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, J. I.; Garces, F.; Garcia-Sacristan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The sedimentation coefficients and intrinsic viscosities of ultrasonically sheared calf thymus DNA have been determined. The molecular weight estimation according to this parameters have been compared with the ones obtained from the electrophoretic migration rates based on the calibration proposed using the known molecular weight restriction fragments of X-ENA. (Author) 35 refs

  15. A FIRST APPROXIMATION CALCULATION OF AIR CUSHION CHASSIS WEIGHT OF TRANSPORT AIRPLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a first approximation of a weighted estimate of air cushion chassis. The algorithm for calculating the weight of air cushion chassis allows not only to estimate the mass of the chassis to a first approximation, but also to conduct a preliminary analysis of the influence of various parameters of the aircraft and the chassis on the weight of the aircraft at the stage of before designing. The algorithm can be expanded to include additional design decisions, such as the transformation of the fuselage, increasing the air cushion chassis canopy due to extensions, center of gravity, etc.

  16. Inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation for causal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2013-11-20

    An important scientific goal of studies in the health and social sciences is increasingly to determine to what extent the total effect of a point exposure is mediated by an intermediate variable on the causal pathway between the exposure and the outcome. A causal framework has recently been proposed for mediation analysis, which gives rise to new definitions, formal identification results and novel estimators of direct and indirect effects. In the present paper, the author describes a new inverse odds ratio-weighted approach to estimate so-called natural direct and indirect effects. The approach, which uses as a weight the inverse of an estimate of the odds ratio function relating the exposure and the mediator, is universal in that it can be used to decompose total effects in a number of regression models commonly used in practice. Specifically, the approach may be used for effect decomposition in generalized linear models with a nonlinear link function, and in a number of other commonly used models such as the Cox proportional hazards regression for a survival outcome. The approach is simple and can be implemented in standard software provided a weight can be specified for each observation. An additional advantage of the method is that it easily incorporates multiple mediators of a categorical, discrete or continuous nature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113: Project cost estimate. Preliminary design report. Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains Volume IV of the Preliminary Design Report for the Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113 which is the Project Cost Estimate and construction schedule. The estimate was developed based upon Title 1 material take-offs, budgetary equipment quotes and Raytheon historical in-house data. The W-113 project cost estimate and project construction schedule were integrated together to provide a resource loaded project network

  18. EDIN0613P weight estimating program. [for launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    The weight estimating relationships and program developed for space power system simulation are described. The program was developed to size a two-stage launch vehicle for the space power system. The program is actually part of an overall simulation technique called EDIN (Engineering Design and Integration) system. The program sizes the overall vehicle, generates major component weights and derives a large amount of overall vehicle geometry. The program is written in FORTRAN V and is designed for use on the Univac Exec 8 (1110). By utilizing the flexibility of this program while remaining cognizant of the limits imposed upon output depth and accuracy by utilization of generalized input, this program concept can be a useful tool for estimating purposes at the conceptual design stage of a launch vehicle.

  19. ESTIMATION OF YELLOWFIN TUNA PRODUCTION LANDED IN BENOA PORT WITH WEIGHT-WEIGHT, LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND CONDITION FACTOR APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Jatmiko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares is one of the important catch for the fishing industry in Indonesia. Length-weight relationship study is one of important tools to support fisheries management. However it could not be done to yellowfin tuna landed in Benoa port since they are in the form of gilled-gutted condition. The objectives of this study are to determine the relationship between gilled-gutted weight (GW and whole weight (WW, to calculate length weight relationship between fork length (FL and estimated whole weight (WW and to assess the relative condition factor (Kn of yellowfin tuna in Eastern Indian Ocean. Data were collected from three landing sites i.e. Malang, East Java; Benoa, Bali and Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara from January 2013 to February 2014. Linear regression analysis applied to test the significance baseline between weight-weight relationships and log transformed length weight relationship. Relative condition factor (Kn used to identify fish condition among length groups and months. The results showed a significant positive linear relationships between whole weight (WW and gilled-gutted weight (GW of T. albacares (p<0.001. There was a significant positive linier relationships between log transformed fork length and log transformed whole weight of T. albacares (p<0.001. Relative condition factor (Kn showed declining pattern along with length increase and varied among months. The findings from this study provide data for management of yellowfin tuna stock and population.

  20. Weight management in a cohort of Irish inpatients with serious mental illness (SMI) using a modular behavioural programme. A preliminary service evaluation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bushe, Chris J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gain is commonly observed during psychotropic treatments for chronic forms of severe mental illness and is most rapid during the early treatment phases. All formats of behavioural weight intervention programmes have suggested that weight gain can be prevented or reversed in some patients. There is no data on these programmes in acutely unwell inpatients whom may be the major beneficiaries. METHODS: A modular behavioural intervention programme (Solutions for Wellness) used in SMI outpatients since 2002 in Ireland has been adapted for inpatient use. Preliminary data is reported from 5 centres in Ireland. RESULTS: In 47 inpatients the mean weight change was +0.26 kg (SD 2.02) with a median change of 0 kg. Mean follow-up was 23.7 (SD 21.6) days, and median 14 days (range 6-98 days). There was no difference in mean weight change in those patients involved for > 35 days compared with < 35 days (+0.26 kg; 0.25 kg; p = 0.5). Weight loss or maintenance was seen in 70% of patients. CONCLUSION: These preliminary data are supportive of the concept that acutely unwell inpatients with SMI may engage with a behavioural weight programme. Weight change observed contrasts with the significant weight gain often seen in most subjects. Further clinical trials are warranted.

  1. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Kurdish sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the best ...

  2. [Development of weight-estimation formulae for the bedridden elderly requiring care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonishi, Reiko; Fujii, Kouji; Tsuda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    Bedridden elderly persons requiring care need special body-weight measurement implements, and body-weighting assumes more difficult if they live at their own homes. Therefore, we tried to design a new weight-estimation formulae using various anthropometric variables. The subjects were 33 male and 132 female elderly inpatients certified to be at care level 4 or 5. The body composition included height, body weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, subscapular skinfold thickness, calf circumference, and waist circumference. We studied the correlation between the body weight and each anthropometric variable and age. In men, the highest correlation with body weight was shown by waist circumference (r=0.891, pbedridden elderly patients requiring care.

  3. Preliminary Cost Estimates for Nuclear Hydrogen Production: HTSE System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    KAERI is now focusing on the research and development of the key technologies required for the design and realization of a nuclear hydrogen production system. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GTMHR and PBMR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4-ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production of HTSE (High Temperature Steam Electrolysis) process with VHTR (Very High Temperature nuclear Reactor) as a thermal energy source. The estimated costs presented in this paper show that hydrogen production by the VHTR could be competitive with current techniques of hydrogen production from fossil fuels if CO 2 capture and sequestration is required. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow large-scale production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding the release of CO 2 . Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The major factors that would affect the cost of hydrogen were also discussed

  4. Gradient estimates on the weighted p-Laplace heat equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin Feng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, by a regularization process we derive new gradient estimates for positive solutions to the weighted p-Laplace heat equation when the m-Bakry-Émery curvature is bounded from below by -K for some constant K ≥ 0. When the potential function is constant, which reduce to the gradient estimate established by Ni and Kotschwar for positive solutions to the p-Laplace heat equation on closed manifolds with nonnegative Ricci curvature if K ↘ 0, and reduce to the Davies, Hamilton and Li-Xu's gradient estimates for positive solutions to the heat equation on closed manifolds with Ricci curvature bounded from below if p = 2.

  5. Estimated live weight of growing Pêga breed donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Garcia Moreira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The equations available in the literature to estimate the body weight (BW of Pêga breed donkeys were evaluated using 25 animals aged 0-6 months and it was proposed an equation for BW prediction. For the measurement of the thoracic perimeter (TP and for weighing the animals using the weighing tape, the animals were positioned in a forced station on a steep slope. An electronic scale was used for the determination of the BW. Accuracy of linear and nonlinear equations described in the literature was tested for BW prediction based on the animals’ TP, followed by the comparison of these equations with the equation developed in the present study for BW prediction of Pêga breed donkeys. A difference was noted (P<0.001 between the weights obtained on the electronic scale and the weighing tape. Linear and nonlinear equations available in the literature did not present favorable results with the data of the present study. The equation developed for the estimation of donkeys’ BW allowed the development of a weighing tape exclusive for young animals. Further evaluations are required for other Pêga donkey populations to confirm the efficacy of the proposed equation.

  6. Preliminary Estimates of Specific Discharge and Transport Velocities near Borehole NC-EWDP-24PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifeld, Barry; Doughty, Christine; Finsterle, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes fluid electrical conductivity (FEC) and thermal logging data collected in Borehole NC-EWDP-24PB, located approximately 15 km south of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Preliminary analyses of a small fraction of the FEC and temperature data indicate that relatively large, localized fluid fluxes are likely to exist at this location. The implication that considerable flow is induced by small gradients, and that flow is highly localized, is significant for the estimation of groundwater transport velocities and radionuclide travel times. The sensitivity of the data to potential perturbations during testing (i.e., internal wellbore flow in the case of FEC data, and buoyancy effects in the case of thermal logging data) make it difficult to conclusively derive fluid fluxes and transport velocities without a detailed analysis of all data and processes involved. Such a comprehensive analysis has not yet been performed. However, the preliminary results suggest that the ambient component of the estimated flow rates is significant and on the order of liters per minute, yielding groundwater transport velocities in the range of kilometers per year. One particular zone in the Bullfrog tuff exhibits estimated velocities on the order of 10 km/yr. Given that the preliminary estimates of ambient flow rates and transport velocities are relatively high, and considering the potential impact of high rates and velocities on saturated-zone flow and transport behavior, we recommend that a comprehensive analysis of all the available data be performed. Moreover, additional data sets at other locations should be collected to examine whether the current data set is representative of the regional flow system near Yucca Mountain

  7. Effective utilization of weighting adjustment for the estimates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of response propensity and the predicted mean of the outcome variable for cell creation are stressed .The results from our empirical study emphasize the efficacy of Weighting Adjustment over the Unadjusted estimates .We adopt the following criteria: Variance, Bias and Mean Square Error in reaching our ...

  8. The impact of using weight estimated from mammographic images vs. self-reported weight on breast cancer risk calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Kalyani P.; Harkness, Elaine F.; Gadde, Soujanye; Lim, Yit Y.; Maxwell, Anthony J.; Moschidis, Emmanouil; Foden, Philip; Cuzick, Jack; Brentnall, Adam; Evans, D. Gareth; Howell, Anthony; Astley, Susan M.

    2017-03-01

    Personalised breast screening requires assessment of individual risk of breast cancer, of which one contributory factor is weight. Self-reported weight has been used for this purpose, but may be unreliable. We explore the use of volume of fat in the breast, measured from digital mammograms. Volumetric breast density measurements were used to determine the volume of fat in the breasts of 40,431 women taking part in the Predicting Risk Of Cancer At Screening (PROCAS) study. Tyrer-Cuzick risk using self-reported weight was calculated for each woman. Weight was also estimated from the relationship between self-reported weight and breast fat volume in the cohort, and used to re-calculate Tyrer-Cuzick risk. Women were assigned to risk categories according to 10 year risk (below average =8%) and the original and re-calculated Tyrer-Cuzick risks were compared. Of the 716 women diagnosed with breast cancer during the study, 15 (2.1%) moved into a lower risk category, and 37 (5.2%) moved into a higher category when using weight estimated from breast fat volume. Of the 39,715 women without a cancer diagnosis, 1009 (2.5%) moved into a lower risk category, and 1721 (4.3%) into a higher risk category. The majority of changes were between below average and average risk categories (38.5% of those with a cancer diagnosis, and 34.6% of those without). No individual moved more than one risk group. Automated breast fat measures may provide a suitable alternative to self-reported weight for risk assessment in personalized screening.

  9. Preoperative computed tomography volumetry and graft weight estimation in adult living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Rafael S.; Cruz Junior, Ruy J.; Andraus, Wellington; Ducatti, Liliana; Martino, Rodrigo B.; Nacif, Lucas S.; Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Arantes, Rubens M.; D' Albuquerque, Luiz A.C., E-mail: rsnpinheiro@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Gastroenterologia. Div. de Transplante de Orgaos do Aparelho Digestivo; Lai, Quirino [Universidade de L' Aquila, San Salvatore Hospital (Italy); Ibuki, Felicia S.; Rocha, Manoel S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia

    2017-09-01

    Background: Computed tomography volumetry (CTV) is a useful tool for predicting graft weights (GW) for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Few studies have examined the correlation between CTV and GW in normal liver parenchyma. Aim: To analyze the correlation between CTV and GW in an adult LDLT population and provide a systematic review of the existing mathematical models to calculate partial liver graft weight. Methods: Between January 2009 and January 2013, 28 consecutive donors undergoing right hepatectomy for LDLT were retrospectively reviewed. All grafts were perfused with HTK solution. Estimated graft volume was estimated by CTV and these values were compared to the actual graft weight, which was measured after liver harvesting and perfusion. Results: Median actual GW was 782.5 g, averaged 791.43±136 g and ranged from 520-1185 g. Median estimated graft volume was 927.5 ml, averaged 944.86±200.74 ml and ranged from 600-1477 ml. Linear regression of estimated graft volume and actual GW was significantly linear (GW=0.82 estimated graft volume, r{sup 2} =0.98, slope=0.47, standard deviation of 0.024 and p<0.0001). Spearman Linear correlation was 0.65 with 95% CI of 0.45 – 0.99 (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The one-to-one rule did not applied in patients with normal liver parenchyma. A better estimation of graft weight could be reached by multiplying estimated graft volume by 0.82. (author)

  10. Preoperative computed tomography volumetry and graft weight estimation in adult living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Rafael S.; Cruz Junior, Ruy J.; Andraus, Wellington; Ducatti, Liliana; Martino, Rodrigo B.; Nacif, Lucas S.; Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Arantes, Rubens M.; D'Albuquerque, Luiz A.C.; Ibuki, Felicia S.; Rocha, Manoel S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography volumetry (CTV) is a useful tool for predicting graft weights (GW) for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Few studies have examined the correlation between CTV and GW in normal liver parenchyma. Aim: To analyze the correlation between CTV and GW in an adult LDLT population and provide a systematic review of the existing mathematical models to calculate partial liver graft weight. Methods: Between January 2009 and January 2013, 28 consecutive donors undergoing right hepatectomy for LDLT were retrospectively reviewed. All grafts were perfused with HTK solution. Estimated graft volume was estimated by CTV and these values were compared to the actual graft weight, which was measured after liver harvesting and perfusion. Results: Median actual GW was 782.5 g, averaged 791.43±136 g and ranged from 520-1185 g. Median estimated graft volume was 927.5 ml, averaged 944.86±200.74 ml and ranged from 600-1477 ml. Linear regression of estimated graft volume and actual GW was significantly linear (GW=0.82 estimated graft volume, r"2 =0.98, slope=0.47, standard deviation of 0.024 and p<0.0001). Spearman Linear correlation was 0.65 with 95% CI of 0.45 – 0.99 (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The one-to-one rule did not applied in patients with normal liver parenchyma. A better estimation of graft weight could be reached by multiplying estimated graft volume by 0.82. (author)

  11. PREOPERATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY VOLUMETRY AND GRAFT WEIGHT ESTIMATION IN ADULT LIVING DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    PINHEIRO, Rafael S.; CRUZ-JR, Ruy J.; ANDRAUS, Wellington; DUCATTI, Liliana; MARTINO, Rodrigo B.; NACIF, Lucas S.; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; ARANTES, Rubens M; LAI, Quirino; IBUKI, Felicia S.; ROCHA, Manoel S.; D´ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz A. C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Computed tomography volumetry (CTV) is a useful tool for predicting graft weights (GW) for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Few studies have examined the correlation between CTV and GW in normal liver parenchyma. Aim: To analyze the correlation between CTV and GW in an adult LDLT population and provide a systematic review of the existing mathematical models to calculate partial liver graft weight. Methods: Between January 2009 and January 2013, 28 consecutive donors undergoing right hepatectomy for LDLT were retrospectively reviewed. All grafts were perfused with HTK solution. Estimated graft volume was estimated by CTV and these values were compared to the actual graft weight, which was measured after liver harvesting and perfusion. Results: Median actual GW was 782.5 g, averaged 791.43±136 g and ranged from 520-1185 g. Median estimated graft volume was 927.5 ml, averaged 944.86±200.74 ml and ranged from 600-1477 ml. Linear regression of estimated graft volume and actual GW was significantly linear (GW=0.82 estimated graft volume, r2=0.98, slope=0.47, standard deviation of 0.024 and p<0.0001). Spearman Linear correlation was 0.65 with 95% CI of 0.45 - 0.99 (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The one-to-one rule did not applied in patients with normal liver parenchyma. A better estimation of graft weight could be reached by multiplying estimated graft volume by 0.82. PMID:28489167

  12. Cost analysis of small hydroelectric power plants components and preliminary estimation of global cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, C.; Olive, W.J.; Antunes, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of cost for each components of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant, taking into account the real costs of these projects is shown. It also presents a global equation which allows a preliminary estimation of cost for each construction. (author)

  13. Preliminary risk assessment of the Mexican Spotted Owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Pratt, L.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that the Department of Energy takes special precautions to protect the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida). In order to do so, risk to the owl presented by radiological and nonradiological contaminants must be estimated. A preliminary risk assessment on the Mexican Spotted Owl in two Ecological Exposure Units (EEUs) was performed using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Quotient method, the FORTRAN model ECORSK4, and a geographic information system. Estimated doses to the owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime were compared against toxicological reference doses generating hazard indices (HIs) and hazard quotients (HQs) for three risk source types. The average HI was 0.20 for EEU-21 and 0.0015 for EEU-40. Under the risk parameter assumptions made, hazard quotient results indicated no unacceptable risk to the owl, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. An HI of 1.0 was used as the evaluative criteria for determining the acceptability of risk. This value was exceeded (1.06) in only one of 200 simulated potential nest sites. Cesium-137, Ni, {sup 239}Pu, Al and {sup 234}U we`re among the constituents with the highest partial HQs. Improving model realism by weighting simulated owl foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased the estimated risk by 72% (0.5 HI units) for EEU-21 and by 97.6% (6.3E-02 HI units) for EEU-40. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, owl habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at acceptably low levels.

  14. Preliminary risk assessment of the Mexican Spotted Owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Pratt, L.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that the Department of Energy takes special precautions to protect the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida). In order to do so, risk to the owl presented by radiological and nonradiological contaminants must be estimated. A preliminary risk assessment on the Mexican Spotted Owl in two Ecological Exposure Units (EEUs) was performed using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Quotient method, the FORTRAN model ECORSK4, and a geographic information system. Estimated doses to the owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime were compared against toxicological reference doses generating hazard indices (HIs) and hazard quotients (HQs) for three risk source types. The average HI was 0.20 for EEU-21 and 0.0015 for EEU-40. Under the risk parameter assumptions made, hazard quotient results indicated no unacceptable risk to the owl, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. An HI of 1.0 was used as the evaluative criteria for determining the acceptability of risk. This value was exceeded (1.06) in only one of 200 simulated potential nest sites. Cesium-137, Ni, 239 Pu, Al and 234 U we're among the constituents with the highest partial HQs. Improving model realism by weighting simulated owl foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased the estimated risk by 72% (0.5 HI units) for EEU-21 and by 97.6% (6.3E-02 HI units) for EEU-40. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, owl habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at acceptably low levels

  15. Improving causal inference with a doubly robust estimator that combines propensity score stratification and weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel

    2017-08-01

    When a randomized controlled trial is not feasible, health researchers typically use observational data and rely on statistical methods to adjust for confounding when estimating treatment effects. These methods generally fall into 3 categories: (1) estimators based on a model for the outcome using conventional regression adjustment; (2) weighted estimators based on the propensity score (ie, a model for the treatment assignment); and (3) "doubly robust" (DR) estimators that model both the outcome and propensity score within the same framework. In this paper, we introduce a new DR estimator that utilizes marginal mean weighting through stratification (MMWS) as the basis for weighted adjustment. This estimator may prove more accurate than treatment effect estimators because MMWS has been shown to be more accurate than other models when the propensity score is misspecified. We therefore compare the performance of this new estimator to other commonly used treatment effects estimators. Monte Carlo simulation is used to compare the DR-MMWS estimator to regression adjustment, 2 weighted estimators based on the propensity score and 2 other DR methods. To assess performance under varied conditions, we vary the level of misspecification of the propensity score model as well as misspecify the outcome model. Overall, DR estimators generally outperform methods that model one or the other components (eg, propensity score or outcome). The DR-MMWS estimator outperforms all other estimators when both the propensity score and outcome models are misspecified and performs equally as well as other DR estimators when only the propensity score is misspecified. Health researchers should consider using DR-MMWS as the principal evaluation strategy in observational studies, as this estimator appears to outperform other estimators in its class. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Estimating recreational harvest using interview-based recall survey: Implication of recalling in weight or numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz

    2013-01-01

    on interviewed-based surveys where fishers are asked to recall harvest within a given timeframe. However, the importance of whether fishers are requested to provide figures in weight or number is unresolved. Therefore, a recall survey aiming at estimating recreational harvest was designed, such that respondents...... could report harvest using either weight or numbers. It was found that: (1) a preference for reporting in numbers dominated; (2) reported mean individual weight of fish caught, differed between units preferences; and (3) when an estimate of total harvest in weight are calculated, these difference could...

  17. Height and Weight Estimation From Anthropometric Measurements Using Machine Learning Regressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rativa, Diego; Fernandes, Bruno J T; Roque, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Height and weight are measurements explored to tracking nutritional diseases, energy expenditure, clinical conditions, drug dosages, and infusion rates. Many patients are not ambulant or may be unable to communicate, and a sequence of these factors may not allow accurate estimation or measurements; in those cases, it can be estimated approximately by anthropometric means. Different groups have proposed different linear or non-linear equations which coefficients are obtained by using single or multiple linear regressions. In this paper, we present a complete study of the application of different learning models to estimate height and weight from anthropometric measurements: support vector regression, Gaussian process, and artificial neural networks. The predicted values are significantly more accurate than that obtained with conventional linear regressions. In all the cases, the predictions are non-sensitive to ethnicity, and to gender, if more than two anthropometric parameters are analyzed. The learning model analysis creates new opportunities for anthropometric applications in industry, textile technology, security, and health care.

  18. Estimating inverse probability weights using super learner when weight-model specification is unknown in a marginal structural Cox model context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohammad Ehsanul; Platt, Robert W

    2017-06-15

    Correct specification of the inverse probability weighting (IPW) model is necessary for consistent inference from a marginal structural Cox model (MSCM). In practical applications, researchers are typically unaware of the true specification of the weight model. Nonetheless, IPWs are commonly estimated using parametric models, such as the main-effects logistic regression model. In practice, assumptions underlying such models may not hold and data-adaptive statistical learning methods may provide an alternative. Many candidate statistical learning approaches are available in the literature. However, the optimal approach for a given dataset is impossible to predict. Super learner (SL) has been proposed as a tool for selecting an optimal learner from a set of candidates using cross-validation. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of a SL in estimating IPW in four different MSCM simulation scenarios, in which we varied the specification of the true weight model specification (linear and/or additive). Our simulations show that, in the presence of weight model misspecification, with a rich and diverse set of candidate algorithms, SL can generally offer a better alternative to the commonly used statistical learning approaches in terms of MSE as well as the coverage probabilities of the estimated effect in an MSCM. The findings from the simulation studies guided the application of the MSCM in a multiple sclerosis cohort from British Columbia, Canada (1995-2008), to estimate the impact of beta-interferon treatment in delaying disability progression. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. accuracy of nelson and best guess formulae in estimation of weights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment decisions including nutritional status assessment, drug ... weight estimations in infants and children aged 6-11 years. ... include: the Nelson formulae,7,8 Advanced Paediatric ... measured according to the Center for Disease Control.

  20. Decision-model estimation of the age-specific disability weight for schistosomiasis japonica: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Schleinitz, Mark D; Carabin, Hélène; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2008-03-05

    Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. However, current Global Burden of Disease (GBD) disability-adjusted life year estimates indicate that its population-level impact is negligible. Recent studies suggest that GBD methodologies may significantly underestimate the burden of parasitic diseases, including schistosomiasis. Furthermore, strain-specific disability weights have not been established for schistosomiasis, and the magnitude of human disease burden due to Schistosoma japonicum remains controversial. We used a decision model to quantify an alternative disability weight estimate of the burden of human disease due to S. japonicum. We reviewed S. japonicum morbidity data, and constructed decision trees for all infected persons and two age-specific strata, or =15 y. We conducted stochastic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses for each model. Infection with S. japonicum was associated with an average disability weight of 0.132, with age-specific disability weights of 0.098 ( or =15 y). Re-estimated disability weights were seven to 46 times greater than current GBD measures; no simulations produced disability weight estimates lower than 0.009. Nutritional morbidities had the greatest contribution to the S. japonicum disability weight in the disability weights for schistosomiasis urgently need to be revised, and species-specific disability weights should be established. Even a marginal increase in current estimates would result in a substantial rise in the estimated global burden of schistosomiasis, and have considerable implications for public health prioritization and resource allocation for schistosomiasis research, monitoring, and control.

  1. Entropy Econometrics for combining regional economic forecasts: A Data-Weighted Prior Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vázquez, Esteban; Moreno, Blanca

    2017-10-01

    Forecast combination has been studied in econometrics for a long time, and the literature has shown the superior performance of forecast combination over individual predictions. However, there is still controversy on which is the best procedure to specify the forecast weights. This paper explores the possibility of using a procedure based on Entropy Econometrics, which allows setting the weights for the individual forecasts as a mixture of different alternatives. In particular, we examine the ability of the Data-Weighted Prior Estimator proposed by Golan (J Econom 101(1):165-193, 2001) to combine forecasting models in a context of small sample sizes, a relative common scenario when dealing with time series for regional economies. We test the validity of the proposed approach using a simulation exercise and a real-world example that aims at predicting gross regional product growth rates for a regional economy. The forecasting performance of the Data-Weighted Prior Estimator proposed is compared with other combining methods. The simulation results indicate that in scenarios of heavily ill-conditioned datasets the approach suggested dominates other forecast combination strategies. The empirical results are consistent with the conclusions found in the numerical experiment.

  2. An improved Q estimation approach: the weighted centroid frequency shift method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingnan; Wang, Shangxu; Yang, Dengfeng; Dong, Chunhui; Tao, Yonghui; Zhou, Yatao

    2016-06-01

    Seismic wave propagation in subsurface media suffers from absorption, which can be quantified by the quality factor Q. Accurate estimation of the Q factor is of great importance for the resolution enhancement of seismic data, precise imaging and interpretation, and reservoir prediction and characterization. The centroid frequency shift method (CFS) is currently one of the most commonly used Q estimation methods. However, for seismic data that contain noise, the accuracy and stability of Q extracted using CFS depend on the choice of frequency band. In order to reduce the influence of frequency band choices and obtain Q with greater precision and robustness, we present an improved CFS Q measurement approach—the weighted CFS method (WCFS), which incorporates a Gaussian weighting coefficient into the calculation procedure of the conventional CFS. The basic idea is to enhance the proportion of advantageous frequencies in the amplitude spectrum and reduce the weight of disadvantageous frequencies. In this novel method, we first construct a Gauss function using the centroid frequency and variance of the reference wavelet. Then we employ it as the weighting coefficient for the amplitude spectrum of the original signal. Finally, the conventional CFS is adopted for the weighted amplitude spectrum to extract the Q factor. Numerical tests of noise-free synthetic data demonstrate that the WCFS is feasible and efficient, and produces more accurate results than the conventional CFS. Tests for noisy synthetic data indicate that the new method has better anti-noise capability than the CFS. The application to field vertical seismic profile (VSP) data further demonstrates its validity5.

  3. Preliminary design of offshore wind turbine support structures : The importance of proper mode shape estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Male, P.

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are highly exposed to timevarying loads. For support structures, estimation of the fatigue damage during the lifetime of the structure is an essential design aspect. This already applies for the preliminary design stage. In determining the dynamic amplification in the

  4. Decision-model estimation of the age-specific disability weight for schistosomiasis japonica: a systematic review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L Finkelstein

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. However, current Global Burden of Disease (GBD disability-adjusted life year estimates indicate that its population-level impact is negligible. Recent studies suggest that GBD methodologies may significantly underestimate the burden of parasitic diseases, including schistosomiasis. Furthermore, strain-specific disability weights have not been established for schistosomiasis, and the magnitude of human disease burden due to Schistosoma japonicum remains controversial. We used a decision model to quantify an alternative disability weight estimate of the burden of human disease due to S. japonicum. We reviewed S. japonicum morbidity data, and constructed decision trees for all infected persons and two age-specific strata, or =15 y. We conducted stochastic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses for each model. Infection with S. japonicum was associated with an average disability weight of 0.132, with age-specific disability weights of 0.098 ( or =15 y. Re-estimated disability weights were seven to 46 times greater than current GBD measures; no simulations produced disability weight estimates lower than 0.009. Nutritional morbidities had the greatest contribution to the S. japonicum disability weight in the <15 y model, whereas major organ pathologies were the most critical variables in the older age group. GBD disability weights for schistosomiasis urgently need to be revised, and species-specific disability weights should be established. Even a marginal increase in current estimates would result in a substantial rise in the estimated global burden of schistosomiasis, and have considerable implications for public health prioritization and resource allocation for schistosomiasis research, monitoring, and control.

  5. Weight and volume estimates for aluminum-air batteries designed for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The weights and volumes of reactants, electrolyte, and hardware components are estimated for an aluminum-air battery designed for a 40-kW (peak), 70-kWh aluminum-air battery. Generalized equations are derived which express battery power and energy content as functions of total anode area, aluminum-anode weight, and discharge current density. Equations are also presented which express total battery weight and volume as linear combinations of the variables, anode area and anode weight. The sizing and placement of battery components within the engine compartment of typical five-passenger vehicles is briefly discussed.

  6. Improving maintenance of lost weight following a commercial liquid meal replacement program: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gretchen E; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Thomas, Colleen S; Crook, Julia E; Lynch, Scott A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Clinic-based liquid meal replacement (800kcals/day) programs produce substantial weight loss. Nevertheless, long-term maintenance remains a challenge. A limitation of maintenance programs is that they continue to promote large behavior changes that are initially required to induce weight loss which may be unsustainable long-term. The study aims were to conduct a preliminary assessment of the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a small changes maintenance intervention (SCM) for 30 patients who completed liquid meal replacement program (LMR). The 20-session SCM delivered over 52 weeks offered no preset goals for maintenance behaviors and all changes in behavior were self-selected. Participants had a median BMI of 40.9 kg/m(2) and weight of 111 kg at the start of LMR. At LMR completion, they lost 18% (21 kg) of body weight. The SCM was completed by 22 patients (73%); 19 completers (86%) attended ≥ 17 of 20 sessions with a median satisfaction rating of 9 (on a scale of 1 to 9). Completers were asked to record self-selected maintenance behaviors daily (median 351 days recorded). The most commonly reported daily behaviors were self-weighing, use of meal replacements and step counting. Median percent regain at week 52 was 14% (2.8 kg) of lost weight (range, -42 to 74%), significantly less than a median of 56% (11 kg) percent regain of lost weight (range, -78 to 110%) in a demographically similar historical control group with no maintenance intervention after LMR completion (P<0.001). Thus, SCM holds promise for improving weight maintenance. Future research should compare SCM to standard maintenance programs that promote large program-directed changes. © 2013.

  7. MRI estimation of total renal volume demonstrates significant association with healthy donor weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Emil I.; Kelly, Sarah A.; Edye, Michael; Mitty, Harold A.; Bromberg, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to correlate total renal volume (TRV) calculations, obtained through the voxel-count method and ellipsoid formula with various physical characteristics. Materials and methods: MRI reports and physical examination from 210 healthy kidney donors (420 kidneys), on whom renal volumes were obtained using the voxel-count method, were retrospectively reviewed. These values along with ones obtained through a more traditional method (ellipsoid formula) were correlated with subject height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and age. Results: TRV correlated strongly with body weight (r = 0.7) and to a lesser degree with height, age, or BMI (r = 0.5, -0.2, 0.3, respectively). The left kidney volume was greater than the right, on average (p < 0.001). The ellipsoid formula method over-estimated renal volume by 17% on average which was significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Body weight was the physical characteristic which demonstrated the strongest correlation with renal volume in healthy subjects. Given this finding, a formula was derived for estimating the TRV for a given patient based on the his or her weight: TRV = 2.96 x weight (kg) + 113 ± 64.

  8. Novel point estimation from a semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE): long-term health outcomes from short-term linear data, with application to weight loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Miller, Deborah

    2013-11-02

    Point estimation is particularly important in predicting weight loss in individuals or small groups. In this analysis, a new health response function is based on a model of human response over time to estimate long-term health outcomes from a change point in short-term linear regression. This important estimation capability is addressed for small groups and single-subject designs in pilot studies for clinical trials, medical and therapeutic clinical practice. These estimations are based on a change point given by parameters derived from short-term participant data in ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. The development of the change point in initial OLS data and the point estimations are given in a new semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE) model. The new response function is taken as a ratio of two-parameter Weibull distributions times a prior outcome value that steps estimated outcomes forward in time, where the shape and scale parameters are estimated at the change point. The Weibull distributions used in this ratio are derived from a Kelvin model in mechanics taken here to represent human beings. A distinct feature of the SPRE model in this article is that initial treatment response for a small group or a single subject is reflected in long-term response to treatment. This model is applied to weight loss in obesity in a secondary analysis of data from a classic weight loss study, which has been selected due to the dramatic increase in obesity in the United States over the past 20 years. A very small relative error of estimated to test data is shown for obesity treatment with the weight loss medication phentermine or placebo for the test dataset. An application of SPRE in clinical medicine or occupational therapy is to estimate long-term weight loss for a single subject or a small group near the beginning of treatment.

  9. Comparison of known food weights with image-based portion-size automated estimation and adolescents' self-reported portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina D; Chae, Junghoon; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Kerr, Deborah A; Delp, Edward J; Ebert, David S; Boushey, Carol J

    2012-03-01

    Diet is a critical element of diabetes self-management. An emerging area of research is the use of images for dietary records using mobile telephones with embedded cameras. These tools are being designed to reduce user burden and to improve accuracy of portion-size estimation through automation. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the error of automatically determined portion weights compared to known portion weights of foods and (2) to compare the error between automation and human. Adolescents (n = 15) captured images of their eating occasions over a 24 h period. All foods and beverages served were weighed. Adolescents self-reported portion sizes for one meal. Image analysis was used to estimate portion weights. Data analysis compared known weights, automated weights, and self-reported portions. For the 19 foods, the mean ratio of automated weight estimate to known weight ranged from 0.89 to 4.61, and 9 foods were within 0.80 to 1.20. The largest error was for lettuce and the most accurate was strawberry jam. The children were fairly accurate with portion estimates for two foods (sausage links, toast) using one type of estimation aid and two foods (sausage links, scrambled eggs) using another aid. The automated method was fairly accurate for two foods (sausage links, jam); however, the 95% confidence intervals for the automated estimates were consistently narrower than human estimates. The ability of humans to estimate portion sizes of foods remains a problem and a perceived burden. Errors in automated portion-size estimation can be systematically addressed while minimizing the burden on people. Future applications that take over the burden of these processes may translate to better diabetes self-management. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. An age estimation method using brain local features for T1-weighted images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Chihiro; Ito, Koichi; Kai Wu; Sato, Kazunori; Taki, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Takafumi

    2015-08-01

    Previous statistical analysis studies using large-scale brain magnetic resonance (MR) image databases have examined that brain tissues have age-related morphological changes. This fact indicates that one can estimate the age of a subject from his/her brain MR image by evaluating morphological changes with healthy aging. This paper proposes an age estimation method using local features extracted from T1-weighted MR images. The brain local features are defined by volumes of brain tissues parcellated into local regions defined by the automated anatomical labeling atlas. The proposed method selects optimal local regions to improve the performance of age estimation. We evaluate performance of the proposed method using 1,146 T1-weighted images from a Japanese MR image database. We also discuss the medical implication of selected optimal local regions.

  11. Preliminary estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge for the Death Valley region, Nevada-California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional ground-water flow model has been developed to evaluate the Death Valley regional flow system, which includes ground water beneath the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge are needed to define upper boundary conditions. This study presents a preliminary application of a conceptual and numerical model of net infiltration. The model was developed in studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located in the approximate center of the Death Valley ground-water flow system. The conceptual model describes the effects of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and redistribution of water in the shallow unsaturated zone on predicted rates of net infiltration; precipitation and soil depth are the two most significant variables. The conceptual model was tested using a preliminary numerical model based on energy- and water-balance calculations. Daily precipitation for 1980 through 1995, averaging 202 millimeters per year over the 39,556 square kilometers area of the ground-water flow model, was input to the numerical model to simulate net infiltration ranging from zero for a soil thickness greater than 6 meters to over 350 millimeters per year for thin soils at high elevations in the Spring Mountains overlying permeable bedrock. Estimated average net infiltration over the entire ground-water flow model domain is 7.8 millimeters per year. To evaluate the application of the net-infiltration model developed on a local scale at Yucca Mountain, to net-infiltration estimates representing the magnitude and distribution of recharge on a regional scale, the net-infiltration results were compared with recharge estimates obtained using empirical methods. Comparison of model results with previous estimates of basinwide recharge suggests that the net-infiltration estimates obtained using this model may overestimate recharge because of uncertainty in modeled precipitation, bedrock permeability, and soil properties for

  12. Weight Estimate and Centers of Gravity for JT-11 Nuclear Conversion Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, R. W.

    1958-01-01

    Weight estimates and centers of gravity for the JT-11 nuclear conversion study are tabulated. Included in the radiator section are: diffuser, shrouds, supports, radiator, liquid metal, shafting and casing.

  13. Preliminary notes on brain weight variation across labrid fish species with different levels of cooperative behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta C.SOARES; Gon(c)alo I.ANDR(E); José R.PAULA

    2015-01-01

    Brain size and weight vary tremendously in the animal kingdom.It has been suggested that brain structural development must evolve balanced between the advantages of dealing with greater social challenges and the energetic costs of maintaining and developing larger brains.Here we ask if interspecific differences in cooperative behaviour (i.e.cleaning behaviour) are related to brain weight variations in four close-related species of Labrid fish:two are obligatory cleanerfish throughout their entire life (Labroides dimidiatus and L.bicolor),one facultative cleaner fish Labropsis australis and one last species that never engage in cleaning Labrichthys unilineatus.We first search for the link between the rate of species' cooperation and its relative brain weight,and finally,if the degree of social complexity and cooperation are reflected in the weight of its major brain substructures.Overall,no differences were found in relative brain weight (in relation to body weight) across species.Fine-scale differences were solely demonstrated for the facultative cleaner L.australis,at the brainstem level.Furthermore,data visual examination indicates that the average cerebellum and brainstem weights appear to be larger for L.dimidiatus.Because variation was solely found at specific brain areas (such as cerebellum and brainstem) and not for the whole brain weight values,it suggests that species social-ecological and cognitive demands may be directly contributing to a selective investment in relevant brain areas.This study provides first preliminary evidence that links potential differences in cognitive ability in cooperative behaviour to how these may mediate the evolution of brain structural development in non-mammal vertebrate groups [Current Zoology 61 (2):274-280,2015].

  14. Applying a Weighted Maximum Likelihood Latent Trait Estimator to the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall D.; Bergeron, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    This article applies a weighted maximum likelihood (WML) latent trait estimator to the generalized partial credit model (GPCM). The relevant equations required to obtain the WML estimator using the Newton-Raphson algorithm are presented, and a simulation study is described that compared the properties of the WML estimator to those of the maximum…

  15. Broiler weight estimation based on machine vision and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraei, S; Abdanan Mehdizadeh, S; Salari, S

    2017-04-01

    1. Machine vision and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures were used to estimate live body weight of broiler chickens in 30 1-d-old broiler chickens reared for 42 d. 2. Imaging was performed two times daily. To localise chickens within the pen, an ellipse fitting algorithm was used and the chickens' head and tail removed using the Chan-Vese method. 3. The correlations between the body weight and 6 physical extracted features indicated that there were strong correlations between body weight and the 5 features including area, perimeter, convex area, major and minor axis length. 5. According to statistical analysis there was no significant difference between morning and afternoon data over 42 d. 6. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of live weight approximation different ANN techniques, including Bayesian regulation, Levenberg-Marquardt, Scaled conjugate gradient and gradient descent were used. Bayesian regulation with R 2 value of 0.98 was the best network for prediction of broiler weight. 7. The accuracy of the machine vision technique was examined and most errors were less than 50 g.

  16. Should total landings be used to correct estimated catch in numbers or mean-weight-at-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewy, Peter; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Many ICES fish stock assessment working groups have practised Sum Of Products, SOP, correction. This correction stems from a comparison of total weights of the known landings and the SOP over age of catch in number and mean weight-at-age, which ideally should be identical. In case of SOP...... discrepancies some countries correct catch in numbers while others correct mean weight-at-age by a common factor, the ratio between landing and SOP. The paper shows that for three sampling schemes the SOP corrections are statistically incorrect and should not be made since the SOP is an unbiased estimate...... of the total landings. Calculation of the bias of estimated catch in numbers and mean weight-at-age shows that SOP corrections of either of these estimates may increase the bias. Furthermore, for five demersal and one pelagic North Sea species it is shown that SOP discrepancies greater than 2% from...

  17. A note on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted second moment of particle volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that for a variety of biological particle shapes, the volume-weighted second moment of particle volume can be estimated stereologically using only the areas of particle transects, which can be estimated manually by point-counting....

  18. Estimation of Adjoint-Weighted Kinetics Parameters in Monte Carlo Wieland Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Shim, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effective delayed neutron fraction, β eff , and the prompt neutron generation time, Λ, in the point kinetics equation are weighted by the adjoint flux to improve the accuracy of the reactivity estimate. Recently the Monte Carlo (MC) kinetics parameter estimation methods by using the self-consistent adjoint flux calculated in the MC forward simulations have been developed and successfully applied for the research reactor analyses. However these adjoint estimation methods based on the cycle-by-cycle genealogical table require a huge memory size to store the pedigree hierarchy. In this paper, we present a new adjoint estimation in which the pedigree of a single history is utilized by applying the MC Wielandt method. The effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated in the kinetics parameter estimations for infinite homogeneous two-group problems and the Godiva critical facility

  19. Experiments, conceptual design, preliminary cost estimates and schedules for an underground research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbin, G.; Wollenberg, H.; Wilson, C.; Strisower, B.; Chan, T.; Wedge, D.

    1981-09-01

    Plans for an underground research facility are presented, incorporating techniques to assess the hydrological and thermomechanical response of a rock mass to the introduction and long-term isolation of radioactive waste, and to assess the effects of excavation on the hydrologic integrity of a repository and its subsequent backfill, plugging, and sealing. The project is designed to utilize existing mine or civil works for access to experimental areas and is estimated to last 8 years at a total cost for contruction and operation of $39.0 million (1981 dollars). Performing the same experiments in an existing underground research facility would reduce the duration to 7-1/2 years and cost $27.7 million as a lower-bound estimate. These preliminary plans and estimates should be revised after specific sites are identified which would accommodate the facility

  20. On the Relationships between Jeffreys Modal and Weighted Likelihood Estimation of Ability under Logistic IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two estimators of ability with logistic item response theory models: the Bayesian modal (BM) estimator and the weighted likelihood (WL) estimator. For the BM estimator, Jeffreys' prior distribution is considered, and the corresponding estimator is referred to as the Jeffreys modal (JM) estimator. It is established that under…

  1. Dose estimate by personal music players based on weighted output voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    2015-01-01

    The exposure by personal music players may in future be displayed to users, as described in the current draft of EN 50332-3. The suggested procedure includes a weighting of the electrical output voltages of the music player, and does not include the significance of the earphone sensitivity. It does...... not include the weighting principles necessary for sound sources close to the ears either, which constitutes an inverse head-related transfer function for the free- or diffuse field. The purpose of the present study is to assess the uncertainties in the dose estimate determined this way. Measurements for 20...

  2. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsu Ock

    Full Text Available We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein 'full health' and 'being dead' were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study. With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS, and standard gamble (SG were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with 'full health' and 'being dead' designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-values<0.001. The discrimination of values according to health state severity was most suitable in Model 1. Based on these results, the paired comparison-only model was selected as the best model for estimating disability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with 'full health' and 'being dead' as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights.

  3. Development and validation of a method to estimate body weight in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mid-arm circumference (MAC) has previously been used as a surrogate indicator of habitus, and the objective of this study was to determine whether MAC cut-off values could be used to predict habitus scores (HSs) to create an objective and standardised weight estimation methodology, the PAWPER XL-MAC method.

  4. Estimation of Relative Economic Weights of Hanwoo Carcass Traits Based on Carcass Market Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Yun Ho; Park, Byoung Ho; Choi, Tae Jung; Choi, Jae Gwan; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Seung Soo; Choi, You Lim; Koh, Kyung Chul; Kim, Hyo Sun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate economic weights of Hanwoo carcass traits that can be used to build economic selection indexes for selection of seedstocks. Data from carcass measures for determining beef yield and quality grades were collected and provided by the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation (KAPE). Out of 1,556,971 records, 476,430 records collected from 13 abattoirs from 2008 to 2010 after deletion of outlying observations were used to estimate relative economic weights of bid price per kg carcass weight on cold carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) and the phenotypic relationships among component traits. Price of carcass tended to increase linearly as yield grades or quality grades, in marginal or in combination, increased. Partial regression coefficients for MS, EMA, BF, and for CW in original scales were +948.5 won/score, +27.3 won/cm2, −95.2 won/mm and +7.3 won/kg when all three sex categories were taken into account. Among four grade determining traits, relative economic weight of MS was the greatest. Variations in partial regression coefficients by sex categories were great but the trends in relative weights for each carcass measures were similar. Relative economic weights of four traits in integer values when standardized measures were fit into covariance model were +4:+1:−1:+1 for MS:EMA:BF:CW. Further research is required to account for the cost of production per unit carcass weight or per unit production under different economic situations. PMID:25049531

  5. FN-curves: preliminary estimation of severe accident risks after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da

    2015-01-01

    Doubts of whether the risks related to severe accidents in nuclear reactors are indeed very low were raised after the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in 2011. Risk estimations of severe accidents in nuclear power plants involve both probability and consequence assessment of such events. Among the ways to display risks, risk curves are tools that express the frequency of exceeding a certain magnitude of consequence. Societal risk is often represented graphically in a FN-curve, a type of risk curve, which displays the probability of having N or more fatalities per year, as a function of N, on a double logarithmic scale. The FN-curve, originally introduced for the assessment of the risks in the nuclear industry through the U.S.NRC Reactor Safety Study WASH-1400 (1975), is used in various countries to express and limit risks of hazardous activities. This first study estimated an expected rate of core damage equal to 5x10 -5 by reactor-year and suggested an upper bound of 3x10 -4 by reactor-year. A more recent report issued by Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI (2008) estimates a figure of the order of 2x10 -5 by reactor-year. The Fukushima nuclear accident apparently implies that the observed core damage frequency is higher than that predicted by these probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, this paper presents a preliminary analyses of the FN-curves related to severe nuclear reactor accidents, taking into account a combination of available data of past accidents, probability modelling to estimate frequencies, and expert judgments. (author)

  6. FN-curves: preliminary estimation of severe accident risks after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br, E-mail: aclc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Doubts of whether the risks related to severe accidents in nuclear reactors are indeed very low were raised after the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in 2011. Risk estimations of severe accidents in nuclear power plants involve both probability and consequence assessment of such events. Among the ways to display risks, risk curves are tools that express the frequency of exceeding a certain magnitude of consequence. Societal risk is often represented graphically in a FN-curve, a type of risk curve, which displays the probability of having N or more fatalities per year, as a function of N, on a double logarithmic scale. The FN-curve, originally introduced for the assessment of the risks in the nuclear industry through the U.S.NRC Reactor Safety Study WASH-1400 (1975), is used in various countries to express and limit risks of hazardous activities. This first study estimated an expected rate of core damage equal to 5x10{sup -5} by reactor-year and suggested an upper bound of 3x10{sup -4} by reactor-year. A more recent report issued by Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI (2008) estimates a figure of the order of 2x10{sup -5} by reactor-year. The Fukushima nuclear accident apparently implies that the observed core damage frequency is higher than that predicted by these probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, this paper presents a preliminary analyses of the FN-curves related to severe nuclear reactor accidents, taking into account a combination of available data of past accidents, probability modelling to estimate frequencies, and expert judgments. (author)

  7. A digital combining-weight estimation algorithm for broadband sources with the array feed compensation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Rodemich, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system was developed and analyzed. The input signal is assumed to be broadband radiation of thermal origin, generated by a distant radio source. Currently, seven video converters operating in conjunction with the real-time correlator are used to obtain these weight estimates. The algorithm described here requires only simple operations that can be implemented on a PC-based combining system, greatly reducing the amount of hardware. Therefore, system reliability and portability will be improved.

  8. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, Minsu; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein 'full health' and 'being dead' were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study). With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS), and standard gamble (SG) were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE) were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with 'full health' and 'being dead' designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-valuesdisability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with 'full health' and 'being dead' as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights.

  9. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, Minsu; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study). With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS), and standard gamble (SG) were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE) were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-valuesdisability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights. PMID:27606626

  10. Application of Boosting Regression Trees to Preliminary Cost Estimation in Building Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonseok Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the recent data mining techniques available, the boosting approach has attracted a great deal of attention because of its effective learning algorithm and strong boundaries in terms of its generalization performance. However, the boosting approach has yet to be used in regression problems within the construction domain, including cost estimations, but has been actively utilized in other domains. Therefore, a boosting regression tree (BRT is applied to cost estimations at the early stage of a construction project to examine the applicability of the boosting approach to a regression problem within the construction domain. To evaluate the performance of the BRT model, its performance was compared with that of a neural network (NN model, which has been proven to have a high performance in cost estimation domains. The BRT model has shown results similar to those of NN model using 234 actual cost datasets of a building construction project. In addition, the BRT model can provide additional information such as the importance plot and structure model, which can support estimators in comprehending the decision making process. Consequently, the boosting approach has potential applicability in preliminary cost estimations in a building construction project.

  11. Preliminary Estimation of Kappa Parameter in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, Davor; Markušić, Snježana; Ivančić, Ines; Mario, Gazdek; Gülerce, Zeynep

    2017-12-01

    Spectral parameter kappa κ is used to describe spectral amplitude decay “crash syndrome” at high frequencies. The purpose of this research is to estimate spectral parameter kappa for the first time in Croatia based on small and moderate earthquakes. Recordings of local earthquakes with magnitudes higher than 3, epicentre distances less than 150 km, and focal depths less than 30 km from seismological stations in Croatia are used. The value of kappa was estimated from the acceleration amplitude spectrum of shear waves from the slope of the high-frequency part where the spectrum starts to decay rapidly to a noise floor. Kappa models as a function of a site and distance were derived from a standard linear regression of kappa-distance dependence. Site kappa was determined from the extrapolation of the regression line to a zero distance. The preliminary results of site kappa across Croatia are promising. In this research, these results are compared with local site condition parameters for each station, e.g. shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m from geophysical measurements and with existing global shear wave velocity - site kappa values. Spatial distribution of individual kappa’s is compared with the azimuthal distribution of earthquake epicentres. These results are significant for a couple of reasons: to extend the knowledge of the attenuation of near-surface crust layers of the Dinarides and to provide additional information on the local earthquake parameters for updating seismic hazard maps of studied area. Site kappa can be used in the re-creation, and re-calibration of attenuation of peak horizontal and/or vertical acceleration in the Dinarides area since information on the local site conditions were not included in the previous studies.

  12. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  13. Monitoring of German Fertility: Estimation of Monthly and Yearly Total Fertility Rates on the Basis of Preliminary Monthly Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Doblhammer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR on the basis of preliminary monthly data, including a confidence interval. The method for estimating most current fertility rates can be applied when no information on the age structure and the number of women exposed to childbearing is available. The methods introduced in this study are useful for calculating monthly birth indicators, with minimal requirements for data quality and statistical effort. In addition, we suggest an approach for projecting the yearly TFR based on preliminary monthly information up to June.

  14. Estimates of genetic parameters of body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rat spermatogonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450 R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on genetic parameters of body weight at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and of weight gains between these periods were studied. Covariances among relatives were estimated by mixed model and regression techniques in randomly selected lines with (R) and without (C) radiation history. Analyses of the data were based on five linear genetic models combining additive direct, additive indirect (maternal), dominance and environmental effects. Parameters in these models were estimated by generalized least-squares. A model including direct and indirect genetic effects fit more closely to the data in both R and C lines. Overdominance of induced mutations did not seem to be present. Ancestral irradiation increased maternal additive genetic variances of body weights and gains but not direct genetic variances. Theoretically, due to a negative direct-maternal genetic correlation, within full-sib family selection would be ineffective in increasing body weight at six weeks in both R and C lines. However, progress from mass selection would be expected to be faster in the R lines

  15. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  16. Estimating body weight and body composition of chickens by using noninvasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, J D; Bishop, B L

    2001-07-01

    The major objective of this research was to develop equations to estimate BW and body composition using measurements taken with inexpensive instruments. We used five groups of chickens that were created with different genetic stocks and feeding programs. Four of the five groups were from broiler genetic stock, and one was from sex-linked heavy layers. The goal was to sample six males from each group when the group weight was 1.20, 1.75, and 2.30 kg. Each male was weighed and measured for back length, pelvis width, circumference, breast width, keel length, and abdominal skinfold thickness. A cloth tape measure, calipers, and skinfold calipers were used for measurement. Chickens were scanned for total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) before being euthanized and frozen. Six females were selected at weights similar to those for males and were measured in the same way. Each whole chicken was ground, and a portion of ground material of each was used to measure water, fat, ash, and energy content. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate BW from body measurements. The best single measurement was pelvis width, with an R2 = 0.67. Inclusion of three body measurements in an equation resulted in R2 = 0.78 and the following equation: BW (g) = -930.0 + 68.5 (breast, cm) + 48.5 (circumference, cm) + 62.8 (pelvis, cm). The best single measurement to estimate body fat was abdominal skinfold thickness, expressed as a natural logarithm. Inclusion of weight and skinfold thickness resulted in R2 = 0.63 for body fat according to the following equation: fat (%) = 24.83 + 6.75 (skinfold, ln cm) - 3.87 (wt, kg). Inclusion of the result of TOBEC and the effect of sex improved the R2 to 0.78 for body fat. Regression analysis was used to develop additional equations, based on fat, to estimate water and energy contents of the body. The body water content (%) = 72.1 - 0.60 (body fat, %), and body energy (kcal/g) = 1.097 + 0.080 (body fat, %). The results of the present study

  17. Estimation of heritability and genetic correlation of body weight gain and growth curve parameters in Korean native chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha Manjula

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study estimated the genetic parameters for body weight gain and growth curve parameter traits in Korean native chicken (KNC. Methods A total of 585 F1 chickens were used along with 88 of their F0 birds. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatching to 20 weeks of age to measure weight gain at 2-week intervals. For each individual, a logistic growth curve model was fitted to the longitudinal growth dataset to obtain three growth curve parameters (α, asymptotic final body weight; β, inflection point; and γ, constant scale that was proportional to the overall growth rate. Genetic parameters were estimated based on the linear-mixed model using a restricted maximum likelihood method. Results Heritability estimates of body weight gain traits were low to high (0.057 to 0.458. Heritability estimates for α, β, and γ were 0.211±0.08, 0.249±0.09, and 0.095±0.06, respectively. Both genetic and phenotypic correlations between weight gain traits ranged from −0.527 to 0.993. Genetic and phenotypic correlation between the growth curve parameters and weight gain traits ranged from −0.968 to 0.987. Conclusion Based on the results of this study population, we suggest that the KNC could be used for selective breeding between 6 and 8 weeks of age to enhance the overall genetic improvement of growth traits. After validation of these results in independent studies, these findings will be useful for further optimization of breeding programs for KNC.

  18. Accuracy of the CT-estimated weight of the right hepatic lobe prior to living related liver donation (LRLD) for predicting the intraoperatively measured weight of the graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, A.-J.; Brinkmann, M.; Felix, R.; Pascher, A.; Steinmueller, T.; Settmacher, U.; Neuhaus, P.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the shortage of cadaver donors, living related liver donation (LRLD) has emerged as an alternative to cadaver donation. The expected graft weight is one of the main determinants for donor selection. This study investigates the accuracy of preoperatively performed CT-volumetry to predict the actual weight of the right liver lobe graft. Materials and methods: In a prospective study the weight of the right hepatic lobe was calculated by volumetric analysis based on CT in 33 patients (21 females, 12 males, mean age 42.1 years, median age 41 years) prior to living related liver donation. Graft weight was calculated as the product of CT-based graft volume and 1.00 g/ml (the approximated density of healthy liver parenchyma). The calculated weight was compared with the intraoperatively measured weight of the harvested right hepatic lobe. The difference was used to determine a correction factor for estimating the actual graft weight. Results: Based on the assumption of a parenchymal density of 1.00 g/ml, the preoperatively estimated graft weight (mean 980 g ± 168 g) deviated + 33% from the intraoperatively measured right hepatic lobe weight (mean 749 g ± 170 g). By reducing the preoperatively predicted weight of the right hepatic lobe with a correction factor of 0.75, the actual graft weight can be calculated [de

  19. A Novel Approach to Speaker Weight Estimation Using a Fusion of the i-vector and NFA Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorjam, Amir Hossein; Bahari, Mohamad Hasan; Van hamme, Hogo

    2017-01-01

    -negative Factor Analysis (NFA) framework which is based on a constrained factor analysis on GMM weight supervectors. Then, the available information in both Gaussian means and Gaussian weights is exploited through a feature-level fusion of the i-vectors and the NFA vectors. Finally, a least-squares support vector......This paper proposes a novel approach for automatic speaker weight estimation from spontaneous telephone speech signals. In this method, each utterance is modeled using the i-vector framework which is based on the factor analysis on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) mean supervectors, and the Non...... regression is employed to estimate the weight of speakers from the given utterances. The proposed approach is evaluated on spontaneous telephone speech signals of National Institute of Standards and Technology 2008 and 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation corpora. To investigate the effectiveness...

  20. Habitat Preferences, Distribution Pattern, and Root Weight Estimation of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Masitoh Kartikawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack is one of non timber forest products with “indeterminate” conservation status and commercially traded in West Kalimantan. The research objective was to determine the potential of pasak bumi root per hectare and its ecological condition under natural habitat. Root weight of E. longifolia Jack was estimated using simple linear regression and exponential equation with stem diameter and height as independent variables. The results showed that the individual number of the population was 114 with the majority in seedling stage with 71 individuals (62.28%. The distribution was found in clumped pattern. Conditions of the habitat could be described as follows: daily average temperature of 25.6oC, daily average relative humidity of 73.6%, light intensity of 0.9 klx, and red-yellow podsolic soil with texture ranged from clay to sandy clay. The selected estimator model for E. longifolia Jack root weight used exponential equation with stem height as independent variable using the equation of Y= 21.99T0,010 and determination coefficient of 0.97. After height variable was added, the potential of E. longifolia Jack minimum root weight that could be harvested per hectare was 0.33 kg.Keywords: Eurycoma longifolia, habitat preference, distribution pattern, root weight

  1. Preliminary estimates of cost savings for defense high level waste vitrification options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    The potential for realizing cost savings in the disposal of defense high-level waste through process and design modificatins has been considered. Proposed modifications range from simple changes in the canister design to development of an advanced melter capable of processing glass with a higher waste loading. Preliminary calculations estimate the total disposal cost (not including capital or operating costs) for defense high-level waste to be about $7.9 billion dollars for the reference conditions described in this paper, while projected savings resulting from the proposed process and design changes could reduce the disposal cost of defense high-level waste by up to $5.2 billion

  2. Lateral Trunk Surface as a new parameter to estimate live body weight by Visual Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terramoccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Live weight of 74 milking Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis L. have been estimated by Visual Image Analysis. The total surface of lateral profile, tested in previous researches with viable result, was substituted by the measurement of the Lateral Trunk Surface (LTrS. The measurements were recorded by a camera equipped by a laser distance recorder and data were elaborated by a specific software. This parameter, eliminating the surface of neck, head and legs, that are less easily measurable, simplified and accelerated the procedure. Correlation between LTrS and live weight was r = 0.90 (P < 0.01. A significant equation (P < 0.01 was obtained from the recorded data of a random sample of 38 buffaloes. When the validation of the equation was tested on the other 36 subjects, the estimated live weight had a mean of 691.74 kg ± 68.55. This was corresponding to a 1.08% overestimation of the real weight.

  3. Distributed weighted least-squares estimation with fast convergence for large-scale systems☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Damián Edgardo; Fu, Minyue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study a distributed weighted least-squares estimation problem for a large-scale system consisting of a network of interconnected sub-systems. Each sub-system is concerned with a subset of the unknown parameters and has a measurement linear in the unknown parameters with additive noise. The distributed estimation task is for each sub-system to compute the globally optimal estimate of its own parameters using its own measurement and information shared with the network through neighborhood communication. We first provide a fully distributed iterative algorithm to asymptotically compute the global optimal estimate. The convergence rate of the algorithm will be maximized using a scaling parameter and a preconditioning method. This algorithm works for a general network. For a network without loops, we also provide a different iterative algorithm to compute the global optimal estimate which converges in a finite number of steps. We include numerical experiments to illustrate the performances of the proposed methods. PMID:25641976

  4. Distributed weighted least-squares estimation with fast convergence for large-scale systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Damián Edgardo; Fu, Minyue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study a distributed weighted least-squares estimation problem for a large-scale system consisting of a network of interconnected sub-systems. Each sub-system is concerned with a subset of the unknown parameters and has a measurement linear in the unknown parameters with additive noise. The distributed estimation task is for each sub-system to compute the globally optimal estimate of its own parameters using its own measurement and information shared with the network through neighborhood communication. We first provide a fully distributed iterative algorithm to asymptotically compute the global optimal estimate. The convergence rate of the algorithm will be maximized using a scaling parameter and a preconditioning method. This algorithm works for a general network. For a network without loops, we also provide a different iterative algorithm to compute the global optimal estimate which converges in a finite number of steps. We include numerical experiments to illustrate the performances of the proposed methods.

  5. Should providers encourage realistic weight expectations and satisfaction with lost weight in commercial weight loss programs? a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gretchen E; Thomas, Colleen S; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Attrition is a problem among patients who participate in commercial weight loss programs. One possible explanation is that if patients are unable to reach a weight that they expect to achieve, they may be more likely to drop out of treatment. This study investigated variables associated with attrition among 30 obese patients who completed a liquid meal replacement program (LMR) and enrolled in a 52-week Small Changes Maintenance intervention (SCM). Patients lost a median 18% of body weight during LMR and completed assessments about weight expectations and weight satisfaction pre- and post-SCM. Of the 30 patients who started SCM, 8 (27%) were lost to attrition. Odds of SCM attrition were higher in patients who lost ≤ 18.2% of pre-LMR weight (OR: 12.25, P = 0.035), had lower satisfaction (≤7) pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040), and who expected further weight loss of 9.1 kg or more pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040). SCM completers significantly increased weight loss expectations by a median of 2.3 kg from pre-SCM to post-SCM (WSR P = 0.049) that paralleled weight regained post-SCM (2.7 kg). After completion of a medically-supervised commercial weight loss program, patients with the greatest expectations for further weight loss and the lowest weight satisfaction were more likely to drop out of SCM. Failure to participate in maintenance treatment may lead to regain of greater than half of lost weight over the next year. Among SCM completers, lower expectations for further weight loss and greater weight satisfaction appeared to be associated with continued engagement in maintenance treatment.

  6. Body dysmorphic disorder in different settings: A systematic review and estimated weighted prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Gledhill, Lucinda J; Christodoulou, Polyxeni; Hodsoll, John

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to systematically review the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a variety of settings. Weighted prevalence estimate and 95% confidence intervals in each study were calculated. The weighted prevalence of BDD in adults in the community was estimated to be 1.9%; in adolescents 2.2%; in student populations 3.3%; in adult psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adolescent psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adult psychiatric outpatients 5.8%; in general cosmetic surgery 13.2%; in rhinoplasty surgery 20.1%; in orthognathic surgery 11.2%; in orthodontics/cosmetic dentistry settings 5.2%; in dermatology outpatients 11.3%; in cosmetic dermatology outpatients 9.2%; and in acne dermatology clinics 11.1%. Women outnumbered men in the majority of settings but not in cosmetic or dermatological settings. BDD is common in some psychiatric and cosmetic settings but is poorly identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimated weight on goats with a commercial weighing tape and thoracic perimeter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chacón-Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the technical viability of using a weighing tape to measure the pectoral circumference and estimate the body weight of goats. The study took place in the Alfredo Volio Mata Experimental Station in the University of Costa Rica, during the month of February 2015, by measuring the weight with a scale, a calibrated weighing tape and the thoracic diameter of sixty female goats. The data was adjusted through polynomial equations from rst to third degree. The thoracic diameter was used to determine the living weight of the goat population analyzed. Signi cant differences were found (p<0,05 when using the calibrated tape and the scale to determine the weight, with the obtained values of an average of 48,62kg y 39,99kg, respectively. There were differences (p<0,05 in the average of the weight depending on the age with results of 24,40kg in animals less than a year old, 40,39kg for the ages from one to three and 57,25kg for animals older with more than three years of age. The rst degree lineal regression, presented a good adjustment in the thoracic diameter and living weight( r2 = 0,88, with the values of ß0 and ß1 of -50,84 y 1,11, respectively.

  8. Parental and Child Factors Associated with Under-Estimation of Children with Excess Weight in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Ingrid; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2017-11-01

    Objective Understanding obesity misperception and associated factors can improve strategies to increase obesity identification and intervention. We investigate underestimation of child excess weight with a broader perspective, incorporating perceptions, views, and psychosocial aspects associated with obesity. Methods This study used cross-sectional data from the Spanish National Health Survey in 2011-2012 for children aged 2-14 years who are overweight or obese. Percentages of parental misperceived excess weight were calculated. Crude and adjusted analyses were performed for both child and parental factors analyzing associations with underestimation. Results Two-five year olds have the highest prevalence of misperceived overweight or obesity around 90%. In the 10-14 year old age group approximately 63% of overweight teens were misperceived as normal weight and 35.7 and 40% of obese males and females. Child gender did not affect underestimation, whereas a younger age did. Aspects of child social and mental health were associated with under-estimation, as was short sleep duration. Exercise, weekend TV and videogames, and food habits had no effect on underestimation. Fathers were more likely to misperceive their child´s weight status; however parent's age had no effect. Smokers and parents with excess weight were less likely to misperceive their child´s weight status. Parents being on a diet also decreased odds of underestimation. Conclusions for practice This study identifies some characteristics of both parents and children which are associated with under-estimation of child excess weight. These characteristics can be used for consideration in primary care, prevention strategies and for further research.

  9. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  10. Structural weights analysis of advanced aerospace vehicles using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lance B.; Lentz, Christopher A.; Rehder, John J.; Naftel, J. Chris; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual/preliminary level structural design system has been developed for structural integrity analysis and weight estimation of advanced space transportation vehicles. The system includes a three-dimensional interactive geometry modeler, a finite element pre- and post-processor, a finite element analyzer, and a structural sizing program. Inputs to the system include the geometry, surface temperature, material constants, construction methods, and aerodynamic and inertial loads. The results are a sized vehicle structure capable of withstanding the static loads incurred during assembly, transportation, operations, and missions, and a corresponding structural weight. An analysis of the Space Shuttle external tank is included in this paper as a validation and benchmark case of the system.

  11. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model II: Properties and preliminary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kearney, Michael R.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    The covariation method for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model provides a single-step method of accessing all the core DEB parameters from commonly available empirical data. In this study, we assess the robustness of this parameter estimation procedure and analyse the role of pseudo-data using elasticity coefficients. In particular, we compare the performance of Maximum Likelihood (ML) vs. Weighted Least Squares (WLS) approaches and find that the two approaches tend to converge in performance as the number of uni-variate data sets increases, but that WLS is more robust when data sets comprise single points (zero-variate data). The efficiency of the approach is shown to be high, and the prior parameter estimates (pseudo-data) have very little influence if the real data contain information about the parameter values. For instance, the effects of the pseudo-value for the allocation fraction κ is reduced when there is information for both growth and reproduction, that for the energy conductance is reduced when information on age at birth and puberty is given, and the effects of the pseudo-value for the maturity maintenance rate coefficient are insignificant. The estimation of some parameters (e.g., the zoom factor and the shape coefficient) requires little information, while that of others (e.g., maturity maintenance rate, puberty threshold and reproduction efficiency) require data at several food levels. The generality of the standard DEB model, in combination with the estimation of all of its parameters, allows comparison of species on the basis of parameter values. We discuss a number of preliminary patterns emerging from the present collection of parameter estimates across a wide variety of taxa. We make the observation that the estimated value of the fraction κ of mobilised reserve that is allocated to soma is far away from the value that maximises reproduction. We recognise this as the reason why two very different

  12. Intra- and inter-basin mercury comparisons: Importance of basin scale and time-weighted methylmercury estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Burns, Douglas A.; Button, Daniel T.; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2013-01-01

    To assess inter-comparability of fluvial mercury (Hg) observations at substantially different scales, Hg concentrations, yields, and bivariate-relations were evaluated at nested-basin locations in the Edisto River, South Carolina and Hudson River, New York. Differences between scales were observed for filtered methylmercury (FMeHg) in the Edisto (attributed to wetland coverage differences) but not in the Hudson. Total mercury (THg) concentrations and bivariate-relationships did not vary substantially with scale in either basin. Combining results of this and a previously published multi-basin study, fish Hg correlated strongly with sampled water FMeHg concentration (ρ = 0.78; p = 0.003) and annual FMeHg basin yield (ρ = 0.66; p = 0.026). Improved correlation (ρ = 0.88; p < 0.0001) was achieved with time-weighted mean annual FMeHg concentrations estimated from basin-specific LOADEST models and daily streamflow. Results suggest reasonable scalability and inter-comparability for different basin sizes if wetland area or related MeHg-source-area metrics are considered. - Highlights: ► National scale mercury assessments integrate small scale study results. ► Basin scale differences and representativeness of fluvial mercury samples are concerns. ► Wetland area, not basin size, predicts inter-basin methylmercury variability. ► Time-weighted methylmercury estimates improve the prediction of mercury in basin fish. - Fluvial methylmercury concentration correlates with wetland area not basin scale and time-weighted estimates better predict basin top predator mercury than discrete sample estimates.

  13. Adaptive order search and tangent-weighted trade-off for motion estimation in H.264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Bachu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Motion estimation and compensation play a major role in video compression to reduce the temporal redundancies of the input videos. A variety of block search patterns have been developed for matching the blocks with reduced computational complexity, without affecting the visual quality. In this paper, block motion estimation is achieved through integrating the square as well as the hexagonal search patterns with adaptive order. The proposed algorithm is called, AOSH (Adaptive Order Square Hexagonal Search algorithm, and it finds the best matching block with a reduced number of search points. The searching function is formulated as a trade-off criterion here. Hence, the tangent-weighted function is newly developed to evaluate the matching point. The proposed AOSH search algorithm and the tangent-weighted trade-off criterion are effectively applied to the block estimation process to enhance the visual quality and the compression performance. The proposed method is validated using three videos namely, football, garden and tennis. The quantitative performance of the proposed method and the existing methods is analysed using the Structural SImilarity Index (SSIM and the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. The results prove that the proposed method offers good visual quality than the existing methods. Keywords: Block motion estimation, Square search, Hexagon search, H.264, Video coding

  14. Validity of parent-reported weight and height of preschool children measured at home or estimated without home measurement: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Bianca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI. Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a difference if the parents measured their children's weight and height at home or whether they simply estimated these values. The aim of this study is to compare the validity of parent-reported height, weight and BMI values of preschool children (3-7 y-old, when measured at home or estimated by parents without actual measurement. Methods The subjects were 297 Belgian preschool children (52.9% male. Participation rate was 73%. A questionnaire including questions about height and weight of the children was completed by the parents. Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures. International age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off values were employed to determine categories of weight status and obesity. Results On the group level, no important differences in accuracy of reported height, weight and BMI were identified between parent-measured or estimated values. However, for all 3 parameters, the correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the group of children whose body dimensions were measured by the parents. Sensitivity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 73% and 47% when parents measured their child's height and weight, and 55% and 47% when parents estimated values without measurement. Specificity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 82% and 97% when parents measured the children, and 75% and 93% with parent estimations. Conclusions Diagnostic measures were more accurate when parents measured their child's weight and height at home than when those dimensions were based on parental judgements. When parent-reported data on an individual level is used, the accuracy could be improved by encouraging the parents to measure weight and height

  15. A Batch-Incremental Video Background Estimation Model using Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra

    2017-07-02

    Principal component pursuit (PCP) is a state-of-the-art approach for background estimation problems. Due to their higher computational cost, PCP algorithms, such as robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and its variants, are not feasible in processing high definition videos. To avoid the curse of dimensionality in those algorithms, several methods have been proposed to solve the background estimation problem in an incremental manner. We propose a batch-incremental background estimation model using a special weighted low-rank approximation of matrices. Through experiments with real and synthetic video sequences, we demonstrate that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art background estimation algorithms such as GRASTA, ReProCS, incPCP, and GFL.

  16. A Batch-Incremental Video Background Estimation Model using Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra; Li, Xin; Richtarik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Principal component pursuit (PCP) is a state-of-the-art approach for background estimation problems. Due to their higher computational cost, PCP algorithms, such as robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and its variants, are not feasible in processing high definition videos. To avoid the curse of dimensionality in those algorithms, several methods have been proposed to solve the background estimation problem in an incremental manner. We propose a batch-incremental background estimation model using a special weighted low-rank approximation of matrices. Through experiments with real and synthetic video sequences, we demonstrate that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art background estimation algorithms such as GRASTA, ReProCS, incPCP, and GFL.

  17. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Paradox Basin. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Paradox Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Paradox Basin, Utah. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling Method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers is included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references

  18. Preliminary comparative estimate of the environmental externalities of the electrical generation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtos Carbonell, L.

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the externalises associated with the electrical generation and fundamentally its atmospherically environmental impact, win greater importance nowadays, with the objective that to medium term these could be incorporated into the economy of electricity production as the surest way to reduce this impact. In the work is accomplished a comparative preliminary estimate of the externalises of the electrical generation in Cuba based in the results obtained in the External Project (Externalises of Energy) and the emissions of the domestic Power Plant. Different processes to reduce these emissions are proposed. The economic feasibility of installing Abatement Emissions Technologies based on the calculated externalises is analyzed

  19. The burden of chronic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining in Zimbabwe: data availability and preliminary estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Nadine; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Pinheiro, Paulo; Plass, Dietrich; Shoko, Dennis; Drasch, Gustav; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Siebert, Uwe; Hornberg, Claudia

    2014-12-13

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a poverty-driven activity practiced in over 70 countries worldwide. Zimbabwe is amongst the top ten countries using large quantities of mercury to extract gold from ore. This analysis was performed to check data availability and derive a preliminary estimate of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to mercury use in ASGM in Zimbabwe. Cases of chronic mercury intoxication were identified following an algorithm using mercury-related health effects and mercury in human specimens. The sample prevalence amongst miners and controls (surveyed by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization in 2004 and the University of Munich in 2006) was determined and extrapolated to the entire population of Zimbabwe. Further epidemiological and demographic data were taken from the literature and missing data modeled with DisMod II to quantify DALYs using the methods from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2004 update published by the World Health Organization (WHO). While there was no disability weight (DW) available indicating the relative disease severity of chronic mercury intoxication, the DW of a comparable disease was assigned by following the criteria 1) chronic condition, 2) triggered by a substance, and 3) causing similar health symptoms. Miners showed a sample prevalence of 72% while controls showed no cases of chronic mercury intoxication. Data availability is very limited why it was necessary to model data and make assumptions about the number of exposed population, the definition of chronic mercury intoxication, DW, and epidemiology. If these assumptions hold, the extrapolation would result in around 95,400 DALYs in Zimbabwe's total population in 2004. This analysis provides a preliminary quantification of the mercury-related health burden from ASGM based on the limited data available. If the determined assumptions hold, chronic mercury intoxication is likely to have been one of the top 20 hazards for population

  20. Genetic parameter estimates for weaning weight and Kleiber ratio in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    China Supakorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the factors affecting on weaning weight (WW and Kleiber ratio (KR and toestimate genetic parameters for two traits in goats. The fixed factors affecting both traits indicated that year-season of birth,sex, birth type and regression of the Thai Native (TN, Boer (BO and Saanen (SA influenced on WW and KR (P<0.05. Malesin this population were heavier (P<0.05 than females. Weaning weights and KR of single kid were significantly higher (P<0.05 than other birth rearing types. Bivariate analysis of three models (Model 1: without maternal genetic effect, Model 2:with maternal genetic effect and am = 0, and Model 3: with maternal genetic effect and am  0 were used to estimate geneticparameters for this research. Estimated direct heritabilities from all models were 0.26 to 0.38 for WW, and 0.22 to 0.35 for KR.Estimated maternal heritabilities from Model 2 and 3 were 0.09 and 0.12 for WW and 0.08 and 0.11 for KR, respectively. Thedirect genetic and phenotypic correlations between WW and KR were positive and moderate values. Maternal genetic correlationsbetween them were positive and of low values. An antagonistic direct-maternal correlations from Model 3 withintraits and between traits indicated that offspring of does with superior maternal abilities probably may provide an inferiordirect genetic effect in the same trait and between traits. It was therefore possible to rapidly improve WW and KR in thisgoat population through selection, while the adverse effects of direct-maternal correlation within and between traits shouldbe considered. The best fit model would be a model including maternal genetic effect without a direct-maternal genetic covariance.

  1. Parameter estimation and statistical test of geographically weighted bivariate Poisson inverse Gaussian regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Junita; Purhadi, Otok, Bambang Widjanarko

    2017-11-01

    Poisson distribution is a discrete distribution with count data as the random variables and it has one parameter defines both mean and variance. Poisson regression assumes mean and variance should be same (equidispersion). Nonetheless, some case of the count data unsatisfied this assumption because variance exceeds mean (over-dispersion). The ignorance of over-dispersion causes underestimates in standard error. Furthermore, it causes incorrect decision in the statistical test. Previously, paired count data has a correlation and it has bivariate Poisson distribution. If there is over-dispersion, modeling paired count data is not sufficient with simple bivariate Poisson regression. Bivariate Poisson Inverse Gaussian Regression (BPIGR) model is mix Poisson regression for modeling paired count data within over-dispersion. BPIGR model produces a global model for all locations. In another hand, each location has different geographic conditions, social, cultural and economic so that Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is needed. The weighting function of each location in GWR generates a different local model. Geographically Weighted Bivariate Poisson Inverse Gaussian Regression (GWBPIGR) model is used to solve over-dispersion and to generate local models. Parameter estimation of GWBPIGR model obtained by Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. Meanwhile, hypothesis testing of GWBPIGR model acquired by Maximum Likelihood Ratio Test (MLRT) method.

  2. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Naida C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO, bioimpedance analysis (BIA and ultrasonography (US in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM and lean (LM body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals, after 10% of weight loss (T1 and after 20% of weight loss (T2. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM; however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed.

  3. Male pre- and post-pubertal castration effect on live weight, components of empty body weight, estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency in Piemontese hypertrofic cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Biagini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sexual neutering and age of castration on empty body weight (EBW components and estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency, a trial was carried out on 3 groups of double-muscled Piemontese calves: early castrated (EC, 5th month of age, late castrated (LC, 12th month of age and intact males (IM, control group. Animals were fed at the same energy and protein level and slaughtered at 18th month of age. Live and slaughtering performances and EBW components were recorded, whereas N excretion was calculated by difference between diet and weight gain N content. In live and slaughtering performances, IM showed higher final, carcass and total meat weight than EC and LC (P<0.01. In EBW components, IM showed higher blood and head weight than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, and differences were found between EC and LC for head weights (P<0.01. IM showed higher body crude protein (BCP than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, but BCP/EBW ratio was higher only in IM than EC (P<0.05. Estimated N daily gain was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.01. Only LC showed higher excretion than IM (P<0.05, and N efficiency was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.05 and 0.01 respectively. In conclusion, for the Piemontese hypertrophied cattle castration significantly increases N excretion (+7% and reduces N efficiency (-15%, leading to a lower level of sustainability.

  4. Oxygen Consumption of Tilapia and Preliminary Mass Flows through a Prototype Closed Aquaculture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Matthew S.; Bauer, Clarence F.

    1994-01-01

    Performance of NASA's prototype CELSS Breadboard Project Closed Aquaculture System was evaluated by estimating gas exchange quantification and preliminary carbon and nitrogen balances. The total system oxygen consumption rate was 535 mg/hr kg/fish (cv = 30%) when stocked with Tilapia aurea populations (fresh weights of 97 +/- 19 to 147 +/- 36 g/fish for various trials). Oxygen consumption by T. aurea (260 mg/hr kg/fish) contributed to approximately one-half of total system demand. Continuous carbon dioxide quantification methods were analyzed using the,relation of carbon dioxide to oxygen consumption. Overall food conversion rates averaged 18.2 +/- 3.2%. Major pathways for nitrogen and carbon in the system were described with preliminary mass closure of 60-80% and 60% for nitrogen and carbon.

  5. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Gulf Interior Region, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility on the Richton Dome, Mississippi. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description and Construction Cost Estimate

  6. Optimal Weighting of Multi-Spacecraft Data to Estimate Gradients of Physical Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanteur, G. M.; Le Contel, O.; Sahraoui, F.; Retino, A.; Mirioni, L.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-spacecraft missions like the ESA mission CLUSTER and the NASA mission MMS are essential to improve our understanding of physical processes in space plasmas. Several methods were designed in the 90's during the preparation phase of the CLUSTER mission to estimate gradients of physical fields from simultaneous multi-points measurements [1, 2]. Both CLUSTER and MMS involve four spacecraft with identical full scientific payloads including various sensors of electromagnetic fields and different type of particle detectors. In the standard methods described in [1, 2], which are presently in use, data from the four spacecraft have identical weights and the estimated gradients are most reliable when the tetrahedron formed by the four spacecraft is regular. There are three types of errors affecting the estimated gradients (see chapter 14 in [1]) : i) truncature errors are due to local non-linearity of spatial variations, ii) physical errors are due to instruments, and iii) geometrical errors are due to uncertainties on the positions of the spacecraft. An assessment of truncature errors for a given observation requires a theoretical model of the measured field. Instrumental errors can easily be taken into account for a given geometry of the cluster but are usually less than the geometrical errors which diverge quite fast when the tetrahedron flattens, a circumstance occurring twice per orbit of the cluster. Hence reliable gradients can be estimated only on part of the orbit. Reciprocal vectors of the tetrahedron were presented in chapter 4 of [1], they have the advantage over other methods to treat the four spacecraft symmetrically and to allow a theoretical analysis of the errors (see chapters 4 of [1] and 4 of [2]). We will present Generalized Reciprocal Vectors for weighted data and an optimization procedure to improve the reliability of the estimated gradients when the tetrahedron is not regular. A brief example using CLUSTER or MMS data will be given. This approach

  7. Preliminary estimation of minimum target dose in intracavitary radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Oishi-Tanaka, Yumiko; Sugahara, Shinji; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2001-08-01

    In intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT) for cervical cancer, minimum target dose (D{sub min}) will pertain to local disease control more directly than will reference point A dose (D{sub A}). However, ICRT has been performed traditionally without specifying D{sub min} since the target volume was not identified. We have estimated D{sub min} retrospectively by identifying tumors using magnetic resonance (MR) images. Pre- and posttreatment MR images of 31 patients treated with high-dose-rate ICRT were used. ICRT was performed once weekly at 6.0 Gy D{sub A}, and involved 2-5 insertions for each patient, 119 insertions in total. D{sub min} was calculated arbitrarily simply at the point A level using the tumor width (W{sub A}) to compare with D{sub A}. W{sub A} at each insertion was estimated by regression analysis with pre- and posttreatment W{sub A}. D{sub min} for each insertion varied from 3.0 to 46.0 Gy, a 16-fold difference. The ratio of total D{sub min} to total D{sub A} for each patient varied from 0.5 to 6.5. Intrapatient D{sub min} difference between the initial insertion and final insertion varied from 1.1 to 3.4. Preliminary estimation revealed that D{sub min} varies widely under generic dose prescription. Thorough D{sub min} specification will be realized when ICRT-applicator insertion is performed under MR imaging. (author)

  8. Weight estimates and packaging techniques for the microwave radiometer spacecraft. [shuttle compatible design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J. K.; Wright, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of total spacecraft weight and packaging options were made for three conceptual designs of a microwave radiometer spacecraft. Erectable structures were found to be slightly lighter than deployable structures but could be packaged in one-tenth the volume. The tension rim concept, an unconventional design approach, was found to be the lightest and transportable to orbit in the least number of shuttle flights.

  9. Correlation between the estimated molecular weight and the immunological properties of 125I-TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, S.E.; Ciscato, V.A.; Barmasch, M.; Kurcbart, H.; Veira de Giacomini, S.; Altschuler, N.; Caro, R.A.

    1976-09-01

    Thyrotropic Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was radioiodinated by the Chloramine T method in order to be used in radioimmu-noassay procedures. It was purified by gel filtration and each fraction of the eluate was analyzed in order to determine which one had the most suitable behaviour for that use. The molecular weight of each fraction was estimated, as well as its immunological reactivity and its non-specific binding. The 125 I-TSH fraction with better properties was the closest to the molecular weight of the native hormone, which is found at the posterior shoulder of the main proteic peak of the elution pattern. (author) [es

  10. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    for FFM were strong (r = 0.92 and 0.93). Bland and Altman plots showed limits of agreement of +/-9 kg before and after weight loss; DXA underestimated FFM in women and overestimated FFM in men. DXA accounted for 80% of the lost body weight. The composition of the lost body mass did not differ from...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  11. WeightLifter: Visual Weight Space Exploration for Multi-Criteria Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Stephan; Streit, Marc; Torsney-Weir, Thomas; Spechtenhauser, Florian; Muller, Torsten; Piringer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    A common strategy in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is to rank alternative solutions by weighted summary scores. Weights, however, are often abstract to the decision maker and can only be set by vague intuition. While previous work supports a point-wise exploration of weight spaces, we argue that MCDM can benefit from a regional and global visual analysis of weight spaces. Our main contribution is WeightLifter, a novel interactive visualization technique for weight-based MCDM that facilitates the exploration of weight spaces with up to ten criteria. Our technique enables users to better understand the sensitivity of a decision to changes of weights, to efficiently localize weight regions where a given solution ranks high, and to filter out solutions which do not rank high enough for any plausible combination of weights. We provide a comprehensive requirement analysis for weight-based MCDM and describe an interactive workflow that meets these requirements. For evaluation, we describe a usage scenario of WeightLifter in automotive engineering and report qualitative feedback from users of a deployed version as well as preliminary feedback from decision makers in multiple domains. This feedback confirms that WeightLifter increases both the efficiency of weight-based MCDM and the awareness of uncertainty in the ultimate decisions.

  12. Sampling of systematic errors to estimate likelihood weights in nuclear data uncertainty propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesson, P.; Sjöstrand, H.; Koning, A.J.; Rydén, J.; Rochman, D.; Alhassan, E.; Pomp, S.

    2016-01-01

    In methodologies for nuclear data (ND) uncertainty assessment and propagation based on random sampling, likelihood weights can be used to infer experimental information into the distributions for the ND. As the included number of correlated experimental points grows large, the computational time for the matrix inversion involved in obtaining the likelihood can become a practical problem. There are also other problems related to the conventional computation of the likelihood, e.g., the assumption that all experimental uncertainties are Gaussian. In this study, a way to estimate the likelihood which avoids matrix inversion is investigated; instead, the experimental correlations are included by sampling of systematic errors. It is shown that the model underlying the sampling methodology (using univariate normal distributions for random and systematic errors) implies a multivariate Gaussian for the experimental points (i.e., the conventional model). It is also shown that the likelihood estimates obtained through sampling of systematic errors approach the likelihood obtained with matrix inversion as the sample size for the systematic errors grows large. In studied practical cases, it is seen that the estimates for the likelihood weights converge impractically slowly with the sample size, compared to matrix inversion. The computational time is estimated to be greater than for matrix inversion in cases with more experimental points, too. Hence, the sampling of systematic errors has little potential to compete with matrix inversion in cases where the latter is applicable. Nevertheless, the underlying model and the likelihood estimates can be easier to intuitively interpret than the conventional model and the likelihood function involving the inverted covariance matrix. Therefore, this work can both have pedagogical value and be used to help motivating the conventional assumption of a multivariate Gaussian for experimental data. The sampling of systematic errors could also

  13. Avatar Weight Estimates based on Footstep Sounds in Three Presentation Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    When evaluating a sound design for virtual environment, the context where it is to be implemented in may have an influence on how it may be perceived. In this paper we perform an experiment comparing three presentation formats (audio only, video with audio and an interactive immersive VR format......) and their influences on a sound design evaluation task concerning footstep sounds. The evaluation involved estimating the perceived weight of a virtual avatar seen from a first person perspective, as well as the suitability of the sound effect relative to the context. The results show significant differences for three...

  14. Development and validation of GFR-estimating equations using diabetes, transplant and weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, L.A.; Schmid, C.H.; Zhang, Y.L.

    2009-01-01

    interactions. Equations were developed in a pooled database of 10 studies [2/3 (N = 5504) for development and 1/3 (N = 2750) for internal validation], and final model selection occurred in 16 additional studies [external validation (N = 3896)]. RESULTS: The mean mGFR was 68, 67 and 68 ml/min/ 1.73 m(2......BACKGROUND: We have reported a new equation (CKD-EPI equation) that reduces bias and improves accuracy for GFR estimation compared to the MDRD study equation while using the same four basic predictor variables: creatinine, age, sex and race. Here, we describe the development and validation...... of this equation as well as other equations that incorporate diabetes, transplant and weight as additional predictor variables. METHODS: Linear regression was used to relate log-measured GFR (mGFR) to sex, race, diabetes, transplant, weight, various transformations of creatinine and age with and without...

  15. Global robust stability of delayed neural networks: Estimating upper limit of norm of delayed connection weight matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vimal

    2007-01-01

    The question of estimating the upper limit of -parallel B -parallel 2 , which is a key step in some recently reported global robust stability criteria for delayed neural networks, is revisited ( B denotes the delayed connection weight matrix). Recently, Cao, Huang, and Qu have given an estimate of the upper limit of -parallel B -parallel 2 . In the present paper, an alternative estimate of the upper limit of -parallel B -parallel 2 is highlighted. It is shown that the alternative estimate may yield some new global robust stability results

  16. Estimating the kinetic parameters of activated sludge storage using weighted non-linear least-squares and accelerating genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yu, Han-Qing

    2009-06-01

    In this study, weighted non-linear least-squares analysis and accelerating genetic algorithm are integrated to estimate the kinetic parameters of substrate consumption and storage product formation of activated sludge. A storage product formation equation is developed and used to construct the objective function for the determination of its production kinetics. The weighted least-squares analysis is employed to calculate the differences in the storage product concentration between the model predictions and the experimental data as the sum of squared weighted errors. The kinetic parameters for the substrate consumption and the storage product formation are estimated to be the maximum heterotrophic growth rate of 0.121/h, the yield coefficient of 0.44 mg CODX/mg CODS (COD, chemical oxygen demand) and the substrate half saturation constant of 16.9 mg/L, respectively, by minimizing the objective function using a real-coding-based accelerating genetic algorithm. Also, the fraction of substrate electrons diverted to the storage product formation is estimated to be 0.43 mg CODSTO/mg CODS. The validity of our approach is confirmed by the results of independent tests and the kinetic parameter values reported in literature, suggesting that this approach could be useful to evaluate the product formation kinetics of mixed cultures like activated sludge. More importantly, as this integrated approach could estimate the kinetic parameters rapidly and accurately, it could be applied to other biological processes.

  17. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Blackburn, George L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-05-01

    Ideal body weight (IBW) equations and body mass index (BMI) ranges have both been used to delineate healthy or normal weight ranges, although these 2 different approaches are at odds with each other. In particular, past IBW equations are misaligned with BMI values, and unlike BMI, the equations have failed to recognize that there is a range of ideal or target body weights. For the first time, to our knowledge, we merged the concepts of a linear IBW equation and of defining target body weights in terms of BMI. With the use of calculus and approximations, we derived an easy-to-use linear equation that clinicians can use to calculate both IBW and body weight at any target BMI value. We measured the empirical accuracy of the equation with the use of NHANES data and performed a comparative analysis with past IBW equations. Our linear equation allowed us to calculate body weights for any BMI and height with a mean empirical accuracy of 0.5-0.7% on the basis of NHANES data. Moreover, we showed that our body weight equation directly aligns with BMI values for both men and women, which avoids the overestimation and underestimation problems at the upper and lower ends of the height spectrum that have plagued past IBW equations. Our linear equation increases the sophistication of IBW equations by replacing them with a single universal equation that calculates both IBW and body weight at any target BMI and height. Therefore, our equation is compatible with BMI and can be applied with the use of mental math or a calculator without the need for an app, which makes it a useful tool for both health practitioners and the general public. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

  19. On the Performance of Maximum Likelihood versus Means and Variance Adjusted Weighted Least Squares Estimation in CFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauducel, Andre; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2006-01-01

    This simulation study compared maximum likelihood (ML) estimation with weighted least squares means and variance adjusted (WLSMV) estimation. The study was based on confirmatory factor analyses with 1, 2, 4, and 8 factors, based on 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 cases, and on 5, 10, 20, and 40 variables with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 categories. There was no…

  20. Size and shape of soil humic acids estimated by viscosity and molecular weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahigashi, Masayuki; Sumida, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2005-04-15

    Ultrafiltration fractions of three soil humic acids were characterized by viscometry and high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) in order to estimate shapes and hydrodynamic sizes. Intrinsic viscosities under given solute/solvent/temperature conditions were obtained by extrapolating the concentration dependence of reduced viscosities to zero concentration. Molecular mass (weight average molecular weight (M (w)) and number average molecular weight (M (n))) and hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) were determined by HPSEC using pullulan as calibrant. Values of M (w) and M (n) ranged from 15 to 118 x 10(3) and from 9 to 50 x 10(3) (g mol(-1)), respectively. Polydispersity, as indicated by M (w)/M (n), increased with increasing filter size from 1.5 to 2.4. The hydrodynamic radii (R(H)) ranged between 2.2 and 6.4 nm. For each humic acid, M (w) and [eta] were related. Mark-Houwink coefficients calculated on the basis of the M (w)-[eta] relationships suggested restricted flexible chains for two of the humic acids and a branched structure for the third humic acid. Those structures probably behave as hydrated sphere colloids in a good solvent. Hydrodynamic radii of fractions calculated from [eta] using Einstein's equation, which is applicable to hydrated sphere colloids, ranged from 2.2 to 7.1 nm. These dimensions are fit to the size of nanospaces on and between clay minerals and micropores in soil particle aggregates. On the other hand, the good agreement of R(H) values obtained by applying Einstein's equation with those directly determined by HPSEC suggests that pullulan is a suitable calibrant for estimation of molecular mass and size of humic acids by HPSEC.

  1. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) wh...

  2. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Kelly R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Seidel, Frank G. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of ArcGIS and SAS Geostatistical Analyst to Estimate Population-Weighted Monthly Temperature for US Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaopeng, Q I; Liang, Wei; Barker, Laurie; Lekiachvili, Akaki; Xingyou, Zhang

    Temperature changes are known to have significant impacts on human health. Accurate estimates of population-weighted average monthly air temperature for US counties are needed to evaluate temperature's association with health behaviours and disease, which are sampled or reported at the county level and measured on a monthly-or 30-day-basis. Most reported temperature estimates were calculated using ArcGIS, relatively few used SAS. We compared the performance of geostatistical models to estimate population-weighted average temperature in each month for counties in 48 states using ArcGIS v9.3 and SAS v 9.2 on a CITGO platform. Monthly average temperature for Jan-Dec 2007 and elevation from 5435 weather stations were used to estimate the temperature at county population centroids. County estimates were produced with elevation as a covariate. Performance of models was assessed by comparing adjusted R 2 , mean squared error, root mean squared error, and processing time. Prediction accuracy for split validation was above 90% for 11 months in ArcGIS and all 12 months in SAS. Cokriging in SAS achieved higher prediction accuracy and lower estimation bias as compared to cokriging in ArcGIS. County-level estimates produced by both packages were positively correlated (adjusted R 2 range=0.95 to 0.99); accuracy and precision improved with elevation as a covariate. Both methods from ArcGIS and SAS are reliable for U.S. county-level temperature estimates; However, ArcGIS's merits in spatial data pre-processing and processing time may be important considerations for software selection, especially for multi-year or multi-state projects.

  4. A Robust and Multi-Weighted Approach to Estimating Topographically Correlated Tropospheric Delays in Radar Interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyan Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations in the vertical stratification of the troposphere introduce significant propagation delays in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR observations. Observations of small amplitude surface deformations and regional subsidence rates are plagued by tropospheric delays, and strongly correlated with topographic height variations. Phase-based tropospheric correction techniques assuming a linear relationship between interferometric phase and topography have been exploited and developed, with mixed success. Producing robust estimates of tropospheric phase delay however plays a critical role in increasing the accuracy of InSAR measurements. Meanwhile, few phase-based correction methods account for the spatially variable tropospheric delay over lager study regions. Here, we present a robust and multi-weighted approach to estimate the correlation between phase and topography that is relatively insensitive to confounding processes such as regional subsidence over larger regions as well as under varying tropospheric conditions. An expanded form of robust least squares is introduced to estimate the spatially variable correlation between phase and topography by splitting the interferograms into multiple blocks. Within each block, correlation is robustly estimated from the band-filtered phase and topography. Phase-elevation ratios are multiply- weighted and extrapolated to each persistent scatter (PS pixel. We applied the proposed method to Envisat ASAR images over the Southern California area, USA, and found that our method mitigated the atmospheric noise better than the conventional phase-based method. The corrected ground surface deformation agreed better with those measured from GPS.

  5. A Nonlinear Dynamics-Based Estimator for Functional Electrical Stimulation: Preliminary Results From Lower-Leg Extension Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marcus; Zhong, Qiang; Kirsch, Nicholas; Dani, Ashwin; Clark, William W; Sharma, Nitin

    2017-12-01

    Miniature inertial measurement units (IMUs) are wearable sensors that measure limb segment or joint angles during dynamic movements. However, IMUs are generally prone to drift, external magnetic interference, and measurement noise. This paper presents a new class of nonlinear state estimation technique called state-dependent coefficient (SDC) estimation to accurately predict joint angles from IMU measurements. The SDC estimation method uses limb dynamics, instead of limb kinematics, to estimate the limb state. Importantly, the nonlinear limb dynamic model is formulated into state-dependent matrices that facilitate the estimator design without performing a Jacobian linearization. The estimation method is experimentally demonstrated to predict knee joint angle measurements during functional electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle. The nonlinear knee musculoskeletal model was identified through a series of experiments. The SDC estimator was then compared with an extended kalman filter (EKF), which uses a Jacobian linearization and a rotation matrix method, which uses a kinematic model instead of the dynamic model. Each estimator's performance was evaluated against the true value of the joint angle, which was measured through a rotary encoder. The experimental results showed that the SDC estimator, the rotation matrix method, and EKF had root mean square errors of 2.70°, 2.86°, and 4.42°, respectively. Our preliminary experimental results show the new estimator's advantage over the EKF method but a slight advantage over the rotation matrix method. However, the information from the dynamic model allows the SDC method to use only one IMU to measure the knee angle compared with the rotation matrix method that uses two IMUs to estimate the angle.

  6. Weight dependent modulation of motor resonance induced by weight estimation during observation of partially occluded lifting actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Nikola; Zijdewind, Inge; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio; Maurits, Natasha M

    2015-01-01

    Seeing others performing an action induces the observers' motor cortex to "resonate" with the observed action. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that such motor resonance reflects the encoding of various motor features of the observed action, including the apparent motor effort. However, it is unclear whether such encoding requires direct observation or whether force requirements can be inferred when the moving body part is partially occluded. To address this issue, we presented participants with videos of a right hand lifting a box of three different weights and asked them to estimate its weight. During each trial we delivered one transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse over the left primary motor cortex of the observer and recorded the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from three muscles of the right hand (first dorsal interosseous, FDI, abductor digiti minimi, ADM, and brachioradialis, BR). Importantly, because the hand shown in the videos was hidden behind a screen, only the contractions in the actor's BR muscle under the bare skin were observable during the entire videos, while the contractions in the actor's FDI and ADM muscles were hidden during the grasp and actual lift. The amplitudes of the MEPs recorded from the BR (observable) and FDI (hidden) muscle increased with the weight of the box. These findings indicate that the modulation of motor excitability induced by action observation extends to the cortical representation of muscles with contractions that could not be observed. Thus, motor resonance appears to reflect force requirements of observed lifting actions even when the moving body part is occluded from view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weighted Moments Estimators of the Parameters for the Extreme Value Distribution Based on the Multiply Type II Censored Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wuu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the weighted moments estimators (WMEs of the location and scale parameters for the extreme value distribution based on the multiply type II censored sample. Simulated mean squared errors (MSEs of best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE and exact MSEs of WMEs are compared to study the behavior of different estimation methods. The results show the best estimator among the WMEs and BLUE under different combinations of censoring schemes.

  8. A semi-automated method for non-invasive internal organ weight estimation by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, newborns and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayyil, Sudhin; Schievano, Silvia; Robertson, Nicola J.; Jones, Rodney; Chitty, Lyn S.; Sebire, Neil J.; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows minimally invasive autopsy, especially when consent is declined for traditional autopsy. Estimation of individual visceral organ weights is an important component of traditional autopsy. Objective: To examine whether a semi-automated can be used for non-invasive internal organ weight measurement using post-mortem MR imaging in fetuses, newborns and children. Methods: Phase 1: In vitro scanning of 36 animal organs (heart, liver, kidneys) was performed to check the accuracy of volume reconstruction methodology. Real volumes were measured by water displacement method. Phase 2: Sixty-five whole body post-mortem MR scans were performed in fetuses (n = 30), newborns (n = 5) and children (n = 30) at 1.5 T using a 3D TSE T2-weighted sequence. These data were analysed offline using the image processing software Mimics 11.0. Results: Phase 1: Mean difference (S.D.) between estimated and actual volumes were -0.3 (1.5) ml for kidney, -0.7 (1.3) ml for heart, -1.7 (3.6) ml for liver in animal experiments. Phase 2: In fetuses, newborns and children mean differences between estimated and actual weights (S.D.) were -0.6 (4.9) g for liver, -5.1 (1.2) g for spleen, -0.3 (0.6) g for adrenals, 0.4 (1.6) g for thymus, 0.9 (2.5) g for heart, -0.7 (2.4) g for kidneys and 2.7 (14) g for lungs. Excellent co-correlation was noted for estimated and actual weights (r 2 = 0.99, p < 0.001). Accuracy was lower when fetuses were less than 20 weeks or less than 300 g. Conclusion: Rapid, accurate and reproducible estimation of solid internal organ weights is feasible using the semi-automated 3D volume reconstruction method.

  9. Radiocesium and polonium in seals from the Baltic Sea. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Leisvik, M.

    2002-01-01

    137 Cs and 210 Po in muscle, liver and kidney from 5 seals from the Baltic Sea have been studied. Assuming that the seals consume 5% of their own body weight each day and by using previously obtained data for the doses in fish, the biological half time has been estimated to 20 days for Cesium and 35 days for Polonium. The maximum yearly doses are calculated to 76 μGy from 137 CS to muscle and 3 500 μGy to kidneys from 210 Po. These data are very preliminary, the number of individuals being so small, and it is difficult to estimate how much food other than fish the seals consume. Furthermore only few data for radioactive concentrations in whole fish exist, which especially impacts the results for Polonium. (LN)

  10. Weighted estimates for the averaging integral operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opic, Bohumír; Rákosník, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2010), s. 253-262 ISSN 0010-0757 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2033; GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : averaging integral operator * weighted Lebesgue spaces * weights Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03191231

  11. Preliminary radiological consequence estimate for a reference LEU core for PARR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younus, M.; Khan, L.A.; Akhtar, K.M.; Pervez, S.

    1988-07-01

    Radiological consequence analysis of a reference LEU core for Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR) has been carried out using mathematical models. Three modes of leakage from reactor building have been considered. These are exhaust through the normal ventilation system, through emergency ventilation system and leakage from the building. The whole body and thyroid does have been calculated for the duration of 2 hours and 30 days at the boundaries of exclusion zone at 450m and low population zone at 100m. For the releases at stack height through normal and emergency ventilation systems, does at both the boundaries remain within relevant emergency does limits of 300 rem for thyroid and 25 rem for whole body. However, in case of direct release from the containment building, limiting thyroid does of 300 rem, at 1000m, for 30 days exposure is achieved for a leak rate of 27% per day under Pasquill condition E. The results presented in this report are only preliminary estimates. A more accurate detailed analysis, for various burnups, will be carried using standard computer codes. (orig./A.B)

  12. Data-Driven Robust RVFLNs Modeling of a Blast Furnace Iron-Making Process Using Cauchy Distribution Weighted M-Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ping; Lv, Youbin; Wang, Hong; Chai, Tianyou

    2017-09-01

    Optimal operation of a practical blast furnace (BF) ironmaking process depends largely on a good measurement of molten iron quality (MIQ) indices. However, measuring the MIQ online is not feasible using the available techniques. In this paper, a novel data-driven robust modeling is proposed for online estimation of MIQ using improved random vector functional-link networks (RVFLNs). Since the output weights of traditional RVFLNs are obtained by the least squares approach, a robustness problem may occur when the training dataset is contaminated with outliers. This affects the modeling accuracy of RVFLNs. To solve this problem, a Cauchy distribution weighted M-estimation based robust RFVLNs is proposed. Since the weights of different outlier data are properly determined by the Cauchy distribution, their corresponding contribution on modeling can be properly distinguished. Thus robust and better modeling results can be achieved. Moreover, given that the BF is a complex nonlinear system with numerous coupling variables, the data-driven canonical correlation analysis is employed to identify the most influential components from multitudinous factors that affect the MIQ indices to reduce the model dimension. Finally, experiments using industrial data and comparative studies have demonstrated that the obtained model produces a better modeling and estimating accuracy and stronger robustness than other modeling methods.

  13. VOLUME ESTIMATION, DRY WEIGHT, OIL CONTENT AND QUANTITY OF FENCEPOSTS OF CANDEIA (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC MacLeish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Soares Scolforo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at studying the behavior of volume, dry weight, oil content and fence post quantity per diametric class of candeia; to define its stack factor, with and without diametric class control; and to determine equations for estimating the main stem and branches volume, dry weight and oil content of the hole tree, trunk, branches and leaves and fencepost quantity. Data were obtained from a forest inventory carried out in a native candeia forest located in Aiuruoca county, Minas Gerais state - Brazil. Tree volume was calculated through the Huber formula and oil extraction methods employed were “the solvent method” and “vapor hauling method”. For estimation volume, dry weight, oil content and fencepost number the traditional double entry models were used. The oil weight in 1 cubic meter of wood of small dimensions, trees between 5 and 10cm, is around 6 kilos, while the oil content of the largest trees, between 40 and 45cm, is around 11 kilos. The same tendency is observed for the wood volume, without bark, and in the volume of piled up wood, although in these last situations the magnitude of quantities are different. The oil content of candeia trees present the following behavior: in the stem and branches up to 3cm of diameter with bark, it varies from 1,02% to 1,37%, respectively to plants with diameter between 5 and 10cm and between 40 and 45cm; in the branches with less than 3cm of diameter with bark, it varies from 0,33% to 0,65%,respectively, to plants between 5 and 10cm and between 40 and 45cm of diameter; in the leaves it varies from 0,28% to 0,77%, respectively, for plants between 5-10cm and between 40-45cm of diameter. The average stack factor is 1.9087 and diminishes as diameter classes increases. The best model for estimating oil content, dry weight, fence post quantity and volume is the logarithmic form of Schumacher-Hall model.

  14. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of transplanted kidneys: Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wypych-Klunder, Katarzyna; Adamowicz, Andrzej; Lemanowicz, Adam; Szczęsny, Wojciech; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    An aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of DWI in the early period after kidney transplantation. We also aimed to compare ADC and eADC values in the cortex and medulla of the kidney, to estimate image noise and variability of measurements, and to verify possible relation between selected labolatory results and diffusion parameters in the transplanted kidney. Examinations were performed using a 1.5 T MR unit. DWI (SE/EPI) was performed in the axial plane using b-values of 600 and 1000. ADC and eADC measurements were performed in four regions of interest within the renal cortex and in three regions within the medulla. Relative variability of results and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated. The analysis included 15 patients (mean age 52 years). The mean variability of ADC was significantly lower than that of eADC (6.8% vs. 10.8%, respectively; p30 ml/min./1.73 m(2) (p<0.05). Diffusion-weighted imaging of transplanted kidneys is technically challenging, especially in patients in the early period after transplantation. From a technical point of view, the best quality parameters offer quality ADC measurement in the renal cortex using b1000. ADC and eADC values in the renal cortex measured at b1000 present a relationship with eGFR.

  15. Antenatal surveillance through estimates of the sources underlying the abdominal phonogram: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-González, A; James, C J

    2013-01-01

    Today, it is generally accepted that current methods for biophysical antenatal surveillance do not facilitate a comprehensive and reliable assessment of foetal well-being and that continuing research into alternative methods is necessary to improve antenatal monitoring procedures. In our research, attention has been paid to the abdominal phonogram, a signal that is recorded by positioning an acoustic sensor on the maternal womb and contains valuable information about foetal status, but which is hidden by maternal and environmental sources. To recover such information, previous work has used single-channel independent component analysis (SCICA) on the abdominal phonogram and successfully retrieved estimates of the foetal phonocardiogram, the maternal phonocardiogram, the maternal respirogram and noise. The availability of these estimates made it possible for the current study to focus on their evaluation as sources for antenatal surveillance purposes. To this end, the foetal heart rate (FHR), the foetal heart sounds morphology, the maternal heart rate (MHR) and the maternal breathing rate (MBR) were collected from the estimates retrieved from a dataset of 25 abdominal phonograms. Next, these parameters were compared with reference values to quantify the significance of the physiological information extracted from the estimates. As a result, it has been seen that the instantaneous FHR, the instantaneous MHR and the MBR collected from the estimates consistently followed the trends given by the reference signals, which is a promising outcome for this preliminary study. Thus, as far as this study has gone, it can be said that the independent traces retrieved by SCICA from the abdominal phonogram are likely to become valuable sources of information for well-being surveillance, both foetal and maternal. (paper)

  16. A preliminary model for estimating the first wall lifetime of a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daenner, W.

    1975-02-01

    The estimation of the first wall lifetime is a necessary basis for predicting the availability of a fusion power plant. In order to do this, an analytical model was prepared and programmed for the computer which calculates the temperature and stress load of the first wall from the principal design parameters and quotes them against the relevant material properties. Neither the analytical model nor the information about the material performance is yet complete so that the answers obtained from the program are very preliminary. This situation is underlined by the results of sample calculations performed for the CTRD blanket module cell. The results obtained for vanadium and vanadium alloys show a strong dependence of the lifetime on the irradiation creep and the ductility of these materials. Completion of this model is envisaged as soon as the missing information becomes available. (orig.) [de

  17. A preliminary design of interior structure and foundation of an inflatable lunar habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Paul K.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary structural design and analysis of an inflatable habitat for installation on the moon was completed. The concept takes the shape of a sphere with a diameter of approximately 16 meters. The interior framing provides five floor levels and is enclosed by a spherical air-tight membrane holding an interior pressure of 14.7 psi (101.4kpa). The spherical habitat is to be erected on the lunar surface with the lower one third below grade and the upper two thirds covered with a layer of lunar regolith for thermal insulation and shielding against radiation and meteoroids. The total dead weight (earth weight) of the structural aluminum, which is of vital interest for the costly space transportation, is presented. This structural dead weight represents a preliminary estimate without including structural details. The design results in two versions: one supports the weight of the radiation shielding in case of deflation of the fabric enclosure and the other assumes that the radiation shielding is self supporting. To gain some indication of the amount of structural materials needed if the identical habitat were installed on Mars and Earth, three additional design versions were generated where the only difference is in gravity. These additional design versions are highly academic since the difference will be much more than in gravity alone. The lateral loading due to dust storms on Mars and wind loads on Earth are some examples. The designs under the lunar gravity are realistic. They may not be adequate for final material procurement and fabrication, however, as the connection details, among other reasons, may effect the sizes of the structural members.

  18. The influence of maternal body mass index on fetal weight estimation in twin pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Helen M

    2013-11-08

    Sonographic estimation of fetal weight (EFW) is important in the management of high-risk pregnancies. The possibility that increased maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects EFW assessments in twin pregnancies is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal BMI on the accuracy of EFW assessments in twin gestations prospectively recruited for the ESPRiT (Evaluation of Sonographic Predictors of Restricted growth in Twins) study.

  19. Effect of Using Different Vehicle Weight Groups on the Estimated Relationship Between Mass Reduction and U.S. Societal Fatality Risk per Vehicle Miles of Travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Technologies Area. Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

    2016-08-22

    This report recalculates the estimated relationship between vehicle mass and societal fatality risk, using alternative groupings by vehicle weight, to test whether the trend of decreasing fatality risk from mass reduction as case vehicle mass increases, holds over smaller increments of the range in case vehicle masses. The NHTSA baseline regression model estimates the relationship using for two weight groups for cars and light trucks; we re-estimated the mass reduction coefficients using four, six, and eight bins of vehicle mass. The estimated effect of mass reduction on societal fatality risk was not consistent over the range in vehicle masses in these weight bins. These results suggest that the relationship indicated by the NHTSA baseline model is a result of other, unmeasured attributes of the mix of vehicles in the lighter vs. heavier weight bins, and not necessarily the result of a correlation between mass reduction and societal fatality risk. An analysis of the average vehicle, driver, and crash characteristics across the various weight groupings did not reveal any strong trends that might explain the lack of a consistent trend of decreasing fatality risk from mass reduction in heavier vehicles.

  20. PREOPERATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY VOLUMETRY AND GRAFT WEIGHT ESTIMATION IN ADULT LIVING DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Rafael S; Cruz, Ruy J; Andraus, Wellington; Ducatti, Liliana; Martino, Rodrigo B; Nacif, Lucas S; Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Arantes, Rubens M; Lai, Quirino; Ibuki, Felicia S; Rocha, Manoel S; D Albuquerque, Luiz A C

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography volumetry (CTV) is a useful tool for predicting graft weights (GW) for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Few studies have examined the correlation between CTV and GW in normal liver parenchyma. To analyze the correlation between CTV and GW in an adult LDLT population and provide a systematic review of the existing mathematical models to calculate partial liver graft weight. Between January 2009 and January 2013, 28 consecutive donors undergoing right hepatectomy for LDLT were retrospectively reviewed. All grafts were perfused with HTK solution. Estimated graft volume was estimated by CTV and these values were compared to the actual graft weight, which was measured after liver harvesting and perfusion. Median actual GW was 782.5 g, averaged 791.43±136 g and ranged from 520-1185 g. Median estimated graft volume was 927.5 ml, averaged 944.86±200.74 ml and ranged from 600-1477 ml. Linear regression of estimated graft volume and actual GW was significantly linear (GW=0.82 estimated graft volume, r2=0.98, slope=0.47, standard deviation of 0.024 and ppeso do enxerto (PE) para o transplante hepático com doador vivo (TFDV). Poucos estudos examinaram a correlação entre o VTC e PE no parênquima hepático normal. Analisar a correlação entre VTC e PE em uma população adulta de doadores para o TFDV e realização de revisão sistemática dos modelos matemáticos existentes para calcular o peso de enxertos hepáticos parciais. Foram revisados retrospectivamente 28 doadores consecutivos submetidos à hepatectomia direita para o TFDV entre janeiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2013. Todos os doadores eram adultos saudáveis ​​com VTC pré-operatório. Os enxertos foram perfundidos com solução de preservação HTK. O volume estimado foi obtido por VTC e estes valores foram comparados com o peso real do enxerto, o qual foi aferido depois da hepatectomia e perfusão do enxerto. A mediana do PE real foi de 782,5 g, média de 791,43±136 g, variando

  1. Calculation of weighted averages approach for the estimation of ping tolerance values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalom, S.; Carter, J.L.; Chantaramongkol, P.

    2010-01-01

    A biotic index was created and proposed as a tool to assess water quality in the Upper Mae Ping sub-watersheds. The Ping biotic index was calculated by utilizing Ping tolerance values. This paper presents the calculation of Ping tolerance values of the collected macroinvertebrates. Ping tolerance values were estimated by a weighted averages approach based on the abundance of macroinvertebrates and six chemical constituents that include conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and orthophosphate. Ping tolerance values range from 0 to 10. Macroinvertebrates assigned a 0 are very sensitive to organic pollution while macroinvertebrates assigned 10 are highly tolerant to pollution.

  2. Heritability estimates for weight gain in Nellore in Mato Grosso state, using model of infinite dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Palharim D. A. Palharim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We used 138,976 records of information of body weights ranging from 60 to 610 days of age, from 27,327 Nelore cattle of herds in the state of Mato Grosso. The random regression model with the covariance function of fourth order to describe the variability of the effects of additive genetic, animal and maternal permanent environment and maternal genetic effect and maternal, showed heritability estimates from 0.209 to 0.423 at the beginning by the end of the trajectory, respectively. There is enough genetic variability to promote genetic gain satisfactory performance for weight after weaning period the animals. Keywords: beef cattle, genetic parameters, selection.

  3. A preliminary investigation of alpha-lipoic acid treatment of antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eosu; Park, Dong-Wha; Choi, Song-Hee; Kim, Jae-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Sang

    2008-04-01

    Weight gain and other metabolic disturbances have now become discouraging, major side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs). The novel strategies required to counteract these serious consequences, however, should avoid modulating the activities of the neurotransmitter receptors involved because those receptors are the therapeutic targets of AAPDs. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme that plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), which is known to modulate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues, would ameliorate AAPD-induced weight gain. We describe the case series of a 12-week ALA trial in schizophrenia patients treated with AAPDs. Two of 7 enrolled subjects were dropped from the study because of noncompliance and demand for new medication to treat depressive symptoms, respectively. The mean (SD) weight loss was 3.16 (3.20) kg (P = 0.043, last observation carried forward; median, 3.03 kg; range, 0-8.85 kg). On average, body mass index showed a significant reduction (P = 0.028) over the 12 weeks. During the same period, a statistically significant reduction was also observed in total cholesterol levels (P = 0.042), and there was a weak trend toward the reduction in insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) (P = 0.080). Three subjects reported increased energy subjectively. The total scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale did not vary significantly during the study. These preliminary data suggest the possibility that ALA can ameliorate the adverse metabolic effects induced by AAPDs. To confirm the benefits of ALA, more extended study is warranted.

  4. Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Term Low Birth Weight: Estimation of Causal Associations in a Semiparametric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M.; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000–2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants. PMID:23045474

  5. Effectiveness of prediction equations in estimating energy expenditure sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Rosado, Eliane; Santiago de Brito, Roberta; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the adequacy of predictive equations for estimation of energy expenditure (EE), compared with the EE using indirect calorimetry in a sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 92 obese adult women [26 Brazilian -G1- and 66 Spanish - G2- (aged 20-50)]. Weight and height were evaluated during fasting for the calculation of body mass index and predictive equations. EE was evaluated using the open-circuit indirect...

  6. Agreement between estimated and measured heights and weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    index (BMI = kg/m2) and require accurate recording of a patient's height and weight.1. In reality, however, patients often cannot stand up straight for accurate height measurement, or are unable to step on a scale. In such cases, height and weight values are often obtained from the patient or their relatives, who either do not ...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphism associated with weight estimated breeding values in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Biase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We sampled 119 Nelore cattle (Bos indicus, 69 harboring B. indicus mtDNA plus 50 carrying Bos taurus mtDNA, to estimate the frequencies of putative mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and investigate their association with Nelore weight and scrotal circumference estimated breeding values (EBVs. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used to detect polymorphisms in the mitochondrial asparagine, cysteine, glycine, leucine and proline transporter RNA (tRNA genes (tRNAasn, tRNAcys, tRNAgly, tRNAleu and tRNApro. The 50 cattle carrying B. taurus mtDNA were monomorphic for all the tRNA gene SNPs analyzed, suggesting that they are specific to mtDNA from B. indicus cattle. No tRNAcys or tRNAgly polymorphisms were detected in any of the cattle but we did detect polymorphic SNPs in the tRNAasn, tRNAleu and tRNApro genes in the cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA, with the same allele observed in the B. taurus sequence being present in the following percentage of cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA: 72.46% for tRNAasn, 95.23% for tRNAleu and 90.62% for tRNApro. Analyses of variance using the tRNAasn SNP as the independent variable and EBVs as the dependent variable showed that the G -> T SNP was significantly associated (p < 0.05 with maternal EBVs for weight at 120 and 210 days (p < 0.05 and animal's EBVs for weight at 210, 365 and 455 days. There was no association of the tRNAasn SNP with the scrotal circumference EBVs. These results confirm that mtDNA can affect weight and that mtDNA polymorphisms can be a source of genetic variation for quantitative traits.

  8. MicroTrack: an algorithm for concurrent projectome and microstructure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbondy, Anthony J; Rowe, Matthew C; Alexander, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents MicroTrack, an algorithm that combines global tractography and direct microstructure estimation using diffusion-weighted imaging data. Previous work recovers connectivity via tractography independently from estimating microstructure features, such as axon diameter distribution and density. However, the two estimates have great potential to inform one another given the common assumption that microstructural features remain consistent along fibers. Here we provide a preliminary examination of this hypothesis. We adapt a global tractography algorithm to associate axon diameter with each putative pathway and optimize both the set of pathways and their microstructural parameters to find the best fit of this holistic white-matter model to the MRI data. We demonstrate in simulation that, with a multi-shell HARDI acquisition, this approach not only improves estimates of microstructural parameters over voxel-by-voxel estimation, but provides a solution to long standing problems in tractography. In particular, a simple experiment demonstrates the resolution of the well known ambiguity between crossing and kissing fibers. The results strongly motivate further development of this kind of algorithm for brain connectivity mapping.

  9. kWIP: The k-mer weighted inner product, a de novo estimator of genetic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kevin D; Webers, Christfried; Ong, Cheng Soon; Borevitz, Justin; Warthmann, Norman

    2017-09-01

    Modern genomics techniques generate overwhelming quantities of data. Extracting population genetic variation demands computationally efficient methods to determine genetic relatedness between individuals (or "samples") in an unbiased manner, preferably de novo. Rapid estimation of genetic relatedness directly from sequencing data has the potential to overcome reference genome bias, and to verify that individuals belong to the correct genetic lineage before conclusions are drawn using mislabelled, or misidentified samples. We present the k-mer Weighted Inner Product (kWIP), an assembly-, and alignment-free estimator of genetic similarity. kWIP combines a probabilistic data structure with a novel metric, the weighted inner product (WIP), to efficiently calculate pairwise similarity between sequencing runs from their k-mer counts. It produces a distance matrix, which can then be further analysed and visualised. Our method does not require prior knowledge of the underlying genomes and applications include establishing sample identity and detecting mix-up, non-obvious genomic variation, and population structure. We show that kWIP can reconstruct the true relatedness between samples from simulated populations. By re-analysing several published datasets we show that our results are consistent with marker-based analyses. kWIP is written in C++, licensed under the GNU GPL, and is available from https://github.com/kdmurray91/kwip.

  10. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  11. Clinical formulas, mother's opinion and ultrasound in predicting birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torloni

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Accurate fetal weight estimation is important for labor and delivery management. So far, there has not been any conclusive evidence to indicate that any technique for fetal weight estimation is superior to any other. Clinical formulas for fetal weight estimation are easy to use but have not been extensively studied in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of clinical formulas for fetal weight estimation compared to maternal and ultrasound estimates. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study involving 100 full-term, cephalic, singleton pregnancies delivered within three days of fetal weight estimation. The setting was a tertiary public teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Upon admission, the mother's opinion about fetal weight was recorded. Symphyseal-fundal height and abdominal girth were measured and two formulas were used to calculate fetal weight. An ultrasound scan was then performed by a specialist to estimate fetal weight. The four estimates were compared with the birth weight. The accuracy of the estimates was assessed by calculating the percentage that was within 10% of actual birth weight for each method. The chi-squared test was used for comparisons and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The birth weight was correctly estimated (± 10% in 59%, 57%, 61%, and 65% of the cases using the mother's estimate, two clinical formulas, and ultrasound estimate, respectively. The accuracy of the four methods did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: Clinical formulas for fetal weight prediction are as accurate as maternal and ultrasound estimates.

  12. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.

  13. A preliminary estimate of the EUVE cumulative distribution of exposure time on the unit sphere. [Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary study of an all-sky coverage of the EUVE mission is given. Algorithms are provided to compute the exposure of the celestial sphere under the spinning telescopes, taking into account that during part of the exposure time the telescopes are blocked by the earth. The algorithms are used to give an estimate of exposure time at different ecliptic latitudes as a function of the angle of field of view of the telescope. Sample coverage patterns are also given for a 6-month mission.

  14. Use of I-131 labeled, murine Fab against a high molecular weight antigen of human melanoma: Preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; McGuffin, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    High molecular-weight antigen (HMWA) is tumor-associated proteoglycan of human malignant melanoma. I-131 labeled Fab fragments of these specific antibodies were used for preliminary feasibility studies for radioimmunodetection and therapy of human subjects who had inoperable metastatic melanoma. Ten patients received tracer doses of I-131 (anti-HMWA) Fab. All patients (8/8) who had melanoma lesions greater than 1 cm by correlative diagnosis methods had one or more lesions that had localization to tumor of the radiolabelled Fab. In all, 17 of 23 (74%) documented metastases were seen. Two patients who had avid uptake received potentially radiotherapeutic doses. For both of these patients, whole imaging studies showed that the localization of the high dose I-131 Fab was predominantly in tumor. On whole body images, the anti-Fab HMWA appears to be more tumor selective than Fab preparations that target the p97 antigen for melanoma, and there is less uptake in liver

  15. Mixed Norm Estimate for Radon Transform on Weighted $ L^ p ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We will discuss about the mapping property of Radon transform on L p spaces with power weight. It will be shown that the Pitt's inequality together with the weighted version of Hardy–Littlewood–Sobolev lemma imply weighted inequality for the Radon transform.

  16. Hydrodynamic characterization and molecular weight estimation of ultrasonically sheared DNA; Caracterizacion hidrodinamica y estimacion de pesos moleculares de DNA degradado por ultrasonidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, J I; Garces, F; Garcia-Sacristan, A

    1981-07-01

    The sedimentation coefficients and intrinsic viscosities of ultrasonically sheared calf thymus DNA have been determined. The molecular weight estimation according to this parameters have been compared with the ones obtained from the electrophoretic migration rates based on the calibration proposed using the known molecular weight restriction fragments of X-ENA. (Author) 35 refs.

  17. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  18. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated

  19. Bayesian Simultaneous Estimation for Means in k Sample Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Ryo; Kubokawa, Tatsuya; Ghosh, Malay

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the simultaneous estimation of k population means when one suspects that the k means are nearly equal. As an alternative to the preliminary test estimator based on the test statistics for testing hypothesis of equal means, we derive Bayesian and minimax estimators which shrink individual sample means toward a pooled mean estimator given under the hypothesis. Interestingly, it is shown that both the preliminary test estimator and the Bayesian minimax shrinkage esti...

  20. Estimation of Geographically Weighted Regression Case Study on Wet Land Paddy Productivities in Tulungagung Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danang Ariyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Regression is a method connected independent variable and dependent variable with estimation parameter as an output. Principal problem in this method is its application in spatial data. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR method used to solve the problem. GWR  is a regression technique that extends the traditional regression framework by allowing the estimation of local rather than global parameters. In other words, GWR runs a regression for each location, instead of a sole regression for the entire study area. The purpose of this research is to analyze the factors influencing wet land paddy productivities in Tulungagung Regency. The methods used in this research is  GWR using cross validation  bandwidth and weighted by adaptive Gaussian kernel fungtion.This research using  4 variables which are presumed affecting the wet land paddy productivities such as:  the rate of rainfall(X1, the average cost of fertilizer per hectare(X2, the average cost of pestisides per hectare(X3 and Allocation of subsidized NPK fertilizer of food crops sub-sector(X4. Based on the result, X1, X2, X3 and X4  has a different effect on each Distric. So, to improve the productivity of wet land paddy in Tulungagung Regency required a special policy based on the GWR model in each distric.

  1. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( cows had the lowest ( cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive

  2. The effects of maternal weight gain patterns on term birth weight in African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sing, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The goals of our study were 1) to estimate the trends in maternal weight gain patterns and 2) to estimate the influence of variation in maternal weight and rate of weight gain over different time periods in gestation on variation in birth weight in African-American and non-African-American gravidas. Study Design and Setting Data from a prospective cohort study in which pregnant women were monitored at multiple time points during pregnancy were analyzed. Maternal weight was measured at three times during pregnancy, preconception (W0); 16-20 weeks gestation (W1); and 30-36 weeks gestation (W2), in a cohort of 435 women with full-term singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age-adjusted birth weight (aBW) and measures of maternal weight and rate of weight gain across pregnancy was estimated using a multivariable longitudinal regression analysis stratified on African-American race. Results The aBW was significantly associated with maternal weight measured at any visit in both strata. For African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with variation in the rate of maternal weight gain in the first half of pregnancy (W01) but not the rate of maternal weight gain in the second half of pregnancy (W12); while for non-African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with W12 but not W01. Conclusion Factors influencing the relationship between aBW and maternal weight gain patterns depend on the context of the pregnancy defined by race. Clinical decisions and recommendations about maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy may need to account for such heterogeneity. PMID:20632908

  3. External validation of equations to estimate resting energy expenditure in 14952 adults with overweight and obesity and 1948 adults with normal weight from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Giorgio; Bertoli, Simona; Leone, Alessandro; De Amicis, Ramona; Lucchetti, Elisa; Agosti, Fiorenza; Marazzi, Nicoletta; Battezzati, Alberto; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2017-11-24

    We cross-validated 28 equations to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in a very large sample of adults with overweight or obesity. 14952 Caucasian men and women with overweight or obesity and 1498 with normal weight were studied. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry and estimated using two meta-regression equations and 26 other equations. The correct classification fraction (CCF) was defined as the fraction of subjects whose estimated REE was within 10% of measured REE. The highest CCF was 79%, 80%, 72%, 64%, and 63% in subjects with normal weight, overweight, class 1 obesity, class 2 obesity, and class 3 obesity, respectively. The Henry weight and height and Mifflin equations performed equally well with CCFs of 77% vs. 77% for subjects with normal weight, 80% vs. 80% for those with overweight, 72% vs. 72% for those with class 1 obesity, 64% vs. 63% for those with class 2 obesity, and 61% vs. 60% for those with class 3 obesity. The Sabounchi meta-regression equations offered an improvement over the above equations only for class 3 obesity (63%). The accuracy of REE equations decreases with increasing values of body mass index. The Henry weight & height and Mifflin equations are similarly accurate and the Sabounchi equations offer an improvement only in subjects with class 3 obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Rainfall assimilation in RAMS by means of the Kuo parameterisation inversion: method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, A.; Ortolani, A.; Meneguzzo, F.; Levizzani, V.; Torricella, F.; Turk, F. J.

    2004-03-01

    In order to improve high-resolution forecasts, a specific method for assimilating rainfall rates into the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System model has been developed. It is based on the inversion of the Kuo convective parameterisation scheme. A nudging technique is applied to 'gently' increase with time the weight of the estimated precipitation in the assimilation process. A rough but manageable technique is explained to estimate the partition of convective precipitation from stratiform one, without requiring any ancillary measurement. The method is general purpose, but it is tuned for geostationary satellite rainfall estimation assimilation. Preliminary results are presented and discussed, both through totally simulated experiments and through experiments assimilating real satellite-based precipitation observations. For every case study, Rainfall data are computed with a rapid update satellite precipitation estimation algorithm based on IR and MW satellite observations. This research was carried out in the framework of the EURAINSAT project (an EC research project co-funded by the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development Programme within the topic 'Development of generic Earth observation technologies', Contract number EVG1-2000-00030).

  5. Preliminary radiological consequence estimates for a reference LEU core for PARR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Khan, L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiological consequence analysis of a reference LEU core for Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR) has been carried out using mathematical models. It was assumed that 20% of the fuel, having an average burn-up of 50% achieved by continuously operating the reactor for 300 days at 10 MW, fails. It was further assumed that 100% of the noble gases and a fraction of iodine are released. Three modes of leakage from reactor building have been considered. These are exhaust through the normal ventilation system, through emergency ventilation system and leakage from the building. The whole body and thyroid doses have been calculated for 2 hours and 30 days at the boundaries of the exclusion zone at 450m and the low population zone at 1000m. For the releases at stack height through normal and emergency ventilation system, doses at both the boundaries remain within emergency dose limits of 300 rem for thyroid and 25 rem for the whole body. However, in the case of direct release from the containment building, the limiting thyroid dose of 300 rem, at 1000m, for 30 days exposure is achieved for a leak rate of 27% per day under Pasquill condition E. The results presented in this report are only preliminary estimates. A more accurate detailed analysis for various burnups will be carried out using standard computer codes

  6. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthoff, David [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hepburn, Cameron [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, and James Martin Institute, Said Business School, University of Oxford, and New College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Tol, Richard S.J. [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  7. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthoff, David; Hepburn, Cameron; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  8. Preliminary estimations on the heat recovery method for hydrogen production by the high temperature steam electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Duck Joo

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the project 'development of hydrogen production technologies by high temperature electrolysis using very high temperature reactor', we have developed an electrolyzer model for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) system and carried out some preliminary estimations on the effects of heat recovery on the HTSE hydrogen production system. To produce massive hydrogen by using nuclear energy, the HTSE process is one of the promising technologies with sulfur-iodine and hybrid sulfur process. The HTSE produces hydrogen through electrochemical reaction within the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), which is a reverse reaction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The HTSE system generally operates in the temperature range of 700∼900 .deg. C. Advantages of HTSE hydrogen production are (a) clean hydrogen production from water without carbon oxide emission, (b) synergy effect due to using the current SOFC technology and (c) higher thermal efficiency of system when it is coupled nuclear reactor. Since the HTSE system operates over 700 .deg. C, the use of heat recovery is an important consideration for higher efficiency. In this paper, four different heat recovery configurations for the HTSE system have been investigated and estimated

  9. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    , and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width...

  10. Agreement Between Actual and Perceived Body Weight in Adolescents and Their Weight Control Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Shin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : To investigate the agreements between actual and perceived body weight status among adolescents and to identify the associations of disagreements with their weight control behaviors. Methods : This study used the secondary data of a sample survey (n=13,871 of the Seoul Student Health Examination among middle and high schools in 2010. Agreements between actual (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, according to 2007 Korean National Growth Charts and perceived body weight status (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese were examined using Chi-square and Cohen’s kappa agreement, and then multinomial logistic regression including gender, grade, and attempt of weight control or method of weight control was done. Results : Agreements between actual and perceived body weight status were only 45.2%, and disagreements were up to 54.8%, including mild over- (20.4%, severe over- (1.8%, mild under- (29.5%, and severe under-estimation (3.1%. The kappa coefficient of agreement was only 0.19. The odds ratios on severe over-estimated perception were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.22-2.07 in female subjects, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.36-2.34 in diet control behaviors, and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.18-2.00 in exercise. The odds ratios on severe under-estimated perception were only 0.40 (95% CI, 0.32–0.50 in female subjects but 5.77 (95% CI, 3.68-9.06 in taking medication. Conclusion : There were associations of body weight control behaviors with disagreements of actual and perceived weight status. Therefore, further study is needed to identify the weight disagreement-related factors and to promote the desired weight control behaviors for adolescents.

  11. Estimated Uncertainty in Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay Results due to the Variation in Drum Tare Weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosko, A.; Croft, St.; Gulbransen, E.

    2009-01-01

    General purpose gamma scanners are often used to assay unknown drums that differ from those used to create the default calibration. This introduces a potential source of bias into the matrix correction when the correction is based on the estimation of the mean density of the drum contents from a weigh scale measurement. In this paper we evaluate the magnitude of this bias that may be introduced by performing assay measurements with a system whose matrix correction algorithm was calibrated with a set of standard drums but applied to a population of drums whose tare weight may be different. The matrix correction factors are perturbed in such cases because the unknown difference in tare weight gets reflected as a bias in the derived matrix density. This would be the only impact if the difference in tare weight was due solely to the weight of the lid or base, say. But in reality the reason for the difference may be because the steel wall of the drum is of a different thickness. Thus, there is an opposing interplay at work which tends to compensate. The purpose of this work is to evaluate and bound the magnitude of the resulting assay uncertainty introduced by tare weight variation. We compare the results obtained using simple analytical models and the 3-D ray tracing with ISOCS software to illustrate and quantify the problem. The numerical results allow a contribution to the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) to be propagated into the final assay result. (authors)

  12. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) which utilizes a newly defined similarity between samples is proposed to estimate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content in granules for tableting. In addition, a statistical wavelength selection method which quantifies the effect of API content and other factors on NIR spectra is proposed. LW-PLS and the proposed wavelength selection method were applied to real process data provided by Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., and the estimation accuracy was improved by 38.6% in root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) compared to the conventional PLS using wavelengths selected on the basis of variable importance on the projection (VIP). The results clearly show that the proposed calibration modeling technique is useful for API content estimation and is superior to the conventional one. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF ESTIMATING SOIL MOISTURE OVER BARE SOIL USING FULL-POLARIMETRIC ALOS-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sekertekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imaging system is one of the most effective way for Earth observation. The aim of this study is to present the preliminary results about estimating soil moisture using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data. Full-polarimetric (HH, HV, VV, VH ALOS-2 data, acquired on 22.04.2016 with the incidence angle of 30.4o, were used in the study. Simultaneously with the SAR acquisition, in-situ soil moisture samples over bare agricultural lands were collected and evaluated using gravimetric method. Backscattering coefficients for all polarizations were obtained and linear regression analysis was carried out with in situ moisture measurements. The best correlation coefficient was observed with VV polarization. Cross-polarized backscattering coefficients were not so sensitive to soil moisture content. In the study, it was observed that soil moisture maps can be retrieved with the accuracy about 14% (RMSE.

  14. Fuel Burn Estimation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Validated the fuel estimation procedure using flight test data. A good fuel model can be created if weight and fuel data are available. Error in assumed takeoff weight results in similar amount of error in the fuel estimate. Fuel estimation error bounds can be determined.

  15. Another look at the Grubbs estimators

    KAUST Repository

    Lombard, F.; Potgieter, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    of the estimate is to be within reasonable bounds and if negative precision estimates are to be avoided. We show that the two instrument Grubbs estimator can be improved considerably if fairly reliable preliminary information regarding the ratio of sampling unit

  16. Joint U.S./Russian Study on the Development of a Preliminary Cost Estimate of the SAFSTOR Decommissioning Alternative for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant Unit #1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Garrett

    1998-09-28

    The objectives of the two joint Russian/U.S. Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit #1 studies were the development of a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable decom missioning strategy, and the preliminary cost evaluation of the developed strategy. The first study, resulting in the decommissioning strategy, was performed in 1996 and 1997. The preliminary cost estimation study, described in this report, was performed in 1997 and 1998. The decommissioning strategy study included the analyses of three basic RBM.K decommission- ing alternatives, refined for the Leningrad NPP Unit #1. The analyses included analysis of the requirements for the planning and preparation as well as the decommissioning phases.

  17. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Kelly R; Zhang, Lei; Seidel, Frank G

    2015-08-01

    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study.

  18. Preliminary results of MR imaging of lymphoma: Distinguishing active tumor from benign residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drace, J.; Baker, L.L.; Chang, P.; Castellino, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Distinguishing tumor from benign posttreatment tissue based on both morphologic and tissue characteristics is critically important. Patients are studied before, during, and after treatment; at the time of recurrence; and on long-term follow-up. Multisection spin-echo sequences in orthogonal planes and a special single-section tissue characterization matrix of 16 different repetition time/echo time combinations are used. These basic images are used for cluster analysis (approximate fuzzy C means), T1-T2 synthetic images, linear combinations, and comparison with internal standards. Preliminary results in 35 patients imaged before treatment and 12 patients with follow-up examinations consistently show lymphoma masses to have complex architecture with high T2-weighted signal and moderate T1-weighted signal, distinct from posttreatment fibrosis. Uncommon components of active tumor with low T2-weighted signal appear distinct from fibrosis on T1-weighted images. Preliminary cluster analysis results show distinct clustering of active lymphoma versus fibrosis and biopsy-proved cystic degeneration

  19. Calibration of denaturing agarose gels for molecular weight estimation of DNA: size determination of the single-stranded genomes of parvoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, C.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Schmoyer, R.L.; Bates, R.C.; Mitra, S.

    1982-01-01

    Vertical slab gel electrophoresis of DNA with CH/sub 3/HgOH-containing agarose produces sharp bands whose mobilities are suitable for size estimation of single-stranded DNA containing 600 to 20,000 bases. The relationship of electrophoretic mobility to size of DNA over this range is a smooth, S-shaped function, and an empirical model was developed to express the relationship. The model involves terms in squared and reciprocal mobilities, and produced excellent fit of known standard markers to measured mobilities. It was used to estimate the sizes of six parvovirus DNAs: Kilham rat virus (KRV), H-1, LuIII, and minute virus of mice (MVM) DNAs had molecular weights of 1.66 to 1.70 x 10/sup 6/, while the molecular weight of bovine parvovirus (BPV) DNA was 1.84 x 10/sup 6/ and that of adenoassociated virus (AAV) DNA was 1.52 x 10/sup 6/.

  20. Decision-model estimation of the age-specific disability weight for schistosomiasis japonica: a systematic review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Julia L Finkelstein; Mark D Schleinitz; Hélène Carabin; Stephen T McGarvey

    2008-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. However, current Global Burden of Disease (GBD) disability-adjusted life year estimates indicate that its population-level impact is negligible. Recent studies suggest that GBD methodologies may significantly underestimate the burden of parasitic diseases, including schistosomiasis. Furthermore, strain-specific disability weights have not been established for schistosomiasis, and the magnitude of human disease burden ...

  1. A Preliminary Observation of Weight Loss Following Left Gastric Artery Embolization in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Gunn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA, which preferentially supplies the gastric fundus, has been shown to produce weight loss in animal models. However, weight loss after LGA embolization in humans has not been previously established. The aim of this study was to evaluate postprocedural weight loss in patients following LGA embolization. Subjects/Methods. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who underwent LGA embolization for upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding was performed. Postprocedural weight loss in this group was compared to a control group of patients who had undergone embolization of other arteries for upper GI bleeding. Results. The experimental group (N=19 lost an average of 7.3% of their initial body weight within three months of LGA embolization, which was significantly greater than the 2% weight loss observed in the control group (N=28 (P=0.006. No significant differences were seen between the groups in preprocedural body mass index (BMI, age, postprocedural care in the intensive care unit, history of malignancy, serum creatinine, or left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions. The current data suggest that body weight in humans may be modulated via LGA embolization. Continued research is warranted with prospective studies to further investigate this phenomenon.

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of transplanted kidneys: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wypych-Klunder, Katarzyna; Adamowicz, Andrzej; Lemanowicz, Adam; Szczęsny, Wojciech; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    An aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of DWI in the early period after kidney transplantation. We also aimed to compare ADC and eADC values in the cortex and medulla of the kidney, to estimate image noise and variability of measurements, and to verify possible relation between selected labolatory results and diffusion parameters in the transplanted kidney. Examinations were performed using a 1.5 T MR unit. DWI (SE/EPI) was performed in the axial plane using b-values of 600 and 1000. ADC and eADC measurements were performed in four regions of interest within the renal cortex and in three regions within the medulla. Relative variability of results and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated. The analysis included 15 patients (mean age 52 years). The mean variability of ADC was significantly lower than that of eADC (6.8% vs. 10.8%, respectively; p<0.0001). The mean variability of measurements performed in the cortex was significantly lower than that in the medulla (6.2% vs. 11.5%, respectively; p<0.005). The mean SNR was higher in the measurements using b600 than b1000, it was higher in ADC maps than in the eADC maps, and it was higher in the cortex than in the medulla. ADC and eADC measured at b1000 in the cortex were higher in the group of the patients with eGFR ≤30 ml/min./1.73 m 2 as compared to patients with eGFR >30 ml/min./1.73 m 2 (p<0.05). Diffusion-weighted imaging of transplanted kidneys is technically challenging, especially in patients in the early period after transplantation. From a technical point of view, the best quality parameters offer quality ADC measurement in the renal cortex using b1000. ADC and eADC values in the renal cortex measured at b1000 present a relationship with eGFR

  3. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... and yearling weight (YW, n = 1450) of Mehraban sheep, collected during 1995 - 2007 at Mehraban sheep. Breeding Station in Hamedan ... Key words: Mehraban sheep, heritability, genetic correlation, body weight traits. ..... parameters and genetic change for reproduction, weight, and wool characteristic of ...

  4. Estimated number of preterm births and low birth weight children born in the United States due to maternal binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Khoa D; Reifsnider, Odette S; Mayorga, Maria E; Spitler, Hugh

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the aggregate burden of maternal binge drinking on preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) across American sociodemographic groups in 2008. To estimate the aggregate burden of maternal binge drinking on preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) across American sociodemographic groups in 2008. A simulation model was developed to estimate the number of PTB and LBW cases due to maternal binge drinking. Data inputs for the model included number of births and rates of preterm and LBW from the National Center for Health Statistics; female population by childbearing age groups from the U.S. Census; increased relative risks of preterm and LBW deliveries due to maternal binge drinking extracted from the literature; and adjusted prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant women estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. The most conservative estimates attributed maternal binge drinking to 8,701 (95% CI: 7,804-9,598) PTBs (1.75% of all PTBs) and 5,627 (95% CI 5,121-6,133) LBW deliveries in 2008, with 3,708 (95% CI: 3,375-4,041) cases of both PTB and LBW. The estimated rate of PTB due to maternal binge drinking was 1.57% among all PTBs to White women, 0.69% among Black women, 3.31% among Hispanic women, and 2.35% among other races. Compared to other age groups, women ages 40-44 had the highest adjusted binge drinking rate and highest PTB rate due to maternal binge drinking (4.33%). Maternal binge drinking contributed significantly to PTB and LBW differentially across sociodemographic groups.

  5. Fatores maternos associados ao peso fetal estimado pela ultra-sonografia Maternal factors associated with fetal weight estimated by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2008-09-01

    effect of maternal, socioeconomic and obstetric variables, as well the presence of artery incisions in the 20th and 24th weeks on the fetal weight estimated at the end of pregnancy (36th week in pregnant women attended by Programa Saúde da Família, in an inland town of the northeast of Brazil. METHODS: a longitudinal study including 137 pregnant women, who have been followed up every four weeks in order to assess clinical, socioeconomic and obstetric conditions, including their weight. The uterine arteries were evaluated by Doppler in the 20th and 24th weeks, the fetal weight and the amniotic fluid index (AFI, determined in the 36th week. The initial maternal nutritional state has been determined by the body mass index (BMI, the pregnant women being classified as low weight, eutrophic, over weight and obese. Weight gain during gestation has been evaluated, according to the initial nutritional state, being classified at the end of the second and third trimester as insufficient, adequate and excessive weight gain. Analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the association of the fetal weight in the 36th week with the predictor variables, adjusted by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: an association between the fetal weight estimated in the 36th week and the mother's age (p=0.02, mother's job (p=0.02, initial nutritional state (p=0.04, weight gain in the second trimester (p=0.01, presence of incisions in the uterine arteries (p=0.02, and AFI (p=0.007 has been observed. The main factors associated to the fetal weight estimated in the 36th week, after the multiple regression analysis were: BMI at the pregnancy onset, weight gain in the second trimester, AFI and tabagism. CONCLUSIONS: in the present study, the fetal weight is positively associated with the initial maternal nutritional state, the weight gain in the second trimester and the volume of amniotic fluid, and negatively, to tabagism.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of vector flow and spectral velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    Spectral estimation is considered as the golden standard in ultrasound velocity estimation. For spectral velocity estimation the blood flow angle is set by the ultrasound operator. Vector flow provides temporal and spatial estimates of the blood flow angle and velocity. A comparison of vector flow...... line covering the vessel diameter. A commercial ultrasound scanner (ProFocus 2202, BK Medical, Denmark) and a 7.6 MHz linear transducer was used (8670, BK Medical). The mean vector blood flow angle estimations were calculated {52(18);55(23);60(16)}°. For comparison the fixed angles for spectral...... estimation were obtained {52;56;52}°. The mean vector velocity estimates at PS {76(15);95(17);77(16)}cm/s and at end diastole (ED) {17(6);18(6);24(6)}cm/s were calculated. For comparison spectral velocity estimates at PS {77;110;76}cm/s and ED {18;18;20}cm/s were obtained. The mean vector angle estimates...

  7. Avaliação da aplicabilidade de fórmulas preditivas de peso e estatura em homens adultos Assessment of equations that estimate weight and height in adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade de fórmulas preditivas de peso e de altura, bem como a composição corporal em homens adultos. MÉTODOS: A amostra constituiu-se de 98 homens saudáveis, com idades entre 20 e 58 anos. Para a análise das equações de estimativa de peso e altura, coletaram-se dados de peso, altura, altura do joelho, envergadura, semi-envergadura, circunferências da panturrilha e do braço e dobra cutânea subescapular. Avaliou-se a composição corporal por meio de bioimpedância elétrica. RESULTADOS: O peso estimado diferiu significantemente do peso aferido (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of equations that predict weight, height and body composition in adult men. METHODS: The sample consisted of 98 healthy men aged from 20 to 58 years. In order to analyze the equations, weight, height, knee height, arm span, half-arm span, calf and arm circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness were collected. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. RESULTS: Estimated weights were significantly different from measured weights (p<0.001. The only equation that estimated height properly was that validated for adult Caucasian men. Both arm span (r=0.789; d=2.67; p<0.001 and half-arm span (r=0.790; d=2.51; p<0.001 overestimated height. When weight and height estimates were used to calculate body mass index, underweight was overestimated and overweight was underestimated, except when height was estimated with the equations for adult Caucasian men. CONCLUSION: The equation to estimate height validated for adult Caucasian men estimated the height of adult young men properly; the other validated equations presented significant differences. It is important to validate the equations assessed in this study in other population groups, making sure to use the estimated weights and heights to calculate body mass index.

  8. Brief Self-Efficacy Scales for use in Weight-Loss Trials: Preliminary Evidence of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn E.; Harden, Samantha M.; Almeida, Fabio A.; You, Wen; Hill, Jennie L.; Goessl, Cody; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a commonly included cognitive variable in weight-loss trials, but there is little uniformity in its measurement. Weight-loss trials frequently focus on physical activity (PA) and eating behavior, as well as weight loss, but no survey is available that offers reliable measurement of self-efficacy as it relates to each of these targeted outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of brief, pragmatic self-efficacy scales specific to PA, healthful eating and weight-loss (4 items each). An adult sample (n=1790) from 28 worksites enrolled in a worksite weight-loss program completed the self-efficacy scale, as well as measures of PA, dietary fat intake, and weight, at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. The hypothesized factor structure was tested through confirmatory factor analysis, which supported the expected factor structure for three latent self-efficacy factors, specific to PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. Measurement equivalence/invariance between relevant demographic groups, and over time was also supported. Parallel growth processes in self-efficacy factors and outcomes (PA, fat intake, and weight) support the predictive validity of score interpretations. Overall, this initial series of psychometric analyses supports the interpretation that scores on these scales reflect self-efficacy for PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. The use of this instrument in large-scale weight-loss trials is encouraged. PMID:26619093

  9. Body checking is associated with weight- and body-related shame and weight- and body-related guilt among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2017-12-01

    This study examined whether body checking was a correlate of weight- and body-related shame and guilt for men and women. Participants were 537 adults (386 women) between the ages of 17 and 74 (M age =28.29, SD=14.63). Preliminary analyses showed women reported significantly more body-checking (pbody-related shame (pbody-related guilt (pbody checking was significantly and positively associated with weight- and body-related shame (R 2 =.29 and .43, pbody-related guilt (R 2 =.34 and .45, pbody checking is associated with negative weight- and body-related self-conscious emotions. Intervention and prevention efforts aimed at reducing negative weight- and body-related self-conscious emotions should consider focusing on body checking for adult men and women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of Live Weight of Calves from Body Measurements within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All phenotypic correlations between body measurements were positive and significant (P<0.001). The highest correlation coefficient was found between chest girth and body weight. The polynomial equation using chest girth as an independent variable predicted body weight more accurately within breed as compared to the ...

  11. Estimated genetic trends for weaning weight in three Dorper lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertakent o compare the effectivenesso f threed ifferent selections trategiesin increasingw eaning weight of a Dorper flock under natural conditions. Data were analysed by mixed model procedures. Direct selection for weaning weight under natural conditionsp roved to be effective.S electiono n breeds ...

  12. Sensorimotor memory biases weight perception during object lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonne evan Polanen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, the weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in

  13. The Smoking-Related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET): development and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2011-11-01

    Many smokers believe that smoking helps them to control their weight, and concerns about weight gain can interfere with smoking cessation. As researchers typically assess general weight concerns, a measure specific to smoking-related weight concerns is needed. The Smoking-related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET) was created by generating items from 4 content domains: Hunger, Craving, Overeating, and Body Image. Female undergraduate smokers (N = 280) rated their postcessation weight gain concern and completed the SWEET, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26, Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R), and Body Shape Questionnaire. Factor analysis of the initial items suggested a 4-factor solution, suggesting 4 subscales: Smoking to suppress appetite, smoking to prevent overeating, smoking to cope with body dissatisfaction, and withdrawal-related appetite increases. Based on these results, the SWEET subscales were revised and shortened. The resulting 10-item SWEET showed excellent internal consistency (total α = .94; mean α = .86) and evidence of validity by predicting smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns (ps < .05). Smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns were significantly predicted by the SWEET while controlling for existing measures of postcessation weight gain concern. The SWEET appears to be a reliable and valid measure of tendencies to smoke in response to body image concern and nicotine withdrawal and as a way to control appetite and overeating.

  14. TECHNOLOGY FOR INSTALLATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS LIGHTENED BY CORE DRIVERS WITH PRELIMINARY REINFORCEMENT STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Leonovich; I. I. Peredkov

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents technology for installation of floor slabs lightened by plastic core drivers which are preliminary stressed under construction conditions.  Efficiency of such constructive solution is justified by the action of preliminary concrete compression in the tensile zone while reducing structure dead weight due to void arrangement.  The paper provides classification of systems for preliminary stress and contains recommendations on selection of the system depending on peculiariar fe...

  15. Preliminary results from NOAMP deep drifting floats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollitrault, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a very brief and preliminary outline of first results obtained with deep SOFAR floats in the NOAMP area. The work is now going toward more precise statistical estimations of mean and variable currents, together with better tracking to resolve submesoscales and estimate diffusivities due to mesoscale and smaller scale motions. However the preliminary results confirm that the NOAMP region (and surroundings) has a deep mesoscale eddy field that is considerably more energetic that the mean field (r.m.s. velocities are of order 5 cm s -1 ), although both values are diminished compared to the western basin. A data report containing trajectories and statistics is scheduled to be published by IFREMER in the near future. The project main task is to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  16. Role of diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI in distinguishing between brain abscess and tumour: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, K.; Watanabe, N.; Nagayoshi, T.; Kanazawa, T.; Toyoshima, S.; Shimizu, M.; Seto, H.

    1999-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar MRI in differentiating between brain abscess and tumour. We examined two patients with surgically confirmed pyogenic brain abscess and 18 with metastatic brain tumours or high-grade glioma, using a 1.5 T system. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of each necrotic or solid contrast-enhancing lesion was measured with two different b values (20 and 1200 s/mm 2 ). All capsule-stage brain abscesses (4 lesions) and zones of cerebritis (2 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as markedly high-signal areas of decreased ADC (range, 0.58-0.70 [(10-3 mm 2 /s; mean, 0.63)]). All cystic or necrotic portions of brain tumours (14 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as low-signal areas of increased ADC (range, 2.20-3.20 [(10-3 mm 2 /s; mean, 2.70)]). Solid, contrast-enhancing portions of brain tumours (19 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as high-signal areas of sightly decreased or increased ADC (range, 0.77-1.29 [(10-3 mm 2 /s; mean, 0.94)]). Our preliminary results indicate that DW echo-planar MRI be used for distinguishing between brain abscess and tumour. (orig.) (orig.)

  17. Error estimates of Lagrange interpolation and orthonormal expansions for Freud weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, K. H.; Lee, D. W.

    2001-08-01

    Let Sn[f] be the nth partial sum of the orthonormal polynomials expansion with respect to a Freud weight. Then we obtain sufficient conditions for the boundedness of Sn[f] and discuss the speed of the convergence of Sn[f] in weighted Lp space. We also find sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the Lagrange interpolation polynomial Ln[f], whose nodal points are the zeros of orthonormal polynomials with respect to a Freud weight. In particular, if W(x)=e-(1/2)x2 is the Hermite weight function, then we obtain sufficient conditions for the inequalities to hold:andwhere and k=0,1,2...,r.

  18. Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pravin

    2007-01-01

    electrical power functions to other Elements of the CLV, is included as secondary structure. The MSFC has an overall responsibility for the integrated US element as well as structural design an thermal control of the fuel tanks, intertank, interstage, avionics, main propulsion system, Reaction Control System (RCS) for both the Upper Stage and the First Stage. MSFC's Spacecraft and Vehicle Department, Structural and Analysis Design Division is developing a set of predicted mass of these elements. This paper details the methodology, criterion and tools used for the preliminary mass predictions of the upper stage structural assembly components. In general, weight of the cylindrical barrel sections are estimated using the commercial code Hypersizer, whereas, weight of the domes are developed using classical solutions. HyperSizer is software that performs automated structural analysis and sizing optimization based on aerospace methods for strength, stability, and stiffness. Analysis methods range from closed form, traditional hand calculations repeated every day in industry to more advanced panel buckling algorithms. Margin-of-safety reporting for every potential failure provides the engineer with a powerful insight into the structural problem. Optimization capabilities include finding minimum weight panel or beam concepts, material selections, cross sectional dimensions, thicknesses, and lay-ups from a library of 40 different stiffened and sandwich designs and a database of composite, metallic, honeycomb, and foam materials. Multiple different concepts (orthogrid, isogrid, and skin stiffener) were run for multiple loading combinations of ascent design load with and with out tank pressure as well as proof pressure condition. Subsequently, selected optimized concept obtained from Hypersizer runs was translated into a computer aid design (CAD) model to account for the wall thickness tolerance, weld land etc for developing the most probable weight of the components. The flow diram

  19. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, J C; González-Correa, C H; González-Correa, C A

    2013-01-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r 2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r 2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D 2 O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  20. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  1. APPLYING THIESSEN POLYGON CATCHMENT AREAS AND GRIDDED POPULATION WEIGHTS TO ESTIMATE CONFLICT-DRIVEN POPULATION CHANGES IN SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jordan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent violence in South Sudan produced significant levels of conflict-driven migration undermining the accuracy and utility of both national and local level population forecasts commonly used in demographic estimates, public health metrics and food security proxies. This article explores the use of Thiessen Polygons and population grids (Gridded Population of the World, WorldPop and LandScan as weights for estimating the catchment areas for settlement locations that serve large populations of internally displaced persons (IDP, in order to estimate the county-level in- and out-migration attributable to conflict-driven displacement between 2014-2015. Acknowledging IDP totals improves internal population estimates presented by global population databases. Unlike other forecasts, which produce spatially uniform increases in population, accounting for displaced population reveals that 15 percent of counties (n = 12 increased in population over 20 percent, and 30 percent of counties (n = 24 experienced zero or declining population growth, due to internal displacement and refugee out-migration. Adopting Thiessen Polygon catchment zones for internal migration estimation can be applied to other areas with United Nations IDP settlement data, such as Yemen, Somalia, and Nigeria.

  2. Applying Thiessen Polygon Catchment Areas and Gridded Population Weights to Estimate Conflict-Driven Population Changes in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent violence in South Sudan produced significant levels of conflict-driven migration undermining the accuracy and utility of both national and local level population forecasts commonly used in demographic estimates, public health metrics and food security proxies. This article explores the use of Thiessen Polygons and population grids (Gridded Population of the World, WorldPop and LandScan) as weights for estimating the catchment areas for settlement locations that serve large populations of internally displaced persons (IDP), in order to estimate the county-level in- and out-migration attributable to conflict-driven displacement between 2014-2015. Acknowledging IDP totals improves internal population estimates presented by global population databases. Unlike other forecasts, which produce spatially uniform increases in population, accounting for displaced population reveals that 15 percent of counties (n = 12) increased in population over 20 percent, and 30 percent of counties (n = 24) experienced zero or declining population growth, due to internal displacement and refugee out-migration. Adopting Thiessen Polygon catchment zones for internal migration estimation can be applied to other areas with United Nations IDP settlement data, such as Yemen, Somalia, and Nigeria.

  3. Preliminary Results from Powell Research Group on Integrating GRACE Satellite and Ground-based Estimates of Groundwater Storage Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Reitz, M.; Rodell, M.; Sanford, W. E.; Save, H.; Wiese, D. N.; Croteau, M. J.; McGuire, V. L.; Pool, D. R.; Faunt, C. C.; Zell, W.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater storage depletion is a critical issue for many of the major aquifers in the U.S., particularly during intense droughts. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite-based estimates of groundwater storage changes have attracted considerable media attention in the U.S. and globally and interest in GRACE products continues to increase. For this reason, a Powell Research Group was formed to: (1) Assess variations in groundwater storage using a variety of GRACE products and other storage components (snow, surface water, and soil moisture) for major aquifers in the U.S., (2) Quantify long-term trends in groundwater storage from ground-based monitoring and regional and national modeling, and (3) Use ground-based monitoring and modeling to interpret GRACE water storage changes within the context of extreme droughts and over-exploitation of groundwater. The group now has preliminary estimates from long-term trends and seasonal fluctuations in water storage using different GRACE solutions, including CSR, JPL and GSFC. Approaches to quantifying uncertainties in GRACE data are included. This work also shows how GRACE sees groundwater depletion in unconfined versus confined aquifers, and plans for future work will link GRACE data to regional groundwater models. The wealth of ground-based observations for the U.S. provides a unique opportunity to assess the reliability of GRACE-based estimates of groundwater storage changes.

  4. Colloid molecular weight estimation by gel chromatography/acrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberatore, F.A.; Dearborn, C.; Nigam, S.; Poon, C.; Camin, L.; Liteplo, M.

    1984-01-01

    Size or molecular weight (MW) estimation of radiolabeled collides in aqueous solutions has long been a problem. The authors have prepared several minimicroaggregated albumin colloids (mμAA) by heat denaturation of stannous-containing HSA solutions at pH 7.0, 7.5, and 8.5). The resulting colloids were labeled with Tc-99m and compared with Au-198 colloid and Tc-99m-antimony sulfide colloid (Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S3) by gel chromatography and gel electrophoresis. Tc-99mm-mμAA aggregated at pH 7.0 and the Au-198 colloid appeared in the external void volume of a BioRad A5.0 agarose column indicating an apparent MW of > 5 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. The pH7.5 Tc-99m-mμAA, migrated within the filtration range of the column as did a small fraction of Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S/sub 3/, suggesting that the MW is between 6 x 10/sup 4/ - 5 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. The Tc-99m-mμAA, aggregated at pH 8.5, had an apparent MW on gel filtration similar to that of untreated albumin, MW 6.6 x 10-/sup 4/ daltons. The mobilities of the colloids, on acrylamide disc gel electrophoresis, were consistent with the results on gel chromatography. The largest colloids, Au-198 colloid and pH 7.0 Tc-99m-mμAA, barely entered the separating gel; intermediate sized colloids, a small fraction of Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S/sub 3/ and pH 7.5 Tc-99m-mμAA migrated farther into the separating gel; while pH 8.5 Tc-99m-mμAA had mobility approaching that of untreated albumin. Lymphoscintigraphy studies using these colloids in animals showed the predicted, particle size-related differences in migration and clearance. The authors conclude that gel chromatography and gel electrophoresis are useful methods for estimating the apparent size of the colloidal particles

  5. A CLASS OF WEIGHTED WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Shahbaz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The weighted Weibull model is proposed following the method of Azzalini (1985. Basic properties of the distribution; including moments, generating function, hazard rate function and estimation of parameters; have been studied. The weighted Weibull model is proposed following the method of Azzalini (1985. Basic properties of the distribution; including moments, generating function, hazard rate function and estimation of parameters; have been studied.

  6. Correlation of ultrasonographic estimated fetal weight with actual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the validation of its clinical applicability, might result in wrong estimations'. ... The study was carried out using a cross sectional re- ... the frontal to the occipital fold of the fetal head) was ..... K. A comparison of clinical and ultrasound estimation.

  7. Preliminary study on the rate of broncho-pulmonary cancer in a Romanian department (Bihor) for the estimation of radon risk exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaida, T.; Maghiar, F.; Cosma, C.; Ristoiu, D.; Ramboiu, S.; Pacurar, V.; Poffijn, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is a retrospective estimation on the rate of lung cancer at the population in the Bihor district (Romania) in two years (1993 -1994) and the potential bronchopulmonary cancer risk from indoor radon. In this time were found 473 cases with primary bronchopulmonary cancer: 400 men (84.5%) and 73 women (15.4%). Most cases ( 64.4%) were from rural environment while the other 35.5% were from urban environment. Preliminary study on the potential lung cancer risk from indoor radon encompassed 40 cases and 66 non-cancer controls in the period March-July 1995. (author)

  8. Estimating the relative weights of visual and auditory tau versus heuristic-based cues for time-to-contact judgments in realistic, familiar scenes by older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Campos, Jennifer L; DeLucia, Patricia R; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Estimating time to contact (TTC) involves multiple sensory systems, including vision and audition. Previous findings suggested that the ratio of an object's instantaneous optical size/sound intensity to its instantaneous rate of change in optical size/sound intensity (τ) drives TTC judgments. Other evidence has shown that heuristic-based cues are used, including final optical size or final sound pressure level. Most previous studies have used decontextualized and unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., geometric shapes on a blank background). Here we evaluated TTC estimates by using a traffic scene with an approaching vehicle to evaluate the weights of visual and auditory TTC cues under more realistic conditions. Younger (18-39 years) and older (65+ years) participants made TTC estimates in three sensory conditions: visual-only, auditory-only, and audio-visual. Stimuli were presented within an immersive virtual-reality environment, and cue weights were calculated for both visual cues (e.g., visual τ, final optical size) and auditory cues (e.g., auditory τ, final sound pressure level). The results demonstrated the use of visual τ as well as heuristic cues in the visual-only condition. TTC estimates in the auditory-only condition, however, were primarily based on an auditory heuristic cue (final sound pressure level), rather than on auditory τ. In the audio-visual condition, the visual cues dominated overall, with the highest weight being assigned to visual τ by younger adults, and a more equal weighting of visual τ and heuristic cues in older adults. Overall, better characterizing the effects of combined sensory inputs, stimulus characteristics, and age on the cues used to estimate TTC will provide important insights into how these factors may affect everyday behavior.

  9. An improved geographically weighted regression model for PM2.5 concentration estimation in large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Liang; Li, Shuang; Zou, Bin; Sang, Huiyong; Fang, Xin; Xu, Shan

    2018-05-01

    Considering the spatial non-stationary contributions of environment variables to PM2.5 variations, the geographically weighted regression (GWR) modeling method has been using to estimate PM2.5 concentrations widely. However, most of the GWR models in reported studies so far were established based on the screened predictors through pretreatment correlation analysis, and this process might cause the omissions of factors really driving PM2.5 variations. This study therefore developed a best subsets regression (BSR) enhanced principal component analysis-GWR (PCA-GWR) modeling approach to estimate PM2.5 concentration by fully considering all the potential variables' contributions simultaneously. The performance comparison experiment between PCA-GWR and regular GWR was conducted in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region over a one-year-period. Results indicated that the PCA-GWR modeling outperforms the regular GWR modeling with obvious higher model fitting- and cross-validation based adjusted R2 and lower RMSE. Meanwhile, the distribution map of PM2.5 concentration from PCA-GWR modeling also clearly depicts more spatial variation details in contrast to the one from regular GWR modeling. It can be concluded that the BSR enhanced PCA-GWR modeling could be a reliable way for effective air pollution concentration estimation in the coming future by involving all the potential predictor variables' contributions to PM2.5 variations.

  10. The Influence of Normalization Weight in Population Pharmacokinetic Covariate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulooze, Sebastiaan C; Völler, Swantje; Välitalo, Pyry A J; Calvier, Elisa A M; Aarons, Leon; Krekels, Elke H J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2018-03-23

    In covariate (sub)models of population pharmacokinetic models, most covariates are normalized to the median value; however, for body weight, normalization to 70 kg or 1 kg is often applied. In this article, we illustrate the impact of normalization weight on the precision of population clearance (CL pop ) parameter estimates. The influence of normalization weight (70, 1 kg or median weight) on the precision of the CL pop estimate, expressed as relative standard error (RSE), was illustrated using data from a pharmacokinetic study in neonates with a median weight of 2.7 kg. In addition, a simulation study was performed to show the impact of normalization to 70 kg in pharmacokinetic studies with paediatric or obese patients. The RSE of the CL pop parameter estimate in the neonatal dataset was lowest with normalization to median weight (8.1%), compared with normalization to 1 kg (10.5%) or 70 kg (48.8%). Typical clearance (CL) predictions were independent of the normalization weight used. Simulations showed that the increase in RSE of the CL pop estimate with 70 kg normalization was highest in studies with a narrow weight range and a geometric mean weight away from 70 kg. When, instead of normalizing with median weight, a weight outside the observed range is used, the RSE of the CL pop estimate will be inflated, and should therefore not be used for model selection. Instead, established mathematical principles can be used to calculate the RSE of the typical CL (CL TV ) at a relevant weight to evaluate the precision of CL predictions.

  11. An evaluation of the use of the dry-weight-rank and the comparative yield biomass estimation methods in paramo ecosystem research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofstede Robert G.M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the combination of the semi-destructive comparative yield method for overall biomass estimation and the non- destructive dry-weight-rank method for studying botanical composition on a dry weight basis in an undisturbed páramo vegetation in the Los Nevados national park (Colombian Central Cordillera was evaluated. These methods, developed for Australian production grasslands, were adapted for use in the páramo ecosystem. The average above ground biomass in the area was estimated as 2864 g dryweight. m-2 (sd.48, of which the bunchgrass Calamagrostis effusa contributed with ca 70%. When used with some adaptations, the comparative yield method seems suitable for biomass estimations in the páramo ecosystem. The here presented estimation of botanical eomposition with this method gave better results than dry-weight-rank method, which had too many shortcomings for use in the complex páramo grassland ecosystem.Se evaluó la aplicabilidad de una combinación de dos étodos para estimar la biomasa  general y la composición botánica, en una vegetación natural paramuna en el Parque Nacional Natural los Nevados (Cordillera Central de Colombia. El primer método (ecomparative yield determina la biomasa general, destruyendo parcialmente la vegetación de los cuadrantes de muestreo y el segundo (dryweight rank determina la composición botánica con base en el peso seco, sin destruir la vegetación. Estos métodos, inicialmente desarrollados para pajonales forrajeros en Australia, se adaptaron para ser utilizados en el ecosistema paramuno. Como resultado se obtuvo una estimación de la biomasa aérea de 2864 g peso seco m2 (desviación stándard 48 en la cual, la gramínea Calamagrostis effusa contribuyó con el 70%. Puede concluirse que el método de producción comparativa es útil para estimar la biomasa en el ecosistema paramuno, siempre y cuando se utilicen las adaptaciones mencionadas. Por otra parte la estimación de la composición bot

  12. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Clostridium botulinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Atkinson, Sarah C.; Gorman, Michael A.; Newman, Janet M.; Parker, Michael W.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme in the lysine-biosynthetic pathway, is a promising target for antibiotic development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of DHDPS from C. botulinum are reported. In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) has received considerable attention from both mechanistic and structural viewpoints. This enzyme, which is part of the diaminopimelate pathway leading to lysine, couples (S)-aspartate-β-semialdehyde with pyruvate via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine. In this paper, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from Clostridium botulinum, an important bacterial pathogen, are presented. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly using PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to beyond 1.9 Å resolution and displaying P4 2 2 1 2 symmetry. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 92.9, c = 60.4 Å. The crystal volume per protein weight (V M ) was 2.07 Å 3 Da −1 , with an estimated solvent content of 41%. The structure of the enzyme will help guide the design of novel therapeutics against the C. botulinum pathogen

  13. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nketiah, G.; Elschot, M.; Kim, E.; Teruel, J.R.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Bathen, T.F.; Selnaes, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS:

  14. Adolescent weight status and receptivity to food TV advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Sutherland, Lisa A; Longacre, Meghan R; Beach, Michael L; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). New Hampshire and Vermont. Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Overweight. Generalized estimating equations to model the relationship between identifying a food advertisement as their favorite and being overweight. Overall, 35.9% of the adolescents were overweight. Less than one fifth named a food advertisement as their favorite (16.1%). Most of the food advertisements were for less-healthful food (89.6%). After controlling for school, age, sex, sociodemographics, physical activity, number of TV sessions watched, and having a TV in the bedroom, overweight adolescents were significantly less likely to be receptive to food advertisements (relative risk = 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.70, 0.98) compared to non-overweight adolescents. This study provides preliminary evidence that normal-weight adolescents are receptive to unhealthful food advertisements. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether consistent exposure to advertisements for unhealthful food, particularly if they are promoted with healthful behaviors such as being physically active, influence adolescents' food choices, and ultimately their body mass index, over the long term. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary results of an oilspill risk analysis for the Bombay High Region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Gouveia, A.D.; Sitaraman, R.

    oil were analysed, covering estimates of the time between spill occurrence and contact with resources. The combined results yielded estimates of the overall risks associated with production within the developmental area. Preliminary results...

  16. A novel power spectrum calculation method using phase-compensation and weighted averaging for the estimation of ultrasound attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seo Weon; Kim, Hyungsuk

    2010-05-01

    An estimation of ultrasound attenuation in soft tissues is critical in the quantitative ultrasound analysis since it is not only related to the estimations of other ultrasound parameters, such as speed of sound, integrated scatterers, or scatterer size, but also provides pathological information of the scanned tissue. However, estimation performances of ultrasound attenuation are intimately tied to the accurate extraction of spectral information from the backscattered radiofrequency (RF) signals. In this paper, we propose two novel techniques for calculating a block power spectrum from the backscattered ultrasound signals. These are based on the phase-compensation of each RF segment using the normalized cross-correlation to minimize estimation errors due to phase variations, and the weighted averaging technique to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The simulation results with uniform numerical phantoms demonstrate that the proposed method estimates local attenuation coefficients within 1.57% of the actual values while the conventional methods estimate those within 2.96%. The proposed method is especially effective when we deal with the signal reflected from the deeper depth where the SNR level is lower or when the gated window contains a small number of signal samples. Experimental results, performed at 5MHz, were obtained with a one-dimensional 128 elements array, using the tissue-mimicking phantoms also show that the proposed method provides better estimation results (within 3.04% of the actual value) with smaller estimation variances compared to the conventional methods (within 5.93%) for all cases considered. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary experiments to estimate the PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) offshore behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Marta; Piermattei, Viviana; Stefanì, Chiara; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The phytoplankton community is controlled not only by local environmental conditions but also by physical processes occurring on different temporal and spatial scales. Hydrodynamic local conditions play an important role in marine ecosystems. Several studies have shown that hydrodynamic conditions can influence the phytoplankton settling velocity, vertical and horizontal distribution and formation of cyanobacterial blooms. Mesocosms are useful structures to simulate marine environment at mesoscale resolution; allowing to closely approximate biotic or abiotic parameters of interest directly in nature. In this work an innovative structure named PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) is presented and tested. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to observe seasonal variations of biomass behaviour in two different hydrodynamic conditions: outside as well as whithin the PE.MA.M. We have evaluated whether it is possible to isolate a natural system from external water mass hydrodynamic exchanges and to assume that phytoplankton cells' transition is limited at the net and sea interface. Preliminary experiments test the isolating capacity of the net, to determine the currents' attenuation rate and to estimate the possible PE.MA.M. offshore behaviour. In the first investigation, we monitored the diffusion of phytoplankton cells. The PE.MA.M. exterior and interior were simulated using a plexiglass tank divided into two half-tanks (Aout-Bin) by a septum consisting of a net like a PE.MA.M. The tank was filled up with 10 L of water and only the half-tank Aout was filled up with 10 ml of phytoplankton culture (Clorella sp.). We monitored the chlorophyll concentrations for 24 hours. The two tanks had similar concentrations after 4 hours (2.70322 mg/m³ Aout and 2.37245 mg/m3 Bin) and this constant relationship was maintened until the end of the test. In the second investigation we used clod cards to measure water motions.We conducted two experiments within tank, the first

  18. Diffusion-weighted breast imaging at 3 T: Preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, L.; Brandão, S.; Matos, E.; Nunes, R.G.; Ferreira, H.A.; Loureiro, J.; Ramos, I.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T for the detection and characterization of breast lesions. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast, including DWI single-shot spin-echo echo planar images (SS-SE-EPI; eight b-values, 50–3000 s/mm 2 ), were acquired in women with a clinical indication for breast MRI. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) previous breast surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy within the prior 48 months (14 women); (2) only cystic lesions (one woman); (3) no detectable enhancing lesion at dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI (15 women); and (4) breast implants (four women). MRI results were corroborated by histopathology or imaging follow-up. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were estimated for lesions and normal glandular tissue. Differences in the ADC between tissue types were evaluated and the sensitivity and specificity of the method calculated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Results: The final cohort comprised 53 patients with 59 lesions. Histopathology was obtained for 58 lesions. One lesion was validated as benign on imaging follow-up. Mean ADCs of 1.99 ± 0.27 × 10 −3  mm 2 /s, 1.08 ± 0.25 × 10 −3  mm 2 /s, and 1.74 ± 0.35 × 10 −3  mm 2 /s were obtained for normal tissue, malignant, and benign lesions, respectively. Mean ADCs of malignancies were significantly lower than those of benign lesions (p < 0.001) and normal tissue (p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity for stratifying lesions, considering an ADC threshold of 1.41 × 10 −3  mm 2 /s, were 94.3% and 87.5%, respectively; accuracy was 91.5%. Conclusion: DWI proved useful for the detection and characterization of breast lesions in the present sample. ADC values provide a high diagnostic performance for differentiation between benign and malignant lesions

  19. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  20. WAVELENGTH SELECTION OF HYPERSPECTRAL LIDAR BASED ON FEATURE WEIGHTING FOR ESTIMATION OF LEAF NITROGEN CONTENT IN RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL is a novel tool in the field of active remote sensing, which has been widely used in many domains because of its advantageous ability of spectrum-gained. Especially in the precise monitoring of nitrogen in green plants, the HSL plays a dispensable role. The exiting HSL system used for nitrogen status monitoring has a multi-channel detector, which can improve the spectral resolution and receiving range, but maybe result in data redundancy, difficulty in system integration and high cost as well. Thus, it is necessary and urgent to pick out the nitrogen-sensitive feature wavelengths among the spectral range. The present study, aiming at solving this problem, assigns a feature weighting to each centre wavelength of HSL system by using matrix coefficient analysis and divergence threshold. The feature weighting is a criterion to amend the centre wavelength of the detector to accommodate different purpose, especially the estimation of leaf nitrogen content (LNC in rice. By this way, the wavelengths high-correlated to the LNC can be ranked in a descending order, which are used to estimate rice LNC sequentially. In this paper, a HSL system which works based on a wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector is conducted to collect the reflectance spectra of rice leaf. These spectra collected by HSL cover a range of 538 nm – 910 nm with a resolution of 12 nm. These 32 wavelengths are strong absorbed by chlorophyll in green plant among this range. The relationship between the rice LNC and reflectance-based spectra is modeled using partial least squares (PLS and support vector machines (SVMs based on calibration and validation datasets respectively. The results indicate that I wavelength selection method of HSL based on feature weighting is effective to choose the nitrogen-sensitive wavelengths, which can also be co-adapted with the hardware of HSL system friendly. II The chosen wavelength has a high correlation with rice LNC

  1. Adolescent preferences and reactions to language about body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Armstrong, S C; Kingsford, E

    2017-07-01

    Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp. Participants (N=50) indicated preferences for weight-based language and emotional responses to words that their family members used in reference to their body weight. Weight neutral terminology ('weight', 'body mass index') were most preferred, although some differences in word preferences emerged by the participants' gender. Boys preferred having their weight described as 'overweight' and 'heavy', while girls preferred the word 'curvy'. A large proportion of participants, particularly girls, reported experiencing sadness, shame, and embarrassment if parents used certain words to describe their body weight, which highlights the importance of considering the emotional impact of weight-based terminology. Providers may consider asking youth and adolescents for their preferences when discussing weight-based health.

  2. Estimation of disease burdens on preterm births and low birth weights attributable to maternal fine particulate matter exposure in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anni; Qian, Naisi; Yu, Huiting; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2017-12-31

    Studies have shown that maternal exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5 ) was associated with adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). However, the burdens of PTB and LBW attributable to PM 2.5 were rarely evaluated, especially in developing countries. To estimate the burdens of PTBs and LBWs attributable to outdoor PM 2.5 in Shanghai, China. We collected annual-average PM 2.5 concentrations, concentration-response relationships between PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy and PTBs and LBWs, rates of PTB and LBW, number of live births, and population sizes in grids of 10km×10km in Shanghai in 2013. Then, they were combined to estimate the odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs), attributable fractions (AFs), and numbers of PTBs and LBWs associated with PM 2.5 exposure. The population-weighted annual-average concentration of PM 2.5 in Shanghai was 56.19μg/m 3 in 2013. According to the first-class limit of PM 2.5 (15μg/m 3 ) in the Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, the weighted RRs of PTBs or LBWs associated with PM 2.5 in Shanghai were 1.49 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.80] and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.04-1.67), respectively. There might be 32.61% (95% CI: 13.93%-44.42%) or 4160 (95% CI: 1778-5667) PTBs and 23.36% (95% CI: 3.86%-40.02%) or 1882 (95% CI: 311-3224) LBWs attributable to PM 2.5 exposure. The estimates varied appreciably among different districts of Shanghai. Our analysis suggested that outdoor PM 2.5 air pollution might have led to considerable burdens of PTBs and LBWs in Shanghai, China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Optimal estimations of random fields using kriging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barua, G.

    2004-01-01

    Kriging is a statistical procedure of estimating the best weights of a linear estimator. Suppose there is a point or an area or a volume of ground over which we do not know a hydrological variable and wish to estimate it. In order to produce an estimator, we need some information to work on, usually available in the form of samples. There can, be an infinite number of linear unbiased estimators for which the weights sum up to one. The problem is how to determine the best weights for which the estimation variance is the least. The system of equations as shown above is generally known as the kriging system and the estimator produced is the kriging estimator. The variance of the kriging estimator can be found by substitution of the weights in the general estimation variance equation. We assume here a linear model for the semi-variogram. Applying the model to the equation, we obtain a set of kriging equations. By solving these equations, we obtain the kriging variance. Thus, for the one-dimensional problem considered, kriging definitely gives a better estimation variance than the extension variance

  4. Prediction of low birth weight: the placental T2* estimated by MRI versus the uterine artery pulsatility index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne Munk; Peters, David Alberg; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum

    (MRI) variable T2* reflects the placental oxygenation and thereby placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. Methods: The study population......CONTROL ID: 2516296 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: P22.05 TITLE: Prediction of low birth weight: the placental T2* estimated by MRI versus the uterine artery pulsatility index AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Marianne Sinding1, David Peters2, Jens B. Frøkjær3, 4, Ole B. Christiansen1, 4, Astrid Petersen5...... had an EFW T2* was measured by MRI at 1.5T. A gradient recalled echo MRI sequence with readout at 16 echo times was used, and the placental T2* value was obtained by fitting the signal intensity as a function of the echo times...

  5. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...... shrinks the coefficient of each observation in the estimated functions; thus, it is widely used for minimizing influence of outliers. We propose to additionally add weights to the slack variables in the constraints (CF‐weights) and call the combination of weights the doubly weighted SVR. We illustrate...... the differences and similarities of the two types of weights by demonstrating the connection between the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the SVR. We show that an SVR problem can be transformed to a LASSO problem plus a linear constraint and a box constraint. We demonstrate...

  6. Algorithm for Optimizing Bipolar Interconnection Weights with Applications in Associative Memories and Multitarget Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shengjiang; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Zhang, Wenwei; Zhang, Yanxin

    1999-08-01

    An algorithm for optimizing a bipolar interconnection weight matrix with the Hopfield network is proposed. The effectiveness of this algorithm is demonstrated by computer simulation and optical implementation. In the optical implementation of the neural network the interconnection weights are biased to yield a nonnegative weight matrix. Moreover, a threshold subchannel is added so that the system can realize, in real time, the bipolar weighted summation in a single channel. Preliminary experimental results obtained from the applications in associative memories and multitarget classification with rotation invariance are shown.

  7. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement

  8. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the body weight and other linear parameters of Marshall Broiler for repeatability estimates. A total of one hundred (100) broiler chickens (Marshall) was used in estimating the repeatability of body weight and linear parameters of day old from 2 to 8 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) and ...

  9. Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

  10. An exploratory investigation of weight estimation techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The three basic methods of weight prediction (fixed-fraction, statistical correlation, and point stress analysis) and some of the computer programs that have been developed to implement them are discussed. A modified version of the WAATS (Weights Analysis of Advanced Transportation Systems) program is presented, along with input data forms and an example problem.

  11. Dose-response curve estimation: a semiparametric mixture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng

    2011-12-01

    In the estimation of a dose-response curve, parametric models are straightforward and efficient but subject to model misspecifications; nonparametric methods are robust but less efficient. As a compromise, we propose a semiparametric approach that combines the advantages of parametric and nonparametric curve estimates. In a mixture form, our estimator takes a weighted average of the parametric and nonparametric curve estimates, in which a higher weight is assigned to the estimate with a better model fit. When the parametric model assumption holds, the semiparametric curve estimate converges to the parametric estimate and thus achieves high efficiency; when the parametric model is misspecified, the semiparametric estimate converges to the nonparametric estimate and remains consistent. We also consider an adaptive weighting scheme to allow the weight to vary according to the local fit of the models. We conduct extensive simulation studies to investigate the performance of the proposed methods and illustrate them with two real examples. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Selecting a pharmacy layout design using a weighted scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Alissa L; Huang, Yu-Li

    2012-05-01

    A weighted scoring system was used to select a pharmacy layout redesign. Facilities layout design techniques were applied at a local hospital pharmacy using a step-by-step design process. The process involved observing and analyzing the current situation, observing the current available space, completing activity flow charts of the pharmacy processes, completing communication and material relationship charts to detail which areas in the pharmacy were related to one another and how they were related, researching applications in other pharmacies or in scholarly works that could be beneficial, numerically defining space requirements for areas within the pharmacy, measuring the available space within the pharmacy, developing a set of preliminary designs, and modifying preliminary designs so they were all acceptable to the pharmacy staff. To select a final layout that could be implemented in the pharmacy, those layouts were compared via a weighted scoring system. The weighted aspect further allowed additional emphasis on categories based on their effect on pharmacy performance. The results produced a beneficial layout design as determined through simulated models of the pharmacy operation that more effectively allocated and strategically located space to improve transportation distances and materials handling, employee utilization, and ergonomics. Facilities layout designs for a hospital pharmacy were evaluated using a weighted scoring system to identify a design that was superior to both the current layout and alternative layouts in terms of feasibility, cost, patient safety, employee safety, flexibility, robustness, transportation distance, employee utilization, objective adherence, maintainability, usability, and environmental impact.

  13. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Lima Neto, Pedro Martins; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Bettiol, Heloisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestational diabetes, gestational weight gain, and type of delivery as determinants of the baby's birth weight. RESULTS For a gain of 4 kg/m2 (1 Standard Deviation [SD]) in pre-pregnancy body mass index, there was a 0.126 SD increase in birth weight, corresponding to 68 grams (p gestational weight gain represented a 0.280 SD increase in newborn weight, correponding to 151.2 grams (p weight was direct (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.202; p weight gain during pregnancy (SC = -0.070, p weight gain during pregnany on birth weight was predominantly direct (SC = 0.269, p gained less weight during pregnancy (p gestational weight gain on the increase in birth weight was greater than that of pre-pregnancy body mass index.

  14. Use of an exchange method to estimate the association and dissociation rate constants of cadmium complexes formed with low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Organic acids released from plant roots can form complexes with cadmium (Cd) in the soil solution and influence metal bioavailability not only due to the nature and concentration of the complexes but also due to their lability. The lability of a complex influences its ability to buffer changes in the concentration of free ions (Cd); it depends on the association (, m mol s) and dissociation (, s) rate constants. A resin exchange method was used to estimate and (m mol s), which is the conditional estimate of depending on the calcium (Ca) concentration in solution. The constants were estimated for oxalate, citrate, and malate, three low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots and expected to strongly influence Cd uptake by plants. For all three organic acids, the and estimates were around 2.5 10 m mol s and 1.3 × 10 s, respectively. Based on the literature, these values indicate that the Cd- low-molecular-weight organic acids complexes formed between Cd and low-molecular-weight organic acids may be less labile than complexes formed with soil soluble organic matter but more labile than those formed with aminopolycarboxylic chelates. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Estimation of genotype X environment interactions, in a grassbased system, for milk yield, body condition score,and body weight using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    (Co)variance components for milk yield, body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change and BW change over different herd-year mean milk yields (HMY) and nutritional environments (concentrate feeding level, grazing severity and silage quality) were estimated using a random regression model.

  16. Estimativa do Peso Fetal: Comparação Entre um Método Clínico e a Ultra-Sonografia Estimation of Fetal Weight: Comparison Between a Clinical Method and Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Faisal Cury

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a validade da estimativa do peso fetal por método baseado na altura uterina - regra de Johnson. Métodos: foram estudadas 101 gestantes e seus recém-nascidos (RN, estimando-se o peso fetal pela utilização da regra de Johnson adaptada, que consiste em aplicação clínica de modelo matemático para cálculo do peso fetal baseado na altura uterina e na altura da apresentação fetal. O peso estimado foi obtido no dia do parto e foi comparado com o peso observado ao nascer, que constituiu o controle da análise da validade do método empregado. Na mesma data foi realizada ultra-sonografia obstétrica (US detalhada, que inclui cálculo do peso fetal pela aplicação das tabelas de Sheppard, e este peso, estimado pela US, foi comparado ao peso observado ao nascer. Resultados: os resultados destas comparações mostraram que a estimativa clínica empregada nesta casuística tem valor semelhante à US para avaliação do peso ao nascer: a margem de acerto do método clínico com variações de 5%, 10% e 15% entre peso estimado e peso observado foi de 55,3%, 73% e 86,7% respectivamente, e, para o US, de 60,7%, 75,4% e 91,1%, respectivamente. Conclusões:quando comparados, estes valores não se mostraram diferentes do ponto de vista estatístico, permitindo concluir-se que a avaliação clínica mostra acurácia semelhante à da US para o cálculo do peso ao nascer.Purpose: to assess the validity of fetal weight estimation by a method based on uterine height -- Johnson's rule. Methods: one hundred and one pregnant women and their newborn children were studied. The fetal weight was estimated using an adaptation of Johnson's rule, which consists of the clinical application of a mathematical model to calculate the fetal weight based on the uterine height and the height of fetal presentation. The estimated weight was obtained on the day of delivery and was compared to the weight observed after birth. This, in turn, was the control of

  17. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  18. Radiocesium and polonium in seals from the Baltic Sea. A preliminary study; Radiocaesium och polonium i sael fran Oestersjoen, en preliminaer studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Leisvik, M. [Lunds Univ., Avd. foer Radiofysik, Lund (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Po in muscle, liver and kidney from 5 seals from the Baltic Sea have been studied. Assuming that the seals consume 5% of their own body weight each day and by using previously obtained data for the doses in fish, the biological half time has been estimated to 20 days for Cesium and 35 days for Polonium. The maximum yearly doses are calculated to 76 {mu}Gy from {sup 137}CS to muscle and 3 500 {mu}Gy to kidneys from {sup 210}Po. These data are very preliminary, the number of individuals being so small, and it is difficult to estimate how much food other than fish the seals consume. Furthermore only few data for radioactive concentrations in whole fish exist, which especially impacts the results for Polonium. (LN)

  19. Preliminary data evaluation for thermal insulation characterization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeClue, J.F.; Moses, S.D.; Tollefson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Thermal Insulation Characterization Testing is to provide physical data to support certain assumptions and calculational techniques used in the criticality safety calculations in Section 6 of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) for drum-type packaging for Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Results of preliminary data evaluation regarding the fire-test condition reveal that realistic weight loss consideration and residual material characterization in developing calculational models for the hypothetical accident condition is necessary in order to prevent placement of unduly conservative restrictions on shipping requirements as a result of overly conservative modeling. This is particularly important for fast systems. Determination of the geometric arrangement of residual material is of secondary importance. Both the methodology used to determine the minimum thermal insulation mass remaining after the fire test and the treatment of the thermal insulation in the criticality safety calculational models requires additional evaluation. Specific testing to be conducted will provide experimental data with which to validate the mass estimates and calculational modeling techniques for extrapolation to generic drum-type containers

  20. Estimating the month-specific effect of complementary food on weight loss occurrence rate in less than 2 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weight loss in children is one of the health problems that could occur several times for achild; therefore it is categorized as a recurrent event. In this study, we investigated the weight loss riskfactors firstly by using proportional rates model and then by applying time-dependent coefficient ratesmodel.Materials and Methods: In this study, the information of 1673 babies who were born in 2006 or 2007and were visited for monthly check ups at Tehran east health centers during their first two years of life wereincluded in the analysis. We first fitted the standard proportional rates model to this data with the purposeof determining weigh loss major risk factors. After adjusting these factors, the month-specific effect ofcomplementary foods on weight loss occurrence rate was explored using time-varying coefficient ratesmodel.Results: Our findings showed that the risk of weight loss gets heightened as with the increase in theintake of complementary foods. This negative effect is likely to be the most between 9 and 11 months ofage and then tends to weaken as the baby grows older. The results of Wald-type statistic showed that theimpact of complementary food on the occurrence of weight loss is significantly different with respect to thechild ‘age (P<0.001.Conclusion: Considering the variability of the effect of complementary food on the occurrence of weightloss, time-varying coefficient rates model can give more appropriate estimation of this effect thanproportional rates model.

  1. Correlação entre peso fetal estimado por ultrassonografia e peso neonatal Correlation between estimated fetal weight by ultrasound and neonatal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a correlação entre o peso fetal estimado (PFE por ultrassonografia e o peso neonatal (PN, bem como a capacidade do PFE predizer as alterações do PN entre gestantes de João Pessoa (PB. MÉTODOS: estudo de validação diagnóstica incluindo 122 gestantes que tiveram o PFE calculado por ultrassonografia até sete dias antes do parto e o PN determinado imediatamente após o nascimento, com balança específica para recém-nascidos. A correlação entre o PFE e o PN foi avaliada pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson entre as duas medidas e pela média das diferenças entre elas. O PFE e o PN foram classificados em: pequeno para idade gestacional (PIG, adequado para a idade gestacional (AIG e grande para a idade gestacional (GIG, de acordo com os percentis 10 e 90 das respectivas curvas de referência. O diagnóstico de desvios do PFE foi validado utilizando a curva de valores de referência de peso neonatal de Alexander como padrão-ouro, estimando-se a sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo. RESULTADOS: houve uma elevada correlação linear entre o PFE e o PN (R=0,96 e a diferença entre eles variou entre -474 g e +480 g, com média de +3 g. A maioria das máximas variações percentuais da estimativa de peso esteve entre 10 e 15%. O PFE teve sensibilidade de 85,7% e especificidade de 100% para detecção de PIG, e de 100 e 77,2%, respectivamente, para GIG. CONCLUSÕES: o PFE é capaz de predizer adequadamente o PN, e a curva de PFE de referência testada teve bom desempenho no rastreamento dos desvios do crescimento fetal, quando utilizada nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the correlation between the estimated fetal weight (EFW by ultrasonography and the neonatal weight (NW, as well as the EFW's capacity to predict changes in NW among pregnant women in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: a diagnostic validation study, including 122 pregnant women who have had the EFW calculated

  2. Fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction: a new population-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, H K; Grøttum, P; Økland, I; Eik-Nes, S H

    2017-04-01

    To develop a complete, population-based system for ultrasound-based fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction for use in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Using 31 516 ultrasound examinations from a population-based Norwegian clinical database, we constructed fetal size charts for biparietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference from 24 to 42 weeks' gestation. A reference curve of median birth weight for gestational age was estimated using 45 037 birth weights. We determined how individual deviations from the expected ultrasound measures predicted individual percentage deviations from expected birth weight. The predictive quality was assessed by explained variance of birth weight and receiver-operating characteristics curves for prediction of small-for-gestational age. A curve for intrauterine estimated fetal weight was constructed. Charts were smoothed using the gamlss non-linear regression method. The population-based approach, using bias-free ultrasound gestational age, produces stable estimates of size-for-age and weight-for-age curves in the range 24-42 weeks' gestation. There is a close correspondence between percentage deviations and percentiles of birth weight by gestational age, making it easy to convert between the two. The variance of birth weight that can be 'explained' by ultrasound increases from 8% at 20 weeks up to 67% around term. Intrauterine estimated fetal weight is 0-106 g higher than median birth weight in the preterm period. The new population-based birth-weight prediction model provides a simple summary measure, the 'percentage birth-weight deviation', to be used for fetal size monitoring throughout the third trimester. Predictive quality of the model can be measured directly from the population data. The model computes both median observed birth weight and intrauterine estimated fetal weight. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John

  3. Weight of Production of Emeralds, Rubies, Sapphires, and Tanzanite from 1995 Through 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas R.; Menzie, W. David; Olson, Donald W.

    2008-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) historically has not attempted to report comprehensive world production of gemstones on a country basis. This was because estimation of gemstone production is inherently difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the industry, the lack of governmental oversight or reporting in many countries where colored gemstones are mined, and the wide variation in quality between individual gemstones. Unlike diamonds, which, with the exception of the alluvial stones of West Africa, are mainly produced by large international mining companies and evaluated, cut, and marketed through a highly developed pricing structure and complex commercial arrangements, colored gemstones are mainly mined by individuals or small companies and have less developed evaluation and marketing arrangements. The trading centers for colored gems are smaller and less well known than the diamond centers. Colored gemstones, like alluvial diamonds, have the potential to be used to fund civil conflicts and other illegal activities, and because trade in colored gemstones is less organized than that of diamonds, they offer less opportunity for effective regulation of their trade. And, like diamond, until the recent advent of the Kimberley Process no generally accepted estimates of colored gemstone production globally or by producing country have existed. The present paper is a first attempt to develop production statistics for the three precious gems -emeralds, rubies, and sapphires - and tanzanite tanzanite, a semi-precious gem. The data consist of the weight of production of each of the gemstones from 1995 through 2005. Preliminary data on the weights of gemstone production were presented as a poster session at the Gemological Institute of America's Gemological Research Conference in San Diego, CA, in 2006, and as a published abstract (Yager, 2006) in an attempt to gather response to the estimates. The USGS continues to welcome information and suggestions that would improve the

  4. Accuracy of DXA scanning of the thoracic spine: cadaveric studies comparing BMC, areal BMD and geometric estimates of volumetric BMD against ash weight and CT measures of bone volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sran, Meena M; Khan, Karim M; Keiver, Kathy; Chew, Jason B; McKay, Heather A; Oxland, Thomas R

    2005-12-01

    Biomechanical studies of the thoracic spine often scan cadaveric segments by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to obtain measures of bone mass. Only one study has reported the accuracy of lateral scans of thoracic vertebral bodies. The accuracy of DXA scans of thoracic spine segments and of anterior-posterior (AP) thoracic scans has not been investigated. We have examined the accuracy of AP and lateral thoracic DXA scans by comparison with ash weight, the gold-standard for measuring bone mineral content (BMC). We have also compared three methods of estimating volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) with a novel standard-ash weight (g)/bone volume (cm3) as measured by computed tomography (CT). Twelve T5-T8 spine segments were scanned with DXA (AP and lateral) and CT. The T6 vertebrae were excised, the posterior elements removed and then the vertebral bodies were ashed in a muffle furnace. We proposed a new method of estimating vBMD and compared it with two previously published methods. BMC values from lateral DXA scans displayed the strongest correlation with ash weight (r=0.99) and were on average 12.8% higher (pBMC (AP or lateral) was more strongly correlated with ash weight than areal bone mineral density (aBMD; AP: r=0.54, or lateral: r=0.71) or estimated vBMD. Estimates of vBMD with either of the three methods were strongly and similarly correlated with volumetric BMD calculated by dividing ash weight by CT-derived volume. These data suggest that readily available DXA scanning is an appropriate surrogate measure for thoracic spine bone mineral and that the lateral scan might be the scan method of choice.

  5. Weight Management Preferences in a Non-Treatment Seeking Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria B. Barry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a serious public health issue in the United States, with the CDC reporting that most adult Americans are now either overweight or obese. Little is known about the comparative acceptability of available weight management approaches in non-treatment seeking samples. Method: This report presents preliminary survey data collected from an online sample on weight management preferences for 8 different weight management strategies including a proposed incentive-based program. Participants were 72 individuals (15 men, 55 women and 2 transgendered individuals who self-re-ported being overweight or obese, or who currently self-reported a normal weight but had attempted to lose weight in the past. Results: ANOVA and Pair-wise comparison indicated clear preferences for certain treatments over others in the full sample; most notably, the most popular option in our sample for managing weight was to diet and exercise without professional assistance. Several differences in preference between the three weight groups were also observed. Conclusions: Dieting and exercising without any professional assistance is the most highly endorsed weight management option among all groups. Overweight and obese individuals may find self-management strategies for weight loss less attractive than normal weight individuals, but still prefer it to other alternatives. This has implications for the development and dissemination of empirically based self-management strategies for weight.

  6. Global warming: is weight loss a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C

    2012-03-01

    The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.

  7. Estimating Body Weight of Cattle Using Linear Body Measurements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...

  8. Screening the nutritional status in oncology: a preliminary report on 1,000 outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetti, Federico

    2009-03-01

    This study presents the preliminary data of a prospective multi-centre investigation on the screening of the nutritional status of cancer outpatients with the purpose to define: (1) prevalence and rate of weight loss and nutritional risk in this patient population, and (2) to assess the association among some patient-dependent, tumour-dependent and therapy-dependent variables with the nutritional status and the nutritional risk. Seventeen centres were involved to collect demographic data (age and sex), oncologic data (site of primary tumour, stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance State, oncologic therapy) and presence and severity of systemic and digestive/nutritional symptoms (fatigue, anorexia, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, dysgeusia/dysosmia, dysphagia/odynophagia, diarrhoea/constipation). Furthermore, the percentage of the weight loss on the usual body weight and the body mass index were computed. The nutritional risk was assessed according to the Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 questionnaire which scores the risk from 0 to 7. On the first 1,000 screened patients, a significant weight loss (>or=10%) and a nutritional risk score >or=3 were observed in 39.7% and 33.8% of patients, respectively. Weight loss was higher in upper gastrointestinal tumours, in advanced stages of disease and in patients with a poor performance status. Similarly, the nutritional risk was higher in esophageal and pancreatic cancer and in those with a worse performance status. There was a good correlation between the severity of anorexia and the rate of the weight loss The majority of patients with no weight loss or a weight loss anorexia. Weight loss and nutritional risk are frequent in an unselected series of cancer outpatients. Site of primary tumour, stage and performance state appear to be associated, at a preliminary analysis, with significant weight loss and nutritional risk. Anorexia and weight loss are closely related, and this supports the concept that nutritional

  9. VOLUME ESTIMATIONS FOR COMBINED FREE-WEIGHT AND RUBBER-BAND RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    C. Shoepe, Todd; Vejarano, Gustavo; P. Reyes, Nathan; M. Gobreial, Nicole; M. Ricci, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    Volume, or the total work performed during resistance training is one of the vital variables of resistance exercise programming. The most common definition in use by practitioners is sets x reps x external weight. While appropriate for linear loading incurred through free-weight resistance exercise, this inadequately addresses the nonlinear loading incurred with rubber resistance, a relatively new loading technique. The purpose of this investigation was to derive a theoretical model to descri...

  10. Parenchymal texture measures weighted by breast anatomy: preliminary optimization in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Keller, Brad M.; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that quantitative descriptors of the parenchymal texture patterns hold a valuable role in assessing an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. In this work, we assess the hypothesis that breast cancer risk factors are not uniformly expressed in the breast parenchymal tissue and, therefore, breast-anatomy-weighted parenchymal texture descriptors, where different breasts ROIs have non uniform contributions, may enhance breast cancer risk assessment. To this end, we introduce an automated breast-anatomy-driven methodology which generates a breast atlas, which is then used to produce a weight map that reinforces the contributions of the central and upper-outer breast areas. We incorporate this methodology to our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis. In the framework of a pilot case-control study, including digital mammograms from 424 women, our proposed breast-anatomy-weighted texture descriptors are optimized and evaluated against non weighted texture features, using regression analysis with leave-one-out cross validation. The classification performance is assessed in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The collective discriminatory capacity of the weighted texture features was maximized (AUC=0.87) when the central breast area was considered more important than the upperouter area, with significant performance improvement (DeLong's test, p-valuewomen's cancer risk evaluation.

  11. Preliminary structural assessment of DEMO vacuum vessel against a vertical displacement event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozzillo, Rocco; Tarallo, Andrea; Marzullo, Domenico; Bachmann, Christian; Di Gironimo, Giuseppe; Mazzone, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper focuses on a preliminary structural analysis of the current concept design of DEMO vacuum vessel. • The Vacuum Vessel was checked against the VDE in combinations with the weight force of all components that the vessel shall bear. • Different configurations for the vacuum vessel supports are considered, showing that the best solution is VV supported at the lower port. • The analyses evaluated the “P damage” according to RCC-MRx code. - Abstract: This paper focuses on a preliminary structural analysis of the current concept design of DEMO vacuum vessel (VV). The VV structure is checked against a vertical load due to a Vertical Displacement Event in combination with the weight force of all components that the main vessel shall bear. Different configurations for the supports are considered. Results show that the greatest safety margins are reached when the tokamak is supported through the lower ports rather than the equatorial ports, though all analyzed configurations are compliant with RCC-MRx design rules.

  12. Preliminary structural assessment of DEMO vacuum vessel against a vertical displacement event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozzillo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.mozzillo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Tarallo, Andrea; Marzullo, Domenico [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Bachmann, Christian [EUROfusion PMU, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Di Gironimo, Giuseppe [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Mazzone, Giuseppe [Unità Tecnica Fusione - ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The paper focuses on a preliminary structural analysis of the current concept design of DEMO vacuum vessel. • The Vacuum Vessel was checked against the VDE in combinations with the weight force of all components that the vessel shall bear. • Different configurations for the vacuum vessel supports are considered, showing that the best solution is VV supported at the lower port. • The analyses evaluated the “P damage” according to RCC-MRx code. - Abstract: This paper focuses on a preliminary structural analysis of the current concept design of DEMO vacuum vessel (VV). The VV structure is checked against a vertical load due to a Vertical Displacement Event in combination with the weight force of all components that the main vessel shall bear. Different configurations for the supports are considered. Results show that the greatest safety margins are reached when the tokamak is supported through the lower ports rather than the equatorial ports, though all analyzed configurations are compliant with RCC-MRx design rules.

  13. The development of a preliminary regression equation for estimating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atrophy and a loss of lean body mass. ... to the risk for diseases of lifestyle, obesity is known to increase the ... weight forms part of the routine evaluation of nutritional status since ... on the basis of strength and practicality and included the following variables: circumferences of the calf, chest, and neck as well as the supine.

  14. MR imaging of prostate. Preliminary experience with calculated imaging in 28 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevenois, P.A.; Van Regemorter, G.; Ghysels, M.; Delepaut, A.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Struyven, J.

    1988-01-01

    The majority of studies with MR imaging in prostate disease are based on a semiology obtained using images weighted in T1 and T2. A study was carried out to evaluate effects of images calculated in T1 and T2 obtained at 0.5T. This preliminary study concerns 28 prostate examinations with spin-echo acquisition and inversion-recuperation parameters, and provided images calculated in T1, weighted and calculated in T2. Images allowed detection and characterization of prostate lesions. However, although calculated images accentuate discrimination of the method, the weighted images conserve their place because of their improved spatial resolution [fr

  15. Monitor-Based Statistical Model Checking for Weighted Metric Temporal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach and implementation for ana- lysing weighted timed automata (WTA) with respect to the weighted metric temporal logic (WMTL≤ ). Based on a stochastic semantics of WTAs, we apply statistical model checking (SMC) to estimate and test probabilities of satisfaction with desi......We present a novel approach and implementation for ana- lysing weighted timed automata (WTA) with respect to the weighted metric temporal logic (WMTL≤ ). Based on a stochastic semantics of WTAs, we apply statistical model checking (SMC) to estimate and test probabilities of satisfaction...

  16. The value of body weight measurement to assess dehydration in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Isabelle; Dubos, François; Chazard, Emmanuel; Hue, Valérie; Duhamel, Alain; Martinot, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis is one of the most common reasons for office visits and hospital admissions. The indicator most commonly used to estimate dehydration status is acute weight loss. Post-illness weight gain is considered as the gold-standard to determine the true level of dehydration and is widely used to estimate weight loss in research. To determine the value of post-illness weight gain as a gold standard for acute dehydration, we conducted a prospective cohort study in which 293 children, aged 1 month to 2 years, with acute diarrhea were followed for 7 days during a 3-year period. The main outcome measures were an accurate pre-illness weight (if available within 8 days before the diarrhea), post-illness weight, and theoretical weight (predicted from the child's individual growth chart). Post-illness weight was measured for 231 (79%) and both theoretical and post-illness weights were obtained for 111 (39%). Only 62 (21%) had an accurate pre-illness weight. The correlation between post-illness and theoretical weight was excellent (0.978), but bootstrapped linear regression analysis showed that post-illness weight underestimated theoretical weight by 0.48 kg (95% CI: 0.06-0.79, pdehydration according to post-illness weight (21%) was significantly lower than the prevalence estimated by either theoretical weight (60%) or clinical assessment (66%, pdehydration. The performance of dehydration signs or scales determined by using post-illness weight as a gold standard has to be reconsidered.

  17. Preliminary ITER cost and schedule estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The cost, manpower requirements, and schedule estimates for the realization of the ITER tokamak have been studied during the Conceptual Design Activities, as a result of work by the ITER Management Committee. This work was completed during the January-March, 1990 joint work session, and is presented in this report. A possible schedule shows completion of the engineering design phase in 1995, with 180 professionals, at a cost of about $250M. The construction would be completed in 2004 with a rise in professional staff to 300, and a total cost of $4900M. The machine would be operable over an 18-year period, at an annual operating cost averaging $290M. 2 figs

  18. Estimates of radionuclide release from glass waste forms in a tuff repository and the effects on regulatory compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This paper discusses preliminary estimates of the release of radionuclides from waste packages containing glass-based waste forms under the expected conditions at Yucca Mountain. These estimates can be used to evaluate the contribution of waste package performance toward meeting repository regulatory restrictions on radionuclide release. Glass waste will be held in double stainless steel canisters. After failure of the container sometime after the 300 to 1000 year containment period, the open headspace in these cans will provide the only area where standing water can accumulate and react with the glass. A maximum release rate of 0.177 g/m 2 x year or 1.3 grams per year was obtained. Normalized loss of 1.3 grams per year corresponds to 0.08 parts in 100,000 per year of the 1660 kg reference weight of DWPF glass

  19. ipw: An R Package for Inverse Probability Weighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Geskus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the R package ipw for estimating inverse probability weights. We show how to use the package to fit marginal structural models through inverse probability weighting, to estimate causal effects. Our package can be used with data from a point treatment situation as well as with a time-varying exposure and time-varying confounders. It can be used with binomial, categorical, ordinal and continuous exposure variables.

  20. Half-unit weighted bilinear algorithm for image contrast enhancement in capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Olivier

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel enhancement method based exclusively on the bilinear interpolation algorithm for capsule endoscopy images. The proposed method does not convert the original RBG image components to HSV or any other color space or model; instead, it processes directly RGB components. In each component, a group of four adjacent pixels and half-unit weight in the bilinear weighting function are used to calculate the average pixel value, identical for each pixel in that particular group. After calculations, groups of identical pixels are overlapped successively in horizontal and vertical directions to achieve a preliminary-enhanced image. The final-enhanced image is achieved by halving the sum of the original and preliminary-enhanced image pixels. Quantitative and qualitative experiments were conducted focusing on pairwise comparisons between original and enhanced images. Final-enhanced images have generally the best diagnostic quality and gave more details about the visibility of vessels and structures in capsule endoscopy images.

  1. SUMS preliminary design and data analysis development. [shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and data analysis system development for the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS) experiment are discussed. The SUMS experiment is designed to provide free stream atmospheric density, pressure, temperature, and mean molecular weight for the high altitude, high Mach number region.

  2. Flexible and efficient estimating equations for variogram estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Chang, Xiaohui; Guan, Yongtao

    2018-01-01

    Variogram estimation plays a vastly important role in spatial modeling. Different methods for variogram estimation can be largely classified into least squares methods and likelihood based methods. A general framework to estimate the variogram through a set of estimating equations is proposed. This approach serves as an alternative approach to likelihood based methods and includes commonly used least squares approaches as its special cases. The proposed method is highly efficient as a low dimensional representation of the weight matrix is employed. The statistical efficiency of various estimators is explored and the lag effect is examined. An application to a hydrology dataset is also presented.

  3. Flexible and efficient estimating equations for variogram estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2018-01-11

    Variogram estimation plays a vastly important role in spatial modeling. Different methods for variogram estimation can be largely classified into least squares methods and likelihood based methods. A general framework to estimate the variogram through a set of estimating equations is proposed. This approach serves as an alternative approach to likelihood based methods and includes commonly used least squares approaches as its special cases. The proposed method is highly efficient as a low dimensional representation of the weight matrix is employed. The statistical efficiency of various estimators is explored and the lag effect is examined. An application to a hydrology dataset is also presented.

  4. A new method of calculation of thyroid weight, using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Matsuo, Michimasa; Sugimura, Chie; Nishiyama, Shoji; Narabayashi, Isamu; Kimura, Shuji

    1983-01-01

    The weight of the thyroid gland is an important factor for determination of dose of the radioactive iodine that is used for the management of hyperthyroidism. Various methods employing scintigraphic image have been employed for estimation of the thyroid weight, but the error by these methods has been greater than 40 per cent. In this study, a new technique has been developed for more accurate estimation of the weight of the thyroid glands employing the distinctive system of three dimensional reconstruction with the simultaneous calculation of the volume of the thyroid using CT images. By this technique, the volume of thyroid phantom could be calculated with lesser than 9.4 per cent error. The proper interval of CT scan was 10 mm for satisfactory measurement. In 18 patients who have undergone thyroidectomy, the thyroid weight that had been estimated by our technique was compared with the actual weight of the excised specimen. There was a satisfactory correlation with 11.3 +- 7.5 per cent error. It has been concluded that our technique provides more accurate estimation of the weight of the thyroid glands than any other methods which have been previously employed. (author)

  5. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. ... Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ... lasting change in the determinants and impact of excess body weight.

  6. Wearing weighted backpack dilates subjective visual duration: The role of functional linkage between weight experience and visual timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eJia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bodily state plays a critical role in our perception. In the present study, we asked the question whether and how bodily experience of weights influences time perception. Participants judged durations of a picture (a backpack or a trolley bag presented on the screen, while wearing different weight backpacks or without backpack. The results showed that the subjective dura-tion of the backpack picture was dilated when participants wore a medium weighted backpack relative to an empty backpack or without backpack, regardless of identity (e.g., color of the visual backpack. However, the duration dilation was not manifested for the picture of trolley bag. These findings suggest that weight experience modulates visual duration estimation through the linkage between the wore backpack and to-be-estimated visual target. The con-gruent action affordance between the wore backpack and visual inputs plays a critical role in the functional linkage between inner experience and time perception. We interpreted our findings within the framework of embodied time perception.

  7. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping Yang

    Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to

  8. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta,, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  9. Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights, and Cancellation: Some Preliminary Hypotheses on the Functional and Neural Substrates of These Three New WAIS-IV Subtests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Simon M.; Robinson, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, five consecutive patients with focal strokes and/or cortical excisions were examined with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Memory Scale—Fourth Editions along with a comprehensive battery of other neuropsychological tasks. All five of the lesions were large and typically involved frontal, temporal, and/or parietal lobes and were lateralized to one hemisphere. The clinical case method was used to determine the cognitive neuropsychological correlates of mental rotation (Visual Puzzles), Piagetian balance beam (Figure Weights), and visual search (Cancellation) tasks. The pattern of results on Visual Puzzles and Figure Weights suggested that both subtests involve predominately right frontoparietal networks involved in visual working memory. It appeared that Visual Puzzles could also critically rely on the integrity of the left temporoparietal junction. The left temporoparietal junction could be involved in temporal ordering and integration of local elements into a nonverbal gestalt. In contrast, the Figure Weights task appears to critically involve the right temporoparietal junction involved in numerical magnitude estimation. Cancellation was sensitive to left frontotemporal lesions and not right posterior parietal lesions typical of other visual search tasks. In addition, the Cancellation subtest was sensitive to verbal search strategies and perhaps object-based attention demands, thereby constituting a unique task in comparison with previous visual search tasks. PMID:22389807

  10. Preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usher, T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author reports on preliminary heavy flavor physics results from the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider. Efficient tagging of b{bar b} events is achieved with an impact parameter technique that takes advantage of the small and stable interaction point of the SLC and all charged tracks in Z{sup 0} decays. This technique is applied to samples of Z{sup 0} events collected during the 1992 and 1993 physics runs. Preliminary measurements of the ratio R{sub b} = {Gamma}(Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b})/{Gamma}(Z{sup 0} {yields} hadrons) and the average B hadron lifetime <{tau}{sub B}> are reported. In a sample of 27K Z{sup 0} events, values of R{sub b} = 0.235 {+-} 0.006(stat.) {+-} 0.018(syst.) and <{tau}{sub B}> = 1.53 {+-} 0.006(stat.) {+-} 0.018(syst.) are obtained. In addition, the first measurement of the left-right asymmetry A{sub b} is reported. Using a sample of 38K Z{sup 0} events with a luminosity weighted electron polarization of 62%, the author obtains a preliminary value of A{sub b} = 0.94 {+-} 0.006(stat.) {+-} 0.018(syst.).

  11. Time-varying effect moderation using the structural nested mean model: estimation using inverse-weighted regression with residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Yuen, Robert A.; Murphy, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the problem of examining time-varying causal effect moderation using observational, longitudinal data in which treatment, candidate moderators, and possible confounders are time varying. The structural nested mean model (SNMM) is used to specify the moderated time-varying causal effects of interest in a conditional mean model for a continuous response given time-varying treatments and moderators. We present an easy-to-use estimator of the SNMM that combines an existing regression-with-residuals (RR) approach with an inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting (IPTW) strategy. The RR approach has been shown to identify the moderated time-varying causal effects if the time-varying moderators are also the sole time-varying confounders. The proposed IPTW+RR approach provides estimators of the moderated time-varying causal effects in the SNMM in the presence of an additional, auxiliary set of known and measured time-varying confounders. We use a small simulation experiment to compare IPTW+RR versus the traditional regression approach and to compare small and large sample properties of asymptotic versus bootstrap estimators of the standard errors for the IPTW+RR approach. This article clarifies the distinction between time-varying moderators and time-varying confounders. We illustrate the methodology in a case study to assess if time-varying substance use moderates treatment effects on future substance use. PMID:23873437

  12. Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI of a diffusable tracer: standardized quantities and symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofts, P.S.; Brix, G; Buckley, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a standard set of quantity names and symbols related to the estimation of kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data, using diffusable agents such as gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). These include a) the volume transfer constant K......-limited conditions K(trans) equals the blood plasma flow per unit volume of tissue; under permeability-limited conditions K(trans) equals the permeability surface area product per unit volume of tissue. We relate these quantities to previously published work from our groups; our future publications will refer...

  13. Preliminary design for hot dirty-gas control-valve test facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary design and cost estimating effort for a facility for the testing of control valves in Hot Dirty Gas (HDGCV) service. This design was performed by Mittelhauser Corporation for the United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The objective of this effort was to provide METC with a feasible preliminary design for a test facility which could be used to evaluate valve designs under simulated service conditions and provide a technology data base for DOE and industry. In addition to the actual preliminary design of the test facility, final design/construction/operating schedules and a facility cost estimate were prepared to provide METC sufficient information with which to evaluate this design. The bases, assumptions, and limitations of this study effort are given. The tasks carried out were as follows: METC Facility Review, Environmental Control Study, Gas Generation Study, Metallurgy Review, Safety Review, Facility Process Design, Facility Conceptual Layout, Instrumentation Design, Cost Estimates, and Schedules. The report provides information regarding the methods of approach used in the various tasks involved in the completion of this study. Section 5.0 of this report presents the results of the study effort. The results obtained from the above-defined tasks are described briefly. The turnkey cost of the test facility is estimated to be $9,774,700 in fourth quarter 1979 dollars, and the annual operating cost is estimated to be $960,000 plus utilities costs which are not included because unit costs per utility were not available from METC.

  14. Preliminary Sizing Study of Ares-I and Ares-V Liquid Hydrogen Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stanley T.; Harper, David W.

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary sizing study of two cryogenic propellant tanks was performed using a FORTRAN optimization program to determine weight efficient orthogrid designs for the tank barrels sections only. Various tensile and compressive failure modes were considered, including general buckling of cylinders with a shell buckling knockdown factor. Eight independent combinations of three design requirements were also considered and their effects on the tanks weight. The approach was to investigate each design case with a variable shell buckling knockdown factor, determining the most weight efficient combination of orthogrid design parameters. Numerous optimization analyses were performed, and the results presented herein compare the effects of the different design requirements and shell buckling knockdown factor. Through a series of comparisons between design requirements or shell buckling knockdown factors, the relative change in overall tank barrel weights is shown. The findings indicate that the design requirements can substantually increase the tank weight while a less conservative shell buckling knockdown factor can modestly reduce the tank weight.

  15. Weighted-noise threshold based channel estimation for OFDM ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Existing optimal time-domain thresholds exhibit suboptimal behavior for completely unavailable KCS ... Compared with no truncation case, truncation improved the MSE ... channel estimation errors has been studied. ...... Consumer Electron.

  16. Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate in infants and children using iohexol and X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stake, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish methods for the estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. The conclusions and clinical implications of the study are as follows: Urography with iohexol in children had no significant influence on the GFR. Valid GFR estimates were calculated from the plasma disappearance rate obtained from two plasma samples taken three and four hour after the injection of iohexol. Both iohexol and metrizoate caused a transitory, increased renal excretion of alkaline phosphatase. GFR as well as the excretion of albumin and β 2 -microglobulin were unchanged. Using the weight-related empirical distribution volume for determination of GFR from the plasma sample taken three hour after the injection of iohexol, a high degree of agreement was found between the preliminary single sample GFR estimate and the reference, two plasma sample GFR. However, the relationship was curvilinear, and in order to obtain a value for the final three hour single sample GFR equal to the reference GFR, the preliminary value had to be corrected by a second degree correction factor. The day-to-day variations of GFRs estimated with the iohexol methods were similar to those obtained with other standard methods. In another group of infants and children, independent, but otherwise comparable to the patients who formed the basis for the single sample iohexol method, it was confirmed that valid GFR estimates were obtained from the three hour single plasma sample. GFR determinations from one hour, two hour, and four hour single samples further supported that the optimal sampling time in patients with GFR down to 20 ml per minute -1 1.73 m -2 was three hours. 53 refs., 5 figs

  17. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Lima Neto, Pedro Martins; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Bettiol, Heloisa

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestat...

  18. Significance of prostatic weight in prostatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Bruskewitz, R C; Iversen, P

    1983-01-01

    In addition to routine evaluation, 68 patients with prostatism underwent blinded urodynamic testing prior to transurethral prostatectomy and were reexamined symptomatologically and urodynamically at 3 and 12 months after surgery to determine if prostatic weight could predict postoperative outcome....... Resected prostatic weight correlated with estimated weight at cystoscopy and with obstructive symptoms, but not with urodynamic variables of infravesical obstruction. Patients with small prostates improved symptomatologically to the same degree as patients with larger glands, although they did not improve...... to the same degree urodynamically. Prostatic weight, therefore, could not be used to predict the outcome of transurethral surgery....

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Clostridium botulinum in the presence of its substrate pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Sarah C.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Newman, Janet M.; Gorman, Michael A.; Dogovski, Con; Parker, Michael W.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes an important step in lysine biosynthesis. Here, the crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis to 1.2 Å resolution of DHDPS from C. botulinum in the presence of its substrate pyruvate is reported. In this paper, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis to near-atomic resolution of DHDPS from Clostridium botulinum crystallized in the presence of its substrate pyruvate are presented. The enzyme crystallized in a number of forms using a variety of PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to 1.2 Å resolution and belonging to space group C2, in contrast to the unbound form, which had trigonal symmetry. The unit-cell parameters were a = 143.4, b = 54.8, c = 94.3 Å, β = 126.3°. The crystal volume per protein weight (V M ) was 2.3 Å 3 Da −1 (based on the presence of two monomers in the asymmetric unit), with an estimated solvent content of 46%. The high-resolution structure of the pyruvate-bound form of C. botulinum DHDPS will provide insight into the function and stability of this essential bacterial enzyme

  20. Preliminary Estimate of Gypsum Deposit Based on Wenner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogara M. D. and Aloa J. O.

    estimating the quantity of some possible deposits of gypsum. Just ... exploitation is an everyday activity that is currently going on, but, on a 'wild cat' ... important source of wealth for a nation, but before they are harnessed ..... REFERENCES.

  1. Use of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR Method to Estimate the Effects of Location Attributes on the Residential Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faris Dziauddin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of locational attributes on residential property values in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Geographically weighted regression (GWR enables the use of the local parameter rather than the global parameter to be estimated, with the results presented in map form. The results of this study reveal that residential property values are mainly determined by the property’s physical (structural attributes, but proximity to locational attributes also contributes marginally. The use of GWR in this study is considered a better approach than other methods to examine the effect of locational attributes on residential property values. GWR has the capability to produce meaningful results in which different locational attributes have differential spatial effects across a geographical area on residential property values. This method has the ability to determine the factors on which premiums depend, and in turn it can assist the government in taxation matters.

  2. Environmental Scan of Weight Bias Exposure in Primary Health Care Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Nutter, Sarah; Alberga, Angela; Jelinski, Susan; Ball, Geoff D. C.; Edwards, Alun; Oddie, Scott; Sharma, Arya M.; Pickering, Barbara; Forhan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes and beliefs about individuals with obesity (also known as weight bias) have negative consequences for physical and mental health for individuals with obesity and impact the quality of care provided by health professionals. A preliminary environmental scan of college and university training programs was conducted consisting of 67…

  3. Rapid construction of pinhole SPECT system matrices by distance-weighted Gaussian interpolation method combined with geometric parameter estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ming-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In pinhole SPECT applied to small-animal studies, it is essential to have an accurate imaging system matrix, called H matrix, for high-spatial-resolution image reconstructions. Generally, an H matrix can be obtained by various methods, such as measurements, simulations or some combinations of both methods. In this study, a distance-weighted Gaussian interpolation method combined with geometric parameter estimations (DW-GIMGPE) is proposed. It utilizes a simplified grid-scan experiment on selected voxels and parameterizes the measured point response functions (PRFs) into 2D Gaussians. The PRFs of missing voxels are interpolated by the relations between the Gaussian coefficients and the geometric parameters of the imaging system with distance-weighting factors. The weighting factors are related to the projected centroids of voxels on the detector plane. A full H matrix is constructed by combining the measured and interpolated PRFs of all voxels. The PRFs estimated by DW-GIMGPE showed similar profiles as the measured PRFs. OSEM reconstructed images of a hot-rod phantom and normal rat myocardium demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. The detectability of a SKE/BKE task on a synthetic spherical test object verified that the constructed H matrix provided comparable detectability to that of the H matrix acquired by a full 3D grid-scan experiment. The reduction in the acquisition time of a full 1.0-mm grid H matrix was about 15.2 and 62.2 times with the simplified grid pattern on 2.0-mm and 4.0-mm grid, respectively. A finer-grid H matrix down to 0.5-mm spacing interpolated by the proposed method would shorten the acquisition time by 8 times, additionally. -- Highlights: • A rapid interpolation method of system matrices (H) is proposed, named DW-GIMGPE. • Reduce H acquisition time by 15.2× with simplified grid scan and 2× interpolation. • Reconstructions of a hot-rod phantom with measured and DW-GIMGPE H were similar. • The imaging study of normal

  4. Neoplastic potential of gastric irradiation. IV. Risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.; Justman, J.; Weiss, L.

    1984-01-01

    No significant tumor increase was found in the initial analysis of patients irradiated for peptic ulcer and followed through 1962. A preliminary study was undertaken 22 years later to estimate the risk of cancer due to gastric irradiation for peptic ulcer disease. A population of 2,049 irradiated patients and 763 medically managed patients has been identified. A relative risk of 3.7 was found for stomach cancer and an initial risk estimate of 5.5 x 10(-6) excess stomach cancers per person rad was calculated. A more complete follow-up is in progress to further elucidate this observation and decrease the ascertainment bias; however, preliminary data are in agreement with the Japanese atomic bomb reports

  5. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C D

    2012-07-01

    Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to

  6. Genetic parameters for quail body weights using a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model including fixed and random linear regressions is described for analyzing body weights at different ages. In this study, (co)variance components, heritabilities for quail weekly weights and genetic correlations among these weights were estimated using a random regression model by DFREML under DXMRR option.

  7. Non-invasive approach towards the in vivo estimation of 3D inter-vertebral movements: methods and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveri, P; Pedotti, A; Ferrigno, G

    2004-12-01

    A kinematical model of the lower spine was designed and used to obtain a robust estimation of the vertebral rotations during torso movements from skin-surface markers recorded by video-cameras. Markers were placed in correspondence of the anatomical landmarks of the pelvic bone and vertebral spinous and transverse processes, and acquired during flexion, lateral bending and axial motions. In the model calibration stage, a motion-based approach was used to compute the rotation axes and centres of the functional segmental units. Markers were mirrored into virtual points located on the model surface, expressed in the local reference system of coordinates. The spine motion assessment was solved into the domain of extended Kalman filters: at each frame of the acquisition, the model pose was updated by minimizing the distances between the measured 2D marker projections on the cameras and the corresponding back-projections of virtual points located on the model surface. The novelty of the proposed technique rests on the fact that the varying location of the rotation centres of the functional segmental units can be tracked directly during motion computation. In addition, we show how the effects of skin artefacts on orientation data can be taken into account. As a result, the kinematical estimation of simulated motions shows that orientation artefacts were reduced by a factor of at least 50%. Preliminary experiments on real motion confirmed the reliability of the proposed method with results in agreement with classical studies in literature.

  8. Statistical estimation Monte Carlo for unreliability evaluation of highly reliable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Su Guanghui; Jia Dounan; Li Tianduo

    2000-01-01

    Based on analog Monte Carlo simulation, statistical Monte Carlo methods for unreliable evaluation of highly reliable system are constructed, including direct statistical estimation Monte Carlo method and weighted statistical estimation Monte Carlo method. The basal element is given, and the statistical estimation Monte Carlo estimators are derived. Direct Monte Carlo simulation method, bounding-sampling method, forced transitions Monte Carlo method, direct statistical estimation Monte Carlo and weighted statistical estimation Monte Carlo are used to evaluate unreliability of a same system. By comparing, weighted statistical estimation Monte Carlo estimator has smallest variance, and has highest calculating efficiency

  9. Preliminary estimates of residence times and apparent ages of ground water in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and water-quality data from a survey of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John K.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Bachman, L. Joseph; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the residence times of the ground-water systems in Chesapeake Bay watershed helps resource managers anticipate potential delays between implementation of land-management practices and any improve-ments in river and estuary water quality. This report presents preliminary estimates of ground-water residence times and apparent ages of water in the shallow aquifers of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. A simple reservoir model, published data, and analyses of spring water were used to estimate residence times and apparent ages of ground-water discharge. Ranges of aquifer hydraulic characteristics throughout the Bay watershed were derived from published literature and were used to estimate ground-water residence times on the basis of a simple reservoir model. Simple combinations of rock type and physiographic province were used to delineate hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMR?s) for the study area. The HGMR?s are used to facilitate organization and display of the data and analyses. Illustrations depicting the relation of aquifer characteristics and associated residence times as a continuum for each HGMR were developed. In this way, the natural variation of aquifer characteristics can be seen graphically by use of data from selected representative studies. Water samples collected in September and November 1996, from 46 springs throughout the watershed were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFC?s) to estimate the apparent age of ground water. For comparison purposes, apparent ages of water from springs were calculated assuming piston flow. Additi-onal data are given to estimate apparent ages assuming an exponential distribution of ages in spring discharge. Additionally, results from previous studies of CFC-dating of ground water from other springs and wells in the watershed were compiled. The CFC data, and the data on major ions, nutrients, and nitrogen isotopes in the water collected from the 46 springs are included in this report. The apparent ages of water

  10. Use of an improved radiation amplification factor to estimate the effect of total ozone changes on action spectrum weighted irradiances and an instrument response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone Ω, U(Ω/200)-RAF, where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 nm) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  11. Preliminary seismic design cost-benefit assessment of the tuff repository waste-handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Abrahamson, N.; Hadjian, A.H.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary assessment of the costs and benefits associated with changes in the seismic design basis of waste-handling facilities. The objectives of the study are to understand the capability of the current seismic design of the waste-handling facilities to mitigate seismic hazards, evaluate how different design levels and design measures might be used toward mitigating seismic hazards, assess the costs and benefits of alternative seismic design levels, and develop recommendations for possible modifications to the seismic design basis. This preliminary assessment is based primarily on expert judgment solicited in an interdisciplinary workshop environment. The estimated costs for individual attributes and the assumptions underlying these cost estimates (seismic hazard levels, fragilities, radioactive-release scenarios, etc.) are subject to large uncertainties, which are generally identified but not treated explicitly in this preliminary analysis. The major conclusions of the report do not appear to be very sensitive to these uncertainties. 41 refs., 51 figs., 35 tabs

  12. Preliminary test results for post irradiation examination on the HTTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Shohei; Umeda, Masayuki; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Sozawa, Shizuo; Shimizu, Michio; Ishigaki, Yoshinobu; Obata, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The future post-irradiation program for the first-loading fuel of the HTTR is scheduled using the HTTR fuel handling facilities and the Hot Laboratory in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to confirm its irradiation resistance and to obtain data on its irradiation characteristics in the core. This report describes the preliminary test results and the future plan for a post-irradiation examination for the HTTR fuel. In the preliminary test, fuel compacts made with the same SiC-coated fuel particle as the first loading fuel were used. In the preliminary test, dimension, weight, fuel failure fraction, and burnup were measured, and X-ray radiograph, SEM, and EPMA observations were carried out. Finally, it was confirmed that the first-loading fuel of the HTTR showed good quality under an irradiation condition. The future plan for the post-irradiation tests was described to confirm its irradiation performance and to obtain data on its irradiation characteristics in the HTTR core. (author)

  13. 12 CFR 611.1250 - Preliminary exit fee estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... independently audited by a qualified public accountant. We may, in our discretion, waive the audit requirement... termination. Related expenses include, but are not limited to, legal services, accounting services, tax... institution and its stockholders. (ii) Subtract the dollar amount of estimated current and deferred tax...

  14. Discrete pre-processing step effects in registration-based pipelines, a preliminary volumetric study on T1-weighted images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncy, Nathan M; Hedges-Muncy, Ariana M; Kirwan, C Brock

    2017-01-01

    Pre-processing MRI scans prior to performing volumetric analyses is common practice in MRI studies. As pre-processing steps adjust the voxel intensities, the space in which the scan exists, and the amount of data in the scan, it is possible that the steps have an effect on the volumetric output. To date, studies have compared between and not within pipelines, and so the impact of each step is unknown. This study aims to quantify the effects of pre-processing steps on volumetric measures in T1-weighted scans within a single pipeline. It was our hypothesis that pre-processing steps would significantly impact ROI volume estimations. One hundred fifteen participants from the OASIS dataset were used, where each participant contributed three scans. All scans were then pre-processed using a step-wise pipeline. Bilateral hippocampus, putamen, and middle temporal gyrus volume estimations were assessed following each successive step, and all data were processed by the same pipeline 5 times. Repeated-measures analyses tested for a main effects of pipeline step, scan-rescan (for MRI scanner consistency) and repeated pipeline runs (for algorithmic consistency). A main effect of pipeline step was detected, and interestingly an interaction between pipeline step and ROI exists. No effect for either scan-rescan or repeated pipeline run was detected. We then supply a correction for noise in the data resulting from pre-processing.

  15. Accuracy of clinical and ultrasound estimation of fetal weight in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-22

    Aug 22, 2013 ... ultrasound method error values were significantly lower than those ... of fetal weight is of greater importance in taking management ... written consents obtained before recruitment into the study. The inclusion criteria were term singleton pregnant ... absolute deviation (regardless of their direction) reflecting.

  16. Random walk term weighting for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, R.; Lioma, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We present a way of estimating term weights for Information Retrieval (IR), using term co-occurrence as a measure of dependency between terms.We use the random walk graph-based ranking algorithm on a graph that encodes terms and co-occurrence dependencies in text, from which we derive term weights...

  17. Improving Collective Estimations Using Resistance to Social Influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Madirolas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Groups can make precise collective estimations in cases like the weight of an object or the number of items in a volume. However, in others tasks, for example those requiring memory or mental calculation, subjects often give estimations with large deviations from factual values. Allowing members of the group to communicate their estimations has the additional perverse effect of shifting individual estimations even closer to the biased collective estimation. Here we show that this negative effect of social interactions can be turned into a method to improve collective estimations. We first obtained a statistical model of how humans change their estimation when receiving the estimates made by other individuals. We confirmed using existing experimental data its prediction that individuals use the weighted geometric mean of private and social estimations. We then used this result and the fact that each individual uses a different value of the social weight to devise a method that extracts the subgroups resisting social influence. We found that these subgroups of individuals resisting social influence can make very large improvements in group estimations. This is in contrast to methods using the confidence that each individual declares, for which we find no improvement in group estimations. Also, our proposed method does not need to use historical data to weight individuals by performance. These results show the benefits of using the individual characteristics of the members in a group to better extract collective wisdom.

  18. Improving Collective Estimations Using Resistance to Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madirolas, Gabriel; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G

    2015-11-01

    Groups can make precise collective estimations in cases like the weight of an object or the number of items in a volume. However, in others tasks, for example those requiring memory or mental calculation, subjects often give estimations with large deviations from factual values. Allowing members of the group to communicate their estimations has the additional perverse effect of shifting individual estimations even closer to the biased collective estimation. Here we show that this negative effect of social interactions can be turned into a method to improve collective estimations. We first obtained a statistical model of how humans change their estimation when receiving the estimates made by other individuals. We confirmed using existing experimental data its prediction that individuals use the weighted geometric mean of private and social estimations. We then used this result and the fact that each individual uses a different value of the social weight to devise a method that extracts the subgroups resisting social influence. We found that these subgroups of individuals resisting social influence can make very large improvements in group estimations. This is in contrast to methods using the confidence that each individual declares, for which we find no improvement in group estimations. Also, our proposed method does not need to use historical data to weight individuals by performance. These results show the benefits of using the individual characteristics of the members in a group to better extract collective wisdom.

  19. Preliminary study on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoming; Chen Liying; Lin Nan; Guo Qiyong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonates with diffusion-weighted MR imaging, and to explore the value and limitation of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) compared with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance T 1 -weighted imaging (T 1 WI) and DWI (b=700 s/mm 2 ) were performed in 36 neonates with HIE (average age, 8.44 days; range, 3 hours to 22 days), and the cortex and subcortical white matter, deep white matter, basal ganglia and thalamus, cerebral ventricle, and extra-cerebral interspace etc were observed. Results: Signal abnormalities were shown on DWI with hypoxic-ischemic insults, which included diffuse brain damage (19.4%, 7/36): extensive high signals in the regional cortex, subcortical and deep white matter; localized brain damage: high signals along lateral ventricular wall and triangular part (27.8%, 10/36 ), and punctate high signals in the frontal deep white matter (5.6%, 2/36). On T 1 WI, the incidence of the corresponding changes were 16.7% (6/36), 36.1% (13/36), and 30.6%(11/36), respectively. Hemorrhagic lesions demonstrated high signals on T 1 WI and no signals on DWI. Conclusion: DWI was applicable for acute HIE, and T 1 WI was suitable for subacute and chronic HIE. (authors)

  20. Preliminary liver dose estimation in the new facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadan, M.; Crawley, V.; Thorp, S.; Miller, M.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the project concerning the irradiation of a section of the human liver left lobe, a preliminary estimation of the expected dose was performed. To obtain proper input values for the calculation, neutron flux and gamma dose rate characterization were carried out using adequate portions of cow or pig liver covered with demineralized water simulating the preservation solution. Irradiations were done inside a container specially designed to fulfill temperature preservation of the organ and a reproducible irradiation position (which will be of importance for future planification purposes). Implantable rhodium based self-powered neutron detectors were developed to obtain neutron flux profiles both external and internal. Implantation of SPND was done along the central longitudinal axis of the samples, where lowest flux is expected. Gamma dose rate was obtained using a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber moved along external surfaces of the samples. The internal neutron profile resulted uniform enough to allow for a single and static irradiation of the liver. For dose estimation, irradiation condition was set in order to obtain a maximum of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. Additionally, literature reported boron concentrations of 47 ppm in tumor and 8 ppm in healthy tissue and a more conservative relationship (30/10 ppm) were used. To make a conservative estimation of the dose the following considerations were done: (i).Minimum measured neutron flux inside the sample (∼5x10 9 n cm -2 s -1 ) was considered to calculate dose in tumor. (ii).Maximum measured neutron flux (considering both internal as external profiles) was used to calculate dose in healthy tissue (∼8.7x10 9 n cm -2 s -1 ). (iii).Maximum measured gamma dose rate (∼13.5 Gy h -1 ) was considered for both tumor and healthy tissue. Tumor tissue dose was ∼69 Gy-eq for 47 ppm of 10 B and ∼42 Gy-eq for 30 ppm, for a maximum dose of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. As can be seen from these results

  1. Cross-national comparability of burden of disease estimates: the European Disability Weights Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Pereira, Joaquin; Packer, Claire; Schwarzinger, Michael; Burstrom, Kristina

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sources of cross-national variation in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in the European Disability Weights Project. METHODS: Disability weights for 15 disease stages were derived empirically in five countries by means of a standardized procedure and the

  2. Estimation of Low Concentration Magnetic Fluid Weight Density and Detection inside an Artificial Medium Using a Novel GMR Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka GOONERATNE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia treatment has been gaining momentum in the past few years as a possible method to manage cancer. Cancer cells are different to normal cells in many ways including how they react to heat. Due to this difference it is possible for hyperthermia treatment to destroy cancer cells without harming the healthy normal cells surrounding the tumor. Magnetic particles injected into the body generate heat by hysteresis loss and temperature is increased when a time varying external magnetic field is applied. Successful treatment depends on how efficiently the heat is controlled. Thus, it is very important to estimate the magnetic fluid density in the body. Experimental apparatus designed for testing, numerical analysis, and results obtained by experimentation using a simple yet novel and minimally invasive needle type spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR sensor, to estimate low concentration magnetic fluid weight density and detection of magnetic fluid in a reference medium is reported.

  3. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  4. variance components and genetic parameters for live weight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Against this background the present study estimated the (co)variance .... Starting values for the (co)variance components of two-trait models were ..... Estimates of genetic parameters for weaning weight of beef accounting for direct-maternal.

  5. Gas geochemistry and preliminary CO2 output estimation from the island of Kos (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Longo, Manfredi; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Gagliano, Antonina Lisa

    2017-04-01

    Several gas samples have been collected from natural gas manifestations at the island of Kos. Most of them are found underwater along the southern coast of the island. On land two anomalous degassing areas have been recognized. These are characterised by lack of vegetation and after long dry periods by the presence of sulfate salts efflorescences. Almost all the gases are CO2-dominated (CO2 ranging from 88 to 99%) with minor amounts of N2 (up to 7%) and CH4 (up to 2.6%). Only the on-land manifestations have also significant contents of H2 (up to 0.2%) and H2S (up to 0.3%). Only one underwater manifestation is N2-dominated (61-99%) with CH4 (0.6-11%) and low CO2 (0.1-26%). The isotopic composition of He shows values ranging from 0.84 to 6.72 R/RA indicating a sometimes strong mantle contribution with the highest values measured in two of the most strongly degassing areas (Paradise Beach and Volcania). C-isotopic composition of CO2 is in the range from -3.6 to 0.6 ‰ vs V-PDB with most of the values around -1‰ indicating a mixed mantle - limestones origin. Isotopic composition of CH4, ranging from -21.5 to 2.8‰ for C and from -143 to 36‰ for H, points to a geothermal origin with sometimes evident secondary oxidation processes. CO2-flux measurements showed values up to about 10,000 g/m2/day in the areas of Volcania and Kokkino Nero and up to about 50,000 g/m2/day at Paradise beach. Preliminary CO2 output estimations gave values of 8.8 and 4 tons/day for the first two areas respectively and of 2.7 tons/day for the latter. The total output of the island (15.5 tons/day) should be considered a minimum estimation because of the incomplete coverage of the area and is comparable to the other active volcanic/geothermal systems of Greece (Nisyros, Nea Kameni and Methana).

  6. Global weighted estimates for second-order nondivergence elliptic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fengping Yao

    2018-03-21

    Mar 21, 2018 ... One of the key a priori estimates in the theory of second-order elliptic .... It is well known that the maximal functions satisfy strong p–p .... Here we prove the following auxiliary result, which will be a crucial ingredient in the proof.

  7. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...... and flexure and show that localized cable bending has a pronounced influence on the fatigue resistance of cables under dynamic excitations....

  8. Stochastic goal-oriented error estimation with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackmann, Jan; Marotzke, Jochem; Korn, Peter

    2017-11-01

    We propose a stochastic dual-weighted error estimator for the viscous shallow-water equation with boundaries. For this purpose, previous work on memory-less stochastic dual-weighted error estimation is extended by incorporating memory effects. The memory is introduced by describing the local truncation error as a sum of time-correlated random variables. The random variables itself represent the temporal fluctuations in local truncation errors and are estimated from high-resolution information at near-initial times. The resulting error estimator is evaluated experimentally in two classical ocean-type experiments, the Munk gyre and the flow around an island. In these experiments, the stochastic process is adapted locally to the respective dynamical flow regime. Our stochastic dual-weighted error estimator is shown to provide meaningful error bounds for a range of physically relevant goals. We prove, as well as show numerically, that our approach can be interpreted as a linearized stochastic-physics ensemble.

  9. The Use of Biosimulation in the Design of a Novel Multi-level Weight Loss Maintenance Program for Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfley, Denise E.; Van Buren, Dorothy J.; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Ezzet, Farkad; Russian, Angela C.; Perri, Michael G.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Weight loss outcomes achieved through conventional behavior change interventions are prone to deterioration over time. Basic learning laboratory studies in the area of behavioral extinction and renewal and multi-level models of weight control offer clues as to why newly acquired weight loss skills are prone to relapse. According to these models, current clinic-based interventions may not be of sufficient duration or scope to allow for the practice of new skills across the multiple community contexts necessary to promote sustainable weight loss. Although longer, more intensive interventions with greater reach may hold the key to improving weight loss outcomes, it is difficult to test these assumptions in a time efficient and cost-effective manner. A research design tool that has been increasingly utilized in other fields (e.g., pharmaceuticals) is the use of biosimulation analyses. The present paper describes our research team's use of computer simulation models to assist in designing a study to test a novel, comprehensive socio-environmental treatment approach to weight loss maintenance in children ages 7 to 12 years. Methods Weight outcome data from the weight loss, weight maintenance, and follow-up phases of a recently completed randomized controlled trial (RCT) were used to describe the time course of a proposed, extended multi-level treatment program. Simulations were then conducted to project the expected changes in child percent overweight trajectories in the proposed study. Results A 12.9% decrease in percent overweight at 30 months was estimated based upon the midway point between models of “best-case” and “worst-case” weight maintenance scenarios. Conclusions Preliminary data and further analyses, including biosimulation projections, suggest that our socio-environmental approach to weight loss maintenance treatment is promising and warrants evaluation in a large-scale RCT. Biosimulation techniques may have utility in the design of future

  10. Weighted inequalities for fractional integral operators and linear commutators in the Morrey-type spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we first introduce some new Morrey-type spaces containing generalized Morrey space and weighted Morrey space with two weights as special cases. Then we give the weighted strong type and weak type estimates for fractional integral operators I α $I_{\\alpha}$ in these new Morrey-type spaces. Furthermore, the weighted strong type estimate and endpoint estimate of linear commutators [ b , I α ] $[b,I_{\\alpha}]$ formed by b and I α $I_{\\alpha}$ are established. Also we study related problems about two-weight, weak type inequalities for I α $I_{\\alpha}$ and [ b , I α ] $[b,I_{\\alpha}]$ in the Morrey-type spaces and give partial results.

  11. N-of-1 study of weight loss maintenance assessing predictors of physical activity, adherence to weight loss plan and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part. Data were analysed using time series methods. Predictor variables were based on five theoretical themes: maintenance motives, self-regulation, personal resources, habits, and environmental influences. Dependent variables were: objectively estimated step count and weight, and self-reported WLM plan adherence. For all participants, daily fluctuations in self-reported adherence to their WLM plan were significantly associated with most of the explanatory variables, including maintenance motivation and satisfaction with outcomes, self-regulation, habit, and stable environment. Personal resources were not a consistent predictor of plan adherence. This is the first study to assess theoretical predictions of WLM within individuals. WLM is a dynamic process including the interplay of motivation, self-regulation, habit, resources, and perceptions of environmental context. Individuals maintaining their weight have unique psychological profiles which could be accounted for in interventions.

  12. Associations of weight stigma with cortisol and oxidative stress independent of adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Epel, Elissa S; McClatchey, Trissa M; Poelke, Gina; Kemeny, Margaret E; McCoy, Shannon K; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    Weight discrimination is associated with increased risk of obesity. The mechanism of this relationship is unknown, but being overweight is a highly stigmatized condition and may be a source of chronic stress that contributes to the development and pathophysiology of obesity. The objective of this study was to test whether weight stigma is associated with physiological risk factors linked to stress and obesity, including hypercortisolism and oxidative stress, independent of adiposity. We examined the frequency of experiencing situations involving weight stigma and consciousness of weight stigma in relation to hypothalamic--pituitary--adrenal axis activity and oxidative stress (F₂-isoprostanes) in 45 healthy overweight to obese women. Independent of abdominal fat, weight stigma was significantly related to measures of cortisol (including salivary measures of cortisol awakening response and serum morning levels) as well as higher levels of oxidative stress. Perceived stress mediated the relationship between weight stigma consciousness and the cortisol awakening response. These preliminary findings show that weight stigma is associated with greater biochemical stress, independent of level of adiposity. It is possible that weight stigma may contribute to poor health underlying some forms of obesity.

  13. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  14. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  15. Cancer incidence attributable to excess body weight in Alberta in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R; Poirier, Abbey E; Grundy, Anne; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2017-04-28

    Excess body weight has been consistently associated with colorectal, breast, endometrial, esophageal, gall bladder, pancreatic and kidney cancers. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the proportion of total and site-specific cancers attributable to excess body weight in adults in Alberta in 2012. We estimated the proportions of attributable cancers using population attributable risk. Risk estimates were obtained from recent meta-analyses, and exposure prevalence estimates were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey. People with a body mass index of 25.00-29.99 kg/m2 and of 30 kg/m2 or more were categorized as overweight and obese, respectively. About 14%-47% of men and 9%-35% of women in Alberta were classified as either overweight or obese; the proportion increased with increasing age for both sexes. We estimate that roughly 17% and 12% of obesity-related cancers among men and women, respectively, could be attributed to excess body weight in Alberta in 2012. The heaviest absolute burden in terms of number of cases was seen for breast cancer among women and for colorectal cancer among men. Overall, about 5% of all cancers in adults in Alberta in 2012 were estimated to be attributable to excess body weight in 2000-2003. Excess body weight contributes to a substantial proportion of cases of cancers associated with overweight and obesity annually in Alberta. Strategies to improve energy imbalance and reduce the proportion of obese and overweight Albertans may have a notable impact on cancer incidence in the future. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  16. Preliminary conceptual design and cost estimation for Korea Advanced Pyroprocessing Facility Plus (KAPF+)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il, E-mail: nwiko@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Hee, E-mail: nhhlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sungyeol, E-mail: csy@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ki, E-mail: sgkim1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Heung, E-mail: b.h.park@ut.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, 50 Daehak-ro, Chungju-si, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Jik, E-mail: hyojik@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Tae, E-mail: nitkim@kaeri.re.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, 50 Daehak-ro, Chungju-si, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Han Soo, E-mail: hslee5@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design is created for a pilot pyroprocessing plant treating PWR spent fuel. • Pilot-scale design is based on a capacity of 400 tHM/yr with 60 years lifetime. • All individual processes are integrated into a single system from feed to products. • Overall facility design is developed for a pilot pyroprocessing plant. • Unit process cost is estimated for pyroprocessing with uncertainties. - Abstract: Korea has developed pyroprocessing technology as a potential option for recycling spent fuels (SFs) from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The pyroprocessing consists of various key unit processes and a number of research activities have been focused on each process. However, to realize the whole pyroprocessing concept, there is a critical need for integrating the individual developments and addressing a material flow from feed to final products. In addition, the advancement on overall facility design is an indispensable aspect for demonstration and commercialization of the pyroprocessing. In this study, a facility named as Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility Plus (KAPF+) is conceptualized with a capacity of 400 tHM/yr. The process steps are categorized based on their own characteristics while the capacities of process equipment are determined based on the current technical levels. The facility concept with a site layout of 104,000 m{sup 2} is developed by analyzing the operation conditions and materials treated in each process. As an economic approach to the proposed facility, the unit cost (781 $/kgHM denominated in 2009 USD) for KAPF+ is also analyzed with the conceptual design with preliminary sensitivity assessments including decontamination and decommissioning costs, a discount rate, staffing costs, and plant lifetime. While classifying and describing cost details of KAPF+, this study compares the unit cost of KAPF+ treating PWR SF to that of the pyroprocessing facility treating sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) SF.

  17. Chi-square tests for comparing weighted histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagunashvili, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Weighted histograms in Monte Carlo simulations are often used for the estimation of probability density functions. They are obtained as a result of random experiments with random events that have weights. In this paper, the bin contents of a weighted histogram are considered as a sum of random variables with a random number of terms. Generalizations of the classical chi-square test for comparing weighted histograms are proposed. Numerical examples illustrate an application of the tests for the histograms with different statistics of events and different weighted functions. The proposed tests can be used for the comparison of experimental data histograms with simulated data histograms as well as for the two simulated data histograms.

  18. Effect of weight reductions on estimated kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Davies, Melanie J; Persson, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    creatinine. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of two 56-week, randomized, double-blind trials: SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes (n=3731, without type 2 diabetes [T2D], randomized [2:1] to liraglutide 3.0mg [n=2487] or placebo [n=1244]); SCALE Diabetes (n=846 with T2D, randomized [2:1:1] to liraglutide 3.0mg [n=423], 1.......8mg [n=211, excluded from this analysis] or placebo [n=212]). NCT01272219/NCT01272232. RESULTS: In SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes, mean (±SD) weight loss (baseline to week 56) with liraglutide was 8.0±6.7% (2.6±6.9% with placebo); baseline creatinine with liraglutide was 76±15μmol/L and 74±15μmol...

  19. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  20. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Clair; Reid, Papaarangi; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2012-05-28

    Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of "doing nothing" is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous) and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and "cost of illness" methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative "base case" scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  1. Weighted statistical parameters for irregularly sampled time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Unevenly spaced time series are common in astronomy because of the day-night cycle, weather conditions, dependence on the source position in the sky, allocated telescope time and corrupt measurements, for example, or inherent to the scanning law of satellites like Hipparcos and the forthcoming Gaia. Irregular sampling often causes clumps of measurements and gaps with no data which can severely disrupt the values of estimators. This paper aims at improving the accuracy of common statistical parameters when linear interpolation (in time or phase) can be considered an acceptable approximation of a deterministic signal. A pragmatic solution is formulated in terms of a simple weighting scheme, adapting to the sampling density and noise level, applicable to large data volumes at minimal computational cost. Tests on time series from the Hipparcos periodic catalogue led to significant improvements in the overall accuracy and precision of the estimators with respect to the unweighted counterparts and those weighted by inverse-squared uncertainties. Automated classification procedures employing statistical parameters weighted by the suggested scheme confirmed the benefits of the improved input attributes. The classification of eclipsing binaries, Mira, RR Lyrae, Delta Cephei and Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum stars employing exclusively weighted descriptive statistics achieved an overall accuracy of 92 per cent, about 6 per cent higher than with unweighted estimators.

  2. Measurement of H'(0.07) with pulse height weighting integration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liye, LIU; Gang, JIN; Jizeng, MA

    2002-01-01

    H'(0.07) is an important quantity for radiation field measurement in health physics. One of the plastic scintillator measurement methods is employing the weak current produced by PMT. However, there are some weaknesses in the current method. For instance: sensitive to environment humidity and temperature, non-linearity energy response. In order to increase the precision of H'(0.07) measurement, a Pulse Height Weighting Integration Method is introduced for its advantages: low noise, high sensitivity, data processable, wide measurement range. Pulse Height Weighting Integration Method seems to be acceptable to measure directional dose equivalent. The representative theoretical energy response of the pre-described method accords with the preliminary experiment result

  3. Existence of Solutions for Degenerate Elliptic Problems in Weighted Sobolev Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of the existence of solutions to a general elliptic problem Au+g(x,u,∇u=f-div⁡F, with f∈L1(Ω and F∈∏i=1NLp'(Ω,ωi*, where A is a Leray-Lions operator from a weighted Sobolev space into its dual and g(x,s,ξ is a nonlinear term satisfying gx,s,ξsgn⁡(s≥ρ∑i=1Nωi|ξi|p, |s|≥h>0, and a growth condition with respect to ξ. Here, ωi, ωi* are weight functions that will be defined in the Preliminaries.

  4. A preliminary assessment of the potential for using caesium-137 to estimate rates of soil erosion in the Loess Plateau of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinbao

    1990-01-01

    The potential for using the radionuclide caesium-137 as an environmental tracer to indicate sources of soil erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau is introduced. The caesium-137 contents of soil profiles have been used to estimate soil erosion losses from different topographic and land use conditions at Lishi, Shanxi Province, and Luochuan, Shaanxi Province. At uncultivated sites the caesium-137 has accumulated in the upper soil profile, whilst it has been mixed within the plough layer of cultivated soils. Eroded soils contain relatively less caesium-137, and simple calibration techniques are applied to quantify soil loss. Preliminary results suggest that caesium-137 may be of considerable value in assembling data on the rates and spatial distribution of soil loss and in identifying the source areas of eroded sediment. (author)

  5. Influence of sibutramine in addition to diet and exercise on the relationship between weight loss and blood glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamil, S; Finer, N; James, W P T

    2017-01-01

    on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine. Patients were classified into four groups of weight change. A total of 1582 patients had a weight...... loss induced by sibutramine, diet, and exercise attenuates falls in blood glucose levels and HbA1c compared with similar weight loss with placebo, diet and exercise....

  6. Preliminary analysis of the transient overpower accident for CRBRP. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Frank, M.V.

    1975-07-01

    A preliminary analysis of the transient overpower accident for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is presented. Several uncertainties in the analysis and the estimation of ramp rates during the transition to disassembly are discussed. The major conclusions are summarized

  7. APLIKASI SPLINE ESTIMATOR TERBOBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Budiantara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered the nonparametric regression model : Zj = X(tj + ej, j = 1,2,…,n, where X(tj is the regression curve. The random error ej are independently distributed normal with a zero mean and a variance s2/bj, bj > 0. The estimation of X obtained by minimizing a Weighted Least Square. The solution of this optimation is a Weighted Spline Polynomial. Further, we give an application of weigted spline estimator in nonparametric regression. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Diberikan model regresi nonparametrik : Zj = X(tj + ej, j = 1,2,…,n, dengan X (tj kurva regresi dan ej sesatan random yang diasumsikan berdistribusi normal dengan mean nol dan variansi s2/bj, bj > 0. Estimasi kurva regresi X yang meminimumkan suatu Penalized Least Square Terbobot, merupakan estimator Polinomial Spline Natural Terbobot. Selanjutnya diberikan suatu aplikasi estimator spline terbobot dalam regresi nonparametrik. Kata kunci: Spline terbobot, Regresi nonparametrik, Penalized Least Square.

  8. Estimating surface area in early hominins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cross

    Full Text Available Height and weight-based methods of estimating surface area have played an important role in the development of the current consensus regarding the role of thermoregulation in human evolution. However, such methods may not be reliable when applied to early hominins because their limb proportions differ markedly from those of humans. Here, we report a study in which this possibility was evaluated by comparing surface area estimates generated with the best-known height and weight-based method to estimates generated with a method that is sensitive to proportional differences. We found that the two methods yield indistinguishable estimates when applied to taxa whose limb proportions are similar to those of humans, but significantly different results when applied to taxa whose proportions differ from those of humans. We also found that the discrepancy between the estimates generated by the two methods is almost entirely attributable to inter-taxa differences in limb proportions. One corollary of these findings is that we need to reassess hypotheses about the role of thermoregulation in human evolution that have been developed with the aid of height and weight-based methods of estimating body surface area. Another is that we need to use other methods in future work on fossil hominin body surface areas.

  9. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  10. Bladder wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight in healthy adults with portative ultrasound device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcen Kanyilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate bladder wall thickness (BWT and ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW values in healthy population with a portative ultrasound device and their relationship with demographic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Neurorehabilitation Clinic of Ege University Hospital. Ninety-five subjects (48 women and 47 men aged between 18 and 56 were included in the study. BWT and UEBW were determined non-invasively with a portative ultrasound device; Bladder Scan BVM 6500 (Verathon Inc., WA, USA at a frequency of 3.7 MHz at functional bladder capacity. These values were compared by gender, and their relation was assessed with age, body mass index (BMI and parity. Results: Mean BWT was 2.0 ± 0.4 mm and UEBW was 44.6 ± 8.3 g at a mean volume of 338.0 ± 82.1 ml. Although higher results were obtained in men at higher bladder volumes, the results did not differ significantly by gender. Correlation analyses revealed statistically significant correlation between UEBW and age (r = 0.32. BWT was negatively correlated with volume (r = -0.50 and bladder surface area (r = -0.57. Also, statistically significant correlations were observed between UEBW and volume (r = 0.36, bladder surface area (r = 0.48 and BWT (r = 0.25. Conclusion: Determined values of BWT and UEBW in healthy population are estimated with portative ultrasound devices, which are future promising, for their convenient, easy, non-invasive, time-efficient hand-held use for screening.

  11. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We develop a methodology to estimate the potential economic benefits from new investments in regional coastal ocean observing systems in US waters, and apply this methodology to generate preliminary...

  12. molecular weight control of a batch suspension polymerization reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhi, M.; Fanaei, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns molecular weight control of a batch polymerization reactor where suspension polymerization of methyl methylacrylate (MMA) takes place. For this purpose, a cascade control structure with two control loops has been selected. The slave loop is used for temperature control using on-line temperature measurements, and the master loop controls the average molecular weights based on its estimated values. Two different control algorithms namely proportional-integral (PI) controller and globally linearizing controller (GLC) have been used for temperature control. An estimator, which has the structure of an extended Kalman filter(EKF), is used for estimating monomer conversion and average molecular weights of polymer using reactor temperature measurements. The performance of proposed control algorithm is evaluated through simulation and experimental studies. The results indicate that a constant average molecular weight cannot be achieved in case of strong gel effect. However, the polydispersity of product will be lower in comparison to isothermal operation. It is also shown that in case of mo dek mismatch, the performance of cascade control is superior compared to the case where only reactor temperature is controlled based on desired temperature trajectory obtained through cascade strategy

  13. Development and validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure of Weight (TRIM-Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessard Suzanne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of prescription anti-obesity medication (AOM is becoming increasingly common as treatment options grow and become more accessible. However, AOM may not be without a wide range of potentially negative impacts on patient functioning and well being. The Treatment Related Impact Measure (TRIM-Weight is an obesity treatment-specific patient reported outcomes (PRO measure designed to assess the key impacts of prescription anti-obesity medication. This paper will present the validation findings for the TRIM-Weight. Methods The online validation battery survey was administered in four countries (the U.S., U.K., Australia, and Canada. Eligible subjects were over age eighteen, currently taking a prescription AOM and were currently or had been obese during their life. Validation analyses were conducted according to an a priori statistical analysis plan. Item level psychometric and conceptual criteria were used to refine and reduce the preliminary item pool and factor analysis to identify structural domains was performed. Reliability and validity testing was then performed and the minimally importance difference (MID explored. Results Two hundred and eight subjects completed the survey. Twenty-one of the 43 items were dropped and a five-factor structure was achieved: Daily Life, Weight Management, Treatment Burden, Experience of Side Effects, and Psychological Health. A-priori criteria for internal consistency and test-retest coefficients for the total score and all five subscales were met. All pre-specified hypotheses for convergent and known group validity were also met with the exception of the domain of Daily Life (proven in an ad hoc analysis as well as the 1/2 standard deviation threshold for the MID. Conclusion The development and validation of the TRIM-Weight has been conducted according to well-defined principles for the creation of a PRO measure. Based on the evidence to date, the TRIM-Weight can be considered a brief

  14. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp Lima

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestational diabetes, gestational weight gain, and type of delivery as determinants of the baby's birth weight. RESULTS For a gain of 4 kg/m2 (1 Standard Deviation [SD] in pre-pregnancy body mass index, there was a 0.126 SD increase in birth weight, corresponding to 68 grams (p < 0.001. A 6 kg increase (1 SD in gestational weight gain represented a 0.280 SD increase in newborn weight, correponding to 151.2 grams (p < 0.001. The positive effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on birth weight was direct (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.202; p < 0.001, but the negative indirect effect was small (SC = -0.076, p < 0.001 and partially mediated by the lower weight gain during pregnancy (SC = -0.070, p < 0.001. The positive effect of weight gain during pregnany on birth weight was predominantly direct (SC = 0.269, p < 0.001, with a small indirect effect of cesarean delivery (SC = 0.011; p < 0.001. Women with a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index gained less weight during pregnancy (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS The effect of gestational weight gain on the increase in birth weight was greater than that of pre-pregnancy body mass index.

  15. Diffusion weighted imaging and estimation of prognosis using apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Korcan Aysun; Simsek, Mehmet Masum

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Estimation of the prognosis of infarction by using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Methods: 23 patients having acute stroke symptoms with verified infarction in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in this study. Their MRI studies were performed between 6 and 12 h after the onset of their symptoms and were repeated on the fifth day. The infarction volumes were calculated by using DWI and the patients were divided into two groups as the ones having an expansion in the infarction area (group 1, n = 16) and the others having no expansion in the infarction area (group 2, n = 7). Quantitative ADC values were estimated. The groups were compared in terms of the ADC values on ADC maps obtained from DWI, performed during the between 6 and 12 h from the onset of the symptoms, referring to the core of the infarction (ADC IC ), ischemic penumbra (ADC P ) and the nonischemic parenchymal tissue (ADC N ). P values 3 for group 1 patients (ranging from 1.1 to 68.6) and this was found to be 40.3 cm 3 (ranging from 1.8 to 91.5) on the fifth day. For the group 2 patients these values were found to be 42.1 cm 3 (ranging from 1 to 94.7) and 41.9 (ranging from 1 to 94.7) for the same intervals respectively. A significant statistical result was failed to be demonstrated between the mean ADC IC and ADC N values (p = 0.350 and p = 0.229 respectively). However the comparison of the ADC P values between the groups was found to be highly significant (p P and ADC IC and ADC N and ADC P were compared the results proved to be statistically significant (p = 0.038 and p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions: We believe that ADC results that would be obtained from the core and the penumbra of the infarction area will be beneficial in the estimation of the infarction prognosis and in the planning of a treatment protocol.

  16. Variance of a product with application to uranium estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, V.W.; Waterman, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The U in a container can either be determined directly by NDA or by estimating the weight of material in the container and the concentration of U in this material. It is important to examine the statistical properties of estimating the amount of U by multiplying the estimates of weight and concentration. The variance of the product determines the accuracy of the estimate of the amount of uranium. This paper examines the properties of estimates of the variance of the product of two random variables

  17. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned

  18. Memory-efficient calculations of adjoint-weighted tallies by the Monte Carlo Wielandt method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Shim, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The MC Wielandt method is applied to reduce memory for the adjoint estimation. • The adjoint-weighted kinetics parameters are estimated in the MC Wielandt calculations. • The MC S/U analyses are conducted in the MC Wielandt calculations. - Abstract: The current Monte Carlo (MC) adjoint-weighted tally techniques based on the iterated fission probability (IFP) concept require a memory amount which is proportional to the numbers of the adjoint-weighted tallies and histories per cycle to store history-wise tally estimates during the convergence of the adjoint flux. Especially the conventional MC adjoint-weighted perturbation (AWP) calculations for the nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis suffer from the huge memory consumption to realize the IFP concept. In order to reduce the memory requirement drastically, we present a new adjoint estimation method in which the memory usage is irrelevant to the numbers of histories per cycle by applying the IFP concept for the MC Wielandt calculations. The new algorithms for the adjoint-weighted kinetics parameter estimation and the AWP calculations in the MC Wielandt method are implemented in a Seoul National University MC code, McCARD and its validity is demonstrated in critical facility problems. From the comparison of the nuclear data S/U analyses, it is demonstrated that the memory amounts to store the sensitivity estimates in the proposed method become negligibly small.

  19. A Weighted Least Squares Approach To Robustify Least Squares Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chowhong; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    This study developed a robust linear regression technique based on the idea of weighted least squares. In this technique, a subsample of the full data of interest is drawn, based on a measure of distance, and an initial set of regression coefficients is calculated. The rest of the data points are then taken into the subsample, one after another,…

  20. Pacemaker therapy in low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Tai; Nishioka, Masahiko; Akashige, Toru; Shimabukuro, Atsuya; Nagata, Nobuhiro

    2018-02-01

    Infants born with complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) and fetal bradycardia are frequently born with low birth weight. Three low-birth-weight CAVB infants underwent temporary pacemaker implantation, followed by permanent single-chamber pacemaker implantation at median body weights of 1.7 and 3.2 kg, respectively. All infants caught up with their growth curves and had >3 years of estimated residual battery life. This two-stage strategy was successful in facilitating permanent pacemaker implantation in low-birth-weight babies. Placement of single-chamber pacemaker on the apex of the left ventricle appears to be associated with longer battery lifespan. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Estimating the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers: The case of Bantar Gebang in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shunsuke; Araki, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    This article presents informal recycling contributions made by scavengers in the surrounding area of Bantar Gebang final disposal site for municipal solid waste generated in Jakarta. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted through daily conversations with scavengers to identify recycling actors at the site, and then quantitative field surveys were conducted twice. The first survey (n = 504 households) covered 33% of all households in the area, and the second survey (n = 69 households) was conducted to quantify transactions of recyclables among scavengers. Mathematical equations were formulated with assumptions made to estimate the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers. Slightly over 60% of all respondents were involved in informal recycling and over 80% of heads of households were waste pickers, normally referred to as live-in waste pickers and live-out waste pickers at the site. The largest percentage of their spouses were family workers, followed by waste pickers and housewives. Over 95% of all households of respondents had at least one waste picker or one small boss who has a coequal status of a waste picker. Average weight of recyclables collected by waste pickers at the site was estimated to be approximately 100 kg day(-1) per household on the net weight basis. The recycling rate of solid wastes collected by all scavengers at the site was estimated to be in the range of 2.8-7.5% of all solid wastes transported to the site. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Parameters Estimation of Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GWOLR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Shaifudin; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi; Widyaningsih, Purnami

    2017-06-01

    A regression model is the representation of relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. The dependent variable has categories used in the logistic regression model to calculate odds on. The logistic regression model for dependent variable has levels in the logistics regression model is ordinal. GWOLR model is an ordinal logistic regression model influenced the geographical location of the observation site. Parameters estimation in the model needed to determine the value of a population based on sample. The purpose of this research is to parameters estimation of GWOLR model using R software. Parameter estimation uses the data amount of dengue fever patients in Semarang City. Observation units used are 144 villages in Semarang City. The results of research get GWOLR model locally for each village and to know probability of number dengue fever patient categories.

  3. GTX Reference Vehicle Structural Verification Methods and Weight Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Dunn, P. W.

    2002-01-01

    The design of a single-stage-to-orbit air breathing propulsion system requires the simultaneous development of a reference launch vehicle in order to achieve the optimal mission performance. Accordingly, for the GTX study a 300-lb payload reference vehicle was preliminarily sized to a gross liftoff weight (GLOW) of 238,000 lb. A finite element model of the integrated vehicle/propulsion system was subjected to the trajectory environment and subsequently optimized for structural efficiency. This study involved the development of aerodynamic loads mapped to finite element models of the integrated system in order to assess vehicle margins of safety. Commercially available analysis codes were used in the process along with some internally developed spreadsheets and FORTRAN codes specific to the GTX geometry for mapping of thermal and pressure loads. A mass fraction of 0.20 for the integrated system dry weight has been the driver for a vehicle design consisting of state-of-the-art composite materials in order to meet the rigid weight requirements. This paper summarizes the methodology used for preliminary analyses and presents the current status of the weight optimization for the structural components of the integrated system.

  4. Outlier Detection in Regression Using an Iterated One-Step Approximation to the Huber-Skip Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    In regression we can delete outliers based upon a preliminary estimator and reestimate the parameters by least squares based upon the retained observations. We study the properties of an iteratively defined sequence of estimators based on this idea. We relate the sequence to the Huber-skip estima......In regression we can delete outliers based upon a preliminary estimator and reestimate the parameters by least squares based upon the retained observations. We study the properties of an iteratively defined sequence of estimators based on this idea. We relate the sequence to the Huber...... that the normalized estimation errors are tight and are close to a linear function of the kernel, thus providing a stochastic expansion of the estimators, which is the same as for the Huber-skip. This implies that the iterated estimator is a close approximation of the Huber-skip...

  5. Inverse probability weighting and doubly robust methods in correcting the effects of non-response in the reimbursed medication and self-reported turnout estimates in the ATH survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkänen, Tommi; Kaikkonen, Risto; Virtala, Esa; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-11-06

    To assess the nonresponse rates in a questionnaire survey with respect to administrative register data, and to correct the bias statistically. The Finnish Regional Health and Well-being Study (ATH) in 2010 was based on a national sample and several regional samples. Missing data analysis was based on socio-demographic register data covering the whole sample. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) and doubly robust (DR) methods were estimated using the logistic regression model, which was selected using the Bayesian information criteria. The crude, weighted and true self-reported turnout in the 2008 municipal election and prevalences of entitlements to specially reimbursed medication, and the crude and weighted body mass index (BMI) means were compared. The IPW method appeared to remove a relatively large proportion of the bias compared to the crude prevalence estimates of the turnout and the entitlements to specially reimbursed medication. Several demographic factors were shown to be associated with missing data, but few interactions were found. Our results suggest that the IPW method can improve the accuracy of results of a population survey, and the model selection provides insight into the structure of missing data. However, health-related missing data mechanisms are beyond the scope of statistical methods, which mainly rely on socio-demographic information to correct the results.

  6. Estimating 4D-CBCT from prior information and extremely limited angle projections using structural PCA and weighted free-form deformation for lung radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using structural-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume. The DFM was solved by a motion model extracted by a global PCA and free-form deformation (GMM-FD) technique, using a data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. In this study, a new structural PCA method was developed to build a structural motion model (SMM) by accounting for potential relative motion pattern changes between different anatomical structures from simulation to treatment. The motion model extracted from planning 4DCT was divided into two structures: tumor and body excluding tumor, and the parameters of both structures were optimized together. Weighted free-form deformation (WFD) was employed afterwards to introduce flexibility in adjusting the weightings of different structures in the data fidelity constraint based on clinical interests. XCAT (computerized patient model) simulation with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respiratory changes from planning 4D-CT to on-board volume to evaluate the method. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by the volume percent difference (VPD)/center-of-mass-shift (COMS) between lesions in the estimated and "ground-truth" on-board 4D-CBCT. Different on-board projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy. The method was also evaluated against three lung patients. The SMM-WFD method achieved substantially better accuracy than the GMM-FD method for CBCT estimation using extremely

  7. RENAL GLOMERULAR NUMBER AND SIZE IN AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES, AFRICAN AMERICANS AND WHITE POPULATIONS FROM THE SAME LOCATIONS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Bertram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available End stage renal disease is a major health problem for Australian Aborigines and African Americans. Abnormally enlarged glomeruli are commonly observed in biopsies from Aborigines and African Americans and may represent a compensatory hypertrophic response to reduced nephron endowment. We have commenced a study examining glomerular number and size, and their associations in Australian Aborigines and whites, and US African Americans and whites. Kidneys at autopsy are perfusion-fixed and subsampled for stereological estimation of total glomerular number (Nglom; using the physical disector/fractionator combination, and mean renal corpuscle (Vcorp and glomerular volume (Vglom. Kidneys from 58 people have been studied to date with ages ranging from newborn to 84 years. Preliminary findings are: (1 an almost 9-fold range in Nglom (from 210,332 to 1,825,380 with a mean of 762,302; (2 Nglom decreased with age in adult life (p = 0.014; (3 Vcorp varied 19-fold in the series and 5.5-fold in adults; (4 Vglom was inversely correlated with Nglom (p = 0.004; (5 total renal corpuscle volume (Nglom × Vcorp ranged by a factor of 13.2; (6 kidney weight was correlated with body surface area (BSA at all ages (p < 0.001; (7 BSA-corrected kidney weight did not vary with age, it ranged from 47 g/m2 to 175 g/m2, a 3.7 fold difference, with an average of 92 ± 25 g/m2. These preliminary results have revealed several new and important correlations. No racial differences in glomerular number or size have yet been identified, but with greater sample sizes such differences may be revealed.

  8. Preliminary estimate of CO2 budget discharged from Vulcano island

    OpenAIRE

    Inguaggiato, S.; Mazot, A.; Diliberto, I. S.; Rowet, D.; Vita, F.; Capasso, G.; Bobrowski, N.; Inguaggiato, C.; Grassa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Total CO2 output from fumaroles, soil gases, bubbling and water dissolved gases were estimated at Vulcano Island, Italy. The fumaroles output has been estimated from SO2 plume flux, while soil flux emission has been carried out through 730 CO2 fluxes measured on the island surface, performed by means of accumulation chamber method. Vulcano Island, located in the Aeolian Archipelago, is an active volcano that has been in state of solphataric activity, since the last eruption (1888-1890). At p...

  9. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  10. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Clair

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  11. On the Relationship Between Confidence Sets and Exchangeable Weights in Multiple Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Jolynn; Chalmers, R Philip; Monette, Georges

    2016-01-01

    When statistical models are employed to provide a parsimonious description of empirical relationships, the extent to which strong conclusions can be drawn rests on quantifying the uncertainty in parameter estimates. In multiple linear regression (MLR), regression weights carry two kinds of uncertainty represented by confidence sets (CSs) and exchangeable weights (EWs). Confidence sets quantify uncertainty in estimation whereas the set of EWs quantify uncertainty in the substantive interpretation of regression weights. As CSs and EWs share certain commonalities, we clarify the relationship between these two kinds of uncertainty about regression weights. We introduce a general framework describing how CSs and the set of EWs for regression weights are estimated from the likelihood-based and Wald-type approach, and establish the analytical relationship between CSs and sets of EWs. With empirical examples on posttraumatic growth of caregivers (Cadell et al., 2014; Schneider, Steele, Cadell & Hemsworth, 2011) and on graduate grade point average (Kuncel, Hezlett & Ones, 2001), we illustrate the usefulness of CSs and EWs for drawing strong scientific conclusions. We discuss the importance of considering both CSs and EWs as part of the scientific process, and provide an Online Appendix with R code for estimating Wald-type CSs and EWs for k regression weights.

  12. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdirahman A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects. Genetic correlations between IBK incidence

  13. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdirahman A; O'Neill, Christopher J; Thomson, Peter C; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2012-07-27

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg counts were moderate and opposite between pre

  14. Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic trends for weight and body measurements at birth in sheep populations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    China Supakorn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and genetic trends for birth weight (BW,heart girth (HG, and body length (BL at birth of sheep populations in Thailand. Data were collected during 1998 to 2011 fromfour livestock research and testing stations. Fixed effect testing showed that sex, herd, contemporary group and breed groupgreatly influenced on the investigated traits (P<0.05. The log likelihood ratio test showed that all traits significantly affectedby maternal additive genetic effect as well as covariance between animal effects. Estimated direct heritabilities from multivariate analysis of the model for BW, HG and BL were 0.32, 0.52 and 0.54, while estimated maternal heritabilities were 0.23,0.14 and 0.14, respectively. Positive correlations were found among direct additive genetic (0.29 to 0.97, maternal additivegenetic (0.23 to 0.95, and phenotype (0.18 to 0.96. Direct-maternal correlations within traits (-0.68 for BW, -0.92 for HG and-0.89 for BL and between traits (-0.89 to -0.08 were antagonistic effect. Direct additive genetic trends for BW, HG and BL inthe second period (2005 to 2011 were significantly increased (0.02 kg/year, 0.89 and 0.73 cm/year while maternal additivegenetic trends characteristically depicted significantly decreased (-0.01 kg/year, -0.92 and -0.72 cm/year.

  15. Weighted Lomax distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, N M

    2016-01-01

    The Lomax distribution (Pareto Type-II) is widely applicable in reliability and life testing problems in engineering as well as in survival analysis as an alternative distribution. In this paper, Weighted Lomax distribution is proposed and studied. The density function and its behavior, moments, hazard and survival functions, mean residual life and reversed failure rate, extreme values distributions and order statistics are derived and studied. The parameters of this distribution are estimated by the method of moments and the maximum likelihood estimation method and the observed information matrix is derived. Moreover, simulation schemes are derived. Finally, an application of the model to a real data set is presented and compared with some other well-known distributions.

  16. Population dose and health impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. Preliminary estimates for the period March 28, 1979--April 7, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battist, L.; Congel, F.; Buchanan, J.; Peterson, H.

    1979-05-01

    This report contains a preliminary assessment of the radiation dose and potential health impact of the accident on March 28, 1979 at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This assessment was prepared by a task group composed of technical staff members from The Environmental Protection Agency, The Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and The Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The estimated dose that might have been received by an individual is less than 100 mrem. The collective dose received by the 2,164,000 people estimated to live within 50 miles of the reactor site is calculated to be 3,300 person-rem (with a range of 1600 to 5300 person-rem). This corresponds to an average dose of approximately 1.5 mrem. The potential number of fatal cancers that is projected to occur as a result of the accident is less than 1. This potential impact would be undetectable compared to the 325,000 cancer deaths that would normally be expected to occur in a population of 2,164,000. The estimated total health impact, including fatal and non-fatal cancers and genetic effects to all future generations is approximately 2 health effects

  17. Beta Instability and Stochastic Market Weights

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Goldenberg

    1985-01-01

    An argument is given for individual firm beta instability based upon the stochastic character of the market weights defining the market portfolio and the constancy of its beta. This argument is generalized to market weighted portfolios and the form of the stochastic process generating betas is linked to that of the market return process. The implications of this analysis for adequacy of models of beta nonstationarity and estimation of betas are considered in light of the available empirical e...

  18. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...... (1989). In many cases validity of bootstrap-based inference procedures is found to depend crucially on whether the bandwidth sequence satisfies a particular (asymptotic linearity) condition. An exception to this rule occurs for inference procedures involving a studentized estimator employing a "robust...

  19. Flow Cytometry Pulse Width Data Enables Rapid and Sensitive Estimation of Biomass Dry Weight in the Microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioccioli, Maurizio; Hankamer, Ben; Ross, Ian L.

    2014-01-01

    Dry weight biomass is an important parameter in algaculture. Direct measurement requires weighing milligram quantities of dried biomass, which is problematic for small volume systems containing few cells, such as laboratory studies and high throughput assays in microwell plates. In these cases indirect methods must be used, inducing measurement artefacts which vary in severity with the cell type and conditions employed. Here, we utilise flow cytometry pulse width data for the estimation of cell density and biomass, using Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as model algae and compare it to optical density methods. Measurement of cell concentration by flow cytometry was shown to be more sensitive than optical density at 750 nm (OD750) for monitoring culture growth. However, neither cell concentration nor optical density correlates well to biomass when growth conditions vary. Compared to the growth of C. vulgaris in TAP (tris-acetate-phosphate) medium, cells grown in TAP + glucose displayed a slowed cell division rate and a 2-fold increased dry biomass accumulation compared to growth without glucose. This was accompanied by increased cellular volume. Laser scattering characteristics during flow cytometry were used to estimate cell diameters and it was shown that an empirical but nonlinear relationship could be shown between flow cytometric pulse width and dry weight biomass per cell. This relationship could be linearised by the use of hypertonic conditions (1 M NaCl) to dehydrate the cells, as shown by density gradient centrifugation. Flow cytometry for biomass estimation is easy to perform, sensitive and offers more comprehensive information than optical density measurements. In addition, periodic flow cytometry measurements can be used to calibrate OD750 measurements for both convenience and accuracy. This approach is particularly useful for small samples and where cellular characteristics, especially cell size, are expected to vary during growth. PMID

  20. A mass-density model can account for the size-weight illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Drewing, Knut

    2018-01-01

    When judging the heaviness of two objects with equal mass, people perceive the smaller and denser of the two as being heavier. Despite the large number of theories, covering bottom-up and top-down approaches, none of them can fully account for all aspects of this size-weight illusion and thus for human heaviness perception. Here we propose a new maximum-likelihood estimation model which describes the illusion as the weighted average of two heaviness estimates with correlated noise: One estimate derived from the object's mass, and the other from the object's density, with estimates' weights based on their relative reliabilities. While information about mass can directly be perceived, information about density will in some cases first have to be derived from mass and volume. However, according to our model at the crucial perceptual level, heaviness judgments will be biased by the objects' density, not by its size. In two magnitude estimation experiments, we tested model predictions for the visual and the haptic size-weight illusion. Participants lifted objects which varied in mass and density. We additionally varied the reliability of the density estimate by varying the quality of either visual (Experiment 1) or haptic (Experiment 2) volume information. As predicted, with increasing quality of volume information, heaviness judgments were increasingly biased towards the object's density: Objects of the same density were perceived as more similar and big objects were perceived as increasingly lighter than small (denser) objects of the same mass. This perceived difference increased with an increasing difference in density. In an additional two-alternative forced choice heaviness experiment, we replicated that the illusion strength increased with the quality of volume information (Experiment 3). Overall, the results highly corroborate our model, which seems promising as a starting point for a unifying framework for the size-weight illusion and human heaviness perception.

  1. Preliminary radiation protection tests for the body height and body weight of the Chinese reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Z.Y.; Chang, Z.Y.; Lan, W.Z.; Yin, G.A.; Li, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation protection standard recommended by ICRP was evaluated in terms of its suitability for Chinese people. The body height and weight of 100,325 healthy Chinese were measured and anatomical data collected from usable corpses of persons who died by accident or sudden death. The data included the size and weight of certain organs. 18 refs

  2. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. GA-4/GA-9 legal weight truck from reactor spent fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The preliminary design report presents the results of General Atomics (GA) preliminary design effort to develop weight truck from reactor spent fuel shipping casks. The thermal evaluation of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) cask considered normal and hypothetical accident conditions of transport. We employed analytical modeling as well as fire testing of the neutron shielding material to perform the evaluation. This document addresses the thermal design features of the cask, discusses thermal criteria, and summarizes the results of the thermal evaluation, as well as results of structural containment and nuclear evaluations that support the design. Also included are the results of trade-off studies. 69 refs., 103 figs., 76 tabs

  5. A geostatistical estimation of zinc grade in bore-core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzec, A.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities and preliminary results of geostatistical interpretation of the XRF determination of zinc in bore-core samples are considered. For the spherical model of the variogram the estimation variance of grade in a disk-shape sample (estimated from the grade on the circumference sample) is calculated. Variograms of zinc grade in core samples are presented and examples of the grade estimation are discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  6. Live weight and body measurement of Hungarian Thoroughbred broodmares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Bene

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Live weights and 21 body measurements of 110 adult brood mares from Thoroughbred breed were evaluated in Hungary. Body measurements and some body measure indices were determined. One way ANOVA was used to compare the studs. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Population genetic parameters of the examined traits were estimated. Only few differences among studs, concerning evaluated body measurements, were presented - firstly: body measurements, related to the kilter and nutritional status (hearth girth - were significant. Between the mentioned traits and the live weight medium positive correlation (r = 0.47 - 0.79; P<0.01 was found. For the estimation of live weight with regression model the necessary data are as follows: hearth girth, 2nd width of rump and diagonal length of body. The determination coefficient was 0.80 (P<0.01. Height at withers, of back and at rump (h2 = 0.66, 0.67 and 0.51 showed medium heritability values. The heritability of depth of chest and height of bieler-point were 0.32 and 0.48, respectively. Quite small differences were found between the stallions in most of the body measurements. The live weight and height measurements were exceptions, as here the differences between the sires were slightly higher. As a conclusion it can be stated that the Thoroughbred population in Hungary is quite homogenous in terms of the most important body measurements.

  7. Preliminary uncertainty analysis of OECD/UAM benchmark for the TMI-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Fabiano S.; Faria, Rochkhudson B.; Silva, Lucas M.C.; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the demand from nuclear research centers for safety, regulation and better-estimated predictions provided with confidence bounds has been increasing. On that way, studies have pointed out that present uncertainties in the nuclear data should be significantly reduced, to get the full benefit from the advanced modeling and simulation initiatives. The major outcome of NEA/OECD (UAM) workshop took place Italy on 2006, was the preparation of a benchmark work program with steps (exercises) that would be needed to define the uncertainty and modeling tasks. On that direction, this work was performed within the framework of UAM Exercise 1 (I-1) 'Cell Physics' to validate the study, and to be able estimated the accuracies of the model. The objectives of this study were to make a preliminary analysis of criticality values of TMI-1 PWR and the biases of the results from two different nuclear codes multiplication factor. The range of the bias was obtained using the deterministic codes: NEWT (New ESC-based Weighting Transport code), the two-dimensional transport module that uses AMPX-formatted cross-sections processed by other SCALE; and WIMSD5 (Winfrith Improved Multi-Group Scheme) code. The WIMSD5 system consists of a simplified geometric representation of heterogeneous space zones that are coupled with each other and with the boundaries, while the properties of each spacing element are obtained from Carlson DSN method or Collision Probability method. (author)

  8. Estimation of weights for the Monetary Conditions Index in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Toroj

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we follow the econometric approach to assess relative importance of real interest rate and real exchange rate for the monetary conditions in Poland, quantified as weights for Monetary Conditions Index (MCI). We consider both single- and multiple-equation specifications proposed in the literature with an application to Poland. Although MCI is nowadays broadly considered a rather obsolete indicator in monetary policy conduct, we argue that the econometric framework used for this ...

  9. A neural flow estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur; Bruun, Erik

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a new way to estimate the flow in a micromechanical flow channel. A neural network is used to estimate the delay of random temperature fluctuations induced in a fluid. The design and implementation of a hardware efficient neural flow estimator is described. The system...... is implemented using switched-current technique and is capable of estimating flow in the μl/s range. The neural estimator is built around a multiplierless neural network, containing 96 synaptic weights which are updated using the LMS1-algorithm. An experimental chip has been designed that operates at 5 V...

  10. Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Evaluation of in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP. The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I, and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  11. Weight and height prediction of immobilized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rabito,Estela Iraci; Vannucchi,Gabriela Bergamini; Suen,Vivian Marques Miguel; Castilho Neto,Laércio Lopes; Marchini,Júlio Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm the adequacy of the formula suggested in the literature and/or to develop appropriate equations for the Brazilian population of immobilized patients based on simple anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Hospitalized patients were submitted to anthropometry and methods to estimate weight and height of bedridden patients were developed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty eight persons were evaluated at two hospital centers and five weight-predicting...

  12. LOW COST POTENTIAL INFILTRATION ESTIMATION FOR WET TROPICAL WATERSHEDS FOR TERRITORIAL PLANNING SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Mendonça dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed at Caçula stream watershed of Ilha Solteira (Brazil for potential infiltration estimation based on digital cartography. These methods aim at low-cost and quick analysis processes in order to support the territorial planning. The preliminary potential infiltration chart was produced using ArcHydro and pedological information of the study area. The curve-number method (Soil Conservation Service was used to determine the potential infiltration combining information related to landuse and soil types in the watershed. We also used a methodology that assumes being possible to evaluate potential infiltration of a watershed combining average annual rainfall, land-use and watershed natural attributes (geomorphology, geology and pedology. Results show that ArcHydro is efficient for a preliminary characterization because it shows flow accumulation areas, allowing higher potential of degradation areas in terms of floods, mass movement and erosion. As land-use classes have significant weight in Soil Conservation Service method assessing potential infiltration, this method allow us to evaluate how land-use changes affect water dynamic in the watershed. The propose based on natural environment attributes enables to determine the homologous infiltration areas based on a higher number of natural characteristics of the area, and thereby obtain a result that is closer to the local conditions and, consequently for degradation surface processes identification.

  13. Nutritional ecology of blowflies (Diptera, Calliphoridae: estimates of critical larval weight for pupation on two different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio da Silva Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under natural environmental conditions, blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral feeding resources such as decaying carcasses. Competition for food on such feeding substrates is usually very severe, and only the individuals that are capable of attaining the critical larval weight for pupation will be able to survive. This critical weight is hitherto unknown for several blowfly species; therefore, the current work is aimed at obtaining such a critical value for four blowfly species of the genera Chrysomya and Lucilia, deploying two types of feeding substrate, namely, artificial diet and macerated bovine meat. On the whole, the critical weights ranged from 30 to 35 mg. The lowest larval weight which permitted pupation was 30.0 mg for Chrysomya megacephala reared on macerated bovine meat. This species was also the best adapted to pupation at low larval weights in relation to the maximum larval weight for males. Regarding the pupation of females, the best-adapted individual was a C. albiceps specimen exhibiting a critical weight that was equal to 39.20 % of the maximum value obtained. Concerning all the species and diet types, the female individuals exhibited the lowest critical weights that produced viable pupae, probably representing an evolutionary strategy that favoured the survival of females, responsible for the egg formation, contributing to the establishment of future generations. Regarding the loss (in percentage of adult biomass in relation to the third instar larvae, the females of C. megacephala lost less weight than males in both feeding substrates. On the other hand, such a loss of weight occurred in males of C. albiceps and L. cuprina.

  14. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establ......This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...

  15. Combined use of T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted 3-T MR imaging for differentiating uterine sarcomas from benign leiomyomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Awai, Kazuo; Nakaura, Takeshi; Yanaga, Yumi; Hirai, Toshinori; Saito, Tetsuo; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2009-01-01

    The objective of our study was to compare diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) alone and DWI combined with T2-weighted MRI for the differentiation of uterine sarcomas from benign leiomyomas. T2-weighted imaging and DWI were performed in 103 patients with 103 myometrial tumours, including 8 uterine sarcomas and 95 benign leiomyomas on 3-T MR imaging. The signal intensity (SI) of the tumour on T2-weighted images was quantified as the tumour-myometrium contrast ratio (TCR) by using the following formula: (SI tumour - SI myometrium )/SI myometrium . The TCR or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value alone and then the ADC value combined with T2-weighted imaging were evaluated for differentiation between sarcomas and leiomyomas. The mean ADC value of sarcomas was 0.86 ± 0.11 x 10 -3 m 2 /s, which was significantly lower than that of leiomyomas 1.18 ± 0.24 x 10 -3 m 2 /s; however, there was a substantial overlap. The mean TCR of sarcomas was 0.66 ± 0.71, which was significantly higher than that of the leiomyomas, -0.37 ± 0.34; however, again, there was a considerable overlap. When ADC was less than 1.05 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s and TCR was greater than 0 this condition was considered to confirm a sarcoma; a combination of ADC and TCR achieved a significant improvement without any overlap between sarcomas and leiomyomas (sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%). Our preliminary results indicate that combined DWI and T2-weighted MR imaging is better than DWI alone in the differentiation of uterine sarcomas from benign leiomyomas. (orig.)

  16. Preliminary feasibility assessment for Earth-to-space electromagnetic (Railgun) launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Earhart, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An Earth to space electromagnetic (railgun) launcher (ESRL) for launching material into space was studied. Potential ESRL applications were identified and initially assessed to formulate preliminary system requirements. The potential applications included nuclear waste disposal in space, Earth orbital applications, deep space probe launchers, atmospheric research, and boost of chemical rockets. The ESRL system concept consisted of two separate railgun launcher tubes (one at 20 deg from the horizontal for Earth orbital missions, the other vertical for solar system escape disposal missions) powered by a common power plant. Each 2040 m launcher tube is surrounded by 10,200 homopolar generator/inductor units to transmit the power to the walls. Projectile masses are 6500 kg for Earth orbital missions and 2055 kg for nuclear waste disposal missions. For the Earth orbital missions, the projectile requires a propulsion system, leaving an estimated payload mass of 650 kg. For the nuclear waste disposal in space mission, the high level waste mass was estimated at 250 kg. This preliminary assessment included technical, environmental, and economic analyses.

  17. Relationships of body weight and carcass quality traits with first lactation milk production in Finnish Ayrshire cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liinamo, A.E.; Ojala, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Relationships of body weight and carcass quality traits with first lactation milk production traits were estimated from a field data set of 28362 Finnish Ayrshire cows, using REML methodology and animal model. Studied body weight traits included heifer and mature live weight, estimated based on

  18. Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel): changes in weighting methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2017-01-01

    to introduce the methodology used to calculate post-stratification weights of the 2012 Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel) and to compare the trends of indicators estimated by cell-by-cell weighting and raking methods. in this panel of cross-sectional studies, the prevalences of smokers, overweight, and intake of fruits and vegetables from 2006 to 2012 were estimated using the cell-by-cell weighting and raking methods. there were no differences in time trends of the indicators estimated by both methods, but the prevalence of smokers estimated by the raking method was lower than the estimated by cell-by-cell weighting, whilst the prevalence of fruit and vegetable intake was higher; for overweight, there was no difference between the methods. raking method presented higher accuracy of the estimates when compared to cell-by-cell weighting method, proving to be most convenient, although it presents register coverage bias.

  19. Assessment of Patient-Specific Surgery Effect Based on Weighted Estimation and Propensity Scoring in the Re-Analysis of the Sciatica Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Bart J. A.; Jacobs, Wilco C. H.; Brand, Ronald; Peul, Wilco C.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a re-analysis of the wait-and-see (control) arm of a recent clinical trial on sciatica. While the original randomised trial was designed to evaluate the public policy effect of a conservative wait-and-see approach versus early surgery, we investigate the impact of surgery at the individual patient level in a re-analysis of the wait-and-see group data. Both marginal structural model re-weighted estimates as well as propensity score adjusted analyses are presented. Results indicate that patients with high propensity to receive surgery may have beneficial effects at 2 years from delayed disc surgery. PMID:25353633

  20. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  1. Genetic estimation of hot carcass weight in indigenous Matebele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameter estimation for simple carcass traits has been confined to the improved goat breeds worldwide unlike in the unimproved breeds in developing countries where goats are numerous. Variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, permanent environmental maternal effects, the covariance ...

  2. The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walpole Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The energy requirement of species at each trophic level in an ecological pyramid is a function of the number of organisms and their average mass. Regarding human populations, although considerable attention is given to estimating the number of people, much less is given to estimating average mass, despite evidence that average body mass is increasing. We estimate global human biomass, its distribution by region and the proportion of biomass due to overweight and obesity. Methods For each country we used data on body mass index (BMI and height distribution to estimate average adult body mass. We calculated total biomass as the product of population size and average body mass. We estimated the percentage of the population that is overweight (BMI > 25 and obese (BMI > 30 and the biomass due to overweight and obesity. Results In 2005, global adult human biomass was approximately 287 million tonnes, of which 15 million tonnes were due to overweight (BMI > 25, a mass equivalent to that of 242 million people of average body mass (5% of global human biomass. Biomass due to obesity was 3.5 million tonnes, the mass equivalent of 56 million people of average body mass (1.2% of human biomass. North America has 6% of the world population but 34% of biomass due to obesity. Asia has 61% of the world population but 13% of biomass due to obesity. One tonne of human biomass corresponds to approximately 12 adults in North America and 17 adults in Asia. If all countries had the BMI distribution of the USA, the increase in human biomass of 58 million tonnes would be equivalent in mass to an extra 935 million people of average body mass, and have energy requirements equivalent to that of 473 million adults. Conclusions Increasing population fatness could have the same implications for world food energy demands as an extra half a billion people living on the earth.

  3. Variance Function Estimation. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    UNLSIFIED RFOSR-TR-87-±112 F49620-85-C-O144 F/C 12/3 NL EEEEEEh LOUA28~ ~ L53 11uLoo MICROOP REOUINTS-’HR ------ N L E U INARF-% - IS %~1 %i % 0111...and 9 jointly. If 7,, 0. and are any preliminary estimators for 71, 6. and 3. define 71 and 6 to be the solutions of (4.1) N1 IN2 (7., ’ Td " ~ - / =0P

  4. Fuel Burn Estimation Using Real Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2011-01-01

    A procedure for estimating fuel burned based on actual flight track data, and drag and fuel-flow models is described. The procedure consists of estimating aircraft and wind states, lift, drag and thrust. Fuel-flow for jet aircraft is determined in terms of thrust, true airspeed and altitude as prescribed by the Base of Aircraft Data fuel-flow model. This paper provides a theoretical foundation for computing fuel-flow with most of the information derived from actual flight data. The procedure does not require an explicit model of thrust and calibrated airspeed/Mach profile which are typically needed for trajectory synthesis. To validate the fuel computation method, flight test data provided by the Federal Aviation Administration were processed. Results from this method show that fuel consumed can be estimated within 1% of the actual fuel consumed in the flight test. Next, fuel consumption was estimated with simplified lift and thrust models. Results show negligible difference with respect to the full model without simplifications. An iterative takeoff weight estimation procedure is described for estimating fuel consumption, when takeoff weight is unavailable, and for establishing fuel consumption uncertainty bounds. Finally, the suitability of using radar-based position information for fuel estimation is examined. It is shown that fuel usage could be estimated within 5.4% of the actual value using positions reported in the Airline Situation Display to Industry data with simplified models and iterative takeoff weight computation.

  5. Estimates of secondary waste production from operations at a proespective geologic repository in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, M.P.; Jardine, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, a method is outlined for estimating the volumes of solid and liquid radioactive wastes produced during the operation of a repository in tuff. Volume estimates were also developed based on a preliminary conceptual facility design. Based on a disposal rate of 3000 MTU/y of commercial spent fuel, the waste estimates ranged from 793 to 2464 m 3 /y of uncompacted solids and from 80,431 to 128,690 L/y of liquids, depending on the specific set of facility features assumed. The estimates of waste quantities were most dependent on variations in the ratio of truck to rail cask shipments received. The quantities of waste generated on site decreased as this ratio decreased. Although there are large uncertainties in the current estimates caused by the preliminary nature of the facility designs and the limited amount of engineering detail completed, the methodology can be used to refine estimates as the repository design progresses

  6. Preliminary examination of metabolic syndrome response to motivational interviewing for weight loss as compared to an attentional control and usual care in primary care for individuals with and without binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Barber, Jessica A

    2017-08-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) treatment for weight loss is being studied in primary care. The effect of such interventions on metabolic syndrome or binge eating disorder (BED), both highly related to excess weight, has not been examined in primary care. This study conducted secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial to test the impact of MI for weight loss in primary care on metabolic syndrome. 74 adult participants with overweight/obesity recruited through primary care were randomized to 12weeks of either MI, an attentional control, or usual care. Participants completed measurements for metabolic syndrome at pre- and post-treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in metabolic syndrome rates at pre-, X 2 (2)=0.16, p=0.921, or post-, X 2 (2)=0.852, p=0.653 treatment. The rates in metabolic syndrome, however, decreased for MI (10.2%) and attentional control (13.8%) participants, but not for usual care. At baseline, metabolic syndrome rates did not differ significantly between participants with BED or without BED across treatments. At post-treatment, participants with BED were significantly more likely to meet criteria for metabolic syndrome than participants without BED, X 2 (1)=5.145, p=0.023, phi=0.273. Across treatments, metabolic syndrome remitted for almost a quarter of participants without BED (23.1%) but for 0% of those with BED. These preliminary results are based on a small sample and should be interpreted with caution, but they are the first to suggest that relatively low intensity MI weight loss interventions in primary care may decrease metabolic syndrome rates but not for individuals with BED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Connection between weighted LPC and higher-order statistics for AR model estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Y.; Ma, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper establishes the relationship between a weighted linear prediction method used for robust analysis of voiced speech and the autoregressive modelling based on higher-order statistics, known as cumulants

  8. Preliminary parameter assessments of a spiral FFAG accelerator for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Azaryan, N.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950-60s but never progressed beyond the model stage. Starting from 2000, new interest in this type of accelerator arose. Given advantages of the FFAG over the synchrotron, cyclotron and linac, there are many possible applications of the accelerator. Among them, we are mostly interested in acceleration of protons and light ions for hadron therapy. In this connection a preliminary set of parameters of the facility was estimated and, in particular, the magnetic sector shape and corresponding dynamical properties of the magnetic field of the accelerator were calculated. In addition, preliminary considerations about the RF system design are given.

  9. Estimating tree bole and log weights from green densities measured with the Bergstrom Xylodensimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Waddell; Michael B. Lambert; W.Y. Pong

    1984-01-01

    The performance of the Bergstrom xylodensimeter, designed to measure the green density of wood, was investigated and compared with a technique that derived green densities from wood disk samples. In addition, log and bole weights of old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock were calculated by various formulas and compared with lifted weights measured with a load cell...

  10. Least-squares variance component estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.J.G.; Amiri-Simkooei, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Least-squares variance component estimation (LS-VCE) is a simple, flexible and attractive method for the estimation of unknown variance and covariance components. LS-VCE is simple because it is based on the well-known principle of LS; it is flexible because it works with a user-defined weight

  11. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  12. Towards the prediction of pre-mining stresses in the European continent. [Estimates of vertical and probable maximum lateral stress in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwood, R. L.

    1980-05-15

    There are now available sufficient data from in-situ, pre-mining stress measurements to allow a first attempt at predicting the maximum stress magnitudes likely to occur in a given mining context. The sub-horizontal (lateral) stress generally dominates the stress field, becoming critical to stope stability in many cases. For cut-and-fill mining in particular, where developed fill pressures are influenced by lateral displacement of pillars or stope backs, extraction maximization planning by mathematical modelling techniques demands the best available estimate of pre-mining stresses. While field measurements are still essential for this purpose, in the present paper it is suggested that the worst stress case can be predicted for preliminary design or feasibility study purposes. In the Eurpoean continent the vertical component of pre-mining stress may be estimated by adding 2 MPa to the pressure due to overburden weight. The maximum lateral stress likely to be encountered is about 57 MPa at depths of some 800m to 1000m below the surface.

  13. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Govarts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures.

  14. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  15. Development of a Preliminary Decommissioning Plan Following the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations - 13361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshonas Cole, Katherine; Dinner, Julia; Grey, Mike; Daniska, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations, published by OECD/NEA, IAEA and EC is intended to provide a uniform list of cost items for decommissioning projects and provides a standard format that permits international cost estimates to be compared. Candesco and DECOM have used the ISDC format along with two costing codes, OMEGA and ISDCEX, developed from the ISDC by DECOM, in three projects: the development of a preliminary decommissioning plan for a multi-unit CANDU nuclear power station, updating the preliminary decommissioning cost estimates for a prototype CANDU nuclear power station and benchmarking the cost estimates for CANDU against the cost estimates for other reactor types. It was found that the ISDC format provides a well defined and transparent basis for decommissioning planning and cost estimating that assists in identifying gaps and weaknesses and facilitates the benchmarking against international experience. The use of the ISDC can also help build stakeholder confidence in the reliability of the plans and estimates and the adequacy of decommissioning funding. (authors)

  16. Perinatal western-type diet and associated gestational weight gain alter postpartum maternal mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Jessica L; Wiley, Melanie G; Ryan, Bailey; Truong, Samantha; Strait, Melva; Baker, Dana Creighton; Yang, Nancy Y; Ilkayeva, Olga; O'Connell, Thomas M; Wroth, Shelley W; Sánchez, Cristina L; Swamy, Geeta; Newgard, Christopher; Kuhn, Cynthia; Bilbo, Staci D; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2017-10-01

    The role of perinatal diet in postpartum maternal mood disorders, including depression and anxiety, remains unclear. We investigated whether perinatal consumption of a Western-type diet (high in fat and branched-chain amino acids [BCAA]) and associated gestational weight gain (GWG) cause serotonin dysregulation in the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in postpartum depression and anxiety (PPD/A). Mouse dams were fed one of four diets (high-fat/high BCAA, low-fat/high BCAA, high-fat, and low-fat) prior to mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Postpartum behavioral assessments were conducted, and plasma and brain tissues assayed. To evaluate potential clinical utility, we conducted preliminary human studies using data from an extant sample of 17 primiparous women with high GWG, comparing across self-reported postpartum mood symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for percent GWG and plasma amino acid levels. Mouse dams fed the high-fat/high BCAA diet gained more weight per kcal consumed, and BCAA-supplemented dams lost weight more slowly postpartum. Dams on BCAA-supplemented diets exhibited increased PPD/A-like behavior, decreased dopaminergic function, and decreased plasma tyrosine and histidine levels when assessed on postnatal day (P)8. Preliminary human data showed that GWG accounted for 29% of the variance in EPDS scores. Histidine was also lower in women with higher EPDS scores. These findings highlight the role of perinatal diet and excess GWG in the development of postpartum mood disorders.

  17. Online EM with weight-based forgetting

    OpenAIRE

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    In the on-line version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii (2000), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old posterior values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled...

  18. The Role of Body Weight on Bone in Anorexia Nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Jacob; Hansen, Stinus; Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), trabecular microarchitecture and estimated failure load in weight-bearing vs. non-weight-bearing bones...

  19. Estimating Loess Plateau Average Annual Precipitation with Multiple Linear Regression Kriging and Geographically Weighted Regression Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiutong Jin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the spatial distribution of precipitation is an important and challenging task in hydrology, climatology, ecology, and environmental science. In order to generate a highly accurate distribution map of average annual precipitation for the Loess Plateau in China, multiple linear regression Kriging (MLRK and geographically weighted regression Kriging (GWRK methods were employed using precipitation data from the period 1980–2010 from 435 meteorological stations. The predictors in regression Kriging were selected by stepwise regression analysis from many auxiliary environmental factors, such as elevation (DEM, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, solar radiation, slope, and aspect. All predictor distribution maps had a 500 m spatial resolution. Validation precipitation data from 130 hydrometeorological stations were used to assess the prediction accuracies of the MLRK and GWRK approaches. Results showed that both prediction maps with a 500 m spatial resolution interpolated by MLRK and GWRK had a high accuracy and captured detailed spatial distribution data; however, MLRK produced a lower prediction error and a higher variance explanation than GWRK, although the differences were small, in contrast to conclusions from similar studies.

  20. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  1. Analysis for preliminary evaluation of discrete fracture flow and large-scale permeability in sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.Y.; Lai, C.H.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-05-01

    Conceptual models for sedimentary rock settings that could be used in future evaluation and suitability studies are being examined through the DOE Repository Technology Program. One area of concern for the hydrologic aspects of these models is discrete fracture flow analysis as related to the estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume, evaluation of the appropriateness of continuum assumptions and estimation of the large-scale permeabilities of sedimentary rocks. A basis for preliminary analysis of flow in fracture systems of the types that might be expected to occur in low permeability sedimentary rocks is presented. The approach used involves numerical modeling of discrete fracture flow for the configuration of a large-scale hydrologic field test directed at estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume and large-scale permeability. Analysis of fracture data on the basis of this configuration is expected to provide a preliminary indication of the scale at which continuum assumptions can be made

  2. Quantitative assessment of the microbial risk of leafy greens from farm to consumption: preliminary framework, data, and risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-05-01

    This project was undertaken to relate what is known about the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under laboratory conditions and integrate this information to what is known regarding the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak in the context of a quantitative microbial risk assessment. The risk model explicitly assumes that all contamination arises from exposure in the field. Extracted data, models, and user inputs were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and the modeling software @RISK was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations. The model predicts that cut leafy greens that are temperature abused will support the growth of E. coli O157:H7, and populations of the organism may increase by as much a 1 log CFU/day under optimal temperature conditions. When the risk model used a starting level of -1 log CFU/g, with 0.1% of incoming servings contaminated, the predicted numbers of cells per serving were within the range of best available estimates of pathogen levels during the outbreak. The model predicts that levels in the field of -1 log CFU/g and 0.1% prevalence could have resulted in an outbreak approximately the size of the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. This quantitative microbial risk assessment model represents a preliminary framework that identifies available data and provides initial risk estimates for pathogenic E. coli in leafy greens. Data gaps include retail storage times, correlations between storage time and temperature, determining the importance of E. coli O157:H7 in leafy greens lag time models, and validation of the importance of cross-contamination during the washing process.

  3. Delivering Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Weight Self-Stigma through Guided Self-Help: Results from an Open Pilot Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Michael E.; Potts, Sarah; Haeger, Jack; Lillis, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Weight self-stigma is a promising target for innovative interventions seeking to improve outcomes among overweight/obese individuals. Preliminary research suggests acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) may be an effective approach for reducing weight self-stigma, but a guided self-help version of this intervention may improve broad dissemination. This pilot open trial sought to evaluate the potential acceptability and efficacy of a guided self-help ACT intervention, included coaching and a ...

  4. A mass-density model can account for the size-weight illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Drewing, Knut

    2018-01-01

    When judging the heaviness of two objects with equal mass, people perceive the smaller and denser of the two as being heavier. Despite the large number of theories, covering bottom-up and top-down approaches, none of them can fully account for all aspects of this size-weight illusion and thus for human heaviness perception. Here we propose a new maximum-likelihood estimation model which describes the illusion as the weighted average of two heaviness estimates with correlated noise: One estimate derived from the object’s mass, and the other from the object’s density, with estimates’ weights based on their relative reliabilities. While information about mass can directly be perceived, information about density will in some cases first have to be derived from mass and volume. However, according to our model at the crucial perceptual level, heaviness judgments will be biased by the objects’ density, not by its size. In two magnitude estimation experiments, we tested model predictions for the visual and the haptic size-weight illusion. Participants lifted objects which varied in mass and density. We additionally varied the reliability of the density estimate by varying the quality of either visual (Experiment 1) or haptic (Experiment 2) volume information. As predicted, with increasing quality of volume information, heaviness judgments were increasingly biased towards the object’s density: Objects of the same density were perceived as more similar and big objects were perceived as increasingly lighter than small (denser) objects of the same mass. This perceived difference increased with an increasing difference in density. In an additional two-alternative forced choice heaviness experiment, we replicated that the illusion strength increased with the quality of volume information (Experiment 3). Overall, the results highly corroborate our model, which seems promising as a starting point for a unifying framework for the size-weight illusion and human heaviness

  5. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  6. The Estimation of Gestational Age at Birth in Database Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberg, Maria; Platt, Robert W; Filion, Kristian B

    2017-11-01

    Studies on the safety of prenatal medication use require valid estimation of the pregnancy duration. However, gestational age is often incompletely recorded in administrative and clinical databases. Our objective was to compare different approaches to estimating the pregnancy duration. Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics, we examined the following four approaches to estimating missing gestational age: (1) generalized estimating equations for longitudinal data; (2) multiple imputation; (3) estimation based on fetal birth weight and sex; and (4) conventional approaches that assigned a fixed value (39 weeks for all or 39 weeks for full term and 35 weeks for preterm). The gestational age recorded in Hospital Episode Statistics was considered the gold standard. We conducted a simulation study comparing the described approaches in terms of estimated bias and mean square error. A total of 25,929 infants from 22,774 mothers were included in our "gold standard" cohort. The smallest average absolute bias was observed for the generalized estimating equation that included birth weight, while the largest absolute bias occurred when assigning 39-week gestation to all those with missing values. The smallest mean square errors were detected with generalized estimating equations while multiple imputation had the highest mean square errors. The use of generalized estimating equations resulted in the most accurate estimation of missing gestational age when birth weight information was available. In the absence of birth weight, assignment of fixed gestational age based on term/preterm status may be the optimal approach.

  7. Employers should disband employee weight control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alfred; Khanna, Vikram; Montrose, Shana

    2015-02-01

    American corporations continue to expand wellness programs, which now reach an estimated 90% of workers in large organizations, yet no study has demonstrated that the main focus of these programs-weight control-has any positive effect. There is no published evidence that large-scale corporate attempts to control employee body weight through financial incentives and penalties have generated savings from long-term weight loss, or a reduction in inpatient admissions associated with obesity or even long-term weight loss itself. Other evidence contradicts the hypothesis that population obesity rates meaningfully retard economic growth or manufacturing productivity. Quite the contrary, overscreening and crash dieting can impact employee morale and even harm employee health. Therefore, the authors believe that corporations should disband or significantly reconfigure weight-oriented wellness programs, and that the Affordable Care Act should be amended to require such programs to conform to accepted guidelines for harm avoidance.

  8. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Civil/structural calculations. Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The purpose of this calculation is to conservatively estimate the weight of equipment and structures being added over Tank 241-C-106 as a result of Project W-320 and combine these weights with the estimated weights of existing structures and equipment as calculated in Attachment 1. The combined weights will be compared to the allowable live load limit to provide a preliminary assessment of loading conditions above Tank 241-C-106.

  9. Cancers attributable to excess body weight in Canada in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Zakaria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.

  10. Assessment of patient-specific surgery effect based on weighted estimation and propensity scoring in the re-analysis of the sciatica trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart J A Mertens

    Full Text Available We consider a re-analysis of the wait-and-see (control arm of a recent clinical trial on sciatica. While the original randomised trial was designed to evaluate the public policy effect of a conservative wait-and-see approach versus early surgery, we investigate the impact of surgery at the individual patient level in a re-analysis of the wait-and-see group data. Both marginal structural model re-weighted estimates as well as propensity score adjusted analyses are presented. Results indicate that patients with high propensity to receive surgery may have beneficial effects at 2 years from delayed disc surgery.

  11. Low-maintenance energy requirements of obese dogs after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Mather, Nicola J; Morris, Penelope J; Biourge, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Weight rebound after successful weight loss is a well-known phenomenon in humans and dogs, possibly due to the fact that energy restriction improves metabolic efficiency, reducing post-weight-loss maintenance energy requirements (MER). The aim of the present study was to estimate post-weight-loss MER in obese pet dogs that had successfully lost weight and did not subsequently rebound. A total of twenty-four obese dogs, successfully completing a weight management programme at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), were included. In all dogs, a period of >14 d of stable weight ( lean tissue lost was negatively associated with post-weight-loss MER. MER are low after weight loss in obese pet dogs (typically only 10 % more than required during weight-loss MER), which has implications for what should constitute the optimal diet during this period. Preserving lean tissue during weight loss may maximise post-weight-loss MER and help prevent rebound.

  12. Intensive treatment for adults with anorexia nervosa: The cost of weight restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Angela S; Schreyer, Colleen C; Fischer, Laura K; Hansen, Jennifer L; Coughlin, Janelle W; Kaminsky, Michael J; Attia, Evelyn; Redgrave, Graham W

    2017-03-01

    Weight restoration in anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with lower relapse risk; however rate of weight gain and percent of patients achieving weight restoration (BMI ≥ 19 at discharge) vary among treatment programs. We compared both cost/pound of weight gained and cost of weight restoration in a hospital-based inpatient (IP)-partial hospitalization (PH) eating disorders program to estimates of these costs for residential treatment. All adult first admissions to the IP-PH program with AN (N = 314) from 2003 to 2015 were included. Cost of care was based on hospital charges, rates of weight gain, and weight restoration data. Results were compared with residential treatment costs extracted from a national insurance claims database and published weight gain data. Average charge/day in the IP-PH program was $2295 for IP and $1567 for PH, yielding an average cost/pound gained of $4089 and $7050, respectively, with 70% of patients achieving weight restoration. Based on published mean weight gain data and conservative cost/day estimates, residential treatment is associated with higher cost/pound, and both higher cost and lower likelihood of weight restoration for most patients. The key metrics used in this study are recommended for comparing the cost-effectiveness of intensive treatment programs for patients with AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics of participants and dropout in Web-based weight reduction program in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Brdaric

    2015-10-01

    The findings show that the majority of participants of web-based weight loss program Health on menu were adult women who are highly educated. The average BMI of the respondents fall into the category of overweight. The findings demonstrate very high prevalence of attrition among participants. Given that this is the first time that this kind of web based program is introduced to Serbian participants, these results emphasize the importance of further continuation of such research. Also, those preliminary results highlight the need for evidence-based strategies in order to improve use of web based weight loss programs.

  14. Adjudication Decision Support (ADS) System Automated Approval Estimates for NACLC Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lang, Eric L; Youpa, Daniel G; Berman, Sandi; Leggitt, John S

    2007-01-01

    The present research is the second in a series of studies to test preliminary decision rules and provide automated approval estimates for a Department of Defense Adjudication Decision Support (ADS) system...

  15. Does mothers' employment affect adolescents' weight and activity levels? Improving our empirical estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A; Lippert, Adam M; Chandler, Kelly D; Lemmon, Megan

    2018-04-01

    Women's lives are marked by complex work and family routines - routines that have implications for their children's health. Prior research suggests a link between mothers' work hours and their children's weight, but few studies investigate the child health implications of increasingly common work arrangements, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules. We examine whether changes in mothers' work arrangements are associated with changes in adolescents' weight, physical activity, and sedentary behavior using longitudinal data and fixed effects models to better account for mothers' social selection in to different work arrangements and children's underlying preferences. With data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health ( N = 10,518), we find that changes in mothers' work arrangements are not significantly associated with adolescents' weight gain or physical activity but are significantly associated with adolescents' sedentary behavior. Adolescents' sedentary behavior declines when mothers become more available after school and increases when mothers work more hours or become unemployed. In sum, after accounting for unobserved, stable traits, including mothers' selection into jobs with more or less flexibility, mothers' work arrangements are most strongly associated with adolescents' sedentary behavior.

  16. Effectiveness of a Smartphone Application for the Management of Metabolic Syndrome Components Focusing on Weight Loss: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ramos, Tatiana; Lee, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Youngin; Michaelides, Andreas; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2017-11-01

    There are inconsistent results for the effectiveness of using smartphone applications (apps) or websites on weight loss. We investigated the efficacy of a smartphone intervention using a designated app that utilizes a lifestyle intervention-focused approach, including a human coaching element, toward weight loss in overweight or obese Korean adults. One hundred four adults aged 20-60 years with a body mass index ≥23 kg/m 2 , who signed up for a smartphone program for weight loss (using the Noom app), were recruited. Participants received an in-person orientation about the study and app use, and a baseline blood sample was obtained. The in-app intervention with daily behavior and nutrition education content and coaching lasted 15 weeks. The primary endpoint of the study was a change in weight. The secondary endpoints were changes in metabolic risk factors such as blood pressure, waist circumference, and glucose and lipid profiles. Body composition changes were also assessed, and body weight at 52 weeks was measured to ascertain long-term effects. Participants showed a clinically significant weight loss effect of -7.5% at the end of the 15-week program (P smartphone app was a useful tool to maintain weight loss in overweight or obese people.

  17. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charles Davis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies to near-atomic resolution of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, Benjamin R.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Dogovski, Con; Jameson, Geoffrey B.; Parker, Michael W.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme of the lysine-biosynthetic pathway, is a promising target for antibiotic development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis to 1.45 Å resolution of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant S. aureus is reported. In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) has received considerable attention from both mechanistic and structural viewpoints. DHDPS is part of the diaminopimelate pathway leading to lysine, coupling (S)-aspartate-β-semialdehyde with pyruvate via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine. In this paper, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, an important bacterial pathogen, are reported. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly from PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to beyond 1.45 Å resolution. The space group was P1 and the unit-cell parameters were a = 65.4, b = 67.6, c = 78.0 Å, α = 90.1, β = 68.9, γ = 72.3°. The crystal volume per protein weight (V M ) was 2.34 Å 3 Da −1 , with an estimated solvent content of 47% for four monomers per asymmetric unit. The structure of the enzyme will help to guide the design of novel therapeutics against the methicillin-resistant S. aureus pathogen

  19. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of past sea-level variations based on different methods and techniques have been presented in a range of studies, including interpretation of beach ridge characteristics. In Denmark, Holocene beach ridge plains have been formed during the last c. 7700 years, a period characterised by both...... isostatic uplift and changes in eustatic sea-level, and therefore represent an archive of past relative sea-level variations. Here, we present preliminary results from investigation of beach ridges from Feddet, a small peninsula located in Faxe Bay (Baltic Sea) in the eastern part of Denmark. Feddet has...... been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...

  20. Phylogenetic inference with weighted codon evolutionary distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Michel, Christian J

    2009-04-01

    We develop a new approach to estimate a matrix of pairwise evolutionary distances from a codon-based alignment based on a codon evolutionary model. The method first computes a standard distance matrix for each of the three codon positions. Then these three distance matrices are weighted according to an estimate of the global evolutionary rate of each codon position and averaged into a unique distance matrix. Using a large set of both real and simulated codon-based alignments of nucleotide sequences, we show that this approach leads to distance matrices that have a significantly better treelikeness compared to those obtained by standard nucleotide evolutionary distances. We also propose an alternative weighting to eliminate the part of the noise often associated with some codon positions, particularly the third position, which is known to induce a fast evolutionary rate. Simulation results show that fast distance-based tree reconstruction algorithms on distance matrices based on this codon position weighting can lead to phylogenetic trees that are at least as accurate as, if not better, than those inferred by maximum likelihood. Finally, a well-known multigene dataset composed of eight yeast species and 106 codon-based alignments is reanalyzed and shows that our codon evolutionary distances allow building a phylogenetic tree which is similar to those obtained by non-distance-based methods (e.g., maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood) and also significantly improved compared to standard nucleotide evolutionary distance estimates.

  1. A New Global Regression Analysis Method for the Prediction of Wind Tunnel Model Weight Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred; Bridge, Thomas M.; Amaya, Max A.

    2014-01-01

    A new global regression analysis method is discussed that predicts wind tunnel model weight corrections for strain-gage balance loads during a wind tunnel test. The method determines corrections by combining "wind-on" model attitude measurements with least squares estimates of the model weight and center of gravity coordinates that are obtained from "wind-off" data points. The method treats the least squares fit of the model weight separate from the fit of the center of gravity coordinates. Therefore, it performs two fits of "wind- off" data points and uses the least squares estimator of the model weight as an input for the fit of the center of gravity coordinates. Explicit equations for the least squares estimators of the weight and center of gravity coordinates are derived that simplify the implementation of the method in the data system software of a wind tunnel. In addition, recommendations for sets of "wind-off" data points are made that take typical model support system constraints into account. Explicit equations of the confidence intervals on the model weight and center of gravity coordinates and two different error analyses of the model weight prediction are also discussed in the appendices of the paper.

  2. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: Development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brestoff, Jonathan R

    2011-05-18

    Abstract Background Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable) values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. Methods The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007), a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed) was used. Self-reported weight (height) was classified as under-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm), over-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm), or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm) to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height). A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg\\/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg\\/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg\\/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI). Results The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1) under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2) under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3) accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg\\/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg\\/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under-estimated

  3. National weighting of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Iachan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS is a network of health-related telephone surveys--conducted by all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and participating US territories—that receive technical assistance from CDC. Data users often aggregate BRFSS state samples for national estimates without accounting for state-level sampling, a practice that could introduce bias because the weighted distributions of the state samples do not always adhere to national demographic distributions. Methods This article examines six methods of reweighting, which are then compared with key health indicator estimates from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS based on 2013 data. Results Compared to the usual stacking approach, all of the six new methods reduce the variance of weights and design effect at the national level, and some also reduce the estimated bias. This article also provides a comparison of the methods based on the variances induced by unequal weighting as well as the bias reduction induced by raking at the national level, and recommends a preferred method. Conclusions The new method leads to weighted distributions that more accurately reproduce national demographic characteristics. While the empirical results for key estimates were limited to a few health indicators, they also suggest reduction in potential bias and mean squared error. To the extent that survey outcomes are associated with these demographic characteristics, matching the national distributions will reduce bias in estimates of these outcomes at the national level.

  4. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  5. Benefits of dynamic mobility applications : preliminary estimates from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This white paper examines the available quantitative information on the potential mobility benefits of the connected vehicle Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA). This work will be refined as more and better estimates of benefits from mobility applica...

  6. Lead coolant test facility systems design, thermal hydraulic analysis and cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khericha, Soli, E-mail: slk2@inel.gov [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Harvego, Edwin; Svoboda, John; Evans, Robert [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Dalling, Ryan [ExxonMobil Gas and Power Marketing, Houston, TX 77069 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The Idaho National Laboratory prepared a preliminary technical and functional requirements (T and FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research needs listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements were identified as listed below: Bullet Develop and demonstrate feasibility of submerged heat exchanger. Bullet Develop and demonstrate open-lattice flow in electrically heated core. Bullet Develop and demonstrate chemistry control. Bullet Demonstrate safe operation. Bullet Provision for future testing. This paper discusses the preliminary design of systems, thermal hydraulic analysis, and simplified cost estimated. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 4200 Degree-Sign C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M (in 2006 $). It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

  7. Adjustment of positional geodetic networks by unconventional estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gašincová

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of this paper is the adjustment of positional geodetic networks by robust estimations. The techniques (basedon the unconventional estimations of repeated least-square method which have turned out to be suitable and applicable in the practisehave been demonstrated on the example of the local geodetic network, which was founded to compose this thesis. In the thesisthe following techniques have been chosen to compare the Method of least-squares with those many published in foreign literature:M-estimation of Biweight,M-estimation of Welsch and Danish method. All presented methods are based on the repeated least-squaremethod principle with gradual changing of weight of individual measurements. In the first stage a standard least-square method wascarried out in the following steps – iterations we gradually change individual weights according to the relevant instructions/ regulation(so-called weight function. Iteration process will be stopped when no deviated measurements are found in the file of measured data.MatLab programme version 5.2 T was used to implement mathematical adjustment.

  8. Validação da curva normal de peso fetal estimado pela ultra-sonografia para o diagnóstico do peso neonatal Validity of the normal fetal weight curve estimated by ultrasound for diagnosis of neonatal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme Cecatti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a concordância entre o peso fetal estimado (PFE por ultra-sonografia e o neonatal, o desempenho da curva normal de PFE por idade gestacional no diagnóstico de desvios do peso fetal/neonatal e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 186 grávidas atendidas de novembro de 1998 a janeiro de 2000, com avaliação ultra-sonográfica até 3 dias antes do parto, determinação do PFE e do índice de líquido amniótico e parto na instituição. O PFE foi calculado e classificado de acordo com a curva de valores normais de PFE em: pequeno para a idade gestacional (PIG, adequado para a idade gestacional (AIG e grande para a idade gestacional (GIG. A mesma classificação foi feita para o peso neonatal. A variabilidade das medidas e o grau de correlação linear entre o PFE e o peso neonatal foram calculados, bem como a sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos para o uso da curva de valores normais de PFE para o diagnóstico dos desvios do peso neonatal. RESULTADOS: diferença entre o PFE e o peso neonatal variou entre -540 e +594 g, com média de +47,1 g, e as duas medidas apresentaram um coeficiente de correlação linear de 0,94. A curva normal de PFE teve sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 90,5% em detectar PIG ao nascimento, e de 94,4 e 92,8%, respectivamente, em detectar GIG, porém os valores preditivos positivos foram baixos para ambos. CONCLUSÕES: a estimativa ultra-sonográfica do peso fetal foi concordante com o peso neonatal, superestimando-o em apenas cerca de 47 g e a curva do PFE teve bom desempenho no rastreamento diagnóstico de recém-nascidos PIG e GIG.PURPOSE: tocompare the ultrasound estimation of fetal weight (EFW with neonatal weight and to evaluate the performance of the normal EFW curve according to gestational age for the diagnosis of fetal/neonatal weight deviation and associated factors. METHODS: one hundred and eighty-six pregnant women who delivered at the institution from

  9. Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography to predict weight and volume of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosson, Gedge D; Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Manahan, Michele A; Stapleton, Sahael M; Gilson, Marta M; Flores, Jaime I; Basdag, Basak; Fishman, Elliot K

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D CTA) can be used preoperatively to evaluate the course and caliber of perforating blood vessels for abdominal free-flap breast reconstruction. For postmastectomy breast reconstruction, many women inquire whether the abdominal tissue volume will match that of the breast to be removed. Therefore, our goal was to estimate preoperative volume and weight of the proposed flap and compare them with the actual volume and weight to determine if diagnostic imaging can accurately identify the amount of tissue that could potentially to be harvested. Preoperative 3D CTA was performed in 15 patients, who underwent breast reconstruction using the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. Before each angiogram, stereotactic fiducials were placed on the planned flap outline. The radiologist reviewed each preoperative angiogram to estimate the volume, and thus, weight of the flap. These estimated weights were compared with the actual intraoperative weights. The average estimated weight was 99.7% of the actual weight. The interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile), which represents the "middle half" of the patients, was 91-109%, indicating that half of the patients had an estimated weight within 9% of the actual weight; however, there was a large range (70-133%). 3D CTA with stereotactic fiducials allows surgeons to adequately estimate abdominal flap volume before surgery, potentially giving guidance in the amount of tissue that can be harvested from a patient's lower abdomen. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Effect of Workplace Weight Management on Health Care Expenditures and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Tzeyu L; Nyman, John A; Jutkowitz, Eric; Su, Dejun; Dowd, Bryan; Abraham, Jean M

    2016-11-01

    We examined the effectiveness of the weight management program used by the University of Minnesota in reducing health care expenditures and improving quality of life of its employees, and also in reducing their absenteeism during a 3-year intervention. A differences-in-differences regression approach was used to estimate the effect of weight management participation. We further applied ordinary least squares regression models with fixed effects to estimate the effect in an alternative analysis. Participation in the weight management program significantly reduced health care expenditures by $69 per month for employees, spouses, and dependents, and by $73 for employees only. Quality-of-life weights were 0.0045 points higher for participating employees than for nonparticipating ones. No significant effect was found for absenteeism. The workplace weight management used by the University of Minnesota reduced health care expenditures and improved quality of life.

  11. Preliminary comparison between real-time in-vivo spectral and transverse oscillation velocity estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    Spectral velocity estimation is considered the gold standard in medical ultrasound. Peak systole (PS), end diastole (ED), and resistive index (RI) are used clinically. Angle correction is performed using a flow angle set manually. With Transverse Oscillation (TO) velocity estimates the flow angle......, peak systole (PSTO), end diastole (EDTO), and resistive index (RITO) are estimated. This study investigates if these clinical parameters are estimated equally good using spectral and TO data. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned longitudinally. Average TO flow...

  12. Diffusion weighted imaging and estimation of prognosis using apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonen, Korcan Aysun, E-mail: aysunbalc@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, State Hospital, Eski Cami district, Hastane street, N:1, 59300, Tekirdag (Turkey); Simsek, Mehmet Masum, E-mail: radyoloji@haydapasanumune.gov.tr [Department of Radiology, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Tibbiye street, Uskudar 34200, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: Estimation of the prognosis of infarction by using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Methods: 23 patients having acute stroke symptoms with verified infarction in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in this study. Their MRI studies were performed between 6 and 12 h after the onset of their symptoms and were repeated on the fifth day. The infarction volumes were calculated by using DWI and the patients were divided into two groups as the ones having an expansion in the infarction area (group 1, n = 16) and the others having no expansion in the infarction area (group 2, n = 7). Quantitative ADC values were estimated. The groups were compared in terms of the ADC values on ADC maps obtained from DWI, performed during the between 6 and 12 h from the onset of the symptoms, referring to the core of the infarction (ADC{sub IC}), ischemic penumbra (ADC{sub P}) and the nonischemic parenchymal tissue (ADC{sub N}). P values < 0.05 were accepted to be statistically significant. Results: During the between 6 and 12 h mean infarction volume calculated by DWI was 23.3 cm{sup 3} for group 1 patients (ranging from 1.1 to 68.6) and this was found to be 40.3 cm{sup 3} (ranging from 1.8 to 91.5) on the fifth day. For the group 2 patients these values were found to be 42.1 cm{sup 3} (ranging from 1 to 94.7) and 41.9 (ranging from 1 to 94.7) for the same intervals respectively. A significant statistical result was failed to be demonstrated between the mean ADC{sub IC} and ADC{sub N} values (p = 0.350 and p = 0.229 respectively). However the comparison of the ADC{sub P} values between the groups was found to be highly significant (p < 0.001). When the differences between the ADC{sub P} and ADC{sub IC} and ADC{sub N} and ADC{sub P} were compared the results proved to be statistically significant (p = 0.038 and p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions: We believe that ADC results that would be obtained from

  13. Modeling The Skeleton Weight of an Adult Caucasian Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtandilashvili, Maia; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2018-05-17

    The reference value for the skeleton weight of an adult male (10.5 kg) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 70 is based on weights of dissected skeletons from 44 individuals, including two U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries whole-body donors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection analysis of anatomical data from 31 individuals with known values of body height demonstrated significant correlation between skeleton weight and body height. The corresponding regression equation, Wskel (kg) = -10.7 + 0.119 × H (cm), published in International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 70 is typically used to estimate the skeleton weight from body height. Currently, the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries holds data on individual bone weights from a total of 40 male whole-body donors, which has provided a unique opportunity to update the International Commission on Radiological Protection skeleton weight vs. body height equation. The original International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 70 and the new U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries data were combined in a set of 69 data points representing a group of 33- to 95-y-old individuals with body heights and skeleton weights ranging from 155 to 188 cm and 6.5 to 13.4 kg, respectively. Data were fitted with a linear least-squares regression. A significant correlation between the two parameters was observed (r = 0.28), and an updated skeleton weight vs. body height equation was derived: Wskel (kg) = -6.5 + 0.093 × H (cm). In addition, a correlation of skeleton weight with multiple variables including body height, body weight, and age was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, and a corresponding fit equation was derived: Wskel (kg) = -0.25 + 0.046 × H (cm) + 0.036 × Wbody (kg) - 0.012 × A (y). These equations will be used to estimate skeleton weights and, ultimately, total skeletal actinide activities for

  14. Influence of European passenger cars weight to exhaust CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zervas, Efthimios; Lazarou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration influences climate changes. The road transport sector is one of the main anthropogenic sources of CO 2 emissions in the European Union (EU). One of the main parameters influencing CO 2 emissions from passenger cars (PCs) is their weight, which increases during last years. For the same driving distance, heavier vehicles need more work than lighter ones, because they have to move an extra weight, and thus more fuel is consumed and thus increased CO 2 emissions. The weight control of new PCs could be an efficient way to control their CO 2 emissions. After an analysis of the EU new PCs market, their segment distribution and their weight, some estimations for 2020 are presented. Based on this analysis, 13 base scenarios using several ways for the control of the weight of future European new PCs are used to estimate their CO 2 emissions and the benefit of each scenario. The results show that a significant benefit on CO 2 emissions could be achieved if the weight of each PC does not exceed an upper limit, especially if this limit is quite low. The benefit obtained by limitations of weight is higher than the benefit obtained from the expected decreased future fuel consumption. Similar results are obtained when the weight of new PCs does not exceed an upper limit within each segment, or when the weight of each new PC decreases. (author)

  15. Another look at the Grubbs estimators

    KAUST Repository

    Lombard, F.

    2012-01-01

    We consider estimation of the precision of a measuring instrument without the benefit of replicate observations on heterogeneous sampling units. Grubbs (1948) proposed an estimator which involves the use of a second measuring instrument, resulting in a pair of observations on each sampling unit. Since the precisions of the two measuring instruments are generally different, these observations cannot be treated as replicates. Very large sample sizes are often required if the standard error of the estimate is to be within reasonable bounds and if negative precision estimates are to be avoided. We show that the two instrument Grubbs estimator can be improved considerably if fairly reliable preliminary information regarding the ratio of sampling unit variance to instrument variance is available. Our results are presented in the context of the evaluation of on-line analyzers. A data set from an analyzer evaluation is used to illustrate the methodology. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Estimation of genetic parameters for carcass traits in Japanese quail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of some carcass characteristics in the Japanese quail. For this aim, carcass weight (Cw), breast weight (Bw), leg weight (Lw), abdominal fat weight (AFw), carcass yield (CP), breast percentage (BP), leg percentage (LP) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were ...

  17. SU-G-JeP3-04: Estimating 4D CBCT from Prior Information and Extremely Limited Angle Projections Using Structural PCA and Weighted Free-Form Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Zhang, Y; Ren, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using structure-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. Methods: A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume. The DFM was solved by a motion-model extracted by global PCA and a free-form deformation (GMM-FD) technique, using data fidelity constraint and the deformation energy minimization. In this study, a new structural-PCA method was developed to build a structural motion-model (SMM) by accounting for potential relative motion pattern changes between different anatomical structures from simulation to treatment. The motion model extracted from planning 4DCT was divided into two structures: tumor and body excluding tumor, and the parameters of both structures were optimized together. Weighted free-form deformation (WFD) was employed afterwards to introduce flexibility in adjusting the weightings of different structures in the data fidelity constraint based on clinical interests. XCAT (computerized patient model) simulation with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by the Volume-Percent-Difference (VPD)/Center-of-Mass-Shift (COMS) between lesions in the estimated and “ground-truth” on board 4D-CBCT. Results: Among 6 different XCAT scenarios corresponding to respirational and anatomical changes from planning CT to on-board using single 30° on-board projections, the VPD/COMS for SMM-WFD was reduced to 10.64±3.04%/1.20±0.45mm from 21.72±9.24%/1.80±0.53mm for GMM-FD. Using 15° orthogonal projections, the VPD/COMS was

  18. SU-G-JeP3-04: Estimating 4D CBCT from Prior Information and Extremely Limited Angle Projections Using Structural PCA and Weighted Free-Form Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Zhang, Y; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using structure-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. Methods: A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume. The DFM was solved by a motion-model extracted by global PCA and a free-form deformation (GMM-FD) technique, using data fidelity constraint and the deformation energy minimization. In this study, a new structural-PCA method was developed to build a structural motion-model (SMM) by accounting for potential relative motion pattern changes between different anatomical structures from simulation to treatment. The motion model extracted from planning 4DCT was divided into two structures: tumor and body excluding tumor, and the parameters of both structures were optimized together. Weighted free-form deformation (WFD) was employed afterwards to introduce flexibility in adjusting the weightings of different structures in the data fidelity constraint based on clinical interests. XCAT (computerized patient model) simulation with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by the Volume-Percent-Difference (VPD)/Center-of-Mass-Shift (COMS) between lesions in the estimated and “ground-truth” on board 4D-CBCT. Results: Among 6 different XCAT scenarios corresponding to respirational and anatomical changes from planning CT to on-board using single 30° on-board projections, the VPD/COMS for SMM-WFD was reduced to 10.64±3.04%/1.20±0.45mm from 21.72±9.24%/1.80±0.53mm for GMM-FD. Using 15° orthogonal projections, the VPD/COMS was

  19. Fishery characteristics and abundance estimates of the mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mud crab Scylla serrata is lightly exploited along the East African seaboard. This study reports on fishing practices and gives preliminary estimates of abundance and size structures of the mud crab populations in Utende, Chole Island and Juani Island, Tanzania, and west of Quirimba and Ibo Island, Moçambique.

  20. Vehicle Weight in Gipps' Car-Following Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nerem, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Car-following models are mathematical models, which describe the situation where vehicles drive behind each other on a single lane road section with no overtaking possibilities. The purpose of the models is to estimate how a vehicle reacts to the behavior of the vehicle ahead. A weakness in these models is that they do not take the weight of each vehicle into account. It can however be shown that a vehicle?s weight affects its driving behavior.The purpose of this master?s thesis is to investi...

  1. Does mothers' employment affect adolescents' weight and activity levels? Improving our empirical estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly A. Martin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Women’s lives are marked by complex work and family routines — routines that have implications for their children’s health. Prior research suggests a link between mothers' work hours and their children’s weight, but few studies investigate the child health implications of increasingly common work arrangements, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules. We examine whether changes in mothers’ work arrangements are associated with changes in adolescents’ weight, physical activity, and sedentary behavior using longitudinal data and fixed effects models to better account for mothers’ social selection in to different work arrangements and children’s underlying preferences. With data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 10,518, we find that changes in mothers’ work arrangements are not significantly associated with adolescents’ weight gain or physical activity but are significantly associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior. Adolescents’ sedentary behavior declines when mothers become more available after school and increases when mothers work more hours or become unemployed. In sum, after accounting for unobserved, stable traits, including mothers’ selection into jobs with more or less flexibility, mothers’ work arrangements are most strongly associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior. Keywords: Obesity, Physical activity, Sedentary behavior, Adolescence, Maternal employment, Work arrangements

  2. Evaluation of tumour necrosis during chemotherapy with diffusion-weighted MR imaging: preliminary results in osteosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, Markus; Saueressig, Ulrich; Bley, Thorsten; Langer, Mathias; Koehler, Gabriele; Kontny, Udo; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Reichardt, Wilfried; Ilyasof, Kamil

    2006-01-01

    During successful chemotherapy of osteosarcomas tumour size does not diminish significantly because the therapy has limited impact on the mineralized matrix of the tumour. Treatment response is considered successful if, histologically, more than 90% of tumour cells show necrosis. To determine if osteosarcomas change their water diffusion during preoperative chemotherapy in relation to the amount of tumour necrosis. Eight patients (age 11-19 years) with histologically proven limb osteosarcoma underwent T1-weighted, fat-suppressed T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo imaging together with diffusion-weighted EPI sequences (b = 700) at 1.5 T before and after five cycles of standard chemotherapy. Tumour volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated before and after chemotherapy. The degree of tumour necrosis after chemotherapy was assessed using the histological Salzer-Kuntschik classification (grades 1-6). During chemotherapy, the ADC values of osteosarcomas changed significantly. The ADC of untreated tumour was 2.1 ± 0.4 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (mean ± SD) (95% CI 1.6-2.0). The ADC of chemotherapy-treated sarcomas was 2.5 ± 0.4 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (95% CI 1.8-2.2). Necrotic areas, which were confirmed by macroscopic examination, showed ADC values up to 2.7 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. Four patients with little viable tumour tissue within the neoplasm (Salzer-Kuntschik grades 1-2) had an increase in ADC of 0.4 up to 0.7 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. Four patients with larger areas of viable tumour (Salzer-Kuntschik grade 4) showed a lesser increase in ADC of 0.0 up to 0.3 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The differences in ADC values in tumour tissue before and after chemotherapy were highly significant (P = 0.01). During chemotherapy of osteosarcomas, tumour ADC changes are related to the degree of tumour necrosis. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) for Water Quality Monitoring: A Case Study for the Estimation of Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Majid; Bilal, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) dataset have been used to estimate salinity in the coastal area of Hong Kong. Four adjacent Landsat TM images were used in this study, which was atmospherically corrected using the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code. The atmospherically corrected images were further used to develop models for salinity using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on in situ data of October 2009. Results show that the coefficient of determination ( R 2) of 0.42 between the OLS estimated and in situ measured salinity is much lower than that of the GWR model, which is two times higher ( R 2 = 0.86). It indicates that the GWR model has more ability than the OLS regression model to predict salinity and show its spatial heterogeneity better. It was observed that the salinity was high in Deep Bay (north-western part of Hong Kong) which might be due to the industrial waste disposal, whereas the salinity was estimated to be constant (32 practical salinity units) towards the open sea.

  4. Estimation of Compaction Parameters Based on Soil Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, A. S.; Muis, Z. A.; Hastuty, I. P.; Siregar, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Factors that must be considered in compaction of the soil works were the type of soil material, field control, maintenance and availability of funds. Those problems then raised the idea of how to estimate the density of the soil with a proper implementation system, fast, and economical. This study aims to estimate the compaction parameter i.e. the maximum dry unit weight (γ dmax) and optimum water content (Wopt) based on soil classification. Each of 30 samples were being tested for its properties index and compaction test. All of the data’s from the laboratory test results, were used to estimate the compaction parameter values by using linear regression and Goswami Model. From the research result, the soil types were A4, A-6, and A-7 according to AASHTO and SC, SC-SM, and CL based on USCS. By linear regression, the equation for estimation of the maximum dry unit weight (γdmax *)=1,862-0,005*FINES- 0,003*LL and estimation of the optimum water content (wopt *)=- 0,607+0,362*FINES+0,161*LL. By Goswami Model (with equation Y=mLogG+k), for estimation of the maximum dry unit weight (γdmax *) with m=-0,376 and k=2,482, for estimation of the optimum water content (wopt *) with m=21,265 and k=-32,421. For both of these equations a 95% confidence interval was obtained.

  5. How recalibration method, pricing, and coding affect DRG weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Grace M.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.

    1992-01-01

    We compared diagnosis-related group (DRG) weights calculated using the hospital-specific relative-value (HSR V) methodology with those calculated using the standard methodology for each year from 1985 through 1989 and analyzed differences between the two methods in detail for 1989. We provide evidence suggesting that classification error and subsidies of higher weighted cases by lower weighted cases caused compression in the weights used for payment as late as the fifth year of the prospective payment system. However, later weights calculated by the standard method are not compressed because a statistical correlation between high markups and high case-mix indexes offsets the cross-subsidization. HSR V weights from the same files are compressed because this methodology is more sensitive to cross-subsidies. However, both sets of weights produce equally good estimates of hospital-level costs net of those expenses that are paid by outlier payments. The greater compression of the HSR V weights is counterbalanced by the fact that more high-weight cases qualify as outliers. PMID:10127456

  6. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nketiah, Gabriel; Elschot, Mattijs; Kim, Eugene; Teruel, Jose R. [NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); Scheenen, Tom W. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bathen, Tone F.; Selnaes, Kirsten M. [NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. 3T multiparametric-MRI was performed on 23 prostate cancer patients prior to prostatectomy. Textural features [angular second moment (ASM), contrast, correlation, entropy], apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and DCE pharmacokinetic parameters (K{sup trans} and V{sub e}) were calculated from index tumours delineated on the T2W, DW, and DCE images, respectively. The association between the textural features and prostatectomy GS and the MRI-derived parameters, and the utility of the parameters in differentiating between GS 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers were assessed statistically. ASM and entropy correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with both GS and median ADC. Contrast correlated moderately with median ADC. The textural features correlated insignificantly with K{sup trans} and V{sub e}. GS 4+3 cancers had significantly lower ASM and higher entropy than 3+4 cancers, but insignificant differences in median ADC, K{sup trans}, and V{sub e}. The combined texture-MRI parameters yielded higher classification accuracy (91%) than the individual parameter sets. T2W MRI-derived textural features could serve as potential diagnostic markers, sensitive to the pathological differences in prostate cancers. (orig.)

  7. Correlation between morphological characters and estimated bunch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology of multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to estimate bunch weight. The most significant variables that were measured included number of leaves at harvest, number of fruits per bunch, FW, FL, rachis weight (RW) and stalk length (SL), generating the following prediction equation: BW= -5.249 + ...

  8. Estimating Sustainable Live-Coral Harvest at Kamiali Wildlife Management Area, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Ken; Bolick, Holly; Langston, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Live coral is harvested throughout the Indo-West Pacific to make lime, used in the consumption of the world's fourth-most consumed drug, betel nut. Coral harvesting is an environmental concern; however, because lime-making is one of the few sources of income in some areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG), the practice is unlikely to stop. To better manage coral harvest, we used standard fishery-yield methods to generate sustainable-harvest guidelines for corymbose Acropora species found on the reef flat and crest at Lababia, PNG. We constructed a yield curve (weight-specific net annual-dry-weight production) by: 1) describing the allometric relationship between colony size and dry weight, and using that relationship to estimate the dry weight of Acropora colonies in situ; 2) estimating annual growth of Acropora colonies by estimating in situ, and describing the relationship between, colony dry weight at the beginning and end of one year; and 3) conducting belt-transect surveys to describe weight-frequencies and ultimately to predict annual weight change per square meter for each weight class. Reef habitat covers a total 2,467,550 m2 at Lababia and produces an estimated 248,397 kg/y (dry weight) of corymbose Acropora, of which 203,897 kg is produced on the reef flat/crest. We conservatively estimate that 30,706.6 kg of whole, dry, corymbose, Acropora can be sustainably harvested from the reef flat/crest habitat each year provided each culled colony weighs at least 1805 g when dry (or is at least 46 cm along its major axis). Artisanal lime-makers convert 24.8% of whole-colony weight into marketable lime, thus we estimate 7615.2 g of lime can be sustainably produced annually from corymbose Acropora. This value incorporates several safety margins, and should lead to proper management of live coral harvest. Importantly, the guideline recognizes village rights to exploit its marine resources, is consistent with village needs for income, and balances an equally strong village

  9. Estimating Sustainable Live-Coral Harvest at Kamiali Wildlife Management Area, Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Longenecker

    Full Text Available Live coral is harvested throughout the Indo-West Pacific to make lime, used in the consumption of the world's fourth-most consumed drug, betel nut. Coral harvesting is an environmental concern; however, because lime-making is one of the few sources of income in some areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG, the practice is unlikely to stop. To better manage coral harvest, we used standard fishery-yield methods to generate sustainable-harvest guidelines for corymbose Acropora species found on the reef flat and crest at Lababia, PNG. We constructed a yield curve (weight-specific net annual-dry-weight production by: 1 describing the allometric relationship between colony size and dry weight, and using that relationship to estimate the dry weight of Acropora colonies in situ; 2 estimating annual growth of Acropora colonies by estimating in situ, and describing the relationship between, colony dry weight at the beginning and end of one year; and 3 conducting belt-transect surveys to describe weight-frequencies and ultimately to predict annual weight change per square meter for each weight class. Reef habitat covers a total 2,467,550 m2 at Lababia and produces an estimated 248,397 kg/y (dry weight of corymbose Acropora, of which 203,897 kg is produced on the reef flat/crest. We conservatively estimate that 30,706.6 kg of whole, dry, corymbose, Acropora can be sustainably harvested from the reef flat/crest habitat each year provided each culled colony weighs at least 1805 g when dry (or is at least 46 cm along its major axis. Artisanal lime-makers convert 24.8% of whole-colony weight into marketable lime, thus we estimate 7615.2 g of lime can be sustainably produced annually from corymbose Acropora. This value incorporates several safety margins, and should lead to proper management of live coral harvest. Importantly, the guideline recognizes village rights to exploit its marine resources, is consistent with village needs for income, and balances an equally

  10. Estimating disease prevalence from two-phase surveys with non-response at the second phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sujuan; Hui, Siu L.; Hall, Kathleen S.; Hendrie, Hugh C.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY In this paper we compare several methods for estimating population disease prevalence from data collected by two-phase sampling when there is non-response at the second phase. The traditional weighting type estimator requires the missing completely at random assumption and may yield biased estimates if the assumption does not hold. We review two approaches and propose one new approach to adjust for non-response assuming that the non-response depends on a set of covariates collected at the first phase: an adjusted weighting type estimator using estimated response probability from a response model; a modelling type estimator using predicted disease probability from a disease model; and a regression type estimator combining the adjusted weighting type estimator and the modelling type estimator. These estimators are illustrated using data from an Alzheimer’s disease study in two populations. Simulation results are presented to investigate the performances of the proposed estimators under various situations. PMID:10931514

  11. Effect of large weight reductions on measured and estimated kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Persson, Frederik; Svane, Maria S

    2017-01-01

    GFR (creatinine-based equations), whereas measured GFR (mGFR) and cystatin C-based eGFR would be unaffected if adjusted for body surface area. METHODS: Prospective, intervention study including 19 patients. All attended a baseline visit before gastric bypass surgery followed by a visit six months post-surgery. m...... for body surface area was unchanged. Estimates of GFR based on creatinine overestimate renal function likely due to changes in muscle mass, whereas cystatin C based estimates are unaffected. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02138565 . Date of registration: March 24, 2014....

  12. Assessing Error Correlations in Remote Sensing-Based Estimates of Forest Attributes for Improved Composite Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ehlers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, non-expensive remote sensing (RS data from different sensors and platforms can be obtained at short intervals and be used for assessing several kinds of forest characteristics at the level of plots, stands and landscapes. Methods such as composite estimation and data assimilation can be used for combining the different sources of information to obtain up-to-date and precise estimates of the characteristics of interest. In composite estimation a standard procedure is to assign weights to the different individual estimates inversely proportional to their variance. However, in case the estimates are correlated, the correlations must be considered in assigning weights or otherwise a composite estimator may be inefficient and its variance be underestimated. In this study we assessed the correlation of plot level estimates of forest characteristics from different RS datasets, between assessments using the same type of sensor as well as across different sensors. The RS data evaluated were SPOT-5 multispectral data, 3D airborne laser scanning data, and TanDEM-X interferometric radar data. Studies were made for plot level mean diameter, mean height, and growing stock volume. All data were acquired from a test site dominated by coniferous forest in southern Sweden. We found that the correlation between plot level estimates based on the same type of RS data were positive and strong, whereas the correlations between estimates using different sources of RS data were not as strong, and weaker for mean height than for mean diameter and volume. The implications of such correlations in composite estimation are demonstrated and it is discussed how correlations may affect results from data assimilation procedures.

  13. Project schedule and cost estimate report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    All cost tables represent obligation dollars, at both a constant FY 1987 level and an estimated escalation level, and are based on the FY 1989 DOE Congressional Budget submittal of December 1987. The cost tables display the total UMTRA Project estimated costs, which include both Federal and state funding. The Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the UMTRA Project is approximately $992.5 million (in 1987 escalated dollars). Project schedules have been developed that provide for Project completion by September 1994, subject to Congressional approval extending DOE's authorization under Public Law 95-604. The report contains site-specific demographic data, conceptual design assumptions, preliminary cost estimates, and site schedules. A general project overview is also presented, which includes a discussion of the basis for the schedule and cost estimates, contingency assumptions, work breakdown structure, and potential project risks. The schedules and cost estimates will be revised as necessary to reflect appropriate decisions relating to relocation of certain tailings piles, or other special design considerations or circumstances (such as revised EPA groundwater standards), and changes in the Project mission. 27 figs', 97 tabs

  14. Estimates of Health Detriments and Tissue Weighting Factors for Hong Kong Populations from Low Dose, Low Dose Rate and Low LET Ionising Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    The total health detriments and the tissue weighting factors for the Hong Kong populations from low dose, low dose rate and low LET ionising radiation exposure are obtained according to the methodology recommended in ICRP Publication 60. The probabilities of fatal cancers for the general (ages 0-90) and working (ages 20-64) populations due to lifetime exposure at low dose and low dose rate are 4.9 x 10 -2 Sv -1 and 3.6 x 10 -2 Sv -1 respectively, comparing with the ICRP 60 estimates of 5.0 x 10 -2 Sv -1 and 4.0 x 10 -2 Sv -1 . The corresponding total health detriments for the general and working populations are 6.9 x 10 -2 Sv -1 and 4.9 x 10 -2 Sv -1 respectively comparing with the ICRP 60 estimates of 7.3 x 10 -2 Sv -1 and 5.6 x 10 -2 Sv -1 . Tissue weighting factors for the general population are 0.01 (bone surface and skin), 0.02 (liver, oesophagus and thyroid), 0.04 (bladder and breast), 0.08 (remainder), 0.10 (stomach), 0.11 (bone marrow), 0.15 (colon), 0.19 (lung) and 0.21 (gonads) and for the working population are 0.01 (bone surface and skin), 0.03 (liver, oesophagus and thyroid), 0.04 (breast), 0.06 (remainder), 0.07 (bladder), 0.08 (colon), 0.14 (bone marrow and stomach), 0.16 (lung) and 0.20 (gonads). (author)

  15. Phenotypic Correlations of Body Weight and Linear Body Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 126 Sigmond strain of Japanese quail chicks consisting of 42 each of heavy, medium and low body weight lines were used to estimate phenotypic correlations (rp ) among body weight (BWT) and linear body traits at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. The linear body traits considered were breast girth (BG), shank length (SL), ...

  16. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  17. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition

  18. Combined effects of weight loss and physical activity on all-cause mortality of overweight men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, J N; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people.......To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people....

  19. Nutrition Care for Patients with Weight Regain after Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlene Johnson Stoklossa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving optimal weight outcomes for patients with obesity is important to the management of their chronic disease. All interventions present risks for weight regain. Bariatric surgery is the most efficacious treatment, producing greater weight losses that are sustained over more time compared to lifestyle interventions. However, approximately 20–30% of patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes, and patients may experience a regain of 20–25% of their lost weight. This paper reviews several factors that influence weight regain after bariatric surgery, including type of surgery, food tolerance, energy requirements, drivers to eat, errors in estimating intake, adherence, food and beverage choices, and patient knowledge. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach can provide the best care for patients with weight regain. Nutrition care by a registered dietitian is recommended for all bariatric surgery patients. Nutrition diagnoses and interventions are discussed. Regular monitoring of weight status and early intervention may help prevent significant weight regain.

  20. Weight history of patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, N de Fine; Richelsen, B; Siersma, V

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate and illustrate how the 10 years of weight change immediately preceding diabetes diagnosis vary with weight at the age of 20 years and with socio-demographic variables, risk factors and comorbidities at diagnosis. METHODS: Data were from a population-based cohort of 1320 persons...... newly diagnosed with diabetes aged > or = 40 years. Patients' weight at diagnosis was measured by the doctor, while patients recalled their weight approximately 1, 5 and 10 years prior to diagnosis and at age 20 years. RESULTS: Median weight gain from age 20 years to diabetes diagnosis at median age 65.......3 years was 14.7 kg (interquartile range 6.0-23.0). Women gained weight more than men, and the lower the weight at age 20 years, the greater the weight gain. The average weight gain from 10 years prior to diabetes diagnosis until diagnosis, however, was only 1 kg and decreased markedly with age. These 10...

  1. Preliminary GRS Measurement of Chlorine Distribution on Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Taylor, G. J.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ongoing measurements with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard Mars Odyssey provide preliminary detection of chlorine at the surface of Mars. Summing all data since boom deployment and using a forward calculation model, we estimate values for chlorine concentration at 5° resolution. Rebinning this data and smoothing with a 15-degree-radius boxcar filter reveal regions of noticeable chlorine enrichment at scales larger than the original 5° resolution and allow for preliminary comparison with previous Mars datasets. Analyzing chlorine concentrations within 30 degrees of the equator, we find a negative correlation with thermal inertia (R2=0.55) and positive correlation with albedo (R2=0.52), indicating that chlorine is associated with fine, non-rock surface materials. Although possibly a smoothing artifact, the spatial correlation is more noticeable in the region covering Tharsis and Amazonis than around Arabia and Elysium. Additionally, a noticeable region of chlorine enrichment appears west of Tharsis Montes ( ˜0 to 20N, ˜110 to 150W) and chlorine concentration is estimated to vary in the equatorial region by over a factor of two. A simplified two-component model involving chlorine-poor rocks and a homogenous chlorine-rich fine material requires rock abundance to vary from zero to over 50%, a result inconsistent with previous measurements and models. In addition to variations in rock composition and distribution, substantial variations in chlorine content of various types of fine materials including dust, sand, and duricrust appear important in explaining this preliminary observation. Surprisingly, visual comparison of surface units mapped by Christensen and Moore (1992) does not show enrichment in chlorine associated with regions of indurated surfaces, where cementation has been proposed. Rather, Tharsis, a region of active deposition with proposed mantling of 0.1 to 2 meters of recent dust (Christensen 1986), shows the greatest chlorine signal. In light of

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Levin, Susan M; Yokoyama, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists. We included intervention trials in which participants were adults, interventions included vegetarian diets of ≥4 weeks' duration without energy intake limitations, and effects on body weight were reported. Two investigators independently extracted data using predetermined fields. Estimates of body weight change, comparing intervention groups to untreated control groups, were derived using a random effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference. To quantify effects on body weight of baseline weight, sex, age, study duration, study goals, type of diet, and study authorship, additional analyses examined within-group changes for all studies reporting variance data. We identified 15 trials (17 intervention groups), of which 4 included untreated controls. Prescription of vegetarian diets was associated with a mean weight change of -3.4 kg (95% CI -4.4 to -2.4; Pbody weight, suggesting potential value for prevention and management of weight-related conditions. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Automatic Feature Selection and Weighting for the Formation of Homogeneous Groups for Regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Curve Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Burn, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme rainfall events can have devastating impacts on society. To quantify the associated risk, the IDF curve has been used to provide the essential rainfall-related information for urban planning. However, the recent changes in the rainfall climatology caused by climate change and urbanization have made the estimates provided by the traditional regional IDF approach increasingly inaccurate. This inaccuracy is mainly caused by two problems: 1) The ineffective choice of similarity indicators for the formation of a homogeneous group at different regions; and 2) An inadequate number of stations in the pooling group that does not adequately reflect the optimal balance between group size and group homogeneity or achieve the lowest uncertainty in the rainfall quantiles estimates. For the first issue, to consider the temporal difference among different meteorological and topographic indicators, a three-layer design is proposed based on three stages in the extreme rainfall formation: cloud formation, rainfall generation and change of rainfall intensity above urban surface. During the process, the impacts from climate change and urbanization are considered through the inclusion of potential relevant features at each layer. Then to consider spatial difference of similarity indicators for the homogeneous group formation at various regions, an automatic feature selection and weighting algorithm, specifically the hybrid searching algorithm of Tabu search, Lagrange Multiplier and Fuzzy C-means Clustering, is used to select the optimal combination of features for the potential optimal homogenous groups formation at a specific region. For the second issue, to compare the uncertainty of rainfall quantile estimates among potential groups, the two sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test-based sample ranking process is used. During the process, linear programming is used to rank these groups based on the confidence intervals of the quantile estimates. The proposed methodology fills the gap

  4. Mixed geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model with weighted adaptive bi-square for case of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, H. N.; Saputro, D. R. S.; Susanti, Y.

    2017-06-01

    MGWR model is combination of linear regression model and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model, therefore, MGWR model could produce parameter estimation that had global parameter estimation, and other parameter that had local parameter in accordance with its observation location. The linkage between locations of the observations expressed in specific weighting that is adaptive bi-square. In this research, we applied MGWR model with weighted adaptive bi-square for case of DHF in Surakarta based on 10 factors (variables) that is supposed to influence the number of people with DHF. The observation unit in the research is 51 urban villages and the variables are number of inhabitants, number of houses, house index, many public places, number of healthy homes, number of Posyandu, area width, level population density, welfare of the family, and high-region. Based on this research, we obtained 51 MGWR models. The MGWR model were divided into 4 groups with significant variable is house index as a global variable, an area width as a local variable and the remaining variables vary in each. Global variables are variables that significantly affect all locations, while local variables are variables that significantly affect a specific location.

  5. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A Conceptual Design and Optimization Method for Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, R.; Van Dommelen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a new software tool to aid in the conceptual design of blended-wingbody aircraft. The tool consists of four main modules. In the preliminary sizing model a class I estimate of the maximum take-off weight, wing loading, and thrust-to-weight ratio is calculated. This information is

  7. Stereological estimation of the mean and variance of nuclear volume from vertical sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1991-01-01

    The application of assumption-free, unbiased stereological techniques for estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, from vertical sections of benign and malignant nuclear aggregates in melanocytic skin tumours is described. Combining sampling of nuclei with uniform...... probability in a physical disector and Cavalieri's direct estimator of volume, the unbiased, number-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vN, of the same benign and malignant nuclear populations is also estimated. Having obtained estimates of nuclear volume in both the volume- and number distribution...... to the larger malignant nuclei. Finally, the variance in the volume distribution of nuclear volume is estimated by shape-independent estimates of the volume-weighted second moment of the nuclear volume, vv2, using both a manual and a computer-assisted approach. The working procedure for the description of 3-D...

  8. Minimum nonuniform graph partitioning with unrelated weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarychev, K. S.; Makarychev, Yu S.

    2017-12-01

    We give a bi-criteria approximation algorithm for the Minimum Nonuniform Graph Partitioning problem, recently introduced by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. In this problem, we are given a graph G=(V,E) and k numbers ρ_1,\\dots, ρ_k. The goal is to partition V into k disjoint sets (bins) P_1,\\dots, P_k satisfying \\vert P_i\\vert≤ ρi \\vert V\\vert for all i, so as to minimize the number of edges cut by the partition. Our bi-criteria algorithm gives an O(\\sqrt{log \\vert V\\vert log k}) approximation for the objective function in general graphs and an O(1) approximation in graphs excluding a fixed minor. The approximate solution satisfies the relaxed capacity constraints \\vert P_i\\vert ≤ (5+ \\varepsilon)ρi \\vert V\\vert. This algorithm is an improvement upon the O(log \\vert V\\vert)-approximation algorithm by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. We extend our results to the case of 'unrelated weights' and to the case of 'unrelated d-dimensional weights'. A preliminary version of this work was presented at the 41st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP 2014). Bibliography: 7 titles.

  9. Neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of neighborhood racial composition or neighborhood poverty in association with pregnancy-related weight are limited. Prior studies of neighborhood racial density and poverty has been in association with adverse birth outcomes and suggest that neighborhoods with high rates of poverty and racial composition of black residents are typically segregated and systematically isolated from opportunities and resources. These neighborhood factors may help explain the racial disparities in pre-pregnancy weight and inadequate weight gain. This study examined whether neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty was associated with weight before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy and if this association differed by race. Methods: We used vital birth records of singleton births of 73,061 non-Hispanic black and white women in Allegheny County, PA (2003–2010. Maternal race and ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body-mass-index (BMI, gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth record data, and measures of neighborhood racial composition (percentage of black residents in the neighborhood and poverty (percentage of households in the neighborhood below the federal poverty were derived using US Census data. Multilevel log binomial regression models were performed to estimate neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight (i.e., overweight/obese and gestational weight gain (i.e., inadequate and excessive. Results: Black women as compared to white women were more likely to be overweight/obese before pregnancy and to have inadequate gestational weight gain (53.6% vs. 38.8%; 22.5% vs. 14.75 respectively. Black women living in predominately black neighborhoods were slightly more likely to be obese prior to pregnancy compared to black women living in predominately white neighborhoods (PR 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16. Black and white women living in high

  10. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RO Resende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.

  11. Preliminary results of hydrologic testing: The composite Umtanum basalt flow top at borehole RRL-2 (3,568 - 3,781 feet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, S.R.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents preliminary results and description of hydrologic test activities for the composite Umtanum basalt flow top (3,568--3,781 feet) at Borehole RRL-2. Hydrologic tests conducted include two constant discharge air-lift and four slug tests. Preliminary results indicate an observed hydraulic head for the test interval of 405.7 feet above mean sea level. Transmissivity values determined from hydrologic tests performed, range between 244 to 481 ft 2 /day, with an assigned best estimate of 480 ft 2 /day. The best estimate of equivalent hydraulic conductivity, based on an effective test thickness of 157 feet, is 3.1 ft/day. 7 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Preliminary safety assessment study for the conceptual design of a repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.L.; Gram, H.F.; Hong, K.J.; Ng, H.S.; Pendergrass, A.M.

    1984-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of the upper bounds on postulated worst-case radiological releases resulting from possible accidents during the operating period of a prospective repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain are presented. Possible disrupting events are screened to identify the accidents of greatest potential consequence. The radiological dose commitments for the general public and repository personnel are estimated for postulated releases caused by natural phenomena, man-made events, and operational accidents. All postulated worst-case releases result in doses to the public that are lower than the 0.5-rem, whole-body dose-per-accident limit set by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 60. Doses to repository personnel are within the NRC's 5.0-rem/yr occupational exposure limit set in 10 CFR 20 for normal operations. Doses are within this limit for all accidents except the transportation accident and fire in a drift. A preliminary risk assessment has also been performed. Based on this preliminary safety study, the proposed site boundaries and design criteria routinely used in constructing nuclear facilities appear to be adequate to protect the safety of the general public during the operating phase of the repository

  13. Heritability estimates and correlations between production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heritablities and correlations were estimated between lamb body weight at different ages and reproductive traits in the Lori-Bakhtiari sheep breed. Data and pedigree information for Lori-Bakhtiari sheep used in this study were 5826 records of body weight of lambs from 240 sires and 1627 dams, and 5741 records of ...

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Method to Monitor Landfills Resilience against Methane Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusna, Noor Amalia; Maryono, Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Methane emission from landfill sites contribute to global warming and un-proper methane treatment can pose an explosion hazard. Stakeholder and government in the cities in Indonesia been found significant difficulties to monitor the resilience of landfill from methane emission. Moreover, the management of methane gas has always been a challenging issue for long waste management service and operations. Landfills are a significant contributor to anthropogenic methane emissions. This study conducted preliminary evaluation of method to manage methane gas emission by assessing LandGem and IPCC method. From the prelimin