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Sample records for preliminary screening tests

  1. Clinical evaluation of children testing positive in screening tests for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skounti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Screening tests are of great diagnostic value in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, however final diagnosis relies on a clinical examination by an expert. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate children who had been screened positive for ADHD through both a parent and a teacher questionnaire. Methods: Parent interview and child behavior checklist and clinical assessment were used to confirm the preliminary diagnosis in 42 children aged 8 years, who have been screened positive for ADHD out of 1,708 children, in a large, two-setting screening study conducted in Crete, Greece. Results: The diagnosis of ADHD was confirmed for 31 children (74%. In the remaining 11 children, ADHD manifestations were attributed to other primary disorders. None of the 42 children was classified as lacking symptoms suggesting ADHD. Among the 31 children with confirmed ADHD, only 2 had been diagnosed prior to the screening test. Conclusions: Although clinical evaluation is the golden standard for diagnosis of ADHD, two-setting screening questionnaires by parent and teacher are useful tools in identifying children who need further investigation and intervention.

  2. Validating a dance-specific screening test for balance: preliminary results from multisite testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna

    2010-09-01

    Few dance-specific screening tools adequately capture balance. The aim of this study was to administer and modify the Star Excursion Balance Test (oSEBT) to examine its utility as a balance screen for dancers. The oSEBT involves standing on one leg while lightly targeting with the opposite foot to the farthest distance along eight spokes of a star-shaped grid. This task simulates dance in the spatial pattern and movement quality of the gesturing limb. The oSEBT was validated for distance on athletes with history of ankle sprain. Thirty-three dancers (age 20.1 +/- 1.4 yrs) participated from two contemporary dance conservatories (UK and US), with or without a history of lower extremity injury. Dancers were verbally instructed (without physical demonstration) to execute the oSEBT and four modifications (mSEBT): timed (speed), timed with cognitive interference (answering questions aloud), and sensory disadvantaging (foam mat). Stepping strategies were tracked and performance strategies video-recorded. Unlike the oSEBT results, distances reached were not significant statistically (p = 0.05) or descriptively (i.e., shorter) for either group. Performance styles varied widely, despite sample homogeneity and instructions to control for strategy. Descriptive analysis of mSEBT showed an increased number of near-falls and decreased timing on the injured limb. Dancers appeared to employ variable strategies to keep balance during this test. Quantitative analysis is warranted to define balance strategies for further validation of SEBT modifications to determine its utility as a balance screening tool.

  3. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fiona J; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-03-01

    The article describes a pilot and follow-up study of the preliminary development of a new tool to screen for Asperger syndrome (AS) and related social and communication conditions (the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test, CAST) in children aged 4-11 years, in a non-clinical setting. In the pilot study, parents of 13 children with AS and of 37 typically developing children completed the CAST. There were significant differences between the AS and typical sample means. The pilot was used to establish preliminary cut-off scores for the CAST. In the main study, parents of 1150 primary-school-age children were sent the CAST, and 174 took part in the full data analysis. Results suggest that compared with other tools currently available, the CAST may be useful for identifying children at risk for AS and related conditions, in a mainstream non-clinical sample. Further research is ongoing.

  4. Jaw-opening force test to screen for Dysphagia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Koji; Tohara, Haruka; Wada, Satoko; Iida, Takatoshi; Ueda, Koichiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2014-05-01

    To assess the jaw-opening force test (JOFT) for dysphagia screening. Criterion standard. University dental hospital. Patients complaining of dysphagia (N=95) and with symptoms of dysphagia with chronic underlying causes (mean age ± SD, 79.3±9.61y; range, 50-94y; men: n=49; mean age ± SD, 77.03±9.81y; range, 50-94y; women: n=46; mean age ± SD, 75.42±9.73y; range, 51-93y) admitted for treatment between May 2011 and December 2012 were included. None. All patients were administered the JOFT and underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The mean jaw-opening strength was compared with aspiration (ASP) and pharyngeal residue observations of the FEES, which was used as the criterion standard. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Forces of ≤3.2kg for men and ≤4kg for women were appropriate cutoff values for predicting ASP with a sensitivity and specificity of .57 and .79 for men and .93 and .52 for women, respectively. Based on the ROC analyses for predicting pharyngeal residue, forces of ≤5.3kg in men and ≤3.9kg in women were appropriate cutoff values, with a sensitivity and specificity of .80 and .88 for men and .83 and .81 for women, respectively. The JOFT could be a useful screening tool for predicting pharyngeal residue and could provide useful information to aid in the referral of patients for further diagnostic imaging testing. However, given its low sensitivity to ASP the JOFT should be paired with other screening tests that predict ASP. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quad screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - quadruple; Trisomy 21 - quadruple; Turner syndrome - quadruple; Spina bifida - ...

  6. Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of Dyslexia Early Screening Test - Second edition: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Tatiana Ribeiro Gomes da; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of language skills in early childhood can provide important information about the future of literacy and academic performances. Children with reading difficulties should be identified early in their education, before they suffer from shortcomings and experience failures and feel discouraged at school. Considering the importance of early identification of language disorders and the shortage of standardized instruments for the Brazilian scenario, the overall objective of this study was to translate and adapt the Dyslexia Early Screening Test - Second Edition (DEST-2) to, subsequently, verify its applicability and efficacy in preschoolers who had Brazilian Portuguese as their native language. The study was composed of 20 children of both genders, regularly enrolled in a public school in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, none had any complaints related to learning and no indicators of sensory, neurological, cognitive, or behavioral disorders. It was observed that there was no need for significant changes to the original structure of the DEST-2 or in their administration instructions format. The performance of the children in the translated and in the national exams that were used as a benchmark was compatible, suggesting that the adjustments made met the equivalences needed to utilize this instrument with Brazilian children. A randomized study that will complement the preliminarily data obtained is in progress. Taking into consideration the linguistic and cultural diversity of Brazil, it is imperative that the translated version of the DEST-2 can be applied on a large scale and in several states of the country, in order to allow the use of this instrument as a language assessment tool in Brazil.

  7. Developments and the preliminary tests of Resistive GEMs manufactured by a screen printing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, G; Oliveira, R; Martinego, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Pietropaolo, P; Picchi, P

    2008-01-01

    We report promising initial results obtained with new resistive-electrode GEM (RETGEM) detectors manufactured, for the first time, using screen printing technology. These new detectors allow one to reach gas gains nearly as high as with ordinary GEM-like detectors with metallic electrodes; however, due to the high resistivity of its electrodes the RETGEM, in contrast to ordinary hole-type detectors, has the advantage of being fully spark protected. We discovered that RETGEMs can operate stably and at high gains in noble gases and in other badly quenched gases, such as mixtures of noble gases with air and in pure air; therefore, a wide range of practical applications, including dosimetry and detection of dangerous gases, is foreseeable. To promote a better understanding of RETGEM technology some comparative studies were completed with metallic-electrode thick GEMs. A primary benefit of these new RETGEMs is that the screen printing technology is easily accessible to many research laboratories. This accessibilit...

  8. [N.B.T. - PABA screening test for exocrine pancreatic function in healthy children. Preliminary investigation in 60 normal children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Morte, M A; Losi, S; Morelli, P; Ripa, C; Sala, M R; Cereda, M; Mancosu, M; Saputo, V

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical bases of PABA test as a diagnostic screening test of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, its mode of execution and the findings obtained in 60 healthy subjects ranging in age from 2 to 14 years are reported. Those conditions related to extra-pancreatic disorders or to other factors that may interfere with the test and reduce its reliability are also discussed.

  9. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitro Diagnostics Tests Used In Clinical Care Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  10. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells from the fetus or placenta obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) . FAQ164 “Prenatal Genetic ... should be followed by a diagnostic test with amniocentesis or CVS. The cell-free DNA screening test ...

  11. Short apraxia screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiguarda, Ramon; Clarens, Florencia; Amengual, Alejandra; Drucaroff, Lucas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Limb apraxia comprises many different and common disorders, which are largely unrecognized essentially because there is no easy-to-use screening test sensitive enough to identify all types of limb praxis deficits. We evaluated 70 right-handed patients with limb apraxia due to a single focal lesion of the left hemisphere and 40 normal controls, using a new apraxia screening test. The test covered 12 items including: intransitive gestures, transitive gestures elicited under verbal, visual, and tactile modalities, imitation of meaningful and meaningless postures and movements, and a multiple object test. Interrater reliability was maximum for a cutoff of >2 positive items identifying apraxia on the short battery (Cohen's kappa .918, p 3 items (Cohen's kappa .768, p 2 was higher, indicating greater apraxia diagnosis agreement between raters at this cutoff value. The screening test proved to have high specificity and sensitivity to diagnose every type of upper limb praxis deficit, thus showing advantages over previously published tests.

  12. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  13. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  14. The Self-report Standardized Assessment of Personality-abbreviated Scale: Preliminary results of a brief screening test for personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, S.; Heck, G.L. van; Moran, P.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity of the Self-report Standardized Assessment of Personality-abbreviated Scale (SAPAS-SR) as a screening instrument for personality disorders were studied in a random sample of 195 Dutch psychiatric outpatients, using the Structu

  15. Preliminary pharmacognostic screening of Achyranthes coynei stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Upadhya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthes coynei is a rare, endemic perennial shrub reported from Karnataka and Maharashtra states of India. The plant is used to treat various disorders by folk healers and was proven to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate microscopic and macroscopic characters of A. coynei stem, along with its physicochemical parameters. ProgRes ® CapturePro and Microsoft Excel were used for statistical analysis. Perennial, shrubby nature and woody stem were the distinguishing morphological characters observed. Transverse section (TS illustrated quadrangular outline of the stem and showed the presence of two types of trichomes on the thick-walled epidermis. TS also showed number of rosette calcium oxalates crystals; prismatic and microsphenoid crystals; conjoint, collateral open secondary vascular bundles; and two amphixylic medullary bundles in the pith. Ash and extractive values, micro and macro elements and nutritive factors were estimated in the present study. The presence of alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were observed in preliminary phytochemical screening. High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis yielded different bands and also indicated the presence of oleanolic acid. The studied parameters for A. coynei stem will be useful for identification and authentication of the plant material.

  16. A randomized controlled trial of Human Papillomavirus (HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: trial design and preliminary results (HPV FOCAL Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Laurie W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the HPV FOCAL trial, we will establish the efficacy of hr-HPV DNA testing as a stand-alone screening test followed by liquid based cytology (LBC triage of hr-HPV-positive women compared to LBC followed by hr-HPV triage with ≥ CIN3 as the outcome. Methods/Design HPV-FOCAL is a randomized, controlled, three-armed study over a four year period conducted in British Columbia. It will recruit 33,000 women aged 25-65 through the province's population based cervical cancer screening program. Control arm: LBC at entry and two years, and combined LBC and hr-HPV at four years among those with initial negative results and hr-HPV triage of ASCUS cases; Two Year Safety Check arm: hr-HPV at entry and LBC at two years in those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positives; Four Year Intervention Arm: hr-HPV at entry and combined hr-HPV and LBC at four years among those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positive cases Discussion To date, 6150 participants have a completed sample and epidemiologic questionnaire. Of the 2019 women enrolled in the control arm, 1908 (94.5% were cytology negative. Women aged 25-29 had the highest rates of HSIL (1.4%. In the safety arm 92.2% of women were hr-HPV negative, with the highest rate of hr-HPV positivity found in 25-29 year old women (23.5%. Similar results were obtained in the intervention arm HPV FOCAL is the first randomized trial in North America to examine hr-HPV testing as the primary screen for cervical cancer within a population-based cervical cancer screening program. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register, ISRCTN79347302

  17. Capillary blood glucose screening for gestational diabetes: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M B; Cembrowski, G S; Gabbe, S G

    1986-10-01

    Home glucose monitoring with the use of reflectance meters is an important adjunct in the care of pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The accuracy of reflectance meters for the assay of capillary glucose specimens has been well documented. The present preliminary study was undertaken to determine the utility of outpatient screening for gestational diabetes mellitus with the use of a reflectance meter (Accu-Chek, Boehringer Mannheim Co.). One hundred twenty-five patients in our high-risk practice had a standard 50 gm glucose load at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation. Capillary glucose values were measured on site with the Accu-Chek. Venous plasma glucose levels were measured by the central laboratory chemistry analyzer. While the laboratory (x) and meter (y) glucose determinations between the two sets of values were highly correlated (R = 0.89, p less than 0.001), there was a significant difference in their average values (x = 111.74, y = 136.35, p less than 0.0001). With the use of a receiver operator characteristic curve, a meter value of 160 mg/dl was determined as the optimal threshold for performing a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. The sensitivity and specificity with the use of a meter value of 160 mg/dl were 93% and 96%, respectively, for detecting an abnormal screening test in venous plasma (greater than or equal to 135 mg/dl). A total of 32 glucose tolerance tests were performed, with four patients included who had venous values less than 135 mg/dl. All eight patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were correctly identified. These data suggest that a glucose reflectance meter can be used for accurate outpatient screening of gestational diabetes mellitus. The potential advantages of capillary blood glucose screening include both cost and efficiency. Patients with abnormal screening values can be promptly identified and scheduled for a follow-up 3-hour glucose tolerance test.

  18. Neonatal Screening Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigue, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several laboratory experiments that are adaptations of clinical tests for certain genetic diseases in babies. Information and procedures are provided for tests for phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, tyrosinemia, cystinuria, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Discusses the effects of each disease on the infants' development. (TW)

  19. TB Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  20. Newborn Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. Made in the bone marrow and the thymus gland, B- and T- lymphocytes are specialized white ... be treated to help prevent problems with that development. previous continue Should I Request Other Tests? If ...

  1. Evaluation of latex agglutination test and oxacillin resistant screening agar base (ORSAB medium for the detection of oxacillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (ORCoNS (Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoekoer M. Dzen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS are recognized as an important cause of nosocomial infection, especially in neonates and patients with indwelling prosthetic devices. The CoNS resistance rate to oxacillin has been increasing. Therefore, rapid and accurate detection of oxacillin resistance is essential in order to determine the most appropriate antimicrobial therapy. This study aimed to prove that latex agglutination test and oxacillin resistant screening agar base (ORSAB medium can be used for rapid detection of oxacilllin resistant CoNS (ORCoNS. Latex agglutination test and ORSAB medium compared with the conventional method was conducted in this study toward 30 clinical isolates of CoNS for the detection of ORCoNS. Mc Nemar test was used to analyze the data. The study result revealed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05 in terms of ORCoNS detection between the latex agglutination test and ORSAB medium on the one hand, and the conventional method on the other. It is concluded that latex agglutination test and ORSAB medium can be used for rapid detection of ORCoNS. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:228-32Keywords: nosocomial infection, rapid detection, mecA gene

  2. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  3. Review of Autism Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that onset in the first 3 years of life and led to lifelong disability.Despite the early onset of symptoms, diagnosis of thissyndromedoes not happenuntil severalyears later, somany childrenlosethe opportunityfor earlyintervention.There arevarious toolsforscreening anddiagnosis, buttheirdesign, strengths and weaknesses aredifferent. The aim of this study was assess these tools from various aspects to provide a comprehensive view. Materials and methods: This study is a narrative literature review on screeningtoolsof autism. Comprehensive searches of the scientific literature were conducted in textbooks and 8 electronic databases(proquest,wiley,google scholar,SID,Scopus, Web of Science ،Science Direct ، and Medline and Pediatric book. language restriction (Persian and English was applied. The search strategy consisted of keywords and medical subject headings for autism and various screening tests. Result: In this study, 28 screening tests were identified from 1992 to 2014. CHAT is oldest test and the most recent test is CAST The minimum age that can perform the screening is six months that related to ITC. Minimum time of testing was 5 minutes  for CHAT and the maximum time was 90-120 minutes for ASIEP-3.RAADS-R test was the highest specificity and specificity (100% and the lowest specificity was 14% in ESAT test Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that any of the autism screening tools consider specific skill and various aspects of the disease, careful evaluation is need to choose proper test.

  4. Performance of the Fecal Immunochemical Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening Using Different Stool-Collection Devices: Preliminary Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye Young; Suh, Mina; Baik, Hyung Won; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Lee, Chan Wha; Oh, Jae Hwan; Lee, You Kyoung; Han, Dong Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2016-11-15

    We are in the process of conducting a randomized trial to determine whether compliance with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for colorectal cancer screening differs according to the stool-collection method. This study was an interim analysis of the performance of two stool-collection devices (sampling bottle vs conventional container). In total, 1,701 individuals (age range, 50 to 74 years) were randomized into the sampling bottle group (intervention arm) or the conventional container group (control arm). In both groups, we evaluated the FIT positivity rate, the positive predictive value for advanced neoplasia, and the detection rate for advanced neoplasia. The FIT positivity rates were 4.1% for the sampling bottles and 2.0% for the conventional containers; these values were significantly different. The positive predictive values for advanced neoplasia in the sampling bottles and conventional containers were 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -3.4 to 25.6) and 12.0% (95% CI, -0.7 to 24.7), respectively. The detection rates for advanced neoplasia in the sampling bottles and conventional containers were 4.5 per 1,000 persons (95% CI, 2.0 to 11.0) and 2.4 per 1,000 persons (95% CI, 0.0 to 5.0), respectively. The impact of these findings on FIT screening performance was unclear in this interim analysis. This impact should therefore be evaluated in the final analysis following the final enrollment period.

  5. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • ...

  6. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  7. phytochemical screening and preliminary evaluation of analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... being screened for phytochemical constituents and ... extract of Cissus polyantha in laboratory animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant Material. The plant .... 1980), as well as release of lipoxygenase products. (Insel ...

  8. [Colorectal cancer screening programme in Aragon (Spain): preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé Llop, Mª Esther; Cano Del Pozo, Mabel; García Montero, José-Ignacio; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Lanas, Ángel

    2017-08-04

    To describe preliminary findings from the colorectal cancer screening programme in Aragon (Spain) to evaluate its implementation. We have collected data from the first year of the program (2014) based on faecal occult blood immunochemical (FOBTi) test in patients 60-69 years old. We report "indicators" defined by the "Red Nacional de Cribado". Invited population after exclusions: 12,518. Program participation rate: 45.28% (95%CI: 44.41-46.15). Inadequate tests: 0.21% (95%CI: 0.12-0.37); positive FOBTi test 10.75% (95%CI: 9.97-11.58) and colonoscopy acceptance 95.07% (95%CI: 93.04-96.52). Colonoscopy was appropriate and complete in 97.58% (95%CI: 95.98-98.55) of cases. The high- and low-risk adenoma detection rates were 14.7‰ (95%CI: 11.9-18.2) and 5.55‰ (95%CI: 3.9-7.8) respectively. The positive predictive value for any adenoma was 58.55% (95%CI: 54.49-62.49) and for invasive cancer was 5.36% (95%CI: 3.8-7.51). The indicator analysis of the ongoing programme suggests the programme is being implemented correctly in our community. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Preliminary screening for antiviral AIDS drugs. VI. Report for fiscal year 1993].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, H; Takahashi, K; Kunisada, T; Moritugu, Y; Kobayashi, N; Noguchi, Y; Matsuyama, M; Akiyoshi, K; Noro, S; Sawada, H; Sakurada, N; Yamada, A; Ishizaki, T; Kamimura, N; Yoshida, Y; Ono, T; Ohtomo, N; Morishita, T; Kobayashi, S; Miyake, T; Ishiwara, Y; Suzuki, R; Saito, T; Etoh, S; Mise, K

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary screening of antiviral AIDS drugs has been carried out using three different in vitro assay systems. Among 138 samples tested, two were found to inhibit the growth of HIV in vitro. Neither of the positive samples has hopeful signs, as the ranges of effective doses of the samples are very narrow.

  10. [Preliminary screening for antiviral AIDS drugs. VII. Report for fiscal year 1994].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmuki, N; Kazama, K; Sadamasu, T; Sekine, H; Ohta, K; Kudoh, Y; Kobayashi, N; Noguchi, Y; Matsuyama, M; Akiyoshi, K; Noro, S; Sawada, H; Kimura, H; Yamada, A; Ishizaki, T; Kamimura, N; Yoshida, Y; Ono, T; Tachibana, N; Morishita, T; Kobayashi, S; Miyake, T; Ishiwara, Y; Ishikawa, N; Moritugu, Y

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary screening of antiviral AIDS drugs has been carried out using three different in vitro assay systems. Among 246 samples of different origin tested, six were shown to inhibit the growth of HIV in vitro. Two of the positive samples have hopeful signs, as the ranges of effective doses are wider than those of most of positive samples which had been found by us.

  11. Preliminary screening of ethnomedicinal plants from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, R; Ignacimuthu, S; Raja, D P

    1999-08-01

    Antibacterial activity of aqueous residues of 16 different ethnomedicinal plants have been studied. The effect of the aqueous extract at two different weights of plant residues, 30 and 40 mg, were tested against three gram positive bacteria and seven gram negative bacteria by the filter paper disc diffusion method. Among the tested plants, Cleome gynandropsis and Ageratum conyzoides showed a significant control of the growth of Alkaligens viscolactis, Klebsiella aerogenas, Bacillus cerues and Streptococcus pyogens. The maximum inhibitions were observed in Tridax procumbens, Cleome viscosa, Acalypha indica and Boerhaavia erecta against Aeromonas hydrophilla and Bacillus cerues.

  12. preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    extracts demonstrated promising activity against the test organisms. The activity of methanol ... concentration (MIC) showed that methanol and ethyl acetate extracts had the lowest MIC value. (10mg/ml) ... seeds of avocado pear was found to be greater than. 70% (Soong ..... Hill, A. F. (1952): Economic Botany: A Textbook of.

  13. Comparison of Two Screening Tests: Gesell Developmental Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Lenell; Buttery, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for selected subtests of The Gesell Developmental Test and The Meeting Street School Screening Test. The selected subtests are moderately correlated, suggesting that either test might be used in a battery. (Author)

  14. Uptake of community-based, self-collected HPV testing vs. visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening in Kampala, Uganda: preliminary results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Erin; Pedersen, Heather N; Mitchell, Sheona M; Sekikubo, Musa; Mwesigwa, David; Singer, Joel; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

    2015-10-01

    To compare two cervical cancer screening methods: community-based self-collection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Pilot randomised controlled trial of 500 women aged 30-65 in the community of Kisenyi, Uganda. Women randomised to self-collection-based HR-HPV testing provided a cervico-vaginal swab for HR-HPV, and results were provided by phone after laboratory testing. Women who tested HPV positive were referred for VIA at the local health unit. Women randomised to VIA underwent screening at the local health unit, where women who tested positive with VIA were provided cryotherapy at time of screening, as per local standard of care. Women were referred for colposcopy when indicated. Outcome measures were uptake of screening, HR-HPV prevalence, VIA result and treatment rates. In the HR-HPV arm, 248 of 250 (p < 0.01) women provided samples, while in the VIA arm, 121 of 250 (48.4%) women attended screening. Among the 73 of 248 HR-HPV-positive women, 45.2% (N = 33) attended VIA screening for follow-up, 21.2% (N = 7) of whom screened positive; five received treatment and two were missing clinical follow-up records. Of the 121 women in the VIA arm who attended screening, 13.2% (N = 16) screened positive; seven received cryotherapy, three refused treatment, five were referred to colposcopy; and one woman had suspected cervical cancer and received treatment after confirmatory testing. This pilot study demonstrated trial feasibility and willingness of the women to participate and be randomised successfully into the two arms. Self-collection-based cervical cancer screening had a higher uptake than VIA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Preliminary screening for antiviral AIDS drugs. VIII. Report for fiscal year 1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T; Kobayashi, S; Sato, K; Sakae, K; Ishikawa, N; Kobayashi, N; Noguchi, Y; Akiyoshi, K; Suga, T; Ogawa, A; Noro, S; Sawada, H; Kimura, H; Yamada, A; Ishizaki, T; Kamimura, N; Iwashima, A; Ono, T; Tachibana, N; Sekine, H; Ohnuki, N; Kazama, K; Sadamasu, K; Ohta, K; Mise, K

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary screening of antiviral AIDS drugs has been carried out using three different in vitro assay systems. Among 96 samples of different origin tested, two were shown to inhibit the growth of HIV in vitro. One of the positive samples (plant origin) has hopeful signs, as the ranges of effective doses are wider than those of most of positive samples which had been found by us.

  16. Stool Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Douglas J; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality and is widely recommended. However, despite the demonstrated benefits of screening and ongoing efforts to improve screening rates, a large percentage of the population remains unscreened. Noninvasive stool based tests offer great opportunity to enhance screening uptake. The evidence supporting the use of both fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and stool DNA (sDNA) has been growing rapidly and both tests are now commercially available for use. Other stool biomarkers (eg, RNA and protein based) are also actively under study both for use independently and as adjuncts to the currently available tests. This mini review provides current, state of the art knowledge about noninvasive stool based screening. It includes a more detailed examination of those tests currently in use (ie, FIT and sDNA) but also provides an overview of stool testing options under development (ie, protein and RNA).

  17. The Accuracy of Three Developmental Screening Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances Page; Byrne, Karen E.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of 3 developmental screening tests administered to 89 young children was compared. The Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test was more accurate than the Academic Scale of the Developmental Profile-II and the Denver-II, identifying correctly 72% of children with difficulties and 76% of children without diagnoses. (Author/JDD)

  18. Pilot Testing a New Short Screen for the Assessment of Older Women's PTSD Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Schuitevoerder, Sage

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult for busy health care providers to perform routine screening for older women's posttraumatic stress symptomatology. This difficulty is due, at least partially, to a paucity of instruments specifically tested on such a population. To address this issue, in this preliminary study we tested an abbreviated screen from the set of 20…

  19. Screening of a Test Charge in Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bai-Song; WANG Rong

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear screening of a test charge in plasma by electrons trapped or untrapped is studied. The obtained results are in rigorous estimations mathematically in comparison with the corresponding Debye screening forms.Meanwhile their validity is physically discussed and some confusions in literature are clarified.

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF SEEDS OF PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed RafiqKhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoralea corylifolia known as “Babchi” is a medicinal plant for the treatment of skin diseases. In India, indigenous herbal remedies such as Ayurveda and other Indian traditional medicines have since ancient times used plants in treatment of various disorders. In our present investigation preliminary phytochemical analysis of Psoralea corylifolia has been evaluated for the presence of bioactive constituents using various polarity solvents including hexane, butanol, ethanol and water. The phytochemical screening of the plant extracts revealed the presence of maximum compounds including carbohydrates, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, amino acid and proteins, cardiac glycosides. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Psoralea corylifolia has promising therapeutic potential and can be used as a base for the development of novel potent drugs in phytomedicine.

  1. Preliminary phytochemical screening of four common plants of family caesalpiniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, N; Saleem, B; Nawaz, R

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical screening of Bauhinia variegata, Cassia fistula, Cassia tora and Tamarindus indica did not reveal alkaloids and unbound anthraquinones while glycosides as well as flavonoids were present in all the four species of the family caesalpiniaceae. Cardiac glycosides were absent only in C. tora and saponins were present only in T. indica, B. variegata and T. indica were devoid of bound anthraquinones while bound anthraquinones were present in C. fistula and C. tora. Paper chromatography revealed 6 spots in solvent system I, and 5 spots in solvent system 2, showing different Rf values. The per cent yield of crude glycosides was 3.18 in B. variegata, 4.03 in C. fistula, 4.45 in C. tora and 4.14 in T. indica.

  2. A Preliminary Study of the Ability of the 4Kscore test, the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial-Risk Calculator and the European Research Screening Prostate-Risk Calculator for Predicting High-Grade Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borque-Fernando, Á; Esteban-Escaño, L M; Rubio-Briones, J; Lou-Mercadé, A C; García-Ruiz, R; Tejero-Sánchez, A; Muñoz-Rivero, M V; Cabañuz-Plo, T; Alfaro-Torres, J; Marquina-Ibáñez, I M; Hakim-Alonso, S; Mejía-Urbáez, E; Gil-Fabra, J; Gil-Martínez, P; Ávarez-Alegret, R; Sanz, G; Gil-Sanz, M J

    2016-04-01

    To prevent the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer (PC), therapeutic strategies have been established such as active surveillance and focal therapy, as well as methods for clarifying the diagnosis of high-grade prostate cancer (HGPC) (defined as a Gleason score ≥7), such as multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and new markers such as the 4Kscore test (4KsT). By means of a pilot study, we aim to test the ability of the 4KsT to identify HGPC in prostate biopsies (Bx) and compare the test with other multivariate prognostic models such as the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator 2.0 (PCPTRC 2.0) and the European Research Screening Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator 4 (ERSPC-RC 4). Fifty-one patients underwent a prostate Bx according to standard clinical practice, with a minimum of 10 cores. The diagnosis of HGPC was agreed upon by 4 uropathologists. We compared the predictions from the various models by using the Mann-Whitney U test, area under the ROC curve (AUC) (DeLong test), probability density function (PDF), box plots and clinical utility curves. Forty-three percent of the patients had PC, and 23.5% had HGPC. The medians of probability for the 4KsT, PCPTRC 2.0 and ERSPC-RC 4 were significantly different between the patients with HGPC and those without HGPC (p≤.022) and were more differentiated in the case of 4KsT (51.5% for HGPC [25-75 percentile: 25-80.5%] vs. 16% [P 25-75: 8-26.5%] for non-HGPC; p=.002). All models presented AUCs above 0.7, with no significant differences between any of them and 4KsT (p≥.20). The PDF and box plots showed good discriminative ability, especially in the ERSPC-RC 4 and 4KsT models. The utility curves showed how a cutoff of 9% for 4KsT identified all cases of HGPC and provided a 22% savings in biopsies, which is similar to what occurs with the ERSPC-RC 4 models and a cutoff of 3%. The assessed predictive models offer good discriminative ability for HGPCs in Bx. The 4KsT is a good classification

  3. Analysis of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, James N.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to validate the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST), the scores were compared with selected demographic, health history, and physical examination variables of migrant and seasonal farmworkers' preschool children in Colorado. (NQ)

  4. The many faeces of colorectal cancer screening embarrassment: preliminary psychometric development and links to screening outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Ladwig, Inga; Reddig, Maike K; Broadbent, Elizabeth A

    2011-09-01

    Although embarrassment may be among the most easily modified discrete emotional barriers to patients seeking health care or testing, work in the area of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been restricted by the absence of suitable instrumentation. The current report describes the development and validation of a self-report instrument assessing two specific aspects of CRC screening embarrassment and their links to screening outcomes. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 245 European American, African-American, and immigrant Caribbean community-dwelling men and women (aged 45-75 years) living in Brooklyn, New York. Participants completed the measure of CRC screening embarrassment, an array of convergent and divergent validity measures including dispositional embarrassment, general medical embarrassment, neuroticism, trait emotion, social desirability, previous treatment avoidance because of embarrassment, relevant health characteristics, and a brief CRC screening history. As expected, CRC screening embarrassment was not unidimensional and had two reliable and distinct components, one concentrated on faecal/rectal embarrassment and the other on embarrassment arising from unwanted intimacy during examinations. In addition to demonstrating patterns of convergent and divergent validity consistent with their separation, multivariate analyses indicated that faecal/rectal embarrassment (but not intimacy concerns) predicted CRC screening frequency. The current report extends current understanding by identifying the specific sources of embarrassment that may contribute to patients' avoidance of CRC screening. Directions for future study and implications for clinical practice and interventions are discussed. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. [COGNITIVE SCREENING IN HIV-1 INFECTED YOUNG ADULTS AT BUENOS AIRES. PRELIMINARY DATA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauas, Romina; Espiño, Analía; Marenco, Victoria; López, Pablo; Cassetti, Isabel; Richly, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent in HIV-1 infected patients, even in younger individuals. These symptoms usually are not recognized by health professionals or even patients themselves. However, they can represent a major cause of functional impairment and failure in treatment compliance. In our country we lack both sufficient epidemiological information on the true impact of these symptoms and screening tests with local validation needed to be used by health professionals during the medical assessment. Therefore we designed a prospective study to compare the performance of four brief cognitive tests and a new screening tool with the neuropsychological assessment (gold standard) in a population of young adults infected with HIV-1 in Argentina, in order to assess their sensitivity and specificity in our culture and language. Different confounding conditions were taken into account. Preliminary data were analyzed after the enrollment of 19 subjects. NEURA screening correlated significantly with the neuropsychological assessment (rho = 0.496, p = .031). In terms of sensitivity and specificity, NEURA performance was superior to other screening tests routinely used in our country: IHDS (S 27%/E 5%), MMSE (S/E 0%), ACE (S 9%/E 100%) and IFS (S 36%/E 80%).

  6. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  7. Preliminary test results for the SVX4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofek, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Rapidis, P.; Utes, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    We present and summarize the preliminary test results for SVX4 chip testing. There are presently two versions of the SVX4. Version 2 has on-chip bypassing and Version 1 does not. The on-chip bypassing is a layer of transistors under the front-end analog pipeline that acts as a bypassing capacitor for the voltage supply. Its size is about a microfarad. We aggressively choose to test Version 2 because of this feature. The feature is advantageous for hybrid design because it eliminates the need for an additional passive component on the hybrid itself by placing it on the actual SVX4 die. Also, the SVX4 was designed to operate in two modes: D. and CDF. One can set which mode the chip will operate by placing a jumper in the proper position on the SVX4 chip carrier. In either mode, the chip can either use the operating parameters from the shift register or the shadow register. Similarly, this is selected by placing a jumper on the SVX4 chip carrier. This chip has this feature because it was unknown whether the new design of the shadow register would be operable. The shadow register is also call the SEU register or Single Event Upset register. An introduction into the functionality of the chip and an explanation on the difference between D. and CDF mode can be found in the SVX4 User's Manual [1].

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening: Should You Get a PSA Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer screening: Should you get a PSA test? Making the decision to have a PSA test depends on a ... make a good decision. By Mayo Clinic Staff Cancer screening tests — including the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test ...

  9. PREMARITAL SCREENING TESTS: AN ISLAMIC VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shammout

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide spread of many diseases, advancements in genetic engineering have led to considerable improvements in diagnosing these diseases. Therefore, pressure on prospective spouses to undergo premarital medical exams has increased significantly. Many Islamic countries have responded to this emerging need by making some premarital screening tests compulsory for a marriage. The adoption of these policies comes from the core message of Islam, which encourages counselling to protect future generations and to guarantee the continuity of worshipping God. However, some people reject the compulsory test, considering them against Islam rules. In this letter to the editor, the authors explore the view of Islam towards premarital medical tests.

  10. Using Cognitive Screening Tests in Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda C; Arehart, Kathryn H; Souza, Pamela E

    2016-12-01

    The population of the United States is aging. Those older adults are living longer than ever and have an increased desire for social participation. As a result, audiologists are likely to see an increased demand for service by older clients whose communication difficulty is caused by a combination of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. For these individuals, early detection of mild cognitive impairment is critical for providing timely medical intervention and social support. This tutorial provides information about cognition of older adults, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive screening tests, with the purpose of assisting audiologists in identifying and appropriately referring potential cases of cognitive impairment. Topics addressed also include how to administer cognitive screening tests on individuals with hearing loss, how to use test results in audiology practice, and the potential of using cognitive screening tests for evaluating the benefit of clinical interventions. As health care professionals who serve the aging population, audiologists are likely to encounter cases of undiagnosed cognitive impairment. In order to provide timely referral for medical assistance as well as an optimized individual outcome of audiologic interventions, audiologists should be trained to recognize an abnormality in older clients' cognitive status.

  11. PREMARITAL SCREENING TESTS: AN ISLAMIC VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Shammout

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide spread of many diseases, advancements in genetic engineering have led to considerable improvements in diagnosing these diseases. Therefore, pressure on prospective spouses to undergo premarital medical exams has increased significantly. Many Islamic countries have responded to this emerging need by making some premarital screening tests compulsory for a marriage. The adoption of these policies comes from the core message of Islam, which encourages counselling to p...

  12. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  13. Preliminary screening of some fractions of Loxostylis alata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... solvent fractionation procedure and the different fractions were screened for ... relies exclusively on plants as a source of medicines ... some important animal pathogenic fungi and bacteria, ..... anti-inflammatory drugs. FASEB ...

  14. Preliminary phytochemical screening, pharmacognostic and physicochemical evalution of leaf of Gmelina arborea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daya L Chothani; N M Patel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of present study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical screening, detailed pharmacognostic profile and physicochemical evaluation of leaf of Gmelina arborea. Methods: Fresh leaf and dried power of the leaves were studied by morphology, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical screening, and florescence analysis of powdered drug. Other physicochemical parameters were also performed as per WHO guide lines. Result: The detailed microscopy revealed that the presence of anomocytic stomata and covering uni-multicellular trichome. Leaf constant such as stomatal number, stomata index, vein islet number, vein termination number were also determined. Physicochemical parameters and florescence analysis were also studied. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroid, triterpenoid, saponin, protein, phenolic compound, flavanoid and carbohydrates. Conclusions:The result of these studies could be useful for correct identification and detection of adulterants of this plant material.

  15. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Anamirta cocculus (Linn. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Qadir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at primary screening of the phytochemical contents of seven solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, methanol, ethanol and a mixture of methanol and ethyl acetate (1:3 extracts of the seeds of Anamirta cocculus (Linn. and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of these extracts against five species of pathogenic bacteria. The powdered seeds of A. cocculus were extracted with seven solvents (polar and non-polar with Soxhlet apparatus and the extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by standard biochemical tests. The antibacterial activity of various extracts was evaluated against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The zone of inhibitions and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the various extracts were determined by running the experiments in triplicates. The extracts of the seeds of A. cocculus contained various pharmaceutically active substances viz., aldehydes, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, glycosides, phytosterols, volatile oils, gums and mucilage and other minor phytochemicals. All the extracts showed significant levels of antibacterial activity. Methanol extract was the most active one with remarkable antibacterial activity on the various species tested. MICs of the extracts revealed methanol extract as the most potent one with the lowest inhibitory concentration of 3 μg/mL on E. coli. The findings of the present study indicated that the seeds of A. cocculus possess various secondary metabolites having the potential for developing pharmaceutical drugs, especially antimicrobial ones.

  16. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  17. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  18. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  19. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...... than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......-ELISA and the FPA with combined antigens were suitable as screening tests for all species of Brucella in the animal species tested....

  20. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications.

  1. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  2. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  3. Uses and Abuses of Developmental Screening and School Readiness Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisels, Samuel J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the uses and abuses of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Tests and similar tests. First, discusses developmental screening and readiness tests, then focuses on the Gesell tests, specifically addressing their validity and questioning their current uses. Discusses implications of using readiness tests for assigning children to…

  4. Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ178 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems • What ... used to screen for breast problems? • What is mammography? • Why is mammography done? • When should I start ...

  5. Health Assessment of School Children II -- Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Victor; Oglesby, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that adequate screening, and the use of expensive diagnostic procedures (such as medical referral) only for children who have failed a screening test, will result in the most effective use of school health time and funds. (Author)

  6. 1ST-TRIMESTER SCREENING FOR FETAL CHROMOSOMAL-ABNORMALITIES - PRELIMINARY-RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM

    1991-01-01

    We have started a multicentre trial to study the possibilities of first-trimester maternal serum screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Maternal blood samples were obtained before 13 weeks of gestation. We present the preliminary results of the first 950 patients on alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

  7. Preliminary ten year results from a randomised single centre mass screening trial for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.; Juul, Svend; Fasting, Helge

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, several regions and countries are considering screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, The Chichester Aneurysms Screening Trial has reported poor long term benefit of screening for AAA. We therefore supplement previously published data with a preliminary......,333 were invited to an abdominal ultrasound scan at their district hospital. Information on all deaths until 15.3.2005 was obtained from the Office of Civil Registration. Information on AAA related deaths was obtained from the national registry of Causes of Deaths from 1.4.1994 to 31...

  8. Preliminary Anticonvulsant and Toxicity Screening of Substituted Benzylidenehydrazinyl-N-(6-substituted benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)propanamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ruhi; Siddiqui, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Keeping in view the structural requirements suggested in the pharmacophore model for anticonvulsant activity, a new series of 3-(2-(substitutedbenzylidene)hydrazinyl)-N-(substituted benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-propanamides were synthesized with aromatic hydrophobic aryl ring (A), NH–C=O as hydrogen bonding domain (HBD), nitrogen atom as electron donor (D), and phenyl as distal aryl ring (C). Synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Preliminary in vivo anticonvulsant screening (phase I) was performed by two most adopted seizure models, maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ). Based on anticonvulsant screening results, two compounds, 5h and 5p, were found to be most active; they exhibited activity comparable to standard drugs phenytoin (PHY) and carbamazepine (CBZ). These active compounds were subjected to phase II and phase III screening, where they displayed much higher protective index (PI) in comparison to the standard drugs. In phase IV screening, the bioavailability of active compounds was assessed on oral administration. Further, preliminary safety profiles of 5h and 5p were evaluated by the neurotoxicity testing and liver enzyme estimation. PMID:25580452

  9. Uptake of faecal immunochemical test screening among nonparticipants in a flexible sigmoidoscopy screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Lieke; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Reijerink, Jaqueline C I Y; Habbema, Dik J F; van Leerdam, Monique E

    2012-05-01

    Screening programmes based on single modality testing may prevent individuals with a preference for a different test from participating. We conducted a population-based trial to determine whether nonparticipants in flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening were willing to attend faecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening. In total, 8,407 subjects were invited in a primary FS screening programme. Invitees did not know at the time of FS invitation that nonparticipants would be offered FIT screening. A total of 4,407 nonparticipants of FS screening were invited for FIT screening (cut-off 50 ng haemoglobin/ml). The participation rate to FS screening was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30-32%]. Among the FS nonparticipants 25% (CI: 24-26%) did attended FIT screening. The participation rate of the two-stage recruitment for FS and FIT screening was 45% (CI: 44-46%). FIT screenees were older (p = 0.02), more often women (p < 0.001) and had a lower social economic status (p = 0.01) than FS screenees. The detection rate (DR) for advanced adenoma was 3.5% (CI: 2.5-4.8%), and for colorectal cancer (CRC) it was 0.3% (CI: 0.1-0.8%) among participants to FIT screening. The DR of the two-stage recruitment was 6.1% (n = 202) for an advanced adenoma and 0.5% (n = 16) for a CRC. In conclusion, offering FIT screening to nonparticipants in a FS screening programme increases the overall participation rate considerably, as a quarter of nonparticipants of FS screening was willing to attend FIT screening. The participation rate remains lower for primary FIT screening in the same population (62%). Women in the target population were more likely to refuse FS than FIT screening. Countries introducing FS screening should be aware of these preferences. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  10. Preliminary screening of bacterial isolates from mining wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino S.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing innovative biotechnology for obtaining new resources of high tech critical metals is strongly influenced by the need to reduce the potential risk of shortages, to support the development of industry at European level. To set up these new technologies is essential to isolate strains with high potential in bioleaching of ore, tailings and mine wastes and bioaccumulation of high tech critical metals. Microorganisms are capable of mediating metal and mineral bioprecipitation. In this paper are presented preliminary studies performed for the isolation of strains existing in mining residues containing high tech critical metals. Were used samples collected from various depths in an area of mining wastes containing high tech critical metals. The samples were fine grounded and the powder was washed with sterile saline water. Exact quantities of samples were dispersed in sterile saline water, shaken for a period of 60 minutes, diluted and plated in triplicate on selective agar. After several steps were isolated 3 strains of gram negative bacteria.

  11. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments.

  12. Testing the Preliminary X-33 Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, James J.; Mitchell, Daniel W.; Freestone, Todd M.; Lee, Charles; Lessman, Craig; Foster, Lee D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) must meet the demanding requirements of landing autonomously on a narrow landing strip following a flight that reaches an altitude of up to 200,000 feet and a speed in excess of Mach 9 with significant in-flight energy bleed-off maneuvers. To execute this flight regimen a highly reliable avionics system has been designed that includes three LN-100G Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System (INS/GPS) units as the primary navigation system for the X-33. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) tested an INS/GPS system in real-time simulations to determine the ability of this navigation suite to meet the in flight and autonomous landing requirements of the X-33 RLV. A total of sixty-one open loop tests were performed to characterize the navigation accuracy of the LN-100G. Twenty-seven closed-loop tests were also performed to evaluate the performance of the X-33 Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) algorithms with the real navigation hardware. These closed-loop tests were also designed to expose any integration or operational issues with the real-time X-33 vehicle simulation. Dynamic road tests of the INS/GPS were conducted by Litton to assess the performance of differential and nondifferential INS/GPS hybrid navigation solutions. The results of the simulations and road testing demonstrate that this novel solution is capable of meeting the demanding requirements of take-off, in-flight navigation, and autonomous landing of the X-33 RLV. This paper describes the test environment developed to stimulate the LN-100G and discusses the results of this test effort. This paper also presents recommendations for a navigation system suitable to an operational RLV system.

  13. Concurrent Validity of the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mary; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study compared the results of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) Screening Test with the Denver Developmental Screening Test-Revised and with the full-scale BDI for 30 handicapped and 35 nonhandicapped children, all aged six months to six years. Major differences were found between the tests and populations identified for follow-up.…

  14. A field test of Web-based screening for dry eye disease to enhance awareness of eye problems among general Internet users: a latent strategy to promote health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Kawazoe, Takashi; Kamiyashiki, Masaaki; Sano, Kokoro; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    .... The purpose of this preliminary study was to test a Web-based self-screening questionnaire for drawing attention to dry eye disease among general Internet users and identifying those with a higher...

  15. How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collection. Part of the card consists of special absorbent paper used to collect the blood sample. 1 ... blood is taken through a "heel stick." The absorbent portion of the screening card is then placed ...

  16. Potential Biases Introduced by Conflating Screening and Diagnostic Testing in Colorectal Cancer Screening Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elizabeth A; Griffith, Derek M; West, Brady T; Janz, Nancy K; Resnicow, Ken; Morris, Arden M

    2015-12-01

    Screening and postsymptomatic diagnostic testing are often conflated in cancer screening surveillance research. We examined the error in estimated colorectal cancer screening prevalence due to the conflation of screening and diagnostic testing. Using data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey, we compared weighted prevalence estimates of the use of all testing (screening and diagnostic) and screening in at-risk adults and calculated the overestimation of screening prevalence across sociodemographic groups. The population screening prevalence was overestimated by 23.3%, and the level of overestimation varied widely across sociodemographic groups (median, 22.6%; mean, 24.8%). The highest levels of overestimation were in non-Hispanic white females (27.4%), adults ages 50-54 years (32.0%), and those with the highest socioeconomic vulnerability [low educational attainment (31.3%), low poverty ratio (32.5%), no usual source of health care (54.4%), and not insured (51.6%); all P colorectal cancer screening prevalence was overestimated, and patterns of overestimation often aligned with social and economic vulnerability. These results are of concern to researchers who use survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess cancer screening behaviors, as it is currently not designed to distinguish diagnostic testing from screening. Surveillance research in cancer screening that does not consider the impetus for testing risks measurement error of screening prevalence, impeding progress toward improving population health. Ultimately, to craft relevant screening benchmarks and interventions, we must look beyond "what" and "when" and include "why." ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Preliminary Screening of Potential Control Products against Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first recording of Drosophila suzukii in the UK occurred in the south of England during August 2012. Since then sticky traps have continued to record the presence of individuals. Several products (both chemical and biological were investigated for their efficacy against different life-stages of the pest. Both direct and indirect exposure to control products was assessed. Spinosad, chlorantraniliprole and the experimental product, TA2674, showed excellent potential as control agents when used as either a pre- or post-dipping treatment for blueberries with mortalities of 100%, 93% and 98% mortality, respectively, being achieved following pre-treatment. Direct spray application of all products tested had limited impact upon adult flies. Highest mortality (68% was achieved following direct application of TA2674. Entomopathogenic agents (nematodes and fungi tested appeared to reduce fly population development (ranges of 34–44% mortality obtained but would seem unable to eradicate outbreaks. The potential of the tested products to control D. suzukii is discussed.

  18. Preliminary Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  19. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  20. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section 410.18... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:...

  1. An Algorithm for Glaucoma Screening in Clinical Settings and Its Preliminary Performance Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-Farzad Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To devise and evaluate a screening algorithm for glaucoma in clinical settings. Methods: Screening included examination of the optic disc for vertical cupping (≥0.4 and asymmetry (≥0.15, Goldmann applanation tonometry (≥21 mmHg, adjusted or unadjusted for central corneal thickness, and automated perimetry. In the diagnostic step, retinal nerve fiber layer imaging was performed using scanning laser polarimetry. Performance of the screening protocol was assessed in an eye hospital-based program in which 124 non-physician personnel aged 40 years or above were examined. A single ophthalmologist carried out the examinations and in equivocal cases, a glaucoma subspecialist′s opinion was sought. Results: Glaucoma was diagnosed in six cases (prevalence 4.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.09 of whom five were new. The likelihood of making a definite diagnosis of glaucoma for those who were screened positively was 8.5 times higher than the estimated baseline risk for the reference population; the positive predictive value of the screening protocol was 30%. Screening excluded 80% of the initial population. Conclusion: Application of a formal screening protocol (such as our algorithm or its equivalent in clinical settings can be helpful in detecting new cases of glaucoma. Preliminary performance assessment of the algorithm showed its applicability and effectiveness in detecting glaucoma among subjects without any visual complaint.

  2. From Down syndrome screening to noninvasive prenatal testing: 20 years' experience in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S W Steven; Chen, Chih-Ping; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2013-12-01

    Down syndrome is the most common autosomal chromosome aneuploidy. The prenatal Down syndrome screening protocol has been known in Taiwan for the past 20 years. The maternal serum double markers required for the screening test was first implemented into the general prenatal check-up back in 1994, where it had around a 60% detection rate at a 5% false positive rate. The first trimester combined test was started in 2005, and the maternal serum quadruple test was introduced in 2008 to replace the previous double test. The overall detection rate for the current screening strategies (first trimester combined or second trimester quadruple test) in Taiwan ranges between 80% and 85% at a fixed 5% false positive rate. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is the latest powerful fetal aneuploidy detection method and has become commercially available in Taiwan starting from 2013. The sensitivity and specificity for NIPT are very high (both over 99%) according to large worldwide studies. Our preliminary data for NIPT from 11 medical centers in Taiwan have also shown a 100% detection rate for Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome, respectively. Invasive chromosome studies such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling cannot be replaced by NIPT, and all prenatal screening and NIPT results require confirmation using invasive testing. This review discusses the Down syndrome screening method assessments and the progress of NIPT in Taiwan.

  3. The picture test of separation and individuation - preliminary research

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Žvelc; Maša Žvelc

    2000-01-01

    Authors introduce a new instrument, which they developed for measuring separation and individuation process and attachment in adolescence and adulthood. The Picture Test of Separation and Individuation (PTSI) is a semi–projective test. It consists of various pictures, which represent relationships with significant others. PTSI is divided into three subtests: Relationship with Mother, Relationship with Father and Attachment. In a preliminary research on a sample of college and university...

  4. Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2014-01-01

    A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

  5. Preliminary Screening of a Classical Ayurvedic Formulation for Anticonvulsant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic and inhibitory (GABAergic neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc. Aim: A polyherbal formulation (containing Terminalia chebula Retz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Embelia ribes Burm. F, Acorus calamus L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers, Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke, Achyranthes aspera L. is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvali. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the formulation in Maximum electroshock and Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a polyherbal formulation was developed as directed by classical text and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using Maximal Electroshock Shock (MES and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced convulsions in rats. Statistical comparison was done by one way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: The obtained results showed that the PHF had a protective role on epilepsy. Treatment with PHF significantly improves antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH levels significantly as compared to controls. PHF also significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde (MDA levels in the brain. Moreover, it also attenuated the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T in the rat brain. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PHF might have possible efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy.

  6. Universal newborn hearing screening: preliminary experience at the University Hospital of Cagliari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pinna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral congenital or acquired sensorineural hearing loss is a pathological condition affecting 1-2 children per 1,000 live births; it represents a major issue in public health because its late identification can negatively affect speech and language development. The aim of hearing screening is to obtain diagnosis and management of hearing loss as soon as possible; in fact early diagnosis and treatment allow children with congenital hearing impairment to acquire adequate linguistic competence. The present study reports our preliminary experience in newborn hearing screening at Neonatology services of University of Cagliari (Italy. During the first semester of surveillance, between January 2012 and June 2012, hearing screening was performed on a total of 901 babies using two different methods, TEOAEs in healthy neonates and automated ABR in high-risk babies. All infants were screened prior to hospital discharge; in some cases, especially for preterm infants of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Puericulture Institute, the screening was performed after discharge, to achieve a possible better global and acoustic maturation; 5 cases of hearing impairment were found. In the present study the Authors confirmed that it is possible to start a universal hearing screening in a relatively short time reaching the percentages suggested by Joint Committee on Infant Hearing.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study associations between pregnant women's knowledge of prenatal screening and decisional conflict in deciding whether to participate in first trimester screening for Down's syndrome in a setting of required informed consent and to study associations between knowledge and personal...... level of knowledge for the pregnant women making choices about participation in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome in order to improve psychological management of test decisions. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  9. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system, preliminary test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary plan and procedure are presented for conducting an extended manned test program for a regenerative life support system. Emphasis will be placed on elements associated with long-term system operation and long-term uninterrupted crew confinement.

  10. Pre-screening Discussions and Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Guixiang; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-08-01

    For many men, the net benefit of prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests may be small. Many major medical organizations have issued recommendations for prostate cancer screening, stressing the need for shared decision making before ordering a test. The purpose of this study is to better understand associations between discussions about benefits and harms of PSA testing and uptake of the test among men aged ≥40 years. Associations between pre-screening discussions and PSA testing were examined using self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Unadjusted prevalence of PSA testing was estimated and AORs were calculated using logistic regression in 2014. The multivariate analysis showed that men who had ever discussed advantages of PSA testing only or discussed both advantages and disadvantages were more likely, respectively, to report having had a test within the past year than men who had no discussions (pgetting tested than men who had no discussions. Discussions of the benefits or harms of PSA testing are positively associated with increased uptake of the test. Given the conflicting recommendations for prostate cancer screening and increasing importance of shared decision making, this study points to the need for understanding how pre-screening discussions are being conducted in clinical practice and the role played by patients' values and preferences in decisions about PSA testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  12. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check...

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON THE CRUDE EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF CINERARIA ABYSSINICA SCH. BIP. EXA. RICH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Sintayehu*, Kaleab Asres and Avijit Mazumder

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aqueous decoction of the leaves of Cineraria abyssinica Sch. Bip. exA. Rich (Asteraceae is used for treatments of various ailments including diarrhea, however, to date, there appear to have been no reports on the phytochemistry and the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The main aim of this study was, therefore, to carry out preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities on leaf extracts of C. abyssinica. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and 80% methanolic crude extracts of the leaves of C. abyssinica were investigated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar disc diffusion method. Both the aqueous and 80% methanolic extracts showed various degrees of potent antibacterial activities comparable to the standard drug ciprofloxacin against all of the bacteria tested except Bacillus species. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids and phytosterols. The acute toxicity studies showed the nontoxic nature of the plant up to 3 g/kg. Therefore, the present study revealed for the first time the presence of antimicrobial phytochemicals in the leaves of C. abyssinica that scientifically validated the traditional use and its great potential to be used for treatment of infectious diarrhea.

  14. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Moringa oleifera on Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogah James Ode

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of higher plants and their extracts to treat infections is an old practice in traditional African medicine. However, scientific research has shown that bioactive compounds in plants are valuable medically in the treatment of infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms. This research work is aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of Moringa oleifera extracts on standard microorganisms strains as well as multi-drug resistant strains of medical importance. Acetone, aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extracts of bark, leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial assay were carried out using chemicals and agar well diffusion method respectively. The results of phytochemicals analysis revealed differences in the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, saponins and volatile oil in all the extracts. Tannins were present in the extract of leaves while terpenes were present in the extract of bark and leaves. Phlobatannins and flavonoids were absent in all the extracts. The antibacterial assay results showed that M. oleifera extracts exhibited broad spectrum activity against four to six bacteria isolates as indicated by the zone of inhibition ranging from 10 to 36mm with variation in the percentage sensitivity of < 100%, = 100% and >100% depending on the plant part and solvent used. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 100mg/ml to 450mg/ml and 250mg/ml to 500mg/ml respectively against the isolates used. Standard antibiotic disc (Ofloxacin- 5μg inhibited the growth of all the tested bacteria isolates except P. mirabilis. The results of this research work showed that M. oleifera has great potential as antibacterial compounds against Gram

  15. Efficient Two-Stage Group Testing Algorithms for DNA Screening

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Group testing algorithms are very useful tools for DNA library screening. Building on recent work by Levenshtein (2003) and Tonchev (2008), we construct in this paper new infinite classes of combinatorial structures, the existence of which are essential for attaining the minimum number of individual tests at the second stage of a two-stage disjunctive testing algorithm.

  16. The picture test of separation and individuation - preliminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors introduce a new instrument, which they developed for measuring separation and individuation process and attachment in adolescence and adulthood. The Picture Test of Separation and Individuation (PTSI is a semi–projective test. It consists of various pictures, which represent relationships with significant others. PTSI is divided into three subtests: Relationship with Mother, Relationship with Father and Attachment. In a preliminary research on a sample of college and university students authors studied basic properties of the test. The results of the research indicate that PTSI is consistent with theoretical background, has good sensitivity and is economical. The Picture Test of Separation and Individuation enables quick but complex insight into individual's relationships with significant others as well as into his/her stage of separation and individuation process. Considering satisfying results of pilot study, authors suggest further research for validation of the test.

  17. Preliminary design of the beam screen cooling for the Future Circular Collider of hadron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kotnig, C

    2015-01-01

    Following recommendations of the recent update of the European strategy in particle physics, CERN has undertaken an international study of possible future circular colliders beyond the LHC. This study considers an option for a very high energy (100 TeV) hadron-hadron collider located in a quasi-circular underground tunnel having a circumference of 80 to 100 km. The synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy hadron beam increases by more than two orders of magnitude compared to the LHC. To reduce the entropic load on the superconducting magnets' refrigeration system, beam screens are indispensable to extract the heat load at a higher temperature level. After illustrating the decisive constraints of the beam screen's refrigeration design, this paper presents a preliminary design of the length of a continuous cooling loop comparing helium and neon, for different cooling channel geometries with emphasis on the cooling length limitations and the exergetic efficiency.

  18. SCREENING TESTS FOR IMPROVED METHANE CRACKING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2007-07-16

    Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and HPTLC Fingerprinting of Bark Extracts of Symplocos racemosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Tambe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish physical constants and fingerprint profile of Symplocos racemosa using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC technique. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done, physical constants were evaluated and HPTLC studies were carried out. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins, glycosides, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The proximate analysis showed satisfactory result with respect to foreign matter, moisture content, ash value and extractive values. HPTLC finger printing of methanol extract of bark powder revealed presence of eight components 0.23 0.44, 0.57, 0.68 0.97,1.17,1.35,1.43 Component number 6 at Rf 1.17 showed maximum concentration.Aqueous extract of bark powder showed seven peaks with Rf values in the range with their Rf value Rf - 0.23 0.27 0.32, 0.38 0.54, 0.75 Component number 5 at 0.0.54 Rf showed maximum concentration. Conclusions: It can be concluded that HPTLC fingerprint analysis of bark powder extract of Symplocos racemosa can be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of the plant and it is useful as a phytochemical marker and also a good estimator of genetic variability in plant populations.

  20. CRIER, a relative analysis tool for preliminary screening of complex industrial waste and effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.D.; Brucher, S.; Melanson, P. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Ecotoxicology Program

    1994-12-31

    CRIER (Chemrisk, a Relative Index for Evaluating Risk), a Windows{trademark}-based program for the preliminary screening of potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, has been developed at the Center of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECE) in Concordia. This tool, originally designed for environmental management government bodies, was designed to screen chemical compounds found in industrial aqueous effluents, for their potential to cause harm to some selected target species such as the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This revised model will be applicable in both regulatory and industrial managements as an expert system that provides an assessment based on the most up-to-date toxicological information regarding each compound. Some major characteristics include the consideration of partitioning, plume effect, bioavailability and bioconcentration capacity in producing an evaluation of potential for harm to freshwater species. When parameters are empirically unavailable from the diverse databases, QSARs are used to produce theoretical preliminary estimates of the missing values. one aspect of the model allows consideration of the combined toxicity of organic congeners. Case studies are used in demonstrating the capacities of this model.

  1. Screening tests for new teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, R J; Johnson, D W; Dewey, L

    1976-11-01

    Increased use of after-milking teat dips has resulted in the appearance of many new teat dips and a need for methods of evaluation of efficacy. A method was developed for determining the ability of a disinfectant to kill bacteria on the teat ends. Results from several known efficacious products indicated an approximate 95% reduction in bacterial flora. Additional data are presented on some experimental products. This method will provide a measure of effectiveness of a producton teat-skin disinfection. The effect of some changes in the testing procedure on bacterial reduction is demonstrated: 1) Increased times between inoculation and dipping and between dipping and swabbing tended to decrease recoveries on control teats. 2) Saline dips on controls teats provided increased recoveries of test organisms.

  2. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  3. Double Screening Tests of the CMS ECAL Avalanche Photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Konrad; Renker, Dieter; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Britvitch, Ilia; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Musienko, Yuri; Singovsky, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Specially developed avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved.

  4. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  5. Design and preliminary testing of the RIC hybrid knee prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, T; Sensinger, J; Lipsey, J; Hargrove, L; Kuiken, T

    2015-08-01

    We present a novel hybrid knee prosthesis that uses a motor, transmission and control system only for active dynamics tasks, while relying on a spring/damper system for passive dynamics activities. Active dynamics tasks require higher torque, lower speed, and occur less frequently than passive dynamic activities. By designing the actuation system around active tasks alone, we achieved a lightweight design (1.7 Kg w/o battery) without sacrificing peak torque (85Nm repetitive). Preliminary tests performed by an able-bodied person using a bypass orthosis show that the hybrid knee can support reciprocal stairs ambulation with low electrical energy consumption.

  6. Preliminary Design of a LSA Aircraft Using Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert ANGI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results concerning the design and aerodynamic calculations of a light sport aircraft (LSA. These were performed for a new lightweight, low cost, low fuel consumption and long-range aircraft. The design process was based on specific software tools as Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA, XFlr 5 aerodynamic and dynamic stability analysis, and Catia design, according to CS-LSA requirements. The calculations were accomplished by a series of tests performed in the wind tunnel in order to assess experimentally the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane.

  7. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on the pedal wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayagalingam, T.

    1980-06-01

    High solidity-low speed wind turbines are relatively simple to construct and can be used advantageously in many developing countries for such direct applications as water pumping. Established designs in this class, such as the Savonius and the American multiblade rotors, have the disadvantage that their moving surfaces require a rigid construction, thereby rendering large units uneconomical. In this respect, the pedal wind turbine recently reported by the author and which incorporates sail type rotors offers a number of advantages. This note reports preliminary results from a series of wind tunnel tests which were carried out to assess the aerodynamic torque and power characteristics of the turbine.

  8. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept was developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying for these solutions. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management in spacecraft brine dewatering system designs. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other observations from testing are reported.

  9. GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of Jasminum cuspidatum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singumsetty Vinay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was investigating the GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of the leaves of Jasminum cuspidatum. The anti-diabetic activity was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats with treatment of ethanol extract at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg, which was compared with glibenclamide at a dose level of 4 mg/kg and the parameter measured being the blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides, and total protein. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was also investigated in experimental rats. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the ethanol extract contained seven phytoconstituents. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids. The result of in vivo anti-diabetic activity revealed that the ethanol extract of J. cuspidatum showed significant anti-diabetic activity.

  10. A Mini-Nitrification Test for Toxicity Screening, Minntox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Dyreborg, Søren; Menck, C.

    1994-01-01

    There is a high demand for a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test for screening of the toxicity of wastewater, polluted groundwater and chemicals in order to protect sewage treatment plants and aquatic and terrestrial recipients. The mini-nitrification test, MINNTOX, presented here, fulfils...

  11. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  12. HPV DNA testing in population-based cervical screening (VUSA-Screen study) : results and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Berkhof, J.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Rozendaal, L.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Bulk, S.; Verweij, W.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We evaluated the performance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing in routine screening. METHODS: In all, 25 871 women (29-61) enrolled in our population-based

  13. The Efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test as a Language Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Jennifer; Bernthal, John

    1996-01-01

    The validity of using the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test (RDDST) was investigated by testing 199 preschool children (ages 3-4) and reviewing the results 6 months later. Results indicated that the RDDST was an efficient prognostic tool in predicting formal assessment results for children at risk for language impairments. (CR)

  14. HPV DNA testing in population-based cervical screening (VUSA-Screen study) : results and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Berkhof, J.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Rozendaal, L.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Bulk, S.; Verweij, W.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We evaluated the performance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing in routine screening. METHODS: In all, 25 871 women (29-61) enrolled in our population-based

  15. Solar Stirling power generation - Systems analysis and preliminary tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Wu, Y.-C.; Moynihan, P. I.; Day, F. D., III

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of an electric power generation system utilizing a sun-tracking parabolic concentrator and a Stirling engine/linear alternator is being evaluated. Performance predictions and cost analysis of a proposed large distributed system are discussed. Design details and preliminary test results are presented for a 9.5 ft diameter parabolic dish at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Caltech) Table Mountain Test Facility. Low temperature calorimetric measurements were conducted to evaluate the concentrator performance, and a helium flow system is being used to test the solar receiver at anticipated working fluid temperatures (up to 650 or 1200 C) to evaluate the receiver thermal performance. The receiver body is designed to adapt to a free-piston Stirling engine which powers a linear alternator assembly for direct electric power generation. During the next phase of the program, experiments with an engine and receiver integrated into the concentrator assembly are planned.

  16. Cognitive screening for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in assisted living: comparison of 3 tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Daniel I; Williams, Christianna S; Braaten, Alyssa J; Gill, Karminder; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D

    2008-10-01

    Compare diagnostic characteristics of brief cognitive screening tests in residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents. Cross-sectional study involving a comprehensive clinical examination to ascertain a consensus diagnosis of probable dementia, no significant cognitive impairment, or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), including both amnestic and non-amnestic subtypes. Fourteen RC/AL facilities in North Carolina. Participants were 146 RC/AL residents, aged 65 years or older, who did not have diagnosed cognitive impairment. Diagnostic characteristics of the Mini-Cog, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and a new 50-point test based on expanding selected MMSE items (MMX). Overall, 55/146 (38%) participants were diagnosed with probable dementia, and 76 (52%) met criteria for MCI (most non-amnestic). Both the Mini-Cog and the MMSE showed high sensitivity and negative predictive value for dementia, but had relatively low sensitivity and negative predictive value for MCI. The Mini-Cog had low specificity and was less accurate as a dementia screen than either the MMSE or MMX. Reliability and validity data for the MMX were satisfactory, and it performed better as a screening test for MCI than either the MMSE or Mini-Cog. Although the MMSE and Mini-Cog are both sensitive to dementia, modest specificity and positive predictive value may limit their utility as screening tools. Preliminary MMX data suggest it improves screening for MCI compared to the Mini-Cog or MMSE, while providing a similar level of screening for dementia. Further work is needed to identify suitable instruments for cognitive screening across the range of MCI and dementia.

  17. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linek Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01 between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine.

  18. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wójtowicz, Monika; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01) between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine. PMID:28031760

  19. Economic evaluation of prostate cancer screening test as a national cancer screening program in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangjin; Kim, Youn Hee; Hwang, Jin Sub; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Sang Moo; Ahn, Jeonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is rapidly increasing in Korea and professional societies have requested adding prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing to the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP), but this started a controversy in Korea and neutral evidence on this issue is required more than ever. The purpose of this study was to provide economic evidence to the decision makers of the NCSP. A cost-utility analysis was performed on the adoption of PSA screening program among men aged 50-74-years in Korea from the healthcare system perspective. Several data sources were used for the cost-utility analysis, including general health screening data, the Korea Central Cancer Registry, national insurance claims data, and cause of mortality from the National Statistical Office. To solicit the utility index of prostate cancer, a face-to-face interview for typical men aged 40 to 69 was conducted using a Time-Trade Off method. As a result, the increase of effectiveness was estimated to be very low, when adopting PSA screening, and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was analyzed as about 94 million KRW. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the incidence rate, screening rate, cancer stage distribution, utility index, and treatment costs but the results were consistent with the base analysis. Under Korean circumstances with a relatively low incidence rate of prostate cancer, PSA screening is not cost-effective. Therefore, we conclude that adopting national prostate cancer screening would not be beneficial until further evidence is provided in the future.

  20. Are overreferrals on developmental screening tests really a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, F P

    2001-01-01

    Developmental screening tests, even those meeting standards for screening test accuracy, produce numerous false-positive results for 15% to 30% of children. This is thought to produce unnecessary referrals for diagnostic testing or special services and increase the cost of screening programs. To explore whether children who pass screening tests differ in important ways from those who do not and to determine whether children overreferred for testing benefit from the scrutiny of diagnostic testing and treatment planning. Subjects were a national sample of 512 parents and their children (age range of the children, 7 months to 8 years) who participated in validation studies of various screening tests. Psychological examiners adhering to standardized directions obtained informed consent and administered at least 2 developmental screening measures (the Brigance Screens, the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, the Denver-II, and the Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status) and a concurrent battery of diagnostic measures, including tests of intelligence, language, and academic achievement (for children aged 2(1/2) years and older). The performance on diagnostic measures of children who failed screening but were not found to have a disability (false positives) was compared with that of children who passed screening and did not have a disability on diagnostic testing (true negatives). Children with false-positive scores performed significantly (Ptests (95% CI, 3.28-13.50), and 4.9 on academic measures (95% CI, 2.61-9.28). Overall, 151 (70%) of the children with false-positive results scored below the 25th percentile on 1 or more diagnostic measures (the point at which most children have difficulty benefiting from typical classroom instruction) in contrast with 64 (29%) of the children with true-negative scores (odds ratio, 5.6; 95% CI, 3.73-8.49). Children with false-positive scores were also more likely to be nonwhite and to have parents who had not

  1. Design and preliminary test results of Daya Bay RPC modules*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenburg, R.

    2011-09-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) modules will be used as one part of the cosmic muon veto system in the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment. A total of 189 RPC modules will cover the three water pools in the experiment. To achieve track reconstruction and high efficiency, each module consists of 4 layers, each of which contains two sizes of bare chambers. The placement of bare chambers is reversed in different layers to reduce the overlapping dead areas. The module efficiency and patch efficiency were studied both in simulation and test of the data analysis. 143 modules have been constructed and tested. The preliminary study shows that the module and patch 3 out of 4 layers efficiency reaches about 98%.

  2. Design and preliminary test results of Daya Bay RPC modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ji-Lei; Logan Lebanowski; Cullen Newsom; Lin Shih-Kai; Jonathan Link; MA Lie-Hua; Viktor Pě(c); Vit Vorobel; CHEN Jin; LIU Jin-Chang; ZHOU Yong-Zhao; GUAN Meng-Yun; LIANG Hao; YANG Chang-Gen; WANG Yi-Fang; ZHANG Jia-Wen; LU Chang-Guo; Kirk McDonald; Robert Hackenburg; Kwong Lau

    2011-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber(RPC)modules will be used as one part of the cosmic muon veto system in the Days Bay reactor neutrino experiment.A total of 189 RPC modules will cover the three water pools in the experiment.To achieve track reconstruction and high efficiency,each module consists of 4 layers,each of which contains two sizes of bare chambers.The placement of bare chambers is reversed in different layers to reduce the overlapping dead areas.The module efficiency and patch efficiency were studied both in simulation and test of the data analysis.143 modules have been constructed and tested.The preliminary study shows that the module and patch 3 out of 4 layers efficiency reaches about 98%.

  3. Preliminary dimensioning of the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeiter, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.arbeiter@kit.edu; Abou-Sena, Ali; Chen, Yuming; Freund, Jana; Klix, Axel; Kondo, Keitaro; Vladimirov, Pavel

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The design of the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module is explained. • Nuclear responses in the module and specimens are calculated. • Temperature fields during irradiation are calculated by 1D methods. • The tritium budget is calculated by 1D methods. -- Abstract: As part of the ongoing Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), an experimental device suitable for the irradiation and online tritium release measurements of solid breeder ceramics and beryllium is investigated. This experimental device is called the Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM). In the preliminary design phase, the possible thermal conditions, the tritium diffusion budgets, and the mechanical loads have been studied by analytical calculations and numerical codes. The most important results concern the tritium production and nuclear heating induced in the structures, the temperature distribution in the specimen region and the structure, and the diffusion of tritium through the safety barriers.

  4. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer......Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  5. Test Plan for Tank 241-AZ-101 Solubility Screening Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PERSON, J.C.

    1999-12-03

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (101-AZ) has been identified as one of the early tanks to be retrieved for waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste from other tanks may require dilution. This test is to determine the effects of dilution on the mass of solids and their composition, which can be compared with tanks where dilution is required. This test plan gives test instructions, example data sheets, a waste compatibility review, and a waste stream fact sheet.

  6. A Brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment to evaluate concussions: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Anne; Collins, Michael W; Elbin, R J; Furman, Joseph M; Troutman-Enseki, Cara; DeWolf, Ryan M; Marchetti, Greg; Kontos, Anthony P

    2014-10-01

    Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues. To describe and provide initial data for the internal consistency and validity of a brief clinical screening tool for vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms after sport-related concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-four patients, aged 13.9 ± 2.5 years and seen approximately 5.5 ± 4.0 days after a sport-related concussion, and 78 controls were administered the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment, which included 5 domains: (1) smooth pursuit, (2) horizontal and vertical saccades, (3) near point of convergence (NPC) distance, (4) horizontal vestibular ocular reflex (VOR), and (5) visual motion sensitivity (VMS). Participants were also administered the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Sixty-one percent of patients reported symptom provocation after at least 1 VOMS item. All VOMS items were positively correlated to the PCSS total symptom score. The VOR (odds ratio [OR], 3.89; P VMS (OR, 3.37; P VMS, NPC distance, and ln(age) that resulted in a high predicted probability (area under the curve = 0.89) for identifying concussed patients. The VOMS demonstrated internal consistency as well as sensitivity in identifying patients with concussions. The current findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the VOMS as a brief vestibular/ocular motor screen after sport-related concussions. The VOMS may augment current assessment tools and may serve as a single component of a comprehensive approach to the assessment of concussions. © 2014 The Author(s).

  7. [The usefulness of fecal tests in colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is a paradigm of neoplasms that are amenable to preventative measures, especially screening. Currently, to carry this out, there are various strategies that have proven effective and efficient. In countries that have organized population-level screening programs, the most common strategy is fecal occult blood testing. In recent years, new methods have appeared that could constitute viable alternatives in the near future, among which the detection of changes in fecal DNA is emphasized. In this article, we review the most relevant papers on colorectal cancer screening presented at the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Chicago in May 2014, with special emphasis on the medium and long-term performance of strategies to detect occult blood in feces and the first results obtained with fecal DNA testing.

  8. Denver Developmental Screening Test: Cultural Variations in Southeast Asian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Tests (DDST) was administered to 25 Southeast Asian children (one to five years old) and scores of 150 other DDSTs performed on Southeast Asian children were reviewed. Findings suggested that scores may reflect differences in social and cultural experiences between these children and the standardization sample.…

  9. Psychometric Characteristics of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    The Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) is widely used to identify "developmentally immature" children for placement in extra-year, transition programs in spite of a problematic absence of psychometric evidence and research support. In this study of psychometric characteristics of the GSRST, teacher ratings of classroom performance and…

  10. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  11. The usefulness of the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, F P; Byrne, K E

    1993-05-01

    Recent research supporting the effectiveness of early intervention and laws expanding services have increased the demand for accurate developmental screening tests. The Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test (BDIST), for children 6 months to 8 years old, has a number of desirable features, including subtests for fine and gross motor, adaptive, personal-social, receptive and expressive language, and cognitive skills; a range cutoff and age-equivalent scores; and national standardization. To assess its accuracy, the BDIST was administered to 104 children 7 to 83 months old, along with several other screening tests and a battery of criterion measures. Tied to 1.5 standard deviations below the mean, BDIST failing scores were moderately sensitive, detecting 75% of the children with developmental problems, such as mental retardation, borderline intelligence, language delays, and learning disabilities. Since 73% of the nonhandicapped children passed the BDIST, the test showed moderate specificity. Children within one month of their birthdays were likely to be over- or underreferred. Although the BDIST needs further research, it is a promising developmental screening instrument. The Receptive Language (RL) subtest, slightly more sensitive than the total BDIST but less specific, takes only a few minutes and thus is useful for prescreening in time-limited settings, such as pediatric practice.

  12. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  13. [Electronic eikonometer: Measurement tests displayed on stereoscopic screen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdy, C; James, Y

    2016-05-01

    We propose the presentation on a stereoscopic screen of the electronic eikonometer tests intended for analysis and measurement of perceptual effects of binocular disparity. These tests, so-called "built-in magnification tests" are constructed according to the same principle as those of preceding eikonometers (disparity variation parameters being included in each test presentation, which allows, for test observation and measurements during the examination, the removing of any intermediate optical system). The images of these tests are presented separately to each eye, according to active or passive stereoscopic screen technology: (1) Ogle Spatial Test to measure aniseikonia; (2) Fixation Disparity test: binocular nonius; (3) retinal correspondence test evaluated by nonius horopter; (4) stereoscopic test using Julesz' random-dot stereograms (RDS). All of these tests, with their variable parameters included, are preprogrammed by means of an associated mini-computer. This new system (a single screen for the presentation of tests for the right eye and left eye) will be much simpler to reproduce and install for all practitioners interested in the functional exploration of binocular vision. We develop the suitable methodology adapted to each type of examination, as well as manipulations to be performed by the operator. We then recall the possibilities for reducing aniseikonia thanks to some theoretical studies previously performed by matrix calculation of the size of the retinal images for different types of eye (emmetropia, axial or conformation anisometropia, aphakia) and for different means of correction (glasses, contact lenses, implants). Software for achieving these different tests is available, on request, at this address: eiconometre.electronique@gmail.com. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda;

    2011-01-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening...... in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A preliminary analysis of the data is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men aged 40-69 years from families with BRCA1 or BRCA2...... mutations were offered annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and those with PSA >3 ng/mL, were offered a prostate biopsy. Controls were men age-matched (± 5 years) who were negative for the familial mutation. RESULTS: In total, 300 men were recruited (205 mutation carriers; 89 BRCA1, 116 BRCA2...

  15. 32 CFR 644.388 - Army military-screening, clearance, preliminary report of excess, except where an E.O. 11954...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military-screening, clearance, preliminary... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.388 Army military—screening, clearance, preliminary report...

  16. Preliminary study of an immunochromatography test for serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, M M; Cairó, F; Rossano, M; Laiño, M; Baldi, P C; Monachesi, N E; Comercio, E A; Vivot, M M

    2012-12-01

    The most widely used screening test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in the dog is the rapid slide agglutination test in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME-RSAT). The diagnosis is partially confirmed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) and definitively confirmed by bacteriological isolation. Some chronic cases not detected by these tests may be detected by ELISA tests. The use of 2ME-RSAT in routine clinical practice requires a microscope and an experienced operator. An immunochromatographic diagnostic test for canine brucellosis (FASTest(®) Brucella c., Megacor, Hörbranz, Austria) has been recently released. In this study, we compared the diagnostic performance of the FASTest with those of 2ME-RSAT, AGID and ELISAs. Sera from 17 healthy dogs used as negative controls yielded negative results by FASTest, indicating a 100% specificity in this sample. Among 27 sera of dogs with acute or subacute brucellosis confirmed by B. canis isolation, all of which were positive by RSAT and ELISAs, the FASTest was positive in 24 cases and AGID in 23. In acute and subacute cases, the sensitivity of FASTest was 89%. Sera from six dogs with bacteriologically confirmed chronic brucellosis, which were positive by ELISAs but negative by 2ME-RSAT, were also tested; 1 was positive by FASTest and 4 were positive by AGID. These preliminary results indicate a good specificity of the FASTest (100% in this sample) but an unacceptable sensitivity as a screening test. In cases with chronic brucellosis, the sensitivity of the FASTest was lower than that of ELISAs but this assay could make a good intermediate test to be run after a positive RSAT and before running an AGID.

  17. Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Chihyuan; Grelick, Arthur; Lumpkin, Alex H; Sereno, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns (rms) single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental rf system and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system are employed for initial beam capture and bunch length compression. Satellite bunches with very low charge form due to rf phase drifts or beam loading change. These satellites, when injected into the booster and then into the storage ring (SR), cause bunch impurity at three buckets from the target bucket. Storage ring and booster bunch cleaning was tried but proved to be difficult due to the top-up mode of operation in the storage ring and tune drift in the booster synchrotron. Recently we implemented a PAR bunch-cleaning system with tune-modulated harmonic rf knockout. Preliminary tests gave a measured SR bunch purity of better than 10

  18. Installation of ECR2 at LNS and Preliminary tests

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S; Ciavola, G; Castro, M; Chines, F; Marletta, S; Bieth, C; Sortais, P; Kantas, S

    1999-01-01

    The source ECR2 has been built in 1998 by Pantechnik, according to the design suggested by LNS Ion Source Group. This design entails some improvements with respect to a standard CAPRICE-type source: a) the magnetic field (up to 1.6 T axial, 1.1 T radial) allows to operate the source at 14 GHz in High B mode and at 18 GHz; b) two frequency heating can be used; c) an aluminum made plasma chamber is used in place of the stainless steel one. The main features of ECR2 along with a review of the preliminary tests will be outlined. Typical currents for fully stripped nitrogen are about 25 emA; for the heaviest ions, 1 emA of Kr28+ and 10 emA of Ta27+ have been measured. The installation at LNS has been completed recently and the details will be given.

  19. Screening diagnostics of antivital experiences and propensity toward impulsive, autoagressive behavior in adolescents (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannikov G.S.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A.G. Shmelev Suicide Risk Questionnaire, PDQ-IV Borderline disorder and Narcissism scales. At the first stage we examined 750 minors aged 12-18 and identified risk group (85 people – 11.4%, which included adolescents with high levels of both individual scales, and their combination. At the second stage we examined 10 adolescents at risk. In 7 of them (70% were identified antivital, suicidal thoughts of passive or compulsive nature, signs of subjective and objective socio- psychological maladjustment. Our preliminary conclusion is that high levels of hopelessness and loneliness in adolescents are stable predictors of mental and emotional distress and psychosocial maladjustment in the period of psychological crises and decompensation of character accentuation of borderline and narcissistic types. These scales can be recommended for primary screening of antivital (depressive experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in adolescents.

  20. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Heavy Metal Analysis of Leaf Extracts of Ziziphus oenoplia (L Mill. Gard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lalitha Eswari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves of Ziziphus oenoplia belonging to family Rhamnaceae. The dried leaves of the plant were subjected to successive Soxhlet extraction by continuous hot percolation method using organic solvents of increasing polarity such as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The aqueous extract was prepared by cold maceration technique. All the extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening and it showed the presence of active constituents such as alkaloid, flavonoid, phenol and triterpenoid. Quantitative determination of alkaloid was done by Harborne (1973 method, whereas total Phenolic content was determined by Folin-ciocalteu method and total Flavonoid were determined by the aluminium chloride colorimetric method. Heavy metals and inorganic elements are determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry technique. The results obtained shows that the extracts contain medicinally important bioactive constituents and also heavy metals present in the plant extracts were within the permissible limits. This justifies its use in the traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases such as ulcer, asthma, dysentery and fever.

  1. Screening for mikroalbuminuri med Micral-Test. En semikvantitativ urinstix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B F;

    1993-01-01

    , screening for microalbuminuria is of major importance. A semi-quantitative urinary dipstick method, Micral-Test, has been developed for this purpose. In a urine sample collected overnight from each of 1359 subjects the Micral-Test was evaluated with a quantitative ELISA-method as the standard. Sensitivity......, specificity and diagnostic specificity in detecting microalbuminuria was 92, 58 and 12% respectively. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 5.6%. In conclusion, the Micral-Test is highly sensitive in detecting microalbuminuria, but at the expense of a relatively high number of false positive tests....

  2. Evaluation of the screening test results before marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses and Treponema pallidum are parenterally and sexually transmitted infection agents. Screening test is made before marriage to pre-marital couples legally under the relevant legislation and legal procedures in our country; applicants are evaluated in terms of sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate pre-marital test results for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and Treponema pallidum.Materials and methods: To make screening test before marriage, randomized 117 patients who were applied to Kızıltepe General Hospital of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, were included in this study between January 2011 and March 2011. Of these patients, 64 were women (average age 24.7±5.7, and 55 were males (mean age 24.7±4.7. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV I/II tests of the patients were studied by macro-ELISA device (ECIQ Vitros, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA, screening of anti-Treponema pallidum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were studied by immunochromatographic rapid test (syphilis syphilis 3.0, Standard Diagnostics, inc. Korea.Results: Of the 119 patients, five patients (4.2% were positive for HBsAg (3 male and 2 female. Anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were negative in all patients.Conclusion: HBsAg test result which was obtained in present study has been found consistent with HBsAg positivity rate in our region. As a result of screening test that was done before marriage will continue to believe that the increased importance of the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 292-294.

  3. New Screening Test Developed for the Blanching Resistance of Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's extensive efforts towards more efficient, safer, and more affordable space transportation include the development of new thrust-cell liner materials with improved capabilities and longer lives. For rocket engines fueled with liquid hydrogen, an important metric of liner performance is resistance to blanching, a phenomenon of localized wastage by cycles of oxidation-reduction due to local imbalance in the oxygen-fuel ratio. The current liner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine combustion chamber, a Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr alloy (NARloy-Z) is degraded in service by blanching. Heretofore, evaluating a liner material for blanching resistance involved elaborate and expensive hot-fire tests performed on rocket test stands. To simplify that evaluation, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed a screening test that uses simple, in situ oxidation-reduction cycling in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The principle behind this test is that resistance to oxidation or to the reduction of oxide, or both, implies resistance to blanching. Using this test as a preliminary tool to screen alloys for blanching resistance can improve reliability and save time and money. In this test a small polished coupon is hung in a TGA furnace at the desired (service) temperature. Oxidizing and reducing gases are introduced cyclically, in programmed amounts. Cycle durations are chosen by calibration, such that all copper oxides formed by oxidation are fully reduced in the next reduction interval. The sample weight is continuously acquired by the TGA as usual.

  4. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  5. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada); Huybers, A. [Harris Industrial Testing Services Ltd., Milford, NS (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Environment Canada`s Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Preliminary Study on Thalassemia Screening and Genetic Counseling in Selective Hmong People in Saraburi Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pa Vang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available it can lead to the destruction of red blood cells. Studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of thalassemia in Southeast Asia. The Institute of Health Research, Chulalongkorn University developed a successful “Module” to screen for thalassemia in the Thai population, however, it has not been implemented in the minority population in Thailand. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of the newly developed educational and thalassemia screening program with the Hmong population. The primary aim of this study was to test this program. The secondary aim was to determine the prevalence of thalassemia in the Hmong and provide education. A third aim was to determine the reliability of two different screening methods in the Hmong population. A pre-test and post-test design was used; participants (N=12 were individuals residing in Thailand with the ability to read English and between the ages 18-50. The participants met twice with the researchers to complete the program. The first contact consisted of assessing participants’ knowledge about thalassemia, providing thalassemia information and education about genetic counseling, and drawing blood samples. The second contact consisted of assessing knowledge, providing a written report of individual blood sample results and counseling. The initial interview revealed that the majority of the participants (82% did not know anything about thalassemia prior to participation. The program was easy to understand by most participants (90%. Of the eleven Hmong participants, two tested positive for being a possible carrier for thalassemia. In order to reduce the prevalence of thalassemia, it is necessary to engage in risk reduction health services. The modified screening method proved to be as effective as the standard method. Therefore, the program can expand and be used in other regional populations with low cost.

  7. New rapid test for prenatal detection of trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome): preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndorf, T.; Christensen, B.; Philip, J.; Hansen, W.; Yokobata, K.; Bui, N.; Gaiser, C.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To devise and evaluate a rapid screening method for detecting trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome) in samples of uncultured amniotic fluid cells. DESIGN--Non-radioactive in situ hybridisation with HY128, a 500,000 base pair yeast artificial chromosome probe specific for chromosome 21. Blinded study of 12 karyotypically normal amniotic fluid samples and eight samples trisomic for chromosome 21. SETTING--Cytogenetic and obstetric services at a tertiary referral centre, Copenhagen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Time necessary to complete the test. Proportion of cell nuclei containing two and three hybridisation signals in karyotypically normal and abnormal amniotic fluid samples. RESULTS--The test could be completed within three to four days after amniocentesis. In the normal samples a mean of 73% (range 61-82%) of the amniotic cell nuclei showed two hybridisation signals and 6% (0-18%) showed three signals. By contrast, among the trisomic samples 29% (19-38%) of the nuclei exhibited two signals and 48% (31-60%) showed three signals. CONCLUSION--The technique clearly distinguished between normal and trisomic samples. Prenatal diagnosis with in situ hybridisation with chromosome specific probes was fast and may make it possible to screen for selected, aneuploidies. However, the technique is still at a preliminary stage and needs further evaluation and refinement. Images p1537-a PMID:1385745

  8. New lab-made coagulant based on Schinopsis balansae tannin extract: synthesis optimization and preliminary tests on refractory water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J.; Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Coco-Rivero, B.

    2014-09-01

    Quebracho colorado tannin extract was used as a coagulant raw material for water and wastewater treatment. The chemical synthesis follows a Mannich reaction mechanism and provides a fully working coagulant that can remove several pollutants from water. This paper addresses the optimization of such synthesis and confirms the feasibility of the coagulant by testing it in a preliminary screening for the elimination of dyes and detergents. The optimum combination of reagents was 6.81 g of diethanolamine (DEA) and 2.78 g of formaldehyde (F) per g of tannin extract. So obtained coagulant was succesfully tested on the removal of 9 dyes and 8 detergents.

  9. [Peritoneal equilibration test: Conventional versus adapted. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloszyc, Ariane; Schmitt, Claus Peter; Schaefer, Betti; Doutey, Armelle; Terzic, Joëlle; Menouer, Soraya; Higel, Laetitia; Fischbach, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Conventional automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is prescribed as a repetition of cycles with the same dwell time and the same fill volume. Water and sodium balance remains a common problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis. More recently, adapted automated peritoneal dialysis was described, as a combination of short dwells with a low volume, in order to enhance ultrafiltration, followed by long dwells with a large fill volume to favor solute removal. We performed a preliminary crossover study on 4 patients. The total amount of dialysate was the same, i.e. 2L/m(2) as well as the total duration of the test, i.e. 150 minutes. The conventional test was made with two identical cycles, each cycle had a fill volume of 1L/m(2) and a duration of 75 minutes, while the adapted test was performed with one short cycle, i.e. 30 minutes with a low fill volume, i.e. 0.6L/m(2), followed by a long cycle, i.e. 120 minutes, with a large fill volume, i.e. 1.4L/m(2). Sodium extraction was improved by 29.3mmol/m(2) (169%) in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test. Ultrafiltration was enhanced by 159mL/m(2) (128%) in the adapted test compared to the conventional one. Glucose absorption was decreased by 35% in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test and osmotic conductance was also improved. In conclusion, adapted dialysis may allow for a better volume and sodium balance, since we observed an improvement in sodium extraction and ultrafiltration. This pre-study authorizes an improvement of the European Pediatric Study's protocol on Adapted APD, already started and which will continue in the next months. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.

  11. Adequacy of the ELISA test for screening corneal transplant donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, S M; Hertzmark, E; Steinert, R F

    1988-10-15

    Using a simple mathematical model, we calculated the risk for a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty to receive a cornea from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected donor despite negative results on serologic testing of donor serum. This error in serologic testing occurred when false-negative results were obtained from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to screen donor corneas for human immunodeficiency virus exposure. The average risk of transplanting an infected cornea was low, 0.03%, but increased by a factor of ten when donor tissue from donors at high risk for AIDS was used. Current screening procedures are probably adequate to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, but increased vigilance for high-risk donor populations may be appropriate.

  12. Serological Testing in Screening for Adult Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Rachel Gillett

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Assays for celiac-related antibodies are becoming widely available, and the present review aims to clarify the use of these investigations in the diagnosis of, management of and screening for adult celiac disease. The sensitivities and specificities of various antibody tests are discussed, along with their clinical use as an adjunct to small bowel biopsy, and as a first-line investigation for patients with atypical symptoms of celiac disease or patients at high risk of developing sprue.

  13. A new screening test for the protein C anticoagulant pathway : the PCP test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi, [No Value; Bom, FH; van der Meer, J; van der Schaaf, W

    1999-01-01

    Summ Objective: Evaluation of a new screening test of the Protein C anticoagulant Pathway, the PCP(TM) test. Design: Retrospective. Setting: Universital Hospital. Subjects and Materials: In the PCP(TM) test, the ratio of two phospholipid rich Russel viper venom (PRVV)-initiated clotting times,

  14. Platform for dynamic tests: preliminary studies, design and construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Campuzano

    Full Text Available This paper is about the design and construction of a platform for dynamic tests especially with people jumping, walking, etc. Initially it was tried to find out projects already implemented in platforms and dynamic tests and to study the loads produced by movement of people on slabs and the structural response to these loads. The limits established by different standards have been also studied for these dynamic responses, taking into account the ultimate limit state, as well as the structure in service, since the human body is very sensitive to structural vibrations. Parametric studies were performed considering various configurations of slabs (different spans, thicknesses and conditions of support have been done, looking for a configuration that could have natural frequency close to the frequencies of the human loads. The slab should have dimensions compatible with the available physical space, fundamental frequency below 5 Hz and maximum immediate deflection compatible with the indications of the Brazilian standard NBR6118: 2007. Based on these criteria was chosen a rectangular structure consists of a solid reinforced concrete rectangular slab studded in two opposite edges of steel beams with shear connectors type U. The other two edges are free. The steel beams supporting the slab, in turn, are supported on eight metal profiles (two in each corner of the slab that are supported on two to two short columns of steel profile H. Profiles U in steel are welded to four columns, forming a horizontal frame. Numerical analysis of the dynamic test platform have been performed for free and forced vibration, for obtaining the natural frequencies and corresponding vibration modes, considering the self-weight of the structure and the load that simulates people's weight. After obtaining a structural configuration that fulfilled the stipulated requirements, the design of the slab taking into account the recommendations of the Brazilian standard NBR6118: 2007

  15. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sambale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. They were used as benchmarks to set up our methods and to examine their effects on mammalian cell lines. Different biological processes such as cell viability, gene expression of interleukin-8 and heat shock protein 70, as well as morphology changes were investigated. Within our screening system, both nanoparticle suspensions and coatings can be tested. Electric cell impedance measurements revealed to be a good method for online monitoring of cellular behavior. The implementation of three-dimensional cell culture is essential to better mimic in vivo conditions. In conclusion, our screening system is highly efficient, cost minimizing, and reduces the need for animal studies.

  16. Semantic Verbal Fluency test in dementia: Preliminary retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lopes

    Full Text Available Abstract The Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF test entails the generation of words from a given category within a pre-set time of 60 seconds. Objectives: To verify whether socio-demographic and clinical data of individuals with dementia correlate with the performance on the SVF test and to ascertain whether differences among the criteria of number of answers, clusters and data spread over the intervals, predict clinical results. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 49 charts of demented patients classified according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR scale. We correlated education, age and gender, as well as CDR and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE scores with the number of answers, clustering and switching distributed over four 15-second intervals on the SVF test. Results: The correlation between number of answers and quartiles was weak (r=0.407, p=0.004; r=0.484, p<0.001 but correlation between the number of clusters and responses was strong (r=0.883, p<0.001. The number of items on the SVF was statistically significant with MMSE score (p=0.01 and there was a tendency for significance on the CDR (p=0.06. The results indicated little activity regarding what we propose to call cluster recalling in the two groups. Discussion: The SVF test, using number of items generated, was found to be more effective than classic screening tests in terms of speed and ease of application in patients with CDR 2 and 3.

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  18. Preliminary Tests Of The Decris-sc Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, A; Bechterev, V; Bogomolov, S L; Bondarenko, P G; Datskov, V I; Dmitriev, S; Drobin, V; Lebedev, A; Leporis, M; Malinowski, H; Nikiforov, A; Paschenko, S V; Seleznev, V; Shishov, Yu A; Smirnov, Yu; Tsvineva, G; Yakovlev, B; Yazvitsky, N Yu

    2004-01-01

    A new "liquid He-free" superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source DECRIS-SC, to be used as injector for the IC-100 small cyclotron, has been designed by FLNR and LHE JINR. The main feature is that a compact refrigerator of Gifford-McMahon type is used to cool the solenoid coils. For the reason of very small cooling power at 4.2 K (about 1 W) our efforts were to optimize the magnetic structure and minimize an external heating of the coils. The maximum magnetic field strength is 3 T and 2 T in injection and extraction region respectively. For the radial plasma confinement a hexapole made of NdFeB permanent magnet is used. The source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using different frequencies (14 GHz or 18 GHz). To be able to deliver usable intensities of solids, the design is also allow axial access for evaporation oven and metal samples using the plasma sputtering technique. Very preliminary results of the source test are presented.

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Different Extracts of Whole Plant of Enicostemma littorale Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinotha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale Blume (Gentianaceae family, which is commonly known as Mamajaka (Sanskrit, Vellarugu (Tamil and Indian gentian (English. E. littorale is a perennial herb which grows in coastal areas of Northern and Eastern province of Sri Lanka. The whole plant is dried and powdered and used to treat rheumatism, swelling, back pain, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and skin diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phytochemical constituents in different extracts of E. littorale according to the standard procedures. Quantitative estimation of some of the active constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were also carried out. The preliminary phytochemical screening of hot and cold ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, proteins, reducing sugar coumarins and quinones and absence of anthraquinones. Cold and hot water extracts showed the presence of fat and fixed oil. The total alkaloid and flavonoid contents were found to be 2.25 ± 0.01 % and 25.34 ± 0.24 % respectively and total saponin content was (Foaming Index FI < 100. The phytochemicals identified in the present study may be used as tools for quality control of drugs prepared with E. littorale in the future, for the treatment of a variety of disease conditions.

  20. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  1. Augmented Reality Cubes for Cognitive Gaming: Preliminary Usability and Game Experience Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Boletsis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection is important in dementia care; however, cognitive impairment is still under-recognised and under-diagnosed. Cognitive screening and training are two important preventative treatments, which can lead to early detection of cognitive decline. In this work, the “Cognitive Augmented Reality Cubes” (CogARC system is presented, i.e. a serious game for cognitive training and screening, utilising an interaction technique based on Augmented Reality and the manipulation of tangible, physical objects (cubes. The game is a collection of cognitive mini-games of preventative nature and is, primarily, targeting elderly players (≥60 years old. A preliminary testing was conducted focusing on the game experience that CogARC offers (utilising the In-Game Experience Questionnaire, the usability of the system (using the System Usability Scale, and the specific user observations and remarks, as documented by open, semi-structured interviews.  Overall, CogARC demonstrated satisfying positive responses, however, the negative reactions indicated that there are specific problems with aspects of the interaction technique and a number of mini-games. The open interview shed more light on the specific issues of each mini-game and further interpretation of user interactions. The current study managed to provide interesting insights into the game design elements, integration of Augmented Reality, tangible interaction of the system, and on how elderly players perceive and use those interaction components. 

  2. Rapid Color Test Identification System for Screening of Counterfeit Fluoroquinolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The protocol of rapid identification system consists of three chemical color reactions; two group tests for fluoroquinolone class and a compound specific test each for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and sparfloxacin. The group color reactions are based on (a Oxidizing behavior of quinolone and (b Fluorine functional groups, both of which are characteristic of fluoroquinolone class. The compound specific color reactions are developed taking into consideration unique chemical behavior of each compound. The proposed chemical color tests have high selectivity⁄specificity, are ideal for screening purpose. The color of each test was defined by two standard color systems namely CIE lab and Munsell color. A suspected counterfeit tablet of any of the above mentioned drugs can be identified within 10-15 min using this rapid identification system.

  3. Apsáalooke women's experiences with Pap test screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adina J; Christopher, Suzanne; LaFromboise, Victoria R; Letiecq, Bethany L; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-04-01

    Cervical cancer mortality rates are among the highest in the United States for Northern Plains Native American women compared with white and other Native American women. The aims of Messengers for Health, a community-based participatory research project based on the Apsáalooke (Crow Indian) Reservation, are to decrease cervical cancer screening barriers, improve knowledge regarding screening and prevention, and increase the proportion of women receiving Pap tests. This paper presents results from a survey assessing women's perceptions of the level of comfort and care received by health care providers in their most recent Pap test appointment. A survey assessing patient communication and satisfaction with their health care providers was conducted with a random sample of 101 Apsáalooke women. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to analyze the survey data. Women reported both positive and negative experiences with their provider regarding their Pap test appointments. They noted positive experiences when trust was established and when the provider offered information, reassured or encouraged them, was personable, was familiar or consistent, maintained confidentiality, and was a woman. The women reported negative experiences when the examination was too short, when they did not have a consistent or female provider, and when they did not feel comfortable with the provider's nonverbal communication. Continued work with both providers and patients is necessary to decrease communication barriers and increase satisfaction with Pap test appointments.

  4. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs.

  5. Comparison of Hybrid capture 2 testing at different thresholds with cytology as primary cervical screening test

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Coupé, V M H; Kemenade, van, PM Patricia; Heideman, D A M; Hesselink, A. T.; Verweij, W.; Rozendaal, L; Verheijen, R H; Snijders, P. J. F.; Berkhof, J; Meijer, C J L M

    2010-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the performance of primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing by hybrid capture 2 (HC2) with different thresholds for positivity, in comparison with conventional cytology. Methods: We used data of 25 871 women (aged 30–60 years) from the intervention group of the VUSA-Screen study (VU University Medical Center and Saltro laboratory population-based cervical screening study), who were screened by cytology and hrHPV. Primary outcome measure was the number of...

  6. Are U.S. cancer screening test patterns consistent with guideline recommendations with respect to the age of screening initiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadiyala Srikanth

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. cancer screening guidelines communicate important information regarding the ages for which screening tests are appropriate. Little attention has been given to whether breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test use is responsive to guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Methods The 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Social Survey and the 2003 National Health Interview Surveys were used to compute breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test rates by single year of age. Graphical and logistic regression analyses were used to compare screening rates for individuals close to and on either side of the guideline recommended screening initiation ages. Results We identified large discrete shifts in the use of screening tests precisely at the ages where guidelines recommend that screening begin. Mammography screening in the last year increased from 22% [95% CI = 20, 25] at age 39 to 36% [95% CI = 33, 39] at age 40 and 47% [95% CI = 44, 51] at age 41. Adherence to the colorectal cancer screening guidelines within the last year increased from 18% [95% CI = 15, 22] at age 49 to 19% [95% CI = 15, 23] at age 50 and 34% [95% CI = 28, 39] at age 51. Prostate specific antigen screening in the last year increased from 28% [95% CI = 25, 31] at age 49 to 33% [95% CI = 29, 36] and 42% [95% CI = 38, 46] at ages 50 and 51. These results are robust to multivariate analyses that adjust for age, sex, income, education, marital status and health insurance status. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that cancer screening test utilization is consistent with guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Screening test and adherence rates increased by approximately 100% at the breast and colorectal cancer guideline recommended ages compared to only a 50% increase in the screening test rate for prostate cancer screening. Since information regarding the age of cancer screening

  7. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaram, Seerangaraj; Kannan, Suruli; Saravanan, Konda Mani; Vasantharaj, Seerangaraj; Sathiyavimal, Selvam; P, Palanisamy Senthilkumar

    2016-05-01

    The presence study was aimed to catalyze the primary metabolites and their confirmation by using GC-MS analysis and antibacterial potential of leaf extract of two important medicinal plant viz., Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial potential of the methanol leaf extract of the studied species was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellap neumoniae, Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus using by agar well diffusion method. The higher zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100μl concentration of methanol leaf extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of studied species shows that presence of phytochemical compounds like steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. GC-MS analysis confirms the occurrence of 20 different compounds in the methanol leaf extract of the both studied species.

  8. Design and preliminary analysis of a vaginal inserter for speculum-free cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu, Mercy Nyamewaa; Agudogo, Júlia; Krieger, Marlee S; Miros, Robert; Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Schmitt, John W; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening usually requires use of a speculum to provide a clear view of the cervix. The speculum is one potential barrier to screening due to fear of pain, discomfort and embarrassment. The aim of this paper is to present and demonstrate the feasibility of a tampon-sized inserter and the POCkeT Colposcope, a miniature pen sized-colposcope, for comfortable, speculum-free and potentially self-colposcopy. We explored different designs using 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software and performed mechanical testing simulations on each. Designs were rapid prototyped and tested using a custom vaginal phantom across a range of vaginal pressures and uterine tilts to select an optimal design. Two final designs were tested with fifteen volunteers to assess cervix visualization, comfort and usability compared to the speculum and the optimal design, the curved-tip inserter, was selected for testing in volunteers. We present a vaginal inserter as an alternative to the standard speculum for use with the POCkeT Colposcope. The device has a slim tubular body with a funnel-like curved tip measuring approximately 2.5 cm in diameter. The inserter has a channel through which a 2 megapixel (MP) mini camera with LED illumination fits to enable image capture. Mechanical finite element testing simulations with an applied pressure of 15 cm H2O indicated a high factor of safety (90.9) for the inserter. Testing of the device with a custom vaginal phantom, across a range of supine vaginal pressures and uterine tilts (retroverted, anteverted and sideverted), demonstrated image capture with a visual area comparable to the speculum for a normal/axial positioned uteri and significantly better than the speculum for anteverted and sideverted uteri (pcancer screening and also enables acetic acid/Lugol's iodine application and insertion of swabs for Pap smear sample collection. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an inserter and miniature-imaging device for comfortable cervical

  9. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  10. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys: preliminary validation of an adolescent version of the standardised assessment of personality – abbreviated scale (SAPAS-AV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongerslev Mickey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorder (PD is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routinely assessed in this population. A brief screen for the identification of young people who might warrant further detailed assessment of PD could be particularly valuable for clinicians and researchers working in juvenile justice settings. Method We adapted a rapid screen for the identification of PD in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after an established diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Nine days later the screen was readministered. Results A score of 3 or more on the screening interview correctly identified the presence of DSM-IV PD in 86% of participants, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Internal consistency was modest but comparable to the original instrument. 9-days test-retest reliability for the total score was excellent. Convergent validity correlations with the total number of PD criteria were large. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of the validity, reliability, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting epidemiological surveys.

  11. Establishment of a P-glycoprotein substrate screening model and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wang; Jiang Cao; Su Zeng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a high P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressing cell line as a model for studying drug absorption and distribution, and to explore the preliminary application of this screening model.METHODS: A full-length MDR1 cDNA fragment in plasmid pMDRA1 was first subcloned into plasmid pET28a(+), then MDR1 cDNA was cut from the recombinant plasmid with double-digestion and ligated into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1(+). The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)/MDR1 was transfected into breast cancer cell line Bcap37using the Superfect transfection reagent. Several stably transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418.Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT- PCR and Western blot methods were used to detect the expression of P-gp, and the cellular location of the expressed protein was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Drug sensitivity assay was used to evaluate the biological function of expressed P-gp.Concentration of quercetin in cells was determined by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC).RESULTS: The recombinant plasmid was confirmed to be inserted in the correct orientation by restrictive enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR showed a higher level of P-cp mRNA in transfected cells compared to that in the control cells, and the Western blot result also indicated that P-gp expression in transfected cells was higher than that in control cells. The immunohistochemical staining showed that the expressed P-gp was localized on cell membranes. Drug sensitivity assay showed that the IC50 for adriamycin and colchicine of the transfected cells was higher than that of the control cells.The concentration of quercetin in model cells was lower than that in control cells by HPLC. After P-gp inhibitor verapamil was administered, the concentration of quercetin in model cells was increased.CONCLUSION: A high P-gp expressing ceil line can be established, which could provide a suitable in vitro model system for

  12. GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of Jasminum cuspidatum leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singumsetty Vinay; Shaik Karimulla; Devarajan Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was investigating the GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of the leaves of Jasminum cuspidatum...

  13. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was ...

  14. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated March 2013. The draft guidance document provides revised recommendations for screening and testing of donors and management......

  15. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests is un...

  16. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  17. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  18. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  19. Evaluating the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for pesticide hazard screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Padilla, Stephanie; Barron, Mace G

    2016-10-04

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more resource-intensive, juvenile fish acute toxicity tests. However, there is also evidence that fish embryos are less sensitive than juvenile fish for certain types of chemicals, including neurotoxicants. The utility of fish embryos for pesticide hazard assessment was investigated by comparing published zebrafish embryo toxicity data from pesticides with median lethal concentration 50% (LC50) data for juveniles of 3 commonly tested fish species: rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, and sheepshead minnow. A poor, albeit significant, relationship (r(2 ) = 0.28; p zebrafish embryo and juvenile fish toxicity when pesticides were considered as a single group, but a much better relationship (r(2)  = 0.64; p pesticide mode of action was factored into an analysis of covariance. This discrepancy is partly explained by the large number of neurotoxic pesticides in the dataset, supporting previous findings that commonly used fish embryo toxicity test endpoints are particularly insensitive to neurotoxicants. These results indicate that it is still premature to replace juvenile fish toxicity tests with embryo-based tests such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test for routine pesticide hazard assessment, although embryo testing could be used with other screening tools for testing prioritization. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-6. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Preliminary Phytochemical screening and HPTLC Studies of Extracts of Dried Rhizomes of Aspidium cicutarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maushumi Kulkarni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many herbal formulations are widely used in Ayurveda since ancient times. However it is not possible to attribute their pharmacological activity to a particular phytoconstituent present in the extract unless thorough phytochemical investigation is carried out. The present study aims at phytochemical screening of methanolic and aqueous extracts of rhizomes of Aspidium cicutarium Family Dyropteridaceae. The powdered dried rhizome was subjected to initial studies to determine the physical constants. Results: Extracts were made and subjected to various chemical tests and showed presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins. Further investigation of the extracts by HPTLC is an attempt to deduce the varied composition of methanolic and aqueous extract of Aspidium cicutarium. The chromatogram shows presence of multiple peaks which indicate diverse composition of extract. Conclusion: Further detailed investigations of the extracts can be helpful in making formulations of these extracts so that they can successfully and safely be used to treat some diseases.

  1. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-02-01

    To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.

  2. Smoking cessation intervention within the framework of a lung cancer screening program: preliminary results and clinical perspectives from the "Cosmos-II" Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo, Lococo; Principe, Rosastella; Cesario, Alfredo; Apolone, Giovanni; Carleo, Francesco; Ialongo, Pasquale; Veronesi, Giulia; Cardillo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Data coming from the literature investigating the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation (SC) and lung cancer screening (LCScr) are still sparse and inconsistent. Herein, we report the preliminary results from the ongoing lung cancer screening trial ("Cosmos-II") focusing our analysis on the inter-relationship between the SC program and the LCScr.

  3. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: neurodevelopmental screening test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabile Vessoni Arias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the neurodevelopmental functions (cognition, language and motor function of survivors of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS. Method Observational cross-sectional study of a total of 67 monochorionic diamniotic twins who underwent fetoscopic laser coagulation (FLC for treatment of TTTS. The study was conducted at the Center for Investigation in Pediatrics (CIPED, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Ages ranged from one month and four days to two years four months. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Screening Test-III, were used for evaluation. Results Most children reached the competent category and were classified as having appropriate performance. The preterm children scored worse than term infants for gross motor subtest (p = 0.036. Conclusion The majority of children reached the expected development according to their age. Despite the good neurodevelopment, children classified at risk should be monitored for development throughout childhood.

  4. The Short Anxiety Screening Test in Greek: translation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonopoulou Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Greek translation of the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST, for use in primary care settings. The scale consists of 10 items and is a brief clinician rating scale for the detection of anxiety disorder in older people, particularly, in the presence of depression. Methods The study was performed in two rural primary care settings in Crete. The sample consisted of 99 older (76 ± 6.3 years old people, who fulfilled the participating criteria. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was performed according to international standards. Internal consistency using the Cronbach α coefficient and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to assess the reliability of the tool. An exploratory factor analysis using Varimax with Kaiser normalisation (rotation method was used to examine the structure of the instrument, and for the correlation of the items interitem correlation matrix was applied and assessed with Cronbach α. Results Translation and backtranslation did not reveal any specific problems. The psychometric properties of the Greek version of the SAST scale in primary care were good. Internal consistency of the instrument was good, the Cronbach α was found to be 0.763 (P 1.0 accounting for 60% of variance, while the Cronbach α was >0.7 for every item. Conclusions The Greek translation of the SAST questionnaire is comparable with that of the original version in terms of reliability, and can be used in primary healthcare research. Its use in clinical practice should be primarily as a screening tool only at this stage, with a follow-up consisting of a detailed interview with the patient, in order to confirm the diagnosis.

  5. Predicting the risk of a false-positive test for women following a mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to provide a simple estimate of the cumulative risk of a false-positive test for women participating in mammography screening. To test the method, we used data from two well-established, organized mammography screening programmes offering biennial...... be calculated in a simple way relatively early after the start of a mammography screening programme....

  6. Preliminary test results from the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, Mark H.; Macelroy, R. D.; Blackwell, C. C.; Borchers, B. A.; Drews, M. E.; Longabaugh, J. R.; Yendler, B. S.; Zografos, A. I.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, a CELSS Test Facility (CTF) is being planned for installation on the Space Station. The CTF will be used to provide data on the productivity and efficiency of a variety of CELSS higher plant crops grown in the microgravity environment of the Space Station. Tight environmental control will be maintained while data on gas exchange rates and biomass accumulation rates are collected. In order to obtain an early realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary to provide the environmental conditions specified for CTF crop productivity experiments, an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) has been designed, constructed and is in the process of subsystem and system testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The EDU is a ground test-bed which will be used to characterize the integrated performance of major subsystem technologies, to evaluate hardware candidates and control strategies required for the CTF, and to further define the ability to meet CTF requirements within present Space Station constraints. This paper reviews the functional requirements for the EDU, and focuses on the performance evaluation and test results of the various subsystems. Preliminary integrated performance results and control system operation are addressed, and plans for future science and technology testing are discussed.

  7. Screening tests for intended medication adherence among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raehl, Cynthia L; Bond, C A; Woods, Tresa J; Patry, Roland A; Sleeper, Rebecca B

    2006-05-01

    Medication nonadherence is increasingly recognized as a cause of preventable adverse events, hospitalizations, and poor healthcare outcomes. While comprehensive medication adherence assessment for the elderly is likely to identify and prevent drug-related problems, it is time consuming for patient and healthcare providers alike. To identify screening tools to predict elderly patients' intended medication adherence that are suitable for primary-care settings and community pharmacies. This study evaluated 57 English-speaking persons aged 65 years and older who were from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Intended adherence was quantified, and the relationships to demographic, medical history, socioeconomic, and literacy variables were determined. In a multivariate analysis with the composite MedTake Test (a quantitative measure of each subject's intent to adhere to prescribed oral medications) as the dependent variable, independent predictors of intended adherence included: age, car ownership in the last 10 years, receipt of food assistance in the last 10 years, number of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine). The strongest predictor was the REALM word-recognition pronunciation test (beta = 0.666; R2 = 0.271; p pronunciation test, along with age, number of OTC drugs, and 2 socioeconomic questions, predicted the intent of seniors to correctly take their own prescribed oral medications.

  8. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  9. A Comment on the Efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, James H.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test an easily administered measure of four areas of infant and preschool development, was evaluated using an estimate of the base rate of mental retardation in the screening population. (Author/CL)

  10. DART-MS as a preliminary screening method for "herbal incense": chemical analysis of synthetic cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Musah, Rabi A; Domin, Marek A; Shepard, Jason R E

    2014-03-01

    Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) served as a method for rapid high-throughput screening of six commercially available "Spice" products, detecting various combinations of five synthetic cannabinoids. Direct analysis in real time is an ambient ionization process that, along with high mass accuracy time-of-flight (TOF)-MS to 0.0001 Da, was employed to establish the presence of cannabinoids. Mass spectra were acquired by simply suspending a small portion of sample between the ion source and the mass spectrometer inlet. The ability to test minute amounts of sample is a major advantage when very limited amounts of evidentiary material are available. In addition, reports are widespread regarding the testing backlogs that now exist because of the large influx of designer drugs. This method circumvents time-consuming sample extraction, derivatization, chromatographic, and other sample preparative steps required for analysis by more conventional mass spectrometric methods. Accordingly, the synthetic cannabinoids AM-2201, JWH-122, JWH-203, JWH-210, and RCS-4 were identified in commercially available herbal Spice products, singly and in tandem, at concentrations within the range of 4-141 mg/g of material. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry decreases the time necessary to triage analytical evidence, and therefore, it has the potential to contribute to backlog reduction and more timely criminal prosecution.

  11. Factors associated with completion of bowel cancer screening and the potential effects of simplifying the screening test algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Benjamin; Whyte, Sophie; Seaman, Helen E; Snowball, Julia; Halloran, Stephen P; Butler, Piers; Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Chilcott, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary colorectal cancer screening test in England is a guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBt). The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) interprets tests on six samples on up to three test kits to determine a definitive positive or negative result. However, the test algorithm fails to achieve a definitive result for a significant number of participants because they do not comply with the programme requirements. This study identifies factors associated with failed compliance and modifications to the screening algorithm that will improve the clinical effectiveness of the screening programme. Methods: The BCSP Southern Hub data for screening episodes started in 2006–2012 were analysed for participants aged 60–69 years. The variables included age, sex, level of deprivation, gFOBt results and clinical outcome. Results: The data set included 1 409 335 screening episodes; 95.08% of participants had a definitively normal result on kit 1 (no positive spots). Among participants asked to complete a second or third gFOBt, 5.10% and 4.65%, respectively, failed to return a valid kit. Among participants referred for follow up, 13.80% did not comply. Older age was associated with compliance at repeat testing, but non-compliance at follow up. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with non-compliance at repeat testing and follow up. Modelling a reduction in the threshold for immediate referral led to a small increase in completion of the screening pathway. Conclusions: Reducing the number of positive spots required on the first gFOBt kit for referral for follow-up and targeted measures to improve compliance with follow-up may improve completion of the screening pathway. PMID:26766733

  12. Preliminary Phytochemical screening of the Ethanolic extract of Dioscorea villosa Tubers and Estimation of Diosgenin by HPTLC Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Roy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simple phytochemical screening procedures were carried out to find the various constituents present in the ethanolic extract of Dioscorea villosa tubers. Further,estimation of Diosgenin in Dioscorea villosa tubers, was carried out by HPTLC technique. The preliminary screening showed presence of proteins, flavonoids tannins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds saponins and glycosides. The extract was chromatographed on silica gel GF254 plates with Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Acetic Acid: Formic Acid (4: 3: 1:1 as mobile phase. Detection and quantification were performed by densitrometric scanning, at 366 nm. The average recovery of diosgenin was found to be 0.48 %. The HPTLC technique has provided a good resolution of diosgenin from other constituents present in the ethanolic extract.

  13. Evaluation of screening tests for the detection of antistreptolysin O antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lue, Y. A.; Nicolas, C.; Kemawikasit, P.; Pierre, A.; McLean, T I; Simms, D H

    1983-01-01

    The accuracy of two screening tests, one utilizing serum and the other utilizing whole blood, was compared with the accuracy of the conventional macrotitration method for the detection of antistreptolysin O antibodies. Of the 569 specimens tested with the serum screening procedure and the macrotitration method, 235 and 282, respectively, were positive for antistreptolysin O antibodies. Comparative testing of 200 specimens with the peripheral blood screening test and the macrotitration method ...

  14. Description and Preliminary Testing of the CDSN Seismic Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Tilgner, Edwin E.

    1985-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The China Digital Seismograph Network (CDSN) is being designed and installed to provide the People's Republic of China with the facilities needed to create a national digital database for earthquake research. The CDSN, which is being developed jointly by the PRC State Seismological Bureau and the U.S. Geological Survey, will consist initially of nine digitally-recording seismograph stations, a data management system to be used for compiling network-day tapes, and a depot maintenance center. Data produced by the network will be shared with research scientists throughout the world. A national seismograph network must be designed to support a variety of research objectives. From this standpoint, the choices and tradeoffs involved in specifying signal bandwidth, resolution, and dynamic range are the most important decisions in system design. As in the case of the CDSN, these decisions are made during the selection and design of the seismic sensor system and encoder components. The purpose of this report is to describe the CDSN sensor systems, their important signal characteristics, and the results of preliminary tests that have been performed on the instruments. Four overlapping data bands will be recorded at each station: short period (SP), broadband (BB), long period (LP), and very long period (VLP). Amplitude response curves are illustrated in Figure I. Vertical and horizontal components will be recorded for each data band. The SP and LP channels will be recorded with sufficient sensitivities to resolve earth background noise at seismically quiet sites. The BB channels will have a lower sensitivity and are intended for broadband recording of moderate-to-large body-wave signals and for increasing the effective amplitude range in the short- and long-period bands. The VLP channel does not provide additional spectral coverage at long periods; its purpose is to make use of on-site filtration and decimation to reduce post processing requirements for VLP

  15. Incorporating human papillomavirus testing into cytological screening in the era of prophylactic vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Sasieni, Peter; Cuzick, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Screening for, and treatment of, pre-cancerous cervical lesions has lead to dramatic reductions in cervical cancer in many countries. In all cases, cervical screening has been based on cytology, but that is beginning to change. Research studies, including randomised trials, clearly show that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could be used to prevent a greater proportion of cervical cancer within a practical screening programme. Meanwhile, young adolescents are being vaccinated against HPV in developed countries, but cervical screening should continue for many years because it will take decades before most of those targeted by screening have been vaccinated. In the HPV vaccination era, the rate of cervical disease will decrease, and so will the positive predictive value of cytology. The screening characteristics of HPV testing make it the preferred choice for primary screening. However, questions regarding how to use HPV testing to screen vaccinated and unvaccinated women in the future remain unanswered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship between Preeclampsia and Quadruple Screening Test in Nuliparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Zand Vakili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia needs appropriate obstetric care. Preeclampsia predicting methods are important. This study was designed to determine the correlation between preeclampsia and quadruple screening test in the nulliparous. Materials and Methods:  This case - control study was conducted on 54 pregnant women with preeclampsia (case group and 108 healthy pregnant women (control group who referred to health centers in Sanandaj, Iran. Ultrasonography was performed to determine the gestational age by a radiologist. Maternal serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, unconjugated estriol (uE3, and inhibin-A were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and Chi-square test, T-test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results: The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of preeclampsia in pregnant women for hCG were 35.2% and 79.6 respectively. These findings for estriol were 20.4% and 88.9%, for inhibin-A were 38.8% and 88% and for alpha fetoprotein were 38.8% and 74.1%. The positive predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were 46.3%, 47.8%, 61.8% and 42.9% respectively. The negative predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were also 71%, 69.1%, 74.2% and 70.8% respectively. Conclusion: There was a relationship between preeclampsia and high levels of inhibin-A and hCG. Further studies on these markers and evaluating their usefulness in the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia are recommended.

  17. Preliminary Design of the HiLumi-LHC Triplet Area Beam Screen

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, R; Kos, N

    2014-01-01

    The so-called beam screen (BS) is a proven solution for intercepting the thermal loads caused by the circulating beams in the cryogenically-cooled sections of the LHC and minimizing dynamic vacuum effects [1]. The new triplet area foreseen for the HiLumi-LHC (HL-LHC) machine upgrade [2] has the additional feature of needing internal tungsten shields to reduce the amount of collision debris which is deflected by the high-gradient triplet magnets towards the superconducting magnets' cold masses and coils. The very aggressive optics design, based on large beam separations, calls for a maximum of physical space to remain available to the counter rotating beams in the common BS. This places severe constraints to the fabrication and installation tolerances of the BS itself, in addition to affecting the design and routing of the cryogenic lines in the area. The latest version of the BS design will be shown and discussed, together with future plans for testing materials, fabrication procedures, and installation.

  18. Early Adoption of a Multitarget Stool DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Robert M; Wilson, Patrick M; Jacobson, Debra J; Fan, Chun; Kisiel, John B; Sweetser, Seth; Tulledge-Scheitel, Sidna M; St Sauver, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    To characterize early adoption of a novel multitarget stool DNA (MT-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to test the hypothesis that adoption differs by demographic characteristics and prior CRC screening behavior and proceeds predictably over time. We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to assess the use of the MT-sDNA screening test in adults aged 50 to 75 years living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2014 and identified 27,147 individuals eligible or due for screening colonoscopy from November 1, 2014, through November 30, 2015. We used electronic Current Procedure Terminology and Health Care Common Procedure codes to evaluate early adoption of the MT-sDNA screening test in this population and to test whether early adoption varies by age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior. Overall, 2193 (8.1%) and 974 (3.6%) individuals were screened by colonoscopy and MT-sDNA, respectively. Age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior were significantly and independently associated with MT-sDNA screening use compared with colonoscopy use after adjustment for all other variables (Pscreening increased over time and were highest in those aged 50 to 54 years, women, whites, and those who had a history of screening. The use of the MT-sDNA screening test varied predictably by insurance coverage. The rates of colonoscopy decreased over time, whereas overall CRC screening rates remained steady. The results of the present study are generally consistent with predictions derived from prior research and the diffusion of innovation framework, pointing to increasing use of the new screening test over time and early adoption by younger patients, women, whites, and those with prior CRC screening. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Postoperative bleeding in a patient with normal screening coagulation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Eva; Anvari, Reza; D'cunha, Nicholas; Thaxton, Lauren; Malik, Asim; Nugent, Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    A 54-year-old man was brought to the emergency room after a head-on collision. He had multiple fractures in his lower extremities and required immediate surgery. After surgery, the patient had a persistent drop in hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets despite red blood cell transfusions. Laboratory studies included normal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, normal plasminogen functional activity, negative antiplatelet antibodies, normal platelet functional analysis and negative disseminated intravascular coagulation screen. Factor XIII antigen levels were 25% of predicted, and the diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency was made. The patient was treated with cryoprecipitate, and the bleeding stopped. Patients with factor XIII deficiency have either a rare congenital or acquired coagulation disorder. Both presentations have normal standard laboratory clotting tests, and the diagnosis requires an assay measuring factor XIII activity or antigen levels. The usual treatment includes cryoprecipitate, fresh-frozen plasma or recombinant factor XIII. This deficiency should be considered in patients with unexplained spontaneous, traumatic or postoperative bleeding.

  20. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  1. Preliminary Test Estimators and Phi-divergence Measures in Pooling Binomial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Martin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two independent random samples are drawn from two Binomial populations with parameters theta1 and  theta2 respectively. Ahmed (1991 considered a preliminary test estimator based on maximum likelihood estimator for estimating theta1 when it is suspected that theta1=theta2.  In this paper we combine minimum phi-divergence estimators as well as phi-divergence test statistics in order to define a preliminary phi-divergence test estimators. These new estimators are compared with the classical estimator as well as the pooled estimator.

  2. Nouws antibiotics test: Validation of a post-screening method for antibiotic residues in kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Kortenhoeven, L.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating the rise in ‘suspect’ samples caused by the introduction of a more sensitive screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals, an additional microbial post-screening method was developed. The test comprises four antibiotic group specific test plates, optimized

  3. Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2011 Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Battery (ASVAB) Content, Structure, and Scor ing The ASVAB is a multiple aptitude battery of nine tests administered by the MEPCOM. Most military...Technical Report 1306 Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2011 Interim Report Deirdre J...to) August 2009 to May 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2011 Interim

  4. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  5. Preliminary Testing For Anionic, Cationic and Non-ionic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokic, Lj.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Detergents present a major environmental problem due to large quantities of surfactants released from laundries. For this reason, it is important to apply an appropriate analytical method for their determination. In this work, we propose two simple, fast and inexpensive analytical methods for anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactant determination: thin layer chromatography (TLC separation for qualitative screening and quantitative potentiometric determination with ion-selective electrodes. These methods have been chosen because of their many advantages: rapidity, ease of operation, low cost of analysis and a wide variety of TLC application possibilities. The advantage of potentiometric titration is its very high degree of automation and very low detection limits obtained with different ion-selective electrodes applied for different surfactants.

  6. Preliminary Options Assessment of Versatile Irradiation Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the work undertaken at INL from April 2016 to January 2017 and aimed at analyzing some options for designing and building a versatile test reactor; the scope of work was agreed upon with DOE-NE. Section 2 presents some results related to KNK II and PRISM Mod A. Section 3 presents some alternatives to the VCTR presented in [ ] as well as a neutronic parametric study to assess the minimum power requirement needed for a 235U metal fueled fast test reactor capable to generate a fast (>100 keV) flux of 4.0 x 1015 n /cm2-s at the test location. Section 4 presents some results regarding a fundamental characteristic of test reactors, namely displacement per atom (dpa) in test samples. Section 5 presents the INL assessment of the ANL fast test reactor design FASTER. Section 6 presents a summary.

  7. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  8. PRELIMINARY APPLICATION OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING IN SCREENING METASTASIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jing Guan; Hua-wei Ling; Ke-min Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) in screening metastasis.Methods WB-DWI was performed in 24 patients diagnosed with various types of primary tumors. The three-dimensional maximum intensity projection reconstruction and black-and-white flip technique were used to observe metastatic lesions, and the results were compared with those of bone scintigraphy. Results By WB-DWI scanning sequence at b = 800 s/mm2, all the bone lesions found by bone scintigraphy in the cohort were well identified, and other lesions of soft tissue and organs were also well demonstrated. Its screening capability was equivalent with bone scintigraphy in screening metastases in bones (P = 0.062). Conclusion WB-DWI was practicable with the parameter settings attempted in metastases screening.

  9. Radiation Testing on State-of-the-Art CMOS: Challenges, Plans, and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    At GOMAC 2007 and 2008, we discussed a variety of challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices and technologies [1, 2]. In this presentation, we provide more specific details in this on-going investigation focusing on out-of-the-box lessons observed for providing radiation effects assurances as well as preliminary test results.

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury Screening: Preliminary Findings in a US Army Brigade Combat Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    traumatic brain injury TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY ( TBI ) is often dis-cussed as a common injury of the war in... Traumatic Brain Injury Screening 17 TABLE 1 Screening results∗ Injury status Injured with TBI 907 (22.8) Injured without TBI 385 (9.7) Not injured 2681...remember the injury 335 (36.9) Total with TBI 907 (100) ∗Values represent n (%). TBI indicates traumatic brain

  11. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh Anthony I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of crude aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. The flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract was 0.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the plant were 0.705 and 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder respectively. The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to those of BHT (84.6% and gallic acid (96%. Also, the percentage inhibition of malondialdehyde by the extract showed percentage inhibition of 78% comparable to those of BHT (72.24% and Gallic (94.82%. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of H. longifolium is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  12. Psychiatric Assessment and Screening for the Elderly in Primary Care: Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Abrams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We describe the design and implementation of a psychiatric collaborative care model in a university-based geriatric primary care practice. Initial results of screening for anxiety and depression are reported. Methods and Materials. Screens for anxiety and depression were administered to practice patients. A mental health team, consisting of a psychiatrist, mental health nurse practitioner, and social worker, identified patients who on review of screening and chart data warranted evaluation or treatment. Referrals for mental health interventions were directed to members of the mental health team, primary care physicians at the practice, or community providers. Results. Subjects (N=1505 comprised 38.2% of the 3940 unique patients seen at the practice during the 4-year study period. 37.1% (N=555 screened positive for depression, 26.9% (N=405 for anxiety, and 322 (21.4% screened positive for both. Any positive score was associated with age (P<0.033, female gender (P<0.006, and a nonsignificant trend toward living alone (P<0.095. 8.87% had suicidal thoughts. Conclusions. Screening captured the most affectively symptomatic patients, including those with suicidal ideation, for intervention. The partnering of mental health professionals and primary care physicians offers a workable model for addressing the scarcity of expertise in geriatric psychiatry.

  13. High-Throughput Screening of Potential Skin Penetration-Enhancers Using Stratum Corneum Lipid Liposomes: Preliminary Evaluation for Different Concentrations of Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a technique for high-throughput screening (HTS) of skin penetration-enhancers using stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs). A fluorescent marker, sodium fluorescein (FL), entrapped in SCLLs was prepared to provide a preliminary evaluation of the effect of different concentrations of ethanol on the disruption effect of SCLLs, which is an alternative for skin penetration-enhancing effects. In addition, SCLLs containing a fluorescent probe (DPH, TMA-DPH, or ANS) were also prepared and utilized to investigate SCLL fluidity. The results using SCLL-based techniques were compared with conventional skin permeation and skin impedance test using hairless rat skin. The obtained correlations were validated between FL leakage, SCLL fluidity with various probes, or skin impedance and increases in the skin permeation enhancement ratio (ER) of caffeine as a model penetrant. As a result, FL leakage and SCLL fluidity using ANS were considered to be good indices for the skin penetration-enhancing effect, suggesting that the action of ethanol on the SC lipid and penetration-enhancing is mainly on the polar head group of intercellular lipids. In addition, this screening method using SCLL could be utilized as an alternative HTS technique for conventional animal tests. Simultaneously, the method was found to be time-saving and sensitive compared with a direct assay using human and animal skins. PMID:28321359

  14. Interteaching and the Testing Effect: A Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Tonya; Saville, Bryan K.

    2012-01-01

    In a number of studies, interteaching has produced better student-learning outcomes than traditional teaching methods. Little research, however, has examined ways to make interteaching more effective. Research on the testing effect suggests that frequent testing may improve performance. Thus, including postdiscussion quizzes as a part of…

  15. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  16. Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EDSTAC Report was developed through a deliberative process that encouraged the development of consensus solutions to complex problems and issues related to developing an Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.

  17. Preliminary test of effects of cognitive ability, experience, and teaching methods on Verbal Analogy Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D; Willson-Quayle, A; Pasnak, R

    2000-06-01

    The methods from which one can choose when preparing for the GRE Verbal Analogies include books, software, audiotapes, and formal classroom instruction. What teaching method will work best for a given individual? To begin the search for an answer, Gray's test of reasoning ability was given to 28 undergraduates who also answered a questionnaire detailing their experience with analogies. They were randomly assigned to teaching conditions ranging from self-directed workbook study to intensive interactive assistance. No teaching method was superior overall, but interactions showed that (1) students who scored worst on the pretest improved the most, (2) those higher in cognitive functioning and experience performed better after intensive interactive assistance, and (3) those lower in both cognitive functioning and experience did significantly better with self-paced workbooks. This preliminary work suggests that it may be profitable to assess the prior experience and reasoning of potential students and adopt the methods for teaching formal operational thought found empirically to be most suitable.

  18. Preliminary low temperature tests of a digital signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Daud, Taher; Sekanina, Lukas

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an initial experiment performed to assess the electrical behavior of the Innovative Integration board containing a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) with its JTAG (Blackhawk) connector at low temperatures. The objective of the experiment is to determine the lowest temperature at which the DSP can operate. The DSP was tested at various low-temperatures and a Genetic Algorithm was used as the DSP test program.

  19. CHALLENGE TESTS WITH LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN SALAMI: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mioni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Challenge tests are the preferable methodology to study the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes on ready to eat foods, according to Regulation (EC 2073/2005. Challenge testing using L. monocytogenes in seasoned salami from different food business operators showed, after seasoning of the product, a count reduction of the inoculated organisms without any further growth of the pathogen; however differences of L. monocytogenes behaviour could be observed according to different production protocols.

  20. Prevalence of Subclinical Caprine Mastitis in Bangladesh Based on Parallel Interpretation of Three Screening Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Aminul Islam; Abdus Samad; AKM Anisur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of subclinical caprine mastitis based on parallel interpretation of results of three screening test. A total of 462 milk samples from 231 lactating Black Bengal goats comprises of three organized goat farms in Bangladesh were collected and were screened for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT), White Side Test (WST) and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) simultaneously. Integrated test results yield the preval...

  1. The time is now to implement HPV testing for primary screening in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Denny, Lynette

    2017-05-01

    Unacceptable disparities in cervical cancer between richer and poorer countries persist and serve as reminders of gross disparities in access to and quality of screening services. HPV testing is well-suited to address some of the barriers to implementing adequate screening programs in low resource settings. HPV testing has considerably better sensitivity than cytology providing the same extent of safety with fewer rounds of screening. New robust HPV testing platforms require little to no skill by laboratory workers and some can be used at the point-of-care. This allows for a round of screening to be accomplished in one or two visits, reducing costs and the inevitable attrition that occurs when women need to be recalled to obtain their results. HPV testing is ideal for incorporating into the new "screen-and-treat" approaches designed to overcome limitations of conventional, multi-visit, colposcopy-based approaches to screening. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is the screening test that has been used most widely in screen-and-treat programs to date but the performance characteristics of this test are poor. HPV-based screen-and-treat is more effective in reducing disease in the population and reduces over-treatment intrinsic to this approach. HPV testing can be adapted or combined with other molecular tests to improve treatment algorithms. Infrastructure established to support VIA-based screen-and-treat can effectively incorporate HPV testing. We are poised at a critical juncture in public health history to implement HPV testing as part of primary screening and thereby improve women's health in low resource settings.

  2. HIV antibody preliminary screening in 113 229 inpatients%113229例住院患者 HIV 抗体初筛结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芬; 王庆芳; 刘家田; 李建丽; 王万海

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解某大型医院住院患者人类免疫缺陷病毒( HIV)抗体初筛阳性率及其在临床科室中分布情况。方法对113229例住院患者进行HIV抗体初筛检测,比较不同性别患者的阳性率,分析HIV抗体阳性患者在不同科室的分布情况。结果 HIV抗体初筛阳性152例,阳性率为0.134%;其中男91例(0.161%),女61例(0.107%),不同性别间阳性率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 HIV抗体初筛阳性患者分布于20个科室,其中高发科室有耳鼻喉科、骨科、妇科、泌尿外科、普外科、神经内科、皮肤科、肿瘤科、眼科。这些科室的HIV抗体初筛阳性者占总筛查阳性的67.1%。结论住院患者中存在较高的HIV抗体初筛阳性率,且科室分布广泛。%Objective To investigate the positive rate of HIV antibody preliminary screening and the distribution of the clinical departments in general hospital inpatients.Methods HIV antibody preliminary screening detection was conducted in 113 229 cases of patients.The positive rate between different genders was compared , and the distribution of patients with positive HIV antibody in different departments was analyzed.Results Totally 152 plasma samples were positive by the antibody screening test for HIV, and the positive rate was 0.134%, including 91 males and 61 females (P<0.05).The 152 positive cases covered 20 clinical departments and the major clinical departments included otolaryngological department, orthopaedics department, gy-naecology department, urology department, surgery department, neurology department, dermatological department, oncology de-partment and ophthalmology department.The patients with positive HIV antibody undergoing preliminary screening of these de-partments accounted for 67.1%of the total screening.Conclusion The positive rate of HIV antibody screening among inpatients in our hospital is high with a wide range of department

  3. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the pericarp of Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC. - a medicinal tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the phytochemicals present in the pericarp of Crataeva magna (C. magna) (Lour.) DC. which is used as a traditional medicine by the inhabitants of Kanyakumari district. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the pericarp was done to determine the secondary metabolites in various solvents studied. Results: The phytochemical screening on the pericarp of C. magna (Lour.) DC. proved the presence of phytochemicals such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The findings of the present study recommended that the pericarp of C. magna (Lour.) DC. have potential antimicrobial compounds that may be of use for developing plant based drugs for various ailments.

  4. Putting Google Scholar to the Test: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mary L.; Wusteman, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a small-scale quantitative evaluation of the scholarly information search engine, Google Scholar. Design/methodology/approach: Google Scholar's ability to retrieve scholarly information was compared to that of three popular search engines: Ask.com, Google and Yahoo! Test queries were presented to all four search engines and…

  5. On Designing Construct Driven Situational Judgment Tests: Some Preliminary Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenole, Nigel; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.; Weekly, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Situational judgment tests (SJTs) are widely agreed to be a measurement technique. It is also widely agreed that SJTs are a questionable methodological choice for measurement of psychological constructs, such as behavioral competencies, due to a lack of evidence supporting appropriate factor structures and high internal consistencies.…

  6. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  7. Preliminary tests of a damaged ship for CFD validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkyun Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most critical issues in naval architecture these days is the operational safety. Among many factors to be considered for higher safety level requirements, the hull stability in intact and damaged conditions is the first to ensure for both commercial and military vessels. Unlike the intact stability cases, the assessment of the damaged ship stability is very complicated physical phenomena. Therefore it is widely acknowledged that computational fluid dynamics (CFD methods are one of most feasible approaches. In order to develop better CFD methods for damaged ship stability assessment, it is essential to perform well-designed model tests and to build a database for CFD validation. In the present study, free roll decay tests in calm water with both intact and damaged ships were performed and six degree-of-freedom (6DOF motion responses of intact ship in regular waves were measured. Through the free roll decay tests, the effects of the flooding water on the roll decay motion of a ship were investigated. Through the model tests in regular waves, the database that provides 6DOF motion responses of intact ship was established.

  8. Study and Preliminary Analysis of Test of Aerosol Migration Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Lin-lin; SUN; Xue-ting; WEI; Yan-song

    2015-01-01

    TAMM(test of aerosol migration mechanism)is one of the important aspects of Studies on Migration Mechanism of the Source Term under Severe Accident,which is a significant research of the National Large Advanced PWR Research Program.The main task researches the

  9. Preliminary Results of Breakwater Round-Head Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992...

  10. In vitro tests to evaluate immunotoxicity: A preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carfi', M; Gennari, A; Malerba, I; Corsini, E; Pallardy, M; Pieters, R; Loveren, Henk van; Vohr, H W; Hartung, T; Gribaldo, L

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of new and existing Chemicals (REACH) will increase the number of laboratory animals used, if alternative methods will not be available. In the meantime, REACH promotes the use of in vitro tests and, therefore, a set of appropriated al

  11. Hypothesis testing in high-throughput screening for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prummer, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Following the success of small-molecule high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, other large-scale screening techniques are currently revolutionizing the biological sciences. Powerful new statistical tools have been developed to analyze the vast amounts of data in DNA chip studies, but have not yet found their way into compound screening. In HTS, characterization of single-point hit lists is often done only in retrospect after the results of confirmation experiments are available. However, for prioritization, for optimal use of resources, for quality control, and for comparison of screens it would be extremely valuable to predict the rates of false positives and false negatives directly from the primary screening results. Making full use of the available information about compounds and controls contained in HTS results and replicated pilot runs, the Z score and from it the p value can be estimated for each measurement. Based on this consideration, we have applied the concept of p-value distribution analysis (PVDA), which was originally developed for gene expression studies, to HTS data. PVDA allowed prediction of all relevant error rates as well as the rate of true inactives, and excellent agreement with confirmation experiments was found.

  12. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  13. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  14. [Detection of cancer, sensitivity of the test and sensitivity of the screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launoy, G; Duffy, S W; Prevost, T C; Bouvier, V

    1998-11-01

    In assessment of screening for cancer, no distinction is usually made between the sensitivity of the screening test (St) and the sensitivity of the screening program (Sp). This paper was aimed to distinguish meaning, method for assessment and interest for each of them, and to determine their relationship. Sensitivity of the screening program can be directly assessed with data from on-going trials whilst assessment of sensitivity of screening test requires modelisation techniques, especially for assessing the mean duration of the preclinical phase of cancer. Assuming an exponential distribution of this duration, lambda as the time parameter, a mathematical relation between St and Sp is suggested as follows: [formula: see text] with r being the interval between two screening tests. The implementation of this equation with data from a mass-screening program for colorectal cancer in the department of Calvados allowed us to investigate the influence of the mean preclinical phase and the interval between two screening tests on the value of the sensitivity of the screening procedure. Such a modelisation could be useful in the development of a rational screening policy.

  15. Developmental Dyslexia: A Diagnostic Screening Procedure on Three Characteristic Patterns of Reading and Spelling. A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Elena

    A diagnostic screening procedure for developmental dyslexia which analyzes how a child reads and writes rather than at what level, is outlined. Briefly, the test entails a presentation of a word list at each reading level to determine the child's sight vocabulary and his ability to employ word-attack skills. Following the administration of the…

  16. Preliminary Results of Testing of Flow Effects on Evaporator Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, M.Z.

    2002-02-15

    This investigation has focused on the effects of fluid flow on solids deposition from solutions that simulate the feed to the 2H evaporator at the Savannah River Site. Literature studies indicate that the fluid flow (or shear) affects particle-particle and particle-surface interactions and thus the phenomena of particle aggregation in solution and particle deposition (i.e., scale formation) onto solid surfaces. Experimental tests were conducted with two configurations: (1) using a rheometer to provide controlled shear conditions and (2) using controlled flow of reactive solution through samples of stainless steel tubing. All tests were conducted at 80 C and at high silicon and aluminum concentrations, 0.133 M each, in solutions containing 4 M sodium hydroxide and 1 A4 each of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Two findings from these experiments are important for consideration in developing approaches for reducing or eliminating evaporator scaling problems: (1) The rheometer tests suggested that for the conditions studied, maximum solids deposition occurs at a moderate shear rate, approximately 12 s{sup -1}. That value is expected to be on the order of shear rates that will occur in various parts of the evaporator system; for instance, a 6 gal/min single-phase liquid flow through the 2-in. lift or gravity drain lines would result in a shear rate of approximately 16 s{sup -1}. These results imply that engineering approaches aimed at reducing deposits through increased mixing would need to generate shear near all surfaces significantly greater than 12 s{sup -1}. However, further testing is needed to set a target value for shear that is applicable to evaporator operation. This is because the measured trend is not statistically significant at the 95% confidence interval due to variability in the results. In addition, testing at higher temperatures and lower concentrations of aluminum and silicon would more accurately represent conditions in the evaporator. Without

  17. Flight Test 4 Preliminary Results: NASA Ames SSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Doug; Gong, Chester; Reardon, Scott; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of performance standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements as well as the safety substantiation and end-to-end assessment of DAA system performance. The Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration into the National Airspace System (NAS) Project conducted flight test program, referred to as Flight Test 4, at Armstrong Flight Research Center from April -June 2016. Part of the test flights were dedicated to the NASA Ames-developed Detect and Avoid (DAA) System referred to as JADEM (Java Architecture for DAA Extensibility and Modeling). The encounter scenarios, which involved NASA's Ikhana UAS and a manned intruder aircraft, were designed to collect data on DAA system performance in real-world conditions and uncertainties with four different surveillance sensor systems. Flight test 4 has four objectives: (1) validate DAA requirements in stressing cases that drive MOPS requirements, including: high-speed cooperative intruder, low-speed non-cooperative intruder, high vertical closure rate encounter, and Mode CS-only intruder (i.e. without ADS-B), (2) validate TCASDAA alerting and guidance interoperability concept in the presence of realistic sensor, tracking and navigational errors and in multiple-intruder encounters against both cooperative and non-cooperative intruders, (3) validate Well Clear Recovery guidance in the presence of realistic sensor, tracking and navigational errors, and (4) validate DAA alerting and guidance requirements in the presence of realistic sensor, tracking and navigational errors. The results will be

  18. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening And Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity Of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni From Different Geographical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitasta Mandal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a natural non-caloric substitute to conventional sugar, is also popular as the “sweet herb of Paraguay”. It is a storehouse of various bioactive constituents mainly, the ent-kaurene diterpene glycosides namely stevioside, rebaudioside A, B, C, D and E. The plant is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities like hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, anticancer, antibacterial activities. The present research is based on a preliminary phytochemical screening and comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of the dried leaves of five varieties of Stevia rebaudiana procured from five different geographical locations of India viz., Delhi, Surat, Kangra, Bangalore and Indore. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content was also determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and aluminum chloride colorimetric. The result showed that the variety from Kangra showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content of 5.87 and 62.22 mg GAE/L respectively.

  19. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS: Questionnai...... in screening and with intentions about selective termination, women's perceptions of lives of the disabled should receive more attention in future studies.......AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... asking about selective terminations following detected fetal disorders were sent in 1993 to all public hospitals with obstetrics or gynaecology departments (response rate 100%). RESULTS: The serum screening test had usually been offered to women as a free choice, but for 22% of them it was presented...

  20. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  1. Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Davenport, R.

    1980-04-01

    There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.

  2. Bias in estimating accuracy of a binary screening test with differential disease verification

    OpenAIRE

    Alonzo, Todd A.; Brinton, John T; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H.

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value are typically used to quantify the accuracy of a binary screening test. In some studies it may not be ethical or feasible to obtain definitive disease ascertainment for all subjects using a gold standard test. When a gold standard test cannot be used an imperfect reference test that is less than 100% sensitive and specific may be used instead. In breast cancer screening, for example, follow-up for cancer diagnosis is used as an ...

  3. Developmental Screenings in Rural Settings: A Comparison of the Child Development Review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachlow, Allison; Jordan, Augustus E.; Tervo, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Two developmental screening tests were applied to 73 children, aged 1 month-6.7 years, in Sioux Falls and the Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota). There were no racial differences; compared to urban children, rural reservation children of any race were more likely to pass the Child Development Review and to fail the Denver II Developmental…

  4. Rapid screening of wheat bran contaminated by deoxynivalenol mycotoxin using Raman spectroscopy: a preliminary experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; De Girolamo, A.; Lippolis, V.; Pascale, M.

    2016-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin frequently occurring in cereals and derived products, and regulated in many countries. Raman spectroscopy performed using optical fibers, with excitation at 1064 nm and a dispersive detection scheme, was utilized to analyze wheat bran samples naturally contaminated with DON. A multivariate processing of the spectroscopic data allowed to distinguish two classes of contamination, with DON below and above 400 μg/kg, respectively. Only one highly contaminated sample was misclassified. This preliminary result demonstrates the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a useful analytical tool for the non-destructive and rapid analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  5. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal Clinic at Tygerberg Academic ... on the changing diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes.1–4 ... (quantity and type) is the main determining factor of the post- .... In a 'designed' breakfast with 75 g of carbohydrate, the fat should.

  6. Alternative multi-user interaction screen: initial ergonomic test results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Adrew C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate a potentially low-cost multi-user computer pointing interface. Given a choice of four targets arranged on the screen, the authors looked at what the user’s preference is in visiting the targets with a hand-held light source...

  7. Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, intended for use with handicapped and nonhandicapped children ages 0-8, are examined. The instruments measure personal-social, adaptive, motor, communication, and cognitive skills, for use in screening, diagnosis, identification, assessment, and program evaluation. The paper discusses test…

  8. Predictive Validity Test of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory (ADSI) to identify adolescents at high risk of substance use. Method: The sampling frame consisted of 26,781 surveys, and a secondary analysis was conducted. A random 25% sample was used, leaving 6,661 cases. Binary logistic regressions were run to determine the predictive…

  9. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  10. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  11. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer

  12. The Application of Eddy Current Transducer for Testing Movement Locus of Shaker Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Pingyu; Lao Chuanjun; Zhang Wei; Li Xuejun

    2007-01-01

    Shaker screen is one of important equipments in the industry of oil, metallurgy, coal and timbering. The movement locus of shaker screen affects the capacity and efficiency of shaker screen to split the solid particle from crude ore directly .To test movement of shaker locus, two eddy current transducers are employed. A discussion of the usage of these eddy current transducer to test and acceleration sensors will be made. The experiment results from a real elliptic shaker screen have good agree with the design requirements.

  13. Preliminary results of the round-robin testing of F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, K.; Yamanouchi, N.; Tohyama, A.

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary results of metallurgical, physical and mechanical properties of low activation ferritic steel F82H (IEA heat) were obtained in the round-robin test in Japan. The properties of IEA heat F82H were almost the same as the original F82H.

  14. Preliminary results of a proficiency testing of industrial CT scanners using small polymer items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; Cantatore, Angela; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    This work presents preliminary results concerning a proficiency testing for intercomparison of industrial CT scanners. Two audit items, similar to common industrial parts, were selected for circulation. The two items were a single polymer complex geometry part and a simple geometry item made of two...

  15. Preliminary Investigation of the 1991 Medical College Admission Test Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weichang; Mitchell, Karen J.

    A substantially revised Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was introduced in spring 1991. The new examination is designed to assess critical thinking skills, basic concepts and problem solving facility in science, and writing skills. This paper reports preliminary findings on the factor structure of the revised MCAT, which consists of four…

  16. Sizing and preliminary hardware testing of solar powered UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jashnani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating solar energy into modern aircraft technology has been a topic of interest and has received a lot of attention from researchers over the last two decades. A few among the many potential applications of this technology are the possibility of continuous self sustained flight for purposes such as information relay, surveillance and monitoring. This paper discusses the altitude and payload mass, as independent parameters, and their influence on the size and design of the aircraft. To estimate available solar power, two different models have been presented; one for low altitudes and the other for high altitudes. An engineering ground model was built to simulate the power and propulsion system over 24 h of continuous operation. The paper presents data from tests performed till date and lessons learnt while dealing with the construction of the engineering ground model as well as changes that can be made to improve the design.

  17. A preliminary screening study on the associated proteins in human psoriasis vulgaris by serum proteomics technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhankui Liu; Shengshun Tan; Chunshui Yu; Jinghua Fan; Zhuanli Bai; Junjie Li

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the optimum screening conditions of associated proteins in human psoriasis vulgaris by serum proteomics technique, and to screen the different expression proteins related with psoriasis vulgaris. Methods:Serum samples of peripheral blood were collected from newly diagnosed psoriasis vulgaris patients in the clinic, and 20 matched healthy persons.Serum albumin IgG was removed by filtering with ProteoExtract Albumin/IgG. After comparative proteomics analysis the different protein spots were identified using 2-DE and MS. Results :Electrophoresis figures with high resolution and reproducibility were obtained. Three different expression proteins were found only in the serum from psoriasis vulgaris patients,while nine other different proteins expressing from healthy volunteers. Conclusion:The protein expression was different in the serum between the psoriasis vulgaris patients and healthy volunteers. It was hoped that we could find the biomarkers related to psoriasis vulgaris by using proteomics.

  18. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and GC- MS Profiling of Ethanolic Flower Extract of Calotropis gigantea Linn. (Apocyanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dhivya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis gigantea Linn is popularly known as the swallow-wort or milkweed and is used as one of the most important drug in Traditional System of Medicine to treat various ailments. The aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic flower extract of Calotropis gigantea and further analysis of the components present in it by GC-MS analysis. Ten grams of flower power was sequentially extracted by ethanol. The results showed the presence of phytochemical compounds of alkaloids, tannins, phenol, flavanoids, sterols, antraquinones, proteins and quinones in the flower extract. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of 14 major compounds. This study forms a basis for the biological characterization and importance of the compounds identified and creates a platform to screen many bioactive components to treat many diseases.

  19. Ultrasonography in predicting and screening liver cirrhosis in children: A preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-An Zhu; Bing Hu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in predicting and screening liver cirrhosis in children.METHODS: Twenty-eight children with liver cirrhosis of various etiologies were examined by routine ultrasonography.A percutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound was also performed on each patient, and the results of liver biopsy and ultrasonography were compared.RESULTS: When compared with the biopsy results,ultrasonography in combination of clinical and laboratory findings gave accurate diagnoses of children liver cirrhosis.Although ultrasound imaging of children with liver cirrhosis revealed abnormal characteristics, these images were not specific to this disease, thus reinforcing the necessity of ultrasound-guided liver biopsy in the diagnosis of children liver cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography is reliable in the diagnosis of children liver cirrhosis, and its usefulness should be stressed in the screening and follow-up of high-risk pediatric patients.

  20. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh Anthony I; Aiyegoro Olayinka A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents ...

  1. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of solvent extracts from Daucus crinitus Desf., from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah, Amel; DIB, Mohammed El Amine; Meliani, Nawel; Djabou, Nassim; Allali, Hocine; Tabti, Boufeldja

    2012-01-01

    The presence of natural antioxidant in plants is well known. Plant phenolics constitute one of the major groups of components that act as primary antioxidant free radical terminators. This paper reports the antioxidative activity of methanolic and water extract of Daucus crinitus Desf. Phytochemical screening of the crude extracts of stems/leaves revealed the presence of different kind of chemical groups such as tannin, flavonoids, phenolic acids and coumarins. The amounts of tota...

  2. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and GC- MS Profiling of Ethanolic Flower Extract of Calotropis gigantea Linn. (Apocyanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    R.Dhivya; K. Manimegalai

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis gigantea Linn is popularly known as the swallow-wort or milkweed and is used as one of the most important drug in Traditional System of Medicine to treat various ailments. The aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic flower extract of Calotropis gigantea and further analysis of the components present in it by GC-MS analysis. Ten grams of flower power was sequentially extracted by ethanol. The results showed the presence of phytochemical compounds ...

  3. Skin test screening for tuberculosis among healthcare students: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, G B; Antoniozzi, T; Ortis, M; Pippia, V; Sernia, S

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to document the baseline prevalence of healthcare students positive to tuberculosis skin tests screening. Between 2008-2010, students admitted to healthcare courses (medicine, nursing, physiotherapy...) at Sapienza university in Rome were requested to carry out personal tuberculosis skin test screening in their local district or town healthcare centers according to the italian guidelines. At the time interferongamma release assays (IGRA) testing was not adopted for large screening. Demographic characteristics, tuberculosis screening results, healthcare course, tuberculosis vaccination status were recorded. A cohort of 2,500 university healthcare students were screened by several Italian Hygiene Offices using tuberculin skin test and Tine test. Overall 131 (5.2%) healthcare students resulted positive to some tuberculosis skin test screening. Tuberculin skin test was carried out on 2,029 students (81.2%) and conversion was observed in 107 (5.3%), whereas Tine test was carried out on 498 students (19.9%) and positive result was observed in 24 (4.8%). The Tine test use and non optimal (skin tests was related mostly to some healthcare centers in Lazio and Campania regions. Previous BCG vaccination was reported by 27 healthcare students (1.1%), and only two of them showed tuberculin skin test conversion, whereas the large majority 105 (98.1%) of Mantoux positives had not been vaccinated. In univariate analysis positive tuberculin skin test was associated to growing students age (29.2 ± 10.3 vs. 23.1 ± 6.0; pskin test was recorded in 25 (20.3%) foreign and 82 (4.3%) italian students showing a higher risk for International students (RR 4.72; 95%CI 3.14 - 7.11; pskin test rate for tuberculosis among healthcare students in their first university year, showing a higher risk for the international group and revealed some problematic screening practices which need to be improved in the future screening programs.

  4. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  5. Identification and Validation of a Brief Test Anxiety Screening Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Segool, Natasha; Putwain, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of test-based accountability policies around the world has increased the pressure placed on students to perform well on state achievement tests. Educational researchers have begun taking a closer look at the reciprocal effects of test anxiety and high-stakes testing. However, existing test anxiety assessments lack efficiency and…

  6. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  7. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  8. Development and Testing of a 3-Item Screening Tool for Problematic Internet Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Selkie, Ellen

    2016-09-01

    To develop and validate the Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS)-3 screening scale, a short scale to screen for Problematic Internet Use. This scale development study applied standard processes using separate samples for training and testing datasets. We recruited participants from schools and colleges in 6 states and 2 countries. We selected 3 initial versions of a PRIUSS-3 using correlation to the PRIUSS-18 score. We evaluated these 3 potential screening scales for conceptual coherence, factor loading, sensitivity, and specificity. We selected a 3-item screening tool and evaluated it in 2 separate testing sets using receiver operating curves. Our study sample included 1079 adolescents and young adults. The PRIUSS-3 included items addressing anxiety when away from the Internet, loss of motivation when on the Internet, and feelings of withdrawal when away from the Internet. This screening scale had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 69%. A score of ≥3 on the PRIUSS-3 was the threshold to follow up with the PRIUSS-18. Similar to other clinical screening tools, the PRIUSS-3 can be administered quickly in a clinical or research setting. Positive screens should be followed by administering the full PRIUSS-18. Given the pervasive presence of the Internet in youth's lives, screening and counseling for Problematic Internet Use can be facilitated by use of this validated screening tool. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. HPV testing for cervical cancer screening appears more cost-effective than Papanicolau cytology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Yvonne N; Bishai, David M; Lorincz, Attila; Shah, Keerti V; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández, Mauricio; Granados-García, Víctor; Pérez, Ruth; Salmerón, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    To determine the incremental costs and effects of different HPV testing strategies, when compared to Papanicolau cytology (Pap), for cervical cancer screening in Mexico. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) examined the specific costs and health outcomes associated with (1) no screening; (2) only the Pap test; (3) only self-administered HPV; (4) only clinician administered HPV; and (5) clinician administered HPV plus the Pap test. The costs of self- and clinician-HPV testing, as well as with the Pap test, were identified and quantified. Costs were reported in 2008 US dollars. The health outcome associated with these screening strategies was defined as the number of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer cases detected. This CEA was performed using the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Morelos, Mexico. Screening women between the ages of 30-80 for cervical cancer using clinical-HPV testing or the combination of clinical-HPV testing, and the Pap is always more cost-effective than using the Pap test alone. This CEA indicates that HPV testing could be a cost-effective screening alternative for a large health delivery organization such as IMSS. These results may help policy-makers implement HPV testing as part of the IMSS cervical cancer screening program.

  10. Universal screening test based on analysis of circulating organ-enriched microRNAs: a novel approach to diagnostic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinerman, Kira S; Umansky, Samuil

    2015-03-01

    Early disease detection leads to more effective and cost-efficient treatment. It is especially important for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, because progression of these pathologies leads to significant and frequently irreversible changes in underlying pathophysiological processes. At the same time, the development of specific screening tests for detection of each of the hundreds of human pathologies in asymptomatic stage may be impractical. Here, we discuss a recently proposed concept: the development of minimally invasive Universal Screening Test (UST) based on analysis of organ-enriched microRNAs in plasma and other bodily fluids. The UST is designed to detect the presence of a pathology in particular organ systems, organs, tissues or cell types without diagnosing a specific disease. Once the pathology is detected, more specific, and if necessary invasive and expensive, tests can be administered to precisely define the nature of the disease. Here, we discuss recent studies and analyze the data supporting the UST approach.

  11. The Statistical Precision of Medical Screening Procedures: Application to Polygraph and AIDS Antibodies Test Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gastwirth, Joseph L.

    1987-01-01

    The increased use of screening tests for drug use or antibodies to the HTLV-III (AIDS) virus, as well as pre-employment polygraph testing, has raised concerns about the reliability of the results of these procedures. This paper reviews the mathematical model underlying the analysis of data from screening tests. In addition to the known formulas for the proportion of positive (negative) classifications that are correct, we provide a large sample approximation to their standard errors. The resu...

  12. Synthesis of new biphenyl-substituted quinoline derivatives, preliminary screening and docking studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nellisara D Shashikumar; Ganganaika Krishnamurthy; Halehatti S Bhojyanaik; Mayasandra R Lokesh; Kaginalli S Jithendrakumara

    2014-01-01

    New quinoline derivatives containing biphenyl ring were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral studies. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial, anthelmintic activities as well as free radical scavenging property against the DPPH radical. The minimum inhibition concentration values showed promising inhibiting activity and are potent biological agents. The compounds showed minimum binding energy towards -tubulin. The compounds 11a, 11c, 13c and 13d have good affinity towards the active pocket and may be considered as a good inhibitor of -tubulin.

  13. Assessment of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV testing in primary screening for cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The introduction of a screening programme for cervical carcinoma in Germany has led to a significant reduction in incidence of the disease. To date, however, diagnosis in Germany has been based solely on cervical cytology, which has been criticised because of a low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Because an infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV previously was found to be a necessary aetiological factor in the development of cervical cancer, there has been some discussion that HPV testing should be included in cervical cancer screening. Objectives: How do HPV tests compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what are the effects of screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of HPV testing into national screening programms? Methods: A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared the HPV test to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CIN 2+ (CIN=Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyze cost-effectiveness in the German setting. Results: A total of 24 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One study consisted of three substudies. Hence, results of 26 comparisons of HPV and cytology are reported. In 25 of these, the HPV test was more sensitive than cytology, whereas cytology had better specificity in 21 studies. The combination of HPV test and cytology increased sensitivity. Variability in results was considerably larger for cytology than for HPV testing. Results of the economic meta-analysis suggest that in health care settings with already established PAP screening programms, cost-effectiveness strongly depends on screening intervals. In analyses comparing HPV screening to conventional PAP screening with two-yearly intervals, only 25

  14. [Information Concerning Mean Test Scores for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) for the National Commission on Excellence in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Robert J.

    Data are provided to the National Commission on Excellence in Education on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Statistics are provided on the following: yearly GMAT mean scores 1965-1966…

  15. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  16. Improving the Sensitivity of the Language Sector of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances P.; Borowitz, Kathleen C.

    1988-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) and an expressive language measure were administered to 114 children (aged 24 to 74 months) suspected of developmental difficulties. The DDST did not identify the majority of children who failed the expressive language screening, even after cutoff scores were made more rigorous. (Author/JDD)

  17. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ..., Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides and pests. Dated: February 17, 2012. Lois Rossi, Director, Registration... AGENCY Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program... EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  18. Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Deaf People: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Joanna; Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Woll, Bencie

    2015-11-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-referenced sample of 226 deaf older people. Percentiles are provided for clinical comparison. The tests showed good reliability, content validity, and correlation with age, intellectual ability, and education. Clinical discrimination was shown between the normative sample and 14 deaf patients with dementia. This innovative testing approach transforms the ability to detect dementia in deaf people, avoids the difficulties of using an interpreter, and enables culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment of deaf signers, with international potential for adaptation into other signed languages.

  19. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products for Infection With... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and... ``Guidance for Industry: Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and...

  20. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smigovec, Igor; Dapic, Tomislav [University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zagreb (Croatia); Trkulja, Vladimir [Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  1. Development and preliminary validation of a Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA screening tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenmann Joey C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents directly influence children's physical activity and nutrition behaviors and also dictate the physical and social environments that are available to their children. This paper summarizes the development of an easy to use screening tool (The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA Screening Tool designed to assess family environmental and behavioral factors that may predispose a child to becoming overweight. Methods The FNPA instrument was developed using constructs identified in a comprehensive evidence analysis conducted in collaboration with the American Dietetics Association. Two or three items were created for each of the ten constructs with evidence grades of II or higher. Parents of first grade students from a large urban school district (39 schools were recruited to complete the FNPA screening tool and provide permission to link results to BMI data obtained from trained nurses in each school. A total of 1085 surveys were completed out of the available sample of 2189 children in the district. Factor analysis was conducted to examine the factor structure of the scale. Mixed model analyses were conducted on the composite FNPA score to determine if patterns in home environments and behaviors matched some of the expected socio-economic (SES and ethnic patterns in BMI. Correlations among FNPA constructs and other main variables were computed to examine possible associations among the various factors. Finally, logistic regression was used to evaluate the construct validity of the FNPA scale. Results Factor analyses revealed the presence of a single factor and this unidimensional structure was supported by the correlation analyses. The correlations among constructs were consistently positive but the total score had higher correlations with child BMI than the other individual constructs. The FNPA scores followed expected demographic patterns with low income families reporting lower (less favorable scores than

  2. A PREDICTIVE SCREENING TEST FOR CHILDREN WITH ARTICULATORY SPEECH DEFECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN RIPER, CHARLES

    THE CONSTRUCTION OF A TEST TO IDENTIFY DEFECTIVE ARTICULATION IN FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN WAS REPORTED. THE "EMPIRICAL SCALE DERIVATION METHOD" WAS SELECTED AS THE MOST APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUE TO SEEK TEST ITEMS FOR THE PREDICTION OF ARTICULATORY MATUARATION. AFTER SELECTION AND REDUCTION TO 135 TEST ITEMS, AN EXPERIMENTAL ITEM POOL WAS…

  3. [Preliminary results of a screening programme by mobile units in the province of Liege].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordenne, W; Parmentier, J C; Maassen, P; Bartsch, P

    1997-06-01

    The goal of the mass screening of breast cancer undertaken under the authority of the Province of Liège is to focus the action on rural communities. For this reason, mobile vans equipped with X-Ray dedicated units are used. The main difficulty of this programme is to reach a massive participation of the population. It varies up to now from 45% to 20% in the different visited villages. During the 42 first months of functioning, 16,207 mammographies were carried out in women aged from 40 to 69; 69 cancers were discovered in apparently healthy women plus 10 cases of epithelial hyperplasia with atypias. These first results are quite encouraging. The main task of this continuing programme will be to reach a better participation of the population.

  4. Preliminary screening of Cuscuta reflexa stems for Anti inflammatory and cytotoxic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavan Bhausaheb Udavant; Suggala Venkata Satyanarayana; Chandrashekhar Devidas Upasani

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of preliminary antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities of a parasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa. Methods: Human red blood stabilizing activity was used for the evaluation of in vitro antiinflammatory activity and Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of extract of stems of Cuscuta reflexa. Results: Methanolic extract and Ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (MECR & EAMECR resp.) were found to have significant antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activity with inhibitory concentration IC50%values 277.83 μg/ml & 214.94 μg/ml in HRBC stabitlity assay[table 01], and lethal concentration LC50% 257.73 μg/ml 184.86 μg/ml in BSLA respectively[table 02]. Conclusions: Amongst various extracts evaluated for cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory activities, methanolic extract of Cuscutareflexa (MECR) and its ethyl acetate soluble fraction (EAMECR) show significant cytotoxic as well as antiinflammatory activities which may be due to the presence of phenols, polyphenols and flavonoids.

  5. Bias in estimating accuracy of a binary screening test with differential disease verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Todd A; Brinton, John T; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H

    2011-07-10

    Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value are typically used to quantify the accuracy of a binary screening test. In some studies, it may not be ethical or feasible to obtain definitive disease ascertainment for all subjects using a gold standard test. When a gold standard test cannot be used, an imperfect reference test that is less than 100 per cent sensitive and specific may be used instead. In breast cancer screening, for example, follow-up for cancer diagnosis is used as an imperfect reference test for women where it is not possible to obtain gold standard results. This incomplete ascertainment of true disease, or differential disease verification, can result in biased estimates of accuracy. In this paper, we derive the apparent accuracy values for studies subject to differential verification. We determine how the bias is affected by the accuracy of the imperfect reference test, the percent who receive the imperfect reference standard test not receiving the gold standard, the prevalence of the disease, and the correlation between the results for the screening test and the imperfect reference test. It is shown that designs with differential disease verification can yield biased estimates of accuracy. Estimates of sensitivity in cancer screening trials may be substantially biased. However, careful design decisions, including selection of the imperfect reference test, can help to minimize bias. A hypothetical breast cancer screening study is used to illustrate the problem.

  6. Novel Treponema pallidum Serologic Tests: A Paradigm Shift in Syphilis Screening for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arlene C. Seña; Becky L. White; P. Frederick Sparling

    2010-01-01

    .... Although most of these newer tests are not yet cleared for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration, their performance and ease of automation have promoted their application for syphilis screening...

  7. A preliminary study of the use of bioimpedance in the screening of squamous tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congo Tak-Shing Ching

    2010-03-01

    conclusion, bioimpedance at a particular frequency is a potentially promising technique for tongue cancer screening.Keywords: bioimpedance, tongue, cancer, noninvasive, detection, screening

  8. Preliminary report: in-plant safety/relief valve discharge load test, Monticello Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.C. (comp.)

    1976-12-01

    This preliminary report covers the results of the test program of safety/relief valve (SRV) discharge load phenomena and the effects upon the Mark I primary containment torus structure of the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant. The objectives of the test were to provide a data base for verifying/improving analytical models and to measure the structural response of the torus to SRV discharges. Objectives, instrumentation, and test plan are described. Results of continuing data evaluation will be included in the final report scheduled for publication later in 1977.

  9. Preliminary environmental analysis of a geopressured-geothermal test well in Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.A.; McGraw, M.; Gustavson, T.C.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    Preliminary environmental data, including current land use, substrate lithology, soils, natural hazards, water resources, biological assemblages, meteorological data, and regulatory considerations have been collected and analyzed for approximately 150 km/sup 2/ of land near Chocolate Bayou, Brazoria County, Texas, in which a geopressured-geothermal test well is to be drilled in the fall of 1977. The study was designed to establish an environmental data base and to determine, within spatial constraints set by subsurface reservoir conditions, environmentally suitable sites for the proposed well. Preliminary analyses of data revealed the eed for focusing on the following areas: potential for subsidence and fault activation, susceptibility of test well and support facilities to fresh- and salt-water flooding, possible effects of produced saline waters on biological assemblages and groundwaer resources, distribution of expansive soils, and effect of drilling and associated support activities on known archeological-cultural resources.

  10. NSGC practice guideline: prenatal screening and diagnostic testing options for chromosome aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K L; Czerwinski, J L; Hoskovec, J M; Noblin, S J; Sullivan, C M; Harbison, A; Campion, M W; Devary, K; Devers, P; Singletary, C N

    2013-02-01

    The BUN and FASTER studies, two prospective multicenter trials in the United States, validated the accuracy and detection rates of first and second trimester screening previously reported abroad. These studies, coupled with the 2007 release of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Practice Bulletin that endorsed first trimester screening as an alternative to traditional second trimester multiple marker screening, led to an explosion of screening options available to pregnant women. ACOG also recommended that invasive diagnostic testing for chromosome aneuploidy be made available to all women regardless of maternal age. More recently, another option known as Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) became available to screen for chromosome aneuploidy. While screening and testing options may be limited due to a variety of factors, healthcare providers need to be aware of the options in their area in order to provide their patients with accurate and reliable information. If not presented clearly, patients may feel overwhelmed at the number of choices available. The following guideline includes recommendations for healthcare providers regarding which screening or diagnostic test should be offered based on availability, insurance coverage, and timing of a patient's entry into prenatal care, as well as a triage assessment so that a general process can be adapted to unique situations.

  11. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  12. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  13. Screening for ovarian cancer in women with varying levels of risk, using annual tests, results in high recall for repeat screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobbenhuis Marielle AE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed ovarian cancer screening outcomes in women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer divided into a low-, moderate- or high-risk group for development of ovarian cancer. Methods 545 women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer referred to the Ovarian Screening Service at the Royal Marsden Hospital, London from January 2000- December 2008 were included. They were stratified into three risk-groups according to family history (high-, moderate- and low-risk of developing ovarian cancer and offered annual serum CA 125 and transvaginal ultrasound screening. The high-risk group was offered genetic testing. Results The median age at entry was 44 years. The number of women in the high, moderate and low-risk groups was 397, 112, and 36, respectively. During 2266 women years of follow-up two ovarian cancer cases were found: one advanced stage at her fourth annual screening, and one early stage at prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO. Prophylactic BSO was performed in 138 women (25.3%. Forty-three women had an abnormal CA125, resulting in 59 repeat tests. The re-call rate in the high, moderate and low-risk group was 14%, 3% and 6%. Equivocal transvaginal ultrasound results required 108 recalls in 71 women. The re-call rate in the high, moderate, and low-risk group was 25%, 6% and 17%. Conclusion No early stage ovarian cancer was picked up at annual screening and a significant number of re-calls for repeat screening tests was identified.

  14. Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems by Preliminary Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...... are developed. They are much more robust, especially the sinus method which is reliable also for colored, heavy tailed or skew distributed noise....

  15. Children’s Foreign Language Anxiety Scale: Preliminary Tests of Reliability and Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Selami; Harputlu, Leyla; Güzel, Serhat; Uştuk, Özgehan; Savran Çelik, Şeyda; Genç, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety (FLA), which constitutes a serious problem in the foreign language learning process, has been mainly seen as a research issue regarding adult language learners, while it has been overlooked in children. This is because there is a lack of appropriate tools to measure FLA among children, whereas there are many studies on the scales that aim to measure anxiety levels among adult learners. Thus, the current study aims to conduct the preliminary tests of reliability and va...

  16. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  17. Predictive Properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test within Samples from Two Treatment Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Madhabi

    The predictive properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRT) were examined, taking into account the stated purposes of the test and the context of test use. Two samples were used: (1) a control sample of 55 students (21 males and 34 females) whose GSRT scores were not used for placement or tracking; and (2) a treatment sample of…

  18. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie, ME van den Akker-v; Ballegooijen, van M.; Rozendaal, L.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Habbema, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV test have a st

  19. Comparison of accuracy measures of two screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marsha; Zweers, Egbert J. K.; Opmeer, Brent C.; van Ballegooie, Evert; ter Brugge, Henk G.; de Valk, Harold W.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To compare the accuracy measures of the random glucose test and the 50-g glucose challenge test as screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESION AND METHODS - in this prospective cohort study, pregnant women without preexisting diabetes in two perinatal centers

  20. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Carrier Conducts Screening § 1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform... test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air carrier must ensure...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of... on-the-job training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft operator...

  2. ARTISTIC: a randomised trial of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in primary cervical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, H C; Almonte, M; Gilham, C; Dowie, R; Stoykova, B; Sargent, A; Roberts, C; Desai, M; Peto, J

    2009-11-01

    Primary cervical screening uses cytology to detect cancer precursor lesions [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 3 or beyond (CIN3+)]. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could add sensitivity as an adjunct to cytology or as a first test, reserving cytology for HPV-positive women. This study addresses the questions: Does the combination of cytology and HPV testing achieve a reduction in incident CIN3+?; Is HPV testing cost-effective in primary cervical screening?; Is its use associated with adverse psychosocial or psychosexual effects?; and How would it perform as an initial screening test followed by cytology for HPV positivity? ARTISTIC was a randomised trial of cervical cytology versus cervical cytology plus HPV testing, evaluated over two screening rounds, 3 years apart. Round 1 would detect prevalent disease and round 2 a combination of incident and undetected disease from round 1. Women undergoing routine cervical screening in the NHS programme in Greater Manchester. In total 24,510 women aged 20-64 years were enrolled between July 2001 and September 2003. HPV testing was performed on the liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample obtained at screening. Women were randomised in a ratio of 3:1 to have the HPV test result revealed and acted upon if persistently positive in cytology-negative cases or concealed. A detailed health economic evaluation and a psychosocial and psychosexual assessment were also performed. The primary outcome was CIN3+ in round 2. Secondary outcomes included an economic assessment and psychosocial effects. A large HPV genotyping study was also conducted. In round 1 there were 313 CIN3+ lesions, representing a prevalence in the revealed and concealed arms of 1.27% and 1.31% respectively (p = 0.81). Round 2 (30-48 months) involved 14,230 (58.1%) of the women screened in round 1 and only 31 CIN3+ were detected; the CIN3 rate was not significantly different between the revealed and concealed arms. A less restrictive definition of round 2 (26

  3. Sequential pathways of testing after first-trimester screening for trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lawrence D; Greene, Naomi; Johnson, Anthony; Zachary, Julia; Thom, Elizabeth; Krantz, David; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Silver, Richard K; Snijders, Rosalinde J M; Goetzl, Laura; Pergament, Eugene; Filkins, Karen; Mahoney, Maurice J; Hogge, W Allen; Wilson, R Douglas; Mohide, Patrick; Hershey, Douglas; MacGregor, Scott; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Jackson, Laird G; Wapner, Ronald

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate the performance and use of second-trimester multiple-marker maternal serum screening for trisomy 21 by women who had previously undergone first-trimester combined screening (nuchal translucency, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and free beta-hCG), with disclosure of risk estimates. In a multicenter, first-trimester screening study sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, multiple-marker maternal serum screening with alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, and total hCG was performed in 4,145 (7 with trisomy 21) of 7,392 (9 with trisomy 21) women who were first-trimester screen-negative and 180 (7 with trisomy 21) of 813 (52 with trisomy 21) who were first-trimester screen-positive. Second-trimester risks were calculated using multiples of the median and a standardized risk algorithm with a cutoff risk of 1:270. Among the first-trimester screen-negative cohort, 6 of 7 (86%) trisomy 21 cases were detected by second-trimester multiple-marker maternal serum screening with a false-positive rate of 8.9%. Among the first-trimester screen-positive cohort, all 7 trisomy 21 cases were also detected in the second trimester, albeit with a 38.7% false-positive rate. Our data demonstrate that a sequential screening program that provides patients with first-trimester results and offers the option for early invasive testing or additional serum screening in the second trimester can detect 98% of trisomy 21-affected pregnancies. However, such an approach will result in 17% of patients being considered at risk and, hence, potentially having an invasive test. II-2

  4. Attitudes of families affected by adrenoleukodystrophy toward prenatal diagnosis, presymptomatic and carrier testing, and newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jean; Moser, Hugo; Begleiter, Michael L; Edwards, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Families affected by adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) were surveyed to elicit attitudes toward prenatal, presymptomatic and carrier testing, and newborn screening in order to determine the level of support that these families have for current and future genetic testing protocols. Identifying attitudes toward genetic testing, including newborn screening, is especially important because of new data regarding therapeutic options and the possible addition of ALD to newborn screening regimens. The Kennedy Krieger Institute (KKI) database identified 327 prospective participants. Families that were willing to participate in the study received an anonymous questionnaire for completion. Frequencies were generated using SPSS software for Windows. Questionnaires were returned from 128 families for a response rate of 39%. Sons who were at risk for inheriting the ALD gene would be tested by 93% of respondents, and 89.3% would ideally have this testing performed prenatally or in the newborn period. Eighty-nine percent would test an at-risk daughter and 51.2% would ideally have this testing performed prenatally or shortly after birth. ALD newborn screening for males and females was supported by 90% of respondents. If newborn screening for ALD/AMN commences, or there is a new diagnosis of ALD, genetic professionals need to be prepared to have extensive conversations with families regarding the benefits and limitations of current therapeutic and genetic testing options.

  5. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 50, tests should include an annual fasting blood sugar check for diabetes and also the following for early diagnoses and treatments: regular colonoscopy for cancer of the colon, serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) ...

  6. Adaptation of high-throughput screening in drug discovery-toxicological screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, Paweł; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound's toxicity having only 1-3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study.

  7. Adaptation of High-Throughput Screening in Drug Discovery—Toxicological Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szymański

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput screening (HTS is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound’s toxicity having only 1–3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study.

  8. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  9. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  10. Screening and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: an attempt at test reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragu, P; Alpérovitch, A; Patois, E

    1979-09-01

    A sequencial strategy for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism has been prospectively appraised on 410 patients using a pocket calculator-aided diagnostic system. It was found that for 64% of the patients final diagnosis could be established from nine clinical signs, ankle jerk time and free thyroxin index. For the 36% of doubtful subjects, T3 determination permitted the reduction of uncertainty to 9%. No misdiagnosis was observed. By comparing this strategy with the physician's usual diagnosis process, in which all clinical signs and several thyroid function tests were used, it appeared that the number of tests was reduced by 65% for T3 requests and by 70% for other tests (99mTc uptake and TRH). The cost-saving was estimated to be about 28%. The interest of this calculator-aided decision model resides in the possibility for the general practitioner to refer only doubtful and hyperthyroid subjects to a thyroid unit.

  11. Development and pilot testing of a vitiligo screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Vaneeta M; Gunasekera, Nicole S; Silwal, Sujeeta; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-01-01

    Studies aimed at understanding the pathology, genetics, and therapeutic response of vitiligo rely on asking a single question about 'physician-diagnosed' vitiligo on surveys to identify subjects for research. However, this type of self-reporting is not sufficient. Our objective was to determine if the patient-administered Vitiligo Screening Tool (VISTO) is a sensitive and specific instrument for the detection of vitiligo in an adult population. The VISTO consists of eight closed-ended questions to assess whether the survey participant has ever been diagnosed with vitiligo by a healthcare worker and uses characteristic pictures and descriptions to inquire about the subtype and extent of any skin lesions. 159 patients at the Brigham and Women's Hospital dermatology clinic with or without a diagnosis of vitiligo were recruited. A board-certified dermatologist confirmed or excluded the diagnosis of vitiligo in each subject. 147 completed questionnaires were analyzed, 47 cases and 100 controls. The pictorial question showed 97.9% sensitivity and 98% specificity for diagnosis of vitiligo. Answering "yes" to being diagnosed with vitiligo by a dermatologist and choosing one photographic representation of vitiligo showed 95.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosis of vitiligo. We conclude that VISTO is a highly sensitive and specific, low-burden, self-administered tool for identifying vitiligo among adult English speakers. We believe this tool will provide a simple, cost-effective way to confirm vitiligo prior to enrollment in clinical trials as well as for gathering large-scale epidemiologic data in remote populations. Future work to refine the VISTO is needed prior to use in genotype-phenotype correlation studies.

  12. Utility of immunochromatographic assay as a rapid point of care test for screening of antenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Syphilis is one of the most common preventable causes of adverse effects during pregnancy. Antenatal screening prevents the delay between diagnosis and treatment there by reducing the risk of congenital syphilis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an immunochromatographic assay as a point of care test for antenatal screening of syphilis. Materials and Methods: Sera of 200 antenatal mothers were evaluated for serodiagnosis of syphilis by the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA and SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test. The performance of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test was compared with VDRL as screening assay and TPHA as a confirmatory test. Results: The antenatal prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by both VDRL and TPHA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test were 75%, 100%, 100%, and 99.45%, respectively. Conclusions: Antenatal screening and treatment of maternal syphilis are cost-effective health interventions even under the low prevalence of infection. SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test, although having less sensitivity than the existing testing strategy, can have a tremendous impact on the disease burden if used prudently for the screening of antenatal mothers in peripheral health settings.

  13. A Paper-Based Test for Screening Newborns for Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; George, Alex; Serrano, Sonia; Lanzi, Maria R.; Patel, Palka R.; Noli, Maria P.; Kahan, Silvina; Nirenberg, Damian; Camanda, João F.; Airewele, Gladstone; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2017-01-01

    The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola. Newborn screening results using the paper-based test were compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF). The test detected the presence of HbS with 81.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and identified SCD newborns with 100.0% sensitivity and 70.7% specificity. The use of the paper-based test in a two-stage newborn screening process could have excluded about 70% of all newborns from expensive confirmatory testing by IEF, without missing any of the SCD newborns in the studied cohort. This study demonstrates the potential utility of the newborn paper-based test for reducing the overall cost of screening newborns for SCD and thus increasing the practicality of universal newborn SCD screening programs in resource-limited settings. PMID:28367971

  14. Utility of immunochromatographic assay as a rapid point of care test for screening of antenatal syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Bineeta; Sagar, Tanu; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is one of the most common preventable causes of adverse effects during pregnancy. Antenatal screening prevents the delay between diagnosis and treatment there by reducing the risk of congenital syphilis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an immunochromatographic assay as a point of care test for antenatal screening of syphilis. Sera of 200 antenatal mothers were evaluated for serodiagnosis of syphilis by the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) and SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test. The performance of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test was compared with VDRL as screening assay and TPHA as a confirmatory test. The antenatal prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by both VDRL and TPHA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test were 75%, 100%, 100%, and 99.45%, respectively. Antenatal screening and treatment of maternal syphilis are cost-effective health interventions even under the low prevalence of infection. SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test, although having less sensitivity than the existing testing strategy, can have a tremendous impact on the disease burden if used prudently for the screening of antenatal mothers in peripheral health settings.

  15. Comparison and evaluation of three screening tests of hereditary spherocytosis in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi-feng; Deng, Zeng-fu; Liao, Lin; Qiu, Yu-ling; Chen, Wen-qiang; Lin, Fa-quan

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the diagnostic value of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) by three screening tests, comparing mean spherical corpuscular volume (MSCV) to mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and flow cytometric osmotic fragility test. Peripheral blood was collected from 237 participators diagnosed at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, including 56 hereditary spherocytosis patients, 86 thalassemia patients, and 95 healthy people. The samples were examined by three tests, and the three screening tests were evaluated by the sensitivity and specificity of tests. The sensitivity was only 41.07%, and specificity was 94.47% when using MCHC >355 g/L as diagnostic criteria. The sensitivity was 89.28%, and specificity was 96.14% when using MSCV spherocytosis (HS) laboratory screening method.

  16. The Double Knee Swing Test - a practical example of The Performance Matrix Movement Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Warrick

    2014-07-01

    Movement screens have been suggested as an appropriate tool to identify 'uncontrolled movement' within the human neuromusculoskeletal system. Movement screens test the Central Nervous System along with the muscular system, for their combined ability to successfully control low threshold forces, such as those affecting posture and alignment, or, high threshold forces, such as those requiring muscular strength to control. Further information such as the identification of an anatomical site and direction of a potential uncontrolled movement can be elicited by this type of testing. This paper describes a low threshold, movement screen test, designed to be part of a battery of tests, which when used as a whole, can identify injury risk or factors affecting performance limitations. The testing is suggested to be a suitable assessment tool for Pilates Teachers working in a rehabilitative environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beam Dynamics for the Preliminary Phase of the New CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R; Rinolfi, Louis; Risselada, Thys; Royer, P; Tecker, F A

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) RF power source studies, the scheme of electron pulse compression and bunch frequency mulitiplication, using injection by RF deflectors into an isochronous ring, will be tested, at low charge, during the preliminary phase of the new CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. In this paper, we describe the beam dynamics studies made in order to assess the feasibility of the bunch combination experiment, as well as the related beam measurements performed on the LEP Pre-Injector complex (LPI) before its transformation into CTF3

  18. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  19. Development and preliminary validation of a semi-structured interview for the screening of law enforcement candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, J G; Scogin, F R; Vipperman, R K

    1999-01-01

    A standard practice among most law enforcement agencies is to include psychological screening in the selection of job candidates. Although the use of personality tests in predicting job performance of law enforcement officers has received empirical support (e.g., the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Inwald Personality Inventory), there is a conspicuous absence of data regarding the reliability and validity of interview procedures. The present study represents the first step in the development of a standardized, semi-structured interview for use in the screening of law enforcement personnel. This interview, the Law Enforcement Candidate Interview, was constructed using content areas drawn from measures used in the screening of law enforcement personnel (e.g., Inwald Personality Inventory) and assessment of personality functioning (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders). This interview was then administered by two doctoral students to a group of law enforcement academy cadets (n=34). A modest degree of inter-rater reliability was achieved, although internal consistency was somewhat lacking. Interview scores were correlated with measures of academy performance (final grade-point average and peer and supervisor ranking of academy performance). Results of these analyses suggest the LECI is a modest predictor of academy performance. Potential uses of the LECI and future research indications are outlined. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Li-Ion Cell Lot Testing and Flight Screening Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    than \\c7<. Results arc shown in Table 4. Table 4 Moli-Energ) Li-Ion Cell Weights Alter Vaeuun Leak Tesi Initial Final Final Weight Weight...All tested cells were within 95 *5! o\\ their initial capacity. Note: Cells C009 and C023 were misplaced following being weighed after the vac- uum

  1. Quantiferon test for tuberculosis screening in sarcoidosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Søborg, Bolette; Svendsen, Claus Bo

    2011-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors have been introduced in the treatment of refractory sarcoidosis. These biologics may reactivate latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Despite its known limitations, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is currently used for the diagnosis of LTBI in Danish...

  2. Characteristics, finite element analysis, test description, and preliminary test results of the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, K. L.; Rawlinson, K. S.; Smith, G.

    1991-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Program has, as one of its program elements, the development and evaluation of conversion device technologies applicable to dish-electric systems. The primary research and development combines a conversion device (heat engine), solar receiver, and generator mounted at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator. The Stirling-cycle heat engine was identified as the conversion device for dish-electric with the most potential for meeting the program's goals for efficiency, reliability, and installed cost. To advance the technology toward commercialization, Sandia National Laboratories has acquired a Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. kinematic Stirling engine, STM4-120, for evaluation. The engine is being bench-tested at Sandia's Engine Test Facility and will be combined later with a solar receiver for on-sun evaluation. This report presents the engine characteristics, finite element analyses of critical engine components, test system layout, instrumentation, and preliminary performance results from the bench test.

  3. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Humza J; Murray, Ian J; Parry, Neil R A; Aslam, Tariq M

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  4. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humza J Tahir

    Full Text Available Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  5. Predicting School Problems from Preschool Developmental Screening: A Four-Year Follow-Up of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Role of Parent Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.

    1987-01-01

    The Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and parental reports of developmental concerns were compared for effectiveness in predicting school problems four years after a preschool screening program. Results suggested the test accurately identified only those children later found to have severe learning problems. (Author/DB)

  6. Soft gel medium solidified with gellan gum for preliminary screening for root-associating, free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria inhabiting the rhizoplane of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Tada, Motohiko; Osaki, Mitsuru; Tahara, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    For preliminary screening for and characterization of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria from rhizoplane microflora, we used Winogradsky's mineral mixture-based nitrogen-free medium solidified with 0.3% gellan gum. The soft gel medium enabled some reference and wild free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria to grow in characteristic colonies, including their reaction to oxygen and their motility change. Gellan gum is thus likely to be a better gel matrix than agarose for the investigation of roo...

  7. Preliminary screening of co-substrates for bioremediation of pyrene-contaminated soil through composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayara, Tahseen; Sarrà, Montserrat; Sánchez, Antoni

    2009-12-30

    The feasibility of using different organic amendments of different origin and properties in the bioremediation of pyrene-contaminated soil by means of composting has been tested. The selected pyrene concentration was 1g of pyrene per kg of dry soil. The organic amendments used include: raw organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW), industrial compost from OFMSW composting (COFMSW), compost derived from home composting of OFMSW (HCOFMSW), anaerobically digested sludge (ADS), non-digested activated sludge (NDS) and centrifuged non-digested activated sludge (CNDS). The degradation rate was related to the amendment properties that directly affected the composting process. Raw OFMSW was not capable to enhance pyrene degradation in comparison to control, but stable HCOFMSW exhibited the highest removal rate (69%). The amendments stability and the temperatures reached as a consequence influenced the process, and thermophilic temperatures showed an inhibition effect on the microbial activity related to pyrene degradation. Some of the tested wastes need to be further investigated to find inexpensive organic amendments for soil bioremediation.

  8. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  9. Using liver enzymes as screening tests to predict mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Michael; Stout, Robert L; Dolan, Vera F

    2008-01-01

    Determine the relationship between liver function test results (GGT, alkaline phosphatase, AST, and ALT) and all-cause mortality in life insurance applicants. By use of the Social Security Master Death File, mortality was examined in 1,905,664 insurance applicants for whom blood samples were submitted to the Clinical Reference Laboratory. There were 50,174 deaths observed in this study population. Results were stratified by 3 age/sex groups: females, age <60; males, age <60; and all, age 60+. Liver function test values were grouped using percentiles of their distribution in these 3 age/sex groups, as well as ranges of actual values. Using the risk of the middle 50% of the population by distribution as a reference, relative mortality observed for GGT and alkaline phosphatase was linear with a steep slope from very low to relatively high values. Relative mortality was increased at lower values for both AST and ALT. ALT did not predict mortality for values above the middle 50% of its distribution. GGT and alkaline phosphatase are significant predictors of mortality risk for all values. ALT is still useful for triggering further testing for hepatitis, but AST should be used instead to assess mortality risk linked with transaminases.

  10. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100 000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere. PMID:25883402

  11. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German; Reid, Stewart E

    2015-02-01

    To improve the Zambia Prisons Service's implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia's prisons. In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100,000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere.

  12. Detection of complex hemoglobinopathies: recommendations on screening and DNA testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baysal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The following recommendations should be taken into account during the evaluation and elucidation of the complex hemoglobinopathies: a in complex hemoglobinopathies performing DNA studies on all family members might be essential; b complex gene-gene interactions offer major diagnostic challenges both at the technical and clinical level; c hematological & DNA analyses must be run in parallel. Some cases may be straight forward but others may require indepth DNA work-up; d co-inheritance of a-thalassemia offers added challenge as it may affect phenotype significantly; e sickle cell anemia (SS, co-inherited with a-thal, can be a phenocopy of Sβ0-thal. The HbA2 increase can be mistaken for Sβ-thal. DNA Sequencing is imperative; f only a selected number of normal MCV, MCH, borderline HbA2 cases must be referred for DNA analysis. However, in certain cases, following hematological and family evaluation, the β and d genes may need to be sequenced; g DNA Sequencing will increasingly become the method of choice for screening and DNA mutation analysis. However, new methods like MLPA-which analyzes gene dosage- must be used more commonly to rule out deletion mutants to avoid false negative sequencing results; h these recommendations should be reviewed every 2-3 years reflecting new methods, new findings and new findings from ethnic groups. 诊断和说明复杂血红蛋白病时,建议考虑以下几点: a)针对复杂的血红蛋白病,有必要对所有家庭成员开展DNA研究;b 复杂的基因-基因交互作用可能使诊断在技术和临床层面上颇受挑战;c 血液和DNA分析须同时进行。 有些病例简单,但另外一些病例可能需要开展深层次的DNA检查;d 由于α型地中海贫血可能严重影响表型,α型地中海贫血的共同继承特征更具挑战;e 共同继承α型地中海贫血的镰状细胞贫血(SS),可以作为Sβ0型地中海贫血的显型。 HbA2增

  13. Screening colonoscopy tests in acromegaly patients – authors’ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Elżbieta Malicka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . The prevalence of adenomas which cause acromegaly is estimated at 50–70 mln people. They secrete excess of growth hormone and increase the risk of benign and malignant tumours. Intestinal tumours are considered the most common types of lesion. In order to diagnose them early, a colonoscopic examination should be performed every 2–3 years. Objectives. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of the performed colonoscopies in acromegaly patients, and to assess their applicability in the detection of neoplastic lesions of the colon. Material and methods . The study involved 69 patients with acromegaly (26 M, 43 F, aged 26–83 years (mean 58.9 ± 11.0. The authors analyzed medical records and the results of additional tests. Results . Colonoscopy was performed in 30 patients (43.5% of cases, was well tolerated and without serious complications. 70% of colonoscopies revealed polyps of the colon and 6.7% revealed colon carcinoma. In 9 patients (30% of conducted studies colonoscopy examination showed no pathological changes. Only in 4 cases the test was performed more than once. Conclusions . Current recommendations regarding colonoscopic examinations in all acromegaly patients are implemented in less than half of the cases. Recommendations relating to colonoscopy being repeated every 2–3 years are followed occasionally. Colonoscopy is a diagnostic test of great significance. In 70% of cases it enables the detection and removal of pathological lesions of the colon. As a low-invasive, safe and well-tolerated examination it should be performed in all patients. GPs should make acromegaly patients aware of the importance of colonoscopy and refer them for periodic follow-up examinations.

  14. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the...

  15. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after...... tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts...

  16. Medical and lay attitudes towards genetic screening and testing in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Jallinoja, Piia; Aro, Arja R

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physicians', midwives' and lay people's attitudes towards genetic screening and testing to find out whether medical education and experience influence attitudes of genetic screening and testing. The study was based on comparison of answers to joint questions...... referred to as midwives in the following; n=800, response rate 79%), and lay people (n=2000, response rate 62%). Midwives were more worried about the consequences of genetic testing and stressed the autonomy of the customer more strongly than lay people did. Furthermore, professionals considered that lay...

  17. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  18. [History of the development of screening tests for cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Yelda A; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the best known malignancies. Currently, it is accepted that the etiological factor is persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Even before the identification of its etiological factors, methods such as Pap cytology and colposcopy were developed as tools for early diagnosis on CC and its precursor lesions. At the time when such tests were being developed, they were not fully accepted by the scientific community of the time; however, as time went by, the dissemination of knowledge, and more extensive application, these tests were finally included within the international guidelines. The implementation of programs with adequate coverage and quality allowed a significant reduction in the incidence and mortality of CC. However this did not occur widely, and CC is still a public health problem in developing countries. From the epidemiological and molecular viewpoint, knowledge on HPVs laid the foundations for the development of new prevention strategies based on vaccination and molecular detection of the causal agent, currently accepted as strategies for primary and secondary prevention. It is expected that the implementation of these strategies will have a greater impact on the control on CC and other malignancies associated with HPV infection.

  19. Screening by VDRL test to detect hidden cases of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N; Gautam, V; Sehgal, R; Gill, P S; Arora, D R

    2003-01-01

    A total of 59,450 sera from January 1996 to December 2000 were subjected to VDRL testing. Overall VDRL positivity rate was 3.2% and downward trend was observed in the recent years, 1999 and 2000. Majority of the samples were from Gynaecology department, out of which 1.57% were VDRL positive. Out of 30,045 samples from antenatal females, 517(1.47%) were positive, while 304(1.8%) were positive out of 16,980 samples obtained from couples. Out of 304 samples from couples found positive, 17.4% wives had titre >R16; 27.9% wives had titre R1 to R8, out of which 15.3% husbands had titre of >R16. Also, 166 wives with nonreactive VDRL had 19.3% husbands with titre > R16. Thus, couple VDRL test plays an important role in detection of hidden cases of syphilis in the community and early detection and treatment of such cases will further reduce the perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  20. Screening by VDRL test to detect hidden cases of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta N

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 59,450 sera from January 1996 to December 2000 were subjected to VDRL testing. Overall VDRL positivity rate was 3.2% and downward trend was observed in the recent years, 1999 and 2000. Majority of the samples were from Gynaecology department, out of which 1.57% were VDRL positive. Out of 30,045 samples from antenatal females, 517(1.47% were positive, while 304(1.8% were positive out of 16,980 samples obtained from couples. Out of 304 samples from couples found positive, 17.4% wives had titre >R16; 27.9% wives had titre R1 to R8, out of which 15.3% husbands had titre of >R16. Also, 166 wives with nonreactive VDRL had 19.3% husbands with titre > R16. Thus, couple VDRL test plays an important role in detection of hidden cases of syphilis in the community and early detection and treatment of such cases will further reduce the perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  1. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, N A; Mehta, P R; Bande, R N; Paranjpe, S M; Wanjare, S W

    2010-01-01

    Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC) provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people who do not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively) were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  2. Primer towards an in vitro test for screening irritant potency of compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebriel RJ; Machielsen A; Bakker K; van Loveren H; LPI

    1998-01-01

    Het vaststellen van de allergene potentie van stoffen wordt in het algemeen uitgevoerd met behulp van de 'Buehler occluded patch test' en de 'guinea pig maximization test', terwijl de auriculaire lymfkliertest gebruikt wordt voor screening. Deze testen hebben veel informatie opg

  3. Effectiveness of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test in Identifying Children at Risk for Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.

    1990-01-01

    Findings from a 5-year follow-up study of 78 kindergartners suggest that while the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test (RDDST) accurately predicts academic achievement and standardized test performance, it consistently misclassifies as normal the performance of a significant number of children who require special help in their early…

  4. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem....

  5. Psychometric Characteristics and Appropriate Use of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the adequacy of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) to gauge 46 kindergartners' readiness. Found agreement between GSRST and teacher assessments of student readiness. Test-retest and interrater reliability were below acceptable levels, and lower than figures yielded by a quantitative scoring method. Concluded that GSRST…

  6. Manual for the Deaf-Blind Program and Ability Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, J.; And Others

    Presented are a manual and a screening test to assist teachers and professionals to determine the functional ability level and individual program needs of deaf blind and multiply handicapped children. It is noted that the individually administered 10-minute test, based on Gesell's developmental theory, consists of items in seven basic…

  7. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In microbiological surveys, false negative results in detection tests precluding the enumeration by MPN may occur. The objective of this study was to illustrate the impact of screening test failure on the probability distribution of Salmonella concentrations in pork using a Bayesian method. A tot...

  8. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Van Den Akker-van Marie (M.); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); L. Rozendaal (Lawrence); C.J.L.M. Meijer (Chris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV te

  9. Preliminary Test of Friction disk type turbine for S-CO{sub 2} cycle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Seungjoon; Kim, Hyeon Tae; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Due to the relatively mild sodium-CO{sub 2} interaction, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle can reduce the accident consequence compared to the steam Rankine cycle. Also the S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle can achieve high efficiency for SFR core thermal condition. Moreover, the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle can reduce the total cycle footprint due to high density of the working fluid. However, the high pressure operating condition and low viscosity of the fluid cause difficulties in designing appropriate seals and multi-stage turbo machineries. To solve the problem for designing turbo machineries in a creative way, KAIST research team tested a friction disk type turbine concept for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle application. In this paper, the investigation of the Tesla turbine and preliminary test results with compressed air are covered. The KAIST research team investigated a friction disk type turbine, named as Tesla turbine, for the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle applications. Due to the robust design of the fiction disk type, the Tesla turbine technology can be utilized not only for S-CO{sub 2} turbo machinery but also for the multi-phase or sludge flow turbo machinery. The preliminary test of lab-scale Tesla turbine with compressed air was conducted. The high pressure vessel was manufactured for the S-CO{sub 2} operating condition. The test will be concentrated on the turbine efficiency measurement under various conditions and development of the design methodology.

  10. Preliminary Design of Large Scale Sodium Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Tae Joon; Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Lee, Jae Han; Jeong, Ji Young; Park, Su Ki; Han, Ji Woong; Yoo, Yong Hwan; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    A large scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test facility is being designed for verification of the advanced design concept of the passive decay heat removal circuit (PDRC) in a medium- or large-sized pool-type SFR. In the test, its cooling capability during the long- and short-term periods after the reactor trip will be evaluated, and also the produced experimental data will be utilized for the assessment and verification of the safety and performance analysis codes. Starting with the preliminary design of the test facility this year using KALIMER-600 as a reference reactor, the basic and the detailed designs will be made through 2011-2012 based on the demonstration reactor which is intended to be constructed by 2028 according to a long-term national SFR development plan. The installation is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2013, and the main experiments will commence from 2015 after the startup test in 2014. This paper briefly introduces the preliminary design features which were produced as a first step to assess the appropriateness of the facility design methodology.

  11. A Preliminary Analysis of Reactor Performance Test (LOEP) for a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeonil; Park, Su-Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The final phase of commissioning is reactor performance test, which is to prove the integrated performance and safety of the research reactor at full power with fuel loaded such as neutron power calibration, Control Absorber Rod/Second Shutdown Rod drop time, InC function test, Criticality, Rod worth, Core heat removal with natural mechanism, and so forth. The last test will be safety-related one to assure the result of the safety analysis of the research reactor is marginal enough to be sure about the nuclear safety by showing the reactor satisfies the acceptance criteria of the safety functions such as for reactivity control, maintenance of auxiliaries, reactor pool water inventory control, core heat removal, and confinement isolation. After all, the fuel integrity will be ensured by verifying there is no meaningful change in the radiation levels. To confirm the performance of safety equipment, loss of normal electric power (LOEP), possibly categorized as Anticipated Operational Occurrence (AOO), is selected as a key experiment to figure out how safe the research reactor is before turning over the research reactor to the owner. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the reactor performance test (LOEP) for a research reactor. The results showed how different the transient between conservative estimate and best estimate will look. Preliminary analyses have shown all probable thermal-hydraulic transient behavior of importance as to opening of flap valve, minimum critical heat flux ratio, the change of flow direction, and important values of thermal-hydraulic parameters.

  12. The validity of cognitive testing in screening for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, P; Cohen-Mansfield, J; Billig, N

    1998-02-01

    The concept of "cognitive impairment," as an indicator of dementia, defined in 1980 as a loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning, is the model which has been adopted for a condition, which has recently been reclassified from an "organic" to a "cognitive disorder." Data derived from the assessment of a sample of older people demonstrated the extreme sensitivity of a widely employed cognitive assessment instrument to all levels of educational experience, and educational correlates, notably level of physical disability, were identified as other independent predictors of test performance. The analyses raise questions with regard to the reinterpretation of "lack of education," from a confounding factor in prevalence estimates of cognitive impairment to a "risk factor" for dementia, and support those who have questioned the validity of the one-dimensional "cognitive paradigm," and the trend to diagnosis based upon objective assessment with standardized instruments.

  13. Comparison of the HeLa DNA-synthesis inhibition test and the Ames test for screening of mutagenic carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, R.B.; Howard, R.

    1978-01-01

    The action of most mutagens is mediated by damage to DNA, which causes at least a temporary inhibition of DNA syntesis in mammalian cells. Assays for mammalian DNA-synthesis inhibition, both in vivo (mouse testes) and in vitro (HeLa cells), have been proposed as possible screening tests for mutagenic carcinogens. The mouse system has recently been chekced with 100 chemicals; of 88 known carcinogens and/or mutagens in this group, 76 were positive. The most generally used non-animal screening procedure is the Ames test, which uses auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium to measure mutagenesis. In this communication we summarize our results with 19 chemicals tested in HeLa cells and show that they correlate very well with the results obtained in the Ames test. Most of these chemicals act by alkylation, but an intercalator (adriamycin) is included among them as well as aflatoxin B/sub 1/, whose action is not established.

  14. First trimester combined test for Down syndrome screening in unselected pregnancies — A report of a 13-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Kung Lee

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The first trimester combined test is an effective screening tool for Down syndrome detection with an acceptable low false positive rate. The best timing of screening will be between 11 and 12 weeks' gestation.

  15. The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Reynolds

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tim ReynoldsClinical Chemistry Department, Queen’s Hospital, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UKAbstract: The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency,pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG] or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin. These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future.Keywords: pregnancy, screening test, antenatal, Down syndrome

  16. Preliminary findings on the reliability and validity of the Cantonese Birmingham Cognitive Screen in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan X

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Pan,1,* Haobo Chen,1,2,* Wai-Ling Bickerton,2 Johnny King Lam Lau,2 Anthony Pak Hin Kong,3 Pia Rotshtein,2 Aihua Guo,1 Jianxi Hu,1 Glyn W Humphreys4 1Department of Neurology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 3Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA; 4Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: There are no currently effective cognitive assessment tools for patients who have suffered stroke in the People’s Republic of China. The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS has been shown to be a promising tool for revealing patients’ poststroke cognitive deficits in specific domains, which facilitates more individually designed rehabilitation in the long run. Hence we examined the reliability and validity of a Cantonese version BCoS in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in Guangzhou.Method: A total of 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke were assessed with the Cantonese version of the BCoS, and an additional 133 healthy individuals were recruited as controls. Apart from the BCoS, the patients also completed a number of external cognitive tests, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Albert’s cancellation test, the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and six gesture matching tasks. Cutoff scores for failing each subtest, ie, deficits, were computed based on the performance of the controls. The validity and reliability of the Cantonese BCoS were examined, as well as interrater and test–retest reliability. We also compared the proportions of cases being classified as deficits in controlled attention, memory, character writing, and praxis, between patients with and without spoken language impairment

  17. Combined screening test for trisomy 21 - is it as efficient as we believe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechec, Marcin; Nocun, Agnieszka; Knafel, Anna; Wiercinska, Ewa; Sonek, Jiri; Rozmus-Warcholinska, Wioletta; Orzechowski, Maciej; Stettner, Dominika; Plevak, Petr

    2017-02-01

    To compare two first-trimester screening strategies: traditional combined screening and the one based on ultrasound markers only. We investigated the effect of maternal age (MA) on the screening performance of both of these strategies. This was a prospective observational study based on a non-selected mixed-risk population of 11,653 women referred for first-trimester screening. The study population was divided in two groups: combined screening (CS) and ultrasound-based screening (US). Absolute risk was calculated to determine the influence of MA on screening performance. The CS arm comprised 5145 subjects including 51 cases of trisomy 21 (T21), and the US arm comprised 5733 subjects including 87 subjects with T21. Seven hundred and seventy-five subjects were excluded from the study. For a false positive rate (FPR) of 3%, the detection rate (DR) of T21 in CS arm was 78% vs. 90% in US arm. For 5% FPR, DR was 84% and 94% in CS and US arm, respectively. MA had an influence on DR positive rates in CS: both DR and FPR for T21 increased with advance in MA. The US protocol showed higher DR of T21 compared to the CS one. It may be considered as a viable alternative to CS for T21 where access to biochemical testing is limited.

  18. Preliminary test of the prototype modular cryostat for a 10 MW offshore superconducting wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiuce; Ramalingam, R.; Sanz, Santiago; Neumann, Holger

    2017-02-01

    The SUPerconducting Reliable lightweight And more POWERful offshore wind turbine (SUPRAPOWER), an EU FP7 funded research project, are under development for an innovative superconducting 10 MW class offshore wind turbine. Due to the requirements of handling, maintenance, reliability of long term and offshore operation, the cryostats are divided in two major parts: the modular cryostat able to accommodate a single coil and a thermal collector that links all the modules. The prototype modular cryostat was designed, manufactured and assembled in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The paper reports preliminary test results of proto-type modular cryostat with a two-stage Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler.

  19. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2015-01-01

    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  20. Potential of preliminary test methods to predict biodegradation performance of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichberger, H; Hasinger, Marion; Braun, Rudolf; Loibner, Andreas P

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary tests at different scales such as degradation experiments (laboratory) in shaking flasks, soil columns and lysimeters as well as in situ respiration tests (field) were performed with soil from two hydrocarbon contaminated sites. Tests have been evaluated in terms of their potential to provide information on feasibility, degradation rates and residual concentration of bioremediation in the vadose zone. Sample size, costs and duration increased with experimental scale in the order shaking flasks - soil columns - lysimeter - in situ respiration tests, only time demand of respiration tests was relatively low. First-order rate constants observed in degradation experiments exhibited significant differences between both, different experimental sizes and different soils. Rates were in line with type and history of contamination at the sites, but somewhat overestimated field rates particularly in small scale experiments. All laboratory experiments allowed an estimation of residual concentrations after remediation. In situ respiration tests were found to be an appropriate pre-testing and monitoring tool for bioventing although residual concentrations cannot be predicted from in situ respiration tests. Moreover, this method does not account for potential limitations that might hamper biodegradation in the longer term but only reflects the actual degradation potential when the test is performed.

  1. The Takeda Three Colors Combination Test: A Screening Test for Detection of Very Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Takeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common type of dementia and is prevalent worldwide. It is expected that AD, for which aging is a risk factor, will increase in the future. Because early detection of AD has become increasingly important, promoting demand for screening tests with adequate sensitivity. In this study, we examined the usefulness of the Takeda Three Colors Combination Test (TTCC for screening of the very mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods. 154 senior persons participated in the research: 55 with very mild AD, 45 with aMCI, and 54 control group. The TTCC, which was a colored cards configuration memory task, was examined for sensitivity and specificity. Results. The sensitivity of the TTCC was 76% and 47% for the very mild AD and aMCI groups, and the specificity was 83%. Conducting TTCC (including instruction and evaluation was accomplished within 2 minutes for all subjects. Conclusion. The TTCC is useful screening test for early detection of AD. Furthermore, administration time is short and requires no special training or skills. Thus, we believe the TTCC shows great potential for use as an AD screening test by a general practitioner in communities worldwide.

  2. Gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed with single test glucose screening test and its outcome in a tertiary hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Single test GST is a patient friendly and effective approach to screen women for GDM especially in high risk ethnic population. Timely and aggressive management helps improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and also decrease the future risk of development of diabetes both in the mother and the fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1979-1983

  3. A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON SCREENING OF CHINESE INDIGENOUS FISHES FOR ECOTOXICOLOGICAL TESTS IN CONTEXT OF CHEMICALS ~ ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT%化学物质生态风险评估与管理背景下筛选我国生态毒理试验鱼种的方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟耀斌; 李帆; 何寿亮; 张慧

    2012-01-01

    提出了以“可替换性”意义定义鱼种的生态代表性,并以鱼种对空间区域和水温的要求构建了生态代表性函数.同时,按照鱼类毒性测试的试验要求根据鱼种的体长、孵化时间以及对水温的要求构造生态毒理试验可行性函数.在收集我国各鱼类生物、生态信息基础上,综合生态代表性和生态毒理试验可操作性对鱼种进行了初步筛选,并通过仿真考察了生态毒理试验可行性随定义函数的不确定性.提出的兼顾生态代表性与生态毒理试验可行性的方法为后续探索我国生态毒理供试生物和推进化学物质生态风险的环境管理提供了参考.%Spatial heterogeneity and ecological variation across habitats merit more attention from the perspective of ecological risk assessment and management of chemicals, which necessitates the development of ecotoxicological test organisms using indigenous fishes in China. In this paper, the ecological relevance of a fish was put forward in a sense of ecological substitutability with respect to its habitat coverage and characteristic biological temperature. Meanwhile, body length, hatching duration, and water temperature requirement were synthesized to represent ecotoxieological feasibility. The combination of ecological relevance and ecotoxicological feasibility was employed to indicate possibility of certain Chinese indigenous fishes to be candidate test organisms. In addition, uncertainty in defining feasibility was evaluated by simulation. This investigation was deemed helpful to sharpen the efforts to develop Chinese indigenous test organisms and to improve the environmental relevance of chemoecological risk assessment and management in China.

  4. Modelling the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Smith, Robert A

    2010-10-01

    The goal of a screening test is to reduce morbidity and mortality through the early detection of disease; but the benefits of screening must be weighed against potential harms, such as false-positive (FP) results, which may lead to increased healthcare costs, patient anxiety, and other adverse outcomes associated with diagnostic follow-up procedures. Accurate estimation of the cumulative risk of an FP test after multiple screening rounds is important for program evaluation and goal setting, as well as informing individuals undergoing screening what they should expect from testing over time. Estimation of the cumulative FP risk is complicated by the existence of censoring and possible dependence of the censoring time on the event history. Current statistical methods for estimating the cumulative FP risk from censored data follow two distinct approaches, either conditioning on the number of screening tests observed or marginalizing over this random variable. We review these current methods, identify their limitations and possibly unrealistic assumptions, and propose simple extensions to address some of these limitations. We discuss areas where additional extensions may be useful. We illustrate methods for estimating the cumulative FP recall risk of screening mammography and investigate the appropriateness of modelling assumptions using 13 years of data collected by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). In the BCSC data we found evidence of violations of modelling assumptions of both classes of statistical methods. The estimated risk of an FP recall after 10 screening mammograms varied between 58% and 77% depending on the approach used, with an estimate of 63% based on what we feel are the most reasonable modelling assumptions.

  5. HPV testing in routine cervical screening: cross sectional data from the ARTISTIC trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, H C; Almonte, M; Wheeler, P; Desai, M; Gilham, C; Bailey, A; Sargent, A; Peto, J

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in primary cervical screening. This was a cross-sectional study from the recruitment phase of a prospective randomised trial. Women were screened for HPV in addition to routine cervical cytology testing. Greater Manchester, attendees at routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme. In all, 24 510 women aged 20–64 screened with liquid-based cytology (LBC) and HPV testing at entry. HPV testing in primary cervical screening. Type-specific HPV prevalence rates are presented in relation to age as well as cytological and histological findings at entry. In all, 24 510 women had adequate cytology and HPV results. Cytology results at entry were: 87% normal, 11% borderline or mild, 1.1% moderate and 0.6% severe dyskaryosis or worse. Prevalence of HPV decreased sharply with age, from 40% at age 20–24 to 12% at 35–39 and 7% or less above age 50. It increased with cytological grade, from 10% of normal cytology and 31% of borderline to 70% mild, 86% moderate, and 96% of severe dyskaryosis or worse. HPV 16 or HPV 18 accounted for 64% of infections in women with severe or worse cytology, and one or both were found in 61% of women with severe dyskaryosis but in only 2.2% of those with normal cytology. The majority of young women in Greater Manchester have been infected with a high-risk HPV by the age of 30. HPV testing is practicable as a primary routine screening test, but in women aged under 30 years, this would lead to a substantial increase in retesting and referral rates. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are more predictive of underlying disease, but other HPV types account for 30% of high-grade disease. PMID:16773068

  6. Implementation of population screening for colorectal cancer by repeated Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT: third round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegeman Inge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the most common cancer in Europe with a mortality rate of almost 50%. The prognosis of patients is largely determined by the clinical and pathological stage at the time of diagnosis. Population screening has been shown to reduce CRC-related mortality rate. Most screening programs worldwide rely on fecal immunochemical testing (FIT. The effectiveness of a FIT screening program is not only influenced by initial participation rate, but also by program adherence during consecutive screening rounds. We aim to evaluate the participation rate in and yield of a third CRC screening round using FIT. Methods and design Four years after the first screening round and two years after the second round, a total number of approximately 11,000 average risk individuals (50 to 75 years of age will be invited to participate in a third round of FIT-based CRC screening. We will select individuals in the same target area as in the previous screening rounds, using the electronic database of the regional municipal administration registrations. We will invite all FIT-negatives and all non-participants in previous screening rounds, as well as eligible first time invitees who have moved into the area or have become 50 years of age. FITs will be analyzed in the special technique laboratory of the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam. All FIT-positives will be invited for a consultation at the outpatient clinic. In the absence of contra-indications, a colonoscopy will follow at the Academic Medical Center or at the Flevohospital. The primary outcome measures are the participation rate, defined as the proportion of invitees that return a FIT in this third round of FIT-screening, and the diagnostic yield of the program. Implications This study will provide precise data on the participation in later FIT screening rounds. This enables to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening programs that rely on repeated

  7. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefore...... it is important to understand the barriers to FOBT screening. METHODS: We undertook a systematic search through PUBMED, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO in order to identify studies that provide information on socio-demographic determinants of participation in FOBT screening. RESULTS: FOBT participation varied...... considerably across countries, but they have rarely been above 60%. The use of other health-care services was in most studies a strong determinant for participation in screening with FOBT. There was a tendency to higher participation among women than among men and among married as opposed to not married...

  8. Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt Test performance: a pilot study and preliminary norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Serap

    2007-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data for norms on the Bender-Gestalt Test for 253 children ages 5 yr., 5 mo. to 11 yr., 10 mo. in Turkey. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System gave mean error scores of 4.2 (SD = 3.3) for girls and 3.6 (SD = 3.0) for boys. The mean error scores obtained by all age groups are presented and compared with other cross-cultural data. These scores decreased across age groups, supporting Bender's maturational hypothesis of the test. The present sample performed at a higher developmental level than the Koppitz normative sample for the 5- and 6-year age groups, while means for other age groups were similar to the original U.S. norms. That this pattern is supported in other cross-cultural studies is discussed as well as the importance of developing local norms for visual spatial tests.

  9. Preliminary optical design of an Active Optics test bench for space applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; Bitenc, U.; Rolt, S.; Reeves, S.; Doelman, N.; Human, J.; Morris, T.; Myers, R.; Talbot, G.

    2017-03-01

    This communication presents a preliminary optical design for a test bench conceived within the European Space Agency's TRP project (Active Optics Correction Chain (AOCC) for large monolithic mirrors) with the goal of designing and developing an Active Optics system able to correct in space on telescopes apertures larger than 3 meters. The test bench design uses two deformable mirrors of 37.5 mm and 116 mm, the smallest mirror to generate aberrations and the largest one to correct them. The system is configured as a multi-functional test bench capable of verifying the performance of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor as well as of a Phase Diversity based wavefront sensor. A third optical path leads to a high-order Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to monitor the entire system performance.

  10. The NASA Juncture Flow Experiment: Goals, Progress, and Preliminary Testing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been working toward designing and conducting a juncture flow experiment on a wing-body aircraft configuration. The experiment is planned to provide validation-quality data for CFD that focuses on the onset and progression of a separation bubble near the wing-body juncture trailing edge region. This paper describes the goals and purpose of the experiment. Although currently considered unreliable, preliminary CFD analyses of several different configurations are shown. These configurations have been subsequently tested in a series of "risk-reduction" wind tunnel tests, in order to help down-select to a final configuration that will attain the desired flow behavior. The risk-reduction testing at the higher Reynolds number has not yet been completed (at the time of this writing), but some results from one of the low-Reynolds-number experiments are shown.

  11. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Population Screening for Colorectal Cancer Means Getting FIT: The Past, Present, and Future of Colorectal Cancer Screening Using the Fecal Immunochemical Test for Hemoglobin (FIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G.; Halloran, Stephen P.; Young, Graeme P.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin (FIT) are changing the manner in which colorectal cancer (CRC) is screened. Although these tests are being performed worldwide, why is this test different from its predecessors? What evidence supports its adoption? How can this evidence best be used? This review addresses these questions and provides an understanding of FIT theory and practices to expedite international efforts to implement the use of FIT in CRC screening. PMID:24672652

  13. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    -up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... follow-up, or because of organizational aspects of the screening program, where communication regarding test results can fail either in content or with delay.This study will evaluate two interventions designed to increase follow-up: 1) A letter with the test result and potential recommendation for follow...

  14. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays are increasingly used for primary cervical screening and HPV vaccination effect monitoring. We undertook a systematic literature review to determine the concordance in positive test results (i.e., detection of HPV infections) between Hybrid Capture 2...... (HC2) and other assays. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus for studies of primary screening with HC2 and ≥one more assay, with cross-tabulated testing results for the assays. Two authors applied inclusion criteria and three authors extracted data from included studies. For each inter...

  15. Maine Coon renal screening: ultrasonographical characterisation and preliminary genetic analysis for common genes in cats with renal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Karine; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lang, Johann; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of renal cysts and other renal abnormalities in purebred Maine Coon cats, and to characterise these through genetic typing. Voluntary pre-breeding screening programmes for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are offered for this breed throughout Switzerland, Germany and other northern European countries. We performed a retrospective evaluation of Maine Coon screening for renal disease at one institution over an 8-year period. Renal ultrasonography was performed in 187 healthy Maine Coon cats. Renal changes were observed in 27 of these cats. Renal cysts were found in seven cats, and were mostly single and unilateral (6/7, 85.7%), small (mean 3.6 mm) and located at the corticomedullary junction (4/6, 66.7%). Sonographical changes indicating chronic kidney disease (CKD) were observed in 10/187 (5.3%) cats and changes of unknown significance were documented in 11/187 (5.9%) cats. All six cats genetically tested for PKD1 were negative for the mutation, and gene sequencing of these cats did not demonstrate any common genetic sequences. Cystic renal disease occurs with a low prevalence in Maine Coons and is unrelated to the PKD observed in Persians and related breeds. Ultrasonographical findings compatible with CKD are not uncommon in juvenile Maine Coons.

  16. Construction and preliminary evaluation of an Aspergillus flavus reporter gene construct as a potential tool for screening aflatoxin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L; Brown-Jenco, Carmen S; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Payne, Gary A

    2003-10-01

    Effective preharvest strategies to eliminate aflatoxin accumulation in crops are not presently available. The molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis has been extensively studied, and genetic and molecular tools such as reporter gene systems for the measurement of fungal growth have been developed. A reporter construct containing the Aspergillus flavus beta-tubulin gene promoter fused to Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) has been shown to be a reliable tool for the indirect measurement of fungal growth in maize kernels. Since cost-saving alternative methods for the direct measurement of aflatoxin levels are needed to facilitate more widespread field and laboratory screening of maize lines, a new reporter gene construct involving the promoter region of the omtA gene of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway was constructed and tested. Expression of GUS activity by this construct (omtA::GUS) was correlated with aflatoxin accumulation in culture. In the fungal transformant GAP26-1, which harbors this construct, aflatoxin production and GUS expression on sucrose-containing medium showed the same temporal pattern of toxin induction. Furthermore, GUS expression by GAP26-1 was shown to be associated with aflatoxin accumulation in maize kernels inoculated with this strain. Our results suggest that this and other reporter gene pathway promoter constructs may provide superior alternatives to direct aflatoxin quantification with respect to time, labor, and materials for the screening of maize lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation.

  17. Evaluation of the blue formazan spot test for screening glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, A; Lewis, M; Salvati, A M; Miwa, S; Fujii, H; Zarza, R; Alvarez, R; Rull, E; Corrons, J L

    1999-06-01

    Several screening tests for glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have been reported thus far, and a standardized method of testing was proposed by the International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH). The screening test used in any particular laboratory depends upon a number of factors such as cost, time required, temperature, humidity, and availability of reagents. In this study, a direct comparison between three different G6PD screening methods has been undertaken. In 71 cases (50 hematologically normal volunteers, 9 hemizygous G6PD-deficient males, and 12 heterozygous deficient females), the blue formazan spot test (BFST) was compared with the conventional methemoglobin reduction test (HiRT) and the ICSH-recommended fluorescent spot test (FST-ICSH). In all cases, the results obtained with the three screening tests were correlated with the enzyme activity assayed spectrophotometrically. In hemizygous G6PD-deficient males, all cases were equally detected with the three methods: BFST (4.7-6.64, controls: 11.1-13.4), BMRT (score +3 in all 9 cases), and FST (no fluorescence in 9 cases). In heterozygous G6PD-deficient females, two methods detected 7 out of 12 cases (BFST: 8.71-11.75, controls: 11.1-13.4; and BMRT: score +3 in 7 cases), whereas the FST-ICSH missed all 12 cases that presented a variable degree of fluorescence. Although the sensitivity for G6PD-deficient carrier detection is the same for the BMRT and the BFST, the latter has the advantage of being semiquantitative and not merely qualitative. Unfortunately, none of the three screening tests compared here allowed the detection of the 100% heterozygote carrier state of G6PD deficiency.

  18. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF THE FLOWER OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS NEES IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Sharmistha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants contains a variety of chemical substances with important therapeutic properties that can be utilised in the treatment of human diseases. Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees of family Acanthaceae is used in folklore remedies for treatment of Cough, Bronchitis, Fever, Asthama, Cancer and many other ailments. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoid, Steroid, Triterpenoid, Phenol. For Acute Oral Toxicity study aqueous extract of the flower was used. The Acute Oral Toxicity test showed no mortality upto 1000 mg/kg body weight. The presence of these phytochemicals reveals its medicinal properties and non toxic nature of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. This result suggests that the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus can be used to cure various ailments.

  19. Comprehensive development and testing of the ASIST-GBV, a screening tool for responding to gender-based violence among women in humanitarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, A L; Glass, N; Pham, K; Perrin, N; Rubenstein, L S; Singh, S; Vu, A

    2016-01-01

    Conflict affected refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are at increased vulnerability to gender-based violence (GBV). Health, psychosocial, and protection services have been implemented in humanitarian settings, but GBV remains under-reported and available services under-utilized. To improve access to existing GBV services and facilitate reporting, the ASIST-GBV screening tool was developed and tested for use in humanitarian settings. This process was completed in four phases: 1) systematic literature review, 2) qualitative research that included individual interviews and focus groups with GBV survivors and service providers, respectively, 3) pilot testing of the developed screening tool, and 4) 3-month implementation testing of the screening tool. Research was conducted among female refugees, aged ≥15 years in Ethiopia, and female IDPs, aged ≥18 years in Colombia. The systematic review and meta-analysis identified a range of GBV experiences and estimated a 21.4 % prevalence of sexual violence (95 % CI:14.9-28.7) among conflict-affected populations. No existing screening tools for GBV in humanitarian settings were identified. Qualitative research with GBV survivors in Ethiopia and Colombia found multiple forms of GBV experienced by refugees and IDPs that occurred during conflict, in transit, and in displaced settings. Identified forms of violence were combined into seven key items on the screening tool: threats of violence, physical violence, forced sex, sexual exploitation, forced pregnancy, forced abortion, and early or forced marriage. Cognitive testing further refined the tool. Pilot testing in both sites demonstrated preliminary feasibility where 64.8 % of participants in Ethiopia and 44.9 % of participants in Colombia were identified with recent (last 12 months) cases of GBV. Implementation testing of the screening tool, conducted as a routine service in camp/district hospitals, allowed for identification of GBV cases and referrals to

  20. Preliminary Design Report of Fluid System of PDRC Performance Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Seong, Seung-Hwan; Han, Ji-Woong; Choi, Byoung-Hae; Kim, Seong-O

    2008-10-15

    PDRC (Passive Decay Heat Removal Circuit) is a safety grade passive residual heat removal system of KALIMER-600. In order to assess the long- and short-term cooling capabilities of PDRC and produce the experimental data for the verification of the performance and safety analysis codes, PDRC performance test was planned for. In this study, the overall design requirements and the preliminary design data for the fluid system of test facility are presented. The fluid system of the facility is composed of the primary heat transport system, the PDRC, the IHX air cooling system and the sodium supply/purification system. The preliminarily designed facility is scaled-down to 1/4 for length, 1/400 for volume from the primary heat transport system and the PDRC of KALIMER-600 based on a reliable scaling method. It can simulate the cooling of primary heat transport system for the full temperature condition in case of the reactor and pump trips. The produced preliminary design data will be used in the future as the basic information for a detailed design, an establishment of experimental requirement and an assessment of the appropriateness of facility design.

  1. Preliminary Study of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry-based Screening of Patients with the NSCLC Serum-Specific Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan AN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The improved survival of patients with lung cancer depends on early diagnosis of lung cancer. However, the traditional diagnostic techniques have several limitations. Mass spectrometry (MS has been applied as a core technology for cancer diagnosis in preliminary proteomic studies. The aim of this study is to explore the differences in the serum peptide levels of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and healthy individuals using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF-MS. A NSCLC serum classification model was then established. Methods One hundred and thirty three cases of patients with NSCLC serum specimens and 132 cases of healthy human serum specimens were randomly divided into two groups in accordance with the ratio of three to one without age and gender differences. The training group was used to establish the classification model, this group included serum samples from 100 NSCLC cases and 100 healthy individuals. The test group for validating the proposed model was composed of the remaining serum samples from 33 NSCLC cases and 32 healthy individuals. Peptides were extracted from the samples using magnetic beads- immobilized metal affinity capture - copper, and their mass spectra were obtained using an automated MALDI-TOF-MS system. The MS data from the training group was analyzed using the ClinproToolTM software to identify the individual peptide fragments and establish the classification model. The sensitivity and specificity of the model were verified by blind testing with the test group. Results Among the 131 different peptide peaks, ranging from m/z 1,000 Da to 10,000 Da, 14 peaks were significantly different in the NSCLC samples of the training group, as compared with the controls (P<0.000,001; AUC≥0.9; these included 2 higher peaks and 12 lower peaks. The classification model was established, and the test group was verified for only 3 peptide peaks (7,478.59, 2

  2. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Northrup

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  3. Performance of Parabolic and Diffusive OTR Screens at the CLIC Test Facility 3

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegaard, M; Bravin, E; Burger, S; Dabrowski, A; Lefevre, T; Welsch, C P

    2011-01-01

    At the CLIC Test Facility 3, OTR screens are commonly used in beam imaging systems for energy and energy spread characterization in dedicated spectrometer lines. In these lines the horizontal beam size is typically of the order of one centimeter. Already in 2005 a limitation was observed resulting from a strong dependence of the intensity of the light captured by the camera, on the position on the screen (vignetting). The severity of this effect increases with the electron energy, as the aperture of the optical system is finite and the OTR photons are emitted in a small cone of 1/γ angle. To mitigate this effect, different shapes and surface polishing of the screens were investigated. Parabolic and diffusive OTR radiators were tested in several spectrometer lines all along the CTF3 complex. The results are presented in this paper.

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective.

  5. Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hazardous or risky drinking. Two instruments in particular, the AUDIT and the CAGE, are cited throughout this issue— ... drinking in a very specific population—pregnant women. The AUDIT, CAGE, and T-ACE are presented here in ...

  6. Clinician and Patient Acceptability of Self-Collected Human Papillomavirus Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Constance; Kulasingam, Shalini L; Whitham, Hilary K; Hawes, Stephen E; Lin, John; Kiviat, Nancy B

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate clinician and patient attitudes toward home self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Women aged 21-65 years were recruited for a randomized trial comparing home self-collected HPV testing to standard clinician-collected Pap screening. Participants were surveyed about their attitudes toward self-collected HPV testing. Clinicians performing cervical cancer screening in University of Washington medical clinics were also surveyed to determine their acceptability of self-collected HPV testing. Over half (59.1%) of the 1,769 women surveyed preferred self-collected HPV testing to clinician-collected tests. Reasons most often cited were convenience or time saving (82.7%), and avoiding embarrassment or discomfort associated with pelvic exam (38.1%). Women who did not prefer self-collected HPV testing reported greater faith in clinician-collected samples (56.7%) or a desire for a clinic visit to address other issues (42.4%). One hundred eighteen (49.6%) of 238 physicians and midlevel providers surveyed completed the survey. The majority (78.0%) reported that they would recommend a self-collected HPV test if the test had qualities such as high sensitivity and cost effectiveness. Provider concerns mirrored those of patients, namely ensuring adequate sample collection and the opportunity to address other health concerns. Patients and clinicians are supportive of self-collected HPV testing. However, concerns regarding adequacy of samples that are self collected and the desire to see a provider in a clinic setting for other health needs highlight areas that need to be addressed if self collection proves to be a viable option for cervical cancer screening.

  7. The Cleveland Sorting Test: a preliminary study of an alternate form of the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreh, Amir; Pastel, Dan; Miller, Ashley; Levin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    During the past two decades, studies have repeatedly shown that the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) is not as sensitive to prefrontal-lobe functioning as was originally suspected. Specifically, both clinical and brain-imaging studies have shown that several distinct neural circuits contribute to one's ability to successfully complete different aspects of the test. Another limitation of the WCST is its length, which makes it difficult and frustrating for certain clinical populations. To address the above limitations, researchers have proposed the development of new indexes and the integration of an adaptive testing approach that will allow for the premature termination of the test. Unfortunately, given the proprietary nature of the WCST, none of the above recommendations have been adopted. The present preliminary study examined an alternate form of the 64-Item WCST (WCST-64), the Cleveland Sorting Test (CST-64). The normative data of the two measures as well as the total number of errors, perseverative responses, perseverative errors, and categories completed were compared using a repeated-measures design. Overall, the study supports psychometric approximation of the CST-64 and the WCST-64. Suggestions for future studies and modifications of the CST-64, including the use of recently proposed indexes and adaptive administration approaches, are provided.

  8. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  9. Receipt of a false positive test result during routine screening for ovarian cancer: a teachable moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Andrea; Steffens, Rachel F; Pavlik, Edward; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2011-03-01

    The term "teachable moment" (TM) has been used to describe a life transition or event which motivates an individual to change a behavior or presents an opportunity to intervene to prompt behavior change. We examined whether receipt of a false positive ovarian cancer (OC) screening result may represent a TM. 403 women participating in an OC screening program completed questionnaires assessing demographic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial information. The TM was operationalized as expressed interest in receiving health-related information. We hypothesized that among women receiving a false positive screening test result, those women who had experienced greater personal perceived risk for OC as well as distress would be more interested in receiving health-related information than women receiving a normal result. Analyses revealed that women receiving a false positive screening result were less interested in receiving health-related information than women receiving a normal screening result. For women receiving a false positive result, expressed interest in receipt of health-related information was only modestly related to distress and related even less to perceptions of OC risk. Our data do not support viewing a false positive OC screening result as a TM. Potential explanations for the current findings as well as recommendations for future research investigating the TM are discussed.

  10. SUMA Technology and Newborn Screening Tests for Inherited Metabolic Diseases in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Carlos González Reyes PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultramicroanalytic system (SUMA, created in the 1980s, is a complete system of reagents and instrumentation to perform ultramicroassays combining the sensitivity of the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests with the use of ultramicrovolumes. This technology permitted establishing large-scale newborn screening programs (NSPs for metabolic and endocrine disorders in Cuba. This article summarizes the main results of the implementation during the 30 years of SUMA technology in NSP for 5 inherited metabolic diseases, using ultramicroassays developed at the Department of Newborn Screening at the Immunoassay Center. Since 1986, SUMA technology has been used in the Cuban NSP for congenital hypothyroidism, initially studying thyroid hormone in cord serum samples. In 2000, a decentralized program for the detection of hyperphenylalaninemias using heel dried blood samples was initiated. These successful experiences permitted including protocols for screening congenital adrenal hyperplasia, galactosemia, and biotinidase deficiency in 2005. A program for the newborn screening of CH using the thyroid-stimulating hormone Neonatal ultramicro-ELISA was fully implemented in 2010. Nowadays, the NSP is supported by a network of 175 SUMA laboratories. After 30 years, more than 3.8 million Cuban newborns have been screened, and 1002 affected children have been detected. Moreover, SUMA technology has been presented in Latin America for over 2 decades and has contributed to screen around 17 million newborns. These results prove that developing countries can develop appropriate diagnostic technologies for making health care accessible to all.

  11. Prevalence of major risk factors and use of screening tests for cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-04-01

    Much of the suffering and death from cancer could be prevented by more systematic efforts to reduce tobacco use, improve diet, increase physical activity, reduce obesity, and expand the use of established screening tests. Monitoring the prevalence of cancer risk factors and screening is important to measure progress and strengthen cancer prevention and early detection efforts. In this review article, we provide recent prevalence estimates for several cancer risk factors, including tobacco, obesity, physical activity, nutrition, ultraviolet radiation exposure as well as human papillomavirus and hepatitis B vaccination coverage and cancer screening prevalence in the United States. In 2013, cigarette smoking prevalence was 17.8% among adults nationally, but ranged from 10.3% in Utah to 27.3% in West Virginia. In addition, 15.7% of U.S. high school students were current smokers. In 2011-2012, obesity prevalence was high among both adults (34.9%) and adolescents (20.5%), but has leveled off since 2002. About 20.2% of high school girls were users of indoor tanning devices, compared with 5.3% of boys. In 2013, cancer screening prevalence ranged from 58.6% for colorectal cancer to 80.8% for cervical cancer and remains low among the uninsured, particularly for colorectal cancer screening where only 21.9% of eligible adults received recommended colorectal cancer screening. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina;

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance....... To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited...... alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway....

  13. Should antibody to hepatitis B core antigen be tested in routine screening of donor corneas for transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, R M; Cavanagh, H D

    1997-03-01

    A review of the literature on transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases shows that antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is not presently viewed as helpful for hepatitis C or hepatitis non-ABC screening of blood donors. Its utility as a screen for hepatitis B or human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is controversial among experts. We compare relevant aspects of the screening of blood donations and the screening of cornea transplant donors to assess implications for the screening of donor corneas. We conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to warrant introducing anti-HBc as a routine screening test for cornea donors.

  14. In vitro preliminary cytotoxicity testing of vegetal extracts, using colorimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Cordero Camacho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To advance in the study of the Colombian vegetal biodiversity, considered as a potential source of pharmacologically active products, the establishment of biological activity evaluation systems is necessary, which allow the detection of active products against pathologies with high social and economical impact, such as cancer. This work describes the implementation of a preliminary in vitro methodology for the determination of potential anticancer activity in vegetal extracts, by cytotoxicity testing upon human tumor cell lines, measuring the cellular mass indirectly with the colorimetric assays of MTT (methyl tetrazolium tiazole reduction and SRB (sulforhodamine Bstaining. HT-29, MCF-7, SiHa and HEp-2 cell lines cultures were adapted, MTT concentration, cellular density and treatment period parameters for the cytotoxicity assay were selected. Cell lines sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin HCl was determined. Colombian vegetal species extracts cytotoxicity was tested and usefulness of the assay as a tool to bioguide the search of active products was evidenced.

  15. Cervical screening by visual inspection, HPV testing, liquid-based and conventional cytology in Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Winkler, Jennifer L; Cuzick, Jack; Tsu, Vivien; Robles, Sylvia; Takahashi, Rina; Sasieni, Peter

    2007-08-15

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem in many developing countries, where cytology screening has been ineffective. We compared four tests to identify the most appropriate for screening in countries with limited resources. Nineteen midwives screened 5,435 women with visual inspection (VIA) and collected cervical samples for HPV testing, liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). If VIA was positive, a doctor performed magnified VIA. CC was read locally, LBC was read in Lima and HPV testing was done in London. Women with a positive screening test were offered colposcopy or cryotherapy (with biopsy). Inadequacy rates were 5% and 11% for LBC and CC respectively, and less than 0.1% for VIA and HPV. One thousand eight hundred eighty-one women (84% of 2,236) accepted colposcopy/cryotherapy: 79 had carcinoma in situ or cancer (CIS+), 27 had severe- and 42 moderate-dysplasia on histology. We estimated a further 6.5 cases of CIS+ in women without a biopsy. Sensitivity for CIS+ (specificity for less than moderate dysplasia) was 41.2% (76.7%) for VIA, 95.8% (89.3%) for HPV, 80.3% (83.7%) for LBC, and 42.5% (98.7%) for CC. Sensitivities for moderate dysplasia or worse were better for VIA (54.9%) and less favourable for HPV and cytology. In this setting, VIA and CC missed the majority of high-grade disease. Overall, HPV testing performed best. VIA gives immediate results, but will require investment in regular training and supervision. Further work is needed to determine whether screened-positive women should all be treated or triaged with a more specific test.

  16. TBI Assessment of Readiness Using a Gait Evaluation Test (TARGET): Development of a Portable mTBI Screening Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation Test (TARGET): Development of a Portable mTBI Screening Device 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0094 5c. PROGRAM ...determine the validity and reliability of an Android device-based mTBI (mild traumatic brain injury) screening test app for assessing motor function. The...deployment. This study seeks to determine the validity and reliability of an Android device-based mTBI (mild traumatic brain injury) screening test app

  17. PRELIMINARY ANTIBACTERIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE FOLKLORIC TREATMENT OF SKIN INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ‘Toyosi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro effects of Schwenkia americana, Mormodica charantia and Lippia multiflora extract in water, ethanol and ethyl acetate were evaluated on some pathogenic bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and β-heamolytic Streptococcus pyogenes. The work was carried out using the agar well diffusion method at concentrations ranging from 25mg/ml to 100mg/ml of extracts. The ethanol extract of Schwenkia americana and Lippia multiflora showed zones of inhibition of 24+1.19cfu against Staphylococcus aureus, at 100mg/ml stock concentration. The aqueous extract of Lippia multiflora showed a zone of inhibition of 22+0.60cfu at 100mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus while the ethyl acetate extract of Schwenkia americana showed highest zone of inhibition of 24+1.19cfu at 100mg/ml of extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes was the least active of all the organisms to the test plants with Lippia multiflora showing a zone of inhibition of 10cm at 100mg/ml. Generally all the test plants are active against the organisms. Phytochemical screening revealed that the plants contain flavonoids, tannins, alkaloid, saponin, and steroids. In all the test plants, Positive antibiotic disk control and antiseptic test showed the microorganisms to be resistant to most of the antibiotic disk as well as the antiseptics used at concentrations ranging between 5%-20% of dettol, izal, ethanol and Lysol. The plants showing antimicrobial activities can be inculcated into the treatment of bacterial infections involving the test organisms to help fight the ever increasing antibiotic resistance.

  18. Academic hospital staff compliance with a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgia Vlachonikolou; Paraskevas Gkolfakis; Athanasios D Sioulas; Ioannis S Papanikolaou; Anastasia Melissaratou; Giannis-Aimant Moustafa; Eleni Xanthopoulou; Gerasimos Tsilimidos; Ioanna Tsironi; Paraskevas Filippidis; Chrysoula Malli; George D Dimitriadis; Konstantinos Triantafyllou

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To measure the compliance of an Academic Hospital staff with a colorectal cancer(CRC) screening program using fecal immunochemical test(FIT).METHODS: All employees of "Attikon" University General Hospital aged over 50 years were thoroughly informed by a team of physicians and medical students about the study aims and they were invited to undergo CRC screening using two rounds of FIT(DyoniFOB~ Combo H, DyonMed SA, Athens, Greece). The tests were provided for free and subjects tested positive were subsequently referred for colonoscopy. One year after completing the two rounds, participants were asked to be re-screened by means of the same test.RESULTS: Among our target population consisted of 211 employees, 59(27.9%) consented to participate, but only 41(19.4%) and 24(11.4%) completed the first and the second FIT round, respectively. Female gender was significantly associated with higher initial participation(P = 0.005) and test completion- first and second round-(P = 0.004 and P = 0.05) rates, respectively. Phy sician’s(13.5% vs 70.2%, P < 0.0001) participation and test completion rates(7.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.0001 for the first and 2.3% vs 34%, P < 0.0001 for the second round) were significantly lower compared to those of the administrative/technical staff. Similarly, nurses participated(25.8% vs 70.2%, P = 0.0002) and completed the first test round(19.3% vs 57.6%, P = 0.004) in a significant lower rate than the administrative/technical staff. One test proved false positive. No participant repeated the test one year later.CONCLUSION: Despite the well-organized, guided and supervised provision of the service, the compliance of the Academic Hospital personnel with a FIT-based CRC screening program was suboptimal, especially among physicians.

  19. Study duration and earnings: A test in relation to the human capital versus screening debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Oosterbeek

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simple test in relation to the human capital versus screening debate. It is argued that these theories lead to different predictions with respect to the earnings effects of deviations between actual and nominal durations of a study. Earnings and study duration equations ar

  20. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests : A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berm, Elizabeth J J; Looff, Margot de; Wilffert, Bob; Boersma, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven; Vegter, Stefan; van Boven, Job FM; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx) tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between

  1. Spectrum of patients with hypermethioninemia based on neonatal screening tests over 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Jung Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The neonatal screening test for homocystinuria primarily measures methionine by using a dried blood specimen. We investigated the incidence and clinical manifestations of homocystinuria, isolated hypermethioninemia, and transient hypermethioninemia among patients with hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test. Methods : We performed a retrospective study of 58 patients transferred to Shoonchunhyang Hospital because of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test between January 1996 and August 2009. We analyzed the level of amino acid from plasma and urine, as well as blood homocysteine. Results : Almost half of the 58 patients were identified as normal. Whereas only 3 (5.1% patients were identified as having homocystinuria, about 20.7% (12 cases of the patients had isolated hypermethioninemia. The ages of these two groups at initial detection of hypermethioninemia on plasma amino acid analysis were 50.0¡?#?2.5; days and 34.9¡?#?3.5; days, respectively. Both groups were put on diets, and they showed a normal developmental course as a result of early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion : Hypermethioninemia without homocystinuria, referred to as isolated hypermethioninemia, was also detected. Thus, the impact of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test should be carefully evaluated through analysis of amino acid levels from blood and urine, and we need to detect and treat an early stage of isolated hypermethioninemia as well as homocystinuria.

  2. Cross-Validation of a Predictive Screening Test for Children with Articulatory Speech Defects. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Charles; Erickson, Robert

    To determine the accuracy with which the 47-item Predictive Screening Test of Articulation (PSTA) is able to identify first grade children who will master their articulation errors without speech therapy by the time they enter third grade, two groups of children were studied who were deficient enough in speech to be enrolled in therapy, but had no…

  3. The Use of the Denver Developmental Screening Test in Infant Welfare Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a single Denver Developmental Screening Test performance on 823 infants attending maternal and child health centers were compared with developmental information recorded by public health nurses during routine well baby care of these same infants. Journal Avaliability: J.B. Lippincott Co; E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…

  4. Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test on Infants from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Hope C.

    1982-01-01

    Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) on 288 babies raning in age from two to 54 weeks in Yucatan, Mexico, yielded such findings as that subtest scores increased with age, and that the DDST failed to identify a "questionable" 16 or 17 babies with borderline scores on the Bayley Motor Scale. (Author/MC)

  5. Performance of children with phenylketonuria in the Developmental Screening Test--Denver II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Greyce Kelly da; Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin

    2010-01-01

    phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the mutation of a gene located in chromosome 12q22-24.1. to describe the performance of children with classic phenylketonuria, who were diagnosed and treated early, in the Development Screening Test Denver - II. participants were 20 children with phenylketonuria, ranging in age from 3 and 6 years, and 10 children with typical language development, paired by gender, age and socioeconomic level to the research group. The plasmatic phenylalanine measure and the neurological, psychological and social information were gathered in the data base of the Neonatal Screening Programs for Metabolic disorder. Assessment consisted on the application of the Development Screening Test Denver II. A descriptive statistical analysis and the Mann Whitney test were used in order to characterize the tested skills. For the measurements of the plasmatic phenylalanine blood levels the values considered for analysis were: below 2 mg/dL, above 4 mg/dL, reference values between 2 and 4 mg/dL, of all exams performed during the participants'lives; maximum and minimum values and values obtained on the day of the screening application. comparison between the groups indicated statistically significant differences for the personal-social and language areas. children who were diagnosed and treated early for phenylketonuria present deficits in the personal-social and language areas. Also, even when receiving follow-up and undergoing treatment, these children presented difficulties in maintaining normal plasmatic phenylalanine levels.

  6. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate concerning possible disadvantages of mammography screening, one being the consequence of receiving a false positive test-result. It is argued that receiving a false positive answer may have short- and/or long-term adverse psychological effects on women, bu...

  7. Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: a Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Groot, de Æ.; Evstatieva, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of pla

  8. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen;

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very efficient in the screening for especially trisomi 21. This article...

  9. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen;

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very efficient in the screening for especially trisomi 21. This article...

  10. The whispered voice: The best test for screening for hearing impairment in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhof, J.A.H.; Bock, G.H. de; Laat, J.A.P.M. de; Dap, R.; Schaapveld, K.; Springer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    Hearling loss is an important health problem in the elderly which sometimes leads to social isolation. In a study with 62 patients, the diagnostic value of four simple tests for screening for hearing loss in general practice was examined. When paying attention to the loudness of the whispering, the

  11. False negative fecal occult blood tests due to delayed sample return in colorectal cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, L.G.M. van; Rijn, A.F. van; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Delayed return of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) samples to a laboratory might cause false negatives because of hemoglobin degradation. Quantitative iFOBT's became increasingly more accepted in colorectal cancer screening. Therefore, we studied the effects of delay between sampling a

  12. Indicator cell lines for the detection of hidden mycoplasma contamination, using an adenosine phosphorylase screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, G.T.; Polak-Vogelzang, A.A.; Bast, B.J.E. G.

    Mycoplasmas are a major cause of cell culture contamination and are especially troublesome during HAT selection. The enzyme adenosine phosphorylase (adoP) is present in all common mycoplasma species but is considered to have a low activity in mammalian cells. However, using an adoP screening test,

  13. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. METHOD: 78 patients with mild AD...

  14. Switch from cytology-based to human papillomavirus test-based cervical screening: implications for colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Carolina; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Rodríguez, Ana C; Morales, Jorge; Burk, Robert D; Alfaro, Mario; Hutchinson, Martha; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Sherman, Mark E; Wacholder, Sholom; Solomon, Diane; Schiffman, Mark

    2012-04-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology; some cervical cancer prevention programs will switch from cytology to carcinogenic HPV test-based screening. The objective of our study is to evaluate the clinical implications of a switch to HPV test-based screening on performance and workload of colposcopy. Women in the population-based, 7-year Guanacaste cohort study were screened at enrollment using cytology. We also took another specimen for HPV DNA testing and collected magnified cervical photographic images (cervigrams). A final case diagnosis (≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 3, CIN2, lesions at referral to colposcopy and the sensitivity versus specificity trade-off of the colposcopic impressions would be similar to programs using cytology (≥ atypical squamous cells of unknown significance [ASCUS]) for referral. The major concern with switching from cytology to more sensitive HPV screening is management of the many HPV-positive women, including those with still nonvisible ≥CIN2 lesions. Our data support the need for a nonvisual diagnostic method to guide management and treatment of HPV-positive women. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  15. Testing public health ethics: why the CDC's HIV screening recommendations may violate the least infringement principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthew W; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; King, Elizabeth J; Wyckoff, Sarah C

    2011-01-01

    The CDC's HIV screening recommendations for health care settings advocate abandoning two important autonomy protections: (1) pretest counseling and (2) the requirement that providers obtain affirmative agreement from patients prior to testing. The recommendations may violate the least infringement principle because there is insufficient evidence to conclude that abandoning pretest counseling or affirmative agreement requirements will further the CDC's stated public health goals.

  16. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. 799.9355 Section 799.9355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... developmental defects should not be used. Healthy virgin animals, not subjected to previous...

  17. Tests detecting biomarkers for screening of colorectal cancer: What is on the horizon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phalguni, Angaja

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify new and emerging screening tests for colorectal cancer (CRC that involves detection of various biomarkers like blood, DNA and RNA in samples of faeces, tissue or blood. Current practice: Screening for CRC can be done by bowel visualisation techniques and tests that measure biomarkers. The Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP in England uses a guaiac faecal occult blood test. Methods: The strategy was to search available literature, identify developers and contact them for relevant information. Advice from experts was sought on potential utility and likely impact of identified technologies on the BCSP.Results: Ninety-three companies and five research groups were contacted. Sixty-nine relevant tests were identified. Detailed information was available for 48 tests, of these 73% were CE marked and the remainder were considered as emerging. Forty-nine tests use immunochemical methods to detect occult blood in faeces. Eight, four and two tests detect biomarkers in a sample of blood, or exfoliated cells either shed in faeces or collected from rectal mucosa respectively. Six tests were grouped as ‘other tests’. Most of the identified tests are performed manually and give qualitative detection of biomarkers. Conclusion: Variation in test performance and characteristics was observed amongst the 69 identified tests. Automated, quantitative FIT with a variable cut off are the preferred approach in the BSCP. However the units used to report FITs results do not enable comparison across products. Tests detecting biomarkers other than occult blood are more specific to neoplasms but have limited sensitivity due to the heterogeneity of cancer. Research is ongoing to identify an optimal panel of biomarkers, simplifying and automating the test, and reducing the cost.

  18. Orthorexia nervosa in the general population: a preliminary screening using a self-administered questionnaire (ORTO-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacciotti, C E; Perrone, P; Coli, E; Burgalassi, A; Conversano, C; Massimetti, G; Dell'Osso, L

    2011-06-01

    Orthorexia, from the Greek words orthos (straight, proper) and orexis (appetite), is a newly conceptualized disorder characterized by distorted eating habits and cognitions concerning supposedly healthy nutrition. In this article we present preliminary results of a wider research aimed to investigate the diffusion of Orthorexia in the general population and to highlight its characteristics and particularly the relationship with Eating Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. One-hundred and seventy seven adult subjects from the general population, were administered the ORTO-15 test, a selfadministered questionnaire specifically designed to assess orthorexic symptomatology; note that statistical analyses were repeated twice, referring to different diagnostic thresholds (40/35). Orthorexia had a 57.6% prevalence in our sample, using the 40-point threshold, with a female/male ratio 2:1; the figure was sensibly lower with the 35-point threshold (21%). The results of this study highlight the diffusion of Orthorexia which may constitute an important risk factor for mental and physical health, but also the opportunity of more specific diagnostic instruments, so to facilitate a thorough understanding of this disorder.

  19. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people whodo not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  20. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  1. Extended testing of a general contextual classifier using the massively parallel processor - Preliminary results and test plans. [for thematic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Earlier encouraging test results of a contextual classifier that combines spatial and spectral information employing a general statistical approach are expanded. The earlier results were of limited meaning because they were produced from small (50-by-50 pixel) data sets. An implementation of the contextual classifier on NASA Goddard's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) is presented; for the first time the MPP makes feasible the testing of the classifier on large data sets (a 12-hour test on a VAX-11/780 minicomputer now takes 5 minutes on the MPP). The MPP is a Single-Instruction, Multiple Data Stream computer, consisting of 16,384 bit serial microprocessors connected in a 128-by-128 mesh array with each element having data transfer connections with its four nearest neighbors so that the MPP is capable of billions of operations per second. Preliminary results are given (with more expected for the conference) and plans are mentioned for extended testing of the contextual classifier on Thematic Mapper data sets.

  2. Evaluation of false positive results in microbial inhibitor tests for screening antibiotics in goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Rueda, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Goat milk is primarily destined for the production of fermented products, in particular cheese. Therefore, the control of antibiotic residues in milk is of great importance, since these could have negative repercussions on technological properties of the milk as well as on the health of consumers. In milk quality control programs, microbial inhibitor tests are widely applied to detect antibiotics during the screening stage. However, tests are non-specific and may be affected...

  3. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  4. Evaluation of carbapenemase screening and confirmation tests with Enterobacteriaceae and development of a practical diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Florian P; Castelberg, Claudio; Quiblier, Chantal; Bloemberg, Guido V; Hombach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Reliable identification of carbapenemase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is necessary to limit their spread. This study aimed to develop a diagnostic flow chart using phenotypic screening and confirmation tests that is suitable for implementation in different types of clinical laboratories. A total of 334 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates genetically characterized with respect to carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and AmpC genes were analyzed. A total of 142/334 isolates (42.2%) were suspected of carbapenemase production, i.e., intermediate or resistant to ertapenem (ETP) and/or meropenem (MEM) and/or imipenem (IPM) according to EUCAST clinical breakpoints (CBPs). A group of 193/334 isolates (57.8%) showing susceptibility to ETP, MEM, and IPM was considered the negative-control group in this study. CLSI and EUCAST carbapenem CBPs and the new EUCAST MEM screening cutoff were evaluated as screening parameters. ETP, MEM, and IPM with or without aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) or EDTA combined-disk tests (CDTs) and the Carba NP-II test were evaluated as confirmation assays. EUCAST temocillin cutoffs were evaluated for OXA-48 detection. The EUCAST MEM screening cutoff (carbapenemase confirmation. ETP and MEM EDTA CDTs showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class B carbapenemases. Temocillin zone diameters/MIC testing on MH-CLX was highly specific for OXA-48 producers. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Carba NP-II test were 78.9, 100, 100, and 98.7%, respectively. Combining the EUCAST MEM carbapenemase screening cutoff (carbapenemase detection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Preliminary identification of potentially disruptive scenarios at the Greater Confinement Disposal Facility, Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newman, G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal location is being evaluated to determine whether defense-generated transuranic waste buried at this location complies with the Containment Requirements established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify those combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that define possible future states of the disposal system for which performance assessments must be performed. An established scenario-development procedure was used to identify a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios. To assure completeness, 761 features, events, processes, and other listings (FEPS) were compiled from 11 references. This number was reduced to 205 primarily through the elimination of duplications. The 205 FEPs were screened based on site-specific, goal-specific, and regulatory criteria. Four events survived screening and were used in preliminary scenario development: (1) exploratory drilling penetrates a GCD borehole, (2) drilling of a withdrawal/injection well penetrates a GCD borehole, (3) subsidence occurs at the RWMS, and (4) irrigation occurs at the RWMS. A logic diagram was used to develop 16 scenarios from the four events. No screening of these scenarios was attempted at this time. Additional screening of the currently retained events and processes will be based on additional data and information from site-characterization activities. When screening of the events and processes is completed, a final set of scenarios will be developed and screened based on consequence and probability of occurrence.

  6. Two-stage first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 by ultrasound assessment and biochemical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Staboulidou, I; Cruz, J; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2010-11-01

    This study was carried out to examine the performance of a contingent policy in first-trimester screening for trisomy 21, in which the estimated risk was first derived by a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, presence/absence of the nasal bone, blood flow in the ductus venosus or flow across the tricuspid valve, and biochemical testing was carried out only in those who were found to have an intermediate risk. We also examined the performance of a policy in which the estimated risk was first derived by a combination of maternal age and biochemical testing, and ultrasound examination was carried out only in those with an intermediate risk. The data for this study were derived from prospective screening for trisomy 21 in singleton pregnancies, using, as markers, a combination of maternal age, fetal NT thickness and maternal-serum free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), in a one-stop clinic for first-trimester assessment of risk at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation. Assessment of the fetal nasal bone, ductus venosus flow and tricuspid flow were also routinely performed by appropriately trained sonographers. The performance of different screening policies was examined. The study population consisted of 19 614 pregnancies with a normal karyotype or delivery of a phenotypically normal baby (euploid group) and 122 cases of trisomy 21. The best performance was achieved by a contingent policy in which first-stage screening was based on maternal age, fetal NT thickness and either tricuspid valve or ductus venosus blood flow, followed by biochemical testing only those with an intermediate risk, of 1 in 51 to 1 in 1000 (which constituted about 20% of the total). The performance of contingent screening in which first-stage testing relies on biochemistry was poorer than when first-stage screening was performed by ultrasound examination because, in order to achieve the same detection

  7. [Measurement of evoked acoustic otoemissions: an early screening test of neonatal deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgon, Alain

    2002-01-01

    Every child born with deafness displays a pathological language development. An early and specific approach is mandatory, hence requiring an universal hearing screening. Available evidence indicate that performing acoustic otoemissions prior to six months of age is the most reliable method. The recording of the AOE is performed successfully from the 30th week of conceptual age. To obtain AOE in the newborn, one needs to wait until the 3rd day post delivery in 98% of cases. The reliability of the test, the socio-economical cost, the consequences of the screening and the role of the family have to be discussed.

  8. Evaluation of five screening tests licensed in Argentina for detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ré

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare among the most recent generation of five screening tests licensed in Argentina, in order to evaluate which of the tests has the best sensitivity for detection of antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV. The tests analyzed were: Detect-HCV™ (3.0 Biochem ImmunoSystems, Canada; Hepatitis C EIA Wiener Lab., Argentina; Equipar HCV Ab, Italy; Murex HCV 4.0, UK and Serodia-HCV particles agglutination test, Japan. The results obtained showed high discrepancy between the different kits used and show that some of the tests assessed have a low sensitivity for anti-HCV detection in both chronic infections and early seroconversion, and indicate that among the commercially available kits in Argentina, Murex HCV 4.0 (UK and Serodia-HCV particles agglutination test (Japan have the best sensitivity for HCV screening. Although the sensitivity of the assays is the first parameter to be considered for blood screening, more studies should be carried out to assess the specificity of such assays.

  9. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Andrés-Beltrán, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel L; Güeita-Rodríguez, Javier; Lambeck, Johan

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II in a population of Spanish children. Two hundred children ranging from 9 month to 6 years were grouped into two samples (healthy/with psychomotor delay) and screened in order to check whether they suffered from psychomotor delay. Children from three Early Intervention Centres and three schools participated in this study. Criterion validity was calculated by the method of extreme groups, comparing healthy children to those with development delay. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated using Cohen Kappa coefficient, and internal consistency was calculated via the Kuder-Richardson coefficient. The scale demonstrated 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, a positive predicted value of 91% and a negative predicted value of 89%, whereas the positive and negative likelihood ratio was 11.12 and 0.12, respectively. Intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.662 to 1, and interobserver reliability ranged from 0.886 to 1. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient values ranged from 87.5 to 97.6%. The Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II was found to have a good criterion validity, reliability and internal consistency and is a suitable screening test for use in a population of Spanish children.

  10. Primary screening for cervical cancer precursors by the combined use of liquid-based cytology, computer-assisted cytology and HPV DNA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, P; Petignat, P; Boulvain, M; Campana, A

    2002-02-01

    Primary screening for cervical cancer precursors has considerably evolved with the introduction of new technology to improve the early detection of disease. The objective of this study was to elaborate a diagnostic pathway integrating liquid-based and computer-assisted cytology and human papillomavirus DNA testing to focus screening on women at risk which may be more cost-effective for the healthcare system. A single laboratory analysis was conducted during a 5-month period using liquid-based cytology followed by human papillomavirus DNA testing for women with an abnormal result or with previous abnormal cytology. Human papillomavirus prevalence was estimated by testing 909 consecutive unselected samples. All slides were then rescreened using automated cytologic testing and triaged into a high- or low-score group according to computer results. Of the 8676 slides scanned, 352 had a test result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse. Two hundred and ninety-seven (84.3%) samples with an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse result and 100% of those with detection of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and carcinomas (HSIL+) were triaged into the high-score group. The combination of instrument scores and human papillomavirus results indicated that 51.0% of high score/human papillomavirus-positive cases should be considered as ASCUS+, while 99.6% of low-score/human papillomavirus negative cases remained negative in the final cytologic diagnosis, representing 49.0% of all cases. Of the screened women 89.5% should test negative for human papillomavirus and be reported as such in the final cytologic diagnosis. In conclusion, preliminary results suggest that this diagnostic pathway has the potential to improve primary cervical cancer screening and cost-effectiveness. By using a combination of testing methods to focus screening and clinical attention to cases at risk, it would be possible to lengthen screening

  11. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  12. Adhesion characteristics of silver tracks screen-printed on polyimide with an environmental reliability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Seok; Myung, Woo-Ram; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2012-07-01

    Printable and flexible electronics are increasingly being used in numerous applications that are miniaturized, multi-functional and lightweight. Simultaneously, reliability issues of the printed and flexible electronic devices are getting more attention. The adhesion of screen-printed silver (Ag) tracks on a polyimide (PI) film was investigated after two kinds of the environmental reliability test: a constant-temperature storage test, and a steady-state temperature and humidity storage test. Atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) was adopted on the PI film surface to improve the poor adhesion derived from the inherent hydrophobicity. The Ag tracks constructed via screen printing were sintered at 250 degrees C for 30 min in air using a box-type muffle furnace. Some samples were exposed under 85 degrees C and 85% relative humidity (RH) for various durations (24, 72, 168 and 500 h), and others were aged at 85 degrees C with same durations to compare the influence of moisture on the adhesion. The adhesion of the screen-printed Ag tracks was evaluated by a roll-type 90 degrees peel test. The peel strength of the screen-printed Ag tracks decreased by 76.74% and 69.88% after 500 h run of the 85 degrees C/85% RH test, and the aging test, respectively. The weakest adhesion was 4.98 gf/mm after the 500 h run of the 85 degrees C/85% RH test. To demonstrate these experimental results, the microstructural evolution and chemical bonding states of the interfacial surfaces were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), respectively.

  13. Preliminary study fo the interference of proteic compounds of radiopharmaceuticals in the test of lisadode amebocitos de limulus (LAL)

    CERN Document Server

    Aldana, C

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis the objective was evaluate the interference of proteic compounds of the radiopharmaceuticals in the test LAL (lisado of amebocitos de limulus) for this, macroagregates of albumina (MAA) was used with metilendifosfonato (MDP) as control that is the radiopharmaceutical more used in the nuclear medicine centers of the country. Initially preliminary test were carried out to assess if some of two radiopharmaceuticals would cause interference with LAL test, after the test was validated and finally routine tests were made. With the preliminary assays was concluded that proteic compounds did not cause interference (albumina with a concentration of 2 md/dl) with the MAA. However with the MDP cause interference with LAL test. The interference was eliminated with a dilution of 1:8 of the sample. Was concluded that the success of LAL test depends on conditions such as temperature, pH, constant incubation (no minimum variations) and that is a good test for quality control of the radiopharmaceuticals.

  14. Crafting Appealing Text Messages to Encourage Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Completion: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Shellie D; Denizard-Thompson, Nancy; Kronner, Donna; Miller, David P

    2015-01-01

    texting shorthand phrases and complicated replies); they did not want messages that contain bad news or test results. They wanted the ability to choose alternative options such as email or phone calls. Conclusions Older adults are receptive to receiving cancer screening text messages from health care providers. Sharing sample messages with patients may increase acceptance of this tool in the clinic setting. Supportive tailored text messaging reminders could enhance uptake of colorectal cancer screening by enhancing patient self-efficacy and providing cues to action to complete colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing. PMID:26537553

  15. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow......-up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... will be of great importance to the future organisation of cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes in Denmark, but will also have international interest because of their similar challenges....

  16. The impact of financing of screening tests on utilization and outcomes: The case of amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Ity; Brzezinski, Amnon; Frumkin, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    We use a 1993 policy change in Israel's public healthcare system that lowered the eligibility age for amniocentesis to 35 to study the effects of financing of screening tests. Financing is found to have increased amniocentesis testing by about 35%. At ages above the eligibility threshold, utilization rates rose to roughly 33%, reflection nearly full takeup among prospective users of amniocentesis. Additionally, whereas below the age-35 threshold amniocentesis utilization rates increase with maternal age, this relation is muted above this age. Finally, no evidence is found that financing affects outcomes such as pregnancy terminations and births of children with Down syndrome. These results support the view that women above the eligibility threshold tend to refrain from acquiring inexpensive information about their degree of risk that absent the financing they would acquire, and instead, undergo the accurate and costly test regardless of additional information that noninvasive screening would provide.

  17. The impact of national guidance for anomaly screening and invasive testing: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberry, M; Hassan, W A; Goodburn, S; Brockelsby, J; Wladimiroff, J; Nash, R; Lees, C

    2014-01-01

    Recent guidance from the UK National Screening Committee (NSC) and the Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme (FASP) has led to important changes in prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and invasive testing. These relate to prenatal ultrasound investigation of what were previously known as 'soft markers' for Down's syndrome at the time of the detailed anomaly scan and as to whether full karyotype or FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridisation)/QFPCR (quantitative fluorescence PCR) testing for trisomies should be carried out when an invasive test is performed. Neither recommendation is directly related to the other but both in combination could have profound implications for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities other than trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome). In the light of two cases recently managed in one regional fetal medicine unit, we retrospectively reviewed cases where, with correct application of the NSC and FASP recommendations, non-lethal and clinically important chromosomal abnormalities would most likely not have been detected.

  18. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Tong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003. Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management.In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016. In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset.Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations.Materials and methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at eight-hour intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED.Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males between the ages of 70 and 104 years (M=81 years, SD=7 participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r-values between 0.5 and 0

  19. Evaluation of the LIAISON ANA screen assay for antinuclear antibody testing in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghillani, P; Rouquette, A M; Desgruelles, C; Hauguel, N; Le Pendeven, C; Piette, J C; Musset, L

    2007-08-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are widely detected by immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells in patients with connective tissue diseases and other pathological conditions. We evaluated the first-automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of ANA (LIAISON ANA screen, DiaSorin). This study was carried out simultaneously in two laboratories by testing 327 patient samples with clinically defined connective diseases, 273 routine samples for ANA screening, and 300 blood donors. A total of 268 out of 337 IIF-positive sera were positive with LIAISON ANA screen (79.5% of agreement) and 240 out of 263 IIF-negative sera were negative with LIAISON ANA screen (91.2% of agreement). After resolution of discrepant results, the concordance reached, respectively, 94.9% and 98.8%. The specificity was 99.3% and the sensitivity was 94%. Unlike results obtained by other ANA screening assays, we observed acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Despite the presence of HEp-2 cell extract, we failed to detect some antibodies as antinucleolar, antinuclear envelope, and antiproliferating cell nuclear antigen. This automated assay allows quick process to results and exhibits satisfactory sensitivity for the detection of the main ANA specificities of connective tissue diseases.

  20. The Clock Drawing Test A review of its accuracy in screening for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    Full Text Available Abstract The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is a simple neuropsychometric instrument that can be easily applied to assess several cognitive functions. Over the past 20 years, the CDT has aroused considerable interest in its role for the early screening of cognitive impairment, especially in dementia. Although the CDT is considered an accurate test for dementia screening, recent studies including comparisons with structured batteries such as the CAMCOG have shown mixed results. Objectives: To investigate the importance of the CDT compared to other commonly used tests, in the diagnosis of dementia in the elderly; (2 to evaluate the reliability and correlation between available CDT scoring scales from recent studies. Methods: A systematic search in the literature was conducted in September 2008 for studies comparing CDT scoring systems and comparing the CDT with neuropsychiatric batteries. Results: Twelve studies were selected for analyses. Seven of these studies compared CDT scoring scales while five compared the CDT against the CAMCOG and the MMSE. Eight studies found good correlation and reliability between the scales and the other tests. Conclusion: Despite the mixed results in these studies, the CDT appears to be a good screening test for dementia.

  1. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function.

  2. Evaluation of adjunctive tests for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatla Neerja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual inspection of cervix after application of acetic acid (VIA is an effective screening tool for cervical cancer in low resource settings, but its low specificity leads to high referral rates. Adjunctive testing may overcome this drawback. Aims: This pilot study was aimed to assess test performances of VIA, human papillomavirus (HPV testing and Pap smear, individually and in simulated combinations, to determine the probable best screening option. Setting and Design: Gynecology outpatient department (OPD; cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: One hundred women with complaints of irregular vaginal bleeding or discharge, post coital bleeding or unhealthy cervix on examination underwent Pap smear, HPV testing, VIA, colposcopy and biopsy, if indicated, in this screening order. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated for each of the tests with a biopsy result of ≥HSIL taken as the gold standard. Simulated parallel and sequential combinations for VIA/Pap, VIA/HPV and HPV/Pap were calculated and compared with individual test performance. Results: Prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 5%, VIA positive 51% and HPV positive 16%. Sensitivity and specificity of VIA were 100% and 53.3% respectively. For HPV and Pap tests corresponding figures were 85.7%, 89.7% and 50%, 98.9% respectively. The best simulated combination with a balance of sensitivity and specificity was of VIA followed by HPV testing (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 95.4%. Conclusion: Addition of HPV testing to VIA can increase the specificity of VIA, thereby reducing the referral rates without compromising the sensitivity of the test.

  3. Preliminary piping layout and integration of European test blanket modules subsystems in ITER CVCS area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarallo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.tarallo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Mozzillo, Rocco; Di Gironimo, Giuseppe [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Aiello, Antonio; Utili, Marco [ENEA UTIS, C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Ricapito, Italo [TBM& MD Project, Fusion for Energy, EU Commission, Carrer J. Pla, 2, Building B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The use of human modeling tools for piping design in view of maintenance is discussed. • A possible preliminary layout for TBM subsystems in CVCS area has been designed with CATIA. • A DHM-based method to quickly check for maintainability of piping systems is suggested. - Abstract: This paper explores a possible integration of some ancillary systems of helium-cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) test blanket modules in ITER CVCS area. Computer-aided design and ergonomics simulation tools have been fundamental not only to define suitable routes for pipes, but also to quickly check for maintainability of equipment and in-line components. In particular, accessibility of equipment and systems has been investigated from the very first stages of the design using digital human models. In some cases, the digital simulations have resulted in changes in the initial space reservations.

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-09-30

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design.

  5. The preliminary tests of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-SC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A; Bekhterev, V; Bogomolov, S; Drobin, V; Loginov, V; Lebedev, A; Yazvitsky, N; Yakovlev, B

    2012-02-01

    A new compact version of the "liquid He-free" superconducting ECR ion source, to be used as an injector of highly charged heavy ions for the MC-400 cyclotron, is designed and built at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in collaboration with the Laboratory of High Energy Physics of JINR. The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement. The microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used for ECR plasma heating. During the first tests, the source shows a good enough performance for the production of medium charge state ions. In this paper, we will present the design parameters and the preliminary results with gaseous ions.

  6. Test plan for preliminary study of inorganic contaminant removal from RMA groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.; Terkonda, P.; Weeks, N.

    1978-02-01

    This document consists of a major report on inorganic contaminant removal from ground water. In this plan, WES has been requested by the OPM-CDIR to conduct a literature review and preliminary laboratory treatability studies on various source waters at RMA. Recommendation is that the determination of suitable treatment processes be based on both engineering and economic analysis and that the processes be compatible with the organic contaminant treatment processes under study (activated carbon adsorption and ultraviolet/ozone oxidation). The amendment to the test plan presents the inorganic treatment processes found from the literature to be applicable to the inorganic contaminants in RMA ground water and outlines the bench scale study to be conducted at WES using the potential processes. The rest of the document is correspondence and reports on various water treatability.

  7. Developing the Psychological Strain Scales (PSS): Reliability, Validity, and Preliminary Hypothesis Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Juncheng; Zhao, Sibo; Lamis, Dorian A; Li, Ning; Kong, Yuanyuan; Jia, Cunxian; Zhou, Li; Ma, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, the Strain Theory of Suicide has been tested and supported in a number of empirical studies. This social psychological theory can be employed as a complementary conceptualization to account for suicidal behaviors as well as mental disorders. However, the lack of consistent measurements of the strains limits the application of the theory in scientific research. Our research team has developed such scales for future testing of the Strain Theory of Suicide in a more systematic approach. For the initial items to measure the four strains (value, aspiration, deprivation, and coping), we solicited approximately 40 items for each strain with high face validity by about 30 fellow researchers. A preliminary examination of about 160 items for consistency and validity, with a sample of about 300 college students, yielded 20 consistent items for each of the four strain scales. Then, a second study was conducted at a different university with approximately 500 students to further streamline each of the four strain scales and test the validity of each with corresponding established scales and variables. As a result, 15 items were selected for each of the four Psychological Strain Scales (PSS). In correlation and multiple regression analyses, we found support for the hypotheses regarding the positive associations between psychological strains measured by the PSS and psychopathology including suicidal ideation. Follow up research with the new scales needs to be carried out in order to test the effects of psychological strains on suicide and mental disorders for various populations.

  8. POPULATION BASED COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING: COMPARISON OF TWO FAECAL OCCULT BLOOD TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña eZubero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based programme in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain, we compared two immunochemical faecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT. Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50-69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n=11,162 for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n=11,786 for FOB Gold, (p=0.008. Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n=737 and 8.5% (n=1,002 for FOB Gold, (pConclusions: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT based CRC screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB-Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives.

  9. An analysis of the duplicate testing strategy of an Irish immunochemical FOBT colorectal cancer screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelley, Leanne

    2013-06-10

    AIM: This study examined the relevance of using a two sample quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT or FIT) at a high cut off stringency by the first population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) pilot screening programme in Ireland. METHOD: Approximately ten thousand individuals between the ages of 50-74 years were invited to perform two consecutive FITs. These were analysed in tandem using the OC-Sensor and participants with at least one positive result with a haemoglobin cut off for positivity at 100 ng\\/ml were offered colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 5023 (52%) (2177 (43%) male; 2846 (57%) female) individuals with a median age of 64 years participated. At least one positive FIT test was detected from 514 (10%) individuals. From the 419 (82%) patients who proceeded to colonoscopy 17 (4%) had CRC and 132(33%) had an advanced adenoma. The detection rate for these screen relevant lesions was 3% (95% CIs = 2.5% - 3.5%) and the FIT positive + colonoscopy detection rate was 36% (95% CI = 31% - 40%). The numbers needed to colonoscope to find an advanced lesion was 2.8. The two test system detected four (23.5%) additional patients with CRC and 37 (28%) with an advanced adenoma compared with a single test. CONCLUSION: The CRC miss rate estimated for a single test (23.5%) was unacceptably high when the goal was to maximize the discovery of advanced lesions in the initial screening round. We conclude that the two test protocol at a high cut off threshold is suitable to optimize FIT screening in Ireland. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  11. A comparison of the korean-ages and stages questionnaires and denver developmental delay screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ga, Hyo-Yun; Kwon, Jeong Yi

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate concurrent validity between the Korean-Ages and Stages Questionnaires (K-ASQ) and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST II), and to evaluate the validity of the K-ASQ as a screening tool for detecting developmental delay of Korean children. A retrospective chart review was done to examine concurrent validity of the screening potentials for developmental delay between the K-ASQ and the DDST II (n=226). We examined validity of the K-ASQ compared with Capute scale (n=141) and Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=69) as a gold standard of developmental delay. Correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of the associations between tests. A fair to good strength relationship (k=0.442, ptest characteristics of the K-ASQ were sensitivity 76.3-90.2%, specificity 62.5-76.5%, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 2.41-3.40, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.16-0.32. Evidence of concurrent validity of the K-ASQ with DDST II was found. K-ASQ can be used for screening of developmental delay.

  12. Attitudes Regarding Participation in a Diabetes Screening Test among an Assyrian Immigrant Population in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Andersson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants from the Middle East have higher prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D compared with native Swedes. The aim of the study was to describe and understand health beliefs in relation to T2D as well as attitudes regarding participation in a screening process in a local group of Assyrian immigrants living in Sweden. A qualitative and quantitative method was chosen in which 43 individuals participated in a health check-up and 13 agreed to be interviewed. Interviews were conducted, anthropometric measurements and blood tests were collected, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. In total, 13 of the 43 participants were diagnosed with impaired glucose metabolism, 4 of these 13 had TD2. The interviewed participants perceived that screening was an opportunity to discover more about their health and to care for themselves and their families. Nevertheless, they were not necessarily committed to taking action as a consequence of the screening. Instead, they professed that their health was not solely in their own hands and that they felt safe that God would provide for them. Assyrians’ background and religion affect their health beliefs and willingness to participate in screening for TD2.

  13. An oral health and function screening tool for nursing personnel of long-term care facilities to identify the need for dentist referral without preliminary training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Shigemi; Ito, Kayoko; Stegaroiu, Roxana; Shibata, Satoko; Ohuchi, Akitsugu

    2017-06-01

    To develop and evaluate, with a dentist as gold standard, an oral health screening tool, the Oral Health Screening Tool for Nursing Personnel (OHSTNP), that assists long-term care facility nursing staff without preliminary training in identifying resident need for dentist referral. Using an OHSTNP adapted from previous screening tools (Chalmers, J Gerontol Nurs, 2004, 30, 5; Tsukada, J Jpn Soc Dent Hyg, 2012, 7, 43), one of four nurses, one of eight caregivers and a dentist with 15 years' experience screened the oral health/function of 57 long-term care facility residents. The OHSTNP included a question on the need and reasons for dentist referral. Tool reliability and validity were evaluated by determining inter-rater agreement (Cohen's kappa), sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. For dentist-nurse and dentist-caregiver pairs, kappa was statistically significant and sensitivity was high (≥0.67, nurses; ≥0.71, caregivers) for natural teeth, dentures and oral function-related categories. Specificity for all categories was ≥0.69. Screening by nurses and caregivers for need for referral had low sensitivity (0.05, 0.23), accuracy (0.25, 0.39) and kappa (-0.01, 0.08). However, if nursing staff had been instructed to request a dentist referral in case of alterations in natural teeth/dentures or severe alterations in any other category, the estimated values increased to a sensitivity of 0.86 and 0.91, an accuracy of 0.75 and 0.82 and a kappa of 0.26 and 0.47. OHSTNP was reliable and valid for screening natural teeth, denture conditions and oral functions. Supplementary guidelines improved estimates of OHSTNP sensitivity, accuracy and reliability for nurse/caregiver assessment of resident need for dentist referral. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial properties of crude stem bark extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Emmanuel O; Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Adegboye, Mobolaji F; Oni, Matthew O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-07-18

    A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycoside and sugars. The inhibition zones exhibited by the extract against the tested bacteria ranged between 14 ± 0.00 mm (against Escherichia coli) and 28 ± 0.71 mm (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The MIC of the methanolic extract of P. biglobosa against isolates ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, while the MIC values exhibited by the n-hexane and aqueous fractions ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Overall the extract and fractions of P. biglobosa used in this work were found to possess antimicrobial properties which compared favourably with those of streptomycin. These observations make this plant a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be used in management of bacterial infections. The use of this plant as herbal medicaments in African countries and the reports on the toxicity of the plant further show that the plant is non-toxic to humans.

  15. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Properties of Crude Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycoside and sugars. The inhibition zones exhibited by the extract against the tested bacteria ranged between 14 ± 0.00 mm (against Escherichia coli and 28 ± 0.71 mm (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC of the methanolic extract of P. biglobosa against isolates ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, while the MIC values exhibited by the n-hexane and aqueous fractions ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Overall the extract and fractions of P. biglobosa used in this work were found to possess antimicrobial properties which compared favourably with those of streptomycin. These observations make this plant a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be used in management of bacterial infections. The use of this plant as herbal medicaments in African countries and the reports on the toxicity of the plant further show that the plant is non-toxic to humans.

  16. Preliminary Screening of Infertility by Evidence-Based Medicine%不孕症循证初筛病因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯帆

    2011-01-01

    不孕症是一类集医疗、社会心理及经济层面的复杂社会问题.本研究通过对不孕症初筛临床路径循证依据进行综述,提出与妊娠结局直接与不直接相关的检查项目,旨在指导临床医师对不孕症患者进行科学、规范的初步筛查,遏制在不孕症诊治中的过度检查、高额成本,让患者花最小的代价,即可获得满意疗效.%Infertility is a complex disorder with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic aspects. The study reviewed the initial screening evaluation of infertility which based on evidence-based medicine. This review questioned some tests which directly or indirectly related to pregnancy outcomes, which can guide clinicians to check patients by a scientific and standardized way and stop excessive examination, so that infertility couple will get a satisfied treatment at the minimum cost.

  17. HPV testing for primary cervical screening: Laboratory issues and evolving requirements for robust quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Cuschieri, Kate; Frayle, Helena; Sani, Cristina; Burroni, Elena

    2016-03-01

    This review aims to highlight the importance of Quality Assurance for Laboratories performing HPV test for Cervical Cancer Screening. An HPV test, to be used as primary screening test, must be validated according to international criteria, based on comparison of its clinical accuracy to HC2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA tests. The number of validated platforms is increasing and appropriate Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) which can interrogate longitudinal robustness and quality are paramount. This document describes the following topics: (1) the characteristics of an HPV laboratory and the personnel training needs, to ensure an elevated quality of the entire process and the optimal use of the resources; (2) the Quality Assurance, as both internal (IQA) and external quality assessment (EQA) systems, to be implemented and performed, and the description of the existing EQAs, including limitations; (3) general considerations for an optimal EQA program for hrHPV primary screening Due to the importance of Quality Assurance for this field, international efforts are necessary to improve QA International Collaboration.

  18. A study of the impact of adding HPV types to cervical cancer screening and triage tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Khan, Michelle J; Solomon, Diane; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Bratti, Maria C; Wheeler, Cosette M; Burk, Robert D

    2005-01-19

    Use of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in cervical cancer prevention is increasing rapidly. A DNA test for 13 HPV types that can cause cervical cancer is approved in the United States for co-screening with cytology of women >or=30 years old and for triage of women of all ages with equivocal cytology. However, most infections with HPV are benign. We evaluated trade-offs between specificity and sensitivity for approximately 40 HPV types in predicting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and cancer in two prospective studies: a population-based screening study that followed 6196 women aged 30-94 years from Costa Rica for 7 years and a triage study that followed 3363 women aged 18-90 years with equivocal cytology in four U.S. centers for 2 years. For both screening and triage, testing for more than about 10 HPV types decreased specificity more than it increased sensitivity. The minimal increases in sensitivity and in negative predictive value achieved by adding HPV types to DNA tests must be weighed against the projected burden to thousands of women falsely labeled as being at high risk of cervical cancer.

  19. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  20. Comparison among single-phase test, automated screening method and GC/MS for the traceability of ketamine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Visione

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION Following the law indications, ketamine is not searched: this limit does not make the authorities able to apply the penalties expected for road laws violations. The automation is essential to guarantee the reliability of toxicological screening tests, especially to medico-legal significance. This results highlight the absolutely necessity of the execution of the confirmation test, successively to screening analysis.

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Neck Tornado Test as a New Screening Test in Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyeon; Park, Woo Young; Hong, Seungbae; An, Jiwon; Koh, Jae Chul; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kim, Yong Chan; Choi, Jong Bum

    2017-01-01

    The Spurling test, although a highly specific provocative test of the cervical spine in cervical radiculopathy (CR), has low to moderate sensitivity. Thus, we introduced the neck tornado test (NTT) to examine the neck and the cervical spine in CR. The aim of this study was to introduce a new provocative test, the NTT, and compare the diagnostic accuracy with a widely accepted provocative test, the Spurling test. Retrospective study. Medical records of 135 subjects with neck pain (CR, n = 67; without CR, n = 68) who had undergone cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging and been referred to the pain clinic between September 2014 and August 2015 were reviewed. Both the Spurling test and NTT were performed in all patients by expert examiners. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared for both the Spurling test and the NTT. The sensitivity of the Spurling test and the NTT was 55.22% and 85.07% (P < 0.0001); specificity, 98.53% and 86.76% (P = 0.0026); accuracy, 77.04% and 85.93% (P = 0.0423), respectively. The NTT is more sensitive with superior diagnostic accuracy for CR diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging than the Spurling test.

  2. Cross-cultural effects on IQ test performance: a review and preliminary normative indications on WAIS-III test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B; Kemp, Ryan D; Rust, Annegret L; Muirhead, Joanne G L; Hartman, Nigel P; Radloff, Sarah E

    2004-10-01

    This article presents a review of cross-cultural influences on Wechsler IQ tests, together with a preliminary investigation into WAIS-III test performance (English administration) for a southern African sample (age range 19-30) stratified for white English first language and black African first language, level and quality of education. ('African language' is the term used to denote the indigenous languages of black populations in southern Africa). A two-way ANOVA revealed highly significant effects for both level and quality of education within the black African first language group. Scores for the white English and black African first language groups with advantaged education were comparable with the US standardization, whereas scores for black African first language participants with disadvantaged education were significantly lower than this. Thus indications from this research are that normative studies should take account of the influential variable of quality of education, in addition to level of education. Alternatively faulty conclusions may be drawn about the effects of ethnicity, with the potential for neuropsychological misdiagnosis.

  3. Five-Year Cervical (Pre)Cancer Risk of Women Screened by HPV and Cytology Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijterwaal, Margot H; Polman, Nicole J; Van Kemenade, Folkert J; Van Den Haselkamp, Sander; Witte, Birgit I; Rijkaart, Dorien; Berkhof, Johannes; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2015-06-01

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical screening will be introduced in the Netherlands in 2016. We assessed the 5-year cervical (pre)cancer risk of women with different combinations of HPV and cytology test results. Special attention was paid to risks for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and 2 or more (CIN3+/2+) of HPV-positive women with a negative triage test, because this determines the safety of a 5-year screening interval for HPV-positive, triage test-negative women. In addition, age-related effects were studied. A total of 25,553 women were screened by HPV testing and cytology in a screening setting. Women were managed on the presence of HPV and/or abnormal cytology. Five-year cumulative incidences for CIN3+/2+ were calculated. Five-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 10.0% (17.7%) among HPV-positive women. When stratified by cytology, the CIN3+(CIN2+) risk was 7.9% (12.9%) for women with normal cytology and 22.2% (45.3%) for women with equivocal or mildly abnormal (i.e., BMD) cytology. For HPV-negative women, the 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 0.09% (0.21%). Additional triage of HPV-positive women with normal cytology by repeat cytology at 12 months showed a 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk of 4.1% (7.0%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal cytology at baseline had comparable risks of 3.5% (7.9%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal baseline cytology and normal repeat cytology had a 5-year CIN3+ risk of 0.42%. No age-related effects were detected. In conclusion, HPV-positive women with normal cytology and a negative triage test, either repeat cytology after 12 months or baseline HPV 16/18 genotyping, develop a non-negligible CIN3+ risk over 5 years. Therefore, extension of the screening interval over 5 years only seems possible for HPV screen-negative women. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Preliminary Tests Concerning Zero-Valent Iron Efficiency in Inorganic Pollutants Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fiore

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was aimed to a preliminary evaluation of the applicability of granular Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI to the on site remediation of groundwater polluted by inorganic contaminants by means of a Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB. A particular interest was devoted to groundwater impacted by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD that was caused by the oxidation of metal sulphide minerals contained in mine wastes, especially iron disulphide pyrite. Although AMD consequences were particularly evident in surface waters, the percolation through mine wastes may heavily alter the groundwater quality, therefore is particularly important the development of a restrained cost remediation technique for groundwater polluted by AMDs. Approach: In this study the degradation efficiency of Brown size 8/50 ZVI (Peerless Powders and Abrasive Inc., Detroit, US was evaluated performing a leaching column test and analyzing the Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP, metals, nitrates, chlorides and sulphates profiles along the column. Results: This test allowed simulating the solid-liquid contact characteristic of a real PRB behavior that proved to be a possible solution for the remediation of inorganic pollutants in groundwater. Conclusion: The considered material showed efficiency above 99% in metals removal, although further tests, involving biotic processes and more reducing conditions, are necessary to improve the degradation of sulphates and nitrates.

  5. Diagnostic performance and costs of contingent screening models for trisomy 21 incorporating non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susannah; O'Leary, Peter; Dickinson, Jan E; Suthers, Graeme K

    2017-08-01

    Contingent screening for trisomy 21 using non-invasive prenatal testing has the potential to reduce invasive diagnostic testing and increase the detection of trisomy 21. To describe the diagnostic and economic performance of prenatal screening models for trisomy 21 that use non-invasive prenatal testing as a contingent screen across a range of combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs from a public health system perspective. Using a hypothetical cohort of 300 000 pregnancies, we modelled the outcomes of 25 contingent non-invasive prenatal testing screening models and compared these to conventional screening, offering women with a high-risk (1 > 300) combined first trimester screening result an invasive test. The 25 models used a range of risk cut-offs. High-risk women were offered invasive testing. Intermediate-risk women were offered non-invasive prenatal testing. We report the cost of each model, detection rate, costs per diagnosis, invasive tests per diagnosis and the number of fetal losses per diagnosis. The cost per prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 using the conventional model was $51 876 compared to the contingent models which varied from $49 309-66 686. The number of diagnoses and cost per diagnosis increased as the intermediate-risk threshold was lowered. Results were sensitive to trisomy 21 incidence, uptake of testing and cost of non-invasive prenatal testing. Contingent non-invasive prenatal testing models using more sensitive combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs than conventional screening improved the detection rate of trisomy 21, reduced procedure-related fetal loss and could potentially be provided at a lower cost per diagnosis than conventional screening. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Development of Taiwan Smell Identification Test: a quick office-based smell screening test for Taiwanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ning-I; Lai, Jen-Tsung; Shen, Ping-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Objective smell tests not only identify levels of smelling ability but also provide information on changes in olfaction after treatment. Odor identification is strongly socially and culturally dependent; therefore, the odorants used in a smell identification test should be familiar to the test population. We developed this smell test for Taiwanese populations with two aims: the test odors should be familiar to Taiwanese and the test should be easily and quickly administered in a busy clinic. Additives that are familiar to Taiwanese people were selected for this smell identification test. Subsequently, the test was validated with the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (TC-UPSIT). Finally, this Taiwan Smell Identification Test (TWSIT) was implemented in daily clinical use, and cut-off points of "normosmia," "hyposmia," and "anosmia" were established. A total of 1000 subjects were included in the market survey to identify commonly recognized odors. Eight odorants with identification rate greater than 95% were selected. The TWSIT is an array of multiple-choice questions to select the odor. In addition, patient also reported the strength of the odor. The full score was 48. Thirty-seven patients simultaneously received both TWSIT and TC-UPSIT, and the correlation was high (r = 0.874). Based on the testing results of an additional 187 subjects, we concluded that scores of 47-48, 15-44, and 2-12 corresponded to normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia, respectively. Patients with scores falling in the gaps require retesting at a later time. The TWSIT is a quick, office-based, and useful odor identification tool for Taiwanese. The experience of developing a culturally specific olfaction test like the TWSIT can be applied in different countries and cultures.

  7. Evaluation of a new rapid plasma reagin card test as a screening test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    This study evaluates the American Dade (Biokit Laboratories) rapid plasma reagin (Dade RPR) card test, currently used in Spain for the diagnosis of syphilis, which has been recently released to the U.S. market. Used as a basis for comparison with the Dade card test were the 18-mm standard rapid plasma reagin (standard RPR) card test and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test, using both fresh sera obtained from 505 individuals and paired serum-plasma specimens from 174 ind...

  8. Developmental neurotoxicity testing: recommendations for developing alternative methods for the screening and prioritization of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Kevin M; Mundy, William R; Lein, Pamela J; Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Seiler, Andrea E M; Knaut, Holger; Buzanska, Leonora; Goldberg, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemicals. This document provides recommendations for developing alternative DNT approaches that will generate the type of data required for evaluating and comparing predictive capacity and efficiency across test methods and laboratories. These recommendations were originally drafted to stimulate and focus discussions of alternative testing methods and models for DNT at the TestSmart DNT II meeting (http://caat.jhsph.edu/programs/workshops/dnt2.html) and this document reflects critical feedback from all stakeholders that participated in this meeting. The intent of this document is to serve as a catalyst for engaging the research community in the development of DNT alternatives and it is expected that these recommendations will continue to evolve with the science.

  9. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management......Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace....... Selection criteria Studies asking women to state a preference between active follow-up and observation for the management of low-grade abnormalities on screening cytology or HPV tests. Data collection and analysis Information on study design, participants and outcomes was retrieved using a prespecified form...

  10. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T

    2014-01-01

    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  11. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  12. Thermal Testing and Analysis of an Efficient High-Temperature Multi-Screen Internal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Stefan; Handrick, Karin; Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2007-01-01

    Conventional multi-layer insulations exhibit excellent insulation performance but they are limited to the temperature range to which their components reflective foils and spacer materials are compatible. For high temperature applications, the internal multi-screen insulation IMI has been developed that utilizes unique ceramic material technology to produce reflective screens with high temperature stability. For analytical insulation sizing a parametric material model is developed that includes the main contributors for heat flow which are radiation and conduction. The adaptation of model-parameters based on effective steady-state thermal conductivity measurements performed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) allows for extrapolation to arbitrary stack configurations and temperature ranges beyond the ones that were covered in the conductivity measurements. Experimental validation of the parametric material model was performed during the thermal qualification test of the X-38 Chin-panel, where test results and predictions showed a good agreement.

  13. A comparison of fasting plasma glucose and glucose challenge test for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poomalar, G K; Rangaswamy, V

    2013-07-01

    Glucose challenge test (GCT) has been used as an effective screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), though it has its own limitations. Hence, we assessed the effectiveness of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a simpler alternative procedure. A prospective study was done in 500 pregnant women with gestational age between 22 and 37 weeks. FPG, GCT and GTT were performed in all patients using the glucose oxidase/peroxidase method. The overall sensitivity and specificity of GCT were 75.0% and 92.0%, respectively and the corresponding values for FPG were 88.8% and 95.2%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 42.2% and 97.9% for GCT and 59.2% and 99.1% for FPG, respectively. We conclude that FPG can be used as an effective screening tool for gestational diabetes mellitus.

  14. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O. [Aquateam-Norwegian Water Technology Centre A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  15. CITRUS, cervical cancer screening trial by randomization of HPV testing intervention for upcoming screening: Design, methods and baseline data of 18,471 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisada, Tohru; Teramoto, Katsuhiro; Takano, Hirokuni; Sakamoto, Ikuko; Nishio, Hiroshi; Iwata, Takashi; Hashi, Akihiko; Katoh, Ryohei; Okamoto, Aikou; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Eiji; Teramukai, Satoshi; Aoki, Daisuke

    2017-08-14

    To assess the efficacy of screening with concurrent liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for primary cervical cancer screening, we initiated a randomized trial entitled CervIcal cancer screening Trial by Randomization of HPV testing intervention for Upcoming Screening (CITRUS). Between June 2013 and March 2015, women aged 30-64 years of age who participated in a regular cervical cancer screening program (every 2 years) were invited to enrollment of our study. After giving their informed consent, 18,402 women were randomly assigned to liquid-based cytology as the control group (n=9145) or to HPV DNA testing with liquid-based cytology as the intervention group (n=9257). We subsequently compared the incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), the rate of false positive tests and the rate of overdiagnosis, as well as assessing the risks and benefits of receiving screening for women in both groups. The primary outcome of our study was the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) during the study period of around 6 years. In the control group, 97.9% of women were NILM, and 2.06% ASC-US or worse (ASC-US+). In the intervention group, 87.13% of women were NILM/HPV negative, 0.72% ASC-US/HPV negative, 10.34% NILM/HPV positive, 0.69% ASC-US/HPV positive, 0.90% worse than ASC-US/either HPV. Positive HPV testing was not linearly related to age in our study. Insights from CITRUS will provide future prospects for cervical cancer screening focused on the use of HPV testing in Japan. NCT01895517, UMIN000010843, TRIUC1312. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening della disfagia nei pazienti con stroke acuto: l’introduzione sistematica del GUSS test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Migliorini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. La disfagia è presente nel 42-67% dei pazienti con stroke acuto e può determinare gravi complicanze, tra cui la polmonite da aspirazione. Esistono numerosi test per lo screening della disfagia nei pazienti con stroke in fase acuta. Nel maggio 2009 presso la stroke unit del Dipartimento di Neuroscienze dell’Azienda ULSS 18 di Rovigo è stato avviato un progetto per implementare il Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS test, strumento validato per lo screening della disfagia. Obiettivi. Introdurre il GUSS test nella pratica infermieristica per gestire il paziente disfagico con stroke acuto con una procedura condivisa da tutti i professionisti; verificare se lo screening della disfagia riduce le complicanze e il ricorso inappropriato al sondino naso-gastrico (SNG. Metodi. Un gruppo di lavoro multiprofessionale ha identificato dall’analisi della letteratura lo strumento di valutazione da adottare: il GUSS test è un metodo rapido ed affidabile per identificare i pazienti con disfagia a rischio di aspirazione, permette una valutazione graduale delle capacità di deglutizione del paziente, misura la gravità della disfagia e consente di identificare le raccomandazioni dietetiche. Sono stati raccolti i seguenti dati: numero di pazienti ricoverati, numero di test effettuati, episodi di polmonite da aspirazione, modalità di alimentazione dei pazienti, eventuale posizionamento del SNG. Risultati. Lo studio è stato condotto dal maggio 2009 a dicembre 2011. Nel periodo maggio-dicembre 2009 il test è stato somministrato a 129 pazienti: 12 pazienti (9,3% hanno manifestato disfagia ai liquidi e in 24 pazienti (18,6% è stato posizionato il SNG. Nel 2010 il test è stato somministrato a 202 pazienti: in 16 (8% è stata riscontrata disfagia ai liquidi, il SNG è stato posizionato in 30 pazienti (14,8%. Nel 2011 il test è stato somministrato a 219 pazienti: la disfagia ai liquidi è stata identificata in 17 pazienti (7,8% e sono stati posizionati

  17. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Riaz Ahmad; chatton,Anne; Nallet, Audrey; Broers, Barbara; Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Poznyak, Vladimir; Fleischmann, Alexandra; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed to detect substance use disorders. Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in various clinical groups with different levels of substance use. Methods: 150 subjects were recruited from clients attending primary health care, psychiatric and addiction treatment facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (...

  18. SUMA Technology and Newborn Screening Tests for Inherited Metabolic Diseases in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Carlos González Reyes PhD; Elisa M. Castells MSc; Amarilys Frómeta MSc; Ana Luisa Arteaga MD; Lesley Del Río MSc; Yileidis Tejeda MSc; Pedro L. Pérez LT; Mary Triny Segura BSc; Pedro Almenares MSc; Yenitse Perea MSc; Niurka M. Carlos MSc; René Robaina MD, PhD; José L. Fernández-Yero MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    The ultramicroanalytic system (SUMA), created in the 1980s, is a complete system of reagents and instrumentation to perform ultramicroassays combining the sensitivity of the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests with the use of ultramicrovolumes. This technology permitted establishing large-scale newborn screening programs (NSPs) for metabolic and endocrine disorders in Cuba. This article summarizes the main results of the implementation during the 30 years of SUMA technology ...

  19. Oscillating-flow regenerator test rig: Woven screen and metal felt results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, D.; Wood, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    We present correlating expressions, in terms of Reynolds or Peclet numbers, for friction factors, Nusselt numbers, enhanced axial conduction ratios, and overall heat flux ratios in four porous regenerator samples representative of stirling cycle regenerators: two woven screen samples and two random wire samples. Error estimates and comparison of data with others suggest our correlations are reliable, but we need to test more samples over a range of porosities before our results will become generally useful.

  20. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  1. Transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quant, Hayley S; Friedman, Alexander M; Wang, Eileen; Parry, Samuel; Schwartz, Nadav

    2014-03-01

    To determine the test characteristics of transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study evaluated the distance from the placental edge to the internal os (placenta-cervix distance) through both transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography during the anatomic survey. Patients were recruited in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Ultrasound Unit at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, an urban tertiary care center. Transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs with high sensitivity for detection of previa and low-lying placenta were identified, and test characteristics were calculated. Follow-up ultrasound data, pregnancy, and delivery outcomes for those with second-trimester previa or low-lying placenta were obtained. One thousand two hundred fourteen women were included in the analysis. A transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoff of 4.2 cm was 93.3% sensitive and 76.7% specific for detection of previa with a 99.8% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 25.0%. A cutoff of 2.8 cm was 86.7% sensitive and 90.5% specific with a 99.6% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 11.4%. Only 9.8% (four of 41) of previas and low-lying placentas persisted through delivery. Transabdominal ultrasonography is an effective screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. At centers not performing universal transvaginal ultrasonography at the time of the anatomic survey, evidence-based transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs can optimize the identification of patients who require further surveillance for previa.

  2. Negative screening tests in classical galactosaemia caused by S135L homozygosity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, E

    2009-06-01

    Classical galactosaemia is relatively common in Ireland due to a high carrier rate of the Q188R GALT mutation. It is screened for using a bacterial inhibition assay (BIA) for free galactose. A Beutler assay on day one of life is performed only in high risk cases (infants of the Traveller community and relatives of known cases). A 16-month-old Irish-born boy of Nigerian origin was referred for investigation of developmental delay, and failure to thrive. He had oral aversion to solids and his diet consisted of cow\\'s milk and milk-based cereal mixes. He was found to have microcephaly, weight <2nd percentile, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. Coagulation screen was normal and transaminases were slightly elevated. His original newborn screen was reviewed and confirmed to have been negative; urinary reducing substances on three separate occasions were negative. Beutler assay demonstrated "absent" red cell galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. GALT enzyme activity was <0.5 gsubs\\/h per gHb confirming classical galactosaemia. Gal-1-P was elevated at 1.88 micromol\\/gHb. Mutation analysis of the GALT gene revealed S135L homozygosity. S135L\\/S135L galactosaemia is associated with absent red cell GALT activity but with approximately 10% activity in other tissues such as the liver and intestines, probably explaining the negative screening tests and the somewhat milder phenotype associated with this genotype. The patient was commenced on galactose-restricted diet; on follow-up at 2 years of age, growth had normalized but there was global developmental delay. In conclusion, galactosaemia must be considered in children who present with poor growth, hepatomegaly, developmental delay and cataracts and GALT enzyme analysis should be a first line test in such cases. Non-enzymatic screening methods such as urinary reducing substances and BIA for free galactose are not reliable in S135L homozygous galactosaemia.

  3. Analysis of Second Trimester Maternal Quadruple Screening Test for Trisomy 21 and Trisomy 18

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    Katja Bricelj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The second trimester quadruple screening test for foetal chromosomal abnormalities has been carried out in Slovenia since 2006. Our objective was to analyse the quadruple test results, define sensibility and specificity, the positive and negative predictive value of the screening test for trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 and the influence of some maternal clinical parameters on risk calculation. Methods: Retrospectively collected results of 3,719 maternal blood samples were analysed in the period from February 1st, 2006 to December 31st, 2009 at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. We obtained information on maternal age, body weight and smoking (habits?, karyotyping of foetuses and clinical data on newborns.Results: The sensitivity of the test for trisomy 21 was 50%, specificity 95%, positive predictive value 2.3% and negative predictive value 99.8%.  Specificity for trisomy 18 was 98%, sensitivity 100% and the positive and negative predictive value 1.4% and 100% respectively.. False positive results in trisomy 21 were influenced by maternal weight (OR=1.034; p=0.00 and age (OR=0.832; p=0.00. It was influenced by maternal age (OR=0.924; p=0.17 and smoking (OR=0.396; p=0.006 in the case of trisomy 18.Conclusions: A quadruple test has an appropriate specificity for detecting foetuses with trisomy 21; however, it displays a low sensibility as well as a low positive predictive value. The test reveals high specificity and sensibility for the detection of foetal trisomy 18, and has a high negative predictive value, yet its positive predictive value remains low. Therefore, the test is primarily intended for pregnant women who, for various reasons, missed out on screening opportunities in the first trimester of their pregnancy.

  4. DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER MG. AS THE TEST-OBJECT FOR SCREENING XENOBIOTICS ON ACARICIDAL ACTIVITY

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    Belokon S.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of new effective test systems for screening xenobiotics on biological activity, including its possible harmful influence on the organism is the modern challenge. Test systems of eukaryotic origin are needed for testing of xenobiotics on their gonadotoxical, embryotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. Such testing should include the monitoring of genetic effects of bioactive compounds and the possible mutagenic effect. The Drosophila melanogaster Mg. is very convenient test object as a classical genetics object, for which the genome is fully sequenced. It is convenient and easy to find out the frequency of crossingover in different parts of the genome, and study the key indicators of vitality and ontogenetic adaptation (fertility, longevity, survival under stress conditions, etc. on Drosophila. The crossover frequency, in our opinion, can be an integral factor for the general state of genotype.so we could use the mark of genetic recombination frequency as one of the indicators of the impact of xenobiotics. In this study we examined the possibility of using Drosophila melanogaster Mg. (Diptera, Drosophilidae as a test object for screening xenobiotics on acaricidal activity. Sensitivity of flies to acaricides piridaben (Sanmayt and proparhit (Omayt was studied by their fitness, longevity, fertility, and frequency of meiotic recombination in the area b-vg second chromosome. It was found that the studied compounds - piridaben and proparhit have significant influence on vitality of D. melanogaster. The presence of these acaricides in the nutrition of flies testifies the harmful influence on their crossingover and reduced fecundity and longevity. We suggested to use the D. melanogaster as a test object for screening xenobiotics on acaricidal activity.

  5. Screened test-charge - test-charge interaction in the two-dimensional electron gas: bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Ghazali, A.

    1997-08-01

    We study the test-charge - test-charge interaction when screening effects of a two-dimensional electron gas are taken into account. The Schrödinger equation is solved in the momentum space by diagonalizing the corresponding matrix and the results are compared with variational calculations. For two positive (or negative) test-charges bound states are obtained for low electron densities when many-body effects are incorporated in the screening function. For a density larger than a critical density, 0953-8984/9/32/011/img5 (0953-8984/9/32/011/img6 is the Wigner - Seitz parameter), no bound states are found. Below the critical density, 0953-8984/9/32/011/img7, the number of bound states and their energy increase with decreasing density and the ground-state binding energy saturates near 0953-8984/9/32/011/img8. Finite-width effects for quantum wells are also discussed. We present new results for bound states between a positive and a negative test charge and we discuss effects of exchange and correlation on the binding energies.

  6. The King-Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Danielle F; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L; Evans, Greg; Gimre, Matthew; Watt, David

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention as a result of neurologic sequelae seen among athletes, highlighting the need for a validated, rapid screening tool. The King-Devick (K-D) test requires vision, eye movements, language function and attention in order to perform and has been proposed as a promising tool for assessment of concussion. We investigated the K-D test as a sideline screening tool in a collegiate cohort to determine the effect of concussion. Athletes (n=127, mean age 19.6±1.2 years) from the Wheaton College football and men's and women's basketball teams underwent baseline K-D testing at pre-season physicals for the 2012-2013 season. K-D testing was administered immediately on the sidelines for football players with suspected head injury during regular games and changes compared to baseline were determined. Post-season testing was also performed to compare non-concussed athletes' test performance. Concussed athletes (n=11) displayed sideline K-D scores that were significantly higher (worse) than baseline (36.5±5.6s vs. 31.3±4.5s, p<0.005, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Post-season testing demonstrated improvement of scores and was consistent with known learning effects (35.1±5.2s vs. 34.4±5.0s, p<0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Test-retest reliability was analyzed between baseline and post-season administrations of the K-D test resulting in high levels of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.95 [95% Confidence Interval 0.85-1.05]). The data show worsening of K-D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K-D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy on maternal serum screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, G G; Timur, H; Yilmaz, Z; Kirbas, A; Daglar, K; Tokmak, A; Uygur, D; Danişman, N

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the changes in the first and second trimester maternal serum biochemical markers used for prenatal screening are associated with euploid pregnancies complicated by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). A total of 94 pregnant women were included in this retrospective comparative study. Thirty-seven women whose pregnancy was complicated with ICP constituted the study group whereas 57 of them constituted the control group. All hospital records were examined in terms of combined first trimester screening test and second trimester triple test parameters. Perinatal outcomes were also recorded. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in term of age, BMI, and obstetric history (all p > 0.05). Mean serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum bile acid concentrations in the study group were significantly higher than in the controls (p pregnancies complicated by ICP and healthy pregnancies in terms of first and second trimester maternal serum screening test results.

  8. Development of the Thai version of Mini-Cog, a brief cognitive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongsakul, Supaporn; Lambert, Rod; Clark, Allan; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Cross, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment, such as dementia, has emerged as the leading public health problem among the elderly. Therefore, early detection of the disorder and providing appropriate healthcare and management is important, particularly, for the patients with comorbid diabetes who require long-term treatment strategies. In Thailand, because of a large number of elderly patients with diabetes, and time constraints in primary care settings, a short and effective cognitive screening test is required. The Mini-Cog is a short and valid cognitive screening test that was specifically designed for use in primary care settings. The present study translated the English language version into a Thai language version, and then measured the interrater reliability and concurrent validity. The processes of cross-language translation were carried out to develop a Thai language version of the Mini-Cog. A total of 21 Thai older adults with type 2 diabetes with a mean aged of 69 ± 7 years were recruited into a study investigating the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Mini-Cog Thai version in one primary care center in Thailand. The Mini-Cog Thai version showed a good interrater reliability (K = 0.80, P cognitive function in primary care settings in Thailand. It is recommended that it could be used as a new cognitive screening test for the aging population in the Thai community. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. A simple sarcopenia screening test predicts future adverse events in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Yoshiro; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Hanatani, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Tomoko; Yamamura, Satoru; Kimura, Yuichi; Araki, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Hokimoto, Seiji

    2016-07-15

    Progressive loss of skeletal muscle termed "sarcopenia" is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. A simple screening test that can identify sarcopenia using three variables (age, grip strength and calf circumference) was recently developed. We evaluated the clinical utility of this screening test in patients with heart failure (HF). HF patients were divided into the sarcopenia (n=82) and non-sarcopenia (n=37) groups based on the sarcopenia score. Circulating BNP and high-sensitive cardiac troponin T levels were significantly higher, and left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in the sarcopenia group than non-sarcopenia group. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that HF event-free survival rate was significantly lower in the sarcopenia group. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified BNP (ln[BNP]) (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09-2.29, p=0.02), hs-CRP (ln[CRP]) (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.23-2.68; psarcopenia score (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, psarcopenia score to BNP levels increased an area under the curve for future HF events (sarcopenia score alone, 0.77; BNP alone, 0.82; combination, 0.89). The sarcopenia screening test can be used to predict future adverse events in patients with HF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening for Type 2 Diabetes in a High-Risk Population : Effects of a Negative Screening Test After 4 Years Follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Julie I.; Otto, Suzie J.; Klijs, Bart; de Koning, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    A negative diabetes screening test may unintentionally provide reassurance, resulting in reduced incentive to follow a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study is to assess negative test result effects on lifestyle and risk perception at 4 years follow-up. Risk perception and changes in smoking,

  11. AGR-1 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Demkowicz; Lance Cole; Scott Ploger; Philip Winston; Binh Pham; Michael Abbott

    2011-01-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment ended on November 6, 2009, after 620 effective full power days in the Advanced Test Reactor, achieving a peak burnup of 19.6% FIMA. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in March 2010 for post-irradiation examination. The first PIE activities included non-destructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and the graphite fuel holders. Dimensional measurements of the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsules shells were performed using a custom vision measurement system (for outer diameters and lengths) and conventional bore gauges (for inner diameters). Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Neutron radiography of the intact Capsule 2 showed a high degree of detail of interior components and confirmed the observation that there was no major damage to the capsule. Disassembly of the capsules was initiated using procedures qualified during out-of-cell mockup testing. Difficulties were encountered during capsule disassembly due to irradiation-induced changes in some of the capsule components’ properties, including embrittled niobium and molybdenum parts that were susceptible to fracture and swelling of the graphite fuel holders that affected their removal from the capsule shells. This required various improvised modifications to the disassembly procedure to avoid damage to the fuel compacts. Ultimately the capsule disassembly was successful and only one compact from Capsule 4 (out of 72 total in the test train) sustained damage during the disassembly process, along with the associated graphite holder. The compacts were generally in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor

  12. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

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    Vera L. Trainer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A. The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS. The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters.

  13. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

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    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease.Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT.Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums.Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative.Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  14. Slug tests in wells screened across the water table: some additional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of slug tests done at sites of shallow groundwater contamination are performed in wells screened across the water table and are affected by mechanisms beyond those considered in the standard slug-test models. These additional mechanisms give rise to a number of practical issues that are yet to be fully resolved; four of these are addressed here. The wells in which slug tests are performed were rarely installed for that purpose, so the well design can result in problematic (small signal to noise ratio) test data. The suitability of a particular well design should thus always be assessed prior to field testing. In slug tests of short duration, it can be difficult to identify which portion of the test represents filter-pack drainage and which represents formation response; application of a mass balance can help confirm that test phases have been correctly identified. A key parameter required for all slug test models is the casing radius. However, in this setting, the effective casing radius (borehole radius corrected for filter-pack porosity), not the nominal well radius, is required; this effective radius is best estimated directly from test data. Finally, although conventional slug-test models do not consider filter-pack drainage, these models will yield reasonable hydraulic conductivity estimates when applied to the formation-response phase of a test from an appropriately developed well.

  15. Prevalence of positive tuberculosis skin tests during 5 years of screening in a Swiss remand prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C; Elger, B S

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening in prisons is recommended, but the appropriate methods remain controversial. Studies evaluating screening in remand prisons are scarce. Between 1997 and 2001, voluntary screening based on the tuberculin skin test (TST) was offered to all prisoners on entry into the largest remand prison in Switzerland. Prisoners with positive results underwent chest X-rays. We analysed this information collected in an anonymous database. A total of 4890 prisoners entered the prison and were eligible for screening; 3779 (77.3%) had TST performed on average 9 days after arrival: 46.9% were positive (induration ≥ 10 mm). Positive TST rates were similar over the 5 years. Women were more likely to have a negative TST (60.4%) than men (47.7%; P < 0.001, Pearson's (2) 16.5). Positive TSTs varied according to the prisoner's country of origin (64% for sub-Saharan Africa, 57% for Eastern Europe, 56% for North Africa, 51% for Asia and 34% for North and West Europe). The percentage of TST-positive subjects was high, and most did not receive preventive treatment for latent TB. The usefulness of systematic TST for all prisoners on entry is limited, as diagnosis of TB disease usually remains the priority in prisons.

  16. Mass Screening of Multiple Abdominal Solid Organs Using Mobile Helical Computed Tomography Scanner—A Preliminary Report

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    Susumu Ishikawa

    2007-04-01

    Conclusion: Qualitative diagnoses of solid tumours were difficult using CT findings without contrast medium. CT screening procedures require further investigation in aspect of the selection of examinees, CT scanning procedure, sensitivity and specificity, and cost-effectiveness.

  17. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  18. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.

  19. Male Partners’ Involvement Towards Prenatal Screening And Diagnostic Testing For Down Syndrome

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    Niken Kusumaningrum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Now, male partners’ involvement in prenatal screening and diagnostic testing for Down syndrome is becoming increasingly recognized as well to ensure that parents are well informed of the risks and benefits of screening. The aim of study was to understand the degree of male partners’ involvement during pregnancy in Singapore population. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of male partners’ attending prenatal counseling was performed. The instrument used to measure the level of involvement is a self-assessment questionnaire that identifies the role of male partners with a Likert scale. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data gained. Result: A total of 107 participants completed the questionnaire. Sixty-seven percent of male partners were found to have a highlevel of involvement while 32.7% was found to have a medium level of involvement. Most of them stated that women can pursue prenatal testing without their permission. Male partners found it more important for them to accompany their spouse to amniocentesis or CVS than to the Down syndrome screening test. When participants were asked about how much information about Down syndrome they sought prior to the appointment, how much discussion they had with their spouse about Down syndrome testing, and about whether they or their spouse should be the first person to receive test results, most stated that they were undecided. Conclusion: These results revealed that male partners were very well involved in the Down syndrome testing during pregnancy and future studies should assess possible underlying factors that influence male partners’ involvement.

  20. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Ennio; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Russo, P

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 mu m pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 mu m pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-mu m thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 mu m circular holes with 170 mu m pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order ...