WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary safety review

  1. Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Preliminary safety review of the transrapid maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorer, R. M.; Hathaway, W. T.

    1990-11-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated trains under development for possible implementation in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration. Safety issues are addressed related to a specific maglev technology. The Transrapid maglev system was under development by the German Government over the last 10 to 15 years and was evolved into the current system with the TR-07 vehicle. A technically based safety review was under way over the last year by the U.S. Department of Transportation. The initial results of the review are presented to identify and assess potential maglev safety issues.

  2. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  3. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, D.I.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, and as such is responsible for preparation of the HWVP Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). The HWVP PSAR was prepared pursuant to the requirements for safety analyses contained in US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987); 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1986a); 5481.lB, Safety Analysis and Review System (DOE 1986b) which was superseded by DOE order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, for nuclear facilities effective April 30, 1992 (DOE 1992); and 6430.lA, General Design Criteria (DOE 1989). The WHC procedures that, in large part, implement these DOE requirements are contained in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. This manual describes the overall WHC safety analysis process in terms of requirements for safety analyses, responsibilities of the various contributing organizations, and required reviews and approvals.

  4. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  5. Preliminary Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-09-19

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Several issues were presented at the meeting for discussion. This is a short summary that is organized in accordance with the primary issues discussed, which is not necessarily a chronological record. Issues include: SRS Meteorological Data and its Use in MACCS2; Deposition Velocities for Particles; Deposition Velocities for Tritium; MACCS2 Dispersion Coefficients; Use of Low Surface Roughness in Open Areas; Adequacy of Meteorological Tower and Instrumentation; Displacement Height; and Validity of MACCS2 Calculations at Close-in Distances. A longer report will be issued at a later date that expands upon these topics and recommendations.

  6. Preliminary Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-09-19

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Several issues were presented at the meeting for discussion. This is a short summary that is organized in accordance with the primary issues discussed, which is not necessarily a chronological record. Issues include: SRS Meteorological Data and its Use in MACCS2; Deposition Velocities for Particles; Deposition Velocities for Tritium; MACCS2 Dispersion Coefficients; Use of Low Surface Roughness in Open Areas; Adequacy of Meteorological Tower and Instrumentation; Displacement Height; and Validity of MACCS2 Calculations at Close-in Distances. A longer report will be issued at a later date that expands upon these topics and recommendations.

  7. Review of SKB's preliminary safety evaluations for Forsmark and Laxemar; Myndigheternas granskning av SKB:s preliminaera saekerhetsbedoemningar foer Forsmark och Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Maria; Wallberg, Petra; Wiebert, Anders; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Shulan Xu (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Toverud, Oeivind; Stroemberg, Bo; Kautsky, Fritz; Simic, Eva (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-01-15

    This report presents SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's preliminary safety evaluations for Forsmark and Laxemar. The purpose of the review is to assess if the extent of SKB's initial site investigations are sufficient and if they are performed with adequate quality and also if they comprise the data that is needed for future safety analysis. To meet the request from the municipalities where site investigations are performed the authorities have also attempted to elucidate if a site has such obvious weakness that it probably will not comply with authority regulations. The target groups for the review are the municipalities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, and SKB

  8. Joint SKI and SSI review of SKB preliminary safety assessment of repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    SKI and SSI find that SKB's first proper safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repositories provides a valuable springboard for continued efforts in this field. Even though the safety assessment is relatively limited in scope, it has numerous merits. The specific problems associated with the chosen repository concept for SFL 3-5 are discussed in a generally transparent manner. On the other hand, the authorities consider that SKB have only partly achieved the expressed goal of studying the significance of the current repository design and the choice of site. The greatest deficiency consists in that neither internal disturbances (such as considerable cracking or degradation of concrete structures) nor external disturbances (such as the effects of climate changes and glaciation) have been addressed in a thorough manner. A coherent report justifying the design choice from a long-term safety perspective is, in large part, not found here. SKI and SSI recommend that SKB provide a comparison with other possible SFL 3-5 repository designs. Depending upon, among other factors, what geospheric and biospheric conditions are assumed, SKB have shown that the calculated dose values could be relatively high for certain cases. More realistic assessments would be needed to draw reasonable comparisons between different sites, and to evaluate the importance of different nuclides in different contexts. Our review of SKBs preliminary safety assessment indicates that a great deal of research and development work remains to be done before the level of knowledge in this field is comparable with that associated with the final repository for spent fuel. This is reflected with unanimity in the international expert committee's review, and in the consultants' reviews. SKI and SSI wish to point out in particular the fact that comparison with SFR is of limited value, since the safety associated with SFL 3- 5 must be assessed on a much longer time scale. SKI and SSI find it remarkable

  9. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  10. SSC Safety Review Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toohig, T.E. [ed.

    1988-11-01

    The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

  11. Preliminary safety design analysis of KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, K. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The national long-term R and D program updated in 1997 requires Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) to complete by the year 2006 the basic design of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), along with supporting R and D work, with the capability of resolving the issue of spent fuel storage as well as with significantly enhanced safety. KALIMER is a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor that uses metallic fuel. The conceptual design is currently under way to establish a self consistent design meeting a set of the major safety design requirements for accident prevention. Some of current emphasis include those for inherent and passive means of negative reactivity insertion and decay heat removal, high shutdown reliability, prevention of and protection from sodium chemical reaction, and high seismic margin, among others. All of these requirements affect the reactor design significantly and involve supporting R and D programs of substance. This document first introduces a set of safety design requirements and accident evaluation criteria established for the conceptual design of KALIMER and then summarizes some of the preliminary results of engineering and design analyses performed for the safety of KALIMER. 19 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  12. Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. A multiprofessional 'expert' group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  13. 33 CFR 116.10 - Preliminary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary review. 116.10... ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.10 Preliminary review. (a) Upon receipt of a written complaint, the District Commander will review the complaint to determine if, in the District...

  14. Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Gwyn

    2001-04-01

    This report provides the status of the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Integrated Safety Analysis (EA) by identifying the initial work scope scheduled for completion during the ISA development period, the schedules associated with the tasks identified, safety analysis issues encountered, and a summary of accomplishments during the reporting period. This status covers the period from October 1, 2000 through March 30, 2001.

  15. Preliminary Conceptual Design for Safety Parameter display System of PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyunju; Seong, Seunghwan; Kim, Wansu; Kim, Donghoon; Son, Kwangseop; Jang, Gwisook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A PGSFR (prototype Gen-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor) is under development at KAERI. A safety parameter display system (SPDS) should be designed for licensing the PGSFR in order to cope with the TMI action plan requirements. Thus, a preliminary conceptual design for the SPDS of PGSFR including licensing requirements, intrinsic function, critical variables and alarm legs for the SPDS of the PGSFR is studied herein. At first, some documents issued by NRC related to install a SPDS include the following: - NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements - NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities - NUREG-0835, Human Factors Acceptance Criteria for the Safety Parameter display System, Draft Report for Comment. The preliminary concept design for the SPDS of the PGSFR was studied. In designing of the PGSFR, the studied design concept will be refined and implemented through further studies to acquire the approval of a safety analysis report of the PGSFR.

  16. Preliminary design review report - sludge offload system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwethy, L.M. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-05

    This report documents the conceptual design review of the sludge offload system for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The design description, drawings, available analysis, and safety analysis were reviewed by a peer group. The design review comments and resolutions are documented.

  17. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Baek, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hanson, A. L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cheng, L-Y [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cuadra, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  18. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz 2) space reactor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A. C.

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 2 space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz 2 activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as the following: neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz 2 system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  19. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste in Sweden (SFL 3-5): An international peer review of SKB 's preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, N. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Apted, M. [Monitor Scientific, Denver, CO (United States); Glasser, F. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Kessler, J. [EPRI, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Voss, C. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The SKB safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repository (the planned deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate level waste) can be read in two contexts: as a preliminary evaluation of the performance and design options for a repository that will not be required for perhaps forty years; or as an evaluation of a repository that might need to be sited together with the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, and whose nature and performance might thus need to be understood to a level that can be used to make wider programmatic decisions during the next five years. These two 'assessment contexts' are quite different, and an overarching issue is the fact that it was not clear to the review team which view to take. Apparently, SKB would tend towards the first context. However, it is not at all apparent to the reviewers why the second context should not be the predominant driver in the near future. The review team notes that the SFL 3-5 repository, as modelled by SKB, gives rise to potentially perceptible radionuclide releases to the environment on a timescale of hundreds of years after closure. This is in contrast to the SR 97 assessment for the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, which base scenario predicts no releases over a million year timescale. It is clear that according to SKB's SR97 and SFL3-5 analyses, for co-located facilities, it is this repository that has the potential for real radiological impacts in the immediate future. An initial recommendation from the review, is that SKB and the regulatory authorities consider which context is appropriate to the current status of the Swedish programme. This is important, because an overall impression of the reviewers is that the analysis would not be 'fit for purpose' if it were needed to assist with decision-making by SKB or the regulatory agencies. There are too many unanswered questions, and the overall impression of the safety concept is one of some fragility. Because there is no real design basis

  20. A literature review of safety culture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  1. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  2. Internet Safety and Security Surveys - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This report gives a review of investigations into Internet safety and security over the last 10 years. The review covers a number of surveys of Internet usage, of Internet security in general, and of Internet users' awareness of issues related to safety and security. The focus and approach...... of the various surveys is considered, and is related to more general proposals for investigating the issues involved. A variety of proposals for how to improve levels of Internet safety and security are also described, and they are reviewed in the light of studies of motivational factors which affect the degree...

  3. Preliminary Safety Evaluation of a New Bacteroides xylanisolvens Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounian, Kawe; Schmidt, Jens; Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Besides conferring some health benefit to the host, a bacterial strain must present an unambiguous safety status to be considered a probiotic. We here present the preliminary safety evaluation of a new Bacteroides xylanisolvens strain (DSM 23964) isolated from human feces. First results suggest that it may be able to provide probiotic health benefits. Its identity was confirmed by biochemical analysis, by sequencing of its 16S rRNA genes, and by DNA-DNA hybridization. Virulence determinants known to occur in the genus Bacteroides, such the bft enterotoxin and other enzymatic activities involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the capsular polysaccharide PS A, were absent in this strain. The investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility indicated that strain DSM 23964 was sensitive to metronidazole, meropenem agents, and clindamycin. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin was identified to be conferred by the β-lactamase cepA gene and could therefore be restored by adding β-lactamase inhibitors. The localization of the cepA gene in the genome of strain DSM 23964 and the absence of detectable plasmids further suggest that a transfer of β-lactamase activity or the acquisition of other antibiotic resistances are highly improbable. Taken together, the presented data indicate that the strain B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964 has no virulence potential. Since it also resists the action of gastric enzymes and low-pH conditions, this strain is an interesting candidate for further investigation of its safety and potential health-promoting properties. PMID:22101046

  4. Defining resilience: A preliminary integrative literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Bonnie; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The term “resilience” is ubiquitous in technical literature; it appears in numerous forms, such as resilience, resiliency, or resilient, and each use may have a different definition depending on the interpretation of the writer. This creates difficulties in understanding what is meant by ‘resilience’ in any given use case, especially in discussions of interdisciplinary research. To better understand this problem, this research constructs a preliminary integrative literature review to map different definitions, applications and calculation methods of resilience invoked within critical infrastructure applications. The preliminary review uses a State-of-the-Art Matrix (SAM) analysis to characterize differences in definition across disciplines and between regions. Qualifying the various usages of resilience will produce a greater precision in the literature and a deeper insight into types of data required for its evaluation, particularly with respect to critical infrastructure calculations and how such data may be analyzed. Results from this SAM analysis will create a framework of key concepts as part of the most common applications for “resilient critical infrastructure” modeling.

  5. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  6. Safety analysis review terms of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, T.

    1981-03-01

    This document has been prepared to suggest procedures and items for consideration in the review of safety analysis prepared on DOE fossil energy conversion and technology development projects. It is not intended to reflect official DOE policy. It does, however, provide a basis for consistency in conducting reviews, especially with regard to interpreting levels of risk. Since many of the persons assigned to review panels are not expected to be safety analysts but specialists in related fields such as industrial hygiene and environmental science, this document is intended to provide general terms of reference to facilitate review procedures.

  7. 40 CFR 8.6 - Preliminary environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary environmental review. 8.6 Section 8.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.6 Preliminary environmental review. (a) Unless an...

  8. Construction safety and digital design: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wei; Whyte, Jennifer; Sacks, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    As digital technologies become widely used in designing buildings and infrastructure, questions arise about\\ud their impacts on construction safety. This review explores relationships between construction safety and\\ud digital design practices with the aim of fostering and directing further research. It surveys state-of-the-art\\ud research on databases, virtual reality, geographic information systems, 4D CAD, building information\\ud modeling and sensing technologies, finding various digital t...

  9. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos and... comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing comments...

  10. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

  11. Sociology of diagnosis: a preliminary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2009-03-01

    Diagnoses are the classification tools of medicine, and are pivotal in the ways medicine exerts its role in society. Their sociological study is commonly subsumed under the rubrics of medicalisation, history of medicine and theory of disease. Diagnosis is, however, a powerful social tool, with unique features and impacts which deserve their own specific analysis. The process of diagnosis provides the framework within which medicine operates, punctuates the values which medicine espouses, and underlines the authoritative role of both medicine and the doctor. Diagnosis takes place at a salient juncture between illness and disease, patient and doctor, complaint and explanation. Despite calls for its establishment, almost two decades ago (Brown 1990), there is not yet a clear sociology of diagnosis. This paper argues that there should be, and, as a first step, draws together a number of threads of medical sociology that potentially contribute to this proposed sociology of diagnosis, including the place of diagnosis in the institution of medicine, the social framing of disease definitions, the means by which diagnosis confers authority to medicine, and how that authority is challenged. Through this preliminary review, I encourage sociology to consider the specific role of diagnosis in view of establishing a specific sub-disciplinary field.

  12. [Improving patient safety through voluntary peer review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, S; Bause, H

    2015-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is one area of the hospital in which processes and communication are of primary importance. Errors in intensive care units can lead to serious adverse events with significant consequences for patients. Therefore quality and risk-management are important measures when treating critically ill patients. A pragmatic approach to support quality and safety in intensive care is peer review. This approach has gained significant acceptance over the past years. It consists of mutual visits by colleagues who conduct standardised peer reviews. These reviews focus on the systematic evaluation of the quality of an ICU's structure, its processes and outcome. Together with different associations, the State Chambers of Physicians and the German Medical Association have developed peer review as a standardized tool for quality improvement. The common goal of all stakeholders is the continuous and sustainable improvement in intensive care with peer reviews significantly increasing and improving communication between professions and disciplines. Peer reviews secure the sustainability of planned change processes and consequently lead the way to an improved culture of quality and safety.

  13. Preliminary safety information document for the standard MHTGR. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-01-01

    This report contains information concerning: operational radionuclide control; occupational radiation protection, conduct of operations; initial test program; safety analysis; technical specifications; and quality assurance. (JDB)

  14. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-03-04

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study.

  15. Chemical Safety Alert: Identifying Chemical Reactivity Hazards Preliminary Screening Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces small-to-medium-sized facilities to a method developed by Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), based on a series of twelve yes-or-no questions to help determine hazards in warehousing, repackaging, blending, mixing, and processing.

  16. Preliminary Results of Ancillary Safety Analyses Supporting TREAT LEU Conversion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fei, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Strons, P. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Papadias, D. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kontogeorgakos, D. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Connaway, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wright, A. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Report (FSAR) [3]. Depending on the availability of historical data derived from HEU TREAT operation, results calculated for the LEU core are compared to measurements obtained from HEU TREAT operation. While all analyses in this report are largely considered complete and have been reviewed for technical content, it is important to note that all topics will be revisited once the LEU design approaches its final stages of maturity. For most safety significant issues, it is expected that the analyses presented here will be bounding, but additional calculations will be performed as necessary to support safety analyses and safety documentation. It should also be noted that these analyses were completed as the LEU design evolved, and therefore utilized different LEU reference designs. Preliminary shielding, neutronic, and thermal hydraulic analyses have been completed and have generally demonstrated that the various LEU core designs will satisfy existing safety limits and standards also satisfied by the existing HEU core. These analyses include the assessment of the dose rate in the hodoscope room, near a loaded fuel transfer cask, above the fuel storage area, and near the HEPA filters. The potential change in the concentration of tramp uranium and change in neutron flux reaching instrumentation has also been assessed. Safety-significant thermal hydraulic items addressed in this report include thermally-induced mechanical distortion of the grid plate, and heating in the radial reflector.

  17. Preliminary planning study for safety relief valve experiments in a Mark III BWR pressure suppression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.

    1980-04-21

    In response to a request from the Water Reactor Safety Research Division of the US NRC, a preliminary study is provided which identifies key features and consideration involved in planning a comprehensive in-plant Safety Relief Valve experimental program for a Mark III containment design. The report provides identification of program objectives, measurement system requirements, and some details quantifying expected system response. In addition, a preliminary test matrix is outlined which involves a supporting philosophy intended to enhance the usefulness of the experimental results for all members of the program team: experimentalists, analysts, and plant operator.

  18. Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER-600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. B.; Chang, W. P.; Suk, S. D.; Ha, K. S.; Jeong, H. Y.; Heo, S

    2004-03-01

    KAERI is developing the conceptual design of a Liquid Metal Reactor, KALIMER-600 (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. KALIMER-600 addresses key issues regarding future nuclear power plants such as plant safety, economics, proliferation, and waste. In this report, key safety design features are described and safety analyses results for typical ATWS accidents in the KALIMER design with breakeven core are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in Chapter 1, and the event categorization and acceptance criteria for the KALIMER-600 safety analysis are described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER-600 conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER-600 core and plant system are designed to assure benign performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) have been performed using the SSC-K code to investigate the KALIMER-600 system response to the events. They are categorized as Bounding Events (BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In Chapter 4, the analysis of flow blockage for KALIMER-600 with the MATRA-LMR-FB code, which has been developed for the internal flow blockage in a LMR subassembly. The cases with a blockage of 6-subchannel, 24-subchannel, and 54-subchannel are analyzed.The performance analysis of the KALIMER-600 containment and some evaluations for the behaviors during HCDA will be performed later.

  19. Ciprofloxacin safety in paediatrics: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefurin, Abiodun; Sammons, Helen; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Choonara, Imti

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety of ciprofloxacin in paediatric patients in relation to arthropathy, any other adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL and bibliographies of relevant articles was carried out for all published articles, regardless of design, that involved the use of ciprofloxacin in any paediatric age group ≤17 years. Only articles that reported on safety were included. Results 105 articles met the inclusion criteria and involved 16 184 paediatric patients. There were 1065 reported AEs (risk 7%, 95% CI 3.2% to 14.0%). The most frequent AEs were musculoskeletal AEs, abnormal liver function tests, nausea, changes in white blood cell counts and vomiting. There were six drug interactions (with aminophylline (4) and methotrexate (2)). The only drug related death occurred in a neonate who had an anaphylactic reaction. 258 musculoskeletal events occurred in 232 paediatric patients (risk 1.6%, 95% CI 0.9% to 2.6%). Arthralgia accounted for 50% of these. The age of occurrence of arthropathy ranged from 7 months to 17 years (median 10 years). All cases of arthropathy resolved or improved with management. One prospective controlled study estimated the risk of arthropathy as 9.3 (OR 95% CI 1.2 to 195). Pooled safety data of controlled trials in this review estimated the risk of arthropathy as 1.57 (OR 95% CI 1.26 to 1.97). Conclusion Musculoskeletal AEs occur due to ciprofloxacin use. However, these musculoskeletal events are reversible with management. It is recommended that further prospective controlled studies should be carried out to evaluate the safety of ciprofloxacin, with particular focus on the risk of arthropathy. PMID:21785119

  20. Draft safety review plan for accelerator production of tritium (APT) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this ``living`` Safety Review Plan (SRP) is to describe the products and processes that will be followed to conduct a systematic review of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), and subsequently to prepare a draft Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the PSAR. This plan is prepared for and will be implemented by the APT Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) over the period July 1, 1997 through September 30, 1998, in accordance with provisions established in DOE-STD-1104-96. A core team of DOE, INEEL, and AMPARO Corporation engineers and scientists will prepare the initial draft SER with assistance from other ISRC team members on an as needed basis. Guidelines for preparing the draft SER are presented in Section 7 of this SRP. The PSAR reviews will focus exclusively on safety. The ever-present two-part question will be: Does the subject matter have safety significance? If so, does the APT structural, system, component, and/or process engineering design ensure an acceptable margin of safety? The APT mission, efficiency, and cost are not considerations of this plan. A more detailed discussion of the review philosophy is presented in Section 5 of this SRP.

  1. Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, D. H.; Kwon, Y. M.; Chang, W. P.; Suk, S. D.; Lee, S. O.; Lee, Y. B.; Jeong, K. S

    2000-07-01

    KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a liquid metal reactor, KALIMER(Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) under the long-term nuclear R and D program. In this report, descriptions of the KALIMER safety design features and safety analyses results for selected ATWS accidents are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in chapter 1, and the safety evaluation procedure for the KALIMER design is described in chapter 2. It includes event selection, event categorization, description of design basis events, and beyond design basis events. In chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER core and plant system are designed to assure design performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram(ATWS) have been performed to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. They are categorized as bounding events(BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In chapter 4, the design of the KALIMER containment dome and the results of its performance analysis are presented. The designs of the existing LMR containment and the KALIMER containment dome have been compared in this chapter. Procedure of the containment performance analysis and the analysis results are described along with the accident scenario and source terms. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core kinetics and hydraulic behavior during HCDA in chapter 5. Mathematical formulations have been developed in the framework of the modified bethe-tait method, and scoping analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions.

  2. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  3. Study of fast reactor safety test facilities. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.; Boudreau, J.E.; McLaughlin, T.; Palmer, R.G.; Starkovich, V.; Stein, W.E.; Stevenson, M.G.; Yarnell, Y.L.

    1975-05-01

    Included are sections dealing with the following topics: (1) perspective and philosophy of fast reactor safety analysis; (2) status of accident analysis and experimental needs; (3) experiment and facility definitions; (4) existing in-pile facilities; (5) new facility options; and (6) data acquisition methods. (DG)

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-09-30

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design.

  5. Patient safety and electromagnetic protection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Noemí; Febles, Víctor; Hernández, José A; Bardasano, José L; Monteagudo, José L; Fernández de Aldecoa, José C; Ramos, Victoria

    2011-05-01

    A systematic literature review was carried out to study patient security and possible harmful effects, immunity and interferences on medical devices, and effectiveness and transmission problems in healthcare and hospital environments due to electromagnetic interferences. The objective was to determine already-reported cases of patient security, immunity of medical devices, and transmission/reception failure in order to evaluate safety and security of patients. Literature published in the last 10 years has been reviewed by searching in bibliographic databases, journals, and proceedings of conferences. Search strategies developed in electronic databases identified a total of 820 references, with 50 finally being included. The study reveals the existence of numerous publications on interferences in medical devices due to radiofrequency fields. However, literature on effectiveness, transmission problems and measurements of electromagnetic fields is limited. From the studies collected, it can be concluded that several cases of serious interferences in medical instruments have been reported. Measures of electromagnetic fields in healthcare environments have been also reported, concluding that special protective measures should be taken against electromagnetic interferences by incoming radio waves.

  6. Key concepts in perioperative safety: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edison Alexander Benavides-Hernández; Juan Sebastián Echeverri-Uribe; Francisco Eduardo Agredo-Villaquirán; Jose Andres Calvache; Markus Klimek; Robert Jan Stolker

    2015-01-01

    ..., particularly in sensitive areas as perioperative care. Implementing measures of improvement begins with a self-assessment of "safety climate" which it represents the measurable component of the "safety culture...

  7. Ibogaine: complex pharmacokinetics, concerns for safety, and preliminary efficacy measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, D C; Kovera, C A; Pablo, J; Tyndale, R F; Ervin, F D; Williams, I C; Singleton, E G; Mayor, M

    2000-09-01

    Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid found in the roots of Tabernanthe Iboga (Apocynaceae family), a rain forest shrub that is native to western Africa. Ibogaine is used by indigenous peoples in low doses to combat fatigue, hunger and thirst, and in higher doses as a sacrament in religious rituals. Members of American and European addict self-help groups have claimed that ibogaine promotes long-term drug abstinence from addictive substances, including psychostimulants and opiates. Anecdotal reports attest that a single dose of ibogaine eliminates opiate withdrawal symptoms and reduces drug craving for extended periods of time. The purported efficacy of ibogaine for the treatment of drug dependence may be due in part to an active metabolite. The majority of ibogaine biotransformation proceeds via CYP2D6, including the O-demethylation of ibogaine to 12-hydroxyibogamine (noribogaine). Blood concentration-time effect profiles of ibogaine and noribogaine obtained for individual subjects after single oral dose administrations demonstrate complex pharmacokinetic profiles. Ibogaine has shown preliminary efficacy for opiate detoxification and for short-term stabilization of drug-dependent persons as they prepare to enter substance abuse treatment. We report here that ibogaine significantly decreased craving for cocaine and heroin during inpatient detoxification. Self-reports of depressive symptoms were also significantly lower after ibogaine treatment and at 30 days after program discharge. Because ibogaine is cleared rapidly from the blood, the beneficial aftereffects of the drug on craving and depressed mood may be related to the effects of noribogaine on the central nervous system.

  8. 78 FR 11902 - Review of Gun Safety Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... of Justice Programs Review of Gun Safety Technologies AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, JPO, DOJ...) is conducting a review of existing and emerging gun safety technologies and plans to issue a report... to help inform its technology assessment and market research of existing and emerging gun...

  9. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, (Sweden); Kahlbom, U. [RiskPilot (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  10. Temsirolimus: a safety and efficacy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2012-09-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway and the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) represent the most frequently exploited targets in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Temsirolimus is an inhibitor of mTOR, and is a unique ester derivative of sirolimus, a macrocyclic lactone, with improved pharmaceutical properties, including stability and solubility. Temsirolimus binds to the cytoplasmic protein FKBP-12, and the complex binds and inhibits mTOR. This review summarizes the clinical findings and safety of temsirolimus in RCC patients. A Phase III clinical trial has demonstrated that temsirolimus has statistically significant advantages over treatment with IFN-α in RCC patients with poor prognosis, in terms of OS (overall survival), PFS (progression-free survival), and tumor response. Median OS was improved 49% compared to IFN-α, and median PFS was approximately doubled. It is now considered the standard for RCC patients with poor prognostic features. The possibility that this agent is useful in metastatic non-clear cell carcinoma patients has also been suggested by a subset analysis of the pivotal Phase III trial. Studies in untreated favorable and intermediate risk clear cell and refractory mRCC patients are required.

  11. Preliminary safety evaluation for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-10-18

    This document presents the Preliminary Safety Evaluation for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The US DOE has been mandated to develop plans for response to safety issues associated with the waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, and to report the progress of implementing those plans to Congress. The objectives of Project W-230 are to design, fabricate, develop, test, and operate a new retrieval system capable of removing a minimum of about 75% of the high-heat waste contained in C-106. It is anticipated that sluicing operations can remove enough waste to reduce the remaining radiogenic heat load to levels low enough to resolve the high-heat safety issue as well as allow closure of the tank safety issue.

  12. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-05-30

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable.

  13. Deep Brain Stimulation in Huntington’s Disease—Preliminary Evidence on Pathophysiology, Efficacy and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wojtecki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is one of the most disabling degenerative movement disorders, as it not only affects the motor system but also leads to cognitive disabilities and psychiatric symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the pallidum is a promising symptomatic treatment targeting the core motor symptom: chorea. This article gives an overview of preliminary evidence on pathophysiology, safety and efficacy of DBS in HD.

  14. Mapping the nomological network of employee self-determined safety motivation: A preliminary measure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Tetrick, Lois E

    2016-09-01

    The present study introduced a preliminary measure of employee safety motivation based on the definition of self-determination theory from Fleming (2012) research and validated the structure of self-determined safety motivation (SDSM) by surveying 375 employees in a Chinese high-risk organization. First, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the factor structure of SDSM, and indices of five-factor model CFA met the requirements. Second, a nomological network was examined to provide evidence of the construct validity of SDSM. Beyond construct validity, the analysis also produced some interesting results concerning the relationship between leadership antecedents and safety motivation, and between safety motivation and safety behavior. Autonomous motivation was positively related to transformational leadership, negatively related to abusive supervision, and positively related to safety behavior. Controlled motivation with the exception of introjected regulation was negatively related to transformational leadership, positively related to abusive supervision, and negatively related to safety behavior. The unique role of introjected regulation and future research based on self-determination theory were discussed.

  15. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  16. 1972 preliminary safety analysis report based on a conceptual design of a proposed repository in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-08-01

    This preliminary safety analysis report is based on a proposed Federal Repository at Lyons, Kansas, for receiving, handling, and depositing radioactive solid wastes in bedded salt during the remainder of this century. The safety analysis applies to a hypothetical site in central Kansas identical to the Lyons site, except that it is free of nearby salt solution-mining operations and bore holes that cannot be plugged to Repository specifications. This PSAR contains much information that also appears in the conceptual design report. Much of the geological-hydrological information was gathered in the Lyons area. This report is organized in 16 sections: considerations leading to the proposed Repository, design requirements and criteria, a description of the Lyons site and its environs, land improvements, support facilities, utilities, different impacts of Repository operations, safety analysis, design confirmation program, operational management, requirements for eventually decommissioning the facility, design criteria for protection from severe natural events, and the proposed program of experimental investigations. (DLC)

  17. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January--March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E. G. [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  18. A REVIEW ON INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Govind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Progress of the industrial safety and occupational health movements in the United States toward their common goal of protecting the physical welfare of workers is discussed in this article. When these activities and workmen's compensation began, about a half century ago, it was anticipated that they would be "complementary and mutually sustaining." Besides presenting historical accounts of the safety and health movements, the authors evaluate the current problems and relationships among safety, health, and compensation activities. This article constitutes part of a broader study by the authors to be published under the title "Workmen's Compensation and Occupational Disability." (Author's abstract courtesy EBSCO. This Article will examine that historical perspective, covering both state and federal law, and will comprehensively detail the current law relating to occupational safety and health in the State of Washington.

  19. Patient safety in otolaryngology: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Julian; Muzaffar, Jameel; Metcalfe, Chris; Coulson, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Human evaluation and judgement may include errors that can have disastrous results. Within medicine and healthcare there has been slow progress towards major changes in safety. Healthcare lags behind other specialised industries, such as aviation and nuclear power, where there have been significant improvements in overall safety, especially in reducing risk of errors. Following several high profile cases in the USA during the 1990s, a report titled "To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System" was published. The report extrapolated that in the USA approximately 50,000 to 100,000 patients may die each year as a result of medical errors. Traditionally otolaryngology has always been regarded as a "safe specialty". A study in the USA in 2004 inferred that there may be 2600 cases of major morbidity and 165 deaths within the specialty. MEDLINE via PubMed interface was searched for English language articles published between 2000 and 2012. Each combined two or three of the keywords noted earlier. Limitations are related to several generic topics within patient safety in otolaryngology. Other areas covered have been current relevant topics due to recent interest or new advances in technology. There has been a heightened awareness within the healthcare community of patient safety; it has become a major priority. Focus has shifted from apportioning blame to prevention of the errors and implementation of patient safety mechanisms in healthcare delivery. Type of Errors can be divided into errors due to action and errors due to knowledge or planning. In healthcare there are several factors that may influence adverse events and patient safety. Although technology may improve patient safety, it also introduces new sources of error. The ability to work with people allows for the increase in safety netting. Team working has been shown to have a beneficial effect on patient safety. Any field of work involving human decision-making will always have a risk of error. Within

  20. A review of models relevant to road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B P; Newstead, S; Anund, A; Shu, C C; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into 'Safe Systems' models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or 'models' of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma.

  1. Patient Safety and Workplace Bullying: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Noreen M; Colbert, Alison M

    Workplace bullying is strongly associated with negative nursing outcomes, such as work dissatisfaction, turnover, and intent to leave; however, results of studies examining associations with specific patient safety outcomes are limited or nonspecific. This integrative review explores and synthesizes the published articles that address the impact of workplace nurse bullying on patient safety.

  2. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  3. NRT Rotor Structural / Aeroelastic Analysis for the Preliminary Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennis, Brandon Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paquette, Joshua A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This document describes the initial structural design for the National Rotor Testbed blade as presented during the preliminary design review at Sandia National Laboratories on October 28- 29, 2015. The document summarizes the structural and aeroelastic requirements placed on the NRT rotor for satisfactory deployment at the DOE/SNL SWiFT experimental facility to produce high-quality datasets for wind turbine model validation. The method and result of the NRT blade structural optimization is also presented within this report, along with analysis of its satisfaction of the design requirements.

  4. Nuclear Safety: Volume 29, No. 3: Technical progress review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant development in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope included the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Nulcear Safety: Technical progress review, October--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  6. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was completed as required by DOE Order 5480.23. The purpose of this document is to construct a safety basis that supports the design and permits construction of the facility. The facility has been designed to the requirements of a Radioactive Solid Waste Facility presented in DOE Order 6430.1A.

  7. A Preliminary Report on the CO2 Laser for Lumbar Fusion: Safety, Efficacy and Technical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Alan T; Burneikiene, Sigita; Babuska, Jason M; Nelson, Ewell L; Mason, Alexander; Rajpal, Sharad

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential technical advantages of the CO2 laser technology in mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries and report our preliminary clinical data on the safety and clinical outcomes. There is currently no literature discussing the recently redeveloped CO2 laser technology application for lumbar fusion. Safety and clinical outcomes were compared between two groups: 24 patients that underwent CO2 laser-assisted one-level TLIF surgeries and 30 patients that underwent standard one-level TLIF surgeries without the laser. There were no neural thermal injuries or other intraoperative laser-related complications encountered in this cohort of patients. At a mean follow-up of 17.4 months, significantly reduced lower back pain scores (P=0.013) were reported in the laser-assisted patient group compared to a standard fusion patient group. Lower extremity radicular pain intensity scores were similar in both groups. Laser-assisted TLIF surgeries showed a tendency (P = 0.07) of shorter operative times that was not statistically significant. Based on this preliminary clinical report, the safety of the CO2 laser device for lumbar fusion surgeries was assessed. There were no neural thermal injuries or other intraoperative laser-related complications encountered in this cohort of patients. Further investigation of CO2 laser-assisted lumbar fusion procedures is warranted in order to evaluate its effect on clinical outcomes.

  8. An update of preliminary perspectives gained from Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) submittal reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.; Chen, J.T.; Chokshi, N. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Nowlen, S.P.; Bohn, M.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sewell, R.; Kazarians, M.; Lambright, J. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1998-03-01

    As a result of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, virtually every operating commercial nuclear power reactor in the US has performed an assessment of severe accident risk due to external events. To date, the USNRC staff has received 63 IPEEE submittals and will receive an additional 11 by mid 1998. Currently, 49 IPEEE submittals are under various stages ore view. This paper is based on the information available for those 41 plants for which at least preliminary Technical Evaluation Reports have been prepared by the review teams. The goal of the review is to ascertain whether the licensee`s IPEEE process is capable of identifying external events-induced severe accident vulnerabilities and cost-effective safety improvements to either eliminate or reduce the impact of these vulnerabilities. The review does not, however, attempt to validate or verify the results of the licensee`s IPEEE. The primary objective of this paper is to provide an update on the preliminary perspectives and insights gained from the IPEEE process.

  9. Periodic safety review of French nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirrier, D.; Debes, M. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    1997-12-01

    The safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is checked through different types of safety evaluations, for example, a continuous process, with followup of operational feedback and over-all evaluation every year by each NPP; specific examination, with the study of generic problems when they occur; and a 10-yr outage inspection. In France, the license does not explicitly require periodic safety reviews (PSRs), but an article has been added to the Decree of December 11, 1963 concerning nuclear installations that states, {open_quotes}The Ministers may jointly request the operating utility at any time to proceed to a review of nuclear safety,{close_quotes} which supports requests for PSRs from the safety authority.

  10. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  11. Examining the asymptote in safety progress: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Sidney; Pitzer, Corrie

    2016-01-01

    Many industries are confronted by plateauing safety performance as measured by the absence of negative events--particularly lower-consequence incidents or injuries. At the same time, these industries are sometimes surprised by large fatal accidents that seem to have no connection with their understanding of the risks they faced; or with how they were measuring safety. This article reviews the safety literature to examine how both these surprises and the asymptote are linked to the very structures and practices organizations have in place to manage safety. The article finds that safety practices associated with compliance, control and quantification could be partly responsible. These can create a sense of invulnerability through safety performance close to zero; organizational resources can get deflected into unproductive or counterproductive initiatives; obsolete practices for keeping human performance within a pre-specified bandwidth are sustained; and accountability relationships can encourage suppression of the 'bad news' necessary to learn and improve.

  12. Preliminary report: in-plant safety/relief valve discharge load test, Monticello Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.C. (comp.)

    1976-12-01

    This preliminary report covers the results of the test program of safety/relief valve (SRV) discharge load phenomena and the effects upon the Mark I primary containment torus structure of the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant. The objectives of the test were to provide a data base for verifying/improving analytical models and to measure the structural response of the torus to SRV discharges. Objectives, instrumentation, and test plan are described. Results of continuing data evaluation will be included in the final report scheduled for publication later in 1977.

  13. Customer Relationship Management System in Occupational Safety & Health Companies: Research on Practice and Preliminary Design Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent contemporary trends in formation of companies is the approach to development of a customer-oriented company. In this matter, various versions related to the intensity of this orientation are differentiated. Customer relationship management (CRM system is a well-known concept, and its practice is being studied and improved in connection to various sectors. Companies providing services of occupational safety and health (OHS mainly cooperate with a large number of customers and the quality of this cooperation largely affects the occupational safety and health of employees. Therefore, it is of both scientific and wider social interest to study and improve the relationship of these companies with their customers. This paper investigates the practice of applying CRM in Croatian OHS companies. It identifies the existing conditions and suggests possible improvements in the practice of CRM, based on experts’ assessments using analytic hierarchy process evaluation. Universal preliminary design was created as a framework concept for the formation of a typical customer-oriented OHS services company. Preliminary design includes a structural view, which provides more details through system diagrams, and an illustration of main cooperation processes of a company with its customer.

  14. Review of design criteria and safety analysis of safety class electric building for fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    Steady state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterment of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. HANARO fuel test loop was designed for CANDU and PWR fuel testing. Safety related system of Fuel Test Loop such as emergency cooling water system, component cooling water system, safety ventilation system, high energy line break mitigation system and remote control room was required 1E class electric supply to meet the safety operation in accordance with related code. Therefore, FTL electric building was designed to construction and install the related equipment based on seismic category I. The objective of this study is to review the design criteria and analysis the safety function of safety class electric building for fuel test loop, and this results will become guidance for the irradiation testing in future. (author). 10 refs., 6 tabs., 30 figs.

  15. Narrative review of the UK Patient Safety Research Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Justin; Rowley, Emma; Dingwall, Robert; Palmer, Cecily; Murcott, Toby

    2010-01-01

    The UK Patient Safety Research Portfolio (PSRP) commissioned 38 studies investigating the threats to patient safety in various clinical settings and evaluating safety-related service interventions. This paper reviews 27 of these studies, drawing out emergent and cross-cutting themes in terms of theory, research methods and thematic findings. Given the diversity of PSRP studies, the paper takes a narrative approach that allows for qualitative description, interpretation and synthesis of the studies and their findings. The theoretical review shows the majority of PSRP studies draw upon a patient safety 'orthodoxy', developed from the concepts and models associated with the human factors approach. The methodological review shows that a diverse range of research designs and techniques have been utilized. Although many follow in the 'scientific' tradition, interpretative, mixed and innovative methods have been integral to research. The thematic review of findings highlights significant contributions to knowledge in the areas of 'people', 'organizations', and 'technology'. As well as identifying the various sources of risk in the organization and delivery of patient care, the studies also evaluate and make recommendations about service change and improvement. The PSRP has provided the foundations for significant theoretical, methodological and empirical advances in the area of patient safety. The findings and recommendations make important contributions to policy formulation and implementation as well as professional and managerial practice. Through this body of research the PSRP has supported the formation and growth of a thriving research community across academic, policy and professional communities.

  16. Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER) peer review report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimdahl, Olaf E. R. (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA); LaHoud, Paul (Athens, AL); Chapman, Leon Darrel

    2004-08-01

    At the direction of the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), a Peer Review Team was established to review the status of development of the risk-based explosives safety siting process and criteria as currently implemented in the software 'Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER)' Version 2.1. The objective of the Peer Review Team was to provide an independent evaluation of the components of the SAFER model, the ongoing development of the model and the risk assessment process and criteria. This peer review report addressed procedures; protocols; physical and statistical science algorithms; related documents; and software quality assurance, validation and verification. Overall, the risk-based method in SAFER represents a major improvement in the Department of Defense (DoD) approach to explosives safety management. The DDESB and Risk Based Explosives Safety Criteria Team (RBESCT) have made major strides in developing a methodology, which over time may become a worldwide model. The current status of all key areas of the SAFER code has been logically developed and is defensible. Continued improvement and refinement can be expected as implementation proceeds. A consistent approach to addressing and refining uncertainty in each of the primary areas (probability of event, consequences of event and exposure) will be a very beneficial future activity.

  17. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G. [Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the

  18. Review of actinide nitride properties with focus on safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, Thierry [CEA Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report provides a review of the potential advantages of using actinide nitrides as fuels and/or targets for nuclear waste transmutation. Then a summary of available properties of actinide nitrides is given. Results from irradiation experiments are reviewed and safety relevant aspects of nitride fuels are discussed, including design basis accidents (transients) and severe (core disruptive) accidents. Anyway, as rather few safety studies are currently available and as many basic physical data are still missing for some actinide nitrides, complementary studies are proposed. (author)

  19. Healthcare Staff Wellbeing, Burnout, and Patient Safety: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Louise H.; Johnson, Judith; Watt, Ian; Tsipa, Anastasia; O’Connor, Daryl B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is an association between healthcare professionals’ wellbeing and burnout, with patient safety. Design Systematic research review. Data Sources PsychInfo (1806 to July 2015), Medline (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1947 to July 2015) and Scopus (1823 to July 2015) were searched, along with reference lists of eligible articles. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies Quantitative, empirical studies that included i) either a measure of wellbeing or burnout, and ii) patient safety, in healthcare staff populations. Results Forty-six studies were identified. Sixteen out of the 27 studies that measured wellbeing found a significant correlation between poor wellbeing and worse patient safety, with six additional studies finding an association with some but not all scales used, and one study finding a significant association but in the opposite direction to the majority of studies. Twenty-one out of the 30 studies that measured burnout found a significant association between burnout and patient safety, whilst a further four studies found an association between one or more (but not all) subscales of the burnout measures employed, and patient safety. Conclusions Poor wellbeing and moderate to high levels of burnout are associated, in the majority of studies reviewed, with poor patient safety outcomes such as medical errors, however the lack of prospective studies reduces the ability to determine causality. Further prospective studies, research in primary care, conducted within the UK, and a clearer definition of healthcare staff wellbeing are needed. Implications This review illustrates the need for healthcare organisations to consider improving employees’ mental health as well as creating safer work environments when planning interventions to improve patient safety. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015023340. PMID:27391946

  20. Book review: Safety of Biologics Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tadeusz Robak Department of Hematology, Medical University of Lodz and Copernicus Memorial Hospital, Lodz, PolandSafety of Biologics Therapy: Monoclonal Antibodies, Cytokines, Fusion Proteins, Hormones, Enzymes, Coagulation Proteins, Vaccines, Botulinum Toxins (Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2016 by Brian A Baldo from the Molecular Immunology Unit, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney, and the Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Australia, is a book that belongs on the shelf of everyone in the field of biologic therapies research and clinical practice. In writing this book, the author’s intention was to produce an up-to-date text book on approved biologic therapies, as far as that is possible in this time of rapidly evolving developments in biotherapeutic research and the introduction of new and novel agents for clinical use.The monograph comprises 610 pages in 13 chapters, each including a summary and further reading suggestions. All chapters include a discussion of basic and clinical material. Well-designed, comprehensive tables and color figures are present throughout the book. The book itself examines the biologic products that have regulatory approval in the USA and/or European Union and that show every indication of remaining important therapies. It covers in great detail all the latest work on peptide hormones and enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, and cytokine therapies. Beyond that, it also presents the latest information on blood coagulation proteins, vaccines, botulinum neurotoxins, and biosimilars. 

  1. A review of the safety of cosmetic procedures during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Trivedi, BS, BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The safety of cosmetic procedures in patients who are pregnant and/or lactating is a complex clinical question surrounded by uncertainty. Our objective is to consolidate data on the safety of commonly requested cosmetic procedures during pregnancy and lactation after a systematic review of the current literature to guide evidence-based care in the future. A systematic search of the PubMed database was conducted for articles on cosmetic procedures during pregnancy and lactation. Due to a lack of controlled trials, case reports and series were considered. Minor procedures such as shave, punch, snipping, and electrocautery are considered safe. With respect to chemical peels, glycolic and lactic acid peels are deemed safe; however, trichloracetic and salicylic acid peels should be avoided or used with caution. Although safety data on botulinum toxin A is insufficient, the procedure may be safe because systemic absorption and placental transfer are negligible. Sclerotherapy can be safe during pregnancy but must be avoided during the first trimester and after week 36 of the pregnancy. Laser and light therapies have been considered generally safe for patients with granulomatous conditions and condylomata. Epilation should be limited to waxing, shaving, and topical treatments instead of permanent procedures. In patients who are lactating, most therapies discussed above are safe but fat transfer, sclerotherapy, and tumescent liposuction are not recommended. Better evidence is needed to make concrete recommendations on the safety of cosmetic therapy during pregnancy and lactation but preliminary evidence suggests excellent safety profiles for many commonly requested cosmetic procedures.

  2. Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisek, Sylwia Z; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M; Godwin, Hayward J; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists' conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition.

  3. Narcissism and Consumer Behaviour: A Review and Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Z Cisek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behaviour. Consumer behaviour is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centred, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterised by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy, show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behaviour during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists’ conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behaviour, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition.

  4. Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisek, Sylwia Z.; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M.; Godwin, Hayward J.; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists’ conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition. PMID:24711797

  5. Safety and protection for hospitalized children: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatkoski, Aline Modelski; Wegner, Wiliam; Algeri, Simone; Pedro, Eva Neri Rubim

    2009-01-01

    This narrative-descriptive review is about the safety/protection of hospitalized children who, due to their fragility, vulnerability and peculiar growth and development conditions need special attention from health professionals. This study aimed to identify knowledge production on safety, protection and violence to hospitalized children between 1997 and 2007. In total, 15 national and international articles were analyzed, using the key words: hospitalized child, safety, violence and nursing. This qualitative approach enabled the development of four categories: adverse occurrences; medication errors; notification of adverse occurrences; and safety of pediatric patients. Results indicate the need to develop strategies to reduce the probability of these events occurring during children's hospitalization, so that they do not suffer any problem neither violation of their fundamental rights.

  6. Healthcare Staff Wellbeing, Burnout, and Patient Safety: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H Hall

    Full Text Available To determine whether there is an association between healthcare professionals' wellbeing and burnout, with patient safety.Systematic research review.PsychInfo (1806 to July 2015, Medline (1946 to July 2015, Embase (1947 to July 2015 and Scopus (1823 to July 2015 were searched, along with reference lists of eligible articles.Quantitative, empirical studies that included i either a measure of wellbeing or burnout, and ii patient safety, in healthcare staff populations.Forty-six studies were identified. Sixteen out of the 27 studies that measured wellbeing found a significant correlation between poor wellbeing and worse patient safety, with six additional studies finding an association with some but not all scales used, and one study finding a significant association but in the opposite direction to the majority of studies. Twenty-one out of the 30 studies that measured burnout found a significant association between burnout and patient safety, whilst a further four studies found an association between one or more (but not all subscales of the burnout measures employed, and patient safety.Poor wellbeing and moderate to high levels of burnout are associated, in the majority of studies reviewed, with poor patient safety outcomes such as medical errors, however the lack of prospective studies reduces the ability to determine causality. Further prospective studies, research in primary care, conducted within the UK, and a clearer definition of healthcare staff wellbeing are needed.This review illustrates the need for healthcare organisations to consider improving employees' mental health as well as creating safer work environments when planning interventions to improve patient safety.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015023340.

  7. Agricultural Media Coverage of Farm Safety: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jim; Heiberger, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural media merit increased attention in addressing dynamic changes in safety aspects of one of the nation's most hazardous industries. Changes in farming, such as larger-scale, new "niche" enterprises and new technologies, bring new forms of risk to the safety of those who live and work on farms and ranches. At the same time, traditional agricultural media--commercial firms that publish farm periodicals and commercial radio/television stations and networks that provide farm programming--are changing dramatically. In the face of media convergence, these enterprises provide an increasing menu of agricultural information services delivered by print, radio, and television, plus a host of new electronic media. This review of literature addressed the role and importance of commercial agricultural media in the United States, the scope and pattern of their safety coverage, and the opportunities they represent. The review involved searches of 14 bibliographic databases, as well as reference lists of relevant studies and contacts with farm safety experts. Analysis of 122 documents suggested that limited focus has been directed to the role of commercial agricultural media in safety decisions on US farms. Findings revealed that they continue to serve an efficient, early-stage role in creating awareness and interest, providing information, forming attitudes, and stirring consideration of farm safety. Potentials are seen as expanding through the interactive features of social media and other new services offered by these media firms. Findings also identified research needs, 100 farm safety topics for reporting, and opportunities for strengthening safety coverage by commercial agricultural media.

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory corregated metal pipe saw facility preliminary safety analysis report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-09-19

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and design operation of the processing systems in the Corrugated Metal Pipe Saw Facility with respect to normal and abnormal conditions. Potential hazards are identified, credible accidents relative to the operation of the facility and the process systems are analyzed, and the consequences of postulated accidents are presented. The risk associated with normal operations, abnormal operations, and natural phenomena are analyzed. The accident analysis presented shows that the impact of the facility will be acceptable for all foreseeable normal and abnormal conditions of operation. Specifically, under normal conditions the facility will have impacts within the limits posted by applicable DOE guidelines, and in accident conditions the facility will similarly meet or exceed the requirements of all applicable standards. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Grigsby, J.M. [G & P Consulting, Inc. (United States); Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended.

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Statistical Reviews of Patient Safety Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeffrey R; Dexter, Franklin; Espy, Jennifer L; Brull, Sorin J

    2017-06-06

    For 8.5 consecutive years, all patient safety articles of a journal underwent statistical review before publication. We sought to establish the prevalence of statistical themes in the statistical reviews, consideration of contemporary statistical methods, and their associations with time to journal receipt of authors' revision. An initial set of statistical themes was created using the statistical editor's notes. For example, for the statistical theme of "CONSORT checklist," the search term needed was "CONSORT." A complete (exhaustive) list of additional themes was obtained inductively. Among the 273 subsequent reviews for manuscripts that were ultimately accepted, the number of paragraphs that included a theme of a statistical method was only weakly associated with longer revision times (Kendall τ = 0.139 ± 0.039, P = 0.0004). Among the total 3274 paragraphs of statistical reviews, 72.2% did not include a theme of a statistical method (e.g., the editor instead asked the authors to clarify what statistical method had been used) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 70.6%-73.7%, P paragraphs of statistical review comments, only 16.0% included a contemporary theme (95% CI = 13.7%-18.6%). The revised versions of patient safety articles, which are eventually to be accepted for publication, have many statistical limitations especially in the reporting (writing) of basic statistical methods and results. The results suggest a need for education of patient safety investigators to include statistical writing.

  11. Safety signal detection: the relevance of literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Helena; Clément, Mallorie; Rollason, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent an important risk for patients and have a significant economic impact on health systems. ADRs are the fifth most common cause of hospital death, with a burden estimated at 197,000 deaths per year in the EU. This has a societal cost of 79 billion per year. Because of this strong impact in public health, regulatory authorities (RAs) worldwide are implementing new pharmacovigilance legislation to promote and protect public health by reducing the burden of ADRs through the detection of safety signals. Although, traditionally, signal detection activities have mainly been performed based on spontaneous reporting from healthcare professionals and national health RAs, the new pharmacovigilance legislation underlines the relevance of other sources of information (such as scientific literature) for the evaluation of the benefit-risk balance of a certain product. This review aims to highlight the relevance of periodic scientific literature screening in the safety signal detection process. The authors present four practical examples where a safety signal that was detected from a literature report had an impact on the lifecycle of a drug. In addition, based on practical experience of the screening of medical and scientific literature for safety purposes, this article analyses the requirements of the new pharmacovigilance guidelines on literature screening and highlights the need for the implementation of a literature review procedure and the main challenges encountered when performing literature screening for safety aspects.

  12. Patient involvement in the safety of care: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaynara de Oliveira Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this integrative review was to survey the strategies adopted by health institutions that involve patients in care as a barrier to prevent incidents. A search was conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL and PubMed databases using the descriptors ‘patient safety’, ‘iatrogenic’, ‘medical error’ and ‘involvement’. The review included studies in full text published between 2003 and March 2016 in English, Spanish or Portuguese. It was found that the effective communication and the development of patients’ autonomy are the most advocated strategies. The level of evidence of studies was limited to four and six. The assessment or description of institutional practices involving patients in their safety emerged as a gap in scientific knowledge. The impact of this review is to demonstrate the need for randomized studies to identify effective interventions, directing health institutions towards change in the organizational culture, focusing on safety and patient-centered care.

  13. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  14. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  15. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food irradiation is one of the non thermal food processing methods. It is the process of exposing food materials to the controlled amounts of ionizing radiations such as gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons, to improve microbiological safety and stability. Irradiation disrupts the biological processes that lead to decay of food quality. It is an effective tool to reduce food-borne pathogens, spoilage microorganisms and parasites; to extend shelf-life and for insect disinfection. The safety and consumption of irradiated foods have been extensively studied at national levels and in international cooperations and have concluded that foods irradiated under appropriate technologies are both safe and nutritionally adequate. Specific applications of food irradiation have been approved by national legislations of more than 55 countries worldwide. This review aims to discuss the applications of irradiation in food processing with the emphasis on food safety and stability.

  16. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinos, Anna; Holubowich, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. Methods The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Results Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate

  17. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate meaningful learning outcomes

  18. Teneligliptin: a review on cardio-renal safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit K. Patel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Various drugs including DPP4 inhibitors with different pharmacologic profile are being used in patients with type 2 diabetes for improving glycaemic control. Cardiovascular (CV safety is one of the important aspects while selecting the glucose lowering therapies. In addition, DPP-4 inhibitors differ in their mode of excretion and degree of accumulation, which require dose/frequency modification in patients with impaired renal function. Therefore, understanding the cardio-renal safety profile of DPP4 inhibitors is of great importance. Teneligliptin is a DPP4 inhibitor, approved recently for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the present review is to integrate published literature and evaluate the cardio-renal safety of teneligliptin in type 2 diabetic patients. As per the available evidence, teneligliptin has apparently positive effects on CV safety markers like no QT prolongation at clinically relevant dose, small but significant improvement in left ventricular (LV function, improvement in adiponectin levels and improvement in endothelial dysfunction. These findings support the cardiovascular safety of teneligliptin in T2DM patients. Dual route of excretion makes teneligliptin suitable (no dose adjustment required for T2DM patients with renal failure. Available clinical evidence suggests that teneligliptin exerts cardiovascular safety in T2DM patients. This drug can be used in T2DM patients with CKD including end stage renal disease patients without any major safety concern. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 229-234

  19. Enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors for food safety: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Harish; Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Harish Kumar, Rani Neelam Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana, India Abstract: In recent years, food storage environment safety has been a major concern for food and health scientists. There is growing interest in electrochemical biosensors due to their high sensitivity and rapid response. The aim of this review article is to provide details regarding the development of enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors, and their use in t...

  20. A Review of General Aviation Safety (1984-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-07-01

    General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed. The review will also summarize the development and implementation of stringent crashworthiness designs with multi-axis dynamic testing and head-injury protection and its impact on mitigating occupant injury severity. The benefits and drawbacks of new technology and human factor considerations associated with increased general aviation automation will be debated. Data on the safety of the aging general aviation population and increased drug usage will also be described. Finally, areas in which general aviation occupant survival could be improved and injury severity mitigated will be discussed with the view of equipping aircraft with 1) crash-resistant fuel tanks to reduce post-impact conflagration; 2) after-market ballistic parachutes for older aircraft; and 3) current generation electronic locator beacons to hasten site access by first responders.Boyd DD. A review of general aviation safety (1984-2017). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):657-664.

  1. Patient safety education for undergraduate medical students: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce harm caused by health care is a global priority. Medical students should be able to recognize unsafe conditions, systematically report errors and near misses, investigate and improve such systems with a thorough understanding of human fallibility, and disclose errors to patients. Incorporating the knowledge of how to do this into the medical student curriculum is an urgent necessity. This paper aims to systematically review the literature about patient safety education for undergraduate medical students in terms of its content, teaching strategies, faculty availability and resources provided so as to identify evidence on how to promote patient safety in the curriculum for medical schools. This paper includes a perspective from the faculty of a medical school, a major hospital and an Evidence Based Medicine Centre in Sichuan Province, China. Methods We searched MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Source Premier(ASP, EMBASE and three Chinese Databases (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, CBM; China National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI; Wangfang Data from 1980 to Dec. 2009. The pre-specified form of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed for literature screening. The quality of included studies was assessed using Darcy Reed and Gemma Flores-Mateo criteria. Two reviewers selected the studies, undertook quality assessment, and data extraction independently. Differing opinions were resolved by consensus or with help from the third person. Results This was a descriptive study of a total of seven studies that met the selection criteria. There were no relevant Chinese studies to be included. Only one study included patient safety education in the medical curriculum and the remaining studies integrated patient safety into clinical rotations or medical clerkships. Seven studies were of a pre and post study design, of which there was only one controlled study. There was considerable variation in relation to contents

  2. 77 FR 26790 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board (``Board'') to vote on the position of Board Chairperson... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C...

  3. 75 FR 30859 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote on the... . ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory...

  4. 76 FR 56226 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote of the... Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U...

  5. Simulation of safety: a review of the state of the art in road safety simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William; Sobhani, Amir; Lenné, Michael G; Sarvi, Majid

    2014-05-01

    Recent decades have seen considerable growth in computer capabilities, data collection technology and communication mediums. This growth has had considerable impact on our ability to replicate driver behaviour and understand the processes involved in failures in the traffic system. From time to time it is necessary to assess the level of development as a basis of determining how far we have come. This paper sets out to assess the state of the art in the use of computer models to simulate and assess the level of safety in existing and future traffic systems. It reviews developments in the area of road safety simulation models. In particular, it reviews computer models of driver and vehicle behaviour within a road context. It focuses on stochastic numerical models of traffic behaviour and how reliable these are in estimating levels of safety on the traffic network. Models of this type are commonly used in the assessment of traffic systems for capacity, delay and general performance. Adding safety to this assessment regime may allow more comprehensive assessment of future traffic systems. To date the models have focused primarily on vehicular traffic that is, cars and heavy vehicles. It has been shown that these models have potential in measuring the level of conflict on parts of the network and the measure of conflict correlated well with crash statistics. Interest in the prediction of crashes and crash severity is growing and new models are focusing on the continuum of general traffic conditions, conflict, severe conflict, crash and severe crashes. The paper also explores the general data types used to develop, calibrate and validate these models. Recent technological development in in-vehicle data collection, driver simulators and machine learning offers considerable potential for improving the behavioural base, rigour and application of road safety simulation models. The paper closes with some indication of areas of future development.

  6. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  7. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-10-13

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, {close_quotes} was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  8. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric hemiparesis: randomized controlled preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Feyma, Tim; Menk, Jeremiah; Usset, Michelle; Vaith, Amy; Wood, Teddi Jean; Worthington, Rebecca; Krach, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that has shown improved adult stroke outcomes. Applying tDCS in children with congenital hemiparesis has not yet been explored. The primary objective of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of single-session tDCS through an adverse events profile and symptom assessment within a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study in children with congenital hemiparesis. A secondary objective was to assess the stability of hand and cognitive function. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pretest/posttest/follow-up study was conducted. The study was conducted in a university pediatric research laboratory. Thirteen children, ages 7 to 18 years, with congenital hemiparesis participated. Adverse events/safety assessment and hand function were measured. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, with safety and functional assessments at pretest, at posttest on the same day, and at a 1-week follow-up session. An intervention of 10 minutes of 0.7 mA tDCS was applied to bilateral primary motor cortices. The tDCS intervention was considered safe if there was no individual decline of 25% or group decline of 2 standard deviations for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and behavioral data and no report of adverse events. No major adverse events were found, including no seizures. Two participants did not complete the study due to lack of MEP and discomfort. For the 11 participants who completed the study, group differences in MEPs and behavioral data did not exceed 2 standard deviations in those who received the tDCS (n=5) and those in the control group (n=6). The study was completed without the need for stopping per medical monitor and biostatisticial analysis. A limitation of the study was the small sample size, with data available for 11 participants. Based on the results of this study, tDCS appears to be safe

  9. Phenomenological studies on sodium for CSP applications: A safety review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Kenneth M.; Andraka, Charles E.

    2016-05-01

    Sodium Heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as sodium, can achieve temperatures above 700°C to obtain power cycle performance improvements for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF's (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal power cycles. This advantage could increase the efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sensible sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium receiver designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Lessons obtained from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  10. Review of literature on the TMI accident and correlation to the LWR Safety Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This report is the result of approximately two man-months of effort devoted to assimilating and comprehending significant publicly available material related to Three Mile Island Unit 2 and events during and subsequent to the accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Those events were then correlated with the Preliminary LWR Safety Technology Program Plan (Preliminary Program Plan) prepared for the US Department of Energy by Sandia National Lab. This report is being submitted simultaneously with the SAI report entitled Preliminary Prioritization of Tasks in the Draft LWR Safety Technology Program Plan.

  11. Research safety vehicle program (Phase II) specification review. Volume II. Final technical report, Jul 1975--Nov 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, S.M.

    1977-02-01

    In Phase I of the Research Safety Vehicle Program (RSV), preliminary design and performance specifications were developed for a mid-1980's vehicle that integrates crashworthiness and occupant safety features with material resource conservation, economy, and producibility. Phase II of the program focused on development of the total vehicle design via systems engineering and integration analyses. As part of this effort, it was necessary to continuously review the Phase I recommended performance specification in relation to ongoing design/test activities. This document contains the results of analyses of the Phase I specifications. The RSV is expected to satisfy all of the producibility and safety related specifications, i.e., handling and stability systems, crashworthiness, occupant protection, pedestrian/cyclist protection, etc.

  12. The regulatory review of safety-related information regarding underground radioactive waste disposal in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.G.J.; Williams, C.R. [Environment Agency of England and Wales, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    This paper builds upon earlier related contributions to the ESREL/PSAM Conference series and elsewhere, to outline the nature of a safety case based upon probabilistic risk analysis and the options for its assessment by a regulatory authority. Much has been published since the late 1970`s concerning the methods and tools used to perform technical analyses of radiological performance for any single party in a democratic society. However, little attention seems to have been given in the literature to the way in which such analyses, undertaken independently by a regulator, are best used to probe the safety case and its underlying arguments in a coherent and traceable manner. Recent experience from the review of preliminary safety-related information for a proposed deep repository in England indicates that further consideration should be given to the regulatory methodology, to possible difficulties due to oversimplified analyses, and to careful preparation for Public Hearings. (author).

  13. 75 FR 54915 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting/conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote on recommendations for the 2009-2010 Medal of Valor nominations, review issues relevant to the nomination review...

  14. Efficacy and safety of blonanserin versus other antipsychotics: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D. Patil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many atypical antipsychotics are available, there is a need of an atypical antipsychotic effective in all symptom domains of schizophrenia and well tolerated especially for side effects like extrapyramidal side effects, weight gain and blood prolactin elevation. Blonanserin is an atypical antipsychotic which blocks dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2A receptors. Its efficacy and safety has been studied in patients with schizophrenia and delirium. Blonanserin is found to be effective and well tolerated in both conditions. This article has reviewed efficacy and tolerability of blonanserin in these two psychiatry diseases. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 689-692

  15. 78 FR 17637 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber (PSF) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR) is... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan'' dated concurrently with...

  16. 77 FR 79 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of the Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of the... antidumping duty order on honey from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR... this administrative review because we have found the sales made by Dongtai Peak Honey Industry Co.,...

  17. 77 FR 46699 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Review... Peak Honey Industry Co., Ltd. (``Peak'') failed to cooperate to the best of its ability and is... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from the People's Republic of China...

  18. Preliminary safety analysis of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Daniel L; Boyne, Pierce; Rockwell, Bradley; Gerson, Myron; Khoury, Jane; Kissela, Brett; Dunning, Kari

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess safety via electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and orthopedic responses to 3 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols in persons with stroke. Eighteen participants (10 male; 61.9 + 8.3 years of age; 5.8 + 4.2 years poststroke) completed a symptom-limited graded exercise test (GXT) with ECG monitoring to screen for eligibility and determine HR peak. The 3 HIIT protocols involved repeated 30 s bursts of treadmill walking at maximum speed alternated with rest periods of 30 s (P30), 1 min (P60), or 2 min (P120). Sessions were performed in random order and included 5 min warm up, 20 min HIIT, and 5 min cool down. Variables measured included ECG activity, BP, HR, signs and symptoms of cardiovascular intolerance, and orthopedic concerns. Generalized linear mixed models and Tukey-Kramer adjustment were used to compare protocols using p HIIT session. HIIT elicited HRs in excess of 88% of measured HRpeak including 6 (P30), 8 (P60), and 2 (P120) participants eliciting a HR response above their GXT HRpeak. Both maximum BP and HR were significantly higher in P30 and P60 relative to P120. Preliminary data indicate that persons with chronic stroke who have been prescreened with an ECG stress test, a symptom-limited GXT, and a harness for fall protection may safely participate in HIIT, generating substantially higher HRs than what is seen in traditional moderate intensity training.

  19. 29 CFR 2200.108 - Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. 2200.108 Section 2200.108 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. The seal of the Commission shall consist of: A gold...

  20. Review on - Nanotechnology Applications in Food Packaging and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. John Wesley , Praveen Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, the science of very small materials, is poised to have a big impact in food production and packaging.Public perception will be crucial to the realization of these technological advances. Today, nanotech R&D of food packaging and the monitoring of nanotech food packaging is a major focus in the food industry. Due to very large aspect ratios, a relatively low level of nanoparticle is sufficient to change the properties of packaging materials without significant changes in density, transparency and processing characteristics. New packaging solutions will focus more on food safety by controlling microbial growth, delaying oxidation, improving tamper visibility, and convenience. The rapid use of nano-based packaging in a wide range of consumer products has also raised a number of safety, environmental, ethical, policy and regulatory issues. Nanotechnologies are expected to play a major role, taking into account all additional safety considerations and filling present packaging needs. This review also provides the most complete accounting of nano-enabled packaging for food products in various markets around the globe.

  1. Fission, critical mass and safety-a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meggitt, Geoff

    2006-06-15

    Since the discovery of fission, the notion of a chain reaction in a critical mass releasing massive amounts of energy has haunted physicists. The possibility of a bomb or a reactor prompted much of the early work on determining a critical mass, but the need to avoid an accidental critical excursion during processing or transport of fissile material drove much that took place subsequently. Because of the variety of possible situations that might arise, it took some time to develop adequate theoretical tools for criticality safety and the early assessments were based on direct experiment. Some extension of these experiments to closely similar situations proved possible, but it was not until the 1960s that theoretical methods (and computers to run them) developed enough for them to become reliable assessment tools. Validating such theoretical methods remained a concern, but by the end of the century they formed the backbone of criticality safety assessment. This paper traces the evolution of these methods, principally in the UK and USA, and summarises some related work concerned with the nature of criticality accidents and their radiological consequences. It also indicates how the results have been communicated and used in ensuring nuclear safety. (review)

  2. A review on safety and efficacy of products containing Longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafeez Ahmad Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam and also Laos. The roots extract of E. longifolia, is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia used for many purposes such as sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate and summarize the existing literatures regarding the efficacy and safety of products which contain E. longifolia as its main ingredient. In summary, based on the literature evaluated in this review article, products which contain tongkat ali showed a clinical benefit on improving erectile dysfunction as well as a good safety profile. We recommend consumers to check the level of the bioactive compound “eurycomanone” as their guide before choosing any E. longifolia product.

  3. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  4. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  5. Climate change and occupational safety and health: establishing a preliminary framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; Chun, HeeKyoung

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between global climate change and occupational safety and health has not been extensively characterized. To begin such an effort, it may be useful to develop a framework for identifying how climate change could affect the workplace; workers; and occupational morbidity, mortality, and injury. This article develops such a framework based on a review of the published scientific literature from 1988-2008 that includes climatic effects, their interaction with occupational hazards, and their manifestation in the working population. Seven categories of climate-related hazards are identified: (1) increased ambient temperature, (2) air pollution, (3) ultraviolet exposure, (4) extreme weather, (5) vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats, (6) industrial transitions and emerging industries; and (7) changes in the built environment. This review indicates that while climate change may result in increasing the prevalence, distribution, and severity of known occupational hazards, there is no evidence of unique or previously unknown hazards. However, such a possibility should not be excluded, since there is potential for interactions of known hazards and new conditions leading to new hazards and risks.

  6. Code review for and by scientists: preliminary findings

    OpenAIRE

    Petre, Marian; Wilson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    We describe two pilot studies of code review by and for scientists. Our principal findings are that scien- tists are enthusiastic, but need to be shown code re- view in action, and that just-in-time review of small code changes is more likely to succeed than large-scale end-of-work reviews.\\ud

  7. Review of SKB's Safety Assessment SR-Can: Contributions in Support of SKI's and SSI's Review by External Consultants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) plans to submit a license application for the construction of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden 2010. In support of this application SKB will present a safety report, SR-Site, on the repository's long-term safety and radiological consequences. As a preparation for SR-Site, SKB published the preliminary safety assessment SR-Can in November 2006. The purposes were to document a first evaluation of long-term safety for the two candidate sites at Forsmark and Laxemar and to provide feedback to SKB's future programme of work. An important objective of the authorities' review of SR-Can is to provide guidance to SKB on the complete safety reporting for the license application. The authorities have engaged external experts for independent modelling, analysis and review, with the aim to provide a range of expert opinions related to the sufficiency and appropriateness of various aspects of SR-Can. The conclusions and judgments in this report are those of the authors and may not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. The authorities own review will be published separately (SKI Report 2008:23, SSI Report 2008:04 E). This report compiles contributions from several specific research projects. The separate reviews cover topics regarding the engineered barrier system, the quality assurance, the climate evolution and its effects, and the ecosystems and environmental impacts. All contributions are in English apart from the review concerning ecosystems and environmental impacts, which is presented in Swedish

  8. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  9. 77 FR 51826 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Bureau.... SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to review and vote on recommendations for the 2011-2012 Medal of Valor nominations, consider issues relevant...

  10. 78 FR 43227 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office.... SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to review and vote on recommendations for the 2012-2013 Medal of Valor nominations, consider issues relevant...

  11. 78 FR 25476 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Bureau... announcement of a meeting (via conference call-in) of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to... Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C. 15202. Pursuant...

  12. Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation for the Proposed Bio Safety Level 3 (BSl-3) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenbach, T J; Nguyen, S N

    2003-09-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct a biosafety level (BSL-3) facility at Site 200 in Livermore, California. Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) is a designation assigned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institutes Health (NIH) for handling infectious organisms based on the specific microorganisms and associated operations. Biosafety levels range from BSL-1 (lowest hazard) to BSL-4 (highest hazard). Details about the BSL-3 criteria are described in the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s publication ''Biosafety Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories'' (BMBL), 4th edition (CDC 1999): The BSL-3 facility will be built in accordance with the required BMBL guidelines. This Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation (PABD) for the proposed BSL-3 facility has been prepared in accordance with the current contractual requirements at LLNL. This includes the LLNL Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (ES&H Manual) and applicable Work Smart Standards, including the biosafety standards, such as the aforementioned BMBL and the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules: The proposed BSL-3 facility is a 1,100 ft{sup 2}, one-story permanent prefabricated facility, which will have three individual BSL-3 laboratory rooms (one of which is an animal biosafety level-3 [ABSL-3] laboratory to handle rodents), a mechanical room, clothes-change and shower rooms, and small storage space (Figure 3.1). The BSL-3 facility will be designed and operated accordance with guidelines for BSL-3 laboratories established by the CDC and the NIH. No radiological, high explosives, fissile, or propellant material will be used or stored in the proposed BSL-3 facility. The BSL-3 facility will be used to develop scientific tools to identify and understand the pathogens of medical, environmental, and forensic importance. Microorganisms that are to

  13. Review of efficacy and safety of laxatives use in geriatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzy, Manhal; Malieckal, Anju; Little, Erin; Anand, Sury

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatment of constipation in geriatrics. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, google scholar, and Ovid were searched to identify human studies performed on the use of laxatives in elderly with constipation, which were conducted between January 1990 and January 2013 using the specified keywords. Controlled studies that enrolled geriatric patients with a diagnosis of constipation and addressed the efficacy and/or the safety of pharmacological treatments were included. Studies were excluded from this review if they were non-controlled trials, case series, or case reports. RESULTS: Out of twenty three studies we initially retrieved in our search, only nine studies met the eligibility criteria of being controlled trials within geriatrics. The laxatives examined in the nine studies were senna, lactulose, sorbital, polyethylene glycol (PEG), lubiprostone, linaclotide, and prucalopride. In those studies, senna combinations had a higher efficacy than sorbitol or lactulose as well as, a very good adverse effect profile. PEG was also shown to be safe and effective in geriatric population. Furthermore, it has been shown that PEG is as safe in geriatrics as in general population. New agents like lubiprostone and prucalopride show promising results but the data about these agents in geriatrics are still limited which warrants further investigation. CONCLUSION: Senna combinations and PEG appear to have a more favorable profile over the other traditionally used laxatives in elderly patients with constipation. PMID:27158549

  14. Westinghouse independent safety review of Savannah River production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, W.D.; McShane, W.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Liparulo, N.J.; McAdoo, J.D.; Strawbridge, L.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear and Advanced Technology Div.); Toto, G. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear Services Div.); Fauske, H.K. (Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA)); Call, D.W. (Westinghouse Savannah R

    1989-04-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation has performed a safety assessment of the Savannah River production reactors (K,L, and P) as requested by the US Department of Energy. This assessment was performed between November 1, 1988, and April 1, 1989, under the transition contract for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's preparations to succeed E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company as the US Department of Energy contractor for the Savannah River Project. The reviewers were drawn from several Westinghouse nuclear energy organizations, embody a combination of commercial and government reactor experience, and have backgrounds covering the range of technologies relevant to assessing nuclear safety. The report presents the rationale from which the overall judgment was drawn and the basis for the committee's opinion on the phased restart strategy proposed by E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Westinghouse, and the US Department of Energy-Savannah River. The committee concluded that it could recommend restart of one reactor at partial power upon completion of a list of recommended upgrades both to systems and their supporting analyses and after demonstration that the organization had assimilated the massive changes it will have undergone.

  15. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  16. Safety of Moxibustion: A Systematic Review of Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moxibustion is a traditional medical treatment originating in China. It involves using the heat of burning moxa to stimulate acupoints. It is considered safe and effective and is widely used throughout the world. The increasing use of moxibustion has drawn attention to the procedure’s adverse events (AEs. This review covers a total of 64 cases of AEs associated with moxibustion in 24 articles, reported in six countries. Some evidence of the risks of moxibustion has been found in these cases. AEs include allergies, burns, infection, coughing, nausea, vomiting, fetal distress, premature birth, basal cell carcinoma (BCC, ectropion, hyperpigmentation, and even death. The position, duration, distance between moxa and skin, proficiency of the practitioners, conditions of the patients, presence of smoke, and even the environment of treatment can affect the safety of moxibustion. Improving practitioner skill and regulating operations may reduce the incidence of adverse reactions and improve the security of moxibustion.

  17. Safety of telemental healthcare delivered to clinically unsupervised settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Sirotin, Anton P; Mishkind, Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    The safety of telemental healthcare delivered to clinically unsupervised settings, such as a personal residence, must be established to inform policy and further the dissemination of telemental health programs. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of safety issues associated with telemental healthcare and, through a systematic literature review, evaluate the safety of telemental healthcare delivered to unsupervised settings. The review resulted in a total of nine studies that specifically evaluated the delivery of telemental healthcare to unsupervised settings. Six of the nine studies reviewed explicitly described safety plans or specific precautions that could be used if necessary. Two of the nine studies reported events that required the researchers to use safety procedures to effectively respond to concerns they had regarding participant safety. In both of these studies, the issues were resolved with prescribed safety procedures. Recommendations and future directions for the development and evaluation of safety protocols are discussed.

  18. Packaging review guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packagings: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Lloyd, W.R.; Mount, M.E.; Nelson, T.A.; Schwartz, M.W.; Witte, M.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established procedures for obtaining certification of packagings used by DOE and its contractors for the transport of radioactive materials. The principal purpose of this document is to assure the quality and uniformity of PCS reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The Packaging Review Guide (PRG) also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a SARP does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented. It is also a purpose of the PRG to make information about DOE certification policy and procedures widely available to DOE field offices, DOE contractors, federal agencies, and interested members of the public. 77 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Safety and effectiveness of the celect inferior vena cava filter: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwaiya, Minal Jagtiani; Marentis, Theodore C; Walker, T Gregory; Stecker, Michael; Wicky, Stephan T; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Celect inferior vena cava (IVC) filter during implantation, retrieval, and short-term follow-up. The clinical data of 73 patients (46 men; age range, 22-89 years) who had a Celect IVC filter implanted between August 2007 and June 2008 were reviewed. Twenty-one (28.8%) presented with pulmonary embolism (PE), 15 (20.54%) with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 12 (16.4%) with both, and the rest (34.26%) with other symptoms. Indications for filter placement were contraindication to anticoagulation (n = 38; 52%), prophylaxis/added protection (n = 22; 30%), failure of anticoagulation (n = 11; 15%), and complications of anticoagulation (n = 2; 3%). Filters were placed in the infrarenal (n = 71) or suprarenal (n = 2) IVC. Follow-up data were reviewed for filter-related complications and recurrent PE. All filters were successfully deployed. Immediately after fluoroscopy-guided filter deployment in 61 patients, four filters (6.5%) showed significant tilt. During follow-up (mean, 68 days +/- 73), three patients developed symptoms of PE after filter placement; however, computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography demonstrated new PE in only two. Imaging follow-up with radiography (n = 32), CT (n = 11), and/or angiography (n = 4) in 47 patients (at a mean of 62 days +/- 75) showed no filter migration. Follow-up abdominal CT (at a mean of 69 days +/- 58) was available in 18 patients and demonstrated filter-related problems in seven (39%). These included penetration of filter legs in four and fracture/migration of filter components in one. Fourteen filters were successfully retrieved after a median period of 84 days. The Celect IVC filter can be safely placed but is related to a high incidence of caval filter leg penetration. Symptomatic PE after filter placement confirmed by CT occurred in 2.8% of patients.

  20. SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's safety report SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Stroemberg, Bo (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report summarises SKI's and SSI's joint review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) safety report SR-Can (SKB TR-06-09). SR-Can is the first assessment of post-closure safety for a KBS-3 spent nuclear fuel repository at the candidate sites Forsmark and Laxemar, respectively. The analysis builds on data from the initial stage of SKB's surface-based site investigations and on data from full-scale manufacturing and testing of buffer and copper canisters. SR-Can can be regarded as a preliminary version of the safety report that will be required in connection with SKB's planned licence application for a final repository in late 2009. The main purpose of the authorities' review is to provide feedback to SKB on their safety reporting as part of the pre-licensing consultation process. However, SR-Can is not part of the formal licensing process. In support of the authorities' review three international peer review teams were set up to make independent reviews of SR-Can from three perspectives, namely integration of site data, representation of the engineered barriers and safety assessment methodology, respectively. Further, several external experts and consultants have been engaged to review detailed technical and scientific issues in SR-Can. The municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn where SKB is conducting site investigations, as well NGOs involved in SKB's programme, have been invited to provide their views on SR-Can as input to the authorities' review. Finally, the authorities themselves, and with the help of consultants, have used independent models to reproduce part of SKB's calculations and to make complementary calculations. All supporting review documents are published in SKI's and SSI's report series. The main findings of the review are: -SKB's safety assessment methodology is overall in accordance with applicable regulations, but part of the methodology needs to be

  1. Safety of metamizole: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, S; Bartels, D B; Lange, R; Sandford, L; Gurwitz, J

    2016-10-01

    Metamizole was withdrawn from the market in the United States and several European countries following reports of fatal agranulocytosis among users, but is still available in many countries in Europe, South America and Asia. Over the past several decades, a number of epidemiologic studies have been conducted to quantify the risk of agranulocytosis and other adverse effects associated with metamizole and other non-narcotic analgesics. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the safety of metamizole. Epidemiologic studies published between 1 January 1980 and 15 December 2014 were identified through systematic searches of PubMed and Google Scholar; the reference sections of selected articles were also reviewed to identify potentially relevant studies. Studies included in this review focused on the safety of metamizole, that is on outcomes such as haematologic abnormalities, gastrointestinal bleeding, anaphylaxis and hepatotoxicity. Two study investigators independently reviewed the abstracts and articles to determine relevant studies according to prespecified criteria. A total of 22 articles met the criteria for evaluation. The majority of studies that evaluated agranulocytosis indicated an increased risk associated with metamizole, with relative risk (RR) estimates ranging from 1·5 (95% CI, 0·8-2·7) to 40·2 (95% CI, 14·7-113·3). Findings of three case-control studies do not suggest an association between metamizole and aplastic anaemia. Of the five case-control studies that evaluated the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, four found a statistically significant increased risk associated with metamizole (RR estimates ranging from 1·4 to 2·7). There is insufficient evidence to determine whether metamizole increases the risk of other outcomes (e.g. hepatic effects, anaphylaxis, congenital anomalies). Few studies evaluated the effects of dose, route of administration or duration of therapy. Published studies reported differences in

  2. 77 FR 45334 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... conducting a new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina for the... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina was published on December 10, 2001.\\1\\ On January 3, 2012,...

  3. 78 FR 49256 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy. The period of review (``POR'') is January 1.... (``Tomasello'') received countervailable subsidies during the POR, and that Delverde Industrie Alimentari S.p.A... subsidies during the POR. Interested parties are invited to comment on the preliminary results....

  4. Preliminary perspectives gaines from individual plant examination of external events (IPEEE) seismic and fire submittal review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.T.; Connell, E.; Chokshi, N. [NRC, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    As a result of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, every operating nuclear power reactor in the United States has performed an assessment of severe accident due to external events. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary insights gained through the review of 24 IPEEE submittals.

  5. Diversity Management: A Preliminary Review Of Selected Non-Profit North Carolina Independent Colleges & Universities (NCICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tony Bledsoe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available While there may be wide-spread claims that diversity management exists in many organizations, there should be some means for verifying its existence.  The purpose of this preliminary research is to review campus–wide documents and structure of schools in the NCICU to determine its transparency.

  6. A Preliminary Study on the Measures to Assess the Organizational Safety: The Cultural Impact on Human Error Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The Fukushima I nuclear accident following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 occurred after twelve years had passed since the JCO accident which was caused as a result of an error made by JCO employees. These accidents, along with the Chernobyl accident, associated with characteristic problems of various organizations caused severe social and economic disruptions and have had significant environmental and health impact. The cultural problems with human errors occur for various reasons, and different actions are needed to prevent different errors. Unfortunately, much of the research on organization and human error has shown widely various or different results which call for different approaches. In other words, we have to find more practical solutions from various researches for nuclear safety and lead a systematic approach to organizational deficiency causing human error. This paper reviews Hofstede's criteria, IAEA safety culture, safety areas of periodic safety review (PSR), teamwork and performance, and an evaluation of HANARO safety culture to verify the measures used to assess the organizational safety

  7. Opinions on SKB's Safety Assessments SR 97 and SFL 3-5. A Review by SKI Consultants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has presented their safety assessment 'Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SR 97 - Post-closure safety'. SKB's report is part of the documentation that has been required by the Government before the start of site investigations. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is reviewing SR 97 according to earlier Government decisions. In its review work SKI has asked several consultants, that recently have been performing research work for SKI, to give their opinions on SR 97. SKI and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) have used these reports from the consultants as one complementary basis for the formulation of the SKI/SSI review report. This is a compilation of the reports from the different consultants, and therefore the different contributions vary in length, style and language. Included are also two consultant reports, giving comments on SKB's preliminary safety assessment for SFL 3-5 (deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste). The 17 contributions have all been separately indexed.

  8. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power... incorporate the final approved guidance into the next revision of NUREG 0800. Dated at Rockville,...

  9. Understanding waste for lean health information systems: a preliminary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalong, Nadia Awang; Yusof, Maryati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid application of the Lean method in healthcare, its study in IT environments, particularly in Health Information Systems (HIS), is still limited primarily by a lack of waste identification. This paper aims to review the literature to provide an insight into the nature of waste in HIS from the perspective of Lean management. Eight waste frameworks within the context of healthcare and information technology were reviewed. Based on the review, it was found that all the seven waste categories from the manufacturing sector also exist in both the healthcare and IT domains. However, the nature of the waste varied depending on the processes of the domains. A number of additional waste categories were also identified. The findings reveal that the traditional waste model can be adapted to identify waste in both the healthcare and IT sectors.

  10. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Simpevarp subarea are: to determine, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in the report SKB-TR--00-12. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that even considering remaining uncertainties, the Simpevarp subarea meets all safety requirements and most of the safety preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Simpevarp subarea. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Still, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry within the Simpevarp subarea would allow for a more specified layout, although the sensitivity analysis shows that the space needed is rather robust with respect to uncertainties in the zones. There is substantial uncertainty in the discrete fracture network (DFN

  11. A systematic review of occupational safety and health business cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos; Pulliainen, Marjo; Kankaanpää, Eila

    2009-12-01

    Business cases are commonly developed as means to rationalize investment. We systematically reviewed 26 reported cases on occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions to assess if health and productivity arguments make a good business case. To be included in the review, studies had to analyze the costs and benefits, including productivity, of an OSH intervention at the enterprise level. We searched Medline and Embase for studies and used Google search in addition. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. The intervention profitability was calculated in euros (euro in 2008) as the first year's benefits minus the total intervention costs per worker. The payback period was calculated as the intervention costs divided by the first year's benefits. We found three ex-ante and 23 ex-post cases. In 20 cases, the study design was a before-after comparison without a control group. Generally a 100% reduction of injuries or sickness absence was assumed. In two cases, productivity and quality increases were very large. The main benefit was avoided sick leave. Depreciation or discounting was applied only in a minority of cases. The intervention profitability was negative in seven studies, up to euro 500 per employee in 12 studies and more than euro 500 per employee in seven studies. The payback period was less than half a year for 19 studies. Only a few studies included sensitivity analyses. Few ex-ante business cases for management decisions on OSH are reported. Guidelines for reporting and evaluation are needed. Business cases need more sound assumptions on the effectiveness of interventions and should incorporate greater uncertainty into their design. Ex-post evaluation should be based preferably on study designs that control for trends at a time different from that of the intervention.

  12. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  13. Preliminary review of Precambrian Shield rocks for potential waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yardley, D.H.; Goldich, S.S.

    1975-11-01

    This review of the Canadian Shield is primarily concerned with the part (such as in the Lake Superior region) that is seismically the least active of the North American continent. The crystalline metamorphic and igneous rocks of the more stable elements of the shield provide excellent possibilities for dry excavations suitable for long-term storage of radioactive waste materials. (DLC)

  14. Review of efficacy and safety of laxatives use in geriatrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manhal Izzy; Anju Malieckal; Erin Little; Sury Anand

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To study the efficacy and safety of pharmacolo-gical treatment of constipation in geriatrics.METHODS:Pub Med,MEDLINE,google scholar,and Ovid were searched to identify human studies performed on the use of laxatives in elderly with constipation,which were conducted between January1990 and January 2013 using the specified keywords.Controlled studies that enrolled geriatric patients with a diagnosis of constipation and addressed the efficacy and/or the safety of pharmacological treatments were included.Studies were excluded from this review if they were non-controlled trials,case series,or case reports.RESULTS:Out of twenty three studies we initially retrieved in our search,only nine studies met the eligibility criteria of being controlled trials within geriatrics.The laxatives examined in the nine studies were senna,lactulose,sorbital,polyethylene glycol(PEG),lubiprostone,linaclotide,and prucalopride.In those studies,senna combinations had a higher efficacy than sorbitol or lactulose as well as,a very good adverse effect profile.PEG was also shown to be safe and effective in geriatric population.Furthermore,it has been shown that PEG is as safe in geriatrics as in general population.New agents like lubiprostone and prucalopride show promising results but the data about these agents in geriatrics are still limited which warrant further investigation.CONCLUSION:Senna combinations and PEG appear to have a more favorable profile over the other traditionally used laxatives in elderly patients with constipation.

  15. A review of the safety aspects of radio frequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bhaskaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In light of recent reports showing high incidence of silent cerebral infarcts and organized atrial arrhythmias following radiofrequency (RF atrial fibrillation (AF ablation, a review of its safety aspects is timely. Serious complications do occur during supraventricular tachycardia (SVT ablations and knowledge of their incidence is important when deciding whether to proceed with ablation. Evidence is emerging for the probable role of prophylactic ischemic scar ablation to prevent VT. This might increase the number of procedures performed. Here we look at the various complications of RF ablation and also the methods to minimize them. Electronic database was searched for relevant articles from 1990 to 2015. With better awareness and technological advancements in RF ablation the incidence of complications has improved considerably. In AF ablation it has decreased from 6% to less than 4% comprising of vascular complications, cardiac tamponade, stroke, phrenic nerve injury, pulmonary vein stenosis, atrio-esophageal fistula (AEF and death. Safety of SVT ablation has also improved with less than 1% incidence of AV node injury in AVNRT ablation. In VT ablation the incidence of major complications was 5–11%, up to 3.4%, up to 1.8% and 4.1–8.8% in patients with structural heart disease, without structural heart disease, prophylactic ablations and epicardial ablations respectively. Vascular and pericardial complications dominated endocardial and epicardial VT ablations respectively. Up to 3% mortality and similar rates of tamponade were reported in endocardial VT ablation. Recent reports about the high incidence of asymptomatic cerebral embolism during AF ablation are concerning, warranting more research into its etiology and prevention.

  16. Undetected latent failures of safety-related systems. Preliminary survey of events in nuclear power plants 1980-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydell, B. [RSA Technologies, Vista, CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes results and insights from a preliminary survey of events involving undetected, latent failures of safety-related systems. The survey was limited to events where mispositioned equipment (e.g., valves, switches) remained undetected, thus rendering standby equipment or systems unavailable for short or long time periods. Typically, these events were symptoms of underlying latent errors (e.g., design errors, procedure errors, unanalyzed safety conditions) and programmatic errors. The preliminary survey identified well over 300 events. Of these, 95 events are documented in this report. Events involving mispositioned equipment are commonplace. Most events are discovered soon after occurrence, however. But as evidenced by the survey results, some events remained undetected beyond several shift changes. The recommendations developed by the survey emphasize the importance of applying modern root cause analysis techniques to the event analysis to ensure that the causes and implications of occurred events are fully understood. 7 refs, 4 tabs, 3 figs. Also available at the SKI Home page: //www.ski.se.

  17. Report of the aviation safety review of Department of Energy helicopter operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    In a memorandum dated November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to lead, with Program Secretarial Office participation, an aviation safety review of the safe operation of the Department`s helicopter program. The Aviation Safety Review Team comprised of aviation experts from the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, private consulting organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff was assembled. The scope of the Aviation Safety Review Team`s appraisals included the following as applicable: policy; operations; maintenance; crew training; previous appraisals; contract requirements; aviation safety analysis reports; refueling facilities and management; night vision goggle (NVG) operations; helicopter limited standdown initiative; Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) -6D-91 Compliance; and, DOE/contractor organizational structures and responsibilities. The appraisals at each site included a review of aviation policy, manuals, procedures, facilities, and documentation pertaining to management, safety, operations, maintenance, and quality control.

  18. Report of the aviation safety review of Department of Energy helicopter operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    In a memorandum dated November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to lead, with Program Secretarial Office participation, an aviation safety review of the safe operation of the Department's helicopter program. The Aviation Safety Review Team comprised of aviation experts from the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, private consulting organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff was assembled. The scope of the Aviation Safety Review Team's appraisals included the following as applicable: policy; operations; maintenance; crew training; previous appraisals; contract requirements; aviation safety analysis reports; refueling facilities and management; night vision goggle (NVG) operations; helicopter limited standdown initiative; Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) -6D-91 Compliance; and, DOE/contractor organizational structures and responsibilities. The appraisals at each site included a review of aviation policy, manuals, procedures, facilities, and documentation pertaining to management, safety, operations, maintenance, and quality control.

  19. 49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... route analysis. 209.501 Section 209.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....820 § 209.501 Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. (a) Review of route analysis. If the Associate Administrator for Safety determines that a railroad carrier's route selection...

  20. 76 FR 37375 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office...: This is an announcement of a meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor... Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C. 15202. Pursuant...

  1. Review of the EU's Preliminary Assessment of China's Market Economy Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the European Union (EU) made a decision on its preliminary assessment of China's market economy status (MES). After seriously studying the EU's preliminary assessment report, the Institute of Economic and Resources Management of Beijing Normal University made a review. We hold that the decision on the assessment fails to be fair and objective and is undermined by incorrect understanding and logical contradictions. However, the decision has still left some leeway for China's improvement and China needs to speed up in improving its market economy regime.

  2. A Preliminary Review on Three-Dimensional City Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiming; ZHANG Wenjiang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a review on current research on 3DCM is presented, and an alternative approach by integrating the concepts and techniques of object-oriented method and Computer Aided Design (CAD) is suggested. Through the approach urban spatial entities as objects are extracted, which are represented with primary 3D elements (node, edge, face and body) and their combinations. In the light of the concept of object, the method supports the multiple representation of Level of Details (LOD). More importantly, topological relationships between objects are described so that 3D topological operations can be implemented.

  3. Avian influenza a (H5N1: A preliminary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhi S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanity has been at the receiving end of many viral diseases since ages. Sudden emergence and re-emergence of new viral diseases in human beings has surprised the medical scientists from time to time. "Avian influenza" or "Bird flu" by H5N1 epidemics is one such surprise. Although many aspects about this disease are clear, there are some dark areas regarding vaccine development that need to be further explored and understood, so as to effectively contain the spread of this disease. The present article details out almost everything known about this interesting disease along with the review of the recent literature.

  4. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  5. Review of criteria for nuclear criticality safety control in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J. T.; Smith, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Basic elements in the review of criteria for nuclear criticality safety in transportation are the magnitudes of reactivity changes that may occur to a shipment of packages and those inherent in the regulatory procedure of assessment. The generic representation of criticality of reflected arrays of uncontained fissionable materials is used as a basis for comparison of packaged fissionable materials. The reactivities associated with array changes and perturbations representative of credible conditions that may occur in storage or transportation are summarized for air-spaced units of fissionable materials. Calculations of packaged fissionable material determined reactivities associated with similar changes to arrays of packages. Typical thermal insulating materials being studied are Celotex, wood, Foamglas, and a bonded vermiculite. The effect on the array neutron multiplication of these, with and without steel as an inner and outer container material, is examined. The present stage of the study has produced results illustrating the variable margin of subcriticality manifested by the criteria. Depending upon the packaging, mass loading and array reflector condition, the margin of subcriticality can be of the order of 1% in k/sub eff/.

  6. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Bernard, Christophe; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Czachor, Jason D.; Westphal, Joslyn A.; Mestre, Miriam A.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research. PMID:28603504

  7. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  8. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  9. Preliminary comparison of efficacy and safety of dasatinib and imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周励

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of dasatinib and imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia(CML-CP).Methods37CML-CP patients were randomized to receive

  10. A Preliminary Survey of Risk and Safety Operations at Selected Universities,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    S.C. RISK AND INSURANCE (B) Michigan State University RISK AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT (A) North Central Technical College, Ohio RISK MANAGEMENT AND...3440 Risk and Insurance BA 7417 Concepts in Risk and Insurance .............................................................................. NATIONAL

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) Roadmap Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A set of five developmental steps building from the NASA TASAR (Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests) concept are described, each providing incrementally more efficiency and capacity benefits to airspace system users and service providers, culminating in a Full Airborne Trajectory Management capability. For each of these steps, the incremental Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements are identified for later use in future formal safety assessments intended to lead to certification and operational approval of the equipment and the associated procedures. Two established safety assessment methodologies that are compliant with the FAA's Safety Management System were used leading to Failure Effects Classifications (FEC) for each of the steps. The most likely FEC for the first three steps, Basic TASAR, Digital TASAR, and 4D TASAR, is "No effect". For step four, Strategic Airborne Trajectory Management, the likely FEC is "Minor". For Full Airborne Trajectory Management (Step 5), the most likely FEC is "Major".

  12. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies.

  13. Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER with breakeven core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kwon, Y. M.; Chang, W. P.; Suk, S. D.; Lee, Y. B.; Jeong, K. S

    2001-06-01

    KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a Liquid Metal Reactor, KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. KALIMER addresses key issues regarding future nuclear power plants such as plant safety, economics, proliferation, and waste. In this report, descriptions of safety design features and safety analyses results for selected ATWS accidents for the breakeven core KALIMER are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in Chapter 1, and the safety evaluation procedure for the KALIMER design is described in Chapter 2. It includes event selection, event categorization, description of design basis events, and beyond design basis events.In Chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER core and plant system are designed to assure benign performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) have been performed to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. In Chapter 4, the design of the KALIMER containment dome and the results of its performance analyses are presented. The design of the existing containment and the KALIMER containment dome are compared in this chapter. Procedure of the containment performance analysis and the analysis results are described along with the accident scenario and source terms. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core energetics behavior during HCDA in Chapter 5. Sensitivity analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions, using mathematical formulations developed in the framework of the Modified Bethe-Tait method. Work energy potential was then calculated based on the isentropic fuel expansion model.

  14. (Q)SAR modeling and safety assessment in regulatory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruhlak, N L; Benz, R D; Zhou, H; Colatsky, T J

    2012-03-01

    The ability to predict clinical safety based on chemical structures is becoming an increasingly important part of regulatory decision making. (Quantitative) structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) models are currently used to evaluate late-arising safety concerns and possible nonclinical effects of a drug and its related compounds when adequate safety data are absent or equivocal. Regulatory use will likely increase with the standardization of analytical approaches, more complete and reliable data collection methods, and a better understanding of toxicity mechanisms.

  15. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January-March 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    This journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  16. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  17. Development of Behavioral Indicators of Competences for Safety Culture of Nuclear Power Plants: A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kwangsu; Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Shin, Youmin; Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The term of safety competency in nuclear field was presented in the OECD/NEA workshop held in 1999. A model of the safety culture competencies in nuclear power plants was developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). In general, a competency (competence) is defined as 'cluster of employee's attribute, knowledge, skill, ability or other characteristic that contributes to successful job performance'. We also defined safety culture competency as 'cluster of various internal characteristics (e.g., knowledge, skill, ability, motive, attitude and etc.) of employee that contribute to perform job safely and shape a healthy and strong safety culture.' By this definition, the safety culture competency is the broader construct including job competency. An employee having high level of safety culture competency shows extra discretionary effort to improve safety of peer, team and organization in addition to the individual's successful and safe job accomplishment. The behavioral indicators for each of the competencies are focal points of conversations on progress and are monitored continuously by self-assessment and managers or supervisors' intervention. Deficiencies in any of these indicators can point to coaching, training or other learning opportunities that employees may be required in order to improve. The purpose of this study was to derive a model of safety competencies for improving safety culture of NPPs and develop a set of behavioral indicators of each competency. In addition, the method of measuring behavioral indicators was suggested. For the application of developed safety culture competences and behavioral indicators, the most suitable measuring method for behavioral indicators must be developed. In the case of behavioral observations, behavioral dimensions (frequency, persistence and latency), observation possibility, occurrence basis of behavior (daily job performance, situational dependent) are considered to

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  19. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  20. Preliminary assessment of a combined passive safety system for typical 3-loop PWR CPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zijiang; Shan, Jianqiang, E-mail: jqshan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Gou, Junli

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A combined passive safety system was placed on a typical 3-loop PWR CPR1000. • Three accident analyses show the three different accident mitigation methods of the passive safety system. • The three mitigation methods were proved to be useful. - Abstract: As the development of the nuclear industry, passive technology turns out to be a remarkable characteristic of advanced nuclear power plants. Since the 20th century, much effort has been given to the passive technology, and a number of evolutionary passive systems have developed. Thoughts have been given to upgrade the existing reactors with passive systems to meet stricter safety demands. In this paper, the CPR1000 plant, which is one kind of mature pressurized water reactor plants in China, is improved with some passive systems to enhance safety. The passive systems selected are as follows: (1) the reactor makeup tank (RMT); (2) the advanced accumulator (A-ACC); (3) the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST); (4) the passive emergency feed water system (PEFS), which is installed on the secondary side of SGs; (5) the passive depressurization system (PDS). Although these passive components is based on the passive technology of some advanced reactors, their structural and trip designs are adjusted specifically so that it could be able to mitigate accidents of the CPR1000. Utilizing the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code, accident analyses (small break loss of coolant accident, large break loss of coolant accident, main feed water line break accident) of this improved CPR1000 plant were presented to demonstrate three different accident mitigation methods of the safety system and to test whether the passive safety system preformed its function well. In the SBLOCA, all components of the passive safety system were put into work sequentially, which prevented the core uncover. The LBLOCA analysis illustrates the contribution of the A-ACCs whose small-flow-rate injection can control the maximum cladding

  1. A critical review on toxicological safety of 2-alkylcyclobutanones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Soo-Jeong; Jin, Young-Bae; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Gang-Sung; Marchioni, Eric

    2014-10-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are known as unique radiolytic products generated from the major fatty acids and triglycerides in food through only irradiation. Since 1990, studies on the toxicological safety of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively with synthetic compounds. Mutagenicity tests of 2-ACBs on the microorganisms reviewed in this study clearly indicate that no evidence was observed, while several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs through cell death. Moreover, the genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested as DNA strand breaks were observed. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because genotoxicity may result from cytotoxicity, which causes DNA damage or from cell membrane destruction and indirect oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of genotoxic effects is needed. With regards to the suggestion of Raul et al. (2002) who showed the promoting effect of colon cancer by the administration of 2-ACBs, further studies are needed to correct some experimental design errors. Moreover, an in-vivo experiment that evaluated the metabolism of 2-ACBs has revealed that 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted through fecal discharge. In conclusion, it is considered that the ingestion of 2-ACBs through irradiated foods is unlikely to affect the human health. However, more specific studies are required to identify the fate of 2-ACBs in body and the LD50 values. The determination of chronic toxicity by long-term exposure to low concentrations of 2-ACBs has to be evaluated more clearly to determine if these compounds are safe to human.

  2. Improving Patient Safety Culture in Primary Care: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, Natasha J.; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo J. M.; Wagner, Cordula; Zwart, Dorien L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient safety culture, described as shared values, attitudes and behavior of staff in a health-care organization, gained attention as a subject of study as it is believed to be related to the impact of patient safety improvements. However, in primary care, it is yet unknown, which effec

  3. Preliminary safety calculations to improve the design of Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brovchenko, M.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Capellan, N.; Ghetta, V.; Laureau, A. [LPSC, CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble INP, 53,rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    Molten salt reactors are liquid fuel reactors so that they are flexible in operation but very different in the safety approach from solid fuel reactors. This study bears on the specific concept named Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). Since this new nuclear technology is in development, safety is an essential point to be considered all along the R and D studies. This paper presents the first step of the safety approach: the systematic description of the MSFR, limited here to the main systems surrounding the core. This systematic description is the basis on which we will be able to devise accidental scenarios. Thanks to the negative reactivity feedback coefficient, most accidental scenarios lead to reactor shut down. Because of the decay heat generated in the fuel salt, it must be cooled. After the description of the tools developed to calculate the residual heat, the different contributions are discussed in this study. The decay heat of fission products in the MSFR is evaluated to be low (3% of nominal power), mainly due to the reprocessing that transfers the fission products to the gas reprocessing unit. As a result, the contribution of the actinides is significant (0.5% of nominal power). The unprotected loss of heat sink transients are studied in this paper. It appears that slow transients are favorable (> 1 min) to minimize the temperature increase of the fuel salt. This work will be the basis of further safety studies as well as an essential parameter for the design of the draining system. (authors)

  4. Neighborhood safety factors associated with older adults' health-related outcomes: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jaewoong; Lee, Chanam; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G

    2016-09-01

    Neighborhood safety is important for older adults' health and wellbeing, but there has not been a synthesis in the literature of what is currently known about this construct. This systematic literature review, following the PRISMA guidelines, focuses on identifying neighborhood safety factors associated with health-related outcomes and behaviors of older adults in the U.S. A search was conducted in 2014 via Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, SportDis, and Transportation Databases. Based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified thirty-two articles for review. Sixteen studies examined health outcomes such as health status, mental health, physical function, morbidity/mortality, and obesity; the other sixteen studies focused on health behaviors, such as physical activity and walking. Four domains of neighborhood safety were identified: overall/general neighborhood safety; crime-related safety; traffic-related safety; and proxies for safety (e.g., vandalism, graffiti). Overall/general neighborhood safety appeared most relevant to mental health and physical function. Traffic-related safety was most pertinent to physical activity, while crime-related safety was more consistently associated with mental health and walking. While all safety variables were significantly associated with mental health, no significant associations were found for obesity. We also found that specific measures or constructs of safety were not applied consistently across the examined studies, making it difficult to compare the results. This review identified several important gaps in the existing studies dealing with neighborhood safety-health relationships among older adults. Further studies are needed that examine the different roles of multidimensional neighborhood safety in promoting the community health, not only in the U.S., but globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary systems-interaction results from the Digraph Matrix Analysis of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant safety-injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Champney, J.M.; Alesso, H.P.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides preliminary results generated by a Digraph Matrix Analysis (DMA) for a Systems Interaction analysis performed on the Safety Injection System of the Tennessee Valley Authority Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. An overview of DMA is provided along with a brief description of the computer codes used in DMA.

  6. Preliminary systems-interaction results from the Digraph Matrix Analysis of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant safety-injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Champney, J.M.; Alesso, H.P.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides preliminary results generated by a Digraph Matrix Analysis (DMA) for a Systems Interaction analysis performed on the Safety Injection System of the Tennessee Valley Authority Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. An overview of DMA is provided along with a brief description of the computer codes used in DMA.

  7. Safety and preliminary efficacy of one month glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with lefradafiban in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-elevation; a phase II study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Akkerhuis (Martijn); K.L. Neuhaus (Karl); R.G. Wilcox (Robert); A. Vahanian (Alec); J-L. Boland (Jean); J. Hoffmann; T. Baardman (Taco); G. Nehmiz; U. Roth; A.P.J. Klootwijk (Peter); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); M.L. Simoons (Maarten)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: Oral glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors might enhance the early benefit of an intravenous agent and prevent subsequent cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We assessed the safety and preliminary efficacy of 1 month treatment with three dose levels of the oral GP

  8. Pharmacoepidemiological safety studies in children: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.U. Osokogu (Osemeke); Dukanovic, J. (Julijana); C. Ferrajolo (Carmen); C. Dodd (Caitlin); A.C. Pacurariu (Alexandra C.); W.M. Bramer (Wichor); 'tJong, G. (Geert); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); F. Kaguelidou (Florentia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In order to identify challenges in pediatric pharmacoepidemiological safety studies, we assessed the characteristics of such (published) studies. Methods: Relevant articles from inception to 2013 were retrieved from Embase and Medline. We sequentially screened titles, abstracts

  9. A preliminary safety analysis for the prototype Gen IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwi Lim; Ha, Kwi Seok; Jeong, Jae Ho; Choi, Chi Woong; Jeong, Tae Kyeong; Ahn, Sang June; Lee, Seung Won; Chang, Won Pyo; Kang, Seok Hun; Yoo, Jae Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor of the Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR). To assess the effectiveness of the inherent safety features of the PGSFR, the system transients during design basis accidents and design extended conditions are analyzed with MARS-LMR and the subchannel blockage events are analyzed with MATRA-LMR-FB. In addition, the in-vessel source term is calculated based on the super-safe, small, and simple reactor methodology. The results show that the PGSFR meets safety acceptance criteria with a sufficient margin during the events and keeps accidents from deteriorating into more severe accidents.

  10. Health and safety. Preliminary comparative assessment of the satellite power system (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-04-01

    Existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and four electrical generation systems are analyzed: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine, a fission power system with fuel reprocessing, a central-station, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system, and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation and the number of health and safety risks that are identified as potentially significant but unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system.

  11. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  12. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.

    1980-01-01

    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  13. Preliminary Study for Application of the New Safety Goal related with the Limitation of Cs-137 release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro; Shin, Tae Young [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the New Safety Goal, it is clearly stated that the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) should be performed with the proper technical appropriateness, the detail, and the scope in accordance with the integrated risk assessment against the accident for the nuclear power plants. This requirement is known to be come from the provision for preventing the long term ground contamination due to the release of radioactive material. However, there were so many concerns that this goal is so severe that the current design, even in the case of the constructing nuclear power plants, cannot meet this criterion. Especially for the operating nuclear power plants, since there were no mitigation facilities against the severe accident at the design stages, the application of this new goal is known to be much severe that the constructing nuclear power plants and it is necessary to develop the alternative methods to strengthen the safety of the operating nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to review the new safety goal from the view point of severe accident analysis and probabilistic safety assessment, and to find the appropriate methods in order to meet that goal for the operating nuclear power plants. In order to strengthen the safety for domestic nuclear power plants, all of the domestic operating nuclear power plants are required to prepare the Accident Management Plan within 3 years. Also, this Accident Management Plan should meet the New Safety Goal including the requirement that the sum of the accident frequency that the release of the radioactive nuclide Cs- 137 to the environment exceeds the 100TBq should be less than 1.0E-6/RY. Since the operating nuclear power plants was not designed against the severe accident and they have the limited exclusive mitigation facilities, it is not easy to meet the New Safety Goal. So, it is necessary to develop the alternative methods to meet the New Safety Goal. In this study, the amount of Cs-137 released to the

  14. A Review of Interventions To Increase Driving Safety among Teenage Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, John R., II

    Young drivers across the United States represent a persistent traffic safety problem. Many interventions have been imposed on these drivers but few studies have evaluated the impact of these interventions on risky behaviors or traffic safety measures. To fill this gap, a review was undertaken to examine the most rigorous methodological evaluations…

  15. Dexmedetomidine versus Midazolam in Procedural Sedation. A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, Clemens R. M.; Absalom, Anthony; van Minnen, Baucke; Vissink, Arjan; Visser, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature comparing the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and midazolam when used for procedural sedation. Materials and Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE for clinical trials comparing dexmedetomidine and midazolam for procedural sedation

  16. Safety of amisulpride (Solian): a review of 11 clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulouvrat, C; Dondey-Nouvel, L

    1999-07-01

    We assessed the overall safety profile of amisulpride based on the results from 11 clinical studies performed in patients suffering from schizophrenia with predominance of positive or negative symptoms. A total of 1933 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with amisulpride (n = 1247) or haloperidol (n = 309), risperidone (n = 113), flupentixol (n = 62) and placebo (n = 202). Safety data collection was performed using open reporting, UKU scales or specific extrapyramidal side-effect scales; electrocardiogram recording and vital signs examination; laboratory data collection. Amisulpride demonstrated a satisfactory global safety profile in the range of doses usually prescribed. The number of patients having at least one extrapyramidal side-effect was higher in haloperidol patients compared with both amisulpride and risperidone patients (50% versus 30% in the two latter groups). For endocrine events, a similar rate was observed between amisulpride and risperidone groups (4% versus 6%, respectively) versus 1% in the haloperidol group. Electrocardiogram results were satisfactory, confirmed by the absence of cardiovascular events. The overall laboratory safety profile of amisulpride did not show clinically relevant abnormalities in liver function tests nor haematological abnormalities. Our extensive clinical data confirm the satisfactory safety profile of amisulpride which is superior to standard reference compounds.

  17. Preliminary safety assessment of C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, J E P S; Pereda, M C V; Nogueira, C; Dieamant, G; Cesar, C K M; Assanome, K M; Silva, M S; Torello, C O; Queiroz, M L S; Eberlin, S

    2016-02-01

    Most of the cosmetic compounds with preservative properties available in the market pose some risks concerning safety, such as the possibility of causing sensitization. Due to the fact that there are few options, the proper development of new molecules with this purpose is needed. Xylitol is a natural sugar, and the antimicrobial properties of xylitol-derived compounds have already been described in the literature. C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters may be useful for the development of skincare products. As an initial screen for safety of chemicals, the combination of in silico methods and in vitro testing can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal and human testing. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters regarding carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, skin and eye irritation/corrosion and sensitization through alternative methods. For the initial safety assessment, quantitative structure-activity relationship methodology was used. The prediction of the parameters carcinogenicity/mutagenicity, skin and eye irritation/corrosion and sensitization was generated from the chemical structure. The analysis also comprised physical-chemical properties, Cramer rules, threshold of toxicological concern and Michael reaction. In silico results of candidate molecules were compared to 19 compounds with preservative properties that are available in the market. Additionally, in vitro tests (Ames test for mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phototoxicity tests and hen's egg test--chorioallantoic membrane for irritation) were performed to complement the evaluation. In silico evaluation of both molecules presented no structural alerts related to eye and skin irritation, corrosion and sensitization, but some alerts for micronucleus and carcinogenicity were detected. However, by comparison, C-8 xylitol monoester, xylitol

  18. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  19. Preliminary safety analysis for offgas treatment system of DUPIC fuel manufacturing process at DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S

    2000-09-01

    DUPIC fuel fabrication process is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU compatible fuel through a direct refabrication process from spent PWR fuel. DUPIC fuel fabrication process consists of the slitting of the spent PWR fuel rods, OREOX processing, homogeneous mixing, pelletizing and sintering. All these processes should be conducted by remote means in a M6 hot cell at IMEF. Since there is a lot of highly radioactive spent fuel(200 kg) to be used in DUPIC fuel fabrication process, safety analysis on DFDF facility is very important to improve the safety of hot cell and to reduce the dose exposure to operator. This report describes the design of IMEF facility, manufacturing equipment and process, offgas treatment system necessary for DUPIC fuel manufacturing process. Also, it provides the flow chart of arising and activity for each nuclide in offgas treatment system and final arising and activity for gaseous waste discharged from offgas treatment equipment into inside of M6 cell during OREOX and sintering processes in DUPIC fuel manufacturing process.

  20. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  1. Defining and Measuring Safety Climate: A Review of the Construction Industry Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Hecker, Steven; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Safety climate measurements can be used to proactively assess an organization's effectiveness in identifying and remediating work-related hazards, thereby reducing or preventing work-related ill health and injury. This review article focuses on construction-specific articles that developed and/or measured safety climate, assessed safety climate's relationship with other safety and health performance indicators, and/or used safety climate measures to evaluate interventions targeting one or more indicators of safety climate. Fifty-six articles met our inclusion criteria, 80% of which were published after 2008. Our findings demonstrate that researchers commonly defined safety climate as perception based, but the object of those perceptions varies widely. Within the wide range of indicators used to measure safety climate, safety policies, procedures, and practices were the most common, followed by general management commitment to safety. The most frequently used indicators should and do reflect that the prevention of work-related ill health and injury depends on both organizational and employee actions. Safety climate scores were commonly compared between groups (e.g. management and workers, different trades), and often correlated with subjective measures of safety behavior rather than measures of ill health or objective safety and health outcomes. Despite the observed limitations of current research, safety climate has been promised as a useful feature of research and practice activities to prevent work-related ill health and injury. Safety climate survey data can reveal gaps between management and employee perceptions, or between espoused and enacted policies, and trigger communication and action to narrow those gaps. The validation of safety climate with safety and health performance data offers the potential for using safety climate measures as a leading indicator of performance. We discuss these findings in relation to the related concept of safety culture and

  2. Aviation and healthcare: a comparative review with implications for patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parand, Anam; Soukup, Tayana; Reader, Tom; Sevdalis, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Safety in aviation has often been compared with safety in healthcare. Following a recent article in this journal, the UK government set up an Independent Patient Safety Investigation Service, to emulate a similar well-established body in aviation. On the basis of a detailed review of relevant publications that examine patient safety in the context of aviation practice, we have drawn up a table of comparative features and a conceptual framework for patient safety. Convergence and divergence of safety-related behaviours across aviation and healthcare were derived and documented. Key safety-related domains that emerged included Checklists, Training, Crew Resource Management, Sterile Cockpit, Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Organisational Culture. We conclude that whilst healthcare has much to learn from aviation in certain key domains, the transfer of lessons from aviation to healthcare needs to be nuanced, with the specific characteristics and needs of healthcare borne in mind. On the basis of this review, it is recommended that healthcare should emulate aviation in its resourcing of staff who specialise in human factors and related psychological aspects of patient safety and staff wellbeing. Professional and post-qualification staff training could specifically include Cognitive Bias Avoidance Training, as this appears to play a key part in many errors relating to patient safety and staff wellbeing. PMID:26770817

  3. A review of international sources for road safety measures assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W. & Kauppila, J.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency assessment of road safety measures is considered to be an extremely useful tool in decision making; in particular, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses are carried out in several countries, in a more or less systematic way. The objective of this paper is to present findings fr

  4. Gender issues in safety and health at work : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Kauppinen, K.; Kumpulainen, R.; Goudswaard, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report explores the gender differences in occupational safety and health. There is strong segregation of women and men into different jobs and tasks at work. Both men and women face significant risks. In general, men suffer more accidents and injuries at work than women do, whereas women report

  5. Energy Storage System Safety: Plan Review and Inspection Checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pam C (PNNL); Conover, David R (PNNL)

    2017-03-01

    Codes, standards, and regulations (CSR) governing the design, construction, installation, commissioning, and operation of the built environment are intended to protect the public health, safety, and welfare. While these documents change over time to address new technology and new safety challenges, there is generally some lag time between the introduction of a technology into the market and the time it is specifically covered in model codes and standards developed in the voluntary sector. After their development, there is also a timeframe of at least a year or two until the codes and standards are adopted. Until existing model codes and standards are updated or new ones are developed and then adopted, one seeking to deploy energy storage technologies or needing to verify the safety of an installation may be challenged in trying to apply currently implemented CSRs to an energy storage system (ESS). The Energy Storage System Guide for Compliance with Safety Codes and Standards1 (CG), developed in June 2016, is intended to help address the acceptability of the design and construction of stationary ESSs, their component parts, and the siting, installation, commissioning, operations, maintenance, and repair/renovation of ESS within the built environment.

  6. Preliminary Observations on Safety of Children Whose Mother Use Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate During Lactation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小菲; 雷贞武; 袁晓蓉; 杜桂来; 李梅; 赵玉琼; 刘光海; 吴尚纯

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of the children breast-fed by the mothers receiving depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) during lactation Methods A total of 180 children were divided into two groups. The children in the experimental group (n= 90) included those whose mothers were given DMPA injection during lactation while mothers of the children in the control group (n = 90), at the same time, did not use DMPA. The body weight, height, head circumference, chest circumference, sitting-height, intelligence and behavioral adaptation of children in the two groups were measured and compared.Results There were no significant differences (P> 0. 05) in the body weight, height,head circumference, chest circumference, sitting-height, intelligence and behavioral in two groups.Conclusion DMPA can be safely used in breast-feeding women without harmful effects on physical and intellectual developments and behavioral adaptation of their offspring.

  7. Posiva's application for a decision in principle concerning a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. STUK's statement and preliminary safety appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruokola, E. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    In May 1999, Posiva Ltd submitted to the Government an application, pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, for a Decision in Principle on a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The Ministry of Trade and Industry requested the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to draw up a preliminary safety appraisal concerning the proposed disposal facility. In the beginning of this report, STUK's statement to the Ministry and Industry concerning the proposed disposal facility is given. In that statement, STUK concludes that the Decision in Principle is currently justified from the standpoint of safety. The statement is followed by a safety appraisal, where STUK deems, how the proposed disposal concept, site and facility comply with the safety requirements included in the Government's Decision (478/1999). STUK's preliminary safety appraisal was supported by contributions from a number of outside experts. A collective opinion by an international group of ten distinguished experts is appended to this report. (orig.)

  8. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  9. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of human factors engineering (HFE) safety review procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE Program Management, Human Factors Analyses, Human Factors Design, and HFE Verification and Validation, based on Section 15.1 'Human Factors Engineering Design Process' and 15.2 'Control Room Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Specific Safety Requirements and Chapter 15 'Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Safety Regulatory Guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system. 8 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  10. Improving the governance of patient safety in emergency care: a systematic review of interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, G.J.; Berben, S.A.; Beune, T.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review interventions that aim to improve the governance of patient safety within emergency care on effectiveness, reliability, validity and feasibility. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health

  11. Status of patient safety culture in Arab countries: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashrafi, Ahmed; Banarsee, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore the status of patient safety culture in Arab countries based on the findings of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC). Design Systematic review. Methods We performed electronic searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest and PsychINFO, Google Scholar and PubMed databases, with manual searches of bibliographies of included articles and key journals. We included studies that were conducted in the Arab countries that were focused on patient safety culture. 2 reviewers independently verified that the studies met the inclusion criteria and critically assessed the quality of the studies. Results 18 studies met our inclusion criteria. The review identified that non-punitive response to error is seen as a serious issue which needs to be improved. Healthcare professionals in the Arab countries tend to think that a ‘culture of blame’ still exists that prevents them from reporting incidents. We found an overall similarity between the reported composite score for dimension of teamwork within units in all of the reviewed studies. Teamwork within units was found to be better than teamwork across hospital units. All of the reviewed studies reported that organisational learning and continuous improvement was satisfactory as the average score of this dimension for all studies was 73.2%. Moreover, the review found that communication openness seems to be a concerning issue for healthcare professionals in the Arab countries. Conclusions There is a need to promote patient safety culture as a strategy for improving the patient safety in the Arab world. Improving patient safety culture should include all stakeholders, like policymakers, healthcare providers and those responsible for medical education. This review was limited only to English language publications. The varied settings in which the HSPSC was used may have influenced the areas of strengths and weaknesses as healthcare workers' perception of safety culture may differ. PMID

  12. Preliminary pharmacological investigation of the ischuretic property and safety of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosis (Fam: Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Koffuor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischuria is a health and social problem, having a negative impact on sufferers. This study therefore was a preliminary investigation of the ischuretic property and safety for use of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus used traditionally in managing ischuria. Methods: Phytochemical screening, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were performed on the extract to establish fingerprints for identification. Acetylcholine, Nicotine, and the extract were applied to an isolated rat urinary bladder to ascertain contractile response. The possible receptor site(s of action was also investigated using isolated rabbit jejunum, and guinea-pig ileum preparations. In-house observation, hematological analysis, and liver and kidney function tests were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. Results: The extract had contractile effects on the rat urinary bladder (similar to acetylcholine and nicotine and rabbit jejunum. Its contractile effect of the guinea-pig ileum was significantly inhibited by hexamethonium (77.50 ± 8.50 %; P ≤ 0.001 and to a lesser extent by mepyramine (49.2 ± 6.80 %; P ≤ 0.001 and Atropine (22.45 ± 5.22 %; P ≤ 0.01. The extract (80-800 mg kg-1 was not lethal and a 160 and 240 mg kg-1 dose had no adverse effect on blood, liver, kidney metabolic function. Conclusions: The hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus has ischuretic activity possibly mediated via nicotinic, histaminic and muscarinic receptor stimulation and is safety to use in ischuria. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 517-527

  13. ADME studies and preliminary safety pharmacology of LDT5, a lead compound for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Noël

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME properties and safety of LDT5, a lead compound for oral treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia that has previously been characterized as a multi-target antagonist of α1A-, α1D-adrenoceptors and 5-HT1A receptors. The preclinical characterization of this compound comprised the evaluation of its in vitro properties, including plasma, microsomal and hepatocytes stability, cytochrome P450 metabolism and inhibition, plasma protein binding, and permeability using MDCK-MDR1 cells. De-risking and preliminary safety pharmacology assays were performed through screening of 44 off-target receptors and in vivo tests in mice (rota-rod and single dose toxicity. LDT5 is stable in rat and human plasma, human liver microsomes and hepatocytes, but unstable in rat liver microsomes and hepatocytes (half-life of 11 min. LDT5 is highly permeable across the MDCK-MDR1 monolayer (Papp ∼32×10-6 cm/s, indicating good intestinal absorption and putative brain penetration. LDT5 is not extensively protein-bound and is a substrate of human CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 but not of CYP3A4 (half-life >60 min, and did not significantly influence the activities of any of the human cytochrome P450 isoforms screened. LDT5 was considered safe albeit new studies are necessary to rule out putative central adverse effects through D2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B receptors, after chronic use. This work highlights the drug-likeness properties of LDT5 and supports its further preclinical development.

  14. European Tunnelling Review Quality, Environment and Safety Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bill Weburn

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of tunnelling projects with some of the themes covered by the Chengdu Tunnelling Conference.(a) Environmental issues and tunnels under high groundwater pressure (Hallandsis Rail Tunnel, Sweden)(b) Fire -fighting and tunnel safety on long highway tunnels (Socatop Tunnel, West Paris)(c) Mechanised tunnelling below the world's largest airport (Heathrow T5) of a quality that avoids disruption to its operation.Each of these overviews show an enhanced performance in regard to project specific events or objectives. Particularly in tunnelling, project owners expect more than just a facility delivered on time for their money: they expect an all round performance respecting deadlines, budget, environmental protection, safety, quality and community harmony. Funding agencies do not always have the same agenda as project owners, acknowledging peripheral selection criteria but often demanding that the lowest bidder be awarded work. All round performance requires all round project selection criteria.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2010 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Haney

    2010-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory completes an annual Integrated Safety Management System effectiveness review per 48 CFR 970.5223-1 “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assesses ISMS effectiveness, provides feedback to maintain system integrity, and helps identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for the following year. Using one of the three Department of Energy (DOE) descriptors in DOE M 450.4-1 regarding the state of ISMS effectiveness during Fiscal Year (FY) 2010, the information presented in this review shows that INL achieved “Effective Performance.”

  16. Preliminary safety analysis of the B-C Cribs Controlled Area. [Hanford Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, H.L.

    1974-07-31

    Approximately 2,000 acres of land in the center of the Hanford Reservation is contaminated with an estimated 14 Ci of /sup 137/Cs and 81 Ci of /sup 90/Sr associated with animal wastes. Approximately half of this activity is located on (or within) 2.5 centimeters of the ground surface. The source of the contamination was the B-C Cribs and trenches which were used as liquid radioactive waste disposal sites during the 1950's. The mechanism for movement of radionuclides from the disposal site to the ground surface is believed to have been burrowing by an animal (probably a badger) followed by use of the exposed material as a salt lick by rabbits and other animals. When the radioactivity was discovered, the burrow was sealed, the contaminated site was classed as a radiation zone, and surveillance initiated. The contamination site has not been a significant hazard to employees at the plant or to the public. The Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company maintained control over the surface contamination by isolation, zoning, and by continued surveillance. Methods of handling the contaminated area have been considered. Discussions of these alternatives and applicable safety analysis information are included in this document.

  17. A Review of Safety Practices and Safety Training for the Explosives Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    situation. 7. Teach new personnel to respect, not fear, explosives; recognize that knowledge is the key to safety. 8. Hold a Monday-morning meeting...L. R. Rothstein, and John H. Smith, " Thermochemistry and the Demilitarization of Explosives," NWSY-TR7-TR76-2, July 1976. 59 .4 The following...SENSITIVITY (I) Thermochemistry and the Demilitarization of Explosives, Robert Petersen, Lewis R. Rothstein, and John H. Smith, NWSY-TR 76-2, Jul 76, (2470

  18. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos F.O.; Crepaldi, Roberto; Freire, Enio M., E-mail: ottoncf@tecnatom.com.br, E-mail: emfreire46@gmail.com, E-mail: robcrepaldi@hotmail.com [Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campello, Sergio A., E-mail: sacampe@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  19. Healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and skills regarding patient safety: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasaite, Indre; Kaunonen, Marja; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to determine the extent of existing knowledge about healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and skills related to patient safety. A systematic review was performed using two electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid) and CINAHL (EBSCO) for the period 2000-2012. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles or empirical studies, published in English. The focus groups of the study were physicians, head nurses, nurses and nurse assistants. Altogether, 18 studies met the criteria and were included. Inductive content analysis was carried out to analyse and categorise the data. The investigated themes regarding healthcare professionals' knowledge of patient safety were their existing knowledge level, knowledge deficits and knowledge improvement. Results considered the target groups' overall attitudes to patient safety, attitudes to event reporting and safety attitude improvement. The investigations into healthcare professionals' skills included mathematical skills and those related to achieving patient safety. From this review, it is concluded that further research should be conducted into the investigation of healthcare professionals' knowledge and skills in patient safety.

  20. Key Techniques on the Preliminary Design Safety Evaluation of the Railway Passenger Station%铁路客站初步设计安全评价关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广宇; 李京

    2014-01-01

    Based on new features and complexity of safety shown in the construction and operation of railway passenger stations now, this paper introduces research background and status at home and abroad, explains the necessity of safety evaluation carried out at the preliminary design phase of railway passenger station, as well as the research significance of the railway passenger station. In addition to analysis of the research methods of safety evaluation home and aboard com-prehensively, it proposes key technologies for safety evaluation of preliminary design of railway passenger station that suit China's national situation, including theoretical study method used by experts systematic analysis, index system setting based on speciality and safety evaluation methods upon risk probability loss, etc. These key technologies can be used in the review procedure of document on safety subject for the preliminary design of railway passenger station, which pro-vides theory basis for further research in this field.%基于当代铁路旅客车站在建设和使用过程中,在安全方面表现出来的特点和复杂性,文章介绍了铁路客站安全评价的研究背景,国内外的研究现状,进而阐述了铁路客站初步设计阶段开展安全评价的必要性,以及本课题的研究意义,综合分析了国内外安全评价研究方法,研究并提出了适合我国国情的铁路客站初步设计阶段安全评价体系方面的若干关键技术,包括专家系统分析的理论研究方法、按专业分类别的指标体系设置和基于风险概率损失的安全评价模型等研究内容。铁路客站初步设计阶段安全评价关键技术可用在铁路客站初步设计文件安全专题的评审过程中,并为该领域进一步的研究应用提供理论基础。

  1. Human studies on abecarnil a new beta-carboline anxiolytic: safety, tolerability and preliminary pharmacological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, T; Schütt, B; Krause, W; Dorow, R; McDonald, S; Fichte, K

    1993-04-01

    1. Abecarnil (isopropyl-6-benzyloxy-4-methoxymethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate), a beta-carboline with high affinity for benzodiazepine receptors, was tested in healthy male subjects; single doses of abecarnil were given in five dosage levels (1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg) and in a multiple dose study in four dosage levels (15 mg, 30 mg, 60 mg, 90 mg day-1) for 7 days. On two days following multiple dose treatment, placebo was given in single-blind conditions (follow-up). In each dosage level, in both studies drug was given to 10 subjects (7: verum, 3: placebo). 2. Safety and tolerability were evaluated by changes in vital signs, incidence and severity of adverse reactions and biochemical and haematological screening. Drug effects were estimated utilizing a bipolar visual analogue scale (poles: 'sleepy'-'alert') and a psychomotor task, the digit symbol substitution task. The pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses were also determined in the multiple dose study. 3. Abecarnil was generally well tolerated. In the single dose study the most frequently reported side effects associated with abecarnil at high doses (20 and 40 mg) were dizziness, unsteady gait, and lack of concentration. A decrement in performance on the digit symbol substitution task was also observed in the two high dosage groups 20 mg and 40 mg. Evaluation of visual analogue scale ratings did not reveal a sedative effect even at higher doses. 4. In the multiple dose study the most frequently reported side effects during the treatment period were dizziness, unsteady gait, and lack of concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Atazanavir pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety in pregnancy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eley, T.; Bertz, R.; Hardy, H.; Burger, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For some antiretroviral therapies, drug concentrations are reduced during pregnancy, potentially compromising effective virological suppression. METHODS: Data on atazanavir boosted with ritonavir in pregnancy are reviewed. RESULTS: With standard atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg once-daily

  3. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Secondary data sources were reviewed using a structured checklist to ... rapidly with a focus on construction, manufacturing, mining, and road infrastructure. ... Injury in both the agriculture and the manufacturing sectors is another ...

  4. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens

    OpenAIRE

    Packer M

    2016-01-01

    Mark Packer Mark Packer MD Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS A...

  5. Situational analysis: preliminary regional review of the Mental Health Atlas 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, R; Chew, Z; Saeed, K

    2015-09-28

    The WHO comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 established goals and objectives that Member States have agreed to meet by 2020. To update the Atlas of Mental Health 2011, specific indicators from the Mental Health Action Plan and additional indicators on service coverage were incorporated into the questionnaire for the Atlas 2014. The data will help facilitate improvement in information gathering and focus efforts towards implementation of the Mental Health Action Plan. The questionnaire was completed by the national mental health focal point of each country. This preliminary review seeks to consolidate data from the initial response to the Atlas 2014 questionnaire by Member States in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Data for this review were analysed for the whole Region, by health systems groupings and by individual countries. Where possible, data are compared with the Mental Health Atlas 2011 to give a longitudinal perspective.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2012 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren Hunt

    2012-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Results of the FY 2012 annual effectiveness review demonstrated that the INL’s ISMS program was significantly strengthened. Actions implemented by the INL demonstrate that the overall Integrated Safety Management System is sound and ensures safe and successful performance of work while protecting workers, the public, and environment. This report also provides several opportunities for improvement that will help further strengthen the ISM Program and the pursuit of safety excellence. Demonstrated leadership and commitment, continued surveillance, and dedicated resources have been instrumental in maturing a sound ISMS program. Based upon interviews with personnel, reviews of assurance activities, and analysis of ISMS process implementation, this effectiveness review concludes that ISM is institutionalized and is “Effective”.

  7. Trials of bevacizumab in breast cancer - a safety review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet

    2012-01-01

    enables the reader to overview current knowledge on the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in breast cancer. Expert opinion: Insight into complex risk-benefit calculations for bevacizumab is missing. In unselected patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer, the risk of serious side effects...... of bevacizumab overshadows the benefit of the drug. However, increased response rates and progression-free survival in the majority of Phase III trials suggest that the drug is of benefit in a subgroup of patients. Although requiring close monitoring, most side effects are manageable. Reliable, validated...

  8. Episodic Laryngeal Breathing Disorders: Literature Review and Proposal of Preliminary Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shembel, Adrianna C; Sandage, Mary J; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this literature review were (1) to identify and assess frameworks for clinical characterization of episodic laryngeal breathing disorders (ELBD) and their subtypes, (2) to integrate concepts from these frameworks into a novel theoretical paradigm, and (3) to provide a preliminary algorithm to classify clinical features of ELBD for future study of its clinical manifestations and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. This is a literature review. Peer-reviewed literature from 1983 to 2015 pertaining to models for ELBD was searched using Pubmed, Ovid, Proquest, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Theoretical models for ELBD were identified, evaluated, and integrated into a novel comprehensive framework. Consensus across three salient models provided a working definition and inclusionary criteria for ELBD within the new framework. Inconsistencies and discrepancies within the models provided an analytic platform for future research. Comparison among three conceptual models-(1) Irritable larynx syndrome, (2) Dichotomous triggers, and (3) Periodic occurrence of laryngeal obstruction-showed that the models uniformly consider ELBD to involve episodic laryngeal obstruction causing dyspnea. The models differed in their description of source of dyspnea, in their inclusion of corollary behaviors, in their inclusion of other laryngeal-based behaviors (eg, cough), and types of triggers. The proposed integrated theoretical framework for ELBD provides a preliminary systematic platform for the identification of key clinical feature patterns indicative of ELBD and associated clinical subgroups. This algorithmic paradigm should evolve with better understanding of this spectrum of disorders and its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Food Safety Evaluation Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaping; Ying, Yibin

    2016-08-17

    In recent years, due to the increasing consciousness of food safety and human health, much progress has been made in developing rapid and nondestructive techniques for the evaluation of food hazards, food authentication, and traceability. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging techniques have gained wide acceptance in many fields because of their advantages over other analytical techniques. Following a brief introduction of NIR spectroscopy and imaging basics, this review mainly focuses on recent NIR spectroscopy and imaging applications for food safety evaluation, including (1) chemical hazards detection; (2) microbiological hazards detection; (3) physical hazards detection; (4) new technology-induced food safety concerns; and (5) food traceability. The review shows NIR spectroscopy and imaging to be effective tools that will play indispensable roles for food safety evaluation. In addition, on-line/real-time applications of these techniques promise to be a huge growth field in the near future.

  10. Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Hartman, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, and the leaves and immature seed pods are used as food products in human nutrition. Leaf extracts exhibit the greatest antioxidant activity, and various safety studies in animals involving aqueous leaf extracts indicate a high degree of safety. No adverse effects were reported in association with human studies. Five human studies using powdered whole leaf preparations of M. oleifera have been published, which have demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic (antidiabetic) and anti-dyslipidemic activities. These activities have been confirmed using extracts as well as leaf powders in animal studies. A rapidly growing number of published studies have shown that aqueous, hydroalcohol, or alcohol extracts of M. oleifera leaves possess a wide range of additional biological activities including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihypertensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory actions. A wide variety of polyphenols and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids, glucosinolates, and possibly alkaloids is believed to be responsible for the observed effects. Standardization of products is an issue. However, the results of published studies to date involving M. oleifera are very promising. Additional human studies using standardized extracts are highly desirable.

  11. Review and Analysis of Development of "Safety by Design" Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Scott A.; Hockert, John

    2009-10-20

    This report, the deliverable for Task 4 of the NA-243 Safeguards by Design Work Plan for Fiscal Year 2009, develops the lessons to be learned for the institutionalization of Safeguards By Design (SBD) from the Department of Energy (DOE) experience developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. This experience was selected for study because of the similarity of the challenges of integrating safety and safeguards into the design process. Development of DOE-STD-1189 began in January 2006 and the standard was issued for implementation in March 2008. The process was much more time consuming than originally anticipated and might not have come to fruition had senior DOE management been less committed to its success. Potentially valuable lessons can be learned from both the content and presentation of the integration approach in DOE-STD-1189 and from the DOE experience in developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189. These lessons are important because the instutionalization of SBD does not yet appear to have the level of senior management commitment afforded development and implementation of DOE-STD-1189.

  12. Review of Ireland’s Road Safety Strategy. On behalf of Department of the Environment and Local Government, Ireland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    SWOV has been requested to carry out a review of Ireland's Road Safety Strategy. This review should pay attention to three aspects: (1) review developments and progress made under the current National Road Safety Strategy 1998-2002; (2) place Ireland's performance in an appropriate international con

  13. A Review of Strategies to Promote Road Safety in Rich Developing Countries: the Gcc Countries Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khair Jadaan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Road safety policies, strategies and action plans, along with trends in road traffic injuries (RTIs in the oil-rich Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC countries were examined to appraise their road safety work with an overall objective of identifying key measures and initiatives that would reduce RTA and their resulting consequences in these countries. Data on RTIs was obtained from police and from vital statistics and was analyzed. Research papers, policy documents, and strategies, obtained from relevant stakeholders in the six GCC countries, were reviewed and discussed. Traffic Safety Programs and action plans, which were the most fundamental documents in the development of the GCC countries’ road safety policies and strategies, were reviewed. Policy documents on road safety and traffic related issues were searched on the websites of related authorities. Published research on road safety in GCC countries was searched using available databases. Analysis of accident data shows that the fatality rates in all the GCC countries are much higher than developed countries with good safety records. The six administrations started the fundamental traffic safety programs to combat the increase in RTIs, with some succeeding in reducing RTI rates by implementing vast road safety improvements. However, RTIs increased again mainly because of increasing traffic volume and high-risk driving behavior. Developing and implementing national road safety strategies in some GCC countries was successful in reducing the RTI rates. The road safety situation in the six GCC countries was assessed showing high crash and fatality rates compared to developed countries. Most GCC countries still suffer from sustainable increase in traffic crashes despite the efforts to reduce their magnitude and severity. Some of these countries have developed and implemented national road safety strategies, while countries like Oman still need to develop such a long-term strategy. Following the

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2011 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren Hunt

    2011-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an annual Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223-1, 'Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.' The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and helped identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The information presented in this review of FY 2011 shows that the INL has performed many corrective actions and improvement activities, which are starting to show some of the desired results. These corrective actions and improvement activities will continue to help change culture that will lead to better implementation of defined programs, resulting in moving the Laboratory's performance from the categorization of 'Needs Improvement' to the desired results of 'Effective Performance.'

  15. Panel Resource Management (PRM) Implementation and Effects within Safety Review Panel Settings and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert W.; Nash, Sally K.

    2007-01-01

    While technical training and advanced degree's assure proficiency at specific tasks within engineering disciplines, they fail to address the potential for communication breakdown and decision making errors familiar to multicultural environments where language barriers, intimidating personalities and interdisciplinary misconceptions exist. In an effort to minimize these pitfalls to effective panel review, NASA's lead safety engineers to the ISS Safety Review Panel (SRP), and Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) initiated training with their engineers, in conjunction with the panel chairs, and began a Panel Resource Management (PRM) program. The intent of this program focuses on the ability to reduce the barriers inhibiting effective participation from all panel attendees by bolstering participants confidence levels through increased communication skills, situational awareness, debriefing, and a better technical understanding of requirements and systems.

  16. Does classroom-based Crew Resource Management training improve patient safety culture? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek-van Noord, Inge; de Bruijne, Martine C; Zwijnenberg, Nicolien C; Jansma, Elise P; van Dyck, Cathy; Wagner, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of classroom-based Crew Resource Management training on safety culture by a systematic review of literature. Studies were identified in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Educational Resources Information Center up to 19 December 2012. The Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews was used to assess the risk of bias in the individual studies. In total, 22 manuscripts were included for review. Training settings, study designs, and evaluation methods varied widely. Most studies reporting only a selection of culture dimensions found mainly positive results, whereas studies reporting all safety culture dimensions of the particular survey found mixed results. On average, studies were at moderate risk of bias. Evidence of the effectiveness of Crew Resource Management training in health care on safety culture is scarce and the validity of most studies is limited. The results underline the necessity of more valid study designs, preferably using triangulation methods.

  17. The effectiveness of road safety education : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This literature review of traffic education programmes addresses the current practice in evaluation research, the effectiveness of programmes and their constituting components and the differences and similarities with other fields of education. The study leads to a number of conclusions which can be

  18. Effectiveness of health and safety in small enterprises: a systematic review of quantitative evaluations of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, F Curtis; Kyle, Natasha; Bigelow, Philip; Irvin, Emma; Morassaei, Sara; MacEachen, Ellen; Mahood, Quenby; Couban, Rachel; Shannon, Harry; Amick, Benjamin C

    2010-06-01

    This systematic review was conducted to identify effective occupational health and safety interventions for small businesses. The review focused on peer-reviewed intervention studies conducted in small businesses with 100 or fewer employees, that were published in English and several other languages, and that were not limited by publication date. Multidisciplinary members of the review team identified relevant articles and assessed their quality. Studies assessed as medium or high quality had data extracted, which was then synthesized. Five studies were deemed of medium or high quality, and proceeded to data extraction and evidence synthesis. The types of interventions identified: a combination of training and safety audits; and a combination of engineering, training, safety audits, and a motivational component, showed a limited amount of evidence in improving safety outcomes. Overall, this evidence synthesis found a moderate level of evidence for intervention effectiveness, and found no evidence that any intervention had adverse effects. Even though there were few studies that adequately evaluated small business intervention, several studies demonstrate that well-designed evaluations are possible with small businesses. While stronger levels of evidence are required to make recommendations, these interventions noted above were associated with positive changes in safety-related attitudes and beliefs and workplace parties should be aware of them.

  19. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-06-08

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  20. Preliminary Analysis of a Steam Line Break Accident with the MARS-KS code for the SMART Design with Passive Safety Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Doohyuk; Ko, Yungjoo; Suh, Jaeseung [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sunguk; Yi, Sungjae; Park, Hyunsik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    SMART has been developed by KAERI, and SMART-Standard Design Approval (SDA) was recently granted in 2012. A SMART design with Passive Safety System (PSS) features (called SMART-PSS) is being developed and added to the standard design of SMART by KAERI to improve its safety system. Active safety systems such as safety injection pumps will be replaced by a passive safety system, which is actuated only by the gravity force caused by the height difference. All tanks for the passive safety systems are higher than the injection nozzle, which is located around the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs). In this study, a preliminary analysis of the main steam line break accident (MSLB) was performed using the MARS-KS code to understand the general behavior of the SMART-PSS design and to prepare its validation test with the SMART-ITL (FESTA) facility. An anticipated accident for the main steam line break (MSLB) was performed using the MARS-KS code to understand the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of the SMART-PSS design. The preliminary analysis provides good insight into the passive safety system design features of the SMART-PSS and the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the SMART design. The analysis results of the MSLB showed that the core water collapsed level inside the core support barrel was maintained high over the active core top level during the transient period. Therefore, the SMART-PSS design has satisfied the requirements to maintain the plant at a safe shutdown condition during 72 hours without AC power or operator action after an anticipated accident.

  1. Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

    1984-02-01

    As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

  2. SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF SINGLE ANASTOMOSIS DUODENAL SWITCH PROCEDURE: PRELIMINARY RESULT FROM A SINGLE INSTITUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lars; Moon, Rena C; Teixeira, Andre F; Galvão, Manoel; Ramos, Almino; Jawad, Muhammad A

    Single anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) was introduced into bariatric surgery by Sanchez-Pernaute et al. as an advancement of the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. To evaluate the SADI-S procedure with regard to weight loss, comorbidity resolution, and complication rate in the super obese population. A retrospective chart review was performed on initial 72 patients who underwent laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic SADI-S between December 17th, 2013 and July 29th, 2015. A total of 48 female and 21 male patients were included with a mean age of 42.4±10.0 years (range, 22-67). The mean body mass index (BMI) at the time of procedure was 58.4±8.3 kg/m2 (range, 42.3-91.8). Mean length of hospital stay was 4.3±2.6 days (range, 3-24). Thirty-day readmission rate was 4.3% (n=3), due to tachycardia (n=1), deep venous thrombosis (n=1), and viral gastroenteritis (n=1). Thirty-day reoperation rate was 5.8% (n=4) for perforation of the small bowel (n=1), leakage (n=1), duodenal stump leakage (n=1), and diagnostic laparoscopy (n=1). Percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) was 28.5±8.8 % (range, 13.3-45.0) at three months (n=28), 41.7±11.1 % (range, 19.6-69.6) at six months (n=50), and 61.6±12.0 % (range, 40.1-91.2) at 12 months (n=23) after the procedure. A total of 18 patients (26.1%) presented with type II diabetes mellitus at the time of surgery. Of these patients, 9 (50.0%) had their diabetes resolved, and six (33.3%) had it improved by 6-12 months after SADI-S. SADI-S is a feasible operation with a promising weight loss and diabetes resolution in the super-obese population. Anastomose única em bypass duodenoileal com gastrectomia vertical (SADI-S) foi introduzida na cirurgia bariátrica por Sanchez-Pernaute et al. como um avanço da derivação biliopancreática com switch duodenal. Avaliar o procedimento SADI-S no que diz respeito à perda de peso, resolução de comorbidades e taxa de complicações na popula

  3. Trends in HFE Methods and Tools and Their Applicability to Safety Reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Plott, C.; Milanski, J.; Ronan, A.; Scheff, S.; Laux, L.; and Bzostek, J.

    2009-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) conducts human factors engineering (HFE) safety reviews of applicant submittals for new plants and for changes to existing plants. The reviews include the evaluation of the methods and tools (M&T) used by applicants as part of their HFE program. The technology used to perform HFE activities has been rapidly evolving, resulting in a whole new generation of HFE M&Ts. The objectives of this research were to identify the current trends in HFE methods and tools, determine their applicability to NRC safety reviews, and identify topics for which the NRC may need additional guidance to support the NRC's safety reviews. We conducted a survey that identified over 100 new HFE M&Ts. The M&Ts were assessed to identify general trends. Seven trends were identified: Computer Applications for Performing Traditional Analyses, Computer-Aided Design, Integration of HFE Methods and Tools, Rapid Development Engineering, Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. We assessed each trend to determine its applicability to the NRC's review by considering (1) whether the nuclear industry is making use of M&Ts for each trend, and (2) whether M&Ts reflecting the trend can be reviewed using the current design review guidance. We concluded that M&T trends that are applicable to the commercial nuclear industry and are expected to impact safety reviews may be considered for review guidance development. Three trends fell into this category: Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. The other trends do not need to be addressed at this time.

  4. Reviewing methodologically disparate data: a practical guide for the patient safety research field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina F; Long, Susannah J; Athanasiou, Thanos; Vincent, Charles A; Kroll, J Simon; Sevdalis, Nick

    2012-02-01

    This article addresses key questions frequently asked by researchers conducting systematic reviews in patient safety. This discipline is relatively young, and asks complex questions about complex aspects of health care delivery and experience, therefore its studies are typically methodologically heterogeneous, non-randomized and complex; but content rich and highly relevant to practice. Systematic reviews are increasingly necessary to drive forward practice and research in this area, but the data do not always lend themselves to 'standard' review methodologies. This accessible 'how-to' article demonstrates that data diversity need not preclude high-quality systematic reviews. It draws together information from published guidelines and experience within our multidisciplinary patient safety research group to provide entry-level advice for the clinician-researcher new to systematic reviewing, to non-biomedical research data or to both. It offers entry-level advice, illustrated with detailed practical examples, on defining a research question, creating a comprehensive search strategy, selecting articles for inclusion, assessing study quality, extracting data, synthesizing data and evaluating the impact of your review. The article concludes with a comment on the vital role of robust systematic reviews in the continuing advancement of the patient safety field. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Effects of digital countdown timer on intersection safety and efficiency: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuanyun; Zhang, Yaping; Qi, Weiwei; Cheng, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the available evidence referring to the effectiveness of digital countdown timers (DCTs) in improving the safety and operational efficiency of signalized intersection. A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement guidelines. Relevant literature was searched from electronic databases using key terms. Based on study selection and methodological quality assessment, 14 studies were included in the review. Findings of the studies were synthesized in a narrative analysis. Three types of DCT had different effects on intersection safety and operational efficiency. Green signal countdown timers (GSCTs) reduced red light violations, type I dilemma zone distributions, and rear-end collision likelihood but increased crossing after yellow onset and had mixed impacts on type II dilemma zone distributions and intersection capacity. In contrast, red signal countdown timers (RSCTs) increased intersection capacity, although their effectiveness in reducing red light violations dissipated over time. Likewise, continuous countdown timers (CCTs) significantly enhanced intersection capacity but had mixed influences on red light violations and crossing after yellow onset. Due to the limited and inconsistent evidence regarding DCTs' effects on intersection safety and efficiency, it is not sufficient to recommend any type of DCT to be installed at signalized intersections to improve safety and operational efficiency. Nevertheless, it is apparent that both RSCTs and CCTs enhance intersection capacity, though their impacts on intersection safety are unclear. Future studies need to further verify those anticipated safe and operational benefits of DCTs with enriched field observation data.

  6. A Systematic Review of the Use of Social Media for Food Safety Risk Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbey, Katie N; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Chapman, Benjamin J

    2017-09-01

    This article covers the current published literature related to the use of social media in food safety and infectious disease communication. The aim was to analyze literature recommendations and draw conclusions about how best to utilize social media for food safety risk communication going forward. A systematic literature review was conducted, and 24 articles were included for analysis. The inclusion criteria were (i) original peer-reviewed articles and (ii) primary focus on communication through social media about food safety and/or infectious diseases. Studies were coded for themes about social media applications, benefits, limitations, and best practices. Trust and personal beliefs were important drivers of social media use. The wide reach, immediacy, and information gathering capacities of social media were frequently cited benefits. Suggestions for social media best practices were inconsistent among studies, and study designs were highly variable. More evidence-based suggestions are needed to better establish guidelines for social media use in food safety and infectious disease risk communication. The information gleaned from this review can be used to create effective messages for shaping food safety behaviors.

  7. Preliminary design review package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-25

    This preliminary design review package, consisting of the Software Performance Specification, Hardware Performance Specification, and the Verification Plan for the Central Data Processing System (CDPS), was prepared by the IBM Corporation. The Central Data Processing System, located at IBM's FSD facility in Huntsville, Alabama, provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems at remote sites. These sites include residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications.

  8. A comparative review of patient safety initiatives for national health information technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magrabi, Farah; Aarts, Jos; Nøhr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    by searching the websites of regional and national agencies and programmes in a non-exhaustive set of exemplar countries including England, Denmark, the Netherlands, the USA, Canada and Australia. Initiatives were categorised by type and software systems covered. RESULTS: We found 27 patient safety initiatives...... regulations in some countries, the safety of the most common types of HIT systems such as EHRs and CPOE without decision support is not being explicitly addressed in most nations. Appropriate mechanisms for safety assurance are required for the full range of HIT systems for health professionals and consumers......OBJECTIVE: To collect and critically review patient safety initiatives for health information technology (HIT). METHOD: Publicly promulgated set of advisories, recommendations, guidelines, or standards potentially addressing safe system design, build, implementation or use were identified...

  9. 78 FR 40443 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... verify whether pools and spas are in compliance with the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... inspections per year under the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. Investigators typically...

  10. Healthcare quality and safety: a review of policy, practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Justin; Allen, Davina; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Sandall, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Over the last two decades healthcare quality and safety have risen to the fore of health policy and research. This has largely been informed by theoretical and empirical ideas found in the fields of ergonomics and human factors. These have enabled significant advances in our understanding and management of quality and safety. However, a parallel and at time neglected sociological literature on clinical quality and safety is presented as offering additional, complementary, and at times critical insights on the problems of quality and safety. This review explores the development and contributions of both the mainstream and more sociological approaches to safety. It shows that where mainstream approaches often focus on the influence of human and local environment factors in shaping quality, a sociological perspective can deepen knowledge of the wider social, cultural and political factors that contextualise the clinical micro-system. It suggests these different perspectives can easily complement one another, offering a more developed and layered understanding of quality and safety. It also suggests that the sociological literature can bring to light important questions about the limits of the more mainstream approaches and ask critical questions about the role of social inequality, power and control in the framing of quality and safety. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  11. Does classroom-based Crew Resource Management training improve patient safety culture? A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek-van Noord, I.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Zwijnenberg, N.C.; Jansma, E.P.; Dyck, C. van; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of classroom-based Crew Resource Management training on safety culture by a systematic review of literature. Methods: Studies were identified in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Educational Resources Information Center up to 19 December 2012.

  12. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour fo

  13. Estradiol gel : review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety in menopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naunton, M.; Al Hadithy, A.F.Y.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Archer, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of a gel containing estradiol that is applied to the skin. Design: MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were conducted from 1966 to March 2005. Additional references were identified from bibliographies from selected studies in addi

  14. Does classroom-based Crew Resource Management training improve patient safety culture? A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek-van Noord, I.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Zwijnenberg, N.C.; Jansma, E.P.; Dyck, C. van; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of classroom-based Crew Resource Management training on safety culture by a systematic review of literature. Methods: Studies were identified in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Educational Resources Information Center up to 19 December 2012.

  15. Efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators in laparoscopic surgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Haak, L.; Alleblas, C.; Nieboer, T.E.; Rhemrev, J.P.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This review aims to objectively assess the efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators as reported in scientific literature. Furthermore, it evaluates as to which manipulator best suits which surgical procedure. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Academic Search Premi

  16. Efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators in laparoscopic surgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, L. van den; Alleblas, C.; Nieboer, T.E.; Rhemrev, J.P.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This review aims to objectively assess the efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators as reported in scientific literature. Furthermore, it evaluates as to which manipulator best suits which surgical procedure. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Academic Search Prem

  17. Efficacy and safety of medical cannabinoids in older subjects: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, G.A.H. van den; Ahmed, A.I.A.; Lammers, M.; Kramers, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Marck, M.A. van der; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review aims to integrate the evidence on indications, efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of medical cannabinoids in older subjects. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. We selected controlled trials including solely older subjects

  18. Promoting occupational safety and health through the supply chain Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ustailieva, E.; Starren, A.; Eeckelaert, L.; Lopes Nunes, I.; Hauke, A.

    2012-01-01

    This report sheds light on occupational safety and health (OSH) within complex supply chain networks. Based on a literature, policy and case study review it attempts to give an overview of how OSH can be managed and promoted through the supply chain, and which drivers, incentives and instruments exi

  19. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour fo

  20. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour

  1. Safety Review Panel (SRP) Special Topic Presentation on the Iodine Compatible Water Container (ICWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the safety requirements for the Iodine Compatible Water Container (ICWC). The topics include: 1) ICWC Team; 2) Purpose of presentation; 3) Background/Description of ICWC System; 4) Current status of ICWC Project; 5) HTV launch NCR Processing; 6) Tox 1 containment NCR processing; and 7) ISS on-orbit failure propagation and fault tolerance NCR processing.

  2. Pharmaco-economics of blood transfusion safety : review of the available evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, M; de Wolf, JTM; Staginnus, U; Ruitenberg, EJ; Postma, MJ

    2002-01-01

    Background and Objectives Pharmaco-economics provides a standardized methodology for valid comparisons of interventions in different fields of health care. The role of pharmaco-economics in the safety of blood and blood products has, however, been very limited to date. This review discusses the phar

  3. Use of mobile phones while driving : effects on road safety : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of mobile phones while driving has become a road safety concern and has been the focus of various behavioural studies. This literature review analyses studies published in the period 1999-2005, and include simulator studies, closed-track studies and studies on the real road. Although studies

  4. Efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators in laparoscopic surgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, L. van den; Alleblas, C.; Nieboer, T.E.; Rhemrev, J.P.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This review aims to objectively assess the efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators as reported in scientific literature. Furthermore, it evaluates as to which manipulator best suits which surgical procedure. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Academic Search

  5. Efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators in laparoscopic surgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Haak, L.; Alleblas, C.; Nieboer, T.E.; Rhemrev, J.P.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This review aims to objectively assess the efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators as reported in scientific literature. Furthermore, it evaluates as to which manipulator best suits which surgical procedure. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Academic Search

  6. Establishment of safety verification method for life extension based on periodic safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soong Pyung; Yeom, Yu Son; Yoon, In Sik; Lee, Jeo Young [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Safe management of operating lifetimes of Nuclear Power Plants is a subject of prime interests. As the design life of the Nuclear Power Plant will be ended in 2008, an appropriate procedure for the design life re-assessment or lifetime extension is necessary in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop procedural requirements which can be applied to the regulation of lifetime management or life extension of Nuclear Power Plants in Korea. Review on the linkage of the PSR with the extension of the operating lifetime of Nuclear Power Plants was performed to enhance the utilization of PSR results and analysis of the insufficiencies in the license rule in Korea.

  7. New graduate registered nurses' knowledge of patient safety and practice: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Melanie; Sundin, Deborah; Cope, Vicki

    2017-03-02

    To critically appraise available literature and summarise evidence pertaining to the patient safety knowledge and practices of new graduate registered nurses. Responsibility for patient safety should not be limited to the practice of the bedside nurses, rather the responsibility of all in the healthcare system. Previous research identified lapses in safety across the health care, more specifically with new practitioners. Understanding these gaps and what may be employed to counteract them is vital to ensuring patient safety. A focused review of research literature. The review used key terms and Boolean operators across a 5-year time frame in CINAHL, Medline, psycINFO and Google Scholar for research articles pertaining to the area of enquiry. Eighty-four articles met the inclusion criteria, 39 discarded due to irrelevant material and 45 articles were included in the literature review. This review acknowledges that nursing has different stages of knowledge and practice capabilities. A theory-practice gap for new graduate registered nurses exists, and transition to practice is a key learning period setting new nurses on the path to becoming expert practitioners. Within the literature, there was little to no acknowledgement of patient safety knowledge of the newly registered nurse. Issues raised in the 1970s remain a concern for today's new graduate registered nurses. Research has recognised several factors affecting transition from nursing student to new graduate registered nurse. These factors are leaving new practitioners open to potential errors and risking patient safety. Understanding the knowledge of a new graduate registered nurse upon entering clinical practice may assist in organisations providing appropriate clinical and theoretical support to these nurses during their transition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT) from Preliminary Design Review (PDR) to Critical Design Review (CDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) is a 12U cubesat with a primary mission to demonstrate the iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET) propulsion system. The spacecraft (SC) will operate throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the propulsion system for use in future applications. The benefit of the HET is that it uses a propellant, iodine, which is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. This paper will describe the thermal analysis and design of the SC between Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR). The design of the satellite has undergone many changes due to a variety of challenges, both before PDR and during the time period discussed in this paper. Thermal challenges associated with the system include a high power density, small amounts of available radiative surface area, localized temperature requirements of the propulsion components, and unknown orbital parameters. The thermal control system is implemented to maintain component temperatures within their respective operational limits throughout the mission, while also maintaining propulsion components at the high temperatures needed to allow gaseous iodine propellant to flow. The design includes heaters, insulation, radiators, coatings, and thermal straps. Currently, the maximum temperatures for several components are near to their maximum operation limit, and the battery is close to its minimum operation limit. Mitigation strategies and planned work to solve these challenges will be discussed.

  9. Patient safety in out-of-hours primary care: a review of patient records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensing Michel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients receive healthcare in primary care settings, but relatively little is known about patient safety. Out-of-hours contacts are of particular importance to patient safety. Our aim was to examine the incidence, types, causes, and consequences of patient safety incidents at general practice cooperatives for out-of-hours primary care and to examine which factors were associated with the occurrence of patient safety incidents. Methods A retrospective study of 1,145 medical records concerning patient contacts with four general practice cooperatives. Reviewers identified records with evidence of a potential patient safety incident; a physician panel determined whether a patient safety incident had indeed occurred. In addition, the panel determined the type, causes, and consequences of the incidents. Factors associated with incidents were examined in a random coefficient logistic regression analysis. Results In 1,145 patient records, 27 patient safety incidents were identified, an incident rate of 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5% to 3.2%. The most frequent incident type was treatment (56%. All incidents had at least partly been caused by failures in clinical reasoning. The majority of incidents did not result in patient harm (70%. Eight incidents had consequences for the patient, such as additional interventions or hospitalisation. The panel assessed that most incidents were unlikely to result in patient harm in the long term (89%. Logistic regression analysis showed that age was significantly related to incident occurrence: the likelihood of an incident increased with 1.03 for each year increase in age (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.04. Conclusion Patient safety incidents occur in out-of-hours primary care, but most do not result in harm to patients. As clinical reasoning played an important part in these incidents, a better understanding of clinical reasoning and guideline adherence at GP cooperatives could contribute to patient safety.

  10. What is the value and impact of quality and safety teams? A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris Jill M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of the literature about the establishment and impact of quality and safety team initiatives in acute care. Methods Studies were identified through electronic searches of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ABI Inform, Cochrane databases. Grey literature and bibliographies were also searched. Qualitative or quantitative studies that occurred in acute care, describing how quality and safety teams were established or implemented, the impact of teams, or the barriers and/or facilitators of teams were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study design, sample, interventions, and outcomes. Quality assessment of full text articles was done independently by two reviewers. Studies were categorized according to dimensions of quality. Results Of 6,674 articles identified, 99 were included in the study. The heterogeneity of studies and results reported precluded quantitative data analyses. Findings revealed limited information about attributes of successful and unsuccessful team initiatives, barriers and facilitators to team initiatives, unique or combined contribution of selected interventions, or how to effectively establish these teams. Conclusions Not unlike systematic reviews of quality improvement collaboratives, this broad review revealed that while teams reported a number of positive results, there are many methodological issues. This study is unique in utilizing traditional quality assessment and more novel methods of quality assessment and reporting of results (SQUIRE to appraise studies. Rigorous design, evaluation, and reporting of quality and safety team initiatives are required.

  11. Patient safety and quality of care in developing countries in Southeast Asia: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Reema; Cohen, Adrienne Wai Seung; Walton, Merrilyn

    2015-08-01

    To establish current knowledge of patient safety and quality of care in developing countries in Southeast Asia, current interventions and the knowledge gaps. Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Key words, synonyms and subject headings were used to search seven electronic databases in addition to manual searching of relevant journals. Titles and abstracts of publications between 1990 and 2014 were screened by two reviewers and checked by a third. Full text articles were screened against the eligibility criteria. Data on design, methods and key findings were extracted and synthesized. Four inter-related safety and quality concerns were evident from 33 publications: (i) the risk of patient infection in healthcare delivery, (ii) medications errors/use, (iii) the quality and provision of maternal and perinatal care and (iv) the quality of healthcare provision overall. Large-scale prevalence studies are needed to identify the full range of safety and quality problems in developing countries in Southeast Asia. Sharing lessons learnt from extensive quality and safety work conducted in industrialized nations may contribute to significant improvements. Yet the applicability of interventions utilized in developed countries to the political and social context in this region must be considered. Strategies to facilitate the collection of robust safety and quality data in the context of limited resources and the local context in each country are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  12. REVIEW OF REACTOR SAFETY ANALYSES OF FAST AND LIQUID METAL COOLED REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, R. E.; Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1967-11-01

    Safety analysis reports on United States fast and liquid metal cooled reactors were reviewed to gain a better understanding of the safety philosophy applied to the design of these facilities. This information was compiled to help guide the design and safety analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility. No attempt was made to draw conclusions concerning the relative merit of different approaches and philosophies used by different reactor design teams. The facilities reviewed were; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant (FERMI) Hallam Nuclear Power Facility (HALLAM) Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor (SEFOR) Fast Reactor Test Facility (FARET) Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1 (EBR-I) Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-II) Fast Reactor Zero Power Experiment (ZPR - III). The information gathered from the safety analysis reports is tabulated under these headings: Control and Safety Systems; Reactor Protection Systems; Backup Systems; Containment or Confinement Systems; Inherent Reactivity Effects and Important Physics Parameters; Fuel and Fuel Handling; Accidents Considered and Chemical Problems; Site; Exhaust Ventilation System; and Waste Effluents.

  13. Behavioral risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home: a review of consumer food safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes human listeriosis, which is associated with the highest hospitalization and mortality rates of all foodborne illnesses. In recent years, the incidence of listeriosis has doubled in Europe, almost exclusively among older adults (≥ 60 years of age). Food safety factors associated with increased risk of listeriosis include lack of adherence to "use by" dates and ineffective refrigerated storage of foods. Consequently, older adult consumers' implementation of safe food practices should be evaluated. This article is a review of consumer food safety cognitive and behavioral data relating to risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home as reported in 165 consumer food safety studies. Overall, only 41% of studies included assessment of consumer cognitive or behavioral data associated with listeriosis; of these studies 59% included data on safe refrigeration, 54% included data on storage time for opened ready-to-eat foods, and 49% included data on adherence to use-by dates. In most (83%) of the studies, survey-based data collection methods (questionnaires/interviews) were used; thus, the majority of findings were based on self-report (74%) and knowledge (44%). Observation (31%) and focus groups (12%) were less commonly used, resulting in a lack of actual behaviors and attitudinal data relating to listeriosis risk factors. Only 7% of studies included food safety data for older adults. Although older adults may fail to implement recommended practices, this review reveals a need for in-depth research to determine food safety attitudes and actual behaviors of older adults in conjunction with knowledge and selfreport of practices linked to increased risks of listeriosis. Such data combined with review findings would inform targeted food safety education to reduce risks associated with listeriosis in the home.

  14. Safety reporting in developing country vaccine clinical trials-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlhans, Susann; Richard, Georgina; Ali, Mohammad; Codarini, Gabriela; Elemuwa, Chris; Khamesipour, Ali; Maurer, Wolfgang; Mworozi, Edison; Kochhar, Sonali; Rundblad, Gabriella; Vuitton, Dominique; Rath, Barbara

    2012-05-09

    With more vaccines becoming available worldwide, vaccine research is on the rise in developing countries. To gain a better understanding of safety reporting from vaccine clinical research in developing countries, we conducted a systematic review in Medline and Embase (1989-2011) of published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting safety outcomes with ≥50% developing country participation (PROSPERO systematic review registration number: CRD42012002025). Developing country vaccine RCTs were analyzed with respect to the number of participants, age groups studied, inclusion of safety information, number of reported adverse events following immunization (AEFI), type and duration of safety follow-up, use of standardized AEFI case definitions, grading of AEFI severity, and the reporting of levels of diagnostic certainty for AEFI. The systematic search yielded a total number of 50 randomized vaccine clinical trials investigating 12 different vaccines, most commonly rotavirus and malaria vaccines. In these trials, 94,459 AEFI were reported from 446,908 participants receiving 735,920 vaccine doses. All 50 RCTs mentioned safety outcomes with 70% using definitions for at least one AEFI. The most commonly defined AEFI was fever (27), followed by local (16) and systemic reactions (14). Logistic regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between the implementation of a fever case definition and the reporting rate for fever as an AEFI (p=0.027). Overall, 16 different definitions for fever and 7 different definitions for erythema were applied. Predefined AEFI case definitions by the Brighton Collaboration were used in only two out of 50 RCTs. The search was limited to RCTs published in English or German and may be missing studies published locally. The reported systematic review suggests room for improvement with respect to the harmonization of safety reporting from developing country vaccine clinical trials and the implementation of standardized case definitions.

  15. Safety of licensed vaccines in HIV-infected persons: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Safety of vaccines remains a cornerstone of building public trust on the use of these cost-effective and life-saving public health interventions. In some settings, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of HIV infection and a high burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. There is evidence suggesting that the immunity induced by some commonly used vaccines is not durable in HIV-infected persons, and therefore, repeated vaccination may be considered to ensure optimal vaccine-induced immunity in this population. However, some vaccines, particularly the live vaccines, may be unsafe in HIV-infected persons. There is lack of evidence on the safety profile of commonly used vaccines among HIV-infected persons. We are therefore conducting a systematic review to assess the safety profile of routine vaccines administered to HIV-infected persons. Methods/Design We will select studies conducted in any setting where licensed and effective vaccines were administered to HIV-infected persons. We will search for eligible studies in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, Africa-Wide, PDQ-Evidence and CINAHL as well as reference lists of relevant publications. We will screen search outputs, select studies and extract data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by discussion and consensus. Discussion Globally, immunisation is a major public health strategy to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by various infectious disease-causing agents. In general, there are efforts to increase vaccination coverage worldwide, and for these efforts to be successful, safety of the vaccines is paramount, even among people living with HIV, who in some situations may require repeated vaccination. Results from this systematic review will be discussed in the context of the safety of routine vaccines among HIV-infected persons. From the safety perspective, we will also discuss whether repeat vaccination strategies may be

  16. Safety as a management concept in the air transport sector: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campa-Planas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the present study is to conduct a literature review of the contribution made by safety in air transport, based on the existing international academic literature in the field of the social sciences. It primarily attempts to examine and verify the relationship between safety-related concepts (co-occurrence, the link between the different authors (co-authorship and the corresponding citations (co-citations. Methodology: To achieve the established objectives, a systematic literature review (SLR has been conducted using the Scopus database between the years 1990 and 2016, identifying international academic papers related to the research topic of the present study. Findings: It has been verified, on the one hand, that safety in the air transport sector is a field of growing interest, as the number of papers has increased considerably in recent years, thus demonstrating the importance that this topic has acquired over time. On the other hand, however, it must be mentioned that the total quantity of papers related to the topic is low in terms of absolute numbers. The results of the co-occurrence analysis show that the most important aspect of safety is safety management, while the strongest link is between safety management and aircraft accidents, a fact that is foreseeable a priori.  Originality/value: The approach used allows a better view of the academic contribution made in relation to safety; this serves as the link among the different elements of the concept studied, and it demonstrates the growing interest in this area.

  17. Application of hyperspectral imaging in food safety inspection and control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Food safety is a great public concern, and outbreaks of food-borne illnesses can lead to disturbance to the society. Consequently, fast and nondestructive methods are required for sensing the safety situation of produce. As an emerging technology, hyperspectral imaging has been successfully employed in food safety inspection and control. After presenting the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper provides a comprehensive review on its application in determination of physical, chemical, and biological contamination on food products. Additionally, other studies, including detecting meat and meat bone in feedstuffs as well as organic residue on food processing equipment, are also reported due to their close relationship with food safety control. With these applications, it can be demonstrated that miscellaneous hyperspectral imaging techniques including near-infrared hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging, and Raman hyperspectral imaging or their combinations are powerful tools for food safety surveillance. Moreover, it is envisaged that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as an alternative technique for conventional methods in realizing inspection automation, leading to the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems at the utmost.

  18. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  19. The Role of Fear Appeals in Improving Driver Safety: A Review of the Effectiveness of Fear-Arousing (Threat) Appeals in Road Safety Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, I.; Watson, B.; Tay, R.; White, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews theoretical and empirical evidence relating to the effectiveness of fear (threat) appeals in improving driver safety. The results of the review highlight the mixed and inconsistent findings that have been reported in the literature. While fear arousal appears important for attracting attention, its contribution to behaviour…

  20. Work zone safety analysis and modeling: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Ozbay, Kaan; Ozturk, Ozgur; Xie, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Work zone safety is one of the top priorities for transportation agencies. In recent years, a considerable volume of research has sought to determine work zone crash characteristics and causal factors. Unlike other non-work zone-related safety studies (on both crash frequency and severity), there has not yet been a comprehensive review and assessment of methodological approaches for work zone safety. To address this deficit, this article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the existing extensive research efforts focused on work zone crash-related analysis and modeling, in the hopes of providing researchers and practitioners with a complete overview. Relevant literature published in the last 5 decades was retrieved from the National Work Zone Crash Information Clearinghouse and the Transport Research International Documentation database and other public digital libraries and search engines. Both peer-reviewed publications and research reports were obtained. Each study was carefully reviewed, and those that focused on either work zone crash data analysis or work zone safety modeling were identified. The most relevant studies are specifically examined and discussed in the article. The identified studies were carefully synthesized to understand the state of knowledge on work zone safety. Agreement and inconsistency regarding the characteristics of the work zone crashes discussed in the descriptive studies were summarized. Progress and issues about the current practices on work zone crash frequency and severity modeling are also explored and discussed. The challenges facing work zone safety research are then presented. The synthesis of the literature suggests that the presence of a work zone is likely to increase the crash rate. Crashes are not uniformly distributed within work zones and rear-end crashes are the most prevalent type of crashes in work zones. There was no across-the-board agreement among numerous papers reviewed on the relationship between work zone

  1. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  2. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  3. Reactive Aggression and Suicide-Related Behaviors in Children and Adolescents: A Review and Preliminary Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Chelsey M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Castellanos, Daniel

    2017-01-03

    The empirical literature on the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents was reviewed. A narrative review of seven studies that met inclusion/exclusion criteria is followed by a preliminary meta-analysis to provide insight into the strength of the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors. Each of the seven studies reported a statistically significant association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors, including suicide, nonfatal suicide attempt, and suicide ideation. Results from the meta-analysis indicated a consistent, medium-sized association (k = 7; N = 4,693; rbar = .25). The narrative review and results of the preliminary meta-analysis support the promise of pursuing future research on reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents. A theoretical model is proposed to guide the development of future research.

  4. Design and proof of function of a closure system for an HLW-repository in rock salt. Results of the preliminary safety analysis for the Gorleben site (VSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Hoeppe, Nina; Breustedt, Michael; Engelhardt, Hans-Joachim; Wolf, Johanna [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Buhmann, Dieter; Czaikowski, Oliver; Herbert, Horst-Juergen; Wieczorek, Klaus; Xie, Mingliang [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Within the preliminary safety analysis for the Gorleben site (VSG), a closure system was designed in order to complement the containment providing rock zone (CRZ) by sealing and backfilling measures. The design procedure as well as the technical proof of function was mainly performed according to standard procedures in civil engineering. In the context of VSG, rough individual technical proofs of several measures were carried out. Meanwhile, this gap has been closed by subsequent investigations. Altogether the results of all the individual technical proofs of function indicate that safe containment of radioactive waste is a realistic possibility at the Gorleben site.

  5. Relationship between patient safety climate and standard precaution adherence: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, A J; Larson, E L

    2016-04-01

    Standard precaution (SP) adherence is universally suboptimal, despite being a core component of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) prevention and healthcare worker (HCW) safety. Emerging evidence suggests that patient safety climate (PSC) factors may improve HCW behaviours. Our aim was to examine the relationship between PSC and SP adherence by HCWs in acute care hospitals. A systematic review was conducted as guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. Three electronic databases were comprehensively searched for literature published or available in English between 2000 and 2014. Seven of 888 articles identified were eligible for final inclusion in the review. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality using a validated quality tool. The seven articles were assigned quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 of 10 possible points. Five measured all aspects of SP and two solely measured needlestick and sharps handling. Three included a secondary outcome of HCW exposure; none included HCAIs. All reported a statistically significant relationship between better PSC and greater SP adherence and used data from self-report surveys including validated PSC measures or measures of management support and leadership. Although limited in number, studies were of high quality and confirmed that PSC and SP adherence were correlated, suggesting that efforts to improve PSC may enhance adherence to a core component of HCAI prevention and HCW safety. More clearly evident is the need for additional high-quality research.

  6. Technical Letter Report: Evaluation and Analysis of a Few International Periodic Safety Review Summary Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Omesh K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Diercks, Dwight R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ma, David Chia-Chiun [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Garud, Yogendra S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-17

    At the request of the United States (U.S.) government, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of 20 senior safety experts to review the regulatory framework for the safety of operating nuclear power plants in the United States. This review focused on the effectiveness of the regulatory functions implemented by the NRC and on its commitment to nuclear safety and continuous improvement. One suggestion resulting from that review was that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) incorporate lessons learned from periodic safety reviews (PSRs) performed in other countries as an input to the NRC’s assessment processes. In the U.S., commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) are granted an initial 40-year operating license, which may be renewed for additional 20-year periods, subject to complying with regulatory requirements. The NRC has established a framework through its inspection, and operational experience processes to ensure the safe operation of licensed nuclear facilities on an ongoing basis. In contrast, most other countries do not impose a specific time limit on the operating licenses for NPPs, they instead require that the utility operating the plant perform PSRs, typically at approximately 10-year intervals, to assure continued safe operation until the next assessment. The staff contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to perform a pilot review of selected translated PSR assessment reports and related documentation from foreign nuclear regulatory authorities to identify any potential new regulatory insights regarding license renewal-related topics and NPP operating experience (OpE). A total of 14 PSR assessment documents from 9 countries were reviewed. For all of the countries except France, individual reports were provided for each of the plants reviewed. In the case of France, three reports were provided that reviewed the performance assessment of thirty-four 900-MWe reactors of similar design commissioned between 1978

  7. Postharvest intervention technologies for safety enhancement of meat and meat based products; a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Rahman, Ubaid Ur

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the demand for safe, healthy and nutritious meat and allied products possesses improved taste with extended shelf life is mounting. Microbial safety is among the imperative challenges that prevails in meat products because they provide an ideal medium for the growth of microorganisms particularly pathogenic bacteria. The incidence of these microbes can result quality deterioration of products leading towards food borne diseases when consumed by peoples. Several preservation technologies like chemical and biological interventions are effective to retard or inactivate the growth of micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases. Despite these, innovative approaches like hydrostatic pressure processing, active packaging, pulse electric field, hurdle approach and use of natural antimicrobials can be deployed to enhance the safety of meat and meat products. The objective of review is to describe the current approaches and developing technologies for enhancing safety of meat and allied meat products.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers in food safety: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Laís Mariano; da Cunha, Diogo Thimoteo; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Capriles, Vanessa Dias; Stedefeldt, Elke

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an overview of the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of food handlers with training in food safety, in addition to proposing reflections on the training of food handlers, considering its responsibility for food safety and health of consumers. The review was based on the integrative method. The descriptors used were: (food handler), (knowledge, attitudes and practice) and (training). Six databases were searched, 253 articles were consulted and 36 original articles were included. Fifty per cent of the articles pointed that there was no proper translation of knowledge into attitudes/practices or attitudes into practices after training. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers are important for identifying how efficient training in food safety is allowing prioritize actions in planning training. The evaluation of KAP is the first step to understand the food handler's point of view. After this evaluation other diagnostic strategies become necessary to enhance this understanding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Safety of licensed vaccines in HIV-infected persons: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagina, Benjamin M; Wiysonge, Charles S; Lesosky, Maia; Madhi, Shabir A; Hussey, Gregory D

    2014-09-11

    Safety of vaccines remains a cornerstone of building public trust on the use of these cost-effective and life-saving public health interventions. In some settings, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of HIV infection and a high burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. There is evidence suggesting that the immunity induced by some commonly used vaccines is not durable in HIV-infected persons, and therefore, repeated vaccination may be considered to ensure optimal vaccine-induced immunity in this population. However, some vaccines, particularly the live vaccines, may be unsafe in HIV-infected persons. There is lack of evidence on the safety profile of commonly used vaccines among HIV-infected persons. We are therefore conducting a systematic review to assess the safety profile of routine vaccines administered to HIV-infected persons. We will select studies conducted in any setting where licensed and effective vaccines were administered to HIV-infected persons. We will search for eligible studies in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, Africa-Wide, PDQ-Evidence and CINAHL as well as reference lists of relevant publications. We will screen search outputs, select studies and extract data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by discussion and consensus. Globally, immunisation is a major public health strategy to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by various infectious disease-causing agents. In general, there are efforts to increase vaccination coverage worldwide, and for these efforts to be successful, safety of the vaccines is paramount, even among people living with HIV, who in some situations may require repeated vaccination. Results from this systematic review will be discussed in the context of the safety of routine vaccines among HIV-infected persons. From the safety perspective, we will also discuss whether repeat vaccination strategies may be feasible among HIV-infected persons

  10. Safety and tolerability of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in psoriasis: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semble, Ashley L; Davis, Scott A; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors are an alternative to oral systemic therapies for psoriasis. Data regarding the safety of TNF-α inhibitors from randomized clinical trials may not fully reflect the effects on the clinic patient population receiving the therapy, but other sources of information are available. We performed a literature review to assess the safety and tolerability of the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis with TNF-α inhibitors. A literature search was conducted using PubMed for articles dating from January 2000 to October 2013. Randomized controlled, cohort, open-label, and observational studies were included, as well as case reports and letters to the editor. Articles found on PubMed describing the safety of anti-TNF-α therapy in psoriasis patients were included, while studies highlighting interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 inhibitors were excluded, as were non-English articles. In total, 58 articles were included in the review. TNF-α inhibitors exhibit both efficacy and tolerability in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Adverse effects associated with these medications are not common and can be minimized with routine clinical monitoring and patient education. While the risk of severe adverse events is low, the lack of very large, long-term, randomized safety trials limits the ability to fully define the safety of these agents. TNF-α inhibitors have a good efficacy/safety ratio for use in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Serious adverse effects are not common, and common injection-site reactions are usually manageable. The benefits of TNF-α inhibitors outweigh the risks for moderate-to-severe psoriasis; however, there are potential adverse effects and the patient populations at highest risk include the elderly and those with a history of malignancy.

  11. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... the effects of porous asphalt on nine different risk factors associated with accident occurrence were also reviewed. It was found that four of the risk factors were favourably influenced by porous asphalt, three were adversely influenced, and two were not influenced by porous asphalt. The net impact...

  12. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... the effects of porous asphalt on nine different risk factors associated with accident occurrence were also reviewed. It was found that four of the risk factors were favourably influenced by porous asphalt, three were adversely influenced, and two were not influenced by porous asphalt. The net impact...

  13. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification review plan - 7/29/99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-09-10

    The purpose of this review is to verify the implementation status of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) for the River Protection Project (RPP) facilities managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC). This review will also ascertain whether within RPP facilities and operations the work planning and execution processes are in place and functioning to effectively protect the health and safety of the workers, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The RPP ISMS should support the Hanford Strategic Plan (DOERL-96-92) to safely clean up and manage the site's legacy waste and deploy science and technology while incorporating the ISMS central theme to ''Do work safely'' and protect human health and the environment.

  14. Environmental restoration and waste management department independent safety review committee program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This Program Management Plan (PMP) describes and governs the Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) established within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department (ER WMD). The ISRC performs independent safety reviews for the ER WMD as required and specified by the governing documents mentioned above. This PMP defines the ISRC organization, work plan, and scope of work. The PMP is organized consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System. For the purpose of readability, this document shall use the term program'' to include not only the chartered activities of the ISRC, but also the related activities conducted by the chairman and staff. This PMP is subordinate to the ER WMD Implementing Program Management Plan, EGG-WM-10220.

  15. Environmental restoration and waste management department independent safety review committee program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This Program Management Plan (PMP) describes and governs the Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) established within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department (ER&WMD). The ISRC performs independent safety reviews for the ER&WMD as required and specified by the governing documents mentioned above. This PMP defines the ISRC organization, work plan, and scope of work. The PMP is organized consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System. For the purpose of readability, this document shall use the term ``program`` to include not only the chartered activities of the ISRC, but also the related activities conducted by the chairman and staff. This PMP is subordinate to the ER&WMD Implementing Program Management Plan, EGG-WM-10220.

  16. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  17. Effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in real-world clinical practice: Review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian J; Fernández, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown that natalizumab is highly effective for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a targeted review of data from country-specific observational studies and registries of natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing MS in order to more fully investigate the longer-term effectiveness and safety of this disease-modifying therapy in real-world clinical practice settings. A PubMed search was conducted on March 13, 2014, using the terms (natalizumab AND multiple sclerosis) AND (observational OR registry OR post-marketing OR clinical practice). Only English-language papers that reported effectiveness (in terms of effects on relapses, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging findings) and/or safety results from studies were included. Data from 22 studies/registries were included. Annualized relapse rates decreased by 73%-94% from baseline across the studies, with improvement maintained for up to 5 years during natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab effectiveness was also demonstrated via assessment of disability progression (Expanded Disability Status Scale), radiological measures, and no-evidence-of-disease-activity measures (clinical, radiological, and overall). Results were similar among patient groups stratified by level of disease activity. Safety outcomes were consistent with natalizumab's known safety profile. Data from country-specific observational studies and registries varying in size and scope support the effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in a broad range of patients in clinical practice.

  18. The economic burden of patient safety targets in acute care: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittmann, Nicole; Koo, Marika; Daneman, Nick; McDonald, Andrew; Baker, Michael; Matlow, Anne; Krahn, Murray; Shojania, Kaveh G; Etchells, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Background Our objective was to determine the quality of literature in costing of the economic burden of patient safety. Methods We selected 15 types of patient safety targets for our systematic review. We searched the literature published between 2000 and 2010 using the following terms: “costs and cost analysis,” “cost-effectiveness,” “cost,” and “financial management, hospital.” We appraised the methodologic quality of potentially relevant studies using standard economic methods. We recorded results in the original currency, adjusted for inflation, and then converted to 2010 US dollars for comparative purposes (2010 US$1.00 = 2010 €0.76). The quality of each costing study per patient safety target was also evaluated. Results We screened 1948 abstracts, and identified 158 potentially eligible studies, of which only 61 (39%) reported any costing methodology. In these 61 studies, we found wide estimates of the attributable costs of patient safety events ranging from $2830 to $10,074. In general hospital populations, the cost per case of hospital-acquired infection ranged from $2132 to $15,018. Nosocomial bloodstream infection was associated with costs ranging from $2604 to $22,414. Conclusion There are wide variations in the estimates of economic burden due to differences in study methods and methodologic quality. Greater attention to methodologic standards for economic evaluations in patient safety is needed. PMID:23097615

  19. Efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil treatment in IgA nephropathy: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Youyuan; Li, Yumin; Yang, ShengLin; Li, Yan; Liang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Background IgA nephropathy is the most common primary glomerular disease worldwide and also the most frequent cause of kidney failure. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a selective immunosuppressant widely used in many autoimmune diseases. However, the benefits and risks of MMF for the treatment of IgA nephropathy remain uncertain. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of MMF in IgA nephropathy patient...

  20. The Design and Safety Review for a Creep Capsule With Four Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, C. G.; Choi, M. H.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    To review the safety in the irradiation test of a creep capsule with 4 specimens, the design analysis for the incore creep test in the normal and abnormal operation condition was performed. In the normal operation condition, the reactivity effect was estimated and the analysis on the stress and temperature was performed. In the abnormal operation condition, the effect exerted on the capsule body by a leakage or breakage of the stress loading unit was analyzed.

  1. The relationship between road safety and congestion on motorways : a literature review of potential effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesini, P. & Weijermars, W.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mobility has been increasing significantly in the last few decades and will continue to increase. On road stretches which have insufficient capacity, traffic becomes congested. Traffic congestion has a negative impact on the economy and on the quality of people’s lives. Road users experience delay and stress, and environmental pollution increases. The effects of traffic congestion on traffic safety, however, are less obvious. This literature review investigates the relationship between conges...

  2. Review of GMO safety assessment studies: glyphosate residues in Roundup Ready crops is an ignored issue

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Published version, also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12302-015-0052-7 Background Genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant cultivar varieties have been a commercial success widely known as Roundup Ready plants. As new glyphosate-tolerant varieties are introduced to satisfy agriculture demand, it is relevant to review the scientific evidence that documents the quality and safety of such biotechnology. Assessments of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant plants are partly ba...

  3. Review and assessments of potential environmental, health and safety impacts of MHD technology. Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop an environmental, health and safety (EH and S) assessment and begin a site - specific assessment of these and socio - economic impacts for the magnetohydrodynamics program of the United States Department of Energy. This assessment includes detailed scientific and technical information on the specific EH and S issues mentioned in the MHD Environmental Development Plan. A review of current literature on impact-related subjects is also included. This document addresses the coal-fired, open-cycle MHD technology and reviews and assesses potential EH and S impacts resulting from operation of commercially-installed technology.

  4. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  5. Does classroom-based Crew Resource Management training improve patient safety culture? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Verbeek-van Noord

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of classroom-based Crew Resource Management training on safety culture by a systematic review of literature. Methods: Studies were identified in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Educational Resources Information Center up to 19 December 2012. The Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews was used to assess the risk of bias in the individual studies. Results: In total, 22 manuscripts were included for review. Training settings, study designs, and evaluation methods varied widely. Most studies reporting only a selection of culture dimensions found mainly positive results, whereas studies reporting all safety culture dimensions of the particular survey found mixed results. On average, studies were at moderate risk of bias. Conclusion: Evidence of the effectiveness of Crew Resource Management training in health care on safety culture is scarce and the validity of most studies is limited. The results underline the necessity of more valid study designs, preferably using triangulation methods.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2013 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren Hunt

    2013-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Results of the FY 2013 annual effectiveness review demonstrate that the INL’s ISMS program is “Effective” and continually improving and shows signs of being significantly strengthened. Although there have been unacceptable serious events in the past, there has also been significant attention, dedication, and resources focused on improvement, lessons learned and future prevention. BEA’s strategy of focusing on these improvements includes extensive action and improvement plans that include PLN 4030, “INL Sustained Operational Improvement Plan, PLN 4058, “MFC Strategic Excellence Plan,” PLN 4141, “ATR Sustained Excellence Plan,” and PLN 4145, “Radiological Control Road to Excellence,” and the development of LWP 20000, “Conduct of Research.” As a result of these action plans, coupled with other assurance activities and metrics, significant improvement in operational performance, organizational competence, management oversight and a reduction in the number of operational events is being realized. In short, the realization of the fifth core function of ISMS (feedback and continuous improvement) and the associated benefits are apparent.

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2016 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Farren J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review of fiscal year (FY) 2016 shows that INL has integrated management programs and safety elements throughout the oversight and operational activities performed at INL. The significant maturity of Contractor Assurance System (CAS) processes, as demonstrated across INL’s management systems and periodic reporting through the Management Review Meeting process, over the past two years has provided INL with current real-time understanding and knowledge pertaining to the health of the institution. INL’s sustained excellence of the Integrated Safety and effective implementation of the Worker Safety and Health Program is also evidenced by other external validations and key indicators. In particular, external validations include VPP, ISO 14001, DOELAP accreditation, and key Laboratory level indicators such as ORPS (number, event frequency and severity); injury/illness indicators such as Days Away, Restricted and Transfer (DART) case rate, back & shoulder metric and open reporting indicators, demonstrate a continuous positive trend and therefore improved operational performance over the last few years. These indicators are also reflective of the Laboratory’s overall organizational and safety culture improvement. Notably, there has also been a step change in ESH&Q Leadership actions that have been recognized both locally and complex-wide. Notwithstanding, Laboratory management continues to monitor and take action on lower level negative trends in numerous areas including: Conduct of Operations, Work Control, Work Site Analysis, Risk Assessment, LO/TO, Fire Protection, and Life Safety Systems, to mention a few. While the number of severe injury cases has decreased, as evidenced by the reduction in the DART case rate, the two hand injuries and the fire truck/ambulance accident were of particular concern. Aggressive actions continue in order to understand the causes and

  8. Quality and safety in adult epilepsy monitoring units: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Natalie; Macrodimitris, Sophie; Wiebe, Samuel; Lukmanji, Sara; Jetté, Nathalie

    2016-11-01

    The epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) is a valuable resource for optimizing management of persons with epilepsy, but may place patients at risk for adverse events due to withdrawal of treatment and induction of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to synthesize data on the safety and quality of care in EMUs to inform the development of quality indicators for EMUs. A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting and Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search strategy, which included broad search terms and synonyms pertaining to the EMU, was run in six medical databases and included conference proceedings. Data abstracted included patient and EMU demographics and quality and safety variables. Study quality was evaluated using a modified 15-item Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. Descriptive statistics and meta-analyses were used to describe and synthesize the evidence. The search yielded 7,601 references, of which 604 were reviewed in full text. One-hundred thirty-five studies were included. The quality and safety data came from 181,823 patients and reported on 34 different quality and safety variables. Included studies commonly reported the number of patients (108 studies; median number patients, 171.5), age (49 studies; mean age 35.7 years old), and the reason for admission (34 studies). The most common quality and safety data reported were the utility of the EMU admission (38 studies). Thirty-three studies (24.4%) reported on adverse events, and yielded a pooled proportion of adverse events of 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5-9%). The mean quality score was 73.3% (standard deviation [SD] 17.2). This study demonstrates that there is a great deal of variation in the reporting of quality and safety measures and in the quality and safety in EMUs. Study quality also varied considerably from one study to the next. These findings highlight the need to develop

  9. Human Factors Evaluation of Man-Machine Interface for Periodic Safety Review of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang (and others)

    2006-01-15

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2. As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area.

  10. Medication administration technologies and patient safety: a mixed-method systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Kelly; Cummings, Greta G; Marck, Patricia; Yurtseven, Ozden

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare leaders need evidence-based information on nursing medication administration technologies to guide the design of improvements to patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the research evidence on relationships between the use of medication administration technologies and incidence of medication administration incidents and preventable adverse drug events to inform decision-making about existing technology options. Thirteen electronic databases and seven relevant patient safety websites were searched for the years 1980-2009. A mixed-method systematic literature review of research on medication administration technologies and associated links to patient safety, operationalized as medication administration incidents and preventable adverse drug events, was conducted. Twelve studies (two qualitative, five pre- and postinterventions and five correlational) met the inclusion criteria. All were assessed as medium quality with low generalizability of study findings. Only two studies sampled more than one hospital and none of the studies was driven by an explicit theoretical framework. The studies included in this review are generally positive towards medication administration technologies and their potential benefits, yet the level of evidence overall is equivocal. The majority of studies pointed to the development of workarounds by nurses following medication administration technology implementation that could compromise patient safety. More theoretically driven research is needed to determine which medication administration technologies should be implemented in what ways to most effectively reduce medication administration incidents and preventable adverse drug events and minimize the development of potentially unsafe workarounds. Further evidence is required to accurately assess the actual contribution of medication administration technologies for improving patient safety. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell

  11. Harnessing implementation science to improve care quality and patient safety: a systematic review of targeted literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Marks, Danielle; Taylor, Natalie

    2014-06-01

    Getting greater levels of evidence into practice is a key problem for health systems, compounded by the volume of research produced. Implementation science aims to improve the adoption and spread of research evidence. A linked problem is how to enhance quality of care and patient safety based on evidence when care settings are complex adaptive systems. Our research question was: according to the implementation science literature, which common implementation factors are associated with improving the quality and safety of care for patients? We conducted a targeted search of key journals to examine implementation science in the quality and safety domain applying PRISMA procedures. Fifty-seven out of 466 references retrieved were considered relevant following the application of exclusion criteria. Included articles were subjected to content analysis. Three reviewers extracted and documented key characteristics of the papers. Grounded theory was used to distil key features of the literature to derive emergent success factors. Eight success factors of implementation emerged: preparing for change, capacity for implementation-people, capacity for implementation-setting, types of implementation, resources, leverage, desirable implementation enabling features, and sustainability. Obstacles in implementation are the mirror image of these: for example, when people fail to prepare, have insufficient capacity for implementation or when the setting is resistant to change, then care quality is at risk, and patient safety can be compromised. This review of key studies in the quality and safety literature discusses the current state-of-play of implementation science applied to these domains. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Center, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To review the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines. Literature search: The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; MEDLINE; EMBASE; BIOSIS Previews; Global Health; CAB Abstracts; and the Lilacs Database of Latin American and Caribbean literature were searched for individual studies and systematic reviews through January 1, 2015. Results: Six yellow fever vaccines are currently produced, and they are effective against all seven yellow fever virus strains. There is a 99.2% homology of the genome sequences of the six current vaccines. Four systematic reviews identified very small numbers of serious adverse events. A systematic review (updated of all published cases identified 133 serious adverse events that met the Brighton Collaboration criteria: 32 anaphylactic, 42 neurologic (one death, 57 viscerotropic (25 deaths, and two of both neurologic and viscerotropic SAEs. The Sanofi Pasteur Global Pharmacovigilance database reported 276 million doses of Stamaril™ distributed worldwide and identified 12 reports of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD, 24 of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND, and 33 reports of anaphylaxis (many already published. The Biomanguinhos manufacturer's database reported 110 million doses distributed worldwide between 1999 and 2009, and the rate of YEL-AND was estimated at 0.084/100,000 doses distributed and YEL-AVD at 0.02/100,000 doses distributed. Conclusion: Reports of serious adverse events are mostly from travelers from developed countries, and there is likely serious underreporting for developing countries. On the basis of the published reports, the yellow fever vaccines are

  13. Preliminary study showing safety/efficacy of nanoss bioactive versus vitoss as bone graft expanders for lumbar noninstrumented fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this preliminary study of patients undergoing multilevel lumbar lamienctomies with posterolateral noninstrumented fusions, results were nearly comparable utilizing Vitoss or NanOss as bone graft expanders. Although the number of NanOss patients was substantially lower, the comparable efficacy and absence of postoperative complications for noninstrumented fusions is promising.

  14. Secondary use of randomized controlled trials to evaluate drug safety: a review of methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Tarek A; Pinheiro, Simone P; Neyarapally, George A

    2011-10-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are often positioned at the top of evidence hierarchies. Meta-analyses of RCTs aim to integrate the state of knowledge on a given scientific question, particularly for rare drug-related outcomes. However, although RCTs are valuable tools in our armamentarium, they are rarely designed to evaluate drug safety and are thus susceptible to limitations that may hamper the ability of both RCTs and meta-analyses to fully characterize the safety profiles of drugs. Their potential limitations might be exacerbated in the study of rare outcomes, often encountered in drug safety assessment, when even minor deviations from the intended randomization could impact the stability of the risk estimates. This article considers the methodological caveats of both RCTs and meta-analyses of RCTs pertinent to the study of drug-related harms. It is intended to stimulate discussion about the impact of these caveats on interpreting findings of RCTs and meta-analyses for drug safety, which would foster more robust, critical evaluations, and thus enhance clinical and regulatory decision-making. Pertinent issues that can influence the interpretation of drug-related harms discussed in this article were based on authors' expertise and review of the literature. Investigators and clinicians should be cognizant of the potential limitations of the secondary use of RCTs and meta-analyses in the assessment of drug-related harms and, when applicable, should consider potential remedies to overcome these limitations. Only few practical examples are included in the article due to the fact that many of the discussed caveats are not examined and/or reported in many publications. In addition, the confidential nature of data reviewed at a regulatory agency forestalls an in depth discussion of examples pertaining to specific drugs. Furthermore, our ability to quantify the extent of encountering, or the actual impact of, the caveats addressed in this review on the RCTs findings

  15. What is learning? A review of the safety literature to define learning from incidents, accidents and disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Guldenmund, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Learning from incidents, accidents and disasters contributes to improvement of safety and the prevention of unwanted events. In this review, literature on learning from safety incidents within organizations is studied and compared with the organizational learning theory of Argyris and Schön. Sub-pro

  16. What is learning? A review of the safety literature to define learning from incidents, accidents and disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Guldenmund, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Learning from incidents, accidents and disasters contributes to improvement of safety and the prevention of unwanted events. In this review, literature on learning from safety incidents within organizations is studied and compared with the organizational learning theory of Argyris and Schön. Sub-pro

  17. A review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George

    2014-11-01

    Taking into consideration the increasing availability of real-time traffic data and stimulated by the importance of proactive safety management, this paper attempts to provide a review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety, identify the gaps and discuss the needs for further research. Despite the existence of generally mixed evidence on the effect of traffic parameters, a few patterns can be observed. For instance, traffic flow seems to have a non-linear relationship with accident rates, even though some studies suggest linear relationship with accidents. On the other hand, increased speed limits have found to have a straightforward positive relationship with accident occurrence. Regarding weather effects, the effect of precipitation is quite consistent and leads generally to increased accident frequency but does not seem to have a consistent effect on severity. The impact of other weather parameters on safety, such as visibility, wind speed and temperature is not found straightforward so far. The increasing use of real-time data not only makes easier to identify the safety impact of traffic and weather characteristics, but most importantly makes possible the identification of their combined effect. The more systematic use of these real-time data may address several of the research gaps identified in this research.

  18. Dexmedetomidine versus Midazolam in Procedural Sedation. A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, Clemens R M; Absalom, Anthony; van Minnen, Baucke; Vissink, Arjan; Visser, Anita

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review the literature comparing the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and midazolam when used for procedural sedation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE for clinical trials comparing dexmedetomidine and midazolam for procedural sedation up to June 20, 2016. Inclusion criteria: clinical trial, human subjects, adult subjects (≥18 years), article written in English, German, French or Dutch, use of study medication for conscious sedation and at least one group receiving dexmedetomidine and one group receiving midazolam. Exclusion criteria: patients in intensive care, pediatric subjects and per protocol use of additional sedative medication other than rescue medication. Outcome measures for efficacy comparison were patient and clinician satisfaction scores and pain scores; outcome measures for safety comparison were hypotension, hypoxia, and circulatory and respiratory complications. We identified 89 papers, of which 12 satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria; 883 patients were included in these studies. Dexmedetomidine was associated with higher patient and operator satisfaction than midazolam. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine experienced less pain and had lower analgesic requirements. Respiratory and hemodynamic safety were similar. Dexmedetomidine is a promising alternative to midazolam for use in procedural sedation. Dexmedetomidine provides more comfort during the procedure for the patient and clinician. If carefully titrated, the safety profiles are similar.

  19. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Rizwana; Agarwal, Nidhi Bharal; Kaushal, Neelam; Mali, Ghanshyam; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Currently available antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs), despite being effective, do not provide adequate glycemic control in some cases and are associated with side effects. A sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, is a newer AHA, which acts by decreasing the reabsorption of filtered glucose thereby elevating the urinary glucose excretion in diabetics. This systematic review was completed to assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of canagliflozin in T2DM. A literature search in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane and ClinicalTrials.gov was conducted for randomized clinical trials of canagliflozin as an AHA by applying predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total 13 studies were included in the systematic review. The main outcomes assessed were change in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose. Canagliflozin monotherapy or combination therapy has the potential to decrease inadequately controlled hyperglycemia in T2DM. It acts by a novel insulin independent mechanism which complements the action of the existing AHA and improves glycemic control and decreases the body weight. Safety profile of canagliflozin indicates lower number of hypoglycemic episodes. Some manageable adverse events include genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, osmotic diuresis-related events etc. These findings affirm the utility of canagliflozin in T2DM; however, data on long-term safety and efficacy are needed.

  20. Beneficial Effects and Safety of Corticosteroids Combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine for Pemphigus: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the beneficial effects and safety of corticosteroids combined with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for pemphigus. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify any potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs or clinical controlled trials (CCTs that compared corticosteroids with and without TCM for the treatment of pemphigus, published in any language. Remission of the mucocutaneous lesions, therapeutic duration, dosage of corticosteroids, and specific antibody titers were employed as the main outcome measures. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions and Rev Man 5.1.0 software. Results. Four RCTs with a total of 199 patients were included in the present review. Management with corticosteroids combined with TCM seemed to benefit pemphigus patients in terms of healing of lesions, prevention of complications and relapse, and reduced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ level. The trials were not of high methodological quality. No study mentioned allocation concealment and blinding. Only one trial reported adverse events, and it indicated that the safety of corticosteroids combined with TCM was uncertain. Conclusion. There is some, albeit weak, evidence to show that combined treatment with corticosteroids with TCM could be of benefit for some patients with pemphigus. The efficacy and safety of this combined treatment should be evaluated further in better designed, fully powered, and confirmatory RCTs.

  1. Dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, Alain; Saint-Pierre, Francois; Turcotte, Bernard [Le Groupe S.M. International Inc., Sherbrooke, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Dams built at the beginning of the twentieth century include concrete structures that were put in under rehabilitation works. In some cases, the details of the structures are not well documented. In other cases, concrete damage can be hidden under new layers of undamaged material. This requires that the dam safety review in a real investigation gather the information necessary for carrying out the hydraulic and stability studies required by the Dam Safety Act. This paper presented the process of dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structures. Two reinforced concrete dams built in the 1900's, the Eustic dam on the Coaticook River and the Frontenac dam on the Magog River near Sherbrooke, were evaluated by S.M. International using non-destructive methods such as sonic and ground penetrating radar methods. The studies allowed mapping of concrete damage and provided geometric information on some non visible structure elements that were part of previous reinforcement operations.

  2. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational Analysis and Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumie, Abera; Amera, Tadesse; Berhane, Kiros; Samet, Jonathan; Hundal, Nuvjote; G/Michael, Fitsum; Gilliland, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The current rapid economic development has brought changes in workplaces in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The organization of occupational health and safety services is not yet resilient enough to handle the growing demands for workers' health in the context of industrialization. There is limited information on the gaps and needs of occupational health services in workplaces in Ethiopia. The present review article describes the existing profile of occupational safety and health services in Ethiopia and identifies the current gaps and needs in the services. Secondary data sources were reviewed using a structured checklist to explore the status of occupational safety, health services and related morbidity. Local literature was consulted in order to describe the type and prevalence of work related hazards, patterns of industries and of workforce. Published articles were searched in Google, Google scholar, PUBMED, and HINARI databases. Relevant heads of stakeholder organizations and experts were interviewed to verify the gaps that were synthesized using desk review. Ethiopia is an agrarian country that is industrializing rapidly with a focus on construction, manufacturing, mining, and road infrastructure. An estimated work force of about two million is currently engaged in the public and private sectors. Males constitute the majority of this workforce. Most of the workforce has basic primary education. Commonly observed hazards in the workplace include occupational noise and dust of various types in manufacturing sectors and chemical exposures in the flower industry. Injury in both the agriculture and the manufacturing sectors is another workplace hazard commonly observed in the country. A lack of information made assessing workplace exposures in detail difficult. The prevalence of noise exposure was found to be high with the potential to seriously impact hearing capacity. Exposure to dust in textile and cement factories greatly exceeded international

  3. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.). Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594)=1.33; P=0.18). The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks. PMID:27354760

  4. Scoping Review of Research on the Effectiveness of Food-Safety Education Interventions Directed at Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramalingam, Bhairavi; Young, Ian; Pham, Mai T; Waddell, Lisa; Greig, Judy; Mascarenhas, Mariola; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Improper food handling by consumers at home is a major cause of foodborne illness. Therefore, effective education strategies are essential to change consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify and characterize primary literature examining the effectiveness of consumer food-safety education interventions. Ten bibliographic databases were searched using a comprehensive search strategy. Citations were identified; two reviewers screened them for relevance and characterized relevant articles. To ensure results would be applicable to end users, stakeholders were engaged to provide input on the review scope, methods, and results. We identified 246 relevant articles, of which 150 were quantitative, 66 qualitative, and 30 mixed-method research studies. Most studies (64.2%) were published in the United States, using an uncontrolled before-and-after study design (31.3%), and investigated the effectiveness of community-based training sessions and workshops (52.0%). Research gaps were found in the number of randomized controlled studies conducted, academic- and school-based courses and curricula investigated, and interventions targeting high-risk populations (e.g., pregnant women, those who are immunocompromised) and using new media channels (e.g., social media). Key opportunities to enhance the utility of future primary research investigating consumer food-safety interventions include the following: using studies based on behavior-change theories and formative research; engaging the target population in the research; using validated instruments to measures outcomes; and reporting intervention characteristics and outcomes completely. Results of this review can be used to prioritize future primary research and decision-making in this area.

  5. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.). Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594)=1.33; P=0.18). The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks.

  6. Regulatory review and confidence building in post-closure safety assessments and safety cases for near surface disposal facilities, IAEA ASAM coordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfadhel, M.B. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Waste and Geosciences Div., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Benbelfadhelm@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca; Bennett, D.G. [Galson Science Limited, Oakham (United Kingdom); Gonzales, A. [Iberdrola Ingeniera y Consultoria, Madrid (Spain); Metcalf, P. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nys, V. [Association Vincotte Nucleaire, Brussels (Belgium); Simeonov, G. [Nuclear Regulatory Agency, Sofia (Bulgaria); Zeleznik, N. [ARAO-Agency of Radwaste Management, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The IAEA successfully concluded a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) called ISAM, which focused on the development of an Improved Safety Assessment Methodology for near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (1997-2002). In November 2002, and as an extension of ISAM, the IAEA launched a new CRP called ASAM, designed to test the Application of the Safety Assessment Methodology by considering a range of near surface disposal facilities. The ASAM work programme is being implemented by three application working groups and two cross-cutting working groups. The application working groups are testing the applicability of the ISAM methodology by assessing an existing disposal facility in Hungary, a copper mine in South Africa, and a hypothetical facility containing heterogenous wastes, such as disused sealed sources. The first cross-cutting working group is addressing a number of technical issues that are common to all near-surface disposal facilities, while the second group, the Regulatory Review Working Group (RRWG) is developing guidance on how to gain confidence in safety assessments and safety cases, and on how to conduct regulatory reviews of safety assessments. This paper provides a brief overview of the work being conducted by the Regulatory Review Working Group. (author)

  7. Quality indicators for patient safety in primary care. A review and Delphi-survey by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigola-Capell, Eva; Pareja-Rossell, Clara; Gens-Barber, Montse; Oliva-Oliva, Glòria; Alava-Cano, Fernando; Wensing, Michel; Davins-Miralles, Josep

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Quality indicators are measured aspects of healthcare, reflecting the performance of a healthcare provider or healthcare system. They have a crucial role in programmes to assess and improve healthcare. Many performance measures for primary care have been developed. Only the Catalan model for patient safety in primary care identifies key domains of patient safety in primary care. Objective: To present an international framework for patient safety indicators in primary care. Methods: Literature review and online Delphi-survey, starting from the Catalan model. Results: A set of 30 topics is presented, identified by an international panel and organized according to the Catalan model for patient safety in primary care. Most topic areas referred to specific clinical processes; additional topics were leadership, people management, partnership and resources. Conclusion: The framework can be used to organize indicator development and guide further work in the field. PMID:26339833

  8. A comparative review of patient safety initiatives for national health information technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magrabi, Farah; Aarts, Jos; Nøhr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect and critically review patient safety initiatives for health information technology (HIT). METHOD: Publicly promulgated set of advisories, recommendations, guidelines, or standards potentially addressing safe system design, build, implementation or use were identified...... with blood bank and image management software which is regulated in the USA. Of the 16 initiatives directed at unregulated software, 11 were aimed at increasing standardisation using guidelines and standards for safe system design, build, implementation and use. Three initiatives for unregulated software...... were aimed at certification in the USA, Canada and Australia. Safety is addressed alongside interoperability in the Australian certification programme but it is not explicitly addressed in the US and Canadian programmes, though conformance with specific functionality, interoperability, security...

  9. Dam safety review, classification of dams for the Novia Scotia Power Inc. Black River hydroelectric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderman, Aaron; Small, Andy [AMEC Earth and environmental, Fredericton, (Canada); O' Neil, Ellis [Nova Scotia Power Inc., Halifax, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In 2009, AMEC was retained by Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) to conduct a dam safety review of the dams that are part of the Black River Hydroelectric System. This paper presented the results of this dam classification exercise which was carried out for the Bear River hydroelectric system in Nova Scotia, based on the 2007 Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines. Flood mapping and dam-break analysis were performed for events ranging from the 1:100 year to PMF flood events, including cascading events. These results were used to draw up a classification of the dams. Associated design criteria were then developed. Following the assessment of the dam sites, conclusions and recommendations were discussed. The recommendations were presented in terms of regular maintenance items and reconstruction items, which are now used by NSPI to determine the party responsible for undertaking the recommendation and for evaluation of the maintenance and reconstruction schedules.

  10. Safety and regulatory review of dyes commonly used as excipients in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ibarbia, Leire; Majdanski, Tobias; Schubert, Stephanie; Windhab, Norbert; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2016-10-10

    Color selection is one of the key elements of building a strong brand development and product identity in the pharmaceutical industry, besides to prevent counterfeiting. Moreover, colored pharmaceutical dosage forms may increase patient compliance and therapy enhancement. Although most synthetic dyes are classified as safe, their regulations are stricter than other classes of excipients. Safety concerns have increased during the last years but the efforts to change to natural dyes seem to be not promising. Their instability problems and the development of "non-toxic" dyes is still a challenge. This review focuses specifically on the issues related to dye selection and summarizes the current regulatory status. A deep awareness of toxicological data based on the public domain, making sure the compliance of standards for regulation and safety for successful product development is provided. In addition, synthetic strategies are provided to covalently bind dyes on polymers to possibly overcome toxicity issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fesoterodine in randomised clinical trials: an updated systematic clinical review of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Utri, Chiara; Digesu, G Alessandro; Bhide, Alka; Khullar, Vik

    2012-10-01

    This is a systematic review of clinical data assessing the safety, efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine in randomised control trials (RCTs) in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). We performed a MEDLINE literature search of articles published between 2005 and 2010 regarding the efficacy and safety of fesoterodine. The US Food and Drug Administration Web site was also searched for RCTs. Two studies demonstrated significant improvement of OAB symptoms with fesoterodine compared with placebo. Two phase III studies showed both doses of fesoterodine to be more effective than placebo for most symptoms. Another phase III trial confirmed the superiority of 8 mg fesoterodine compared with tolterodine ER 4 mg. Dry mouth was the commonest side effect. Fesoterodine is effective for treating OAB symptoms. Its once-daily dosing regime and the flexibility to increase the dose are appealing factors.

  12. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus vaccine in patients with autoimmune diseases: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Paolo; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

    2015-07-09

    Whereas safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines in healthy women have been shown in several randomised controlled clinical trials and in post marketing analyses, only few data exist in patients affected by autoimmune diseases. These issues are significant as autoimmune conditions are recognised as a risk factor for the persistence of HPV infection. Herein we review and systematise the existing literature to assess immunogenicity and safety of HPV vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The results of our literature revision suggest that the HPV vaccines are efficacious and safe in most of the patients affected by autoimmune diseases. Yet, some points of concern remain to be tackled, including the effects of concomitant therapies, the risk of disease exacerbation and the cost-effectiveness of such immunisation programmes in these populations.

  14. Review and Assessment of Medicinal Safety Data of Orally Used Echinacea Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifoli and Echinacea pallida are frequently used as medicinal plants. Besides asking for evidence on their efficacy, there is an increasing interest for safety data. This review systematically presents the available literature on drug interactions, contraindications, adverse events, duration of use, and safety of use in pregnant and nursing women, and assesses the safety profile of corresponding Echinacea preparations. It is noteworthy that all safety data reported are as product specific as the pharmacological or efficacy data are. In pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction studies performed in vivo, no significant inhibitions of human CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isoforms have been found after the administration of standardized E. purpurea preparations. However, contradictory results exist in studies using liver microsomes. Adverse events reported during clinical trials following administration of Echinacea spp. mono-preparations were generally mild and mostly without causality. Due to published long term studies with continuous ingestion of different Echinacea preparations up to 6 month with no reported toxicological concerns, Echinacea can be recommended also for long-term use. Moreover, the contraindications in cases of autoimmune diseases and immune-suppression are questionable, since lipophilic Echinacea preparations containing alkamides suppress cellular immune responses, and beneficial effects in autoimmunity were reported. The same applies for the use during pregnancy. Although there has been some impact reported on embryonic angiogenesis in mice, no association with an increased risk for major or minor malformations during organogenesis was found in a literature review. Altogether, the different evaluated Echinacea preparations are well-tolerated herbal medicines in the management in children and adults alike. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Safety of vaccines used for routine immunization of U.S. children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Margaret A; Das, Lopamudra; Raaen, Laura; Smith, Alexandria; Chari, Ramya; Newberry, Sydne; Shanman, Roberta; Perry, Tanja; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Gidengil, Courtney

    2014-08-01

    Concerns about vaccine safety have led some parents to decline recommended vaccination of their children, leading to the resurgence of diseases. Reassurance of vaccine safety remains critical for population health. This study systematically reviewed the literature on the safety of routine vaccines recommended for children in the United States. Data sources included PubMed, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices statements, package inserts, existing reviews, manufacturer information packets, and the 2011 Institute of Medicine consensus report on vaccine safety. We augmented the Institute of Medicine report with more recent studies and increased the scope to include more vaccines. Only studies that used active surveillance and had a control mechanism were included. Formulations not used in the United States were excluded. Adverse events and patient and vaccine characteristics were abstracted. Adverse event collection and reporting was evaluated by using the McHarm scale. We were unable to pool results. Strength of evidence was rated as high, moderate, low, or insufficient. Of 20 478 titles identified, 67 were included. Strength of evidence was high for measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine and febrile seizures; the varicella vaccine was associated with complications in immunodeficient individuals. There is strong evidence that MMR vaccine is not associated with autism. There is moderate evidence that rotavirus vaccines are associated with intussusception. Limitations of the study include that the majority of studies did not investigate or identify risk factors for AEs; and the severity of AEs was inconsistently reported. We found evidence that some vaccines are associated with serious AEs; however, these events are extremely rare and must be weighed against the protective benefits that vaccines provide. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Improving medication safety in primary care. A review and consensus procedure by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lainer, M.; Vogele, A.; Wensing, M.; Sonnichsen, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug treatment is an important clinical process in primary care that is associated with risk of error and adverse events. OBJECTIVE: To review currently available research evidence on the topic and to develop a framework, which can help to guide improvement of medication safety. METHODS:

  17. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Commercial Veterinary Vaccines against Rift Valley Fever: A Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an infectious illness with serious clinical manifestations and health consequences in humans as well as a wide range of domestic ruminants. This review provides significant information about the prevention options of RVF along with the safety-efficacy profile of commercial vaccines and some of RVF vaccination strategies. Information presented in this paper was obtained through a systematic investigation of published data about RVF vaccines. Like other viral diseases, the prevention of RVF relies heavily on immunization of susceptible herds with safe and cost-effective vaccine that is able to confer long-term protective immunity. Several strains of RVF vaccines have been developed and are available in commercial production including Formalin-Inactivated vaccine, live attenuated Smithburn vaccine, and the most recent Clone13. Although Formalin-Inactivated vaccine and live attenuated Smithburn vaccine are immunogenic and widely used in prevention programs, they proved to be accompanied by significant concerns. Despite Clone13 vaccine being suggested as safe in pregnant ewes and as highly immunogenic along with its potential for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), a recent study raised concerns about the safety of the vaccine during the first trimester of gestation. Accordingly, RVF vaccines that are currently available in the market to a significant extent do not fulfill the requirements of safety, potency, and DIVA. These adverse effects stressed the need for developing new vaccines with an excellent safety profile to bridge the gap in safety and immunity. Bringing RVF vaccine candidates to local markets besides the absence of validated serological test for DIVA remain the major challenges of RVF control. PMID:27689098

  18. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Commercial Veterinary Vaccines against Rift Valley Fever: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Alhaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley Fever (RVF is an infectious illness with serious clinical manifestations and health consequences in humans as well as a wide range of domestic ruminants. This review provides significant information about the prevention options of RVF along with the safety-efficacy profile of commercial vaccines and some of RVF vaccination strategies. Information presented in this paper was obtained through a systematic investigation of published data about RVF vaccines. Like other viral diseases, the prevention of RVF relies heavily on immunization of susceptible herds with safe and cost-effective vaccine that is able to confer long-term protective immunity. Several strains of RVF vaccines have been developed and are available in commercial production including Formalin-Inactivated vaccine, live attenuated Smithburn vaccine, and the most recent Clone13. Although Formalin-Inactivated vaccine and live attenuated Smithburn vaccine are immunogenic and widely used in prevention programs, they proved to be accompanied by significant concerns. Despite Clone13 vaccine being suggested as safe in pregnant ewes and as highly immunogenic along with its potential for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA, a recent study raised concerns about the safety of the vaccine during the first trimester of gestation. Accordingly, RVF vaccines that are currently available in the market to a significant extent do not fulfill the requirements of safety, potency, and DIVA. These adverse effects stressed the need for developing new vaccines with an excellent safety profile to bridge the gap in safety and immunity. Bringing RVF vaccine candidates to local markets besides the absence of validated serological test for DIVA remain the major challenges of RVF control.

  19. The role of hospital managers in quality and patient safety: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parand, Anam; Dopson, Sue; Renz, Anna; Vincent, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review the empirical literature to identify the activities, time spent and engagement of hospital managers in quality of care. Design A systematic review of the literature. Methods A search was carried out on the databases MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, EMBASE, HMIC. The search strategy covered three facets: management, quality of care and the hospital setting comprising medical subject headings and key terms. Reviewers screened 15 447 titles/abstracts and 423 full texts were checked against inclusion criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed on 19 included articles. Results The majority of studies were set in the USA and investigated Board/senior level management. The most common research designs were interviews and surveys on the perceptions of managerial quality and safety practices. Managerial activities comprised strategy, culture and data-centred activities, such as driving improvement culture and promotion of quality, strategy/goal setting and providing feedback. Significant positive associations with quality included compensation attached to quality, using quality improvement measures and having a Board quality committee. However, there is an inconsistency and inadequate employment of these conditions and actions across the sample hospitals. Conclusions There is some evidence that managers’ time spent and work can influence quality and safety clinical outcomes, processes and performance. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies, further weakened by a lack of objective outcome measures and little examination of actual actions undertaken. We present a model to summarise the conditions and activities that affect quality performance. PMID:25192876

  20. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND VACUUM REGENERATION WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, David; Vidal, Rafael; Russell, Tania; Babcock, Doosan; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Whyatt, Greg; Liu, Kun; Frimpong, Reynolds; Lu, Kunlei; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan; Yarborough, Erin

    2014-12-31

    The results of the preliminary environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment for an enzyme-activated potassium carbonate (K2CO3) solution post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) plant, integrated with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant, are presented. The expected emissions during normal steady-state operation have been estimated utilizing models of the PCC plant developed in AspenTech’s AspenPlus® software, bench scale test results from the University of Kentucky, and industrial experience of emission results from a slipstream PCC plant utilizing amine based solvents. A review of all potential emission species and their sources was undertaken that identified two credible emission sources, the absorber off-gas that is vented to atmosphere via a stack and the waste removed from the PCC plant in the centrifuge used to reclaim enzyme and solvent. The conditions and compositions of the emissions were calculated and the potential EH&S effects were considered as well as legislative compliance requirements. Potential mitigation methods for emissions during normal operation have been proposed and solutions to mitigate uncontrolled releases of species have been considered. The potential emissions were found to pose no significant EH&S concerns and were compliant with the Federal legislation reviewed. The limitations in predicting full scale plant performance from bench scale tests have been noted and further work on a larger scale test unit is recommended to reduce the level of uncertainty.

  1. Efficacy and safety of treatments in Familial Mediterranean fever: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, Erkan; Erer, Burak; Ozen, Seza; Ben-Chetrit, Eldad

    2016-03-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease, which can be well controlled with lifelong use of colchicine. Since studies dealing with the efficacy and safety of colchicine were conducted mainly in the sixties and seventies of the previous century, it seems that this topic needs to be updated. Recently, an international expert panel was undertaken for the establishment of recommendations on how to manage FMF. We aimed to summarize the efficacy and safety of the current treatments available to prevent FMF attacks and to avert the appearance of amyloidosis secondary to FMF. A systematic review was performed. Two reviewers and methodologist established the protocol of the review and the epidemiological questions in PICO terms. MEDLINE through PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Trials Register all up to May 31, 2014, were searched, and only randomized controlled trials or quasicontrolled trials were accepted. For each study, a judgment on risk of bias was then rated as high, moderate, or low. Of 1222 initially captured publications, 153 articles were studied in detail. Finally, only seven studies met all criteria and were included. Among these seven studies, four were randomized crossover clinical trials of colchicine including a total of 57 patients, one RCT of Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees extract employed in 24 patients, one randomized crossover clinical trial of Rilonacept used in 12 patients, and one RCT of interferon treating 34 acute abdominal attacks in 22 patients. The quality of the colchicine trials was low compared with the other drugs trials. Safety was not clearly mentioned in the trials. Colchicine is an effective treatment in FMF.

  2. Final Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-12-15

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Though the meeting was prompted initially by suspected issues related to the treatment of surface roughness inherent in the SRS meteorological dataset and its treatment in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2), various topical areas were discussed that are relevant to performing safety assessments at SRS; this final report addresses these topical areas.

  3. Critical review of the reactor-safety study radiological health effects model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, D.W.; Evans, J.S.; Jacob, N.; Kase, K.R.; Maletskos, C.J.; Robertson, J.B.; Smith, D.G.

    1983-03-01

    This review of the radiological health effects models originally presented in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) and currently used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was undertaken to assist the NRC in determining whether or not to revise the models and to aid in the revision, if undertaken. The models as presented in the RSS and as implemented in the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) Code are described and critiqued. The major elements analyzed are those concerning dosimetry, early effects, and late effects. The published comments on the models are summarized, as are the important findings since the publication of the RSS.

  4. Review on the efficacy, safety and clinical applications of polihexanide, a modern wound antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, N-O; Kramer, A

    2010-01-01

    Infected wounds are still one of the great challenges in medicine. In the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that antimicrobial chemotherapy is limited by the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Fortunately, new, highly effective antiseptic substances with a broad antimicrobial spectrum are available, so local treatment is expected to get increasingly more important in wound therapy. This paper reviews the antiseptic agent polihexanide (polyhexamethylene biguanide, PHMB), one of the most promising substances available today, from a clinical point of view, focusing on efficacy, safety and clinical applications.

  5. A safety review for irradiation test of the creep capsule(02S-08K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, C. G.; Choi, M. H.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The creep capsule(02S-08K), which is aimed to confirm the design characteristics and the structural integrity, will be irradiated at the IR2 test hole in October, 2004. To review a safety in the irradiation test of the capsule, the reactivity effect in HANARO was analyzed and stress and temperatures on the capsule were estimated. In the abnormal operating condition during the test of the capsule, the effect exerted on the capsule outer body by leakage or breakage of the stress loading unit equipped in the capsule was analyzed.

  6. The Periodic Safety Review of ANSTO's OPAL Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerfield, Mark [ANSTO, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the process by which the first Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of ANSTO's OPAL reactor was performed and documented. Emphasis is given to the methodology adopted and the practical means of actually doing a PSR with the aim of providing advice and guidance to other research reactor operators intending (or required) to perform a PSR. A summary of the results is also provided, including an overview of the recommendations. Feedback received from the Australian Nuclear Regulator ARPANSA and the subsequent preparation of a PSR Supplement is discussed.

  7. Review of the development of safety and relief valve silencers for steam discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    The progress made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) in the development of silencers for the control of boiler safety valve and relief valve noise is reviewed. System noise sources and the formulation of environmental noise criteria are discussed; the silencer design philosophy adopted by the CEGB is described and the progressive improvements are charted to demonstrate the advances made over earlier practices. The results of this work are design concepts which provide silencers which are suitable for application to any of the CEGB's steam valve vent systems and are capable of meeting stringent neighbourhood noise criteria.

  8. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Processes and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matt R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station Program at NASA is constantly seeking to improve the processes and systems that support safe space operations. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with 3 goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data; and increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes. These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based structured data system that includes strong process support and supports integration with other information systems. Along with the data systems, ISS is evolving its submission requirements and safety process requirements to support the improved model. In contrast to existing operations (where paper processes and electronic file repositories are used for safety data management) the web-based solution provides the program with dramatically faster access to records, the ability to search for and reference specific data within records, reduced workload for hazard updates and approval, and process support including digital signatures and controlled record workflow. In addition, integration with other key data systems provides assistance with assessments of flight readiness, more efficient review and approval of operational controls and better tracking of international safety certifications. This approach will also provide new opportunities to streamline the sharing of data with ISS international partners while maintaining compliance with applicable laws and respecting restrictions on proprietary data. One goal of this paper is to outline the approach taken by the ISS Progrm to determine requirements for the new system and to devise a practical and efficient implementation strategy. From conception through implementation, ISS and NASA partners utilized a user-centered software development approach focused on user research and iterative design methods. The user-centered approach used on

  9. Study of Occupational Safety and Health Audit on Facilities at Ungku Omar College, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM): A Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Kadir; Ahmad, Shaharuddin; Aiyub, Kadaruddin; Awang, Azhan; Aziz, Azmi; Mohamad, Lukman Z.; Mamat, Samsu Adabi

    2010-01-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) is being considered as an important program to measure employee and student welfare and well-being. During academic session, apart from attending lectures, laboratory works, tutorial and library search, majority of students spend most of their time in residential…

  10. Review of radio wave for power transmission in medical applications with safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John; Geddis, Demetris; Kim, Jaehwan; Choi, Sang H.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Song, Kyo D.

    2015-04-01

    The integration of biosensors with radio frequency (RF) wireless power transmission devices is becoming popular, but there are challenges for implantable devices in medical applications. Integration and at the same time miniaturization of medical devices in a single embodiment are not trivial. The research reported herein, seeks to review possible effects of RF signals ranging from 900 MHz to 100 GHz on the human tissues and environment. Preliminary evaluation shows that radio waves selected for test have substantial influence on human tissues based on their dielectric properties. In the advancement of RF based biosensors, it is imperative to set up necessary guidelines that specify how to use RF power safely. In this paper, the dielectric properties of various human tissues will be used for estimation of influence within the selected RF frequency ranges.

  11. Wastewater use in algae production for generation of renewable resources: a review and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Omatoyo K; Halfhide, Trina; Udom, Innocent; Gilles, Benjamin; Wolan, John; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina

    2013-01-05

    Microalgae feedstock production can be integrated with wastewater and industrial sources of carbon dioxide. This study reviews the literature on algae grown on wastewater and includes a preliminary analysis of algal production based on anaerobic digestion sludge centrate from the Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (HFC AWTP) in Tampa, Florida and secondary effluent from the City of Lakeland wastewater treatment facilities in Lakeland, Florida. It was demonstrated that a mixed culture of wild algae species could successfully be grown on wastewater nutrients and potentially scaled to commercial production. Algae have demonstrated the ability to naturally colonize low-nutrient effluent water in a wetland treatment system utilized by the City of Lakeland. The results from these experiments show that the algae grown in high strength wastewater from the HFC AWTP are light-limited when cultivated indoor since more than 50% of the outdoor illumination is attenuated in the greenhouse.An analysis was performed to determine the mass of algae that can be supported by the wastewater nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorous) available from the two Florida cities. The study was guided by the growth and productivity data obtained for algal growth in the photobioreactors in operation at the University of South Florida. In the analysis, nutrients and light are assumed to be limited, while CO2 is abundantly available. There is some limitation on land, especially since the HFC AWTP is located at the Port of Tampa. The temperature range in Tampa is assumed to be suitable for algal growth year round. Assuming that the numerous technical challenges to achieving commercial-scale algal production can be met, the results presented suggest that an excess of 71 metric tons per hectare per year of algal biomass can be produced. Two energy production options were considered; liquid biofuels from feedstock with high lipid content, and biogas generation from anaerobic

  12. Wastewater use in algae production for generation of renewable resources: a review and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae feedstock production can be integrated with wastewater and industrial sources of carbon dioxide. This study reviews the literature on algae grown on wastewater and includes a preliminary analysis of algal production based on anaerobic digestion sludge centrate from the Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (HFC AWTP) in Tampa, Florida and secondary effluent from the City of Lakeland wastewater treatment facilities in Lakeland, Florida. It was demonstrated that a mixed culture of wild algae species could successfully be grown on wastewater nutrients and potentially scaled to commercial production. Algae have demonstrated the ability to naturally colonize low-nutrient effluent water in a wetland treatment system utilized by the City of Lakeland. The results from these experiments show that the algae grown in high strength wastewater from the HFC AWTP are light-limited when cultivated indoor since more than 50% of the outdoor illumination is attenuated in the greenhouse. An analysis was performed to determine the mass of algae that can be supported by the wastewater nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorous) available from the two Florida cities. The study was guided by the growth and productivity data obtained for algal growth in the photobioreactors in operation at the University of South Florida. In the analysis, nutrients and light are assumed to be limited, while CO2 is abundantly available. There is some limitation on land, especially since the HFC AWTP is located at the Port of Tampa. The temperature range in Tampa is assumed to be suitable for algal growth year round. Assuming that the numerous technical challenges to achieving commercial-scale algal production can be met, the results presented suggest that an excess of 71 metric tons per hectare per year of algal biomass can be produced. Two energy production options were considered; liquid biofuels from feedstock with high lipid content, and biogas generation from anaerobic

  13. Renal safety in patients treated with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul D; Jamal, Sophie A; Evenepoel, Pieter; Eastell, Richard; Boonen, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis and are generally well tolerated. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration safety reports have highlighted the issue of renal safety in bisphosphonate-treated patients. All bisphosphonates carry labeled "warnings" or a contraindication for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance osteoporosis were obtained via PubMed, and were reviewed with support from published articles available on PubMed. Renal safety analyses of pivotal trials of oral alendronate, risedronate, and ibandronate for postmenopausal osteoporosis showed no short-term or long-term effects on renal function. Transient postinfusion increases in serum creatinine have been reported in patients receiving intravenous ibandronate and zoledronic acid; however, studies showed that treatment with these agents did not result in long-term renal function deterioration in clinical trial patients with osteoporosis. All bisphosphonate therapies have "warnings" for use in patients with severe renal impairment. Clinical trial results have shown that even in elderly, frail, osteoporotic patients with renal impairment, intravenous bisphosphonate therapy administration in accordance with the prescribing information did not result in long-term renal function decline. Physicians should follow guidelines for bisphosphonate therapies administration at all times. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Learning from Aviation to Improve Safety in the Operating Room - a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. G. L. Wauben

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lessons learned from other high-risk industries could improve patient safety in the operating room (OR. This review describes similarities and differences between high-risk industries and describes current methods and solutions within a system approach to reduce errors in the OR. PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant articles written in the English language published between 2000 and 2011. In total, 25 articles were included, all within the medical domain focusing on the comparison between surgery and aviation. In order to improve safety in the OR, multiple interventions have to be implemented. Additionally, the healthcare organization has to become a ‘learning organization’ and the OR team has to become a team with shared responsibilities and flat hierarchies. Interpersonal and technical skills can be trained by means of simulation and can be supported by implementing team briefings, debriefings and cross-checks. However, further development and research is needed to prove if these solutions are useful, practical, and actually increase safety.

  15. Biological effects of ultrasound: development of safety guidelines. Part II: general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyborg, W L

    2001-03-01

    In the 1920s, the availability of piezoelectric materials and electronic devices made it possible to produce ultrasound (US) in water at high amplitudes, so that it could be detected after propagation through large distances. Laboratory experiments with this new mechanical form of radiation showed that it was capable of producing an astonishing variety of physical, chemical and biologic effects. In this review, the early findings on bioeffects are discussed, especially those from experiments done in the first few decades, as well as the concepts employed in explaining them. Some recent findings are discussed also, noting how the old and the new are related. In the first few decades, bioeffects research was motivated partly by curiosity, and partly by the wish to increase the effectiveness and ensure the safety of therapeutic US. Beginning in the 1970s, the motivation has come also from the need for safety guidelines relevant to diagnostic US. Instrumentation was developed for measuring acoustic pressure in the fields of pulsed and focused US employed, and standards were established for specifying the fields of commercial equipment. Critical levels of US quantities were determined from laboratory experiments, together with biophysical analysis, for bioeffects produced by thermal and nonthermal mechanisms. These are the basis for safety advice and guidelines recommended or being considered by national, international, professional and governmental organizations.

  16. A brief review of the occurrence, use, and safety of food-related nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Bernadene A; Jonaitis, Tomas S; Card, Jeffrey W

    2011-08-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials have tremendous potential to enhance the food supply through novel applications, including nutrient and bioactive absorption and delivery systems; ingredient functionality; improved colors and flavors; microbial, allergen, and contaminant detection and control; and food packaging properties and performance. To determine the current state of knowledge regarding the safety of these potential uses of nanomaterials, an appraisal of the published literature on the safety of food-related nanomaterials was undertaken. A method of assessment of reliability of toxicology studies was developed to conduct this appraisal. The review of the toxicology literature on oral exposure to food-related nanomaterials found that the number of studies is limited. Exposure to nanomaterials in the human food chain may occur not only through intentional uses in food manufacturing, but also via uses in agricultural production and carry over from use in other industries. Although a number of analytical methods are useful in physicochemical characterization of manufactured nanomaterials, new methods may be needed to more fully detect and characterize nanomaterials incorporated into foods and in other media. There is a need for additional toxicology studies of sufficient quality and duration on different types of nanomaterials to further our understanding of the characteristics of nanomaterials that affect safety of oral exposure resulting from use in various food applications.

  17. The third-party regulation on food safety in China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Man; QIAO Hui; WANG Xu; PU Ming-zhe; YU Zhi-jun; ZHENG Feng-tian

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholders in the ifeld of food safety management in China can be classiifed into three categories, government, food producers (farmers and enterprises), and the third-party regulatory bodies. The third-party regulation has experienced rapid development in past twenty years, and recently received considerable attention from consumers and the central government. This paper provides a review about the development, problems and future trend of the third-party regulation on food safety in China. To be speciifc, ifve forms of the third-party regulation are assessed, including media exposure, the third-party certiifcation, regulation by consumer associations, social movements promoted by non-governmental organiza-tions (NGOs), and regulation by industry associations. The study concludes that media and consumer associations are the major players in the third-party regulation and are highly repudiated among customers. The food certiifcation industry has developed rapidly, but is now facing crises of conifdence among consumers because of its lack of self-regulation. NGOs and industry associations stil remain in the early development stages of food safety management, and therefore, are of little importance in current regulatory bodies.

  18. QMRA and water safety management: review of application in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, S R; Ashbolt, N J

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), the assessment of microbial risks when model inputs and estimated health impacts are explicitly quantified, is a valuable tool to support water safety plans (WSP). In this paper, research studies undertaken on the application of QMRA in drinking water systems were reviewed, highlighting their relevance for WSP. The important elements for practical implementation include: the data requirements to achieve sufficient certainty to support decision-making; level of expertise necessary to undertake the required analysis; and the accessibility of tools to support wider implementation, hence these aspects were the focus of the review. Recommendations to support the continued and growing application of QMRA to support risk management in the water sector are provided.

  19. Occupational safety and health management in the construction industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Mohd Hafiidz; Arifin, Kadir; Aiyub, Kadaruddin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal; Ishak, Muhammad Izzuddin Syakir; Samsurijan, Mohamad Shaharudin

    2017-09-11

    The construction industry plays a significant role in contributing to the economy and development globally. During the process of construction, various hazards coupled with the unique nature of the industry contribute to high fatality rates. This review refers to previous published studies and related Malaysian legislation documents. Four main elements consisting of human, worksite, management and external elements which cause occupational accidents and illnesses were identified. External and management elements are the underlying causes contributing to occupational safety and health (OSH), while human and worksite elements are more apparent causes of occupational accidents and illnesses. An effective OSH management approach is required to contain all hazards at construction sites. An approach to OSH management constructed by elements of policy, process, personnel and incentive developed in previous work is explored. Changes to the sub-elements according to previous studies and the related Malaysian legislation are also covered in this review.

  20. First NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Project Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this Annual Review was to present NASA plans and accomplishments that will impact the national aviation safety goal. NASA's WxAP Project focuses on developing the following products: (1) Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) technologies (displays, sensors, pilot decision tools, communication links, etc.); (2) Electronic Pilot Reporting (E-PIREPS) technologies; (3) Enhanced weather products with associated hazard metrics; (4) Forward looking turbulence sensor technologies (radar, lidar, etc.); (5) Turbulence mitigation control system designs; Attendees included personnel from various NASA Centers, FAA, National Weather Service, DoD, airlines, aircraft and pilot associations, industry, aircraft manufacturers and academia. Attendees participated in discussion sessions aimed at collecting aviation user community feedback on NASA plans and R&D activities. This CD is a compilation of most of the presentations presented at this Review.

  1. Safety of Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production: A Critical Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, A.; Dawson, P.; Nixon, D.; Atkins, J.; Pearl, G. [Clemson University, SC (United States)

    2007-05-15

    An in-depth review of available literature was conducted on the safety of using animal fats for biodiesel. The review indicated little or no known risk to human and animal health and to the environment relative to inherent microbial, organic or inorganic agents in animal fats destined for biodiesel production. Animal by-products are generated from the inedible tissues derived from meat, poultry and fish production. This material is thermally processed by the rendering industry to generate a number of industrial materials including use of the fat portion to produce biodiesel. As the biodiesel industry continues to develop, questions have emerged about the safety of animal versus vegetable fats for biodiesel production and utilization. The following report is the result of a detailed literature search into the potential microbial, organic, and inorganic contaminants that may be present in animal fats and the potential for human or environmental safety issues associated with each. The potential safety risks associated with prions are discussed in a separate report, 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction'. In certain instances, very little was reported about the potential contaminating moiety and its fate in biodiesel production and usage. Establishing an absolute zero risk assessment is impossible on any fat utilized for biodiesel production. Among the potential microbial contaminants, bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast, parasites, and microbial toxins were considered. In each instance, the nature of the production process and usage of biodiesel via combustion reduce the possibility that microbial contaminants would be a cause for concern to humans, animals, or the environment. Potential organic moieties contaminating the fat should meet a similar fate. Current evidence suggests that metals and metalloids within animal fats will not cause significant safety issues in the production and use of rendered fat

  2. Differences in efficacy and safety of pharmaceutical treatments between men and women: an umbrella review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Gartlehner

    Full Text Available Being male or female is an important determinant of risks for certain diseases, patterns of illness and life expectancy. Although differences in risks for and prognoses of several diseases have been well documented, sex-based differences in responses to pharmaceutical treatments and accompanying risks of adverse events are less clear. The objective of this umbrella review was to determine whether clinically relevant differences in efficacy and safety of commonly prescribed medications exist between men and women. We retrieved all available systematic reviews of the Oregon Drug Effectiveness Review Project published before January 2010. Two persons independently reviewed each report to identify relevant studies. We dually abstracted data from the original publications into standardized forms. We synthesized the available evidence for each drug class and rated its quality applying the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Findings, based on 59 studies and data of more than 250,000 patients suggested that for the majority of drugs no substantial differences in efficacy and safety exist between men and women. Some clinically important exceptions, however, were apparent: women experienced substantially lower response rates with newer antiemetics than men (45% vs. 58%; relative risk 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.35-1.64; men had higher rates of sexual dysfunction than women while on paroxetine for major depressive disorder; women discontinued lovastatin more frequently than men because of adverse events. Overall, for the majority of drugs sex does not appear to be a factor that has to be taken into consideration when choosing a drug treatment. The available body of evidence, however, was limited in quality and quantity, confining the range and certainty of our conclusions.

  3. Safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luisa Santos; Müller, Vanessa Teixeira; da Mota Gomes, Marleide; Rotenberg, Alexander; Fregni, Felipe

    2016-04-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy remain with pharmacologically intractable seizures. An emerging therapeutic modality for seizure suppression is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Despite being considered a safe technique, rTMS carries the risk of inducing seizures, among other milder adverse events, and thus, its safety in the population with epilepsy should be continuously assessed. We performed an updated systematic review on the safety and tolerability of rTMS in patients with epilepsy, similar to a previous report published in 2007 (Bae EH, Schrader LM, Machii K, Alonso-Alonso M, Riviello JJ, Pascual-Leone A, Rotenberg A. Safety and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with epilepsy: a review of the literature. Epilepsy Behav. 2007; 10 (4): 521-8), and estimated the risk of seizures and other adverse events during or shortly after rTMS application. We searched the literature for reports of rTMS being applied on patients with epilepsy, with no time or language restrictions, and obtained studies published from January 1990 to August 2015. A total of 46 publications were identified, of which 16 were new studies published after the previous safety review of 2007. We noted the total number of subjects with epilepsy undergoing rTMS, medication usage, incidence of adverse events, and rTMS protocol parameters: frequency, intensity, total number of stimuli, train duration, intertrain intervals, coil type, and stimulation site. Our main data analysis included separate calculations for crude per subject risk of seizure and other adverse events, as well as risk per 1000 stimuli. We also performed an exploratory, secondary analysis on the risk of seizure and other adverse events according to the type of coil used (figure-of-8 or circular), stimulation frequency (≤ 1 Hz or > 1 Hz), pulse intensity in terms of motor threshold (rTMS with maximum stimulator output for speech arrest, clinically arising

  4. Impact of irradiation on the safety and quality of poultry and meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C; Olson, Dennis G

    2008-05-01

    For more than 100 years research on food irradiation has demonstrated that radiation will make food safer and improve the shelf life of irradiated foods. Using the current food safety technology, we may have reached the point of diminishing returns even though recent figures from the CDC show a significant drop in the number of foodborne illnesses. However, too many people continue to get sick and die from eating contaminated food. New and under utilized technologies such as food irradiation need to be re-examined to achieve new levels of safety for the food supply. Effects of irradiation on the safety and quality of meat and poultry are discussed. Irradiation control of the principle microbial pathogens including viruses, the differences among at-risk sub-populations, factors affecting the diminished rate of improvement in food safety and published D values for irradiating raw meat and poultry are presented. Currently permitted levels of irradiation are probably not sufficient to control pathogenic viruses. Typical gram-negative spoilage organisms are very sensitive to irradiation. Their destruction leads to a significant increase in the acceptable shelf life. In addition, the destruction of these normal spoilage organisms did not provide a competitive growth advantage for irradiation injured food pathogens. Another of the main focuses of this review is a detailed compilation of the effects of most of the food additives that have been proposed to minimize the negative quality effect of irradiation. Most of the antimicrobials and antioxidants used singly or in combination produced an increased lethality of irradiation and a decrease in oxidation by-products. Combinations of dosage, temperature, dietary and direct additives, storage temperature and packaging atmosphere can produce meats that the average consumer will find indistinguishable from non-irradiated meats. A discussion of the production of unique radiological by-products is also included.

  5. A review of the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Lindsey K; Baggett, Sara; Kyle, Jeffrey A; Skelley, Jessica W

    2014-01-01

    To review the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin (CAN) in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies were identified using PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar from 2011 to August 2013. The following key words were reviewed: canagliflozin, canagliflozin elderly, canagliflozin geriatrics, dapagliflozin, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, and SGLT2 receptor inhibitors. Articles evaluating CAN for diabetes that were published in English and used human subjects were selected. Fifteen clinical trials were identified and evaluated. Of 15 identified articles, 2 articles, 2 published posters, and unpublished information from the manufacturer were chosen based on the mean age of the study subjects. Evidence that elderly patients with T2DM have less A1C reduction with CAN is presented; the benefit on A1C is significant. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body weight reduction in the elderly were consistent with younger patients. Adverse effects such as increased urinary frequency, genital mycotic infections, and urinary tract infections may discourage the use of CAN in the elderly patient. Treatment with CAN improves A1C levels, reduces SBP and body weight, and is overall well tolerated in older subjects with T2DM. Risks and benefits of treatment with CAN should be assessed in geriatric patients on a case-by-case basis. Safety in elderly patients was consistent with that of other phase 3 trials in the general population. Additional longterm cardiovascular studies are needed.

  6. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a review on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Usach

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type-1 non-nucleoside and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs are key drugs of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the clinical management of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS/HIV infection. Discussion: First-generation NNRTIs, nevirapine (NVP, delavirdine (DLV and efavirenz (EFV are drugs with a low genetic barrier and poor resistance profile, which has led to the development of new generations of NNRTIs. Second-generation NNRTIs, etravirine (ETR and rilpivirine (RPV have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and European Union, and the next generation of drugs is currently being clinically developed. This review describes recent clinical data, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of commercialized NNRTIs, including the effects of sex, race and age differences on pharmacokinetics and safety. Moreover, it summarizes the characteristics of next-generation NNRTIs: lersivirine, GSK 2248761, RDEA806, BILR 355 BS, calanolide A, MK-4965, MK-1439 and MK-6186. Conclusions: This review presents a wide description of NNRTIs, providing useful information for researchers interested in this field, both in clinical use and in research.

  7. Efficacy and safety of miconazole for oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L-W; Fu, J-Y; Hua, H; Yan, Z-M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of miconazole for treating oral candidiasis. Twelve electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating treatments for oral candidiasis and complemented by hand searching. The clinical and mycological outcomes, as well as adverse effects, were set as the primary outcome criteria. Seventeen trials were included in this review. Most studies were considered to have a high or moderate level of bias. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin for thrush. For HIV-infected patients, there was no significant difference in the efficacy between miconazole and other antifungals. For denture wearers, microwave therapy was significantly better than miconazole. No significant difference was found in the safety evaluation between miconazole and other treatments. The relapse rate of miconazole oral gel may be lower than that of other formulations. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that miconazole may be an optional choice for thrush. Microwave therapy could be an effective adjunct treatment for denture stomatitis. Miconazole oral gel may be more effective than other formulations with regard to long-term results. However, future studies that are adequately powered, large-scale, and well-designed are needed to provide higher-quality evidence for the management of oral candidiasis.

  8. 4MOST systems engineering: from conceptual design to preliminary design review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Tirado, Olga; Frey, Steffen; Barden, Samuel C.; Brynnel, Joar; Giannone, Domenico; Haynes, Roger; de Jong, Roelof S.; Phillips, Daniel; Schnurr, Olivier; Walcher, Jakob; Winkler, Roland

    2016-08-01

    The 4MOST Facility is a high-multiplex, wide-field, brief-fed spectrograph system for the ESO VISTA telescope. It aims to create a world-class spectroscopic survey facility unique in its combination of wide-field multiplex, spectral resolution, spectral coverage, and sensitivity. At the end of 2014, after a successful concept optimization design phase, 4MOST entered into its Preliminary Design Phase. Here we present the process and tools adopted during the Preliminary Design Phase to define the subsystems specifications, coordinate the interface control documents and draft the system verification procedures.

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension Therapy and a Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of PDE-5 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unegbu, Chinwe; Noje, Corina; Coulson, John D; Segal, Jodi B; Romer, Lewis

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a syndrome that is of growing concern to pediatricians worldwide. Recent data led to concerns about the safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in children and a US Food and Drug Administration safety advisory. Our objective is to provide insight into therapies for PH in children and to systematically review the comparative effectiveness and safety of PDE5 inhibitors in the management of pediatric patients with PH. We searched the following databases through February 2015: Medline, Embase, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included studies that examined PDE5 inhibitor use in children with PH. Allowed comparators were either no medication or other classes of medication for management of PH. Study inclusion was via a 2-stage process with 2 reviewers and a predesigned form. Of 1270 papers identified by the literature search, 21 were included: 8 randomized controlled trials and 13 observational studies (9 retrospective, 4 prospective). There is strong evidence that PDE5 inhibitor use improves echocardiography measurements, cardiac catheterization parameters, and oxygenation compared with baseline or placebo in pediatric patients with PH. Evidence suggests that low- and moderate-dose sildenafil are safe regimens for children. There are a relatively small number of randomized controlled trials that address use of PDE5 inhibitors in pediatric patients with PH. PDE5 inhibitors are effective agents for cardiovascular and oxygenation end points in pediatric PH and important components of a multimodal pharmacotherapeutic approach to this growing challenge. Additional studies are needed to define optimal PH therapy in childhood.

  10. The Safety of Yoga: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Ward, Lesley; Saper, Robert; Fishbein, Daniel; Dobos, Gustav; Lauche, Romy

    2015-08-15

    As yoga has gained popularity as a therapeutic intervention, its safety has been questioned in the lay press. Thus, this review aimed to systematically assess and meta-analyze the frequency of adverse events in randomized controlled trials of yoga. MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and IndMED were screened through February 2014. Of 301 identified randomized controlled trials of yoga, 94 (1975-2014; total of 8,430 participants) reported on adverse events. Life-threatening, disabling adverse events or those requiring intensive treatment were defined as serious and all other events as nonserious. No differences in the frequency of intervention-related, nonserious, or serious adverse events and of dropouts due to adverse events were found when comparing yoga with usual care or exercise. Compared with psychological or educational interventions (e.g., health education), more intervention-related adverse events (odds ratio = 4.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 17.67; P = 0.05) and more nonserious adverse events (odds ratio = 7.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.91, 27.92; P yoga group; serious adverse events and dropouts due to adverse events were comparable between groups. Findings from this review indicate that yoga appears as safe as usual care and exercise. The adequate reporting of safety data in future randomized trials of yoga is crucial to conclusively judge its safety. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-01

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  12. 幼儿园安全教育初探%A Preliminary Approach to Safety Education in Kinder-garten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳

    2013-01-01

    The healthy development in childhood is the funda-ment of a kid. It is the unavoidable responsibility of a kinder-garten to focus on safety education and provide security for kids. Our kindergarten has tried the following measures for the educa-tion of child safety, setting up an environment for the safety edu-cation, offering"weekly, monthly and quarterly"activities, order-ing safety drill regularly, and strengthening communications be-tween the family and kindergarten. Through the above measures, we have improved the self-care awareness and behavior of chil-dren effectively and given a security assurance for children.%幼儿时期的健康发展是幼儿成长的根本,注重安全教育,为幼儿提供安全的保障是幼儿园不可推卸的责任。我园在对幼儿的安全教育方面做出了以下尝试:创设安全教育的环境、开展“三个一”的安全教育活动、定期开展安全演习以及加强家园沟通配合。通过以上措施,有效地提升幼儿的安全自护意识及行为,使幼儿得到真正的安全保障。

  13. [European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care (PASQ). Development and preliminary results in Europe and in the Spanish National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra-Varela, Y; Fernández-Maíllo, M; Rivera-Ariza, S; Sáiz-Martínez-Acitorez, I; Casal-Gómez, J; Palanca-Sánchez, I; Bacou, J

    2015-01-01

    The joint action, European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care: PaSQ, aims to promote patient safety (PS) in the European Union (EU) and to facilitate the exchange of experiences among Member States (MS) and stakeholders on issues related to quality of care, PS, and patient involvement. The development and preliminary results are presented here, especially as regards the Spanish National Health System (SNHS). PaSQ is developed through 7 work packages, primarily aimed at sharing good practices (GP), which were identified using specific questionnaires and selected by means of explicit criteria, as well as to implement safe clinical practices (SCP) of proven effectiveness and agreed among MS. A total of 482 GP (39% provided by Spanish professionals) were identified. The 34 events organised in the EU, 11 including Spanish participation, facilitate sharing these practices. A total of 194 Health Care centres (49% in Spain) are implementing SCP (hand hygiene, safe surgery, medication reconciliation, and paediatric early warning scores) ACHIEVEMENTS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: PaSQ is making it possible to strengthen collaboration between organizations and professionals at EU and SNHS level regarding PS and quality of care. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. A preliminary study of patients' perceptions on the implementation of the WHO surgical safety checklist in women who had Cesarean sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Takashi; Tani, Megumi; Taniwaki, Miki; Ogata, Kimiyo; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2015-06-01

    The surgical safety checklist (SSCL), developed by the World Health Organization, is widely implemented by surgical staff for the improvement of their communication, teamwork, and safety culture in the operating room. However, there is no research available addressing the question of how surgical patients perceive the implementation of the SSCL. In order to address this issue, a questionnaire-based preliminary study was conducted for patients who had undergone elective Cesarean section under awake regional anesthesia. Although most participants had not been informed about the implementation of the SSCL before surgery, all of the patients were aware that the SSCL had been performed in the operating room. Over 80% of patients answered that the implementation of the SSCL could help to reduce their feelings of anxiety, tension, and fear, as well as enhance their feeling of security. Furthermore, most patients answered that they were able to understand the components as well as the purpose of the SSCL, and considered that the SSCL should be implemented. These results suggest that awake patients undergoing Cesarean section perceive the implementation of the SSCL to be a highly positive aspect of their surgical care.

  15. The Effectiveness and Safety of Acupuncture for Patients with Chronic Urticaria: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acupuncture might have effectiveness in relieving the symptoms of chronic urticaria. There are currently no systematic reviews of acupuncture for chronic urticaria published in English. Objective. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for chronic urticaria. Methods. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials were performed. The primary outcome was global symptom improvement. Results. We included 6 studies with 406 participants. Three trials showed significant difference between acupuncture and drugs in global symptom improvement (relative risk 1.37; 95% CI 1.11–1.70; P=0.003. As an adjuvant to medication, acupuncture was also beneficial for global symptom improvement (relative risk 1.77; 95% CI 1.41–2.22; P<0.01. There were no severe adverse events related to acupuncture. Limitations. Some methodological limitations were observed. The overall risk of bias in the 6 included trials was high and all included RCTs were conducted in China and published in Chinese. Besides, the lack of proper control groups and the use of different rating methods and cut-offs in the included trials also made the evidence of this review limited. Conclusions. Acupuncture might be effective and safe for chronic urticaria in relieving symptoms, based on a low level of evidence. To draw a reliable conclusion, more high quality trials are needed in the future. This trial is registered with PROSPERO CRD42015015702.

  16. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packer M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mark Packer Mark Packer MD Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL, and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.. Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594=1.33; P=0.18. The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks

  17. 75 FR 18794 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    .... Comercio, Industria, and Agricultura (Fischer) and Sucocitrico Cutrale, S.A. (Cutrale). In Cutrale's.... Comercio, Industria, e Agricultura for the Preliminary Results in the 08-09 Antidumping Duty Administrative... Results--Fischer S.A. Comercio, Industria and Agricultura.'' 2. Test of Comparison Market Sales Prices...

  18. EQUIPMENTS TO SINGLE PHOTON REGISTRATION. Part 2. SILICON PHOTOMULTIPLIER SIGNAL PRELIMINARY PROCESSING. (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dvornikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bias circuits, output signals and readout electronics of silicon photomultipliers are considered. Requirements to analog IC for SiPM signal preliminary processing are formulated. According to requirements the set of radiation hardened analog ICs including the comparator and transresistance amplifiers with different gain and speed is produced.

  19. How effective is drug testing as a workplace safety strategy? A systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M

    2014-10-01

    The growing prevalence of workplace drug testing and the narrow scope of previous reviews of the evidence base necessitate a comprehensive review of research concerning the efficacy of drug testing as a workplace strategy. A systematic qualitative review of relevant research published between January 1990 and January 2013 was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were studies that evaluated the effectiveness of drug testing in deterring employee drug use or reducing workplace accident or injury rates. Methodological adequacy was assessed using a published assessment tool specifically designed to assess the quality of intervention studies. A total of 23 studies were reviewed and assessed, six of which reported on the effectiveness of testing in reducing employee drug use and 17 which reported on occupational accident or injury rates. No studies involved randomised control trials. Only one study was assessed as demonstrating strong methodological rigour. That study found random alcohol testing reduced fatal accidents in the transport industry. The majority of studies reviewed contained methodological weaknesses including; inappropriate study design, limited sample representativeness, the use of ecological data to evaluate individual behaviour change and failure to adequately control for potentially confounding variables. This latter finding is consistent with previous reviews and indicates the evidence base for the effectiveness of testing in improving workplace safety is at best tenuous. Better dissemination of the current evidence in relation to workplace drug testing is required to support evidence-informed policy and practice. There is also a pressing need for more methodologically rigorous research to evaluate the efficacy and utility of drug testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. A preliminary safety assessment; Djupfoervar for laanglivat laag- och medelaktivt avfall. Preliminaer saekerhetsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo, are important to be taken into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  1. Feasibility and Safety of a Powered Exoskeleton for Assisted Walking for Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: A Single-Group Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Allan J; Fabian, Michelle; Lad, Dipan; Delgado, Andrew D

    2017-07-01

    To examine the feasibility, safety, and secondary benefit potential of exoskeleton-assisted walking with one device for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Single-group longitudinal preliminary study with 8-week baseline, 8-week intervention, and 4-week follow-up. Outpatient MS clinic, tertiary care hospital. Participants (N=13; age range, 38-62y) were mostly women with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores ranging from 5.5 to 7.0. Exoskeleton-assisted walk training. Primary outcomes were accessibility (enrollment/screen pass), tolerability (completion/dropout), learnability (time to event for standing, walking, and sitting with little or no assistance), acceptability (satisfaction on the device subscale of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology version 2), and safety (event rates standardized to person-time exposure in the powered exoskeleton). Secondary outcomes were walking without the device (timed 25-foot walk test and 6-minute walk test distance), spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), and health-related quality of life (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement and Information System pain interference and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, and positive affect and well-being). The device was accessible to 11 and tolerated by 5 participants. Learnability was moderate, with 5 to 15 sessions required to walk with minimal assistance. Safety was good; the highest adverse event rate was for skin issues at 151 per 1000 hours' exposure. Acceptability ranged from not very satisfied to very satisfied. Participants who walked routinely improved qualitatively on sitting, standing, or walking posture. Two participants improved and 2 worsened on ≥1 quality of life domain. The pattern of spasticity scores may indicate potential benefit. The device appeared feasible and safe for about a third of our sample, for whom routine exoskeleton-assisted walking may offer secondary benefits. Copyright

  2. Patient Safety and Quality Improvement in Otolaryngology Education: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettelfinger, John D; Paulk, P Barrett; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2017-06-01

    Objective The breadth and depth of patient safety/quality improvement (PS/QI) research dedicated to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) education remains unknown. This systematic review aims to define this scope and to identify knowledge gaps as well as potential areas of future study to improved PS/QI education and training in OHNS. Data Sources A computerized Ovid/Medline database search was conducted (January 1, 1965, to May 15, 2015). Similar computerized searches were conducted using Cochrane Database, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Review Methods The study protocol was developed a priori using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles were classified by year, subspecialty, Institute of Medicine (IOM) Crossing the Chasm categories, and World Health Organization (WHO) subclass. Results Computerized searches yielded 8743 eligible articles, 267 (3.4%) of which met otolaryngology PS/QI inclusion criteria; 51 (19%) were dedicated to resident/fellow education and training. Simulation studies (39%) and performance/competency evaluation (23.5%) were the most common focus. Most projects involved general otolaryngology (47%), rhinology (18%), and otology (16%). Classification by the IOM included effective care (45%), safety/effective care (41%), and effective and efficient care (7.8%). Most research fell into the WHO category of "identifying solutions" (61%). Conclusion Nineteen percent of OHNS PS/QI articles are dedicated to education, the majority of which are simulation and focus on effective care. Knowledges gaps for future research include facial plastics PS/QI and the WHO category of "studies translating evidence into safer care."

  3. Report on inspection of concerns regarding the Martin Marietta Corporate Review of health and safety at Martin Marietta Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-18

    An Office of Inspector General Hotline allegation was received from an anonymous complainant regarding a July 1994 Martin Marietta Corporation Team`s health and safety review at three Department of Energy sites managed and operated by the then Martin Marietta Energy Systems. Inc. (Energy Systems), at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. We determined that the President of Energy Systems had requested a Corporate review at the three sites because of his concerns about safety incidents and accidents during the late Spring and early Summer of 1994. The Corporate Team`s charter was to determine if root causes existed for these safety incidents and accidents and to produce recommendations for the reduction or prevention of future safety incidents or accidents.

  4. Research on the maximum utilization of PSR (Periodic Safety Review) results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Myung; Lee, Jae Kyung; Ahn, Jin Chul; Kim, G. U.; Ryu, Y. S.; Lee, G. B.; Park, D. H. [Chungju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    This is the final report of 'research on the maximum utilization of PSR results' focused on linkage strategy of PSR with continued operation over design life of operating NPP. Study was mace mainly on the analysis of current status of continued operation over plant design life in foreign countries, analysis of domestic PSR implementation status and establishment of basic strategy for linking PSR with continued operation. The results of the study performed so far can be summarized as below, the recent worldwide trend of promoting efficiency of NPP operation is focused on life extension of the plants rather than building of new. Considering the fact that some developed countries have already implemented the plant life extension and not a few countries at least have invested a good amount of fund for R and D of plant life management, we can not disregard the owner's request for review of life extension application without any reasonable description. As a result of investigation and analysis for the current status of continued operation over plant design life in foreign countries, it is concluded that most countries tend to link PSR with continued operation over plant design life and the extended operation has already been implemented in some developed countries. From the point, it turned out to be more desirable to couple those two systems for continued operation over plant design life of Korean NPP. A less than 7 years left until the end of design life for the oldest NPP Kori unit 1, it is strongly recommended to establish institutional frame including a legal basis and regulatory guidelines for continued operation over plant design life before long. For the prioritization methods of corrective actions in consideration of safety significance of shortcomings picked up from PSR, some related systems are reviewed including IAEA guidelines, PSR implementation experience of UK and US prioritization system for GSI (Generic Safety Issue). Basic principles are

  5. Preliminary safety and efficacy results with robotic high-intensity focused ultrasound : A single center Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There are no Indian data of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU. Being an alternative, still experimental modality, reporting short-term safety outcome is paramount. Aims : This study was aimed at to assess the safety and short-term outcome in patients with prostate cancer treated by HIFU. Settings and Design : A retrospective study of case records of 30 patients undergoing HIFU between January 2008 to September 2010 was designed and conducted. Materials and Methods : The procedural safety was analyzed at 3 months. Follow-up consisted of 3 monthly prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels and transrectal biopsy if indicated. All the patients had a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Results : A mean prostate volume of 26.9 ± 8.5 cm 3 was treated in a mean time of 115 ± 37.4 min. There was no intraoperative complication. The postoperative pain visual analogue score at day 0 was 2.1 ± 1.9 and at day 1 was 0.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 1-10. Mean duration of perurethral catheter removal was 3.9 days. The complications after treatment were: LUTS in seven patients, stress incontinence in two, stricture in two, and symptomatic urinary tract infection in five. Average follow-up duration was 10.4 months (range, 6-20 months. Mean time to obtain PSA nadir was 6 ± 3 months with a median PSA nadir value of 0.3 ng/ml. Two patients had positive prostatic biopsy in the localized (high risk group. Conclusions : HIFU was safe in carcinoma prostate patients. The short-term results were efficacious in localized disease. The low complication rates and favorable functional outcome support the planning of further larger studies.

  6. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1--Vol. 17, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1977-02-23

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), through Vol. 17, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1976). The index includes a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by KWIC and Author Indexes. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 350 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  7. Safety, Efficacy, and Bioavailability of Fixed-Dose Combinations in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Mahalingam Vijayakumar, M.Pharm, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Implications: From this updated review, it was found that metformin was the most widely used component of FDCs with other OHAs. Studies on the safety and efficacy of newly approved OHAs such as sodium glucose cotransporter inhibitors were limited. An increasing number of randomized trials on the safety and efficacy of newly emerging FDCs suggests that they would be better treatment options for T2DM patients.

  8. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chrology, permuted title, and author, Volume 11(1) through Volume 20(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W B; Passiakos, M

    1980-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review, covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume II, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Volume 20, No. 6 (November-December 1979). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 600 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last ten years are listed in this index.

  9. 黄岛石化区消防安全初评估%Preliminary assessment of the fire safety in HuangDao petrochemical zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林宏; 余浩

    2011-01-01

    characteristics of tank farm, stabilized high pressure fire water system, hazardous chemicals safety assessment, the fire safety about hazardous chemicals process plant and hazardous chemicals storage tanks were preliminary assessed, then some recommendations and solution were given to fire safety.

  10. Safety and efficacy of tinea pedis and onychomycosis treatment in people with diabetes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matricciani Lisa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment of tinea pedis and onychomycosis is crucial for patients with diabetes as these infections may lead to foot ulcers and secondary bacterial infections resulting in eventual lower limb amputation. Although numerous studies have assessed the effectiveness of antifungal drug and treatment regimens, most exclude patients with diabetes and examine otherwise healthy individuals. While these studies are useful, results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to therefore identify the best evidence-based treatment interventions for tinea pedis or onychomycosis in people with diabetes. Methods The question for this systemic review was: 'what evidence is there for the safety and/or efficacy of all treatment interventions for adults with tinea pedis and/or onychomycosis in people with diabetes'? A systematic literature search of four electronic databases (Scopus, EbscoHost, Ovid, Web of Science was undertaken (6/1/11. The primary outcome measure for safety was self-reported adverse events likely to be drug-related, while the primary outcome measures assessed for 'efficacy' were mycological, clinical and complete cure. Results The systematic review identified six studies that examined the safety and/or efficacy of treatment interventions for onychomycosis in people with diabetes. No studies were identified that examined treatment for tinea pedis. Of the studies identified, two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs and four were case series. Based on the best available evidence identified, it can be suggested that oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as oral itraconazole therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis in people with diabetes. However, efficacy results were found to be poor. Conclusions This review indicates that there is good evidence (Level II to suggest oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as itraconazole therapy for the treatment of

  11. Reviewing the Evidence Base for the Children and Young People Safety Thermometer (CYPST: A Mixed Studies Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Aston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify evidence to support use of specific harms for the development of a children and young people’s safety thermometer (CYPST. We searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library post-1999 for studies in pediatric settings about pain, skin integrity, extravasation injury, and use of pediatric early warning scores (PEWS. Following screening, nine relevant articles were included. Convergent synthesis methods were used drawing on thematic analysis to combine findings from studies using a range of methods (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. A review of PEWS was identified so other studies on this issue were excluded. No relevant studies about extravasation injury were identified. The synthesized results therefore focused on pain and skin integrity. Measurement and perception of pain were complex and not always carried out according to best practice. Skin abrasions were common and mostly associated with device related injuries. The findings demonstrate a need for further work on perceptions of pain and effective communication of concerns about pain between parents and nursing staff. Strategies for reducing device-related injuries warrant further research focusing on prevention. Together with the review of PEWS, these synthesized findings support the inclusion of pain, skin integrity, and PEWS in the CYPST.

  12. A detailed review of hip reduction maneuvers: a focus on physician safety and introduction of the Waddell technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford S. Waddell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of the hip is a well-described event that occurs in conjunction with highenergy trauma or postoperatively after total hip arthroplasty. Bigelow first described closed treatment of a dislocated hip in 1870, and in the last decade many reduction techniques have been proposed. In this article, we review all described techniques for the reduction of hip dislocation while focusing on physician safety. Furthermore, we introduce a modified technique for the reduction of posterior hip dislocation that allows the physician to adhere to the back safety principles set for by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

  13. Safety review and stress test of the uranium enrichment facility Gronau; Compact. Sicherheitsueberpruefung und Stresstest der Urananreicherungsanlage Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiboemer, Burkhard [URENCO Deutschland GmbH, Gronau (Germany). Ueberwachung

    2013-07-01

    As a consequence of the earthquake and tsunami in Japan in 2011 and the subsequent catastrophic destruction of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima URENCO has agreed to perform the safety check of the uranium enrichment facility Gronau (UAG) two years earlier than planned. The review was started in May 2011. The contribution deals with the requirements for the safety analysis and the questionnaire for the stress test, the methodology for realization of the safety check and the results of the investigations performed by URENCO and experts of ESK.

  14. Preliminary safety analysis of a PBMR supplying process heat to a co-located ethylene production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, Raluca O., E-mail: rscarlat@nuc.berkeley.edu [University of California Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering, 4118 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cisneros, Anselmo T. [University of California Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering, 4118 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Koutchesfahani, Tawni [University of California, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 201 Gilman Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hong, Rada; Peterson, Per F. [University of California Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering, 4118 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    This paper considers the safety analysis and licensing approach for co-locating a pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) to provide process heat to an ethylene production unit. The PBMR is an advanced nuclear reactor design that provides 400 MW of thermal energy. Ethylene production is an energy intensive process that utilizes large gas furnaces to provide the heat for the process. Coupling a PBMR with an ethylene production plant would open a new market for nuclear power, and would provide the chemical industry with a cleaner power source, helping to achieve the Clean Air Act standards, and eliminating the 0.5 ton of CO{sub 2} emissions per ton of produced ethylene. Our analysis uses the Chevron Phillips chemical plant in Sweeney, TX as a prototypical site. The plant has four ethylene production trains, with a total power consumption of 2.4 GW, for an ethylene output of 3.7 million tons per year, 4% of the global ethylene production capacity. This paper proposes replacement of the gas furnaces by low-emission PBMR modules, and presents the safety concerns and risk mitigation and management options for this coupled system. Two coupling design options are proposed, and the necessary changes to the design basis events and severe accidents for the PBMR licensing application are discussed. A joint effort between the chemical and the nuclear entities to optimize the coupling design, establish preventive maintenance procedures, and develop emergency response plans for both of the units is recommended.

  15. Whole blood pathogen reduction technology and blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review with regional discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa'ah Nkohkwo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite vast improvements in transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade, there remain serious concerns on the safety and adequacy of the blood supply across the region.Objective: This review paper ascertains the role of pathogen reduction technology (PRT in improving blood safety and supply adequacy in the region.Method: The state of blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed. Meetings, seminars and correspondence were undertaken with key clinicians, scientists and professional bodies in the region, including the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Africa, to examine the suitability of PRT for improving the safety of whole blood transfusion, a prevalent transfusion format in the region.Results: Existing literature suggests that combining PRT with current blood safety measures (such as serology would improve the safety and adequacy of the blood supply for transfusions in sub-Saharan Africa. This was echoed by the findings of the stakeholder meetings.Conclusion: Following a detailed appraisal of two leading PRT systems, the Mirasol® PRT System and the Cerus S-303 System, we suggest that companies conduct comprehensive toxicological evaluation of the agents used for PRT and publish this in the scientific literature. We also recommend that the safety and efficacy of these technologies should be established in a randomised clinical trial conducted in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Systematic review: the safety of vedolizumab for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, W A; Jairath, V; Travis, S P L

    2017-07-01

    Vedolizumab specifically recognises the α4β7 integrin and selectively blocks gut lymphocyte trafficking: potentially, it offers gut-specific immunosuppression. To review the safety of vedolizumab and summarise post-marketing data to assess if any safety concerns that differ from registration trials have emerged. A systematic bibliographic search identified six registration trials and nine cohort studies. Integrated data from registration trials included 2830 vedolizumab-exposed patients (4811 person-years exposure [PYs]) and 513 placebo patients. This reported lower exposure-adjusted incidence rates of infection (63.5/100 PYs; 95% CI: 59.6-67.3) and serious adverse events (20.0/100 PYs; 95% CI: 18.5-21.5) compared to placebo (82.9/100 PYs; 95% CI: 68.3-97.5) and (28.3/100 PYs 95% CI: 20.6-35.9) respectively. Higher, but statistically insignificant rates of enteric infections occurred in vedolizumab-exposed patients (7.4/100 PYs; 95% CI: 6.6-8.3) compared to placebo (6.7 PYs; 95% CI: 3.2-10.1). Six post-marketing cohort studies (1049 patients, 403 PYs) demonstrated rates of infection of 8% (82/1049); enteric infection of 2% (21/1049) and adverse events of 16% (166/1049). Multivariate analysis in one cohort study suggested increased risk of surgical site infection with perioperative VDZ. Human experience in pregnancy is limited. Post-marketing data confirm the excellent safety of vedolizumab observed in registration trials. The signal of post-operative complications should be interpreted with caution, but warrants further study. Although comparative studies are needed, Vedolizumab may be a safe alternative in patients who best avoid systematic immunosuppression, including those pre-disposed to infection, malignancy or the elderly. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Medication safety in acute care in Australia: where are we now? Part 1: a review of the extent and causes of medication problems 2002–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Roughead, Elizabeth E.; Semple, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper presents Part 1 of a two-part literature review examining medication safety in the Australian acute care setting. This review was undertaken for the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care to update a previous national report on medication safety conducted in 2002. This first part of the review examines the extent and causes of medication incidents and adverse drug events in acute care. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify Australian s...

  18. Specific phobia: a review of DSM-IV specific phobia and preliminary recommendations for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Richard T; Glenn, Daniel; Liao, Betty; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Ollendick, Thomas; Craske, Michelle G

    2010-02-01

    The present review was conducted in order to evaluate the current diagnostic criteria for specific phobia (SP) in light of the empirical evidence gathered since DSM-IV and to propose changes to DSM-V where change is clearly and reliably indicated by the evidence. In response to questions put forth by the DSM-V Anxiety, OC Spectrum, Posttraumatic, and Dissociative Disorder Work Group, four primary areas were determined for this review: the accuracy and utility of the current SP type classification system, the validity of test anxiety as a type of SP, the boundary between agoraphobia and SP, and the reliability and utility of the diagnostic criteria for SP. Developmental issues are addressed within each area. Literature reviews examining academic findings published between 1994 and 2009 were carried out and the results are included herein. The review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. All of these recommendations should be considered tentative as they await the field trials and expert consensus necessary prior to their inclusion in the DSM-V. The present review also reveals a great need for future research in the area of SP and directions for such research is provided.

  19. Applications of hyperspectral imaging in chicken meat safety and quality detection and evaluation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhenjie; Xie, Anguo; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the issue of food safety and quality is a great public concern. In order to satisfy the demands of consumers and obtain superior food qualities, non-destructive and fast methods are required for quality evaluation. As one of these methods, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique has emerged as a smart and promising analytical tool for quality evaluation purposes and has attracted much interest in non-destructive analysis of different food products. With the main advantage of combining both spectroscopy technique and imaging technique, HSI technique shows a convinced attitude to detect and evaluate chicken meat quality objectively. Moreover, developing a quality evaluation system based on HSI technology would bring economic benefits to the chicken meat industry. Therefore, in recent years, many studies have been conducted on using HSI technology for the safety and quality detection and evaluation of chicken meat. The aim of this review is thus to give a detailed overview about HSI and focus on the recently developed methods exerted in HSI technology developed for microbiological spoilage detection and quality classification of chicken meat. Moreover, the usefulness of HSI technique for detecting fecal contamination and bone fragments of chicken carcasses are presented. Finally, some viewpoints on its future research and applicability in the modern poultry industry are proposed.

  20. A Review and Comparative Analysis of Security Risks and Safety Measures of Mobile Health Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Scott

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In line with a patient-centred model of healthcare, Mobile Health applications (mhealth apps provide convenient and equitable access to health and well-being resources and programs that can enable consumers to monitor their health related problems, understand specific medical conditions and attain personal fitness goals. This increase in access and control comes with an increase in risk and responsibility to identify and manage the associated risks, such as the privacy and security of consumers’ personal and health information. Based on a review of the literature, this paper identifies a set of risk and safety features for evaluating mHealth apps and uses those features to conduct a comparative analysis of the 20 most popular mHealth apps. The comparative analysis reveals that current mHealth apps do pose a risk to consumers. To address the safety and privacy concerns, recommendations to consumers and app developers are offered together with consideration of mHealth app future trends.

  1. Hospital-initiated transitional care interventions as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennke, Stephanie; Nguyen, Oanh K; Shoeb, Marwa H; Magan, Yimdriuska; Wachter, Robert M; Ranji, Sumant R

    2013-03-05

    Hospitals now have the responsibility to implement strategies to prevent adverse outcomes after discharge. This systematic review addressed the effectiveness of hospital-initiated care transition strategies aimed at preventing clinical adverse events (AEs), emergency department (ED) visits, and readmissions after discharge in general medical patients. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials (January 1990 to September 2012) were searched, and 47 controlled studies of fair methodological quality were identified. Forty-six studies reported readmission rates, 26 reported ED visit rates, and 9 reported AE rates. A "bridging" strategy (incorporating both predischarge and postdischarge interventions) with a dedicated transition provider reduced readmission or ED visit rates in 10 studies, but the overall strength of evidence for this strategy was low. Because of scant evidence, no conclusions could be reached on methods to prevent postdischarge AEs. Most studies did not report intervention context, implementation, or cost. The strategies hospitals should implement to improve patient safety at hospital discharge remain unclear.

  2. Vitamin D supplementation in the elderly: review of safety and effectiveness of different regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P M; Freaney, R; McKenna, M J

    1995-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly, especially in countries where effective sunlight or exposure to sunlight is limited. Two regimes for vitamin D supplementation--low-dose daily oral administration and intermittent high-dose administration--were examined with regard to safety and effectiveness. Eleven papers reporting studies in 449 elderly subjects were reviewed. On low-dose continuous supplementation mean concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ranged from 57 to 105 nmol/L compared to 55 to 87 nmol/L following high-dose supplementation. These mean values fall within the physiological range for young adults. Hypercalcemia occurred in only 3 subjects and was associated with a predisposing cause in 2 of 3 subjects. We suggest that low dose continuous supplementation (10 to 20 micrograms daily) is the regime of choice but high-dose intermittent supplementation (2.5 mg six monthly) may be suitable where compliance is poor.

  3. A review of thermal management and safety for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    performance. Therefore,thermal management of batteries is essential for various purposes containing thermal runaway and longstanding of cell functioning period. The favorable outcome of electricdriven vehicles (EDVs) depends on the lithium-ion battery technology. Notwithstanding, the safety concern...... is a considerable technical problem and has become an important factor which might postpones subsequent extension of lithium-ion batteries. This paper reviews different methods for thermal management of lithium-ion batteries. Various methods such as using Phase change materials and using air cooling, straight...... liquid cooling, ancillary liquid cooling, fin cooling have been considered to assess their usefulness from the viewpoint of coolant energy utilization, highest temperature growth, temperature alteration, and extra mass required for the cooling scheme....

  4. A review of the literature on preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    that employees of small enterprises are subject to higher risks than the employees of larger ones, and that small enterprises have difficulties in controlling risk. The most effective preventive approaches seem to be simple and low cost solutions, disseminated through personal contact. It is important to develop......The scientific literature regarding preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises has been reviewed in order to identify effective preventive approaches and to develop a future research strategy. During the last couple of years, there has been a significant increase...... in the number of studies of small enterprises, but the research community is scattered between many different disciplines and institutions. There is a lack of evaluation of intervention studies, both in terms of effect and practical applicability. However, there is sufficiently strong evidence to conclude...

  5. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects.

  6. Silage and the safety and quality of dairy foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Driehuis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silage contains a number of potential hazards to the safety and quality of milk and dairy products. This paper reviews the present knowledge about silage as a source of (1 spores of anaerobic spore-formers (Clostridium species and aerobic spore-formers (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus species, (2 the zoonotic pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and (3 mycotoxins. A distinction is made between field-derived mycotoxins, i.e. mycotoxins that are formed during growth of crops in the field, and ensilage-derived mycotoxins, i.e. mycotoxins that are formed after ensiling. The routes of transmission of these hazards from feed to milk, the effect of pasteurization of milk, and reduction strategies are discussed. Aerobic deterioration of silages is a major factor influencing levels of spores of both aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers, L. monocytogenes, and certain mycotoxins.

  7. Analyses comparing the antimicrobial activity and safety of current antiseptic agents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, John S

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the results and conclusions from four pivotal and two comparative clinical trials. The six randomized, controlled, single-blinded, parallel-group clinical trials were conducted to determine which antiseptic is best for use as a patient preoperative skin preparation. The objective of these studies was to compare the immediate, persistent (residual), and cumulative antimicrobial efficacy and safety of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) combined with 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (ChloraPrep); another combination CHG and IPA antiseptic (CHG+IPA) and 2% aqueous CHG alone; 4% CHG (Hibiclens) alone; 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) alone; and an iodine-containing solution, 10% povidone-iodine (Betadine) alone as preoperative skin topical antiseptics for potential prevention of nosocomial infections.

  8. [Recommendations on the safety of patients for socio-health centers: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Alcázar, Víctor; Cambil Martín, Jacobo; Herrera-Usagre, Manuel

    2013-11-02

    We did a systematic review to find recommendations on patient safety oriented toward improving the quality of care in nursing homes, residential facilities, housing for the elderly and long-term care facilities, among others. One hundred and thirty-four articles were selected in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL up to October 2012. Of these, 17 met inclusion criteria and 5 studies were added in the secondary search for further detailed analysis. Few studies with high or very high level of scientific evidence on the scale SIGN were identified. Analyzed studies focused primarily on nursing staff. Most of the recommendations are oriented toward medication-related issues, staff training, pressure ulcers or falls, adherence to guidelines and protocols and topics referred to organizational culture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Medicinal Plants or Related Natural Products for Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Souza Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of medicinal plants (MPs or related natural products (RNPs on fibromyalgia (FM patients, we evaluate the possible benefits and advantages of MP or RNP for the treatment of FM based on eight randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs involving 475 patients. The methodological quality of all studies included was determined according to JADAD and “Risk of Bias” with the criteria in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0. Evidence suggests significant benefits of MP or RNP in sleep disruption, pain, depression, joint stiffness, anxiety, physical function, and quality of life. Our results demonstrated that MP or RNP had significant effects on improving the symptoms of FM compared to conventional drug or placebo; longer tests are required to determine the duration of the treatment and characterize the long-term safety of using MP, thus suggesting effective alternative therapies in the treatment of pain with minimized side effects.

  10. Development of safety analysis technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, K. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The analysis methodologies as well as the analysis computer code system for the transient, HCDA, and containment performance analyses, which are required for KALIMER safety analyses, have been developed. The SSC-K code has been developed based on SSC-L which is an analysis code for loop type LMR, by improving models necessary for the KALIMER system analysis, and additional models have been added to the code. In addition, HCDA analysis model has been developed and the containment performance analysis code has been also improved. The preliminary basis for the safety analysis has been established, and the preliminary safety analyses for the key design features have been performed. In addition, a state-of-art analysis for LMR PSA and overseas safety and licensing requirements have been reviewed. The design database for the systematic management of the design documents as well as design processes has been established as well.

  11. Feasibility, safety, and preliminary efficacy of Low Amplitude Seizure Therapy (LAP-ST): A proof of concept clinical trial in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nagy A; Sidhom, Emad

    2017-11-01

    Current pulse amplitude used in clinical ECT may be higher than needed. Reducing pulse amplitude may improve focality of the electric field and thus cognitive adverse effects. Here we examine the feasibility, safety, and whether Low Pulse Amplitude Seizure Therapy (LAP-ST, 0.5-0.6A) minimizes cognitive adverse effects while retaining efficacy. Patients with treatment-resistant primary mood (depressive episodes) or psychotic disorders who were clinically indicated to undergo ECT were offered to be enrolled in an open-label study. The study consisted of a full acute course of LAP-ST under standard anesthesia and muscle relaxation. The primary outcome was feasibility of seizure induction. Clinical outcome measures were: time to reorientation (TRO), Mini Mental State Examination, Montgomery Aberg Depression Scale, and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale. Twenty-two patients consented for enrollment in the study. LAP-ST was feasible, and all patients had seizures in the first session. Participants had a quick orientation with median TRO of 4.5min. Treatment was efficacious for both depressive and psychotic symptoms. Relatively small sample size, non-blinded, and no randomization was performed in this initial proof of concept study. This first human preliminary data of a full course of focal LAP-ST demonstrates that seizure induction is feasible. These results, although preliminary, suggest that the LAP-ST compared to the standard ECT techniques may result in less cognitive side effects, but comparable efficacy. Larger studies are needed to replicate these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional anesthesia for pediatric knee surgery: a review of the indications, procedures, outcomes, safety, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhly WT

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wallis T Muhly, Harshad G Gurnaney, Arjunan GaneshDepartment of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, PA, USAAbstract: The indications for surgery on the knee in children and adolescents share some similarity to adult practice in that there are an increasing number of sports-related injuries requiring surgical repair. In addition, there are some unique age-related conditions or congenital abnormalities that may present as indications for orthopedic intervention at the level of the knee. The efficacy and safety of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs for postoperative analgesia following orthopedic surgery has been well established in adults. Recent studies have also demonstrated earlier functional recovery after surgery in patients who received PNBs. In children, PNB is gaining popularity, and increasing data are emerging to demonstrate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety in this population. In this paper, we will review some of the most common indications for surgery involving the knee in children and the anatomy of knee, associated dermatomal and osteotomal innervation, and the PNBs most commonly used to produce analgesia at the level of the knee. We will review the evidence in support of regional anesthesia in children in terms of both the quality conferred to the immediate postoperative care and the role of continuous PNBs in maintaining effective analgesia following discharge. Also we will discuss some of the subtle challenges in utilizing regional anesthesia in the pediatric patient including the use of general anesthesia when performing regional anesthesia and the issue of monitoring for compartment syndrome. Finally, we will offer some thoughts about areas of practice that are in need of further investigation.Keywords: pediatric surgery, regional anesthesia, analgesia, knee surgery

  13. SKI's and SSI's joint review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) safety report SR-Can; SKIs och SSIs gemensamma granskning av SKBs saekerhetsrapport SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Stroemberg, Bo (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report summarizes SKI's and SSI's joint review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) safety report SR-Can (SKB TR-06-09). SR-Can is the first assessment of post-closure safety for a KBS-3 spent nuclear fuel repository at the candidate sites Forsmark and Laxemar, respectively. The analysis builds on data from the initial stage of SKB's surface-based site investigations and on data from full-scale manufacturing and testing of buffer and copper canisters. SR-Can can be regarded as a preliminary version of the safety report that will be required in connection with SKB's planned license application for a final repository in late 2009. The main purpose of the authorities' review is to provide feedback to SKB on their safety reporting as part of the pre-licensing consultation process. However, SR-Can is not part of the formal licensing process. In support of the authorities' review three international peer review teams were set up to make independent reviews of SR-Can from three perspectives, namely integration of site data, representation of the engineered barriers and safety assessment methodology, respectively. Further, several external experts and consultants have been engaged to review detailed technical and scientific issues in SR-Can. The municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn where SKB is conducting site investigations, as well NGOs involved in SKB's programme, have been invited to provide their views on SR-Can as input to the authorities' review. Finally, the authorities themselves, and with the help of consultants, have used independent models to reproduce part of SKB's calculations and to make complementary calculations. All supporting review documents are published in SKI's and SSI's report series. The main findings of the review are: SKB's safety assessment methodology is overall in accordance with applicable regulations, but part of the methodology needs to be

  14. Understanding public attitudes to road-user safety – literature review: final report road safety research report no. 112.

    OpenAIRE

    Musselwhite, C.; Avineri, E.; Fulcher, E; Goodwin, P.; Susilo, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Context and scope: \\ud – The literature reviewed in this report is primarily UK based and published post 2000. \\ud – In total, 72 articles have been reviewed in-depth and represent a mixture of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methodology primary research and a variety of reviews (see Appendix 2). \\ud – A wider definition of attitudes was incorporated to include a variety of psychosocial variables, such as social norms, risk, identity and impression management, pro-social behaviour, habit,...

  15. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  16. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Ayako; Wagner, Cordula; Bijnen, Bart

    2014-02-08

    Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals' speaking-up behaviour for patient safety and aimed at (1) assessing the effectiveness of speaking up, (2) evaluating the effectiveness of speaking-up training, (3) identifying the factors influencing speaking-up behaviour, and (4) developing a model for speaking-up behaviour. Five databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for English articles describing health care professionals' speaking-up behaviour as well as those evaluating the relationship between speaking up and patient safety. Influencing factors were identified and then integrated into a model of voicing behaviour. In total, 26 studies were identified in 27 articles. Some indicated that hesitancy to speak up can be an important contributing factor in communication errors and that training can improve speaking-up behaviour. Many influencing factors were found: (1) the motivation to speak up, such as the perceived risk for patients, and the ambiguity or clarity of the clinical situation; (2) contextual factors, such as hospital administrative support, interdisciplinary policy-making, team work and relationship between other team members, and attitude of leaders/superiors; (3) individual factors, such as job satisfaction, responsibility toward patients, responsibility as professionals, confidence based on experience, communication skills, and educational background; (4) the perceived efficacy of speaking up, such as lack of impact and personal control; (5) the perceived safety of speaking up, such as fear for the responses of others and conflict and concerns over appearing incompetent; and (6) tactics and targets, such as collecting facts, showing positive intent, and selecting the person who has

  17. Safety Analysis of Panax Ginseng in Randomized Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sook; Woo, Jung-Yoon; Han, Chang-Kyun; Chang, Il-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is one of the most frequently used herbs in the world. The roots of Panax ginseng have been used as a traditional tonic and medicine for thousands of years in Korea and China. Today, ginseng root is used as a dietary supplement and complementary medicine and for adjuvant therapeutics worldwide. The efficacy of ginseng has been studied in a wide range of basic research and clinical studies. However, it has been reported that the results from clinical studies are conflicting, and they depend on the parameters of the protocol design including the conditions of the participants and the types of ginseng used such as red ginseng, white ginseng, fermented ginseng and cultured ginseng. Meanwhile, in addition to clinical efficacy, the safety of ginseng is a highly important matter for customers. With globally increasing demand for Panax ginseng as a dietary supplement or complementary medicine, it is necessary to provide information on its safe use to customers to improve their health conditions. Although the safety of Panax ginseng in pre-clinical studies is well known, the evaluation of safety in clinical studies has so far been insufficient. This systematic review was conducted to assess the safety of ginseng in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) over the last 10 years. We chose the last 10 years because many clinical trials have been conducted in the past 10 years, and it will help to understand the recent trends in RCTs of ginseng. Methods: Articles on ginseng studies were searched with keywords in MEDLINE and four other Korean online database sites. Studies with ginseng as a monopreparation were selected while studies with single administration, preparations combined with other herbs or drug combinations were excluded from the selected studies. Data from the selected studies meeting the criteria were extracted and reviewed in terms of study design, condition and number of participants, type of ginseng, dosage, duration

  18. Preliminary assessment of cardiac short term safety and efficacy of manganese chloride for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaf Jose M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manganese based agents are intracellular and accumulate inside myocytes allowing for different imaging strategies compared to gadolinium contrasts. While previous agents release manganese very slowly in the circulation, MnCl2 allows for rapid Mn2+ uptake in myocytes, creating a memory effect that can be potentially explored. Data on animal models are very encouraging but the safety and efficacy of this approach in humans has not yet been investigated. Therefore, our objectives were to study the safety and efficacy of a rapid infusion of manganese chloride (MnCl2 for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR in humans. Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent a CMR scan on a 1.5 T scanner. Before the infusion, cardiac function was calculated and images of a short axis mid-ventricular slice were obtained using a 2D and 3D gradient-echo inversion recovery (GRE-IR sequence, a phase-sensitive IR sequence and a single breath-hold segmented IR prepared steady-state precession acquisition for T1 calculations. MnCl2 was infused over three minutes at a total dose of 5 μMol/kg. Immediately after the infusion, and at 15 and 30 minutes later, new images were obtained and cardiac function re-evaluated. Results There was a significant decrease in T1 values compared to baseline, sustained up to 30 minutes after the MnCl2 infusion (pre,839 ± 281 ms; 0 min, 684 ± 99; 15 min, 714 ± 168; 30 min, 706 ± 172, P = 0.003. The 2D and 3D GRE-IR sequence showed the greatest increase in signal-to-noise ratio compared to the other sequences (baseline 6.6 ± 4.2 and 9.7 ± 5.3; 0 min, 11.3 ± 4.1 and 15.0 ± 8.7; 15 min, 10.8 ± 4.0 and 16.9 ± 10.2; 30 min, 10.6 ± 5.2 and 16.5 ± 8.3, P 2 with no major adverse events, despite all reporting transient facial flush. Conclusions In the short term, MnCl2 appears safe for human use. It effectively decreases myocardium T1, maintaining this effect for a relatively long period of time and allowing for the

  19. A review of the safety implications of magnetic resonance imaging at field strengths of 3 Tesla and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crook, Neil [Alliance Medical, Iceni Centre, Warwick Technology Park, Warwick CV34 6DA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ncrook@alliance.co.uk; Robinson, Leslie [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiography, School of Healthcare Professions, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Rationale: Diagnostic imaging is being driven by technological developments particularly so in the field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Electromagnetic fields used to produce images are becoming much stronger and switched more rapidly and it is essential that safety advice remains appropriate and current. Using a systematic methodology, this review aims to identify the clinical safety implications in performing MRI at field strengths of 3 Tesla (T) and above and determine whether the current clinical safety guidelines are appropriate. Method: References were sourced from The Cochrane Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar. Related websites searched included The British Institute of Radiology, Society of Radiographers, Royal College of Radiologists, The Institution of Engineering and Technology, IMRSER (Institute for Magnetic Resonance Safety, Education, and Research), MagNet (NHS PASA). References supplied in retrieved papers were also checked for potential relevance. The use of consistent search terminology and inclusion and exclusion criteria ensured quality and provided rigour to conclusions drawn. Conclusion: According to the literature retrieved, the current body of knowledge has allowed safety guidelines to be established for patient safety and these are both appropriate and valid at field strengths of 3 T.

  20. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 μg of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 μg of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173.

  1. Efficacy and safety concerns are important reasons why the FDA requires multiple reviews before approval of new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S; Dzara, Kristina; Downing, Nicholas S

    2015-04-01

    The regulatory approval of new drugs by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a long and complex process and often requires multiple cycles of review, potentially delaying patients' access to new and effective therapeutics. We used qualitative methods to characterize the safety and efficacy reasons why applications for novel therapeutics approved by the FDA between 2001 and 2011 required multiple review cycles prior to approval. Among ninety-six applications approved between 2001 and 2011 that required multiple review cycles, safety concerns contributed to seventy-four (77.1 percent) and efficacy concerns to forty-three (44.8 percent). Our study suggests that multiple review cycles appear to play an important role in allowing the FDA to protect public health and in ensuring adequate understanding of clinical benefits and risks prior to approval.

  2. Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiassa, E.; Higgins, J.P.T.; Frampton, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods for answe......Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods...... review. Such questions can be structured by their “key elements” (e.g., for intervention questions, the population(s), intervention(s), comparator(s) and outcome(s)). Prioritisation of questions to be addressed by systematic review relies on the likely impact and related uncertainty of individual...

  3. Updated safety analysis of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Neill, E-mail: neill.taylor@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baker, Dennis; Ciattaglia, Sergio; Cortes, Pierre; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Iseli, Markus; Reyes, Susana; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Rosanvallon, Sandrine; Topilski, Leonid [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    An updated version of the ITER Preliminary Safety Report has been produced and submitted to the licensing authorities. It is revised and expanded in response to requests from the authorities after their review of an earlier version in 2008, to reflect enhancements in ITER safety provisions through design changes, to incorporate new and improved safety analyses and to take into account other ITER design evolution. The updated analyses show that changes to the Tokamak cooling water system design have enhanced confinement and reduced potential radiological releases as well as removing decay heat with very high reliability. New and updated accident scenario analyses, together with fire and explosion risk analyses, have shown that design provisions are sufficient to minimize the likelihood of accidents and reduce potential consequences to a very low level. Taken together, the improvements provided a stronger demonstration of the very good safety performance of the ITER design.

  4. Efficacy, safety, acceptability and affordability of cryotherapy: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, E C; Blumenthal, P D

    2012-04-01

    As a result of widespread screening and treatment programs, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased by as much as 75% in the developed world. Commonly used treatment modalities for precancerous lesions include cone biopsy, the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP), laser ablation and cryotherapy. In recent years LEEP has replaced cryotherapy as a commonly provided outpatient procedure in many places; however increased awareness of the burden of cervical cancer in the developing world and increased awareness of long term consequences of LEEP ‑ such as cervical insufficiency ‑ have renewed interest in cryotherapy. We reviewed current literature addressing the technique, efficacy, safety and acceptability of cryotherapy, as well as special topics such as cost effectiveness, HIV, and low resource settings. Among studies we reviewed, cure rates ranged from 56.8-96.6% among prospective controlled trials and from 70-95.5% among observational studies. Cryotherapy has very low complication rates and serious complications requiring medical intervention or affecting future reproductive outcomes are extremely rare. Side effects including vaginal discharge and cramping are temporary, generally self-limited, and well tolerated after anticipatory patient counseling. When surveyed, women find cryotherapy highly acceptable. Compared to other treatment modalities, cryotherapy is very affordable and feasible to integrate into cervical cancer screening and treatment programs.

  5. Safety profile of drugs used in the treatment of osteoporosis: a systematical review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varenna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The range of osteoporosis treatments is increasingly large and, like any disease, the pharmacological management of patients should involve a risk/benefit evaluation to attain the greatest reduction in risk of fracture with the lowest incidence of adverse events. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the literature about the safety issues of the main pharmacological treatments of osteoporosis. This document is the result of a consensus of experts based on a systematic review of regulatory documents, randomized controlled trials, metaanalyses, pharmacovigilance surveys and case series related to possible adverse drug reactions to osteoporosis treatment with calcium and vitamin D supplements, bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, selective estrogen receptor modulators, denosumab, and teriparatide. As expected, randomized controlled trials showed only the most common adverse events due to the samples size and the short observation time. Case series and observational studies are able to provide data about uncommon side effects, but in some cases a sure cause-effect relationship needs still to be confirmed. Consistently with methodological limitations, the newer drugs have a tolerance profile that has not been fully explored yet. Osteoporosis treatments showed an overall good tolerance profile with rare serious adverse events that, however, must be well known by the clinician who prescribes these drugs. The concern about possible adverse events should be weighed against the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with a significant fracture risk reduction.

  6. A review of the safety of clozapine during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Taylor M; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-02-01

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic used in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, little is known about clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation, or its impact on the mother, foetus, and infant. This review aims to summarize the available literature on the safety of clozapine use during the perinatal period. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE were searched from their inceptions through June 2016. The review encompasses 21 studies that have examined clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation. The limited available data do not support an increased risk of congenital malformations in foetuses exposed to clozapine during pregnancy, though rates of gestational diabetes are twice as high in pregnant women using clozapine. Clozapine accumulation in foetal serum possibly contributes to increased rates of floppy infant syndrome at delivery, decreased foetal heart rate variability, and seizures in infancy. Clozapine crosses the placenta and also accumulates in breast milk, which may increase the risk of agranulocytosis in infants and may necessitate infant testing. The majority of these data come from case reports and case series, making it unclear if the published risks associated with clozapine are due to mental illness, lifestyle factors, or co-treatment with other psychotropic medications. While the available literature on clozapine use during the perinatal period is very limited, the risks of clozapine use during pregnancy and the postpartum period should be discussed with women and weighed against those associated with other treatments and partially or untreated schizophrenia.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of currently available Japanese encephalitis vaccines: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Ma, Shu-Juan; Liu, Xie; Jiang, Li-Na; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ding, Hong; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    A number of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines have been used for preventing Japanese encephalitis around the world. We here reviewed the immunogenicity and safety of the currently available Japanese encephalitis vaccines. We searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and other online databases up to March 25, 2014 for studies focusing on currently used JE vaccines in any language. The primary outcomes were the seroconversion rate against JEV and adverse events. Meta-analysis was performed for the primary outcome when available. A total of 51 articles were included. Studies were grouped on the basic types of vaccines. This systematic review led to 2 aspects of the conclusions. On one hand, all the currently available JE vaccines are safe and effective. On the other hand, the overall of JE vaccine evaluation is disorganized, the large variation in study designs, vaccine types, schedules, doses, population and few hand-to-hand trails, make direct comparisons difficult. In order to make a more evidence-based decision on optimizing the JE vaccine, it is warranted to standardize the JE vaccine evaluation research. PMID:25668666

  8. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; González-López, Miguel

    2016-10-05

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems) to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS) could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS.

  9. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fraga-Lamas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS.

  10. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; González-López, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems) to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS) could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS. PMID:27782052

  12. Efficacy and safety of anakinra for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: an update of the Oregon Drug Effectiveness Review Project

    OpenAIRE

    Thaler, Kylie; Chandiramani, Divya V; Hansen, Richard A.; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the general and comparative efficacy and safety of anakinra for rheumatoid arthritis. Methods We searched MEDLINE?, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 1980 to April 2009. We manually searched reference lists of pertinent review articles and explored the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research database. For efficacy we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anakinra with placebo or other biologics...

  13. Development of safety and regulatory requirements for Korean next generation reactor - Development of human factors design review guidelines (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cheon, Se Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model' and '26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and the characteristics of the KNGR design, and reviewing the reference documents of NURGE-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides at KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system design review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we updated the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design that published after 1994. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  14. CNG 加气站初步设计及安全风险评价%Preliminary Design and Safety Risk Assessment of a CNG Filling Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐倩

    2015-01-01

    CNG(压缩天然气)作为当今汽车能源的重要组成部分,凭借其污染小、经济性好、成本低等优势得到迅速推广,CNG 汽车市场占有率越来越大,CNG 加气站的需求量也日益增加。根据《汽车加油加气站设计与施工规范》,对某 CNG 加气站进行初步设计,并结合国内外 CNG 加气站安全风险评价技术,采取科学、系统、完善的方针,对该 CNG 加气站进行安全风险评价。%CNG (compressed natural gas) as an important part of today's automotive energy, has many advantages, such as low pollution, good economy, low cost and so on, so it has gained rapid promotion, and CNG vehicle market share is growing, the demand of CNG filling station is increasing. In this paper, based on the " Specification for design and construction of automobile gasoline and gas filling station" ,preliminary design of a CNG filling station was carried out, the CNG gas station security risk was assessed by safety risk assessment techniques.

  15. Intraarterial reteplase and intravenous abciximab for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. A preliminary feasibility and safety study in a non-human primate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Adnan I. [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Zeenat Qureshi Stroke Research Center, Newark, NJ (United States); Suri, M. Fareed K.; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ringer, Andrew J.; Boulos, Alan S.; Guterman, Lee R.; Hopkins, L. Nelson [State University of New York, Department of Neurosurgery, Buffalo, NY (United States); Nakada, Marian T. [Centocor Inc., Malvern, PA (United States); Alberico, Ronald A. [State University of New York, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Head and Neck Imaging, Buffalo, New York (United States); Martin, Lisa B.E. [State University of New York, Department of Comparative Medicine and Laboratory Animals Facilities, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2005-11-01

    We performed a preliminary feasibility and safety study using intravenous (IV) administration of a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (abciximab) in conjunction with intraarterial (IA) administration of a thrombolytic agent (reteplase) in a primate model of intracranial thrombosis. We introduced thrombus through superselective catheterization of the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery in 16 primates. The animals were randomly assigned to receive IA reteplase and IV abciximab (n =4), IA reteplase and IV placebo (n =4), IA placebo and IV abciximab (n =4) or IA and IV placebo (n =4). Recanalization was assessed by serial angiography during the 6-h period after initiation of treatment. Postmortem magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed to determine the presence of cerebral infarction or intracranial hemorrhage. Partial or complete recanalization at 6 h after initiation of treatment (decrease of two or more points in pre-treatment angiographic occlusion grade) was observed in two animals treated with IA reteplase and IV abciximab, three animals treated with IA reteplase alone and one animal treated with IV abciximab alone. No improvement in perfusion was observed in animals that received IV and IA placebo. Cerebral infarction was demonstrated on postmortem MR imaging in three animals that received IA and IV placebo and in one animal each from the groups that received IA reteplase and IV abciximab or IV abciximab alone. One animal that received IV abciximab alone had a small intracerebral hemorrhage on MR imaging. (orig.)

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project Integrated Safety Management System phase I and II Verification Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARTER, R.P.

    1999-11-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commits to accomplishing its mission safely. To ensure this objective is met, DOE issued DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and incorporated safety management into the DOE Acquisition Regulations ([DEAR] 48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 90.5204-78). Integrated Safety Management (ISM) requires contractors to integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions are achieved while protecting the public, the worker, and the environment. The contractor is required to describe the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to be used to implement the safety performance objective.

  17. Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiassa, E; Higgins, J P T; Frampton, G K; Greiner, M; Afonso, A; Amzal, B; Deeks, J; Dorne, J-L; Glanville, J; Lövei, G L; Nienstedt, K; O'connor, A M; Pullin, A S; Rajić, A; Verloo, D

    2015-01-01

    Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare, and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods for answering questions in health care, and can be implemented to minimize biases in food and feed safety risk assessment. However, no methodological frameworks exist for refining risk assessment multi-parameter models into questions suitable for systematic review, and use of meta-analysis to estimate all parameters required by a risk model may not be always feasible. This paper describes novel approaches for determining question suitability and for prioritizing questions for systematic review in this area. Risk assessment questions that aim to estimate a parameter are likely to be suitable for systematic review. Such questions can be structured by their "key elements" [e.g., for intervention questions, the population(s), intervention(s), comparator(s), and outcome(s)]. Prioritization of questions to be addressed by systematic review relies on the likely impact and related uncertainty of individual parameters in the risk model. This approach to planning and prioritizing systematic review seems to have useful implications for producing evidence-based food and feed safety risk assessment.

  18. Clinical efficacy and safety in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njue, Annete; Colosia, Ann; Trask, Peter C; Olivares, Robert; Khan, Shahnaz; Abbe, Adeline; Police, Rachel; Wang, Jianmin; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo; Kaye, James A; Awan, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review was performed to collect and review information on the clinical efficacy and safety of treatments for relapsed/refractory (R/R) mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with a meta-analysis, if possible. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published in English from January 1, 1997, to August 2, 2012. Conference proceedings, bibliographic reference lists of included articles, recent reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for phase II to IV studies displaying results. Studies were included if they reported on patients with R/R MCL who were ineligible to receive high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant. Studies of patients with several non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes were only included if they reported MCL outcomes separately. We identified 59 studies in R/R MCL. Forty distinct treatment regimens were evaluated. Thirty studies included more than 15 patients with R/R MCL. Six studies were comparative (including 5 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]); 53 were single-arm. There were no common treatments among the RCTs; therefore, a meta-analysis was not feasible. Thirty-one of 59 studies reported baseline data for patients with R/R MCL. Of the 30 studies with > 15 patients with R/R MCL, 30 reported overall response rate data, 14 reported progression-free survival (PFS), and 12 reported overall survival (OS). The small number of RCTs in R/R MCL precludes identifying an optimal treatment. Small sample sizes, infrequent reporting of OS and PFS, and limited information on patient characteristics made a comparison of results difficult. High-quality comparative studies of novel therapies that have the potential to demonstrate OS advantages in R/R MCL are needed.

  19. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for people living with HIV/AIDS: preliminary review of intervention trial methodologies and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kristen E; Kalichman, Seth

    2015-01-01

    In the context of successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the management of HIV infection, the harmful effects of stress remain a significant threat. Stress may increase viral replication, suppress immune response, and impede adherence to ART. Stressful living conditions of poverty, facing a chronic life-threatening illness and stigma all exacerbate chronic stress in HIV-affected populations. Stress-reduction interventions are urgently needed for the comprehensive care of people living with HIV. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is one approach that has shown promise as an intervention for patients facing other medical conditions for reducing disease progression, psychological distress and maladaptive behaviours. In this systematic review, we identified 11 studies that have examined MBSR as an intervention for HIV-positive populations. Of the studies, six were randomised designs, one was a quasi-experimental design, and the remaining four were pre- and post-test designs. The preliminary outcomes support MBSR to decrease emotional distress with mixed evidence for impact on disease progression. Effect sizes were generally small to moderate in magnitude. The early findings from this emerging literature must be considered preliminary and support moving forward with more rigorous controlled trials, evaluated with objective assessments in longer-term follow-ups to determine the efficacy of MBSR for people living with HIV.

  20. Safety and efficacy of the remote magnetic navigation for ablation of ventricular tachycardias-a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Akca (Ferdi); I. Önsesveren (Ibrahim); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); T. Szili-Torok (Tamas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Remote magnetic navigation (RMN) is considered to be a solution for mapping and ablation of several arrhythmias. In this systematic review we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of RMN in ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Methods: The National Library of Medicine's

  1. Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) Fluid Toxicity Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheredy, William A.

    2012-01-01

    A Technical Interchange meeting was held between the payload developers for the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and the NASA Safety Review Panel concerning operational anomaly that resulted in overheating one of the fluid heaters, shorted a 24VDC power supply and generated Perfluoroisobutylene (PFiB) from Perfluorohexane.

  2. Suitability review of FMEA and reliability analysis for digital plant protection system and digital engineered safety features actuation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I. S.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, M. C.; Kim, B. S.; Hwang, S. W.; Ryu, K. C. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-15

    Of the many items that should be checked out during a review stage of the licensing application for the I and C system of Ulchin 5 and 6 units, this report relates to a suitability review of the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) and Digital Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (DESFAS). In the reliability analysis performed by the system designer, ABB-CE, fault tree analysis was used as the main methods along with Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA). However, the present regulatory technique dose not allow the system reliability analysis and its results to be appropriately evaluated. Hence, this study was carried out focusing on the following four items ; development of general review items by which to check the validity of a reliability analysis, and the subsequent review of suitability of the reliability analysis for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS L development of detailed review items by which to check the validity of an FMEA, and the subsequent review of suitability of the FMEA for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS ; development of detailed review items by which to check the validity of a fault tree analysis, and the subsequent review of suitability of the fault tree for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS ; an integrated review of the safety and reliability of the Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS based on the results of the various reviews above and also of a reliability comparison between the digital systems and the comparable analog systems, i.e., and analog Plant Protection System (PPS) and and analog Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (ESFAS). According to the review mentioned above, the reliability analysis of Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS generally satisfies the review requirements. However, some shortcomings of the analysis were identified in our review such that the assumed test periods for several equipment were not properly incorporated in the analysis, and failures of some equipment were not included in the

  3. Integrating Computer Algebra Systems in Post-Secondary Mathematics Education: Preliminary Results of a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Chantal; Marshall, Neil; Jarvis, Daniel; Lavicza, Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a literature review pilot study (326 papers) regarding the use of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in tertiary mathematics education. Several themes that have emerged from the review are discussed: diverse uses of CAS, benefits to student learning, issues of integration and mathematics learning, common and innovative usage of…

  4. Microbiological safety of mayonnaise, salad dressings, and sauces produced in the United States: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, R B

    2000-08-01

    The literature on the death and survival of foodborne pathogens in commercial mayonnaise, dressing, and sauces was reviewed and statistically analyzed with emphasis on Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. The absence of reports of foodborne illness associated directly with the consumption of commercially prepared acidic dressings and sauces is evidence of their safety. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica die when inoculated into mayonnaise and dressings. Historically, mayonnaise and dressings have been exempt from the acidified food regulations and have justly deserved this status due primarily to the toxic effect of acetic and to a lesser extent lactic and citric acids. These organic acids are inimical to pathogenic bacteria and are effective natural preservatives with acetic being the most effective in killing pathogenic bacteria at the pH values encountered in these products. Statistical analysis on data reported in the literature shows that the most important and significant factor in destroying pathogenic bacteria is pH as adjusted with acetic acid followed by the concentration of acetic acid in the water phase. The reported highest manufacturing target pH for dressings and sauces is 4.4, which is below the 4.75 pKa of acetic acid and below the reported inhibitory pH of 4.5 for foodborne pathogens in the presence of acetic acid. The overall conclusion is that these products are very safe. They should remain exempt from the acidified food regulations providing adequate research has been done to validate their safety, and the predominant acid is acetic and reasonable manufacturing precautions are taken.

  5. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  6. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  7. Nebulized formoterol: a review of clinical efficacy and safety in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Gross

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas J Gross1, James F Donohue21Hines VA Hospital, Stritch Loyola School of Medicine, Hines, IL, USA; 2University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: A nebulized formulation of formoterol, Perforomist®, 20 μg/2 ml, has been available since 2007 for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We review the safety and efficacy data obtained during its development. In a dose-finding study, formoterol inhalation solution (FFIS was similar to the formoterol originator, Foradil® 12 μg DPI (FA in patients with COPD. In a 12-week efficacy study, FFIS manifested a rapid onset of action and FEV1 peak, AUC0–12, and trough levels similar to FA. No loss of efficacy, tachyphylaxis, was observed over 12 weeks of regular administration. In placebo-controlled studies in COPD patients receiving maintenance tiotropium, the addition of FFIS significantly augmented bronchodilation over the 6-week treatment duration, signifying that nebulized formoterol can further improve lung function in patients who are receiving tiotropium without an observed increase in adverse reactions. The safety profile of FFIS during 12-week and 1-year studies revealed adverse events that were similar to those of placebo and FA. Cardiac rhythm studies, including frequent ECGs and Holter monitoring, did not indicate any increase in rate or rhythm disturbances greater than placebo or FA. We conclude that maintenance use of Perforomist® is appropriate for patients with COPD who require or prefer a nebulizer for management of their disease.Keywords: long-acting bronchodilator, β-agonist, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, Perforomist®, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  8. Safety, tolerability and side effects of human papillomavirus vaccines: a systematic quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana Katherine; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney; Rodrigues, Hugo Marcus; de Melo, Amanda Gosson; Giraldo, Paulo César

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many studies have evaluated HPV vaccine safety and adverse effects. Two vaccines have been recently evaluated in randomized controlled trials: the bivalent vaccine for HPV 16 and 18 (Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) and the quadrivalent vaccine for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 (Gardasil, Merck and Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ). We have performed a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials in which HPV vaccines were compared with placebo regarding safety, tolerability and adverse effects. Studies were searched up to March 2013 in the databases: Pubmed, Embase, Scielo and Cancerlit. Odds Ratios (OR) of most incident adverse effects were obtained. Twelve reports, involving 29,540 subjects, were included. In the HPV 16/18 group, the most frequently reported events related to the vaccine were pain (OR 3.29; 95% CI: 3.00-3.60), swelling (OR 3.14; 95% CI: 2.79-3.53) and redness (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 2.17-2.68). For the HPV 6/11/16/18 group the events were pain (OR 2.88; 95% CI: 2.42-3.43) and swelling (OR 2.65; 95% CI: 2.0-3.44). Concerning the HPV 16/18 vaccine, pain was the most common outcome detected. These effects can be due to a possible VLP-related inflammation process. Fatigue was the most relevant general effect observed followed by fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and headache. In the HPV 6/11/16/18 group, only general symptoms, pain and swelling were observed. Pain and swelling were the most frequent. Comparing HPV 16/18 to HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccines, the former presented more adverse effects, perhaps because there are many more trials evaluating the bivalent vaccine. Other studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  9. Safety, tolerability and side effects of human papillomavirus vaccines: a systematic quantitative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Katherine Gonçalves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many studies have evaluated HPV vaccine safety and adverse effects. Two vaccine shave been recently evaluated in randomized controlled trials: the bivalent vaccine for HPV 16 and 18 (Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium and the quadrivalent vaccine for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 (Gardasil, Merck and Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ. We have performed a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials in which HPV vaccines were compared with placebo regarding safety, tolerability and adverse effects. Studies were searched up to March 2013 in the databases: Pubmed, Embase, Scielo and Cancerlit. Odds Ratios (OR of most incident adverse effects were obtained. Twelve reports, involving 29,540 subjects, were included. In the HPV 16/18 group, the most frequently reported events related to the vaccine were pain (OR 3.29; 95% CI: 3.00–3.60, swelling (OR 3.14; 95% CI: 2.79–3.53 and redness (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 2.17–2.68. For the HPV 6/11/16/18 group the events were pain (OR 2.88; 95% CI: 2.42–3.43 and swelling (OR 2.65; 95% CI: 2.0–3.44. Concerning the HPV 16/18 vaccine, pain was the most common outcome detected. These effects can be due to a possible VLP-related inflammation process. Fatigue was the most relevant general effect observed followed by fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and headache. In the HPV 6/11/16/18 group, only general symptoms, pain and swelling were observed. Pain and swelling were the most frequent. Comparing HPV 16/18 to HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccines, the former presented more adverse effects, perhaps because there are many more trials evaluating the bivalent vaccine. Other studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  10. Effectiveness, safety and costs of orphan drugs: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Matthew J; Heneghan, Carl J

    2015-06-24

    Several orphan drugs have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) over the past two decades. However, the drugs are expensive, and in some instances, the evidence for effectiveness is not convincing at the time of regulatory approval. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of orphan drugs that have been granted marketing licenses in Europe, determine the annual costs of each drug, compare the costs of branded orphan drugs against their generic equivalents, and explore any relationships between orphan drug disease prevalence and annual costs. We searched the EMA database to identify orphan drugs granted marketing authorisation up to April 2014. Electronic searches were also conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar, to assess data on effectiveness, safety and annual costs. 2 reviewers independently evaluated the levels and quality of evidence, and extracted data. We identified 74 orphan drugs, with 54 (73%) demonstrating moderate quality of evidence. 85% showed significant clinical effects, but serious adverse events were reported in 86.5%. Their annual costs were between £726 and £378,000. There was a significant inverse relationship between disease prevalence and annual costs (p = 0.01); this was largely due to the influence of the ultra-orphan diseases. We could not determine whether the balance between effectiveness and safety influenced annual costs. For 10 drugs where generic alternatives were available, the branded drugs were 1.4 to 82,000 times more expensive. The available evidence suggests that there is inconsistency in the quality of evidence of approved orphan drugs, and there is no clear mechanism for determining their prices. In some cases, far cheaper generic agents appear to be available. A more robust, transparent and standard mechanism for determining annual costs is imperative. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. EVALUATION OF SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF HYLAN GF-20 IN PATIENTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS IN REAL LIFE PRACTICE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kuropatkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined conservative treatment of osteoarthritis includes intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid. The paper presents the interim results of a prospective observational multicenter non-comparative study conducted in accordance with routine clinical practice to assess the safety and effectiveness of Hylan GF-20 in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The primary objective of the study is to assess walking and rest pain severity by WOMAC VA3.1 scale after 26 weeks and 52 weeks compared to the baseline. To date, 42 patients completed the study (71.43% women, 28.57% men, patients mean age is 59.79 years. After intraarticular injection of Hylan GF-20 patients were examined after 3, 6 and 12 months. After 3 months a positive clinical response was observed: pain severity decreased by 51.31% (p<0,001 on WOMAC A, joint stiffness decreased by 51.02% (p<0,001 on WOMAC B, daily life difficulties decreased by 42.03% (p<0,001 on WOMAC C. The same tendency was observed in the following periods. By week 52 pain severity reduced by 53.25% (p<0,001 on WOMAC A, joint stiffness by 41.63% (p<0,001 on WOMAC B, daily life difficulties -by 47.55% (p<0.001 on WOMAC C. Level of clinical response didn't correlate with the osteoarthritis stage. Therapy resulted in improvement of life quality of patients with knee osteoarthritis by 36% (p<0,001 according to the questionnaire EQ-5D. The general patients status according to physicians improved by 33.96% (p<0,001 on VAS, and by 45.91% (p<0,001 according to patients response on VAS. By week 52 of follow-up 11,90% of patients demonstrated a decrease in required concomitant therapy of osteoarthritis. Given the chronic nature of the osteoarthritis it's the most important that the therapeutic effect of Hylan GF-20 maintains until week 52. The above results confirm the efficiency of intraar-ticular injection of hyaluronic acid in patients with knee osteoarthritis especially in early disease stage.

  12. Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine: systematic review with an emphasis on resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nathan Ford1,2, Janice Lee1, Isabelle Andrieux-Meyer1, Alexandra Calmy1,31Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Service of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, SwitzerlandAbstract: The vast majority of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome reside in the developing world, in settings characterized by limited health budgets, critical shortages of doctors, limited laboratory monitoring, a substantial burden of HIV in children, and high rates of coinfection, in particular tuberculosis. Therefore, the extent to which new antiretrovirals will contribute to improvements in the management of HIV globally will depend to a large extent on their affordability, ease of use, low toxicity profile, availability as pediatric formulations, and compatibility with tuberculosis and other common drugs. We undertook a systematic review of the available evidence regarding drug interactions, and the efficacy and safety of rilpivirine (also known as TMC-278, and assessed our findings in view of the needs and constraints of resource-limited settings. The main pharmacokinetic interactions relevant to HIV management reported to date include reduced bioavailability of rilpivirine when coadministered with rifampicin, rifabutin or acid suppressing agents, and reduced bioavailability of ketoconazole. Potential recommendations for dose adjustment to compensate for these interactions have not been elaborated. Trials comparing rilpivirine and efavirenz found similar outcomes up to 96 weeks in intent-to-treat analysis; failure of rilpivirine was mainly virological, whereas failure among those exposed to efavirenz was mainly related to the occurrence of adverse events. Around half of the patients who fail rilpivirine develop non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations

  13. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.

  14. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11(1)--Vol. 18(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1978-04-11

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Vol. 18, No. 6 (November-December 1977). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 450 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last eight years are listed in this index.

  15. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue

  16. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue

  17. A preliminary study on dicrocoeliasis in Egypt, with a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Tosson A; Ibrahim, Badawia B; Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed

    2003-04-01

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum (D. dendriticum) is a lancet-shape liver fluke that affects sheep and mammals including man. Human and animal infections have been world widely reported particularly in some of the Eastern Mediterranean sheep raising countries. Infection is acquired by eating the second intermediate host (17 species of ants) with raw fruits, vegetables, herbs or even with the drinking water. As for the first intermediate host, there is about 54 different species of land snails. In spite of the fact that both the first and second intermediate hosts of D. dendriticum are available in Egypt, data about human and animal dicrocoeliasis is lacking. This investigation is a preliminary study to report on the presence of D. dendriticum (in sheep, goats and man in North Sinai Governorate) in Egypt.

  18. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 5, Manufacturing R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, J.F.; Urban, W.M.; Hartman, D. [Everson Electric Co., Bekthlehem, PA (United States)

    1995-08-04

    TPX Insulation & Impregnation R&D test results are reported for 1x2 samples designed for screening candidate conduit insulation systems for TPX PF and TF coils. The epoxy/glass insulation system and three proposed alternate insulation systems employing Kapton, was evaluated in as received sample condition and after 10 thermal cycles in liquid nitrogen. Two DGBA impregnation systems, Shell 826 and CTD101K were investigated. Square incoloy 908 and 316 LN stainless hollow conduits were used for 1x2 sample fabrication. Capacitance, dielectric loss, and insulation resistance dielectric characteristics were measured for all samples. Partial discharge performance was measured for samples either in air, under silicon oil, or under liquid nitrogen up to 10kVrms at 60 Hz. Hipot screening was performed at 10 kVdc. The samples were cross sectioned and evaluated for impregnation quality. The implications of the test results on the TPX preliminary design decision are discussed.

  19. Review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation.......A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation....

  20. Review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation.......A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation....

  1. Review of Safety and Efficacy of Sleep Medicines in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeck, Jennifer L; Ford, James; Conway, Erin L; Kurtzhalts, Kari E; Gee, Megan E; Vollmer, Krista A; Mergenhagen, Kari A

    2016-11-01

    Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population. Search terms included medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for insomnia: benzodiazepines (triazolam, estazolam, temazepam, flurazepam, and quazepam), nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonists (non-BzRAs; zaleplon, zolpidem, and eszopiclone), suvorexant, ramelteon, doxepin and trazodone. Off-label drugs such as other antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotics, gabapentin, pramipexole, tiagabine, valerian, and melatonin were also included. Cognitive behavioral therapy and sleep hygiene are considered initial therapy for insomnia. Benzodiazepines are discouraged in the geriatric population, especially for long-term use. Although non-BzRAs have improved safety profiles compared with benzodiazepines, their side effects include dementia, serious injury, and fractures, which should limit their use. Ramelteon has a minimal adverse effect profile and is effective for sleep-onset latency and increased total sleep time, making it a valuable first-line option. Although the data on suvorexant are limited, this drug improves sleep maintenance and has mild adverse effects, including somnolence; residual daytime sedation has been reported, however. Sedating low-dose antidepressants should only be used for insomnia when the patient has comorbid depression. Antipsychotic agents, pramipexole, and tiagabine have all been used for insomnia, but none has been extensively studied in an older population, and all have considerable

  2. Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin in treatment of anismus: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameh Hany Emile; Hossam Ayman Elfeki; Hosam Ghazy Elbanna; Mohamed Youssef; Waleed Thabet; Tito M Abd El-Hamed; Basem Said; Ahmed Lotfy

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A(BTX-A) in the management of patients with anismus. METHODS: An organized search of published literature was conducted using electronic databases including: Pub Med/MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Control ed Trials, also an internet-based search using "Google Scholar" service was conducted. Both comparative and observational studies were included. We excluded irrelevant articles, editorials, case reports, reviews, and meta-analyses. The studies that followed the patients less than 6 mo were excluded. Variables collected were demographic data of the patients, technique of BTX-A injection and number of sessions, short-term and longterm clinical improvement, post-injection changes in electromyography(EMG), defecography, manometry, and balloon expulsion test, and complications recorded after BTX-A injection.RESULTS: Seven studies comprising 189 patients were included in the review. The median age of the patients was 41.2 years and female-to-male ratio was 1.3:1. The median dose of BTX-A injected per procedure was 100 IU(range, 20-100 IU). Lateral injection was done in five trails and combined lateral and posterior injections in two trials. Three studies used endorectal ultrasonographyguided technique, one study used EMG-guided technique,whereas the remaining three studies used manual palpation with the index finger. The median percentage of patients who reported initial improvement of symptoms was 77.4%(range 37.5%-86.7%), this percentage declined to a median of 46%(range 25%-100%) at 4 mo after injection of BTX-A. Rates of improvement evaluated by balloon expulsion test, EMG, and defecography ranged between(37.5%-80%),(54%-86.7%), and(25%-86.6%), respectively. Fourteen(7.4%) patients developed complications after injection of BTX-A. Complication rates across the studies ranged from 0% to 22.6%. CONCLUSION: Initial satisfactory improvement of symptoms after BTX-A injection remarkably

  3. Endoscopic treatments for Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review of safety and effectiveness compared to esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Darren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, several new endoscopic treatments have been used to treat patients with Barrett's esophagus with high grade dysplasia. This systematic review aimed to determine the safety and effectiveness of these treatments compared with esophagectomy. Methods A comprehensive literature search was undertaken to identify studies of endoscopic treatments for Barrett's esophagus or early stage esophageal cancer. Information from the selected studies was extracted by two independent reviewers. Study quality was assessed and information was tabulated to identify trends or patterns. Results were pooled across studies for each outcome. Safety (occurrence of adverse events and effectiveness (complete eradication of dysplasia were compared across different treatments. Results The 101 studies that met the selection criteria included 8 endoscopic techniques and esophagectomy; only 12 were comparative studies. The quality of evidence was generally low. Methods and outcomes were inconsistently reported. Protocols, outcomes measured, follow-up times and numbers of treatment sessions varied, making it difficult to calculate pooled estimates. The surgical mortality rate was 1.2%, compared to 0.04% in 2831 patients treated endoscopically (1 death. Adverse events were more severe and frequent with esophagectomy, and included anastomotic leaks (9.4%, wound infections (4.1% and pulmonary complications (4.1%. Four patients (0.1% treated endoscopically experienced bleeding requiring transfusions. The stricture rate with esophagectomy (5.3% was lower than with porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy (18.5%, but higher than aminolevulinic acid (ALA 60 mg/kg PDT (1.4%. Dysphagia and odynophagia varied in frequency across modalities, with the highest rates reported for multipolar electrocoagulation (MPEC. Photosensitivity, an adverse event that occurs only with photodynamic therapy, was experienced by 26.4% of patients who received porfimer sodium. Some

  4. 77 FR 64953 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana...), citing Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 57...

  5. Safety of thrust joint manipulation in the thoracic spine: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentedura, Emilio J.; O'Grady, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There appears to be very little in the research literature on the safety of thrust joint manipulation (TJM) when applied to the thoracic spine. Purpose: To retrospectively analyze all available documented case reports in the literature describing patients who had experienced severe adverse events (AE) after receiving TJM to their thoracic spine. Data Sources: Case reports published in peer reviewed journals were searched in Medline (using Ovid Technologies, Inc.), Science Direct, Web of Science, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), Index of Chiropractic literature, AMED (Allied and Alternative Medicine Database), PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL) from January 1950 to February 2015. Study Selection: Case reports were included if they: (1) were peer-reviewed; (2) were published between 1950 and 2015; (3) provided case reports or case series; and (4) had TJM as an intervention. Articles were excluded if: (1) the AE occurred without TJM (e.g. spontaneous); (2) the article was a systematic or literature review; or (3) it was written in a language other than English or Spanish. Data Extraction: Data extracted from each case report included: gender; age; who performed the TJM and why; presence of contraindications; the number of manipulation interventions performed; initial symptoms experienced after the TJM; as well as type of severe AE that resulted. Results: Ten cases, reported in 7 case reports, were reviewed. Cases involved females (8) more than males (2), with mean age being 43.5 years (SD=18.73, Range = 17 -71). The most frequent AE reported was injury (mechanical or vascular) to the spinal cord (7/10), with pneumothorax and hematothorax (2/10) and CSF leak secondary to dural sleeve injury (1/10). Limitations: There were only a small number of case reports published in the literature and there may have been discrepancies between what was reported and what actually occurred, since physicians dealing with the

  6. Perceptions about safety and risks in gender-based violence research: implications for the ethics review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    Does research on gender-based violence (GBV) pose greater than minimal risk to researchers and participants? This question needs to be understood particularly in light of hesitancy by Institutional Review Boards to approve research on GBV. The safety and risks of doing GBV studies and the implications for the ethical review process have not been a focus of much research. This qualitative study collected data through in-depth interviews with 12 experienced GBV researchers from various countries and a desk review. This paper explores researchers' interpretation of and meanings of the safety recommendations as provided in the WHO guidelines and whether there is empirical evidence on the presence of risks and safety concerns unique to GBV research. Informants raised a number of safety concerns about GBV research, yet in the interviews there were very few examples of problems having occurred, possibly because of the precautions applied. This paper argues that the notion that GBV studies carry greater than minimal risk when ethics precautions are followed is based on speculation, not evidence. It highlights the need for empirical evidence to support assertions of risk in research.

  7. Hypofractionated radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in prostate cancer: A systematic review of its safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, L M; Polo-deSantos, M; Rodríguez-Melcón, J I; Angulo, J C; Luengo-Matos, S

    2015-01-01

    New therapeutic alternatives can improve the safety and efficacy of prostate cancer treatment. To assess whether hypofractionated radiation therapy results in better safety and efficacy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Systematic review of the literature through searches on PubMed, Cochrane Library, CRD, ClinicalTrials and EuroScan, collecting indicators of safety and efficacy. We included 2 systematic reviews and a clinical trial. In terms of efficacy, there is considerable heterogeneity among the studies, and no conclusive results were found concerning the superiority of the hypofractionated option over the normal fractionated option. In terms of safety, there were no significant differences in the onset of acute genitourinary complications between the 2 treatments. However, one of the reviews found more acute gastrointestinal complications in patients treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy. There were no significant differences in long-term complications based on the type of radiation therapy used, although the studies did have limitations. To date, there are no conclusive results that show that hypofractionated radiation therapy is more effective or safer than normal fractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Teamwork, communication and safety climate: a systematic review of interventions to improve surgical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Greg D; Shannon, Evan M; Dawes, Aaron J; Rollo, Johnathon C; Nguyen, David K; Russell, Marcia M; Ko, Clifford Y; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda A

    2015-07-01

    To define the target domains of culture-improvement interventions, to assess the impact of these interventions on surgical culture and to determine whether culture improvements lead to better patient outcomes and improved healthcare efficiency. Healthcare systems are investing considerable resources in improving workplace culture. It remains unclear whether these interventions, when aimed at surgical care, are successful and whether they are associated with changes in patient outcomes. PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched from January 1980 to January 2015. We included studies on interventions that aimed to improve surgical culture, defined as the interpersonal, social and organisational factors that affect the healthcare environment and patient care. The quality of studies was assessed using an adapted tool to focus the review on higher-quality studies. Due to study heterogeneity, findings were narratively reviewed. The 47 studies meeting inclusion criteria (4 randomised trials and 10 moderate-quality observational studies) reported on interventions that targeted three domains of culture: teamwork (n=28), communication (n=26) and safety climate (n=19); several targeted more than one domain. All moderate-quality studies showed improvements in at least one of these domains. Two studies also demonstrated improvements in patient outcomes, such as reduced postoperative complications and even reduced postoperative mortality (absolute risk reduction 1.7%). Two studies reported improvements in healthcare efficiency, including fewer operating room delays. These findings were supported by similar results from low-quality studies. The literature provides promising evidence for various strategies to improve surgical culture, although these approaches differ in terms of the interventions employed as well as the techniques used to measure culture. Nevertheless, culture improvement appears to be associated with other positive effects, including

  9. Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in food safety evaluation and control: a review of recent research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jia-Huan; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Ma, Ji; Pu, Hongbin; Zeng, Xin-An

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a critical public concern, and has drawn great attention in society. Consequently, developments of rapid, robust, and accurate methods and techniques for food safety evaluation and control are required. As a nondestructive and convenient tool, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely shown to be a promising technique for food safety inspection and control due to its huge advantages of speed, noninvasive measurement, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation requirement. This review presents the fundamentals of NIRS and focuses on recent advances in its applications, during the last 10 years of food safety control, in meat, fish and fishery products, edible oils, milk and dairy products, grains and grain products, fruits and vegetables, and others. Based upon these applications, it can be demonstrated that NIRS, combined with chemometric methods, is a powerful tool for food safety surveillance and for the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems. Some disadvantages that need to be solved or investigated with regard to the further development of NIRS are also discussed.

  10. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents.Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scientific and technical community.Material and Methods: The main bibliographic and Internet references have been identified using common reference analysis tools. Their conclusions and recommendations have been comprehensively summarized.Main results: Collection of the principal references and their most important conclusions relating to the main accident risk factors, their causes and consequences, the means used towards their prevention, both instrumental as well as in the aspects of training and business management, besides the influence of the growing mechanization of logging operations on those risks.Research highlights: Accident risk is higher in forest harvesting than in most other work sectors, and the main risk factors such as experience, age, seasonality, training, protective equipment, mechanization degree, etc. have been identified and studied.   The paper summarizes some relevant results, one of the principal being that the proper entrepreneurial risk management is a key factor leading to the success in minimizing labour risks.Key words: labour risk; forestry; accident rates; preventive measures; entrepreneurial risk management.

  11. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. Its seeds are used as flavourings in baked goods, meat and fish dishes, ice cream, alcoholic beverages and herb mixtures. Phenols, phenolic glycosides and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of F. vulgare to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its therapeutic uses. Phenolic compounds isolated from F. vulgare are considered to be responsible for its antioxidant activity while the volatile aroma compounds make it an excellent flavouring agent. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and safety of F. vulgare.

  12. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  13. Omalizumab for treating chronic spontaneous urticaria: an expert review on efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Arnau, Ana M

    2017-03-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterized by the recurrence of itchy hives and/or angioedema for greater than six weeks, with no known external trigger. Omalizumab, a humanized, recombinant, monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, is the only approved add-on therapy for H1-antihistamine refractory CSU patients. Areas covered: The objective of this article is to discuss the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of omalizumab for the treatment of CSU. The review also summarizes efficacy and safety data from proof-of-concept, phase II (X-CUISITE, MYSTIQUE), and pivotal phase III omalizumab studies (ASTERIA I, ASTERIA II, and GLACIAL). Expert opinion: Omalizumab is a clinically effective and safe biological therapy for treating H1-antihistamine refractory CSU patients. It significantly reduces CSU symptoms (hives, itch and angioedema), and improves patient health-related quality of life. While omalizumab is already integral to the treatment of antihistamine refractory CSU, widespread use will depend on legal and economic factors, as well as improvements in the early and accurate diagnosis of CSU patients who would benefit from treatment.

  14. Safety of sumatriptan in pregnancy: a review of the data so far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    The high prevalence of migraine in women during their reproductive years means that new drug treatments for migraine, such as the serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists (the 'triptans'), are likely to be widely used by women of childbearing potential. Scrutiny of these agents in an effort to detect any signal of teratogenicity is thus important. A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted to identify information regarding the safety of sumatriptan during pregnancy. This agent was chosen to be investigated because it has been available for the longest and is the most widely used of the triptan class. Information was obtained regarding the impact of migraine on pregnancy outcome, and data on sumatriptan use in pregnancy were obtained from animal studies, preclinical drug trials, postmarketing surveillance efforts, prospective pregnancy registries, national birth registries and teratogen information services. Synthesis of information from these sources is sufficient to rule out a large increase in birth defects from sumatriptan use during pregnancy and is reassuring for cases where inadvertent exposure to sumatriptan during pregnancy has occurred. However, current information is not sufficient to rule out small increases in the risk for birth defects. For this reason, caution should be exercised in making a positive recommendation for the use of sumatriptan during pregnancy.

  15. Towards a review of computational fluid dynamic models for safety assessment of vapour-cloud explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann-Delius, C.; Okafor, E. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is the most promising method for safety assessment of hazardous fluid releases around oil and gas installations. By resolving several fluctuating quantities of such flows, these models have the potential to become a widely used decision tool for rapid assessment of explosion overpressures resulting from spilled hydrocarbons. The present paper reviews the current state of the art in vapour cloud or gas explosion modelling using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. Description of six recognisable CFD-based explosion codes currently used by industry and research communities in explosion hazard analysis will be presented. Appraisal of geometry or sub-grid modelling using porosity/distributed resistances (PDRs) will be made. This paper also explains how the unstructured adaptive gridding approach can become a viable alternative for better-resolved predictions of gas or vapour cloud explosions in complex geometries. A brief but comprehensive analysis of combustion and turbulence models used within the codes including their limitations will be presented. The paper concludes by suggesting key areas for further work. (orig.)

  16. Safety and efficacy of partial hepatectomy for huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Li, Bin; Xu, Dong-Hui; Yang, Jia-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Summary Huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not uncommon at clinical presentation, and the surgical outcomes of such tumors are poor. This systematic review aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of partial hepatectomy for huge HCC. We performed a search on Medline and PubMed databases for all relevant studies published prior to December 2009. After exclusions, 21 studies remained for appraisal and data extraction. All studies were classified as level-4 evidence. The median overall perioperative morbidity and mortality rates were 29.2% (range: 13.6–72%) and 3.5% (range: 0–18.2%), respectively. The overall median survival since the partial hepatectomy was 20.7 months (range: 10.1–32 months), with median 1-, 3- and 5-year survival of 60.7% (range: 41–72.2%), 34% (range: 0–60.3%) and 28.6% (range: 0–54%), respectively. The median disease-free survival since the partial hepatectomy was 11.3 months (range: 5.5–32months), with median 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates of 48.7% (range: 32–65.4%), 27.5% (range: 14.1–49%) and 20.7% (range: 9.5–43%), respectively. Partial hepatectomy can be performed safely and is associated with long-term survival in a subset of patients with huge HCC, but the evidence of benefit is currently weak. PMID:21358616

  17. Efficacy and safety of topical herbal medicine treatment on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a systemic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Lei; Huang, He-Long; Wang, Wan-Chun; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical treatment with natural herbal medicines on recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Nine electronic databases were searched to identify the randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials that reported the potential effect of natural herbal medicines on RAS published in Chinese or English. Ulcer size and duration, and remission of pain were assessed as main outcome measures. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Handbook for Systemic Review of Interventions and Rev Man software. Thirteen trials with a total of 1,515 patients were included in the present analysis, which showed that topical treatment with natural herbal medicines seemed to benefit RAS patients by reducing ulcer size, shortening ulcer duration, and relieving pain without severe side effects. In conclusion, there is some evidence of the efficacy of topically applied natural herbal medicines with regards to improved RAS outcome measures and fewer side effects. However, given the limitations of this study, the evidence remains insufficient. Well-designed and high-quality randomized controlled trials are required for further exploration.

  18. Safety and outcomes of cochlear implantation in the elderly:A review of recent literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zao Yang; Maura Cosetti

    2016-01-01

    Global demographic changes related to longevity are leading to increasing numbers of the elderly, for whom hearing loss is a significant cause of morbidity and disability. Once met with reticence, severely hearing impaired older adults are increasingly being considered for cochlear implantation (CI). Significant data indicate that CI in the elderly population is safe, well-tolerated, and effective. Risks from CI surgery and anesthesia are low and generally comparable to rates in other age groups. Outcomes studies regarding CI in older adults have shown excellent improvements to speech perception, quality of life, and even cognition. Overall, currently available data suggests that advanced age should not, in itself, be considered a barrier to implantation. This review paper will highlight selected articles from recent medical literature regarding the safety and efficacy of CI in the elderly population. Copyright © 2016, PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. Production and hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  19. Public health safety and environment in inadequate hospital and healthcare settings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguma, D

    2017-03-01

    Public health safety and environmental management are concerns that pose challenges worldwide. This paper briefly assesses a selected impact of the environment on public health. The study used an assessment of environmental mechanism to analyse the underlying different pathways in which the health sector is affected in inadequate hospital and health care settings. We reviewed the limited available evidence of the association between the health sector and the environment, and the likely pathways through which the environment influences health. The paper also models the use of private health care as a function of costs and benefits relative to public care and no care. The need to enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening interventions on environment using international agreements, like Rio Conventions, including measures to control hospital-related infection, planning for human resources and infrastructure construction development have linkage to improve environment care and public health. The present study findings partly also demonstrate the influence of demand for health on the environment. The list of possible interventions includes enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening Rio Conventions implementation on environmental concerns, control of environmental hazards and public health. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of the quality of silage on animal health and food safety: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driehuis, F; Oude Elferink, S J

    2000-10-01

    This paper reviews the microbiological aspects of forage preserved by ensilage. The main principles of preservation by ensilage are a rapid achievement of a low pH by lactic acid fermentation and the maintenance of anaerobic conditions. The silage microflora consists of beneficial micro-organisms, i.e. the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the silage fermentation process, and a number of harmful micro-organisms that are involved in anaerobic or aerobic spoilage processes. Micro-organisms that can cause anaerobic spoilage are enterobacteria and clostridia. Clostridium tyrobutyricum is of particular importance because of its ability to use lactic acid as a substrate. Silage-derived spores of C. tyrobutyricum can cause problems in cheese making. Aerobic spoilage of silage is associated with penetration of oxygen into the silage during storage or feeding. Lactate-oxidizing yeasts are generally responsible for the initiation of aerobic spoilage. The secondary aerobic spoilage flora consists of moulds, bacilli, listeria, and enterobacteria. Mycotoxin-producing moulds, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes in aerobically deteriorated silage form a serious risk to the quality and safety of milk and to animal health.

  1. Efficacy and safety of local anaesthetics for premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Dong Xia; You-Feng Han; Liu-Hua Zhou; Yun Chen; Yu-Tian Dai

    2013-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of local anaesthetics for premature ejaculation (PE),a systematic review of the literature was performed using the Cochrane Library,PUBMED and EMBASE.We screened and retrieved the randomized controlled trials on the treatment of PE with local anaesthetics.End points included intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT),patient-reported outcome assessments and adverse events.Meta-analyses were conducted with Stata 11.0.In total,seven publications involving 566 patients with local anaesthetics and 388 with placebos strictly met our eligibility criteria.Meta-analyses showed that after the patients were treated with the local anaesthetics,the value of the standardized mean difference of the changes in IELT was 5.02 (95% CI:3.03-7.00).A higher rate of adverse events occurred compared with placebos (odds ratio:3.30,95% CI:1.71-6.36),but these events were restricted to local side effects.In addition,significantly greater improvement was observed in patient-reported outcomes.In summary,local anaesthetics can prolong IELT and improve ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction.

  2. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea, P. M.; Tolosana-Esteban, E.; Roman-Jordan, E.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents. Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scientific and technical community. Material and Methods: The main bibliographic and Internet references have been identified using common reference analysis tools. Their conclusions and recommendations have been comprehensively summarized. Main results: Collection of the principal references and their most important conclusions relating to the main accident risk factors, their causes and consequences, the means used towards their prevention, both instrumental as well as in the aspects of training and business management, besides the influence of the growing mechanization of logging operations on those risks. Research highlights: Accident risk is higher in forest harvesting than in most other work sectors, and the main risk factors such as experience, age, seasonality, training, protective equipment, mechanization degree, etc. have been identified and studied. The paper summarizes some relevant results, one of the principal being that the proper entrepreneurial risk management is a key factor leading to the success in minimizing labour risks. (Author)

  3. Optical biosensors for food quality and safety assurance-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Sharma, Rajiv; Kumar, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    Food quality and safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. Food serves as a growth medium for microorganisms that can be pathogenic or cause food spoilage. Therefore, it is imperative to have stringent laws and standards for the preparation, packaging and transportation of food. The conventional methods for detection of food contamination based on culturing, colony counting, chromatography and immunoassay are tedious and time consuming while biosensors have overcome some of these disadvantages. There is growing interest in biosensors due to high specificity, convenience and quick response. Optical biosensors show greater potential for the detection of pathogens, pesticide and drug residues, hygiene monitoring, heavy metals and other toxic substances in the food to check whether it is safe for consumption or not. This review focuses on optical biosensors, the recent developments in the associated instrumentation with emphasis on fiber optic and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors for detecting a range of analytes in food samples, the major advantages and challenges associated with optical biosensors. It also briefly covers the different methods employed for the immobilization of bio-molecules used in developing biosensors.

  4. Hospital board oversight of quality and patient safety: a narrative review and synthesis of recent empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ross; Mannion, Russell; Freeman, Tim; Davies, Huw T O

    2013-12-01

    Recurring problems with patient safety have led to a growing interest in helping hospitals' governing bodies provide more effective oversight of the quality and safety of their services. National directives and initiatives emphasize the importance of action by boards, but the empirical basis for informing effective hospital board oversight has yet to receive full and careful review. This article presents a narrative review of empirical research to inform the debate about hospital boards' oversight of quality and patient safety. A systematic and comprehensive search identified 122 papers for detailed review. Much of the empirical work appeared in the last ten years, is from the United States, and employs cross-sectional survey methods. Recent empirical studies linking board composition and processes with patient outcomes have found clear differences between high- and low-performing hospitals, highlighting the importance of strong and committed leadership that prioritizes quality and safety and sets clear and measurable goals for improvement. Effective oversight is also associated with well-informed and skilled board members. External factors (such as regulatory regimes and the publication of performance data) might also have a role in influencing boards, but detailed empirical work on these is scant. Health policy debates recognize the important role of hospital boards in overseeing patient quality and safety, and a growing body of empirical research has sought to elucidate that role. This review finds a number of areas of guidance that have some empirical support, but it also exposes the relatively inchoate nature of the field. Greater theoretical and methodological development is required if we are to secure more evidence-informed governance systems and practices that can contribute to safer care. © 2013 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  5. Dietary phytochemical intake from foods and health outcomes: a systematic review protocol and preliminary scoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Vivienne X; Kent, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dietary phytochemicals are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains and may be categorised in a nested hierarchical manner with many hundred individual phytochemicals identified to date. To associate phytochemical intakes with positive health outcomes, a fundamental step is to accurately estimate the dietary phytochemical intake from foods reported. The purpose of this systematic review protocol is to describe the process to be undertaken to summarise the evidence for food-based dietary phytochemical intakes and health outcomes for adults. Methods and analysis The review will be undertaken following the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions using the Review Manager software. Phytochemical subclasses (phenolic acids, flavanols, etc) will be used to search for relevant studies using the Web of Science and Scopus scientific databases. The retrieved studies will be screened based on inclusion of natural whole food items and health outcomes. Phytochemical studies related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, overweight, glucose tolerance, digestive, reproductive, macular and bone health and mental disorders, fatigue and immunity will be examined based on prior scoping. The evidence will be aggregated by the food types and health outcomes. Comparison of differences in the outcomes for randomised controlled trials and observational studies will be undertaken. The strength of the review lies in its focus on whole food items and health conditions rather than one type of phytochemical related to one single health condition. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted where an adequate number of publications are found per phytochemical subclass. Dissemination By comparing the outcomes from experimental and observational studies, the review will determine whether the overall conclusions related to the phytochemical subclasses are the same between study types for the identified health

  6. A Preliminary Review on Economies of Scale (EOS Towards Industrialized Building System (IBS Manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Ariffin Syazwana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized Building System (IBS is a potential technology to improve productivity of construction industry. Controlled production and minimum generation of construction waste are some of the benefits that can be achieved by replacing conventional construction with IBS. In business, IBS is giving a huge opportunity for manufacturer and supplier to expand their business while contributing to construction development. However, bad strategies will put the company in high risk due to higher initial capital for machines and equipment. Therefore, strategic planning for company’s growth, profit maximization, and enhancement of productivity is undeniable to ensure the success of business in construction industry. This preliminary paper is exploring associated factors that affect Economy of Scale (EOS and their relationships in catalyzing the IBS manufacturer especially precast concrete as the scope of study to continue their business in the construction industry. Thus, a framework of EOS is proposed to assist IBS manufacturers to ensure their company’s growth and stability, competitiveness in term of monopoly or an oligopoly, increasing productivity, leading constant returns to scale, and finally increasing the firm’s efficiency. The refined EOS’s conceptual framework is an important turning point to support the development of decision making tools for IBS manufacturer towards their stability and survival in this highly competitive industry.

  7. Norwegian national report. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. [National report from Norway, fourth review meeting, 14-23 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This report contains the national report from Norway to the fourth review meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management to be held 14 to 23 May 2012. (Author)

  8. Whole gut washout for severe sepsis: review of technique and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverdy, J; Piano, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of whole gut washout for severe sepsis in human beings. High-volume polyethylene glycol-3500 was administered to patients with severe sepsis. Body temperature, white blood cell count, and ventilatory indexes were recorded 24 hours before and 24 hours after whole gut washout. A significant decrease in febrile response was observed after gut washout with polyethylene glycol. Improvements in PaO2, positive end-expiratory pressure, and peak airway pressure were observed. The washout was well tolerated in all but one patient. High-volume whole gut washout for severe sepsis appears safe in critically ill patients and may offer some promise in reducing enterogenic inflammation after catabolic stress.

  9. 76 FR 54202 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... appropriate entries covered by this review. See the ``Assessment Rate'' section of this notice. Interested..., ``all of which may speak to the commercial realities surrounding an alleged sale of subject merchandise... its German sales to unaffiliated purchasers made in commercial quantities and in the ordinary...

  10. 77 FR 46377 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...- to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from South Africa, 62 FR 61731, 61732-33 (November 19, 1997). Granoro... June 30, 2011: Botticelli, Fiamma, Filiberto, Labor S.r.L. (``Labor''), PAM. S.p.A. and its affiliate... November 21, 2011, Indalco and Labor withdrew their requests for a review. On November 22, 2011, Granoro...

  11. 75 FR 12199 - Stainless Steel Bar from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... operation; (5) shape; and (6) size. This was consistent with our practice in the original investigation. See... From Taiwan; Final Results and Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 67 FR 6682... distribution''),\\1\\ including selling functions,\\2\\ class of customer (``customer category''), and the level of...

  12. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 34. A preliminary review of the Aegithinidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.R.; Dickinson, E.C.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hypotheses of iora phylogeny are reviewed up to date, and the history of the generic name investigated. Interactions between A. nigrolutea and A. tiphia are examined and reasons presented for treating them as separate species. The allowability of a widely disjunct distribution in subspecies A. tiphi

  13. Intraguild Predation Among Biological Control Agents Used in Greenhouse Floriculture Crops: A Preliminary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literature on intraguild predation (IGP) in greenhouse floriculture (GHFC) was reviewed. Despite production practices that could increase the incidence IGP, no studies concretely showed that IGP disrupts GHFC biocontrol. Further studies need to include large-scale trials over entire crop cycles. H...

  14. English Program Review at Coastline Community College, Fountain Valley, California. [A Preliminary Report, October 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yglesias, Kenneth D., Comp.; Fry, Marilyn, Comp.

    Prepared as part of the program review process at California's Coastline Community College (CCC), this report describes and evaluates CCC's English Department, highlighting problems and successes from 1976 to 1987. Part I offers a narrative account of: (1) the changes that took place in the department between 1976 and 1987, focusing on early…

  15. Efficacy and safety of innovator versus generic drugs in patients with epilepsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Ripple; Scholle, Jennifer M; Phung, Olivia P; Baker, Erika L; Baker, William L; Ashaye, Ajibade; Kluger, Jeffrey; Coleman, Craig I; White, C Michael

    2012-04-01

    Generic antiepileptic drugs achieve blood concentrations similar to those of innovator drugs in healthy volunteers, but their comparative effectiveness has not been well evaluated. Thus, we assessed the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of innovator versus generic antiepileptic drugs. We searched the MEDLINE database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Web of Science for studies that evaluated innovator and generic antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy and reported data on prespecified outcomes. We extracted data on study design, interventions, quality criteria, study population, baseline characteristics, and outcomes. Compared with initiation of innovator antiepileptic drugs, initiation of generic antiepileptic drugs did not significantly alter seizure occurrence (relative risk [RR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.18; strength of evidence: low) or frequency (standardized mean difference 0.03, 95% CI -0.08-0.14; strength of evidence: low), withdrawals due to lack of efficacy (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.41-2.54; strength of evidence: low) or adverse events (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.28-2.20; strength of evidence: low), pharmacokinetic concentrations (maximum, minimum, or area under the curve [strength of evidence: low]), or a myriad of adverse events (strength of evidence: low or insufficient) in clinical trials. In qualitatively evaluated observational studies, switching between forms of antiepileptic drug (innovator to generic, generic to generic) may increase the risk of hospitalization (strength of evidence: low), hospital stay duration (strength of evidence: low), and a composite end point of medical service utilization (strength of evidence: insufficient) but may not increase outpatient service utilization (strength of evidence: low). Data are limited predominantly to carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproic acid. Clinical trials are limited by small sample size, short-term nature, and lack of

  16. Revisión preliminar de la familia Procyonidae en Colombia Preliminary review of the Procyonidae family in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Lenis Angélica R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Procyonidae hace parte del orden Carnivora, se distribuye por el continente Americano desde el sur de Canadá hasta el norte de Argentina y está representada por siete especies en Colombia. Mediante este trabajo se realizó una clave taxonómica para la diferenciación de las especies presentes en el país, y un mapa de distribución preliminar. Para la realización de la clave y del mapa de distribución, se examinaron 67 individuos de la colección del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales en Bogotá, 78 de la colección del Instituto Alexander Von Humboldt en Villa de Leyva y revisión de la literatura. Como resultado se presenta una clave taxonómica de la familia Procyonidae en Colombia para caracteres morfológicos craneales y externos para la identificación de las especies y se complementa con su distribución preliminar.The Procyonidae family is a member of the order Carnivora. It distributes along the American continent, from South Canada to North Argentina; Colombia has in its territory seven species of this family. This paper presents a taxonomic key to differentiate the species of procyonids in Colombia, and a preliminary map of their distribution. The key and the distribution map, were based on the analysis of 67 individuals of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales collection in Bogotá, 78 of the Instituto Alexander von Humboltd collection in Villa de Leyva and a literature review. The results show a taxonomic key of cranial and external characters for the species identification of the Procionidae family in Colombia and a preliminary distribution of their species.

  17. A preliminary review of organic materials single crystal growth by the Czochralski technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, B. G.; Shields, A. W.; Frazier, D. O.

    1988-01-01

    The growth of single crystals of organic compounds by the Czochralski method is reviewed. From the literature it is found that single crystals of benzil, a nonlinear optical material with a d sub 11 value of 11.2 + or - 1.5 x d sub 11 value of alpha quartz, has fewer dislocations than generally contained in Bridgman crystals. More perfect crystals were grown by repeated Czochralski growth. This consists of etching away the defect-containing portion of a Czochralski grown crystal and using it as a seed for further growth. Other compounds used to grow single crystals are benzophenone, 12-tricosanone (laurone), and salol. The physical properties, growth apparatus, and processing conditions presented in the literature are discussed. Moreover, some of the possible advantages of growing single crystals of organic compounds in microgravity to obtain more perfect crystals than on Earth are reviewed.

  18. Integrating teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety - development of a conceptual framework based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Annalena; Manser, Tanja

    2016-07-19

    There is growing evidence that teamwork in hospitals is related to both patient outcomes and clinician occupational well-being. Furthermore, clinician well-being is associated with patient safety. Despite considerable research activity, few studies include all three concepts, and their interrelations have not yet been investigated systematically. To advance our understanding of these potentially complex interrelations we propose an integrative framework taking into account current evidence and research gaps identified in a systematic review. We conducted a literature search in six major databases (Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psyndex, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge). Inclusion criteria were: peer reviewed papers published between January 2000 and June 2015 investigating a statistical relationship between at least two of the three concepts; teamwork, patient safety, and clinician occupational well-being in hospital settings, including practicing nurses and physicians. We assessed methodological quality using a standardized rating system and qualitatively appraised and extracted relevant data, such as instruments, analyses and outcomes. The 98 studies included in this review were highly diverse regarding quality, methodology and outcomes. We found support for the existence of independent associations between teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety. However, we identified several conceptual and methodological limitations. The main barrier to advancing our understanding of the causal relationships between teamwork, clinician well-being and patient safety is the lack of an integrative, theory-based, and methodologically thorough approach investigating the three concepts simultaneously and longitudinally. Based on psychological theory and our findings, we developed an integrative framework that addresses these limitations and proposes mechanisms by which these concepts might be linked. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the

  19. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  20. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability.