WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary impact evaluation

  1. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G. [Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the

  3. Preliminary evaluation of aircraft impact on a near term nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frano, R. Lo, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of PISA, L.go L. Lazzarino 2, via Diotisalvi, no. 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Forasassi, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of PISA, L.go L. Lazzarino 2, via Diotisalvi, no. 2-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of military/civilian airplanes crash in a NPP were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We adequately simulated the global response and safety margin of an SMR reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analyses allowed to represent the progressive failure/damaging processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outer containment seemed to suffer some localized penetration and spalling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results highlighted the plant integrity is ensured despite the impact damages. - Abstract: For the assessment of the safety and durability of a nuclear power plant (NPP), the containment building behaviour shall be evaluated, under various service and extreme conditions, both natural or produced by natural accident or vicious man activities, like September 2001 jet aircraft crashes. The aim of this paper is to preliminary evaluate the effects and consequences of the energy transmitted to the outer containment walls (according to the international safety and design code guidelines, as NRC or IAEA ones) due to a military or civil aircraft impact into a nuclear plant, considered as a 'beyond design basis' event. To perform reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and determine the structural effects of the propagation of this types of impulsive loads (response of containment structure), a realistic but still feasible numerical model with suitable materials characteristics were used by means of which relevant physical phenomena are reflected. Moreover a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out considering the effects of different containment wall thickness and reinforced/prestressed concrete features. The obtained results were analysed to check the NPP containment strength margins.

  4. "Preliminary Evaluation of Climate Change impact in the Codegua's River Irrigation Improvement Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchetti, Franco; Vargas, Ximena

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of Climate Change in one of the projected dams for farming activities in Codegua's catchment, near to Santiago, Chile. This reservoir is one of the twenty that will be built by the Hydraulics Infrastructure Management Department of Chile in the next years. The design is based on the concept of "Irrigation Security", defined as the quotient between the number of years where is possible to deliver the crop demand and the total of years. It must be greater than 85% to approve the project. The evaluation of Climate Change is based in two scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. The forecast hydroclimatology is based in General Circulation Model MPI-ESM, from Max Planck Institute, Germany. The evaluation considers two future periods: a near future (2020-2055) and a further future (2065-2100). First, statistical downscaling of precipitation and temperature time series are made and then the yearly inflow to the dam is estimated by a simple rainfall-runoff relation, the future evapotranspiration is estimated by Penman-Monteith method and with an empirical mathematical relation, based in Blaney and Criddle method. For this reason, the analysis included additional scenarios to incorporate the uncertainty in the evapotranspiration estimation as well as on tributary volumes from the basin to the dam, for each Climate Change scenarios. Climate Change in the zone of study indicates that precipitations will be lower than the present and the temperature will increase. For example, the results predict that precipitation in the best scenario, for near future, will go down 15% and temperature will increase in 0.6 (°C). For the further future in the worst scenarios, model predicts that precipitation will go down around 30% and temperature will increase 2.5 (°C). This coupled effects modify in a great way the water supply and demand in the zone of study. With the new hydrology forecast for the future, the "Irrigation Security" is recalculated in

  5. Preliminary Study on Evaluation System of Capability of Composites to Withstand Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhen; CHEN Pu-hui; YANG Sheng-chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the authors' experimental study on the characterization system of composite behavior to withstand impact. The content includes: (1)The dent depth is the best parameter describing the impact damage state. (2) There exists the knee point phenomenon for damage resistance behavior (i. e. the relationship between impact energy or contact force and dent depth) and damage tolerance behavior (i. e. the relationship between dent depth and compressive failure strain or stress) of composite laminates. (3) The physical meaning of the knee point phenomenon is that the failure mechanisms change of damaged composites to fiber breakage in the first front plies from matrix crack and delamination.Some suggestions on the characterization system of composite behavior to withstand impact were proposed.

  6. Advances in applied superconductivity: A preliminary evaluation of goals and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsky, A. M.; Daniels, E. J.; Giese, R. F.; Harkness, J. B. L.; Johnson, L. R.; Rote, D. M.; Zwick, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    This document is meant to aid the U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy by discussing the likely impacts of recent results from research on superconducting materials. The discussions in this document concern terrestrial applications that would substantially affect the production and use of electricity. The sections of the report each address a particular topic. The topics are: (1) electric generators, (2) transformers, (3) power transmission, (4) magnetic energy storage, (5) electric motors, (6) separation industry, and (7) maglev (magnetic-levitation) trains.

  7. Impact of an educational program on the quality of life of patients with lymphedema: A preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Sophie; Satger, Bernadette; Pernod, Gilles; Richaud, Cécile; Villemur, Béatrice; Carpentier, Patrick H

    2017-09-01

    We report on the preliminary evaluation of a well-designed program, Living with Lymphedema. This longitudinal cohort study assessed patients' quality of life using questionnaires. Our main objective was to evaluate the satisfaction of the patients and their adherence to the program. This was done using a specific questionnaire of satisfaction as well as by noting patients' adherence to the program (number of patients attending all three consultations). The secondary objective was to assess the effect of the program on the patient's quality of life. The assessment criteria were the evolution of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and EuroQol questionnaire scores between the first (C1) and third (C3) consultations. The Living with Lymphedema program targeted all patients with lymphedema in the Grenoble (France) conurbation and within the GRANTED health care network that includes vascular medicine specialists, primary care physicians, physical therapists, and dietitians in the Alpine region of France. All studied patients were ambulatory patients. The GRANTED network took care only of the educational aspect of the disease. All patients with primary or secondary lymphedema were offered the Living with Lymphedema program, whatever their age and the location of the lymphedema (upper or lower limbs). The collection of patient data conformed to the ethical and administrative regulations of the regional health authority. Grenoble Institutional Review Board (CPP Sud-Est V; No. 5891) approval for the study was specifically obtained for this evaluation on December 24, 2012. The program was built around one-to-one consultations, group workshops, and more specialized appointments. It was complementary to the routine medical care received by the patient (not evaluated in this study). It proposed three individual "educational" consultations, seven group workshops, and two specialized consultations with a dietitian. All the consultations or workshops were

  8. Dioxin symposium Berlin:Ccurrent views on the impact of dioxins and furans on human health and the environment. Preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-11-01

    This volume gives a preliminary evaluation of the statement of the Symposium on dioxins of the Federal Health Office in November 1992. With this, the following aspects of effects of dioxins and furans on the human health and the environment are dealt with in detail: Cancer ogenity, immune toxicity, teratogenity, neurotoxicity, TDI-values, dioxins and furans in mother`s milk, emission to the environment and emission sources, environmental impact, transfer, state measures and limiting values, necessary measures for emission restriction. (UHE) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Band gibt eine vorlaeufige Bewertung der Stellungnahmen des Dioxinsymposiums des Umweltbundesamtes im November 1992. Dabei werden die folgenden Aspekte der Auswirkungen von Dioxinen und Furanen auf die menschliche Gesundheit und die Umwelt ausfuehrlich behandelt: Kanzerogenitaet, Immunotoxizitaet, Teratogenitaet, Neurotoxizitaet, TDI-Werte, Dioxine und Furane in der Muttermilch, Emission in die Umwelt und Emissionsquellen, Umweltbelastung, Oekotoxizitaet, Transfer, staatliche Massnahmen und Grenzwerte, notwendige Massnahmen zur Emissionsbegrenzung. (UHE)

  9. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACTS OF SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION FACILITIES FOR NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROWE,M.D.; KLEIN,R.C.; JONES,K.W.

    1999-07-31

    elsewhere. This report provides a preliminary evaluation, or ``screening assessment,'' of potential occupational, public, and environmental health risks from dredging, transporting, and treating contaminated harbor sediments with thermal treatment methods to render them suitable for disposal or beneficial use. The assessment was done in stages as the project advanced and data became available from other tasks on characteristics of sediments and treatment processes.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of the Impact of the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program on Renewable Energy Deployment in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim

    2010-03-31

    achieve 'the near term goal of creating and retaining jobs - as well as the long-term benefit of expanding the use of clean and renewable energy and decreasing our dependency on non-renewable energy sources' (U.S. Department of the Treasury 2009). More than a year has now passed since the Recovery Act became law. Although the Section 1603 program has been operational for only part of that time - roughly eight months - the program faces a looming milestone in just another nine months. Specifically, in order to qualify for the Section 1603 grant, eligible projects must have commenced construction by the end of 2010. With this deadline approaching, the Committee on Ways and Means of the U.S. House of Representatives requested that Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory evaluate the effectiveness of the Section 1603 grant program to date (see Attachment 1), focusing on specific elements of the program that were subsequently agreed upon by Committee staff, the U.S. Department of Energy, and Berkeley Lab. This report responds to the Committee's request. The evaluation focuses primarily on the commercial wind power sector, for two reasons: (1) commercial wind power projects had received nearly 86% of all grant money awarded as of March 1, 2010; and (2) there is substantially more market-related information available for the commercial wind power sector than there is for other renewable power sectors, thereby facilitating analysis. Despite the focus on wind power, this initial analysis does endeavor to provide relevant information on other technologies, and in particular geothermal (the second-largest recipient of grant money), where possible.

  11. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    hippocampal slice samples to better understand blast-induced brain damage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS RDX spheres , organotypic cultures of hippocampus, small...Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices by Thuvan Piehler, Rohan Banton, Lars Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Ray...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-7197 April 2015 Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices Thuvan

  12. Columbia River impact evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    As a result of past practices, four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. To accomplish the timely cleanup of the past-practice units, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), was signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). To support the Tri-Party Agreement, milestones were adopted. These milestones represent the actions needed to ensure acceptable progress toward Hanford Site compliance with CERCLA, RCRA, and the Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. This report was prepared to fulfill the requirement of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-30-02, which requires a plan to determine cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River. This plan supplements the CERCLA remedial investigations/feasibility studies (RI/FS) and RCRA facility investigations/corrective measures studies (RFI/CMSs) that will be undertaken in the 100 Area. To support the plan development process, existing information was reviewed and a preliminary impact evaluation based on this information was performed. The purpose of the preliminary impact evaluation was to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection activities. Based on the results of the evaluation, a plan is proposed to collect additional data or make changes to existing or proposed data collection activities.

  13. Performance management in the Slovak higher education system: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Nemec

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is a preliminary evaluation of the introduction of performance management and performance financing arrangements in the Slovak higher education system – accreditation and formula based performance financing. This evaluation will be mainly based on the assessment of short-term impacts of the above mentioned instruments and is expected to invite further professional discussion. We feel that the data and brief analysis included are sufficient enough to show that the Slovak system represents a typical example of the potential of performance management and performance financing being significantly limited, if not destroyed. Not only because of improperly defined indicators, which are too much input and quantity orientated, but very much also due to a lack of resources (the ratio of public expenditures for higher education to the GDP in Slovakia is significantly below EU average, as well as the politicization of the system.

  14. Preliminary study to AP mine neutralisation by EFP impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulman, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary study has been conducted into the response of anti-personnel mines at the impact of an Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP). The objective was to obtain a low order reaction (preferably a deflagration) to minimise collateral damage. Further the method should be capable to neutralise min

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills.During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre and post content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. The majority of cosmology students had taken astronomy before whereas the astronomy students had not.When switching to an active mode of learning (e.g., flipped classroom instead of lecture), many instructors report pushback from students. We saw this effect from students in course evaluations, who reported dissatisfaction with "having to do more work." However, the students in the flipped section in astronomy made greater gains on the multiple choice content assessment than the students in either of the two lecture sections. On the attitude assessment (the CLASS), the cosmology students made a small shift toward more expert-like opinions. Preliminary results from open-ended content surveys indicate that, prior to instruction, students had difficulty answering 'why' or 'how do we know' questions; that post-instruction, students are less likely to respond "I don't know" or to leave an answer blank; and that students using the modules made gains in their content knowledge.Module development was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and Great River Technology

  16. Fort Drum Preliminary Fiscal Impact Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    of inmigrants 0 Fiscal histories, projections, and impacts for counties, cities, towns, villages, school districts, and the state. The results of...distribution of the inmigrating population within the three counties. Thus, an accurate forecast of the expected distribution of the inmigrating population is a...The distribution of inmigration to the school districts was made using the analysis explained in Chapter 3. Children associated with 800 new on-post

  17. The Bath Adolescent Pain--Parental Impact Questionnaire (BAP-PIQ): development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of an instrument to assess the impact of parenting an adolescent with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Abbie; Eccleston, Christopher; McCracken, Lance M; Connell, Hannah; Clinch, Jacqui

    2008-07-31

    When an adolescent has chronic pain many aspects of a parent's life can be affected, including their emotional and social functioning. The assessment of this multidimensional parental impact is an essential, yet often neglected, clinical task. This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Bath Adolescent Pain--Parental Impact Questionnaire (BAP-PIQ), an assessment tool comprising multiple scales thought to be relevant for better understanding changes in functioning and behavior associated with parenting an adolescent with chronic pain. A sample of 194 parents of adolescents with chronic pain, recruited from three UK clinics, completed the 94 item draft inventory. Frequency and item correlation analyses resulted in a final inventory of 62 items. Internal consistency of all eight scales was established based on Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was undertaken by comparison of individual scales with existing validated measures of parental stress, mood, parenting behavior, marital adjustment, and general functioning. The temporal reliability of each scale was established using a sub-sample of 46 participants over a 14-day period. Psychometric evaluation suggests that the inventory yields a reliable and valid assessment of the multiple impacts of parenting an adolescent with chronic pain. The BAP-PIQ may offer a comprehensive assessment of these impacts in both a research and a clinical setting. Further study of the validity of BAP-PIQ scales and their ability to detect clinically meaningful change would be of use. Additional data from samples comprising fathers of adolescents with chronic pain and parents of adolescents with non-musculoskeletal pain would be of benefit.

  18. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  19. Preliminary Aspects of Language Course Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Program and/or course evaluation is a process in which different types of data are collected systematically in order to study the virtues and weaknesses of a language instruction program. Program evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional…

  20. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  1. Preliminary assessment of beam impact consequences on LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Mariani, N; Rossi, A; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2011-01-01

    The correct functioning of the LHC collimation system is crucial to attain the desired LHC luminosity performance. However, the requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, the robustness of the collimators plays an important role. An accident, which causes the proton beam to hit a collimator, might result in severe beam-induced damage and, in some cases, replacement of the collimator, with consequent downtime for the machine. In this paper, several case studies representing different realistic beam impact scenarios are shown. A preliminary analysis of the thermal response of tertiary collimators to beam impact is presented, from which the most critical cases can be identified. Such work will also help to give an initial insight on the operational constraints of the LHC by taking into account all relevant collimator damage limits.

  2. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  3. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  4. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  5. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

  6. Outline and Preliminary Evaluation of the Classical Digital Library Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.; Gibson, Ian E.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the classical digital library model, which is derived from traditional practices of library and information science professionals, as an alternative to the database retrieval model. Reports preliminary results from an evaluation study of library and information professionals and endusers involved with primary care medicine. (AEF)

  7. Preliminary Clinical Evaluation: The What, Where, How Approach to Scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, C.; Akimoto, T.

    2016-01-01

    The SCoR is driving for preliminary clinical evaluation (PCE) however; currently there is no method of quantification to assess quality. FRCR has an approach to quantify comments in the rapid reporting examination (CR2B).The aim of this project was to develop a robust scoring system that enables comprehensive image evaluation regardless of profession. An image test bank was administered using RadBench with equal prevalence of normal /abnormal. A random sample of attempts was selected to pilot...

  8. Preliminary evaluation of a Neutron Calibration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Talysson S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Sanches, Matias P.; Mitake, Malvina B.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: talvarenga@ipen.br, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: aperini@ipen.br, E-mail: msanches@ipen.br, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial

    2013-07-01

    In the past few years, Brazil and several other countries in Latin America have experimented a great demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, mainly due to the increase in oil prospection and extraction. The only laboratory for calibration of neutron detectors in Brazil is localized at the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, which is part of the IAEA SSDL network. This laboratory is the national standard laboratory in Brazil. With the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for another calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new calibration laboratory for neutron detectors. In this work, the ambient equivalent dose rate (H⁎(10)) was evaluated in several positions inside and around this laboratory, using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP5 code), in order to verify the adequateness of the shielding. The obtained results showed that the shielding is effective, and that this is a low-cost methodology to improve the safety of the workers and evaluate the total staff workload. (author)

  9. Preliminary study of impact fragility to RC wall subjected to aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Dae Gi; Choi, In Kil [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    International experience has shown that internal and external hazards such as fires, earthquakes, and aircraft impacts can be significant safety contributors to the risk to infrastructures such as nuclear power plants. Since the aircraft accident at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly of the interest and is one of important categories of an unexpected external hazard field. To date, aircraft impact analyses has most focused on the response analysis to the target structures. However, this preliminary study carried out an impact fragility analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) wall subjected to an aircraft impact. The aircraft velocity is used as the important variable of this study. The impact analysis of the applied Ri era's forcing function is used by Abaqus/Explicit.

  10. Impact evaluation of infrastructure interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Ole Winckler; White, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The focus on results in development agencies has led to increased focus on impact evaluation to demonstrate the effectiveness of development programmes. A range of methods are available for counterfactual analysis of infrastructure interventions, as illustrated by the variety of papers in this vo......The focus on results in development agencies has led to increased focus on impact evaluation to demonstrate the effectiveness of development programmes. A range of methods are available for counterfactual analysis of infrastructure interventions, as illustrated by the variety of papers...

  11. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  12. Impact of maximum Standardized Uptake Value (SUVmax evaluated by 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT on survival for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura Takeshi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this era of molecular targeting therapy when various systematic treatments can be selected, prognostic biomarkers are required for the purpose of risk-directed therapy selection. Numerous reports of various malignancies have revealed that 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG accumulation, as evaluated by positron emission tomography, can be used to predict the prognosis of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax from 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT on survival for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Methods A total of 26 patients with advanced or metastatic RCC were enrolled in this study. The FDG uptake of all RCC lesions diagnosed by conventional CT was evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The impact of SUVmax on patient survival was analyzed prospectively. Results FDG uptake was detected in 230 of 243 lesions (94.7% excluding lung or liver metastases with diameters of less than 1 cm. The SUVmax of 26 patients ranged between 1.4 and 16.6 (mean 8.8 ± 4.0. The patients with RCC tumors showing high SUVmax demonstrated poor prognosis (P = 0.005 hazard ratio 1.326, 95% CI 1.089-1.614. The survival between patients with SUVmax equal to the mean of SUVmax, 8.8 or more and patients with SUVmax less than 8.8 were statistically different (P = 0.0012. This is the first report to evaluate the impact of SUVmax on advanced RCC patient survival. However, the number of patients and the follow-up period were still not extensive enough to settle this important question conclusively. Conclusions The survival of patients with advanced RCC can be predicted by evaluating their SUVmax using 18F-FDG-PET/CT. 18F-FDG-PET/CT has potency as an "imaging biomarker" to provide helpful information for the clinical decision-making.

  13. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  14. A Serious Games Platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation with Preliminary Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Paula Alexandra; Rocha, Rui; Faria, Brígida Mónica; Reis, Luís Paulo; Moreira, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years Serious Games have evolved substantially, solving problems in diverse areas. In particular, in Cognitive Rehabilitation, Serious Games assume a relevant role. Traditional cognitive therapies are often considered repetitive and discouraging for patients and Serious Games can be used to create more dynamic rehabilitation processes, holding patients' attention throughout the process and motivating them during their road to recovery. This paper reviews Serious Games and user interfaces in rehabilitation area and details a Serious Games platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation that includes a set of features such as: natural and multimodal user interfaces and social features (competition, collaboration, and handicapping) which can contribute to augment the motivation of patients during the rehabilitation process. The web platform was tested with healthy subjects. Results of this preliminary evaluation show the motivation and the interest of the participants by playing the games.

  15. A preliminary investigation: the impact of microscopic condenser on depth of field in cytogenetic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liqiang; Qiu, Yuchen; Li, Zheng; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2013-02-01

    As one of the important components of optical microscopes, the condenser has a considerable impact on system performance, especially on the depth of field (DOF). DOF is a critical technical feature in cytogenetic imaging that may affect the efficiency and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of microscopic condenser on DOF using a prototype of transmitted optical microscope, based on objective and subjective evaluations. After the description of the relationship between condenser and objective lens and the theoretical analysis of the condenser impact on system numerical aperture and DOF, a standard resolution pattern and several cytogenetic samples are adopted to assess the condenser impact on DOF, respectively. The experimental results of these objective and subjective evaluations are in agreement with the theoretical analysis and show that, under the specific intermediate range of condenser numerical aperture ( NAcond ), the DOF value decreases with the increase of NAcond . Although the above qualitative results are obtained under the experimental conditions with a specific prototype system, the methods presented in this preliminary investigation could offer useful guidelines for optimizing operational parameters in cytogenetic imaging.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  17. Galileo Infrared Observations of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 G Impact Fireball: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Weissman, P. R.; Segura, M.; Hui, J.; Smythe, W. D.; Johnson, T.; Baines, K. H.; Drossart, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Leader, F. E.; Team, NIMS Science

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft was fortuitously situated for a direct view of the impacts of the fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in Jupiter's atmosphere. The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer instrument observed several of the impact events in several discrete bands and with a temporal resolution of roughly five seconds. This report provides a preliminary description of the fireball phase.

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  19. Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Extremes: Preliminary Results from the Polish-Norwegian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Renata J.; Bogdanowicz, Ewa; Debele, Sisay E.; Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Hisdal, Hege; Lawrence, Deborah; Meresa, Hadush K.; Napiórkowski, Jarosław J.; Osuch, Marzena; Strupczewski, Witold G.; Wilson, Donna; Wong, Wai Kwok

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the background, objectives, and preliminary outcomes from the first year of activities of the Polish-Norwegian project CHIHE (Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Extremes). The project aims to estimate the influence of climate changes on extreme river flows (low and high) and to evaluate the impact on the frequency of occurrence of hydrological extremes. Eight "twinned" catchments in Poland and Norway serve as case studies. We present the procedures of the catchment selection applied in Norway and Poland and a database consisting of near-natural ten Polish and eight Norwegian catchments constructed for the purpose of climate impact assessment. Climate projections for selected catchments are described and compared with observations of temperature and precipitation available for the reference period. Future changes based on those projections are analysed and assessed for two periods, the near future (2021-2050) and the far-future (2071-2100). The results indicate increases in precipitation and temperature in the periods and regions studied both in Poland and Norway.

  20. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  1. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl. The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA. The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%. No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease.

  2. Preliminary Safety Evaluation of a New Bacteroides xylanisolvens Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounian, Kawe; Schmidt, Jens; Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Besides conferring some health benefit to the host, a bacterial strain must present an unambiguous safety status to be considered a probiotic. We here present the preliminary safety evaluation of a new Bacteroides xylanisolvens strain (DSM 23964) isolated from human feces. First results suggest that it may be able to provide probiotic health benefits. Its identity was confirmed by biochemical analysis, by sequencing of its 16S rRNA genes, and by DNA-DNA hybridization. Virulence determinants known to occur in the genus Bacteroides, such the bft enterotoxin and other enzymatic activities involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the capsular polysaccharide PS A, were absent in this strain. The investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility indicated that strain DSM 23964 was sensitive to metronidazole, meropenem agents, and clindamycin. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin was identified to be conferred by the β-lactamase cepA gene and could therefore be restored by adding β-lactamase inhibitors. The localization of the cepA gene in the genome of strain DSM 23964 and the absence of detectable plasmids further suggest that a transfer of β-lactamase activity or the acquisition of other antibiotic resistances are highly improbable. Taken together, the presented data indicate that the strain B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964 has no virulence potential. Since it also resists the action of gastric enzymes and low-pH conditions, this strain is an interesting candidate for further investigation of its safety and potential health-promoting properties. PMID:22101046

  3. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun; Erdos, Geza; Huang, Shaohua; Kenniston, Thomas; Falo, Louis D; Gambotto, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E) fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl). The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA). The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%). No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  5. Preliminary physicochemical evaluation of Kushta tutia: A Unani Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kushta is an important solid dosage form of Unani system of medicine used to treat various ailments. Very small particle size of kushta is responsible for its rapid absorption in body leading to instant therapeutic actions. Kushta tutia (KT is one such renowned formulation used by hakims for successful management of various disorders. However, there is lack of scientific work on KT. Objectives: The present study was performed to evaluate KT physicochemically by testifying it on classical tests along with modern scientific techniques. Materials and Methods: Tutia was first detoxified as per classical literature. It was triturated with water and dried, afterwards subjected to calcination in furnace rather than cow dung cakes due to isolation of material being heated and better temperature control. Finished product was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics including preliminary tests mentioned in classical literature. Results: Floating and finger test were positive. Curd test showed no discoloration after 48 h. These findings indicate correct preparation of KT according to classical literature. Bulk density (0.96 ± 0.00 g/ml; tapped density (1.53 ± 0.00 g/ml; Hausner ratio (0.62 ± 0.00, compressibility index (37.52 ± 0.19%; loss of weight on drying (0.08 ± 0.00%; pH of 1 and 10% (5.20 ± 0.00 and 5.62 ± 0.00, respectively; total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash values 95.75 ± 0.09, 6.57 ± 0.02, and 45.02 ± 0.20%, respectively; and extractive values 0.85 ± 0.02% were reported in KT. Conclusion: Since this work has not been reported earlier, the results obtained could be considered as the standard for KT for future studies.

  6. Measuring impact in research evaluations

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Governments all over the world are contemplating the question of where they should distribute public money (to education or to defence, for example). Distribution of money over a number of different areas always makes an issue, implicitly or explicitly, of the impact which can be achieved with investment in any one of them. Science is also affected by this governmental interest in impact; the issue is not only the impact of research on research itself, but on other areas of society. Citations are traditionally used to measure the impact of research on research. It is as yet unclear how the impact of research on other areas of society can be measured. It appears that alternative metrics (altmetrics, such as Twitter counts) might play a key role in this. This paper is concerned with the measurement of citation impact and societal impact, and looks at the basis, the effects and the problems of impact measurement.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of the Impact of a Writing Assessment System on Teaching and Learning* Evaluación preliminar del impacto de un sistema de evaluación en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Muñoz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the conviction that valid and reliable assessments can foster positive changes in instruction, we implemented a writing assessment system in the adult English program at the Language Center, EAFIT University, Medellín. To evaluate the impact of the system, we analyzed the improvement of 27 students' writings over time. We also examined the quality of their teachers' (n=35 teaching and assessment routines. Student progress was measured by looking at the syntactic complexity of the texts using an average number of words per T-unit. Teachers' instructional practices were examined through portfolio analyses. Results show some improvement in students' writings and that the teachers need to provide a better response to students by appropriately using the required assessment tools.Con base en la creencia de que las evaluaciones válidas y confiables pueden motivar cambios positivos en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje, implementamos un sistema de evaluación para la escritura en el programa de inglés de un centro de idiomas en Colombia. Para evaluar el impacto del sistema, analizamos las mejoras de 27 escritos a través del tiempo. Igualmente se analizó la calidad de las prácticas de enseñanza y evaluación de 35 profesores. Las mejoras en los escritos se determinaron a través de la complejidad sintáctica usando como medida el promedio de número de palabras por texto entre unidades T. Las prácticas de evaluación y enseñanza se evaluaron mediante el análisis de portafolios de escritura. Los resultados indican ciertas mejoras en los escritos y la necesidad de proporcionar mayor entrenamiento y orientación para que los profesores utilicen el sistema de evaluación de manera más apropiada.

  8. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the hydrogeologic system in Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary, two-layer, steady-state, groundwater flow model was used to evaluate present data and hydrologic concepts of Owens Valley, California. Simulations of the groundwater system indicate that areas where water levels are most affected by changes in recharge and discharge are near toes of alluvial fans and along the edge of permeable volcanic deposits. Sensitivity analysis for each model parameter shows that steady state simulations are most sensitive to uncertainties in evapotranspiration rates. Tungsten Hills, Poverty Hills, and Alabama Hills were found to act as virtually impermeable barriers to groundwater flow. Accurate simulation of the groundwater system between Bishop and Lone Pine appears to be possible without simulating the groundwater system in Round Valley, near Owens Lake, or in aquifer materials more than 1,000 ft below land surface. Although vast amounts of geologic and hydrologic data have been collected for Owens Valley, many parts of the hydrogeologic system have not been defined with sufficient detail to answer present water management questions. Location and extent of geologic materials that impede the vertical movement of water are poorly documented. The likely range of aquifer characteristics, except vertical hydraulic conductivity, is well known, but spatial distribution of these characteristics is not well documented. A set of consistent water budgets is needed, including one for surface water, groundwater, and the entire valley. The largest component of previous water budgets (evapotranspiration) is largely unverified. More definitive estimates of local gains and losses for Owens River are needed. Although groundwater pumpage from each well is measured, the quantity of withdrawal from different zones of permeable material has not been defined. (USGS)

  12. The Impact of Reality Therapy in a School for Emotionally Disturbed Youth: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Kevin I.

    This preliminary report examined the impact of W. Glasser's Reality Therapy techniques on teacher attitudes and the behavior of emotionally disturbed elementary and middle school students. A summary of Glasser's Control Theory and his recent revisions pertaining to Reality Therapy techniques is included as well as a review of the outcome…

  13. Preliminary Comparison of the Response of LHC Tertiary Collimators to Proton and Ion Beam Impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider is designed to bring into collision protons as well as heavy ions. Accidents involving impacts on collimators can happen for both species. The interaction of lead ions with matter differs to that of protons, thus making this scenario a new interesting case to study as it can result in different damage aspects on the collimator. This paper will present a preliminary comparison of the response of collimators to proton and ion beam impacts.

  14. A preliminary study of cryosphere service function and value evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Cun-De; WANG Shi-Jin; QIN Da-He

    2015-01-01

    Cryosphere science research and development (R&D) has been strongly committed to public service, integrating natural sciences with socioeconomic impacts. Owing to the current shift from purely natural cryosphere scientific research to linking cryosphere science with so-cioeconomic and cultural science, cross-disciplinary research in this field is emerging, which advocates future cryosphere science research in this field. Utilizing the cryosphere service function (CSF), this study establishes CSF and its value evaluation system. Cryosphere service valuation can benefit the decisionmakers' and public's awareness of environmental protection. Implementing sustainable CSF utilization strategies and macroeconomic policymaking for global environmental protection will have profound and practical significance as well as avoid environmental degradation while pursuing short-term economic profits and achieving rapid economic development.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of diabatic heating distribution from FGGE level 3b analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, A.; Mizzi, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the global distribution of diabatic heating rate. Preliminary results of global heating rate evaluated from the European center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Level IIIb analysis data is also presented.

  16. Health impacts of garage workers: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttamara, S. (AIT, Bangkok (Thailand). Division of Environmental Engineering); Alwis, K.U.

    1994-05-01

    This research study was carried out in two automobile repair garages situated in the Bangkok metropolitan area, employing 47 and 12 workers respectively. Air sampling, biological monitoring (blood, urine), noise monitoring, and audiometry of workers were done to assess the occupational environment and its impact on the workers. The occupational hygiene survey was carried out to observe the working conditions of both garages. It was found that conditions at both sites have a strong negative impact on the health of workers. The lead in air of Garage 1 was 0.20 mg/m[sup 3] which is the same as the threshold limit value (TLV) for lead in air for a working environment. The level of lead in blood of four workers of each garage was above the exposed level. According to the occupational hygiene survey carried out at both garages, 79% of workers of Garage 1 and 70% of workers of Gage 2 suffered from redness of the eyes (eye pain, gritty feeling), and 5% and 2% of workers of Garage 1 and Garage 2 respectively, complained about breathing difficulties. Control measures should be taken to minimize pollution due to dust, fumes, and noise which would reduce the health impacts and lead to a healthier workforce.

  17. Supervisory control of remote manipulation: A preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    A system for supervisory control is described, and preliminary results are presented. Supervisory control, where control is traded between man and computer, offers benefits in the control of a remote manipulator. The system has the potential to accomplish sophisticated tasks. It is indicated that supervisory control yields lower task completion times and is preferred over manual control.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars

    guide surgical treatment. The TTTG measures tibial tuberosity position relative to the axis of the femoral trochlea. A preliminary investigation of TTTG measurement was performed using the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers as a morphologically similar and homogenous substitute for dog cadavers. CT...

  19. Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

  20. A Preliminary Evaluation of Bandwidth Allocation Model Dynamic Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael F. Reale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth Allocation Models (BAMs are used in order to define Bandwidth Constraints (BCs in a per-class basis for MPLS/DS-TE networks and effectively define how network resources like bandwidth are obtained and shared by applications. The BAMs proposed (MAM – Maximum Allocation Model, RDM – Russian Dolls Model, G-RDM – Generic RDM and AllocTC-Sharing attempt to optimize the use of bandwidth resources on a per-link basis with different allocation and resource sharing characteristics. As such, the adoption of distinct BAMs and/or changes in network resource demands (network traffic profile may result in different network traffic allocation and operational behavior for distinct BAMs. This paper evaluates the resulting network characteristics (li nk utilization, preemption and flows blocking of using BAMs dynamically with different traffic scenarios. In brief, it is investigated the dynamics of BAM switching with distinct traffic scenarios. The paper presents initially the investigated BAMs in relation to their behavior and resource allocation characteristics. Then, distinct BAMs are compared using different traffic scenarios in order to investigate the impact of a dynamic change of the BAM configured in the network. Finally, the paper shows that the adoption of a dynamic BAM allocation strategy may result in benefits for network operation in terms of link utilization, preemption and flows blocking.

  1. Evaluating the impact of scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Lesley; Taylor, Ruth; Giordano, Richard; Robb, Elizabeth; McPeake, Joanne

    The Florence Nightingale Foundation offers scholarships in travel, research and leadership for nurses, midwives and allied health professionals. An evaluation revealed scholars considered the programmes of great value, allowing them the opportunity to develop personally and professionally.

  2. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is follo

  3. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is follo

  4. Evaluating the impact of your library

    CERN Document Server

    Streatfield, David

    2012-01-01

    Outlining a rigorously tested approach to library evaluation and offering practical tools and highly relevant examples, this brand new edition enables LIS managers to get to grips with the slippery concept of service impact and to address their own impact questions in their planning.

  5. Preliminary research on environmental impact of woodland grazing by pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 6 castrate pigs about 30 kg live weight each entered in a fence into hilly woodland area. The pigs were bred until about 140 kg live weight. After 10 months of pasture breeding, the environmental damages (cover ground, plants and soil characteristics by rooting and trampling were evaluated. The damages to cover ground and to shrubs and to physical structure (Fissures and Aggregate stability caused hydro-geological instability with soil erosion and landslides. Removing surface layers of soil caused considerable loss of organic matter (Total Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen, microbial activity (Microbial ATP and breathing and enzyme activity changes (Total β−glucosidase and Extra cellular β−glucosidase. Damages to native plants are different in relation to the root and the trunk kinds, and to the palatability of leaves and apexes which result inversely related whit the abundance of disagreeable substances content (ADL, Tannins, Resins, Latex.

  6. Evaluating and measuring impact: where and how?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 12 and 13 November, a workshop on “Evaluation in international organisations” took place at CERN. Fourteen internal auditors and planning and policy analysts, from six different international organisations, discussed whether and how to evaluate the impact of their organisations’ programmes on the target beneficiaries.      Participants of the “Evaluation in international organisations” workshop at CERN. “Evaluation”, a relatively recent but fast growing discipline, deals with the systematic and objective assessment of the impact of policies and programmes on the target beneficiaries – often society at large. In the past few years, other international organisations have created an evaluation function within their internal structure, whose role is to measure the impact of their public policies. “In the first instance we wanted to understand what the difference between evaluation a...

  7. Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2012-09-01

    Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

  8. Outcome measures to evaluate new technology for tonsillectomy: preliminary experience with Coblation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Udayan K.; Puchalski, Robert; Briggs, Marianne; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Galinkin, Jeffrey

    2001-05-01

    Evaluating the benefits of new surgical technologies does not end with the observation of successful instrument-to- tissue interaction. The impact of new technologies in medicine today is also gauged by improvements in patients' daily activities and performance. We present our outcomes assessment tool for judging the value of applying a novel tonsillectomy technique, plasma- mediated ablation using Coblation technology. Plasma- mediated ablation (PMA) achieves soft tissue resection in the oropharynx by energizing protons to break bonds. Less heat is released, allowing for less thermal injury, and possibly less pain, than with tonsillectomy performed using electrocautery alone. Children undergoing tonsillectomy by PMA, were evaluated using our outcomes-based scale, which asked families to report the degree of interruption of normal activities for the patient and their family during the post-tonsillectomy recovery period. A preliminary review of several outcomes assessments exemplify the benefits and limitations of this tool. The tracking of valuable data is weighed against the limitations of a short time course relative to the duration of disability, and a poor response rate. Future work aims to improve this data collection tool to allow application to other new technologies in otolaryngology.

  9. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  10. Preliminary evaluation of vector flow and spectral velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    Spectral estimation is considered as the golden standard in ultrasound velocity estimation. For spectral velocity estimation the blood flow angle is set by the ultrasound operator. Vector flow provides temporal and spatial estimates of the blood flow angle and velocity. A comparison of vector flow...... agrees with the spectral flow angle. The vector velocity estimates agrees with the spectral estimates at PS and ED. From preliminary data it is concluded that vector flow angle estimation can replace the operator-dependent angle correction used for spectral velocity estimation....... estimation and spectral estimates is presented. The variation of the blood flow angle and the effect on the velocity estimate is investigated. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned. Real-time spectral and vector flow data were obtained simultaneously from one range gate...

  11. Preliminary evaluation of two new cable surface innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burlina, Celeste; Georgakis, Christos T.; Larsen, S.V.;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the aerodynamic performance of two innovative bridge cable surfaces with concave fillets are examined and compared with traditional helical fillets. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was undertaken to measure the aerodynamic static force coefficients up to a Reyno......In this paper, the aerodynamic performance of two innovative bridge cable surfaces with concave fillets are examined and compared with traditional helical fillets. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was undertaken to measure the aerodynamic static force coefficients up...... to a Reynolds number of 3.2 x 105. The tests confirmed the results obtained from the preliminary tests performed by Kleissl and Georgakis (2013) on the prototype cable surfaces with the concave fillets. Despite a more than 100% increase of the fillet height compared to a traditional helical fillet profile...

  12. Calculating Minimum Detectable Impacts in Teen Pregnancy Prevention Impact Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Moreno; Russell Cole

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of how researchers can calculate the minimum detectable impacts (MDIs), which are related to power calculations, for Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) evaluations. It describes a tool that evaluators can use for their own MDI calculations, and includes examples that highlight how to use the tool. A technical appendix provides more details on the formulae in the tool that inform MDI calculations.

  13. Calculating Minimum Detectable Impacts in Teen Pregnancy Prevention Impact Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Moreno; Russell Cole

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of how researchers can calculate the minimum detectable impacts (MDIs), which are related to power calculations, for Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) evaluations. It describes a tool that evaluators can use for their own MDI calculations, and includes examples that highlight how to use the tool. A technical appendix provides more details on the formulae in the tool that inform MDI calculations.

  14. Preliminary evaluation capability for some two-dimensional groundwater contamination problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    There are a variety of two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems where a preliminary evaluation of containment tansport is needed. A common difficulty in making this first assessment is the meager field data usually available. A preliminary evaluation capability has been developed for two-dimensional contamination problems that is consistent with the limited data initially available. Idealizations and simplifications have been introduced with special care so that worst-case final estimates will be provided. The preliminary evaluation results are produced using interactive computer programs that utilize self-help or coaching features for the user's convenience. The self-help programs aid the user by asking for the necessary input parameters and by guiding the user, in selecting the options needed to obtain the required results.

  15. The Gambia Impact Evaluation Baseline Report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Government of The Gambia is implementing the Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Results Project (MCNHRP) to increase the utilization of community nutrition and primary maternal and child health services. In collaboration with the Government, the World Bank is conducting an impact evaluation (IE) to assess the impact of the project on key aspects of maternal and child nutrition and health. The baseline survey for the MCNHRP IE took place between November 2014 and February 2015. It c...

  16. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally used by the tribal of Rajasthan to prevent conception. Roots are used as appetizer, aphrodisiac, brain tonic, cardiotonic and to treat insanity and synovitis. Leaves, seeds preparations are used to treat epilepsy, diarrhea and nootropic. Leaf materials were collected, dried and coarsely powdered and were subjected to physiochemical constants, behavioral characters of the leaf powder with chemical reagents. Pharmacognostical studies include macroscopical, microscopical observations. Physical chemical constants such as ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, foreign organic matter were determined. Ash values include total ash; acid insoluble and water soluble ash were observed. Extractive values of powder with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl actetae, ethanol and water were determined. Macroscopical characters help in identifying the leaf. Anatomical observations showed the presence of trichomes, upper and lower epidermal cells with rubiaceous stomata. Sclerenchyma fibers and acicular crystal were observed. The percentage of total ash values (4.3, 1.6 and3.94 % yield of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water showed 3.16,6.4,5.8,10.2 and 7.6% respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides and flavanoids.The reported phytoconstitutents of the plant Argyreia nervosa may be responsible for the pharmacological activities. The results obtained add credit to the existing traditional information which will further increase the usage of this plant and provokes towards the investigation of the plant.

  17. Ultra-high-speed studies of shock phenomena in a miniaturized system: A preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory-scale experimental test system for small-scale of shock phenomena has been assembled. This system uses a variety of miniature test platforms in which shock loading is provided by laser-driven flyer impact. Acceptor materials include thin-film explosives and high-density metal foils. Optical access is provided for high-speed optical diagnostics such as optically recording velocity interferometry and single-pulse Raman spectroscopy. The experimental assembly for Raman studies features a common laser source for both flyer generation and excitation of Raman scattering (to achieve high timing precision) and a detection scheme that uses the coupling fiber for the excitation source to collect with high efficiency backscattered Raman light. Preliminary system evaluation experiments indicate that detailed particle velocity studies of the dynamic material properties of high-density metals under short-pulse, high-strain-rate loading can be performed in a miniaturized test configuration. Single-pulse Raman studies on shock compressed thin film explosives also appear feasible if the thickness and grain structure of these films can be tailored to enhance the Raman scattering signal sufficiently. Possible improvements in the experimental design and a number of likely applications of these techniques are also discussed.

  18. Boxing and mixed martial arts: preliminary traumatic neuromechanical injury risk analyses from laboratory impact dosage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J; Benzel, Edward C; Miele, Vincent J; Morr, Douglas R; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-05-01

    In spite of ample literature pointing to rotational and combined impact dosage being key contributors to head and neck injury, boxing and mixed martial arts (MMA) padding is still designed to primarily reduce cranium linear acceleration. The objects of this study were to quantify preliminary linear and rotational head impact dosage for selected boxing and MMA padding in response to hook punches; compute theoretical skull, brain, and neck injury risk metrics; and statistically compare the protective effect of various glove and head padding conditions. An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was struck in 54 pendulum impacts replicating hook punches at low (27-29 J) and high (54-58 J) energy. Five padding combinations were examined: unpadded (control), MMA glove-unpadded head, boxing glove-unpadded head, unpadded pendulum-boxing headgear, and boxing glove-boxing headgear. A total of 17 injury risk parameters were measured or calculated. All padding conditions reduced linear impact dosage. Other parameters significantly decreased, significantly increased, or were unaffected depending on padding condition. Of real-world conditions (MMA glove-bare head, boxing glove-bare head, and boxing glove-headgear), the boxing glove-headgear condition showed the most meaningful reduction in most of the parameters. In equivalent impacts, the MMA glove-bare head condition induced higher rotational dosage than the boxing glove-bare head condition. Finite element analysis indicated a risk of brain strain injury in spite of significant reduction of linear impact dosage. In the replicated hook punch impacts, all padding conditions reduced linear but not rotational impact dosage. Head and neck dosage theoretically accumulates fastest in MMA and boxing bouts without use of protective headgear. The boxing glove-headgear condition provided the best overall reduction in impact dosage. More work is needed to develop improved protective padding to minimize

  19. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  20. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  1. Description and Preliminary Training Evaluation of an Arc Welding Simulator. Research Report SRR 73-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    A prototype arc welding training simulator was designed to provide immediate, discriminative feedback and the capacity for concentrated practice. Two randomly selected groups of welding trainees were compared to evaluate the simulator, one group being trained using the simulator and the other using conventional practice. Preliminary data indicated…

  2. In vitro tests to evaluate immunotoxicity: A preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carfi', M; Gennari, A; Malerba, I; Corsini, E; Pallardy, M; Pieters, R; Loveren, Henk van; Vohr, H W; Hartung, T; Gribaldo, L

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of new and existing Chemicals (REACH) will increase the number of laboratory animals used, if alternative methods will not be available. In the meantime, REACH promotes the use of in vitro tests and, therefore, a set of appropriated al

  3. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact. ...

  4. [Clinical diagnosis and standardized evaluation of borderline personality: preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, F; Guelfi, J D; Monier, C; Brun, A; Seunevel, F

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 36 patients considered by French clinicians as suffering from a borderline personality disorder was evaluated using the International Personality Disorder Examination, the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline-Revised, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. First, global descriptive analysis of the sample elicited the socio-demographic and standard clinical characteristics of the borderline individuals. After diagnostic evaluation, the sample appeared to be quite homogeneous with 25 of the 36 patients evaluated (69.5%) being defined as borderline by two of the three diagnostic systems: ICD 10, DSM III-R and Gunderson (15/36 = 41.5% of patients were defined as borderline by all three systems). It is the types of BL personality co-diagnoses which differentiated the BL subjects in the sample from those classically described in the international literature, since the most frequent personalities were the Dependent and Avoiding ones, not the Antisocial, Histrionic, Narcissistic or Schizotypic personalities of the DSM III-R. ICD 10 elicited the same significant prevalence of Anxious and Dependent personalities. Lastly, the patients diagnosed as borderline both by clinicians and by all diagnostic systems (forming the sample "core") were compared with the rest of the sample with regard to socio-demographic, clinical and diagnostic characteristics. A few hypotheses are proposed on the type of variables that may permit to discriminate between these two types of patients.

  5. Efficacy of oleuropein against UVB irradiation: preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, P; Vettor, M; Rona, C; Troisi, L; Villanova, L; Genta, I; Conti, B; Pavanetto, F

    2008-04-01

    Oleuropein, a phenolic compound derived from olive leaves and oil, is known to possess several biological properties, many of which may be attributed to its antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. Nevertheless, up to now, the cosmetic activity of this molecule has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cosmetic properties of oleuropein against UVB-induced erythema. To this end, an emulsion and an emulgel containing oleuropein were prepared, applied and evaluated on healthy volunteers who had undergone UVB irradiation to investigate its protective and/or lenitive activity. Protective effect was assayed by application of topical preparations before irradiation and lenitive effect was evaluated after erythema induction. Vitamin E was used as the reference compound. Our study was carried out by using noninvasive techniques to assess specific skin parameters: barrier function, skin colour and microcirculation. Results clearly showed that oleuropein formulations highlighted lenitive efficacy by reducing erythema, transepidermal water loss and blood flow of about 22%, 35% and 30% respectively. The study allowed us to point out the lenitive property of oleuropein, opening the way to further trials to deepen our specific knowledge about this natural molecule, which could be used in association with other active ingredients in cosmetics to repair UV damages.

  6. Evaluating Realized Impacts of DOE/EERE R&D Programs. Standard impact evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc. (United States); O' Connor, Alan C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Loomis, Ross J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments of research and development (R&D) programs for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). It is also targeted at EERE program staff responsible for initiating and managing commissioned impact studies. The guide specifies how to estimate economic benefits and costs, energy saved and installed or generated, environmental impacts, energy security impacts, and knowledge impacts of R&D investments in advanced energy technologies.

  7. National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    federal, state, and local initiatives. For example, the use of computerized audits has increased, cooling and baseload measures have been added, weatherization approaches tailored to the unique construction characteristics of mobile homes have been developed, the weatherization of large multifamily buildings has expanded and become more sophisticated, the flexibility to improve 'energy-related' health and safety has been provided, and leveraging with utilities, other state programs, and owners of large multifamily buildings has increased considerably. The Department of Energy tasked ORNL with planning the new evaluation in light of its experience in conducting the previous national evaluation and the metaevaluations. This preliminary evaluation plan, developed by ORNL, documents how the new national evaluation will be performed. In the remaining portion of this section, the purpose and fundamental questions the evaluation will address are identified and how these questions were derived is discussed.

  8. Employment impacts of selected solar and conventional energy systems: a framework for comparisons and preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeltzer, K.K.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary comprehensive analyses of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of selected solar and conventional energy systems are presented. It proposes a framework for analyzing the direct, indirect, induced, displacement, disposable income, and qualitative employment effects of alternative energy systems. The analyses examine current research findings on these effects for a variety of solar and conventional energy sources and compare expected employment impacts. In general, solar energy systems have higher direct and indirect employment requirements than do conventional energy systems. In addition, employment displaced from conventional sources and employment effects due to changes in consumers' disposable income are highly significant variables in net employment comparisons. Analyses of the size and location of projected energy developments suggest that dispersed solar energy systems have a more beneficial impact on host communities than do large conventional facilities, regardless of the relative magnitude of employment per unit of energy output.

  9. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  10. Synthesis, Computational Studies and Preliminary Pharmacological Evaluation of New Arylpiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel arylpiperazines were synthesized and the target compounds evaluated for atypical antipsychotic activity in apomorphine induced climbing behavior (D2 antagonism, 5-HTP induced head twitches (5-HT2A antagonism and catalepsy studies in albino mice. The physicochemical similarity of the target compounds with respect to standard drugs clozapine, ketanserine and risperidone was assessed by calculating from a set of physiochemical properties using software programs. The test compounds (3a-j demonstrated good similarity values with respect to the standard drugs. Among them, compound 3d has emerged as an important lead compound showing potential atypical antipsychotic like profile.

  11. The Dysarthria Impact Profile: A Preliminary French Experience with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Letanneux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study aimed to adapt the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP in French and to confirm its relevance for the assessment of the psychosocial impact of dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD. The DIP scale was administered to 10 people with PD and 10 age-matched control subjects. The DIP psychometric properties were calculated (discriminant validity, internal consistency, and concurrent validity, notably by using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI for interscale comparisons. The French version of the DIP discriminated people with PD from control subjects (χ2 test, P<0.05. Good internal consistency was observed in both populations (Cronbach’s α=0.93 for PD people and α=0.76 for control subjects. The DIP was highly correlated with the VHI (Spearman’s ρ=-0.70, P<0.01, confirming the external validity of the scale. There was no direct relationship between PD speech and quality of life as assessed by the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39. Our preliminary data suggest that the French version of the DIP has the potential to make a useful contribution for the assessment and outcome management in acquired dysarthria for both clinicians and researchers.

  12. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  13. Preliminary evaluation of ultra-high pitch computed tomography enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, Andrew D.; Horst, Nicole D.; Mayes, Nicholas [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston (United States)], E-mail: andrewdhardie@gmail.com

    2012-12-15

    Background. CT enterography (CTE) is a valuable tool in the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Reducing imaging time, reduced motion artifacts, and decreased radiation exposure are important goals for optimizing CTE examinations. Purpose. To assess the potential impact of new CT technology (ultra-high pitch CTE) for the ability to reduce scan time and also potentially reduce radiation exposure while maintaining image quality. Material and Methods. This retrospective study compared 13 patients who underwent ultra-high pitch CTE with 25 patients who underwent routine CTE on the same CT scanner with identical radiation emission settings. Total scan time and radiation exposure were recorded for each patient. Image quality was assessed by measurement of image noise and also qualitatively by two independent observers. Results. Total scan time was significantly lower for patients who underwent ultra-high pitch CTE (2.1 s {+-} 0.2) than by routine CTE (18.6 s {+-} 0.9) (P < 0.0001). The mean radiation exposure for ultra-high pitch CTE was also significantly lower (10.1 mGy {+-} 1.0) than routine CTE (15.8 mGy {+-} 4.5) (P < 0.0001). No significant difference in image noise was found between ultra-high pitch CTE (16.0 HU {+-} 2.5) and routine CTE (15.5 HU {+-} 3.7) (P > 0.74). There was also no significant difference in image quality noted by either of the two readers. Conclusion. Ultra-high pitch CTE can be performed more rapidly than standard CTE and offers the potential for radiation exposure reduction while maintaining image quality.

  14. Product Meaning, Affective Use Evaluation, and Transfer: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Helfenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Although the failure experience essentially caused frustration, this reaction varied substantially among consumers depending on product meaning, age, and gender. The results also showed that the emotion dimensions of pleasure, arousal, and dominance were affected in distinct ways, and that, in addition to the consumer variables, transfer was mainly dependent on the brand relation. Nevertheless, user frustration did not cause general brand aversion, indicating that poor designs do not unconditionally threaten the customer relationship.

  15. Mortar radiocarbon dating: preliminary accuracy evaluation of a novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzaioli, Fabio; Lubritto, Carmine; Nonni, Sara; Passariello, Isabella; Capano, Manuela; Terrasi, Filippo

    2011-03-15

    Mortars represent a class of building and art materials that are widespread at archeological sites from the Neolithic period on. After about 50 years of experimentation, the possibility to evaluate their absolute chronology by means of radiocarbon ((14)C) remains still uncertain. With the use of a simplified mortar production process in the laboratory environment, this study shows the overall feasibility of a novel physical pretreatment for the isolation of the atmospheric (14)CO(2) (i.e., binder) signal absorbed by the mortars during their setting. This methodology is based on the assumption that an ultrasonic attack in liquid phase isolates a suspension of binder carbonates from bulk mortars. Isotopic ((13)C and (14)C), % C, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed to characterize the proposed methodology. The applied protocol allows suppression of the fossil carbon (C) contamination originating from the incomplete burning of the limestone during the quick lime production, providing unbiased dating for "laboratory" mortars produced operating at historically adopted burning temperatures.

  16. Paintings pigmented with doped magnetite: preliminary evaluation of anticorrosive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Escobar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La magnetita pura y las magnetitas dopadas con cobre y cromo se sintetizaron a escala de laboratorio. El comportamiento relativo de estos productos como pigmentos anticorrosivos se comparó con la hematita disponible comercialmente (óxido rojo del hierro. Se prepararon mezclas especiales de los pigmentos con resina epoxy libre de solvente manteniendo el contenido del volumen de pigmento cerca del valor práctico crítico. El propósito es distinguir la acción inhibidora de los pigmentos con poca influencia de las características de la barrera de la resina epóxica. El comportamiento de las mezclas aplicadas sobre el acero se caracterizó mediante exposición acelerada al aire libre, en pruebas alternadas de inmersión y en condiciones de inmersión total. Esta última prueba se supervisó con medidas de potencial y de impedancia de circuito abierto, y fueron complementadas con evaluación de películas libres. Los resultados demuestran que la magnetita no es un pigmento inerte, y que la presencia de elementos dopantes puede mejorar el comportamiento de las pinturas anticorrosivas de magnetita. Basados en esos resultados, se sugirió una formulación completa con pigmento de magnetita, solvente y aditivos y se evaluó en laboratorio, teniendo como objetivo el uso posible como pintura anticorrosiva.

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of the Diverse Protection System in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Taekyeong; Chang, Won-Pyo; Seong, Seung Hwan; Ahn, Sang June; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chiwoong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Ha, Kwi-Seok [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) is defined as an abnormal transient with failure of scram actuation. It is one of the “worst case” accident based on the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC). Consideration frequently motivates the NRC to take regulatory action. An evaluation of this event is also a general requirement due to a potential safety issue that may lead to core damage under postulated condition. This paper estimated the set-points sensitivity test of the diverse protection system (DPS) related with unprotected events of the prototype generation-IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) including unprotected transient over power (UTOP) and unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) by MARS-LMR code. The variation of the power to flow (P/Q) of UTOP and ULOF is illustrated to conduct the set-points sensitivity test of DPS. Also we estimated the effect of the DPS introduction after selecting UTOP, ULOF event as the unprotected events which are predicted to aggravate the events. This paper estimated the set-points sensitivity test of DPS related with unprotected events of PGSFR including UTOP and ULOF by MARS-LMR code. The results indicated that there is no significant difference in both RPS and DPS about the initiating time of each event. Therefore, this study found that the urgent manage for safety of the reactor when RPS failed is possible by the applying DPS.

  18. A preliminary evaluation of the nonfuel mineral potential of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Additional exploration in Somalia is warranted for a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic deposits. In Precambrian rocks, deposit types favorable for exploration include: a banded iron formation; platinum-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes; tin-bearing quartz veins; phosphorite; stratabound base-metal deposits; uranium associated with Precambrian(?) syenite; apatite, molybdenum, and alumina in alkalic rocks; Jurassic and Cretaceous black shales; possible bedded-barite and massive base- and precious-metal sulfide deposits; vein barite in Tertiary rocks in fault zones; sepiolite and bentonite for drilling muds and other industrial uses; celestite; possible Tertiary zeolite; and uranium deposits. Several of these deposit types could be Jointly developed and integrated into domestic industries; for example, phosphate and gypsum, or bentonite for pelletized iron from the banded iron deposits. Other deposits such as barite and sepiolite are of value because of their proximity to major drilling operations in the Arabian Gulf. Still other deposits, such as alumina and banded iron, might be marketable because of proximity to aluminum and iron-refining industries now being constructed in Saudi Arabia. Some deposits, such as celestite, can be developed with little capital investment; others, such as the iron deposits, would require large capital commitments. Exploration and evaluation for many of these deposits can be accomplished by Somali geologists with a few advisors. Most of the deposits require feasibility studies conducted by teams of economic geologists, extractive metallurgists, and economists. Some marginal deposits could be exploited if cooperative development schemes could be negotiated with governments in nearby countries.

  19. Mixed method approaches to evaluate conservation impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Burgess, Neil D.; Chamshama, Shabani A.O.

    2015-01-01

    management on two forests in Tanzania was evaluated using a mixed method approach. Current forest condition, forest increment and forest use patterns were assessed through forest inventories, and changes in forest disturbance levels before and after the implementation of decentralized forest management were...... that a mixed methods approach comprises a valid and promising way to evaluate impacts of conservation policies, even in the absence of control sites. By carefully linking policy outcomes to policy outputs, such an approach not only identifies whether such policies work as intended, but also potential...

  20. Evaluation and impact of cardiotocography training programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehrson, Caroline; Sorensen, J. L.; Amer-Wåhlin, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The interpretation and management of cardiotocography (CTG) tracings are often criticised in obstetric malpractice cases. As a consequence, regular CTG training has been recommended, even though little is known about the effect of CTG training. Objectives: To perform a systematic review...... of the existing literature on studies on CTG training in order to assess educational strategies, evaluation of training programmes, and impact of training programmes. Search strategy: The Medline database was searched to identify studies describing and/or evaluating CTG training programmes. The literature search...

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija

    2010-01-01

    in Western countries, demand has increased for evidence that these instruments are effective (however defined). Resurgent interest in evaluation has not, however, been accompanied by the conceptual developments required to redress longstanding theoretical problems associated with such activities. In order......The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness...

  2. Two-dimensional computer simulation of hypervelocity impact cratering: some preliminary results for Meteor Crater, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, J.B.; Burton, D.E.; Cunningham, M.E.; Lettis, L.A. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    A computational approach used for subsurface explosion cratering was extended to hypervelocity impact cratering. Meteor (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, was selected for the first computer simulation because it is one of the most thoroughly studied craters. It is also an excellent example of a simple, bowl-shaped crater and is one of the youngest terrestrial impact craters. Initial conditions for this calculation included a meteorite impact velocity of 15 km/s, meteorite mass of 1.67 x 10/sup 8/ kg, with a corresponding kinetic energy of 1.88 x 10/sup 16/ J (4.5 megatons). A two-dimensional Eulerian finite difference code called SOIL was used for this simulation of a cylindrical iron projectile impacting at normal incidence into a limestone target. For this initial calculation, a Tillotson equation-of-state description for iron and limestone was used with no shear strength. Results obtained for this preliminary calculation of the formation of Meteor Crater are in good agreement with field measurements. A color movie based on this calculation was produced using computer-generated graphics. 19 figures, 5 tables, 63 references.

  3. Post-impact climate conditions on early Mars: preliminary results from GCM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steakley, Kathryn; Murphy, Jim; Kahre, Melinda A.; Haberle, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Observations imply that liquid water was stable on Mars' surface during the late Noachian/early Hesperian era, with valley networks forming roughly 3.5-3.75 billion years ago, possibly from precipitation and runoff (Fassett & Head 2008, Icarus 195, 61; Hynek et al., 2010, JGR Planets, 115, E09008). Climate models, however, struggle to reproduce such warm conditions (Forget et al., 2013, Icarus 21, 81). Volcanism and impacts have been suggested as mechanisms of either inducing a warm and wet environment or causing local melting in a cold and wet environment. Comets and asteroids are capable of injecting into the atmosphere both kinetic energy from the impact and water from the object itself and from vaporized surface and subsurface ice. Segura et al. (2008, JGR Planets 113, E11007) find using a 1-D atmospheric model that significant rainfall and periods of above-freezing temperatures lasting months to years can follow impacts of objects between 30 and 100 km in diameter. We revisit this work utilizing a 3-D global climate model (GCM) to consider the effects of dynamics, topography, global surface ice variations, etc. We present preliminary results from the NASA ARC Mars GCM investigating global temperature and precipitation behavior in a post-impact, early Mars environment.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-06-01

    insect vectors of publichealth importance.Northeastern region of India is considered as a majorbiodiversity hot spot. The eastern Himalayas range,which extends all through the northern border ofAssam, is a rich treasure house of many promisingmedicinal and aromatic plants. In the present communication,an attempt has been made to evaluate themosquito larvicidal efficacy of methanol and ethanolextracts of different parts of five indigenous plantsagainst Ae. albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae and Culexquinquefasciatus larvae in laboratory conditions.Plant materials were collected from the foothill forestsof Sonitpur district, Assam bordering ArunachalPradesh during April and May 2005. They were segregatedas leaf, stem, bark, root and fruit/pericarp andair-dried in a shady place. Dried materials wereground in a table model grinder. The ground plant materialswere dipped in solvents (methanol and ethanolShort Research Communications146 J VECT BORNE DIS 44, JUNE 2007in tightly capped jars separately for 48 h. The solventsalong with extracts were drained out, filtered andsemisolid extracts were obtained in vacuum usingrotary evaporator. The semisolid extracts were lyophilisedto obtain solid extracts. Stock solutions of desiredconcentration were prepared in distilled waterusing 1 ppm teepol as emulsifying agent and subsequentdilutions were made as per requirement. Larvicidalbioassay was carried out as per standard WHOtechniques in 500 ml glass beakers containing 250 mlof water and 25 numbers of late III or early IV instarmosquito larvae for various concentrations. Threedifferent concentrations of each extract were tried outat a time with six replicates. One control was kept witheach set of experiment and mortality was recordedafter 24 h. Five sets of experiments were conductedfor each extract. Tests were carried out under controlledlaboratory conditions (temperature 27 ± 2oCagainst laboratory reared Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae larvae. Values

  5. Evaluating Broader Impacts: Issues and Opportunities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elthon, D.

    2010-12-01

    The NSF expects that funded projects will include activities that have intrinsic Intellectual Merit and that promote the Broader Impacts (BI) of this work to those outside the immediate research community. These BI activities take many forms, but often involve collaborations with schools, informal science centers, and media developers in efforts to promote the public understanding of science, encourage a talented and diverse pool of students to pursue careers in science, and illustrate the benefits society derives from scientific discoveries. A critical question is how to evaluate individual BI activities and the overall portfolio of BI activities. What are the metrics for success? How can evaluation results be used to improve the BI portfolio? Evaluation of BI activities is complicated by several factors, including: [1] The scope of BI activities is highly variable across different types of NSF-funded projects. Individual research projects typically have limited BI activities, with only modest funding (career impacts, and changes in cultural attitudes or perceptions are difficult to assess under this circumstance; [4] Limited financial resources sharply constrain the depth of inquiry for many studies, and, consequently, most BI efforts have not been formally evaluated or have only been through relatively simple formative evaluation surveys; [5] There is not a well-developed community effort focused on using evaluation results to identify the most creative and sustainable BI activities that have high impact, and, as a result, the importance of a thoughtful evaluation effort is often underplayed. There are many notable BI activities that have developed from the creativity of NSF-supported researchers, but it has proven difficult for these individual efforts to coalesce into a community-wide national endeavor that is recognized for its creativity and effectiveness. Recent advances in the learning and communication possibilities associated with broadband-hosted hand

  6. Preliminary survey on the impact of Schmallenberg virus on sheep flocks in South of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegerman, C; Martinelle, L; Dal Pozzo, F; Kirschvink, N

    2014-10-01

    Between late February and May 2012, a preliminary anonym survey was conducted among sheep farmers in south of Belgium in order to contribute to future estimations of the economic losses caused by Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Based on clinical signs consistent with SBV infection, this survey involved 13 meat sheep flocks considered as positive flocks with subsequent SBV detection by RT-qPCR [SBV-positive flocks (PF); total of 961 animals], and 13 meat sheep flocks considered as negative flocks (NF; total of 331 animals). These preliminary results indicated several significant characteristics that were more present in PF than in NF. These include an increased rate of abortions (6.7% in PF versus 3.2% in NF), of lambs born at term but presenting malformations (10.1% in PF versus 2.0% in NF) and of dystocia (10.1% in PF versus 3.4% in NF). Lamb mortality during the first week of life was reported more frequently in PF (8 of 13 PF, 61.5%) than in NF (1 of 13 NF, 7.7%). In PF, the observed prolificacy rate was 2-fold lower (93%) than expected (186%). The implementation of a survey at larger scale, including a high number of breeders, is necessary to allow a more detailed analysis of the SBV impact in the sheep sector.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Altitude Scaling for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of altitude scaling for turbofan engine ice crystal icing simulation was conducted during the 2015 LF11 engine icing test campaign in PSL.The results showed that a simplified approach for altitude scaling to simulate the key reference engine ice growth feature and associated icing effects to the engine is possible. But special considerations are needed to address the facility operation limitation for lower altitude engine icing simulation.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    , the least square methods outperformed the method based on minimum-phase approximation. However, the evaluation was only done for the best-case scenario, where the transfer functions used to design the filters correspond to the listener's transfer functions and his/her location and orientation relative...... to the loudspeakers. In this paper we present a follow up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when these conditions are violated. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeakers arrangements is described. Preliminary measurement results are presented for loudspeakers placed...

  9. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of mineral and hydrocarbon activities on the Nuussuaq peninsula, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Asmund, G.; Glahder, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2008-01-15

    There is an increasing interest for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in Greenland and in both regards the Nuussuaq peninsula is in focus. This preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment describes the status of the biological knowledge from the area and designates potential conflicts between activities and the biological environment. Furthermore biological knowledge gaps are identified. These should be filled before specific environmental impacts assessments can be carried out and relevant studies to fill these data gaps are proposed. (au)

  10. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  11. Does supplier evaluation impact process improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Prasad h c

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research explores and examines factors for supplier evaluation and its impact on process improvement particularly aiming on a steel pipe manufacturing firm in Gujarat, India. Design/Methodology/approach: The conceptual research framework was developed and hypotheses were stated considering the analysis of literature and discussions with the managers and engineers of a steel pipe manufacturing company in Gujarat, India. Data was collected using in-depth interview. The questionnaire primarily involves the perception of evaluation of supplier. Factors influencing supplier evaluation and its influence on process improvement is also examined in this study. The model testing and validation was done using partial least square method. Outcomes signified that the factors that influence evaluation of the supplier are quality, cost, delivery and supplier relationship management. Findings: The study depicted that quality and cost factors for supplier evaluation are insignificant. The delivery and supplier relationship management have significant influence on evaluation of the supplier. The research also depicted that supplier evaluation has significant influence on process improvement. Research limitations/implications: The study has been made specifically for ABC steel pipe manufacturing industry in Gujarat, India and may not be appropriate to the other industries or any parts of the world. There is a possibility of response bias as the conclusions of this research was interpreted on survey responses taken from the employees of case study company, so it is suggested that future research can overcome this problem by employing various methodologies in addition to surveys like carrying out focus group and in-depth interviews, brainstorming sessions with the experts etc. Originality/value: Many researchers have considered quality, cost and delivery as the factors for evaluating the suppliers. But for a company it is quintessential to have good

  12. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  13. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF DIPTERACANTHUS PROSTRATUS NEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy.P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteracanthus prostratus is an prostrate perennial herb. It is a small straggling, much branched herb it is purple at the nodes, internodes are long and hairy. It used as anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and Diuretics. The present study was carried out to preliminary phytochemical evaluation of whole plant of Dipeteracanthus prostratus nees. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detail analysis. Fluorescence analysis of different successive extract and powder were noted under UV light and normal ordinary light, which signifies there characteristics. Preliminary qualitative chemical test for different extract shows the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, fixed oil and fats, phenolic compounds, protein and amino acids, tannins, gum and mucilage, flavonoids and carbohydrates.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of timing training accelerator for the SPRINT rowing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffaldi Emanuele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the selection and preliminary evaluation of rowing gesture timing training on the SPRINT platform. After the analysis of experts’ gestures and a literature review of rowing technique features, the selection of proper feedbacks and the development of the training protocol are investigated. The general problem discussed here is the learning of timing of complex motor pattern under the effect of load. Eight novice adults participated the experiment, half of them receiving vibrotactile feedback (VIB, both receiving knowledge of results (KR after training blocks. Preliminary results show the difficulty people had to accomplish the task and to exploit feedback. There is in fact no evidence of feedback effectiveness when comparing VIB-KR and KR group. Some causes were hypothesized and a side effect of load condition arisen from data. Therefore timing training will be further investigated exploiting information gathered.

  15. Preliminary thermo-mechanical analysis of angular beam impact on LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Mariani, N; Rossi, A; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2012-01-01

    The correct functioning of the LHC Collimation System is crucial to attain the desired LHC luminosity performance. However, the requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess their effect on the robustness of the collimators. One of the most probable accident scenarios identified is an asynchronous beam dump coupled with slight angular misalignment errors of the collimator installation at the beam-line. Previous work presented a preliminary thermal evaluation of the extent of beam-induced damage for such scenarios, where it was shown that in some cases, a tilt of the jaw could actually serve to mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. This paper will further analyze the response of tertiary collimators in presence of such angular jaw alignments. Such work will also help to start identifying optimal operational conditions.

  16. Self-reported vicarious trauma in asylum evaluators: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishori, Ranit; Mujawar, Imran; Ravi, Nirmal

    2014-12-01

    Hundreds of clinicians in the US conduct asylum evaluations, to document evidence of torture and persecution of people fleeing their home countries. Participating in these encounters puts clinicians at risk for vicarious trauma (VT). Little research addressed VT in physicians. Even less is known about VT among asylum evaluators. A survey was distributed to members of the asylum network of Physicians for Human Rights in Spring 2012. The majority (65%) of survey participants denied having experienced VT. However, being female, being a mental health professional and having performed a greater number of evaluations was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting VT. We present preliminary data about VT in asylum evaluators. Recruiters and trainers should make every effort to address the issue and educate their volunteers about means of identifying and managing symptoms. Formal and informal support services and resources should be developed and shared with volunteers.

  17. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources.

  18. Low-dose fetal CT for evaluation of severe congenital skeletal anomalies: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Epelman, Monica; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bebbington, Michael [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wilson, R.D. [University of Calgary, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Congenital skeletal abnormalities compose a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of these anomalies is challenging because of the relative rarity of each skeletal dysplasia, the multitude of differential diagnoses encountered when the bony abnormalities are identified, lack of precise molecular diagnosis and the fact that many of these disorders have overlapping features and marked phenotypic variability. The following review is a preliminary summary of our experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) using low-dose fetal CT in the evaluation of severe fetal osseous abnormalities. (orig.)

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Co-Cr Alloys Fabricated by Three New Manufacturing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong-Ho; Lee, Dae-Ho; Ha, Jung-Yun; Hanawa, Takao; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary tensile test was performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys fabricated by three new manufacturing processes: metal milling, milling for soft metal, and rapid prototyping (n=6). For comparison, the three alloy materials were also used to fabricate specimens by a casting procedure. In all groups tested, the proof strength and elongation were over 500 MPa and 2%, respectively. The milled soft alloy in particular showed a substantially greater elongation, whereas the alloy fabricated by rapid prototyping exhibited a higher proof strength.

  20. Preliminary In-Vivo Evaluation of Convex Array Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    of STA imaging in comparison to conventional imaging. The purpose is to evaluate whether STA imaging is feasible in-vivo. and whether the image quality obtained is comparable to traditional scanned imaging in terms of penetration depth, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and artifacts. Acquisition...... using randomized blinded presentation. Penetration and image quality were scored and evaluated statistically. Results show that in-vivo imaging using STA imaging is feasible with improved image quality compared to conventional imaging.......Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging has previously been investigated and compared to traditional imaging techniques in simulations and phantom studies. However, a full in-vivo study evaluating its clinical potential has yet to be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary in-vivo study...

  1. Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international remittances, and migr

  2. Development of the wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit WB-4: preliminary performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuohua; Zecca, Massimiliano; Sessa, Salvatore; Bartolomeo, Luca; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance evaluation of our new wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit (IMU) WB-4 by compared with the Vicon motion capture system. The WB-4 IMU primarily contains a mother board for motion sensing, a Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission with PC, and a Li-Polymer battery for power supply. The mother board is provided with a microcontroller and 9-axis inertial sensors (miniaturized MEMS accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer) to measure orientation. A quaternion-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) integrated with an R-Adaptive algorithm for automatic estimation of the measurement covariance matrix is implemented for the sensor fusion to retrieve the attitude. The experimental results showed that the wireless ultra-miniaturized WB-4 IMU could provide high accuracy performance at the angles of roll and pitch. The yaw angle which has reasonable performance needs to be further evaluated.

  3. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-09-30

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design.

  5. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD, with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ages the same anatomical volumes, corresponding to five spherical regions of interest. In particular, tu study the overall vascularization of the fetal brain, we use a sphere with a diameter corresponding to the bi-parietal distance. To evaluate the regional vascularization, we identify four sampling spherical sites, two in each hemisphere. This standard technical approach according to correct morphological criteria allows to exclude from the analysis vascular territories external to the brain.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the expected radiation damage of the bayonet IFMIF back-plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoni, M. [Athena s.a.s, Via del Battiferro 3, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: manuela.frisoni@enea.it; Agostini, P. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (Italy); Fasanella, D. [Athena s.a.s, Via del Battiferro 3, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Micciche, G. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    This paper summarises and discusses the results of a preliminary damage assessment of the non-seizure coating of the bayonet IFMIF back-plate. Neutron-induced kerma factors, dpa and gas production cross sections libraries were produced in a multigroup structure for neutron energies up to 60 MeV, by processing evaluated nuclear data files with NJOY-99.259 system. The material damage evaluations in terms of heat deposition, displacement and gas production rates were calculated using these libraries and compared with the values obtained using the data contained in the pointwise ACE format files of MCNP5 code package. The calculations were performed with MCNP5 code both using the McEnea and the McDelicious neutron source models to reproduce the energy-angle distributions of the neutrons produced in IFMIF d-Li interactions.

  7. Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1986-03-01

    Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

  8. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  9. Measuring and Analyzing the Scholarly Impact of Experimental Evaluation Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelini, Marco; Ferro, Nicola; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation initiatives have been widely credited with contributing highly to the development and advancement of information access systems, by providing a sustainable platform for conducting the very demanding activity of comparable experimental evaluation in a large scale. Measuring the impact...

  10. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

  11. Integrative medical education: educational strategies and preliminary evaluation of the Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine (ICURAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christian; Tauschel, Diethard; Neumann, Melanie; Lutz, Gabriele; Cysarz, Dirk; Heusser, Peter; Edelhäuser, Friedrich

    2012-12-01

    the development and preliminary evaluation of a new medical program aimed at educating students in patient-centered integrative care and developing appropriate educational strategies. The Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine (ICURAM) was developed with modules on anthroposophic medicine integrated into the full 6 years of the regular medical curriculum. The educational strategy is the ESPRI(2)T approach, combining Exploratory learning, Supported participation, Patient-based learning, Reflective practice, Integrated learning, an Integrative approach and Team-based learning. The student participation, assessed based on the number of credit points earned per year (ctp/year) through the ICURAM (1 ctp=30 h workload), served as a preliminary indicator of student interest. Of the 412 55%medical students participated in the program: 16% full participation (≥ 4 ctp/year), 18% partial participation (1-3.99 ctp/year) and 22% occasional participation (0.25-0.99 ctp/year). The amount of additional workload taken on by students was between 7.8h/year for occasional participants, 33 h/year for partial participants and 84 h/year for full participants. More than half of medical students were willing to invest a significant amount of additional time in the optional program. An integrative medical curriculum with a student-centered educational strategy seems to be of interest to most medical students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  14. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  15. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  16. Summary of preliminary contaminant impacts investigations in the Clinch River Basin, Virginia, using multiple bioassessment techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992 multiple investigations were performed to collect preliminary information to direct future studies aimed at characterizing contaminant problems in the Clinch...

  17. Reviewing Impact Factor to Evaluate the Quality of Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Samadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Impact Factor is one of the most important tools to evaluate journals in ISI. In this article, have been tried to extract factors increase the journals' impact factor via studying the literatures and also introduce the factors that may be effective in reducing the weaknesses. The effect of factors such as interval, national, and individual motivations to increase the impact factor of journals and also issues that should be considered when calculating the impact factor, comprised some of the contents of this paper. At the end of the study, in order to evaluate the effect of using the optimal impact factor of journals, some recommendations were presented.

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-10-18

    This document presents the Preliminary Safety Evaluation for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The US DOE has been mandated to develop plans for response to safety issues associated with the waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, and to report the progress of implementing those plans to Congress. The objectives of Project W-230 are to design, fabricate, develop, test, and operate a new retrieval system capable of removing a minimum of about 75% of the high-heat waste contained in C-106. It is anticipated that sluicing operations can remove enough waste to reduce the remaining radiogenic heat load to levels low enough to resolve the high-heat safety issue as well as allow closure of the tank safety issue.

  19. Improving the Output Power Stability of a High Concentration Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitors: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The output power of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV system is very sensitive to fluctuating tracking errors and weather patterns. To help compensate this shortcoming, supercapacitors have been successfully incorporated into photovoltaic systems to improve their output power stability. This study examined the output power stability improvement of an HCPV module with a supercapacitor integrated into its circuit. Furthermore, the equivalent model of the experimental circuit is presented and analyzed. Experimental results suggest that integrating a supercapacitor into an HCPV module could improve its output power stability and further extend its acceptance angle. This paper provides preliminary data of the improvement and its evaluation method, which could be utilized for further improvements to an HCPV system.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of Gas Generation from the Korean LILW Repository using the SMOGG Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Beak; Lee, Sun Joung [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    For the permanent disposal of 100,000 drums of LILW (Low- and Intermediate-Level radioactive Waste) for the first stage of operation (800,000 drums in the long run) in Korea, the rock-cavern repository is being constructed at Gyeongju city. During the lifetime and post-closure period of the repository, it is expected that bulk gases (e.g. hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, etc.) are mainly produced by various mechanisms such as the metal corrosion, microbial degradation of organic materials, and radiolysis. Since gases generated have the potential threat to overpressurize the repository, which can promote the transport of radionuclide contained in groundwater and gas, it is necessary to simulate the features of gas generation from the repository using the appropriate computer code prior to the start of operation. This paper describes the preliminary evaluation of gas generation from the repository using the SMOGG code

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of MapReduce for High-Performance Climate Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Daniel Q.; Schnase, John L.; Thompson, John H.; Freeman, Shawn M.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    MapReduce is an approach to high-performance analytics that may be useful to data intensive problems in climate research. It offers an analysis paradigm that uses clusters of computers and combines distributed storage of large data sets with parallel computation. We are particularly interested in the potential of MapReduce to speed up basic operations common to a wide range of analyses. In order to evaluate this potential, we are prototyping a series of canonical MapReduce operations over a test suite of observational and climate simulation datasets. Our initial focus has been on averaging operations over arbitrary spatial and temporal extents within Modern Era Retrospective- Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. Preliminary results suggest this approach can improve efficiencies within data intensive analytic workflows.

  2. Evaluation of the Lagrangian Marker Method in CTH: Taylor Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    ARL-TR-7235•MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of the Lagrangian Marker Method in CTH: Taylor Impact by Stephen Schraml Approved for...Research Laboratory Evaluation of the Lagrangian Marker Method in CTH: Taylor Impact by Stephen Schraml Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...

  3. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  4. Which Features of Spanish Learners' Pronunciation Most Impact Listener Evaluations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kara

    2015-01-01

    This study explores which features of Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) pronunciation most impact raters' evaluations. Native Spanish speakers (NSSs) from regions with different pronunciation norms were polled: 147 evaluators from northern Mexico and 99 evaluators from central Argentina. These evaluations were contrasted with ratings from…

  5. Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia A. Neamtiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer research is a national and international priority, with the efficiency and effectiveness of current anti-tumor therapies being one of the major challenges with which physicians are faced. Objective To assess the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on cervical cancer treatment. Methods We investigated 37 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We determined cotinine and five phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected prior to cancer treatment, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and urinary total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. We used linear regression to evaluate the effects of cotinine, arsenic, and phthalates on the change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for confounding variables. Results We detected no significant associations between urinary cotinine, arsenic, or phthalate monoesters on change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for urine creatinine, age, baseline tumor size, and cotinine (for arsenic and phthalates. However, higher %mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (%MEHP, a putative indicator of phthalate diester metabolism, was associated with a larger change in tumor size (β = 0.015, 95% CI [0.003–0.03], P = 0.019. Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between the urinary levels of arsenic, cotinine, and phthalates metabolites and the response to cervical cancer treatment as measured by the change in tumor size. Still, our results suggested that phthalates metabolism may be associated with response to treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, these observations are preliminary and will require confirmation in a larger, more definitive investigation.

  6. Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S.; Dumitrascu, Irina; Roba, Carmen A.; Pop, Cristian; Ordeanu, Claudia; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Gurzau, Eugen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer research is a national and international priority, with the efficiency and effectiveness of current anti-tumor therapies being one of the major challenges with which physicians are faced. Objective To assess the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on cervical cancer treatment. Methods We investigated 37 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We determined cotinine and five phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected prior to cancer treatment, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and urinary total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. We used linear regression to evaluate the effects of cotinine, arsenic, and phthalates on the change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for confounding variables. Results We detected no significant associations between urinary cotinine, arsenic, or phthalate monoesters on change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for urine creatinine, age, baseline tumor size, and cotinine (for arsenic and phthalates). However, higher %mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (%MEHP), a putative indicator of phthalate diester metabolism, was associated with a larger change in tumor size (β = 0.015, 95% CI [0.003–0.03], P = 0.019). Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between the urinary levels of arsenic, cotinine, and phthalates metabolites and the response to cervical cancer treatment as measured by the change in tumor size. Still, our results suggested that phthalates metabolism may be associated with response to treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, these observations are preliminary and will require confirmation in a larger, more definitive investigation. PMID:27652000

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  9. Novel modular 2-DOF microsurgical forceps for transoral laser microsurgeries: Ergonomic design and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Manish; Barresi, Giacinto; Deshpande, Nikhil; Caldwell, Darwin G; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2016-08-01

    Transoral Laser Microsurgeries (TLM) demand a great level of control and precision in intraoperative tissue manipulation. The optimal eradication of the diseased tissue is possible only with coordinated control of the laser aiming for incision and the microsurgical tools for orienting and stretching the tissue. However, the traditional microsurgical tools are long, single purpose, one degree-of-freedom (DOF), rigid tools with small range of motion and a normal grasping handle inducing non-ergonomic usage. This paper presents a novel, modular microsurgical tool to overcome the challenges of the traditional tools and improve the surgeon-tool usage experience. The novel design adds a rotational DOF to expand the reach and functionality of the tool. The device is provided with an ergonomic grasping handle that avoids extreme wrist excursions and is capable of adapting to the variety of tools used in TLM within the same design. The performance of the new microsurgical tool was evaluated through a subjective assessment with both medical students and expert surgeons. The evaluation demonstrated a general acceptance of the new forceps tool, with the expert surgeons providing positive appraisals for the improved functionality and user experience with the tool, which indicates towards the potential suitability of the device for TLM. The parameters assessed in the preliminary evaluation not only provide a sense of the advantages of the novel design, but also guide future evolution of the tool design.

  10. Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET in Web-based Classes: Preliminary Findings and a Call for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Loveland

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Student evaluation of teaching (SET is important to faculty because SET ratings help faculty improve performance and are often used as the basis for evaluations of teaching effectiveness in administrative decisions (e.g., tenure. Researchers have conducted over 2,000 studies on SET during the past 70 years. However, despite the explosive growth in online education during the past decade, researchers have largely neglected the use of SET to evaluate teaching effectiveness in online courses. This exploratory study analyzed the actual SET data collected during a single semester at a large mid-western college that offers over 250 online/Web-based classes. The data included five dependent and eighteen independent measures of teaching effectiveness. The results indicate that average SET ratings in online classes are significantly lower than the average ratings in on-campus classes across all five dependent measures. This finding offers preliminary empirical support for anecdotal evidence cited by earlier authors in this field. Furthermore, regression analysis of the full model for each dependent variable indicated that the independent variables explained a significant portion of the variance in SET ratings. Examination of the standardized beta coefficients revealed that the strength and significance of the independent variables varied across the five dependent measures. Findings also indicate that organization of the course materials had a strong impact on all five measures of overall teaching effectiveness. Other variables including clarity of the instructor’s writing, timeliness in providing feedback, and interest in whether students learned were also significant factors in models that measured instructor effectiveness (as opposed to models that measured quality of course content. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of this study for administrators, faculty, and researchers.

  11. BACTERIAL CELLULOSE REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Gu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of polyethylene (PE composites were evaluated as a function of the addition of bacterial cellulose (BC. It was found that BC could improve the mechanical properties of the composites with or without the combination of traditional wood fiber. The improvements were affected by post-treatment. It was confirmed that BC had a significant influence on impact strength. The pellicle form of BC was able to achieve superior impact strength compared to the fluffy form of BC, but had similar effects on the tensile strength in comparison to the composites with fluffy BC.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of tin plating for extracoronal restorations: evaluation of marginal quality and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, M F; Rosenstiel, S F

    1998-01-01

    The influence of tin plating on marginal seating and retention of complete cast crowns was evaluated. Thirty-six standardized gold-alloy complete crowns were made on extracted human molar teeth prepared with a modified milling machine using conventional laboratory techniques. The crowns were randomly assigned to two groups according to the treatment of the fitting surface (air abraded with 50-micron aluminum oxide for 10 seconds, or tin plated with a microtin system for 3 seconds), and luted with adhesive resin cement (Panavia-EX, J. Morita). Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the variables for the cast alloy. Retention was measured with an instron testing machine after thermocycling (1,500 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with 1 minute dwell times). Marginal adaptation was measured with a Nikon microscope before and after cementation. Results were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and Student's t test. Retention was significantly different (P tin-plated crowns. Differences for marginal seating were not statistically significant. Tin plating after air abrasion was found to be a predictable and simple technique to roughen the casting surface, increase the surface area for bonding, and significantly improve the retention of cast crowns in vivo.

  13. Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although intuitively appealing, teacher self-report of treatment integrity is not currently recommended as a method for collecting treatment integrity data. Education researchers have not, however, evaluated features of a treatment integrity self-reporting system that may facilitate accurate self-report. In this preliminary investigation, four…

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Packing Materials for Flight Medication Dispenser (FMD) Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, B.; Daniels, V.; Crady, C.; Putcha, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews preliminary results of the program to evaluate Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) packaging materials for pharmaceutical stability. The need for improved packaging is due to possible changes in chemical and/or physical properties of the drugs, which cause reported reduced potency and/or altered bioavailability and decreased efficacy.

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  17. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  18. Impact of psychoeducation intervention module on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suravi Patra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD in India face a host of challenges, while seeking care which ranges from unavailability of information to difficulty in availing services. Aims: To develop a psycho-education intervention module for parents of children with ASD and to study its impact on parent stress and knowledge. Settings and Design: Child Guidance Clinic Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Interventional study. Methodology: Parents of children diagnosed with ASD as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria, recruited through consecutive sampling. Total number of 18 participants participated in the two phase study. Phase I included preparation of a parent training module through a four stage process and Phase II was evaluation of impact of the final version of the module on parental stress and knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test using SPSS version 17.0. Results: There was an improvement in all the domains of parenting stress and knowledge. Social stress score and total stress score showed significant improvement. Conclusions: Parent psycho-education intervention module on ASD decreases parenting stress, and improves knowledge about ASD. Psycho-education intervention module is a feasible and acceptable way of parent empowerment.

  19. Large climate-moderating envelopes for enclosed structures: a preliminary evaluation of energy conservation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R.L.; Giles, G.E.; Park, J.E.

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was made of the basic impacts of putting a large secondary enclosure around a number of functions and thereby creating a Large Climate Moderating Envelope (LCME). This study is a preliminary estimate of the energy conservation benefits of an LCME. A hypothetical LMCE design was chosen and a coupled fluid dynamic and energy transport analysis was performed to estimate the energy conservation potential of this design. The heat transfer models included insolation, outside air temperature and wind, thermal radiation exchange with the sky, and between the fabric and ground and thermal storage in the earth mass beneath the LCME. The energy transported within the fluid by the buoyancy driven circulation was modeled as an incompressible fluid utilizing the Boussinesq approximation. The climatic conditions were assumed to vary in smooth repeating daily cycles. The numerical simulation of climatic variation was continued until the results within the LCME achieved a repeating daily cycle. The results for selected seasonally characteristic days were utilized to estimate the annual energy consumption of structures within an LCME relative to similar structures exposed to the exterior environment. The relative annual energy savings for summer-dominated climates was estimated to be approx. 70%. The energy savings for a winter-dominated climate LCME were estimated to be somewhat smaller but the LCME concept could offer significant benefits for agricultural applications for this type of climate.

  20. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Susan C; Grefsheim, Suzanne F; Rankin, Jocelyn A

    2008-06-01

    The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme, including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. RESULTS / OUTCOMES: NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favourable response to the programme.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the use of a CDMA-based emergency telemedicine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jaemin; Chun, Honggu; Shin, Il Hyung; Shin, Sang Do; Suh, Gil Joon; Kim, Hee Chan

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted a preliminary evaluation of the use of a code division multiple access (CDMA)-based emergency telemedicine system to be used by emergency rescuers providing first-aid treatment for patients. The prototype system included five instrumentation modules for measuring non-invasive arterial blood pressure (NIBP), arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), six-channel electrocardiogram (ECG), blood glucose concentration and body temperature. The patient data were transferred to a doctor's PC through CDMA and TCP/IP networks using an embedded personal digital assistant (PDA) phone. Performance tests in the laboratory showed that the system provided reliable values with error ranges within +/-1% for heart rate, +/-5 mmHg for NIBP, +/-2% for SpO(2) and +/-1% for glucose. The feasibility of the prototype system was then evaluated with 15 real emergency patients on Jeju Island over a two-month period. Measured data were transmitted from a moving ambulance to the emergency medical centre without significant CDMA connection loss or transmission errors. The average transfer time was 8 min. Four emergency doctors and 11 rescuers completed a questionnaire. There were favourable reviews from the users.

  2. Pineapple juice as a negative oral contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, R D; Khonsari, M; Jeffries, J; Maskell, G F; Cook, P G

    2004-12-01

    The quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images is frequently degraded by high signal from the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study is to evaluate pineapple juice (PJ) as an oral negative contrast agent in MRCP. Preliminary in vitro evaluation demonstrated that PJ shortened T(2) relaxation time and hence decreased T(2) signal intensity on a standard MRCP sequence to a similar degree to a commercially available negative contrast agent (ferumoxsil). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry assay demonstrated a high manganese concentration in PJ of 2.76 mg dl(-1), which is likely to be responsible for its T(2) imaging properties. MRCP was subsequently performed in 10 healthy volunteers, before and at 15 min and 30 min following ingestion of 400 ml of PJ. Images were assessed blindly by two Consultant Radiologists using a standard grading technique based on contrast effect (degree of suppression of bowel signal), and image effect (diagnostic quality). There were statistically significant improvements in contrast and image effect between pre and post PJ images. There was particularly significant improvement in visualization of the pancreatic duct, but no significant difference between 15 min and 30 min post PJ images. Visualization of the ampulla, common bile duct, common hepatic and central intrahepatic ducts were also significantly improved at 15 min following PJ. Our results demonstrate that PJ, may be used as an alternative to commercially available negative oral contrast agent in MRCP.

  3. The Impact of 2008 Global Financial Crisis on the Performance of Selected Indonesian Stocks: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Suparman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is a preliminary study that analyzes the impact of the US financial markets on Indonesian financial markets during the 2008 global financial crisis. It specifically investigates the occurrence of contagion effect in the Indonesian IHSG index and selected LQ45 stocks with the US S&P500 index by the measurement of correlation using simple correlation, EWMA, OGARCH, and DCC GARCH. It also attempts to discuss on the decoupling of Indonesian market and provide recommendations on dealing with future similar events.

  4. The True Impact of Evaluation: Motivation for ECB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Janet

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing call for evaluation capacity building (ECB); although the area currently lacks a rich research base, there are few robust methods and practice through which to define it. The argument in this article is that the impact of evaluation is mediated by program stakeholders' engagement in evaluation activities. This mediation provides…

  5. The True Impact of Evaluation: Motivation for ECB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Janet

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing call for evaluation capacity building (ECB); although the area currently lacks a rich research base, there are few robust methods and practice through which to define it. The argument in this article is that the impact of evaluation is mediated by program stakeholders' engagement in evaluation activities. This mediation…

  6. Evaluation of the impact response of textile composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation of the impact damage resistance and impact damage tolerance of stitched and unstitched uniweaves, 2-D braids, and 3-D weaves was conducted. Uniweave laminates were tested at four thicknesses to determine the sensitivity of the tests to this parameter. Several braid and weave parameters were also varied to establish their velocity (large mass) impacts and then loaded in tension or compression to measure residual strength. Experimental results indicate that stitching significantly improves the uniweaves' damage resistance. The 2-D braids and 3-D weaves offered less damage resistance than the stitched materials. Stitching also improved the compression after impact (CAI) and tension after impact (TAI) strengths of the uniweave materials.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the profitability indexes of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The Laguna Verde nuclear power plant of the Federal Commission of Electricity has an installed capacity of 1,350 MW and unit 1 started commercial operation in 1990 and unit 2 in 1995. This paper is a synthesis of the results of a preliminary evaluation of the expected profitability indexes of the power plant during an economic lifetime of 40 years. The following data was used as input to the evaluation model prescribed by the Finance and Public Credit Secretary for public investment projects. Unit investment cost: 3,500 US D/k W; Fixed operation and maintenance cost: 54.{sup 45} US D/year-k W; Variable operation and maintenance cost: 0.{sup 38} US D/M Wh; Nuclear fuel cycle cost: 10.{sup 28} US D/M Wh; Lifetime capacity factor: 85%; Discount rate: 12.0% per year; Sale price of electricity to the interconnected electric system: 80.{sup 75} US D/M Wh. The output of the evaluation model is the following: Cost of electricity generated: 60.{sup 2}1 US D/M Wh; fixed cost 49.{sup 55} US D/M Wh; variable cost 10.{sup 66} US D/M Wh; Internal rate of return (Irr): 18.0%; Benefit to cost quotient (B/C): 1.341. A very systematic sensitivity analysis was done, that shows that the cost is very sensitive to the capacity factor and to the investment cost, but is very insensitive to the fixed operation and maintenance cost and to the nuclear fuel cost. Finally, a comparison was made to the evaluation of the profitability indexes of a natural gas fired combined cycle power plant. (Author)

  8. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda;

    2011-01-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening...... in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A preliminary analysis of the data is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men aged 40-69 years from families with BRCA1 or BRCA2...... mutations were offered annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and those with PSA >3 ng/mL, were offered a prostate biopsy. Controls were men age-matched (± 5 years) who were negative for the familial mutation. RESULTS: In total, 300 men were recruited (205 mutation carriers; 89 BRCA1, 116 BRCA2...

  9. Evaluating the Impacts of Mangrove Rehabilitation in Cogtong Bay, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliao, Ronald J.; Polohan, Bernice B.

    2008-03-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been hailed worldwide as vehicles toward sustainable development (SD) in coastal zones. The prominent model by which MPAs operate is through a comanagement approach, a shift from traditional top-down management. This paradigm shift must be reviewed continuously to evaluate its social and ecological impacts, thereby allowing adaptive management. We evaluated the perceived impacts of the Cogtong Bay Mangrove Rehabilitation Project (CBMRP; Philippines) by using 12 perception indicators categorized into 3 comanagement impact criteria (equity, efficiency, and sustainability). We also collected 16 contextual attributes of each respondent to determine the correlates of perceived impacts. Our results showed that there were significant improvements in all indicators under the efficiency criterion but mixed impacts in the equity and sustainability criteria. Access to resource and household income (equity) and fisheries abundance (sustainability) were perceived to have decreased during the last 15 years and were not expected to improve in the future. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the asymmetries of the perceived impacts of the CBMRP were principally caused by disparities in perceptions by gender and by location (Candijay and Mabini). This highlighted the importance of cross-scale institutional linkages between Cogtong Bay municipalities to systematically address baywide management issues. Our results further demonstrated the necessity of integrating gender issues into the evaluation of MPA impacts to ensure a robust evaluation. Finally, we recommend that a rigorous evaluation of MPAs using a common set of impact indicators should be encouraged to allow comparison of studies both spatially and temporally.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company's Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of a microtransesophageal probe in neonates and young infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Pavithran

    2014-01-01

    On preliminary evaluation, the microTEE probe provided good quality images in very small infants who were not amenable for transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation so far. The probe could be used safely in small infants without complications. It appears to be a promising imaging modality in the perioperative assessment of young infants undergoing cardiac surgery, in whom intraoperative epicardial echocardiography is currently the only tool.

  12. Grid-connected ICES: preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    The HEAL Complex in New Orleans will serve as a Demonstration Community for which the ICES Demonstration System will be designed. The complex is a group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical educational facilities. The five tasks reported on are: preliminary energy analysis; preliminary institutional assessment; conceptual design; firming-up of commitments; and detailed work management plan.

  13. Evaluating the Outcomes and Impact of Hybrid Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Patsy D.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines the importance of evaluating hybrid courses for their impact on faculty, students, and the institution. Research on best practices in hybrid courses is discussed and examples provided.

  14. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply...

  15. Assessing Impact Submissions for REF 2014: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manville, Catriona; Guthrie, Susan; Henham, Marie-Louise; Garrod, Bryn; Sousa, Sonia; Kirtley, Anne; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; Ling, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Research Excellence Framework (REF) is a new system for assessing the quality of research in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). For the first time, part of the assessment included the wider impact of research. RAND Europe was commissioned to evaluate the assessment process of the impact element of REF submissions, and to explore the…

  16. Assessing the Impact of Computer-Based Formative Evaluations in a Course of English as a Foreign Language for Undergraduate Kinesiology Students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Santos; Cabezas, Ximena; Ojeda, Luis; Leiva, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of computer-based formative evaluations in an undergraduate English course for second semester kinesiology students at the Universidad Austral de Chile-Valdivia (UACh). The target of the course is to improve the students' online reading comprehension skills in their field. A preliminary study was carried out in order…

  17. Preliminary evaluation of the learning outcome achieved by a nursing research seminar course for doctoral students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Meei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2008-06-01

    Educational evaluation is a priority policy of the Ministry of Education and student learning outcome is an important criterion used in educational evaluation work. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the learning outcome of a newly developed course for doctoral students entitled, Nursing Research Seminar. The course was one semester in length and required students to attend 2 hours of class per week. Student learning outcome was evaluated based on the level of understanding students had of course objectives. The six objectives of this course were: evaluating and integrating research papers; enhancing critical thinking skills; gaining an in-depth understanding of the literature related to topics of interest; enhancing ability to construct research proposals; guiding student dissertation work; and refining critical research skills. Data were collected from the responses provided by 25 students on a 5-point Likert-type evaluation form based on course objectives filled out during the last class of the semester. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were adopted. Results showed: (1) The average post-course score (24.76 +/- 2.89) was significantly higher than the pre-course score (18.40 +/- 5.52); (2) Students realized significant improvements in all six objectives at the end of the course; (3) There were statistically significant differences in improvement scores in all six objectives for students in different years of their doctoral program; (4) The lower the year in the program, the higher the improvement scores for each course objective; (5) The two objectives of the six that saw the most significant improvements were "gaining an in-depth understanding of the literature related to topics of interest", and "enhancing critical thinking skills". Because of the small sample size, conclusions drawn from this study should be treated as tentative. Findings provide preliminary information supporting the importance and necessity of offering the Nursing Research

  18. Avaliação do impacto do Programa Nacional do Leite em Alagoas, através de métodos isotópicos: aspectos metodológicos e resultados preliminares Isotope methods for evaluating the impact of the National Nutritional Program in Alagoas: methodological aspects and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Petrucci Gigante

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever aspectos metodológicos e resultados preliminares de um estudo de intervenção planejado para medir o impacto de um programa de suplementação alimentar sobre a promoção do crescimento infantil de crianças desnutridas. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal, controlado, desenvolvido no estado de Alagoas, com grupos comparados antes e depois da intervenção. Vinte municípios foram selecionados através de um indicador de cobertura do programa de suplementação alimentar. Essa cobertura foi estimada pela diferença entre a proporção de crianças desnutridas e a proporção de crianças atendidas pelo programa. Os dez municípios com indicador de alta cobertura foram selecionados para o grupo intervenção e aqueles de menor cobertura para o grupo controle. Em cada município do grupo intervenção foram selecionadas 15 crianças ingressando no Programa. Em cada município do grupo controle foram incluídas 15 crianças elegíveis, mas que não conseguiram vaga no Programa. RESULTADOS: Foram aplicados 111 e 102 questionários em crianças dos municípios do grupo intervenção e controle, respectivamente. A comparação em relação às características de base mostra que a distribuição das variáveis demográficas e nutricionais foi semelhante entre as crianças dos grupos intervenção e controle. Por outro lado, as crianças do grupo intervenção são provenientes de famílias com menor renda familiar e seus pais apresentaram menor escolaridade quando comparadas às do grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados preliminares mostram que os grupos são comparáveis em relação às variáveis demográficas e nutricionais e que as diferenças observadas quanto ao nível socioeconômico deverão ser consideradas na análise ajustada, na segunda fase do estudo.OBJECTIVE: To describe methodological aspects and preliminary results of an intervention designed to measure the impact on child growth of nutritional programs

  19. Evaluation and the social construction of impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.B.L. van der Meer (Frans-Bauke)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe central question of this article is when, how and what do governmental agencies learn from evaluations. A structural constructivist theoretical framework is developed and applied to two case studies, in both of which a report of the Dutch Court of Audit is taken as a starting point.

  20. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  1. The Internet's impact on policy evaluation: information compression and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry

    2004-04-01

    As with all media, the Internet structures and frames information, rewarding some information search and decision behaviors while punishing others and, thereby, strongly influences evaluation research results and possibilities. Now that the Internet is for many evaluators the information medium of choice, the impacts of the medium on evaluation deserve careful attention. The objective of this article is to lay groundwork for a theory of the impact of the Internet on evaluation and policy analysis. Questions addressed include the following: (a) What is the impact of the Internet on the evaluator's professional role, work norms, and work habits? (b) Does the use of the Internet affect who is an evaluator or the meaning of professional evaluation? and (c) How does evaluation via Internet affect the technical quality and credibility of evaluation? A key thesis is that the Internet compresses information in the sense that it is not always easy to distinguish among information resources and, especially, the authority of the information provider and the nature of the knowledge warrant. On one hand, the Internet's information compression seems to hold potential for the democratization of evaluation. On the other hand, the diminished ability to make quality distinctions about evaluation-relevant information may undercut the legitimacy of evaluation.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of a new fibre-optic cerebral oximetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J P; Langford, R M; Kyriacou, P A; Jones, D P

    2008-12-01

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a variety of patient monitoring applications. A particular unmet need is in the central nervous system, and this project aims to devise a means for measuring blood oxygen saturation in the brain tissue of patients recovering from neurosurgery or head injury. Coupling light sources and a photodetector to optical fibres results in a probe small enough to pass through a cranial bolt of the type already in use for intra-cranial pressure monitoring. The development and evaluation of a two-wavelength fibre-optic reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system are described. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be obtained from the finger using a fibre-optic probe. Experiments were conducted to find the inter-fibre spacings that yield signals most suitable for calculating oxygen saturation. Reliable signals could be obtained for inter-fibre spacings between 2 mm and 5 mm, the latter being the size of the maximum aperture in the cranial bolt. A preliminary measurement from human brain tissue is also presented.

  3. Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

    2012-06-01

    Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

  4. A preliminary clinical evaluation of external snehan and asanas in the patients of sciatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh K; Singh, Om P

    2013-01-01

    Lower back pain radiating to either on one leg or both legs along the course of sciatic nerve is a common ailment in the clinical practice, this type of peculiar symptomatology is termed as "Sciatica" in modern medicine. The medical treatment is unsatisfactory for both the patient and the neurosurgeons, as the surgical treatment has its own hazards and the cost of the surgical procedure and medical treatment is prohibitory to most of the Indian patients. Hence, most of the patients present themselves to the practitioners of Indian medicines like Ayurveda and yoga. This study was designed to evaluate the preliminary clinical effects of Bahya Snehan and Asanas in the patients of sciatica. This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of 60 participants showing classical symptoms of Sciatica between 18 and 65 years of age were randomly assigned to receive Ayurvedic or Yogic measure. One group received Snehan (external) with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana while another group received Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Both groups practiced supervised intervention for 4 weeks. The signs and symptoms like Katishool (pain), tenderness, Stambha (rigidity), difficulty in walking, pain on bending forward were graded and interpreted at the end of the trail Significant improvement was observed in both groups before and after external Snehan with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana and in another group Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Conclusions: Both groups, one with Snehan with asanas and the second with asanas only showed significant improvement in the patients of sciatica (Gridhrasi). PMID:23439799

  5. A preliminary clinical evaluation of external snehan and asanas in the patients of sciatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower back pain radiating to either on one leg or both legs along the course of sciatic nerve is a common ailment in the clinical practice, this type of peculiar symptomatology is termed as "Sciatica" in modern medicine. The medical treatment is unsatisfactory for both the patient and the neurosurgeons, as the surgical treatment has its own hazards and the cost of the surgical procedure and medical treatment is prohibitory to most of the Indian patients. Hence, most of the patients present themselves to the practitioners of Indian medicines like Ayurveda and yoga. This study was designed to evaluate the preliminary clinical effects of Bahya Snehan and Asanas in the patients of sciatica. This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of 60 participants showing classical symptoms of Sciatica between 18 and 65 years of age were randomly assigned to receive Ayurvedic or Yogic measure. One group received Snehan (external with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana while another group received Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Both groups practiced supervised intervention for 4 weeks. The signs and symptoms like Katishool (pain, tenderness, Stambha (rigidity, difficulty in walking, pain on bending forward were graded and interpreted at the end of the trail Significant improvement was observed in both groups before and after external Snehan with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana and in another group Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Conclusions: Both groups, one with Snehan with asanas and the second with asanas only showed significant improvement in the patients of sciatica (Gridhrasi.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of PTSD Coach, a smartphone app for post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eric; Greene, Carolyn; Hoffman, Julia; Nguyen, Tam; Wald, Laura; Schmidt, Janet; Ramsey, Kelly M; Ruzek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    PTSD Coach is a mobile application (app) designed to help individuals who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms better understand and self-manage their symptoms. It has wide-scale use (over 130,000 downloads in 78 countries) and very favorable reviews but has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this study examines user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness, and usage patterns of PTSD Coach in a sample of 45 veterans receiving PTSD treatment. After using PTSD Coach for several days, participants completed a survey of satisfaction and perceived helpfulness and focus groups exploring app use and benefit from use. Data indicate that participants were very satisfied with PTSD Coach and perceived it as being moderately to very helpful with their PTSD symptoms. Analysis of focus group data resulted in several categories of app use: to manage acute distress and PTSD symptoms, at scheduled times, and to help with sleep. These findings offer preliminary support for the acceptability and perceived helpfulness of PTSD Coach and suggest that it has potential to be an effective self-management tool for PTSD. Although promising, future research is required to validate this, given study limitations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Design, synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of brain targeting L-ascorbic acid prodrugs of ibuprofen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Wu; Xiao-Cen Li; Jie Mi; Jing You; Li Hai

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AA,vitamin C) exhibits a high concentration in the brain.The transportation of AA in brain is mainly mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the Na+-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2.While L-ascorbic acid C6-O conjugation has been investigated as a tool to enhance brain drug delivery,C5-O conjugation and C5-O & C6-O conjugation as brain targeting tools have not been reported.In this letter,ibuprofen was linked directly to C5-O,C6-O and C5-O & C6-O positions of L-ascorbic acid with eater bonds,providing prodrug 1,2 and 3,respectively,to improve their targeting abilities in the brain.Prodrug 1,2 and 3 were synthesized in facile ways with good yields.And the preliminary evaluation in vivo illustrated that prodrug 2 had a better targeting ability than prodrug 1.Moreover,prodrug 3,whose C5-O & C6-O positions were both modified,had good targeting ability for brain which will provide an important evidence for our further study on C5-O-& C6-O-di-derivatives of L-ascorbic acid.

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%. All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products.

  10. Preliminary Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluation of Crude Aqueous Extract of Psidium guajava Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.

    The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.

  11. Development of transmissometer system for evaluating molecular contamination effects and the preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobunari; Katoh, Masahiro; Okano, Nobuaki

    2005-01-01

    The presence of propagated molecular gas is one of the most probable causes of on-orbit degradation. The performance of optical sensors would be affected seriously if the strong absorption bands of the contaminants exist in the region of our interest and phase transition of adsorption gas on optical surfaces would induce not only absorption but also scatter. Although there are amount of trials to predict spectral degradation with model calculations, experimental approaches are also necessary to clarify degradation processes occurred in orbit and to improve the on-board calibration reliability. We built up the measurement system in order to evaluate transmittance degradation with various kinds of gases under different temperature and vacuum conditions. In our system, an optical glass, the site of adsorption, is set inside a cryostat and then a certain amount of molecular gas is injected. The amount of injected gas adsorption onto the optical surface is controlled by adjusting the sample surface temperature. Our systems have the capability to control vacuum within the range from 10-3Pa to 102Pa and temperature from 150K to 423K. As for the measurement of transmittance change, we adopted commercially available spectrophotometer and FTIR. The optical spectrophotometer covers the wavelength range from 300nm to 2.5um and the FTIR covers from 2um to 25um. We would present the details of our system and discuss about measurement accuracy and preliminary results of our measurements.

  12. Occupant evaluation of commercial office lighting: Volume 2, Preliminary data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marans, R.W.; Brown, M.A. (ed.)

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of a post-occupancy evaluation of office lighting environments. It explores the relationship between quantitative measures of lighting in occupied environments and qualitative measures related to occupant satisfaction. The report analyzes several types of data from more than 1000 occupied work stations: subjective data on attitudes and ratings of selected lighting and other characteristics, photometric and other direct environmental data, including illuminances, luminances, and contrast conditions, indirect environmental measures obtained from the architectural drawings and the work station photographs, and descriptive characteristics of the occupants. The work stations were sampled from thirteen office buildings located in various cities in the United States. Many tentative findings emerged from the analysis, including the following: (1) within the range of values examined here, there is a tendency for lighting satisfaction to decrease as lighting power density increases; (2) occupants who described their work station spaces as bright also tended to be satisfied with their work station lighting; (3) occupants who were most bothered by bright lights and glare were most likely to express dissatisfaction with the lighting at their work stations; (4) there is no relationship between work-related activities of employees and indicators of lighting quality. More research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn and before guidance regarding lighting standards and other policy issues can be derived. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  14. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of an Airfoil with Continuous Trailing-Edge Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinwei; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Kreshock, Andrew R.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Liu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary design and evaluation of an airfoil with active continuous trailing-edge flap (CTEF) as a potential rotorcraft active control device. The development of structural cross-section models of a continuous trailing-edge flap airfoil is described. The CTEF deformations with MFC actuation are predicted by NASTRAN and UM/VABS analyses. Good agreement is shown between the predictions from the two analyses. Approximately two degrees of CTEF deflection, defined as the rotation angle of the trailing edge, is achieved with the baseline MFC-PZT bender. The 2D aerodynamic characteristics of the continuous trailing-edge flap are evaluated using a CFD analysis. The aerodynamic efficiency of a continuous trailing-edge flap is compared to that of a conventional discrete trailing-edge flap (DTEF). It is found that the aerodynamic characteristics of a CTEF are equivalent to those of a conventional DTEF with the same deflection angle but with a smaller flap chord. A fluid structure interaction procedure is implemented to predict the deflection of the continuous trailingedge flap under aerodynamic pressure. The reductions in CTEF deflection are overall small when aerodynamic pressure is applied: 2.7% reduction is shown with a CTEF deflection angle of two degrees and at angle of attack of six degrees. In addition, newly developed MFC-PMN actuator is found to be a good supplement to MFC-PZT when applied as the bender outside layers. A mixed MFC-PZT and MFC-PMN bender generates 3% more CTEF deformation than an MFC-PZT only bender and 5% more than an MFC-PMN only bender under aerodynamic loads.

  15. The implementation and preliminary evaluation of an ART strategy in Mexico: a country example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Heriberto Hermosillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive use of preventive measures in Mexico including fluoride toothpaste, a national program of salt fluoridation and education on prevention has resulted in a large decline in dental caries over the past two decades. There does however remain a largely unmet need for restorative treatment. This paper describes the steps leading up to the adoption of a strategy, as part of general health policy, to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART within the Mexican public health service as a means to address this. This included the development of training materials, the organization of training courses for existing dentists and the incorporation of ART into the undergraduate curriculum. RESULTS: Six years after the introduction of ART in the year 2000, it was estimated that over 2 million ART procedures had been provided. As part of the planning cycle, an evaluation was undertaken in 2008 to determine amongst Mexican dentists what were the perceived problems when implementing the ART approach. Such research identified that the scarcity of appropriate dental materials and the lack of suitable instruments were the major problems. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of ART restorations and sealants placed as part of this National Oral Health Program was undertaken. The survival outcomes after one year compared favorably with one other study conducted in Mexico but were somewhat lower than the results reported from a number of other countries. CONCLUSION: The ambitious and forward thinking policy for improving the oral health in Mexico is now showing dividends. One example is the ART strategy, which has been successful both in terms of the number of ART procedures provided and generally in terms of clinical outcomes.

  16. Stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks: A preliminary study evaluating alcohol and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Stoops, William W

    2017-06-01

    The use of drug purchase tasks to measure drug demand in human behavioral pharmacology and addiction research has proliferated in recent years. Few studies have systematically evaluated the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks to demonstrate that demand metrics are specific to valuation of or demand for the commodity under study. Stimulus selectivity is broadly defined for this purpose as a condition under which a specific stimulus input or target (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes) is the primary determinant of behavior (e.g., demand). The overall goal of the present study was to evaluate the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks. Participants were sampled from the Amazon.com's crowdsourcing platform Mechanical Turk. Participants completed either alcohol and soda purchase tasks (Experiment 1; N = 139) or cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks (Experiment 2; N = 46), and demand metrics were compared to self-reported use behaviors. Demand metrics for alcohol and soda were closely associated with commodity-similar (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly alcohol use) but not commodity-different (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly soda use) variables. A similar pattern was observed for cigarette and chocolate demand, but selectivity was not as consistent as for alcohol and soda. Collectively, we observed robust selectivity for alcohol and soda purchase tasks and modest selectivity for cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks. These preliminary outcomes suggest that demand metrics adequately reflect the specific commodity under study and support the continued use of purchase tasks in substance use research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Evaluating the Impacts of Media Assistance: Problems and Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Noske-Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While some form of evaluation has always been a requirement of development projects, in the media assistance field this has predominantly been limited to very basic modes of counting outputs, such as the number of journalists trained or the number of articles produced on a topic. Few media assistance evaluations manage to provide sound evidence of impacts on governance and social change. So far, most responses to the problem of media assistance impact evaluation collate evaluation methodologies and methods into toolkits. This paper suggests that the problem of impact evaluation of media assistance is understood to be more than a simple issue of methods, and outlines three underlying tensions and challenges that stifle implementation of effective practices in media assistance evaluation. First, there are serious conceptual ambiguities that affect evaluation design. Second, bureaucratic systems and imperatives often drive evaluation practices, which reduces their utility and richness. Third, the search for the ultimate method or toolkit of methods for media assistance evaluation tends to overlook the complex epistemological and political undercurrents in the evaluation discipline, which can lead to methods being used without consideration of the ontological implications. Only if these contextual factors are known and understood can effective evaluations be designed that meets all stakeholders’ needs.

  18. Evaluating Academic Journals without Impact Factors for Collection Management Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilevko, Juris; Atkinson, Esther

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of evaluating academic journals for collection management decisions focuses on a methodological framework for evaluating journals not ranked by impact factors in Journal Citation Reports. Compares nonranked journals with ranked journals and then applies this framework to a case study in the field of medical science. (LRW)

  19. Evaluating the Impact of Cooperative Extension Outreach via Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Twitter is increasingly being used by Extension educators as a teaching and program-marketing tool. It is not enough, however, to simply use Twitter to disseminate information. Steps must be taken to evaluate program impact with quantitative and qualitative data. This article described the following Twitter evaluation metrics: unique hashtags,…

  20. Counterfactual Thinking and Impact Evaluation in Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Impact evaluations assess the degree to which changes in outcomes can be attributed to an intervention rather than to other factors. Such attribution requires knowing what outcomes would have looked like in the absence of the intervention. This counterfactual world can be inferred only indirectly through evaluation designs that control for…

  1. Grid-connected ICES preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Final report. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    A group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical education facilities, known as the HEAL Complex, was chosen as the site (in New Orleans) for the demonstration of a Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). The contract work included a preliminary energy supply/demand assessment of the Demonstration Community, a preliminary feasibility analysis and conceptual design of a candidate Demonstration System, preliminary assessment of institutional factors, preparation of a detailed work management plan for subsequent phases of the demonstration program, firming-up of commitments from participating parties, and reporting thereon. This Phase I study has indicated that a central ICES plant producing steam, chilled water, and by-product electricity to serve the HEAL Complex is technically and economically feasible to the extent that Phase II, Detailed Feasibility and Preliminary Design, should be implemented. (MCW)

  2. An Evaluation of the Rheumatology Coverage of Index Medicus. A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Peter

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary investigation which revealed the omission of four full length articles on rheumatology from Index Medicus'' is reported upon. Further investigations are in progress and will be reported at a later date. (Author/SJ)

  3. Evaluation of a laboratory model of human head impact biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Fidel; Shull, Peter B; Camarillo, David B

    2015-09-18

    This work describes methodology for evaluating laboratory models of head impact biomechanics. Using this methodology, we investigated: how closely does twin-wire drop testing model head rotation in American football impacts? Head rotation is believed to cause mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) but helmet safety standards only model head translations believed to cause severe TBI. It is unknown whether laboratory head impact models in safety standards, like twin-wire drop testing, reproduce six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) head impact biomechanics that may cause mTBI. We compared 6DOF measurements of 421 American football head impacts to twin-wire drop tests at impact sites and velocities weighted to represent typical field exposure. The highest rotational velocities produced by drop testing were the 74th percentile of non-injury field impacts. For a given translational acceleration level, drop testing underestimated field rotational acceleration by 46% and rotational velocity by 72%. Primary rotational acceleration frequencies were much larger in drop tests (~100 Hz) than field impacts (~10 Hz). Drop testing was physically unable to produce acceleration directions common in field impacts. Initial conditions of a single field impact were highly resolved in stereo high-speed video and reconstructed in a drop test. Reconstruction results reflected aggregate trends of lower amplitude rotational velocity and higher frequency rotational acceleration in drop testing, apparently due to twin-wire constraints and the absence of a neck. These results suggest twin-wire drop testing is limited in modeling head rotation during impact, and motivate continued evaluation of head impact models to ensure helmets are tested under conditions that may cause mTBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of MapReduce for High-Performance Climate Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, D. Q.; Schnase, J. L.; Clune, T. L.; Kim, E. J.; Freeman, S. M.; Thompson, J. H.; Hunter, K. A.; Theriot, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    Data intensive analytic workflows bridge between the largely unstructured mass of stored scientific data and the highly structured, tailored, reduced, and refined products used by scientists in their research. In general, the initial steps of an analysis, those operations that first interact with a data repository, tend to be the most general, while data manipulations closer to the client tend to be the most specialized to the individual, to the domain, or to the science question under study. The amount of data being operated on also tends to be larger on the repository-side of the workflow, smaller toward the client-side end products. We are using MapReduce to exploit this natural stratification, optimize efficiencies along the workflow chain, and provide a preliminary qualitative and quantitative assessment of MapReduce as a means of enabling server-side, distributed climate data analysis. MapReduce is a model for distributed storage and computation that seeks to improve efficiencies of the near-archive operations that initiate workflows. Simply put, MapReduce stores chunked data on disks with associated processors in such a way that operations on the chunked data can occur in parallel and return meaningfully aggregated results. While MapReduce has proven effective for large repositories of textual data, its use in data intensive science applications has been limited, because many scientific data sets are inherently complex, have high dimensionality, and use binary formats. We are using Apache's open-source Hadoop software implementation of MapReduce on top of the Hadoop Filesystem in our evaluation. Our analyses focus on soil moisture, precipitation, and atmospheric water-vapor, important classes of observation- and simulation-derived data products. The specific data sets being used in the evaluation include MERRA monthly precipitation and soil moisture products; the MODIS Atmospheres, 8-day global water-vapor product; and the SMOS 3-day global soil moisture

  5. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms.

  6. Complete Impact Factor (CIF): A full index to evaluate journal impact

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a full index to evaluate journal impact, Complete Impact Factor (CIF), was proposed. In general, CIF= total citations for published articles in the journal since it has been sponsored / total number of published articles of the journal since it has been sponsored. CIF changes dynamically over time.

  7. Complete Impact Factor (CIF: A full index to evaluate journal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a full index to evaluate journal impact, Complete Impact Factor (CIF, was proposed. In general, CIF= total citations for published articles in the journal since it has been sponsored / total number of published articles of the journal since it has been sponsored. CIF changes dynamically over time.

  8. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  9. Evaluation of Liver Stiffness After Radioembolization by Real-Time ShearWave™ Elastography: Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bas, Ahmet, E-mail: dr.ahmetbas@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Samanci, Cesur, E-mail: cesursamanci@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Gulsen, Fatih, E-mail: drfgulsen@yahoo.com; Cantasdemir, Murat, E-mail: cantasdemir@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kabasakal, Levent, E-mail: lkabasakal@tsnm.org [Istanbul University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kantarci, Fatih, E-mail: fatihkan@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Numan, Furuzan, E-mail: f.numan@superonline.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of ShearWave™ elastography (SWE) for the assessment of liver fibrosis after radioembolization (RE) in patients with liver malignancies.Materials and MethodsWe prospectively examined the effects of SWE before and after RE in 17 adult patients, from June 2012 to September 2013. All patients underwent SWE within 1 month before and 3 months (96.3 ± 22.9 days) after RE. Measurements were taken in segments III, IV, V, and VI (lateral/medial left lobe and anterior/posterior right lobe, respectively). Liver stiffness was studied in the 39 treated segments.ResultsThe mean stiffness of liver tissue according to the pre-RE SWE measurements was not different from the post-RE SWE measurements in the segments that did not undergo RE. Conversely, segments treated with RE were significantly stiffer according to the post-RE SWE measurements (mean SWE 17.4 kPa) than according to the baseline measurements (7.0 kPa) (p < 0.001). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and preexisting infection with hepatitis B and C viruses had higher pre-embolization stiffness, and the post-embolization stiffness of the treated segments in these patients was higher than that in the remainder of the study population.ConclusionThese data suggest that SWE measurements of liver stiffness increase as early as the third month after RE. SWE could be used as a noninvasive complementary imaging method for preliminary assessment of liver fibrosis before and after RE.

  10. An evaluation of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale: A preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene van Wyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The positive organisational behaviour movement emphasises the advantages of psychological strengths in business. The psychological virtues of positive emotional experiences can potentially promote human strengths to the advantages of business functioning and the management of work conditions. This is supported by Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory that emphasises the broadening of reactive thought patterns through experiences of positive emotions.Research purpose: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of a positive measurement of dimensions of emotional experiences in the workplace, by rephrasing the Kiefer and Barclay Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.Motivation for the study: This quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis investigates the factorial structure and reliability of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale, a positive rephrased version of the Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.Research approach, design and method: This Exploratory Factor Analysis indicates an acceptable three-factor model for the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale. These three factors are: (1 psychological recurrent positive state, (2 social connectedness and (3 physical refreshed energy, with strong Cronbach’s alphas of 0.91, 0.91 and 0.94, respectively.Main findings: The three-factor model of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a valid measure in support of Fredrickson’s theory of social, physical and psychological endured personal resources that build positive emotions.Practical/Managerial implications: Knowledge gained on positive versus negative emotional experiences could be applied by management to promote endured personal resources that strengthen positive emotional experiences.Contribution/value-add: The contribution of this rephrased Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a reliable measure of assessment of the social, physical and endured psychological and personal resources identified in Fredrickson’s broaden

  11. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Moringa oleifera on Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogah James Ode

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of higher plants and their extracts to treat infections is an old practice in traditional African medicine. However, scientific research has shown that bioactive compounds in plants are valuable medically in the treatment of infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms. This research work is aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of Moringa oleifera extracts on standard microorganisms strains as well as multi-drug resistant strains of medical importance. Acetone, aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extracts of bark, leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial assay were carried out using chemicals and agar well diffusion method respectively. The results of phytochemicals analysis revealed differences in the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, saponins and volatile oil in all the extracts. Tannins were present in the extract of leaves while terpenes were present in the extract of bark and leaves. Phlobatannins and flavonoids were absent in all the extracts. The antibacterial assay results showed that M. oleifera extracts exhibited broad spectrum activity against four to six bacteria isolates as indicated by the zone of inhibition ranging from 10 to 36mm with variation in the percentage sensitivity of < 100%, = 100% and >100% depending on the plant part and solvent used. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 100mg/ml to 450mg/ml and 250mg/ml to 500mg/ml respectively against the isolates used. Standard antibiotic disc (Ofloxacin- 5μg inhibited the growth of all the tested bacteria isolates except P. mirabilis. The results of this research work showed that M. oleifera has great potential as antibacterial compounds against Gram

  12. Mars Rover Curriculum: Impact Assessment and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Carlson, C.; Nieser, K.; Slagle, E. M.; Jacobs, L. T.; Kapral, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Houston is in the process of developing a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model Mars rover: the Mars Rover Model Celebration (MRC). It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. A total of 140 Mars Rover teachers from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 cohorts were invited to complete the Mars Rover Teacher Evaluation Survey. The survey was administered online and could be taken at the convenience of the participant. So far ~40 teachers have participated with responses still coming in. A total of 675 students from the 2013-2014 cohort were invited to submit brief self-assessments of their participation in the program. Teachers were asked to rate their current level of confidence in their ability to teach specific topics within the Earth and Life Science realms, as well as their confidence in their ability to implement teaching strategies with their students. The majority of teachers (81-90%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively teach concepts related to earth and life sciences to their students. In addition, many of the teachers felt that their confidence in teaching these concepts increased somewhat to quite a bit as a result of their participation in the MRC program (54-88%). The most striking increase in this area was the reported 48% of teachers who felt their confidence in teaching "Earth and the solar system and universe" increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation in the MRC program. The vast majority of teachers (86-100%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively implement all of the listed teaching strategies. The most striking increases were the percentage of teachers who felt their confidence increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation

  13. Evaluation of the Role of Probiotics in Endodontic Treatment: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohora, Aarti; Kokate, Sharad

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The principal goal of endodontics is the prevention of periapical infection. Acute and chronic apical periodontitis occur due to the persistence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans harboring the root canal systems of the teeth. The concept of the use of probiotics in addressing endodontic disease is new and has not been studied adequately. On the basis of the success of probiotics in periodontal treatment, this preliminary work was performed (a) to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of probiotics against common endodontic pathogens, i.e. E. faecalis and C. albicans, and (b) to evaluate the potential use of probiotic therapy as an additive in endodontic treatment procedures. Materials and Methods: Two commercial probiotics were selected and evaluated based upon the numbers and concentration of organisms. Pathogenic test organisms were C. albicans (ATCC 10231) and E. faecalis (ATCC 29212). Phase 1 of the study was conducted by agar cup method test to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the selected probiotics against E. faecalis and C. albicans by measuring zones of inhibition (ZOI) in mm. Microorganisms from probiotic samples were isolated following manufacturer's instructions. Pathogenic organisms were set to a 0.1 McFarland standard challenge. Circular wells of 8 mm diameter were punched in each of the poured plates. Appropriately diluted test samples were added to the above-punched wells. The volume of the solution added to each well was 100 μl. The plates were incubated in an upright position at 37°C for 24 hours under aerobic conditions. Post incubation, ZOI was measured (mm). Phase 2 was conducted by mixing 9 ml of 30% poloxamer 407 and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth in a test tube with 500 μl of either E. faecalis or C. albicans set at an optical density (OD) of 0.252, together with 500 μl of test probiotic strain, set at a respective OD. Samples were then incubated at 37°C for

  14. Value impact assessment: A preliminary assessment of improvement opportunities at the Quantico Central Heating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary assessment of opportunities for improvement at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This study is part of a program intended to provide the CHP staff with a computerized Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist in a more efficient, reliable, and safe operation of their plant. As part of the effort to provide the AI decision support system, a team of six scientists and engineers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) visited the plant to characterize the conditions and environment of the CHP. This assessment resulted in a list of potential performance improvement opportunities at the CHP. In this report, 12 of these opportunities are discussed and qualitatively analyzed. 70 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. A Preliminary Study of Internet Based Ticketing System Impacts on Selected Travel Agencies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Saleh Khuja; Abdul Manaf Bohari

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the Internet based ticketing systems has made information easily accessible to consumers and has therefore established a direct link between consumers and suppliers. This study focuses on the impact of the Internet based ticketing systems on the travel agency in Langkawi, Malaysia. The major method was included in-depth interviews with travel agents to explore and refine the major issues that faced by the industry. Interviews with consumers were also carried out to ascertain the...

  16. Preliminary development of flaw evaluation procedures for delayed hydride cracking initiation under hydride non-ratcheting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Cui, J.; Kawa, D.; Shek, G.K.; Scarth, D.A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The flaw evaluation procedure for Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) initiation currently provided in the CSA Standard N285.8 was developed for hydride ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides do not completely dissolve at peak temperature. Test results have shown that hydrided regions formed under non-ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides completely dissolve at peak temperature, have significantly higher resistance to cracking than those formed under ratcheting conditions. This paper presents some preliminary work on the development of a procedure for the evaluation of DHC initiation for flaws under hydride non-ratcheting conditions. (author)

  17. Buffering Negative Impacts of Divorce on Children: Evaluating Impact of Divorce Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer K.; Riffe, Jane; Trevisan, Dominic A.; Adesope, Olusola O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the call for more stringent evaluation methodology and recently documented national Extension presence in the field of divorce education for parents and children, the study reported here describes a local multi-level evaluation to capture program impact of a stakeholder-accepted divorce education program. Using a post-then-pre…

  18. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

    1978-02-15

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of a new clinical algorithm to interpret blood cultures growing coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, David; Lécuyer, Hervé; Geeraerts, Thomas; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Bille, Emmanuelle; Mercier, Frédéric J; Benhamou, Dan; Zahar, Jean-Ralph

    2013-07-01

    Evaluating the clinical significance of blood cultures positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is of critical importance since these microorganisms represent both the first contaminants of blood cultures and one of the leading causes of bloodstream infection (BSI). This prospective 2-centre study aimed to compare a previously reported algorithm to a clinical algorithm based on our experience. We identified 84 patients with CoNS-positive blood cultures. Twenty-seven (32%) were considered to have BSI according to our study algorithm. Thirty-seven (44%) patients were considered to have CoNS BSI according to the previously reported algorithm. The 2 algorithms isolated patients with similar rates of recurrences and hospital mortality. Our algorithm seemed to result in less diagnoses of CoNS BSI without harmful consequences compared to the previously reported algorithm. The impact on patient outcome and the inappropriate use of antibiotics deserves further investigation.

  20. An Unexpected Means of Embedding Ethics in Organizations: Preliminary Findings from Values-Based Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Burford

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles constitute a crucial area of debate and discussion in the global conversation around transitions to sustainability, and of particular relevance to the contribution of businesses and other organizations. Scholars in business ethics have recently identified several challenges in this area, such as problems of measurement, rigor, and meaningfulness to practitioners; corporate social responsibility; and institutionalization of ethics in businesses. In this paper, the impacts of a pragmatic values-based evaluation approach originally developed in another field—education for sustainable development—are shown to strongly contribute to many of these challenges. Impacts found across eight organizations include (i deep values conceptualization; (ii increased esteem (iii building capacity for assessment of values-based achievements; (iv values mainstreaming; and (v effective external values communications. It seems that the in-situ development and use of values-based indicators helped to conceptualize locally shared values that underpin decisions, thus embedding the application of (local ethics. Although this study is exploratory, it is clear that the values-based approach shows promise for meeting key challenges in business ethics and wider sustainability, and for new directions for future cross-disciplinary research.

  1. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Ligament: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dedicated Multi-Chamber Tension-Torsion Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric P. Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering may constitute a promising alternative to current strategies in ligament repair, providing that suitable scaffolds and culture conditions are proposed. The objective of the present contribution is to present the design and instrumentation of a novel multi-chamber tension-torsion bioreactor dedicated to ligament tissue engineering. A preliminary biological evaluation of a new braided scaffold within this bioreactor under dynamic loading is reported, starting with the development of a dedicated seeding protocol validated from static cultures. The results of these preliminary biological characterizations confirm that the present combination of scaffold, seeding protocol and bioreactor may enable us to head towards a suitable ligament tissue-engineered construct.

  2. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  3. The Impact of an Online Intervention (Brainology) on the Mindset and Resiliency of Secondary School Pupils: A Preliminary Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Claire; Topping, Keith; Hannah, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated the impact of the online interactive programme Brainology (which aimed to encourage a growth mindset) on the mindset, resiliency and sense of mastery of secondary school pupils. A quasi-experimental pre-, post- and follow-up mixed-methods study was carried out with 33 participants aged 13-14 years. The measures…

  4. The Impact of an Online Intervention (Brainology) on the Mindset and Resiliency of Secondary School Pupils: A Preliminary Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Claire; Topping, Keith; Hannah, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated the impact of the online interactive programme Brainology (which aimed to encourage a growth mindset) on the mindset, resiliency and sense of mastery of secondary school pupils. A quasi-experimental pre-, post- and follow-up mixed-methods study was carried out with 33 participants aged 13-14 years. The measures…

  5. Phytochemical constituents and preliminary toxicity evaluation of leaves from Rourea induta Planch. (Connaraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kalegari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most active plants are toxic at high doses and it is therefore important to investigate the preliminary toxicity of plant extracts. The Rourea induta species is a potential drug with no phytochemical or biological studies registered in the literature. Thus, a phytochemical study and a toxicity analysis of the ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Rourea induta Planch., Connaraceae, was run. A long chain hydrocarbon, n-tetracosane, and four flavonoids were identified: quercetin, and three glycosylated derivates, quercetin-3-O-α-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-xyloside and quercetin-3-O-β-galactoside. This is the first time these have been isolated in this species. The structures were elucidated by 13C NMR, ¹H NMR, UV and IR spectroscopy. The toxicity evaluation of extracts was performed by the brine shrimp method and determination of hemolytic activity. The samples demonstrated no toxic potential by the analyzed methods.A maioria das plantas ativas é tóxica em doses elevadas, portanto, é importante a investigação da toxicidade preliminar dos extratos das plantas. A espécie Rourea induta é uma droga potencial que não apresenta estudo fitoquímico ou biológico descrito na literatura. Assim, um estudo fitoquímico e análises toxicológicas foram realizados com o extrato etanólico obtido das folhas de Rourea induta Planch., Connaraceae. Foram obtidos um hidrocarboneto de cadeia longa, n-tetracosano, e quatro flavonóides, quercetina e três derivados glicosilados, quercetina-3-O-α-arabinofuranosideo, quercetina-3-O-β-xilosideo e quercetina-3-O-β-galactosideo. Esta é a primeira vez que estes compostos são isolados nesta espécie. As estruturas foram elucidadas por espectroscopia de RMN-13C, RMN-¹H, ultravioleta e infravermelho. A avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi analisada pelo método da Artemia salina e atividade hemolítica. Nenhuma das amostras testadas apresentou um potencial tóxico pelos m

  6. Process and impact evaluation of the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Health Impact Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kaaren R; Harris-Roxas, Ben

    2009-04-05

    despite health impact assessment (HIA) being increasingly widely used internationally, fundamental questions about its impact on decision-making, implementation and practices remain. In 2005 a collaboration between public health and local government authorities performed an HIA on the Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Options paper in New Zealand. The findings of this were incorporated into the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy. using multiple qualitative methodologies including key informant interviews, focus groups and questionnaires, this study performs process and impact evaluations of the Christchurch HIA including evaluation of costs and resource use. the evaluation found that the HIA had demonstrable direct impacts on planning and implementation of the final Urban Development Strategy as well as indirect impacts on understandings and ways of working within and between organisations. It also points out future directions and ways of working in this successful collaboration between public health and local government authorities. It summarises the modest resource use and discusses the important role HIA can play in urban planning with intersectoral collaboration and enhanced relationships as both catalysts and outcomes of the HIA process. as one of the few evaluations of HIA that have been published to date, this paper makes a substantial contribution to the literature on the impact, utility and effectiveness of HIA.

  7. Biogeographic perspective of speciation among desert tortoises in the genus Gopherus: A preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor Edwards; Mercy Vaughn; Cristina Melendez Torres; Alice E. Karl; Philip C. Rosen; Kristin H. Berry; Robert W. Murph

    2013-01-01

    The enduring processes of time, climate, and adaptation have sculpted the distribution of organisms we observe in the Sonoran Desert. One such organism is Morafka’s desert tortoise, Gopherus morafkai. We apply a genomic approach to identify the evolutionary processes driving diversity in this species and present preliminary findings and emerging hypotheses. The Sonoran...

  8. Ultrasonographic Fetal Growth Charts: An Informatic Approach by Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Ethnicity on Diagnoses Based on a Preliminary Report on Salentinian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear guidance on fetal growth assessment is important because of the strong links between growth restriction or macrosomia and adverse perinatal outcome in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Fetal growth curves are extensively adopted to track fetal sizes from the early phases of pregnancy up to delivery. In the literature, a large variety of reference charts are reported but they are mostly up to five decades old. Furthermore, they do not address several variables and factors (e.g., ethnicity, foods, lifestyle, smoke, and physiological and pathological variables, which are very important for a correct evaluation of the fetal well-being. Therefore, currently adopted fetal growth charts are inadequate to support the melting pot of ethnic groups and lifestyles of our society. Customized fetal growth charts are needed to provide an accurate fetal assessment and to avoid unnecessary obstetric interventions at the time of delivery. Starting from the development of a growth chart purposely built for a specific population, in the paper, authors quantify and analyse the impact of the adoption of wrong growth charts on fetal diagnoses. These results come from a preliminary evaluation of a new open service developed to produce personalized growth charts for specific ethnicity, lifestyle, and other parameters.

  9. A preliminary evaluation of the effects of Camellia sinensis on stroke induced rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Ali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objectives of current study are to test for Neuroprotective activity of Camellia sinensis in rat model of stroke and to evaluate the effect of Camellia Sinensis as anti-thrombolytic agent and in lowering the impact of disease with the behavioural changes before and after the induction of Stroke. Methods: Forty male albino rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion method for induction of stroke. Camellia sinensis extract was administered orally for 21 consecutive days prophylactically. Ischaemic rats administered the same volume of tap water were used as a control group. Functional outcome tests (Pasta, forelimb flexion, cylinder, staircase were performed. Rats were subjected to surgical procedures after 21 days’ treatment for analysis of stroke recovery. Results: Treatment with Camellia sinensis extract of 400 mg/kg PO significantly (P=0.000 enhanced neurological recovery in all tests performed. There was no significant difference of infarct volume among the experimental groups treated with Camellia sinensis extract 200 mg/kg PO. Conclusion: The outcomes of this study was vivid that Camellia sinensis extract is safe and effective mediator in clot dissolution and stroke reversal in rat model. It is the first agent found effective in no behavioural modification or adverse effects using its extract. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate, assess and appraise its desired characteristics and therapeutics in human subjects.

  10. Target population involvement in urban ciclovias: a preliminary evaluation of St. Louis open streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kuhlberg, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Ciclovias are active street events when roads are open to walkers, cyclists, and families and closed to automobiles. Over 70 cities in the USA have implemented ciclovias to promote physical activity. The authors evaluated four events during 2010 to determine what activities participants perform and who is attending. For two ciclovia events in St. Louis, Missouri, observation reports of activities, gender, and age of 1,452 participants were collected, and 82 adults were interviewed via direct approach. The survey covered six domains: physical activity, travel to event, sense of community, marketing, economic impact, and demographics. Each event occurred within the city, along multiple streets. Domains were selected from Ciclovia Recreativa developed by Ciclovia Bogota, Pan American Health Organization, and CDC. Additional questions addressed city-specific goals and matched similar evaluations in other cities. Over 50 % of participants met CDC-defined weekly minute thresholds for physical activity. Participants, primarily (>80 %) middle class, college educated, and white, were not representative of the majority minority city population, which has high rates of poverty, and low percentage of college graduates. Cities must work with residents to increase low-income minority population participation in ciclovia-based physical activity.

  11. The Impact of Conducting ATAM Evaluations on Army Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Nord, John Bergey , Stephen Blanchette, Jr., Mark Klein May 2009 ® Carnegie Mellon, Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method, and ATAM are...Nord, R.L., Bergey , J., Blanchette, Jr., S. Klein, M. Impact of Army Architecture Evaluations (CMU/SEI-2009-SR-007). Software Engineering Institute

  12. An Evaluation Framework for Sustaining the Impact of Educational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kazuaki; Pillay, Hitendra; Hudson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding significant efforts by international aid agencies, aid ineffectiveness became apparent in 1990s as the impact of continued development intervention did not endure the expected outcomes. Conventional monitoring and evaluation by those agencies is critiqued for focusing on measuring project outcomes and giving little attention to…

  13. Norming of Student Evaluations of Instruction: Impact of Noninstructional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargundkar, Satish; Shrikhande, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEIs) from about 6,000 sections over 4 years representing over 100,000 students at the college of business at a large public university are analyzed, to study the impact of noninstructional factors on student ratings. Administrative factors like semester, time of day, location, and instructor attributes like…

  14. Evaluating impact of truck announcements on container stacking efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asperen (Eelco); B. Borgman (Bram); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContainer stacking rules are an important factor in container terminal efficiency. We build on prior research and use a discrete-event simulation model to evaluate the impact of a truck announcement system on the performance of online container stacking rules. The information that is con

  15. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  16. Norming of Student Evaluations of Instruction: Impact of Noninstructional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargundkar, Satish; Shrikhande, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEIs) from about 6,000 sections over 4 years representing over 100,000 students at the college of business at a large public university are analyzed, to study the impact of noninstructional factors on student ratings. Administrative factors like semester, time of day, location, and instructor attributes like…

  17. The Impact of Self-Evaluation Instruction on Student Self-Evaluation, Music Performance, and Self-Evaluation Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The author sought to determine whether self-evaluation instruction had an impact on student self-evaluation, music performance, and self-evaluation accuracy of music performance among middle school instrumentalists. Participants (N = 211) were students at a private middle school located in a metropolitan area of a mid-Atlantic state. Students in…

  18. An Overview on Evaluating and Predicting Scholarly Article Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Bai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly article impact reflects the significance of academic output recognised by academic peers, and it often plays a crucial role in assessing the scientific achievements of researchers, teams, institutions and countries. It is also used for addressing various needs in the academic and scientific arena, such as recruitment decisions, promotions, and funding allocations. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent progresses related to article impact assessment and prediction. The review starts by sharing some insight into the article impact research and outlines current research status. Some core methods and recent progress are presented to outline how article impact metrics and prediction have evolved to consider integrating multiple networks. Key techniques, including statistical analysis, machine learning, data mining and network science, are discussed. In particular, we highlight important applications of each technique in article impact research. Subsequently, we discuss the open issues and challenges of article impact research. At the same time, this review points out some important research directions, including article impact evaluation by considering Conflict of Interest, time and location information, various distributions of scholarly entities, and rising stars.

  19. The Impact of CBT and ACT Models Using Psychology Trainee Therapists: A Preliminary Controlled Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Raimo; Lehtonen, Tuula; Skarp, Eerika; Taubert, Eija; Ojanen, Markku; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study compares the impact of individualized treatment provided by trainee therapists based on a traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) model. Fourteen therapists were given initial training in CBT and ACT. Outpatients (N = 28) were randomized to either approach, with each therapist…

  20. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Shen, Hongxia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McDevitt, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Sturges, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-02-07

    Policies aimed at energy conservation and efficiency have broad environmental and economic impacts. Even if these impacts are relatively small, they may be significant compared to the cost of implementing the policy. Methodologies that quantify the marginal impacts of reduced demand for energy have an important role to play in developing accurate measures of both the benefits and costs of a given policy choice. This report presents a methodology for estimating the impacts of reduced demand for electricity on the electric power sector as a whole. The approach uses the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), a mid-range energy forecast model developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA)(DOE EIA 2013). The report is organized as follows: In the rest of this section the traditional NEMS-BT approach is reviewed and an outline of the new reduced form NEMS methodology is presented. Section 2 provides an overview of how the NEMS model works, and describes the set of NEMS-BT runs that are used as input to the reduced form approach. Section 3 presents our NEMS-BT simulation results and post-processing methods. In Section 4 we show how the NEMS-BT output can be generalized to apply to a broader set of end-uses. In Section 5 we disuss the application of this approach to policy analysis, and summarize some of the issues that will be further investigated in Part 2 of this study.

  1. Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Althea T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

  2. Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program.

  3. Energy Impact of Different Penetrations of Connected and Automated Vehicles: A Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Torres, Jackeline [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported in the literature has shown the benefits of traffic coordination to alleviate congestion, and reduce fuel consumption and emissions. However, there are still many remaining challenges that need to be addressed before a massive deployment of fully automated vehicles. This paper aims to investigate the energy impacts of different penetration rates of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) and their interaction with human-driven vehicles. We develop a simulation framework for mixed traffic (CAVs interacting with human-driven vehicles) in merging roadways and analyze the energy impact of different penetration rates of CAVs on the energy consumption. The Gipps car following model is used along with heuristic controls to represent the driver decisions in a merging roadways traffic scenario. Using different penetration rates of CAVs, the simulation results indicated that for low penetration rates, the fuel consumption benefits are significant but the total travel time increases. The benefits in travel time are noticeable for higher penetration rates of CAVs.

  4. Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Air Force Low Altitude Flying Operations. Preliminary Draft. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    and Marketing ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PSD Prevention of Significant Deterioration RAs Restricted Areas SAC Strategic Air Command SO 2 sulfur...resources under IR-700. However, significant impacts have not been reported to the New York Department of Agriculture and Markets (Butcher 1987...nesting of bald eagles at particular sites in Salt River and Verde River canyons, which is an important issue with 3 birdwatchers . The preservation of

  5. Information Communication Technology (ICT) for Disabled Persons in Bangladesh: Preliminary Study of Impact/Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Zahid, Md.,; Ashraf, Md.,; Malik, Bushra; Hoque, Md.,

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: Shorter Papers; International audience; To meet the need of digital inclusion and to mitigate the digital divide between disable and general people different ICT interventions are implemented in different developing and developed countries. But question arises to what extent these interventions are successful? Are these interventions are successful for creating new hope and confidence among disabled people? In this working paper we have tried to find the impact of these interventions ...

  6. Evaluating the Impact of Aerosols on Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Saulo; Silva, Arlindo; Benedetti, Angela; Grell, Georg; Members, Wgne; Zarzur, Mauricio

    2015-04-01

    The Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WMO, http://www.wmo.int/pages/about/sec/rescrosscut/resdept_wgne.html) has organized an exercise to evaluate the impact of aerosols on NWP. This exercise will involve regional and global models currently used for weather forecast by the operational centers worldwide and aims at addressing the following questions: a) How important are aerosols for predicting the physical system (NWP, seasonal, climate) as distinct from predicting the aerosols themselves? b) How important is atmospheric model quality for air quality forecasting? c) What are the current capabilities of NWP models to simulate aerosol impacts on weather prediction? Toward this goal we have selected 3 strong or persistent events of aerosol pollution worldwide that could be fairly represented in current NWP models and that allowed for an evaluation of the aerosol impact on weather prediction. The selected events includes a strong dust storm that blew off the coast of Libya and over the Mediterranean, an extremely severe episode of air pollution in Beijing and surrounding areas, and an extreme case of biomass burning smoke in Brazil. The experimental design calls for simulations with and without explicitly accounting for aerosol feedbacks in the cloud and radiation parameterizations. In this presentation we will summarize the results of this study focusing on the evaluation of model performance in terms of its ability to faithfully simulate aerosol optical depth, and the assessment of the aerosol impact on the predictions of near surface wind, temperature, humidity, rainfall and the surface energy budget.

  7. Children's Agricultural Safety Network: Evaluating Organizational Effectiveness and Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    Coalitions that are effectively organized and led are more likely to achieve their intended program outcomes and impacts, as well as achieve sustainability. External evaluation of the coalition's governance and leadership can help identify strengths and areas for improvement. This article describes the evaluation of the Children's Agricultural Safety Network (CASN)-a national coalition, or network of 45 organizational members. The conceptual framework, Internal Coalition Outcomes Hierarchy, guided the evaluation. We used a mixed-methods approach to answer study's primary objectives from the perspective of CASN members and leaders for (a) organizational effectiveness, (b) network impact, and (c) member benefits. We collected quantitative data using a survey and the Internal Coalition Effectiveness (ICE) instrument. Focused interviews were conducted by phone to gather rich data on examples. Combined findings showed that both members and leaders rated the CASN effective in all construct areas that define successful coalitions. Members feel as invested in CASN success as do leaders. The major impact of CASN has been as a national leader and clearinghouse for childhood safety issues, and the most frequently cited example of impact was the national tractor safety campaign. Members identified the benefits of CASN membership as networking, resource sharing, and opportunities to enhance their knowledge, skills, and practices in the area. Members also valued the national attention that CASN was able to bring to the important issues in childhood agricultural safety. Suggestions for improvement were to focus on more research to improve best practices and strengthen dissemination and implementation science.

  8. Fetal movements and placental lactogen levels for fetal-placental evaluation. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellacy, W N; Cruz, A C; Gelman, S R; Buhi, W C

    1977-01-01

    Fetal movements were measured by 37 pregnant women during a 10-minute period while they were lying on their left side at various times during the day with the highest rates in the evening. Preliminary assessments of fetal movement and serum hPL levels in pregnant women suggest that the two tests might complement each other in providing more information about the status of the placenta and fetus.

  9. The impact of epistemological beliefs and cognitive ability on recall and critical evaluation of scientific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Scientific research findings are frequently picked up by the mainstream media, but it is largely unclear which factors have an impact on laypeople's processing of the presented scientific information. In this study, we investigated the influence of cognitive and metacognitive inter-individual differences on recall and on critical evaluation of new scientific information that was presented in a journalistic article. Sixty-three participants (80 % female; mean age 24.1 ± 3.3 years) read a newspaper article reporting research findings on a recently developed and yet unproven treatment for depression. We found that more sophisticated, domain-specific epistemological beliefs and a higher cognitive ability were independently associated with better recall of content from the article. Additionally, participants with more sophisticated epistemological beliefs displayed a more critical evaluation of the article. Cognitive ability was unrelated to critical evaluation and to epistemological beliefs. There were also no interaction effects of cognitive ability and epistemological beliefs on recall or on critical evaluation. Based on our preliminary findings and previous evidence of epistemological beliefs as a modifiable feature, we discuss this inter-individual characteristic as a potential target for the promotion of better understanding of scientific topics by the general public.

  10. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  11. A Preliminary Evaluation of Season-ahead Flood Prediction Conditioned on Large-scale Climate Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Ward, Philip; Block, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Globally, flood disasters lead all natural hazards in terms of impacts on society, causing billions of dollars of damages each year. Typically, short-term forecasts emphasize immediate emergency actions, longer-range forecasts, on the order of months to seasons, however, can compliment short-term forecasts by focusing on disaster preparedness. In this study, the inter-annual variability of large-scale climate drivers (e.g. ENSO) is investigated to understand the prospects for skillful season-ahead flood prediction globally using PCR-GLOBWB modeled simulations. For example, global gridded correlations between discharge and Nino 3.4 are calculated, with notably strong correlations in the northwestern (-0.4~-0.6) and the southeastern (0.4~0.6) United States, and the Amazon river basin (-0.6~-0.8). Coupled interactions from multiple, simultaneous climate drivers are also evaluated. Skillful prediction has the potential to estimate season-ahead flood probabilities, flood extent, damages, and eventually integrate into early warning systems. This global approach is especially attractive for areas with limited observations and/or little capacity to develop early warning flood systems.

  12. Development and preliminary evaluation of culturally specific web-based intervention for parents of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Kim, S; Ko, H; Kim, Y; Park, C G

    2016-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Problematic parent-child relationships have been identified as one of the main predictors of adolescents' mental health problems, but there are few existing interventions that address this issue. The format and delivery method of existing interventions for parents are relatively inaccessible for parents with full-time jobs and families living in rural areas. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The newly developed 'Stepping Stone' culturally specific web-based intervention, which is intended to help Korean parents of adolescents to acquire both knowledge and communication and conflict management skills, was found to be feasible and well-accepted by parents. This study enabled us to identify areas for improvement in the content and format of the intervention and strategies. This will potentially increase effect sizes for the outcome variables of parents' perception and behaviours. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This web-based intervention could be delivered across diverse settings, such as schools and community mental health centers, to increase parents' knowledge of adolescent's mental health and allow for early detection of mental health problems. Mental health nurses working in schools may spend a significant amount of time addressing students' mental health issues; thus, this web-based intervention could be a useful resource to share with parents and children. In this way, the mental health nurses could facilitate parental engagement in the intervention and then help them to continue to apply and practice the knowledge and skills obtained through the program. Introduction There is a need for accessible, culturally specific web-based interventions to address parent-child relationships and adolescents' mental health. Aims This study developed and conducted a preliminary evaluation of a 4-week web-based intervention for parents of adolescents aged 11 to 16 years in Korea. Methods We used a two-group, repeated

  13. Evaluate the Impact of your Education and Outreach Program Using the Quantitative Collaborative Impact Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalice, D.; Davis, H. B.

    2015-12-01

    The AGU scientific community has a strong motivation to improve the STEM knowledge and skills of today's youth, and we are dedicating increasing amounts of our time and energy to education and outreach work. Scientists and educational project leads can benefit from a deeper connection to the value of evaluation, how to work with an evaluator, and how to effectively integrate evaluation into projects to increase their impact. This talk will introduce a method for evaluating educational activities, including public talks, professional development workshops for educators, youth engagement programs, and more. We will discuss the impetus for developing this method--the Quantitative Collaborative Impact Analysis Method--how it works, and the successes we've had with it in the NASA Astrobiology education community.

  14. 3-D Tomographic Imaging of the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Preliminary Results From EW#0501

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, A. T.; Barton, P. J.; Vermeesch, P. M.; Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M. R.; Gulick, S. P.; Christeson, G. L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Melosh, H. J.; McDonald, M. A.; Goldin, T.; Mendoza, K.

    2005-05-01

    The Chicxulub impact structure provides a unique opportunity to investigate the sub-surface morphology of large craters on Earth and other planets. The structure of the crater interior is still poorly known and there is much uncertainty over the sequence of events by which these large craters form and the magnitude of the subsequent catastrophic environmental effects. In early 2005, a reflection-refraction survey aboard the R/V Maurice Ewing imaged the deep structure of the Chicxulub impact. We present wide-angle data collected by a 3-D grid of 50 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs), 86 three-component land stations and a 6 km long hydrophone streamer. The OBS grid, designed to image the peak ring and underlying structure of the northwestern quadrant of the crater, recorded shots from several seismic profiles in various orientations. Many of these profiles extended past the crater rim imaging to the base of the crust. Travel-time picks from this dataset, combined with existing 1996 data, will be inverted using the JIVE3-D tomographic inversion program to create a fully 3-D velocity model of the crater interior. The interpretation of the velocity model will focus on the morphology of the peak ring and the central uplift, and the distribution of breccia and suevite (an impact related breccia/melt) in the centre of the crater. We will calculate the Poisson's ratio for different areas of the crater using both the P-wave velocity model and S-wave arrivals, including those from the 1996 land station data. Comparisons of these values with measurements on the Yaxcopoil-1 core taken from within the crater provide ground-truth for our tomographic model. The contrast in Poisson's ratio between areas of suevite and the surrounding rock further constrain the distribution of breccia and suevite.

  15. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  16. Evaluation of Impact Force of Missile Filled with Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk-Kee [Hyundai, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Eock [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the effect of the fluid on the impact force was evaluated using the commercial software LS-DYNA. In order to verify the proposed finite element (FE) models, the impact force and impulse of the missiles filled with the fluid (wet missile) were investigated, and the analysis results were compared with the force plate tests conducted by VTT laboratory in Finland. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the impulse as per the position filled with the fluid and the impact velocity. The impulses of the wet missiles obtained from the parametric study were compared with those calculated by the modified Riera function. The effect of the fluid on the impact force was evaluated in this study. Based on this study, the following conclusions have been obtained: (1) The impulse/momentum ratios of the wet missiles filled with fluid in the front part were larger than those filled with fluid in the middle part. The difference was 5.5%, 5.3%, 6.2%, 3.8%, 2.9% and 1.0% for the impact velocities of 100 m/s, 110 m/s, 120 m/s, 130 m/s, 140 m/s, and 150 m/s, respectively. (2) The impulse/momentum ratios of the wet missiles by the FE analysis was larger than those by the modified Riera function up to 23.1% and 20.8%, respectively, when the fluid was filled in the front and middle parts. The modified Riera function underestimated the impulses of the wet missiles.

  17. Distributed Impact Detector System (DIDS) Health Monitoring System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Damage due to impacts from micrometeoroids and orbital debris is one of the most significant on-orbit hazards for spacecraft. Impacts to thermal protection systems must be detected and the damage evaluated to determine if repairs are needed to allow safe re-entry. To address this issue for the International Space Station Program, Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center technologists have been working to develop and implement advanced methods for detecting impacts and resultant leaks. LaRC funded a Small Business Innovative Research contract to Invocon, Inc. to develop special wireless sensor systems that are compact, light weight, and have long battery lifetimes to enable applications to long duration space structures. These sensor systems are known as distributed impact detection systems (DIDS). In an assessment, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center procured two prototype DIDS sensor units to evaluate their capabilities in laboratory testing and field testing in an ISS Node 1 structural test article. This document contains the findings of the assessment.

  18. Evaluation of chest injury mechanisms in nearside oblique frontal impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraeus, Johan; Lindquist, Mats; Wistrand, Sofie; Sibgård, Elin; Pipkorn, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Despite the use of seat belts and modern safety systems, many automobile occupants are still seriously injured or killed in car crashes. Common configurations in these crashes are oblique and small overlap frontal impacts that often lead to chest injuries.To evaluate the injury mechanism in these oblique impacts, an investigation was carried out using mathematical human body model simulations. A model of a simplified vehicle interior was developed and validated by means of mechanical sled tests with the Hybrid III dummy. The interior model was then combined with the human body model THUMS and validated by means of mechanical PMHS sled tests. Occupant kinematics as well as rib fracture patterns were predicted with reasonable accuracy.The final model was updated to conform to modern cars and a simulation matrix was run. In this matrix the boundary conditions, ΔV and PDOF, were varied and rib fracture risk as a function of the boundary conditions was evaluated using a statistical framework.In oblique frontal impacts, two injury producing mechanisms were found; (i) diagonal belt load and (ii) side structure impact. The second injury mechanism was found for PDOFs of 25°-35°, depending on ΔV. This means that for larger PDOFs, less ΔV is needed to cause a serious chest injury.

  19. Multidimensional journal evaluation analyzing scientific periodicals beyond the impact factor

    CERN Document Server

    Haustein, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Scientific communication depends primarily on publishing in journals. The most important indicator to determine the influence of a journal is the Impact Factor. Since this factor only measures the average number of citations per article in a certain time window, it can be argued that it does not reflect the actual value of a periodical. This book defines five dimensions, which build a framework for a multidimensional method of journal evaluation. The author is winner of the Eugene Garfield Doctoral Dissertation Scholarship 2011.

  20. Preliminary study on impact assessment of climate change on building risks induced by typhoons in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    The present paper investigates possible impacts of the climate change on building risks caused by typhoons. The inputs to this investigation are: (1) outcomes from the numerical simulations with a Global Climate Model (GCM) developed under the framework of the KAKUSHIN program, (2) statistics...... on building damage in the event of Typhoon Songda, and (3) numerical simulation of the wind field induced by the typhoon Songda with the JMA Non- Hydrostatic Model (JMA-NHM). The first input is utilized to develop two sets of probabilistic typhoon models; i.e. corresponding to the current climate...... and the future climate subject to the climate change, whereas the other inputs are utilized to develop a model for structural performance of buildings. Taking basis in these models, changes of building risks under the climate change are investigated. The result shows that the building risks slightly decrease...

  1. Preliminary study on impact assessment of climate change on building risks induced by typhoons in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    The present paper investigates possible impacts of the climate change on building risks caused by typhoons. The inputs to this investigation are: (1) outcomes from the numerical simulations with a Global Climate Model (GCM) developed under the framework of the KAKUSHIN program, (2) statistics...... on building damage in the event of Typhoon Songda, and (3) numerical simulation of the wind field induced by the typhoon Songda with the JMA Non- Hydrostatic Model (JMA-NHM). The first input is utilized to develop two sets of probabilistic typhoon models; i.e. corresponding to the current climate...... and the future climate subject to the climate change, whereas the other inputs are utilized to develop a model for structural performance of buildings. Taking basis in these models, changes of building risks under the climate change are investigated. The result shows that the building risks slightly decrease...

  2. Evaluation of stomatognathic problems in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (osteogenesis imperfecta - oi) - preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoląg, Danuta; Kulesa-Mrowiecka, Małgorzata; Sułko, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    According to epidemiological data, muscular dysfunctions of the masticatory system occur in 15-23% of the population. Preventive examinations of functional disorders of the stomatognathic system are, therefore, of particular importance. A distinct group of patients exposed to dysfunctions in the area of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus comprises those with genetic diseases characterised by disorders in collagen formation. One of such diseases is osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and dentinogenesis imperfecta that usually goes together with the former. The objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency with which particular disorders of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus occur within the group of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. The study was performed on patients of the Orthopaedic Clinic of the Polish-American Paediatric Institute in Kraków. The mean age of the children was 7.9 years. In all the cases, a genetic diagnosis of OI has been confirmed. The research methods were based on an in-depth interview on family diseases, pregnancy, postnatal period, feeding, subjective assessment of dysfunctions in the stomatognathic system. An examination of the deformations in the stomatognathic system and the skeleton was conducted, as well as an examination of the trauma and tone of the jaw. The relationship between breastfeeding and swallowing and speech disorders was also evaluated. The impact of intubation on mandibular ranges was investigated. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis on the basis of which conclusions were drawn concerning disorders in the stomatognathic system which tend to occur in children with OI. The renunciation of breastfeeding significantly contributes to sucking and swallowing disorders, rumen disorders, as well as biomechanical disorders in the temporomandibular joint. A significant dependence between breastfeeding and swallowing problems was found, whereas there was no such dependence with respect to

  3. An Eddy-Permitting Oceanic General Circulation Model and Its Preliminary Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙; 张学洪; 李薇; 俞永强; 宇如聪

    2004-01-01

    An eddy-permitting, quasi-global oceanic general circulation model, LICOM (LASG/IAP (State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics) Climate System Ocean Model), with a uniform grid of 0.5°× 0.5° is established.Forced by wind stresses from Hellerman and Rosenstain (1983), a 40-yr integration is conducted with sea surface temperature and salinity being restored to the Levitus 94 datasets. The evaluation of the annual mean climatology of the LICOM control run shows that the large-scale circulation can be well reproduced. A comparison between the LICOM control run and a parallel integration of L30T63, which has the same framework but a coarse resolution, is also made to confirm the impact of resolution on the model performance. On account of the reduction of horizontal viscosity with the enhancement of the horizontal resolution, LICOM improves the simulation with respect to not only the intensity of the large scale circulations, but also the magnitude and structureof the Equatorial Undercurrent and South Equatorial Current. Taking advantage of the fine grid size, the pathway of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is better represented in LICOM than in L30T63. The transport of ITF in LICOM is more convergent in the upper layer. As a consequence, the Indian Ocean tends to get warmer in LICOM. The poleward heat transports for both the global and individual basins are also significantly improved in LICOM. A decomposed analysis indicates that the transport due to the barotropic gyre, which primarily stands for the barotropic effect of the western boundary currents, plays a crucial role in making the difference.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Habitat Composites' Durability when Exposed to a Long-Term Radiation Environment and Micrometeoroid Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Graves, Russell; Golden, John; Atwell, William; O'Rouke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Alred, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA's exploration goals include extending human presence beyond low earth orbit (LEO). As a result, habitation for crew is a critical requirement for meeting this goal. However, habitats are very large structures that contain a multitude of subsystems to sustain human life over long-durations in space, and one of the key challenges has been keeping weight to a minimum in order to reduce costs. Thus, light-weight and multifunctional structural materials are of great interest for habitation. NASA has started studying polymeric composite materials as potential lightweight and multifunctional structural materials for use in long-duration spaceflight. However, little is known about the survivability of these materials when exposed to the space environment outside of LEO for long durations. Thus, a study has been undertaken to investigate the durability of composite materials when exposed to long-duration radiation. Furthermore, as an addition to the primary study, a secondary preliminary investigation has been started on the micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) susceptibility of these materials after radiation exposure. The combined effects of radiation and MMOD impacts are the focus of this paper.

  5. A Preliminary Geochemical Study of Crystalline Melt from the Manson Impact Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Rockow, K. M.; Haskin, L. A.; Crossey, L. J.

    1993-07-01

    Although the Manson impact structure (35 km in diameter) in Iowa is of general interest because its age coincides with the end of the Cretaceous Period [1,2], it also provides an opportunity to study systematically the effects of a single, moderate-sized impact in a setting where the preimpact geology is reasonably well understood. We are interested in the extent of compositional uniformity in melt produced in large impacts and the causes of any compositional variation among different small samples of crystalline melt breccia. This understanding is useful for interpretation of data from lunar impact-melt breccias, for which we have less geologic control. We have obtained concentrations of ~30 elements in samples from the M-1 core taken on the flank of the central peak of the Manson impact structure in Iowa [3-6]. The sample set consists of 49 representative samples of breccia matrix determined (by visual inspection) to contain minimal mineralized vugs, fractures, or large or altered clasts [5]. The core consists of three principal units [3]: sedimentary clast breccia (SCB), 54-106-m depth; crystalline clast breccia, melt matrix (CCB-M), 106- 147-m depth; and crystalline clast breccia, sandy matrix (CCB-S), 163-214-m depth; there is an ~16-m "transition zone" between CCB-M and CCB-S. The sandy- matrix breccias, which are believed to be "in-situ brecciated basement with injected melt and shale fragments" [4], may be the equivalent of lunar "fragmental breccias" [e.g., 7]. They contain large clasts, some bigger than the core diameter, and, consequently, are variable in composition at the sample mass studied here (1-4 g). Samples of the overlying melt-matrix breccias (CCB-M) are more uniform in composition. However, the concentrations of some elements (Na, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, and Co) generally increase with depth through CCB-M (unit 1 of [4]), while other elements decrease (K, Sb, Cs, La, Hf, and Ta). These trends continue through the transition zone to the CCB-S. Thus

  6. Cross - cultural adaptation and preliminary validation of the Turkish version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale among 5-6-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peker Kadriye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Turkey, formal pre-primary education for children 5- 6 years old provides the ideal setting for school-based oral health promotion programs and oral health care services. To develop effective oral health promotion programs, there is a need to assess this target group's subjective oral health needs as well as clinical needs. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS is a well-known instrument for assessing oral health quality of life in children aged 0-5 years old and their families. This study aimed to adapt the ECOHIS for children 5-6 years old in a Turkish-speaking community and to undertake a preliminary investigation of its psychometric properties. Methods The Turkish version of the ECOHIS was obtained with forward/backward translations, expert panels and pre-testing and it was tested in a convenience sample of 121 parents of 5- 6 year-old children attending nursery classes of three public schools. Data were collected through clinical examinations and self-completed questionnaires. The main analyses were carried out on the imputed data set. The validity of content, face, construct, discriminant and convergent and as well as the reliability of internal and test-retest of the ECOHIS were evaluated. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effect of the complete case analysis for managing "Don't know" responses on the validity and reliability of the ECOHIS. Results The analysis of the imputed data set showed that Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.92 and 0.84 respectively, and for the whole scale was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest was 0.86. The scale scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with poor parental ratings of their child's oral health, high caries experience, higher gingival index scores and problem-orientated dental attendance, supporting its construct, convergent and

  7. Evaluation of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in fenestrated stent grafts: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z. [Dept. of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia); Allen, Y.; Fitzsimmons, B.; Hartely, D. [Cook R and D, WA (Australia); Lawrence-Brown, M. [Dept. of Public Health, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    We aim in this study to investigate the potential value of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in patients diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing fenestrated stent grafts. Both pre-and post-fenestration (within 3 months of implantation) multislice CT data were collected in eight patients and used for generation of virtual endoscopy images in our preliminary study. Variable fenestrations were deployed in 25 aortic branches with scallop fenestration implanted in six aortic ostia, large fenestration in four aortic ostia and small fenestration in 15 renal ostia, respectively. Measurements of the aortic ostia diameters both pre- and post-fenestration were successfully performed with virtual intravascular endoscopy visualization, and endovascular stents as well as their relationship to the aortic ostia were clearly demonstrated. Our results showed that there was no significant change of diameter of the aortic ostia following fenestrated stem grafts. Endovascular stents were clearly visualized on virtual endoscopy images, and no apparent deformity or malrotation was observed in this small group. Our preliminary study provides new insights into anatomic configuration/dimension of aortic ostia and endovascular stents, and virtual intravascular endoscopy could be a valuable technique to follow-up patients treated with fenestrated stent grafts. (orig.)

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of PGSFR DHR Heat Exchangers Performance Using STELLA-1 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jonggan; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Yeom, Sujin; Lee, Jewhan; Kim, Tae-Joon; Hwang, Inkoo; Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Cho, Youngil; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The STELLA program for PGSFR decay heat removal (DHR) performance demonstration is in progress at KAERI. As the first phase of the program, the STELLA-1 facility has been constructed and separate effect tests for heat exchangers of DHRS have been conducted. Two kinds of heat exchangers including a shell-and-tube type sodium-to-sodium heat exchanger (DHX) and a helical-tube type sodium-to-air heat exchanger (AHX) were tested for design codes V-V, e.g. SHXSA and AHXSA. In this paper, firstly, overall characteristics of the STELLA-1 facility are described briefly. Secondly, the performance tests of the DHX and AHX rely on a steady-state result of a heat transfer experiment. Thus experimental procedures to obtain the steady-state result are described and steady-state conditions for the heat exchanger performance test are clearly defined. Lastly, experimental results and calculation results obtained from the design codes are also compared as a preliminary work for the design code V-V. The PGSFR DHR heat exchangers performance was experimentally demonstrated using the STELLA-1 facility, and the experimental results and the prediction of the design code were compared as a preliminary work for the design code V-V. The experimental results of the DHX and AHX were in good agreement with the estimation of the SHXSA and AHXSA codes, respectively.

  9. Land grabbing: a preliminary quantification of economic impacts on rural livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Global demands on agricultural land are increasing due to population growth, dietary changes and the use of biofuels. Their effect on food security is to reduce humans' ability to cope with the uncertainties of global climate change. In light of the 2008 food crisis, to secure reliable future access to sufficient agricultural land, many nations and corporations have begun purchasing large tracts of land in the global South, a phenomenon deemed "land grabbing" by popular media. Because land investors frequently export crops without providing adequate employment, this represents an effective income loss for local communities. We study 28 countries targeted by large-scale land acquisitions [comprising 87 % of reported cases and 27 million hectares (ha)] and estimate the effects of such investments on local communities' incomes. We find that this phenomenon can potentially affect the incomes of ~12 million people globally with implications for food security, poverty levels and urbanization. While it is important to note that our study incorporates a number of assumptions and limitations, it provides a much needed initial quantification of the economic impacts of large-scale land acquisitions on rural livelihoods.

  10. Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hickey-Schultz, Lynn; Cohen, Deborah; Steiner, Naomi; Cope, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate potential mental health benefits of yoga for adolescents in secondary school. Students were randomly assigned to either regular physical education classes or to 11 weeks of yoga sessions based upon the Yoga Ed program over a single semester. Students completed baseline and end-program self-report measures of mood, anxiety, perceived stress, resilience, and other mental health variables. Independent evaluation of individual outcome measures revealed that yoga participants showed statistically significant differences over time relative to controls on measures of anger control and fatigue/inertia. Most outcome measures exhibited a pattern of worsening in the control group over time, whereas changes in the yoga group over time were either minimal or showed slight improvements. These preliminary results suggest that implementation of yoga is acceptable and feasible in a secondary school setting and has the potential of playing a protective or preventive role in maintaining mental health.

  11. Evaluation of drought regimes and impacts in the Limpopo basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemaw, B. F.; Kileshye-Onema, J.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Drought is a common phenomenon in the Limpopo River basin. In essence, droughts are long-term hydro-meteorological events affecting vast regions and causing significant non-structural damages. In the interest of riparian states' joint integrated water resources development and management of the Limpopo basin, inter regional drought severity and its impacts should be understood. The study focussed on case studies in the basin which is subdivided into four homogeneous regions owing to topographic and climate variations based on the previous work of the same authors. Using the medium range time series of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as an indicator of drought, for each homogeneous region monthly and annual Severity-Area-Frequency (SAF) curves and maps of probability of drought occurrence were constructed. The results indicated localized severe droughts in higher frequencies, while only moderate to severe low frequency droughts may spread over wider areas in the basin. The region-level Drought-Severity Indices can be used as indicators for planning localized interventions and drought mitigation efforts in the basin. The approach can also be used to develop improved drought indicators, to assess the relationship between drought hazard and vulnerability and to enhance the performance of methods currently used for drought forecasting. Results on the meteorological drought linkage with hydrological and vegetation or agricultural drought indices are presented as means of validation of the specific drought regimes and their localized impact in each homogeneous region. In general, this preliminary investigation reveals that the western part of the basin will face a higher risk of drought when compared to other regions of the Limpopo basin in terms of the medium-term drought. The Limpopo basin is water stressed and livelihood challenges remain at large, thus impacts of droughts and related resilience options should be taken into account in the formulation of

  12. Evaluation of drought regimes and impacts in the Limpopo basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Alemaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a common phenomenon in the Limpopo River basin. In essence, droughts are long–term hydro-meteorological events affecting vast regions and causing significant non-structural damages. In the interest of riparian states' joint integrated water resources development and management of the Limpopo basin, inter regional drought severity and its impacts should be understood. The study focussed on case studies in the basin which is subdivided into four homogeneous regions owing to topographic and climate variations based on the previous work of the same authors. Using the medium range time series of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI as an indicator of drought, for each homogeneous region monthly and annual Severity-Area-Frequency (SAF curves and maps of probability of drought occurrence were constructed. The results indicated localized severe droughts in higher frequencies, while only moderate to severe low frequency droughts may spread over wider areas in the basin. The region-level Drought-Severity Indices can be used as indicators for planning localized interventions and drought mitigation efforts in the basin. The approach can also be used to develop improved drought indicators, to assess the relationship between drought hazard and vulnerability and to enhance the performance of methods currently used for drought forecasting. Results on the meteorological drought linkage with hydrological and vegetation or agricultural drought indices are presented as means of validation of the specific drought regimes and their localized impact in each homogeneous region. In general, this preliminary investigation reveals that the western part of the basin will face a higher risk of drought when compared to other regions of the Limpopo basin in terms of the medium-term drought. The Limpopo basin is water stressed and livelihood challenges remain at large, thus impacts of droughts and related resilience options should be taken into account in the

  13. Evaluation of Impact Resistance of Concrete Overpack of Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Ki-Young; Jeon, Je-Eon; Seo, Ki-Seog [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The concrete overpack of the cask provides radiation shielding as well as physical protection for inner canister against external mechanical shock. When the overpack undergoes a severe missile impact which might be caused by tornado or aircraft crash, it should sustain minimal level of structural integrity so that the radiation shielding and the retrievability of canister are maintained. Empirical formulas have been developed for the evaluation of concrete damage but those formulas can be used only for local damage evaluation and not for global damage evaluation. In this research, a series of numerical simulations and tests have been performed to evaluate the damage of two types of concrete overpack segment models under high speed missile impact. It is shown that appropriate modeling of material failure is crucial in this kind of analyses and finding the correct failure parameters may not be straightforward. When comparing the simulation results with the test results, it is shown that neither setting, case 1 and 2 provides results with consistent agreement with test results. That is, case 1 setting is more close to reality in Type 1 model analysis, but for Type 2, case 2 setting provides more close results to the reality. In both the case, not enough deformation is predicted by simulation compared to the tests. Weak failure and eroding criteria give larger penetration depth with insufficient overall damage due to energy loss with element erosion.

  14. The impact of Body Worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results.

  15. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  16. A preliminary vulnerability assessment for Ísafjörður, Iceland : coastal management options to reduce impacts of sea-level rise and storm surges

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Meidinger

    2011-01-01

    Climate change science argues that by the end of the 21st century, the global mean sea-level rise may easily exceed 1 metre, possibly accompanied by an increase in storm intensity. Although climate change is a global phenomenon, its impacts vary greatly according to scale and geographic region. This study took into account the United Nations’ recommendations and the research objectives stated by the Icelandic Ministry of the Environment, and conducted a preliminary coastal vulnerability asses...

  17. Evaluation of the Family Impact Scale for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the validity and reliability of the Family Impact Scale (FIS) applied in Brazilian parents after translations and cultural adaptations to Brazilian Portuguese language and to evaluate the nature and extent to which the family functioning is compromised by the child oral conditions. Parents were recruited from general populations for pre-testing (n=20), validity (n=210) and test-retest reliability (n=20) studies. The children were examined for dental caries, gingivitis, fluorosis and malocclusion. The FIS discriminated among the categories of malocclusion and showed good construct validity. The Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. Almost 20% of the informants reported some family impact ;sometimes' or ;often/everyday' from the child's oral condition. Impact on FIS domains of this frequency ranged from 13.8% for financial difficulties to 24.4% for parental or family activities. The Brazilian Portuguese version of FIS is valid and reliable. The results suggest that child oral conditions have a negative impact on the family. Further research is required, as these findings were based on cross-sectional study and convenience samples.

  18. Evaluation of the Family Impact Scale for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís de Souza Barbosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the validity and reliability of the Family Impact Scale (FIS applied in Brazilian parents after translations and cultural adaptations to Brazilian Portuguese language and to evaluate the nature and extent to which the family functioning is compromised by the child oral conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Parents were recruited from general populations for pre-testing (n=20, validity (n=210 and test-retest reliability (n=20 studies. The children were examined for dental caries, gingivitis, fluorosis and malocclusion. RESULTS: The FIS discriminated among the categories of malocclusion and showed good construct validity. The Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. Almost 20% of the informants reported some family impact `sometimes' or `often/everyday' from the child's oral condition. Impact on FIS domains of this frequency ranged from 13.8% for financial difficulties to 24.4% for parental or family activities. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Portuguese version of FIS is valid and reliable. The results suggest that child oral conditions have a negative impact on the family. Further research is required, as these findings were based on cross-sectional study and convenience samples.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the tactile feedback system based on artificial skin and electrotactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, M; Seminara, L; Pinna, L; Dosen, S; Farina, D; Valle, M

    2015-08-01

    This research is motivated by the need of integrating cutaneous sensing into a prosthetic device, enabling a bidirectional communication between the amputee and the prosthetic limb. An electronic skin based on piezoelectric polymer sensors transduces mechanical contact into electrical response which is conveyed to the human subject by electrotactile stimulation. Rectangular electrode arrays are placed on each patient's forearm and experiments are conducted on five different subjects to determine how well the orientation, position and direction of single lines are recognized. Overall, subjects discriminate the different touch modalities with acceptable success rates. In particular, the direction is identified at best and longitudinal lines on the patient's skin are recognized with the highest success rates. These preliminary results assess the feasibility of the artificial skin - electrostimulation system for prosthetic applications.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  1. Structural study and preliminary biological evaluation on the collagen hydrogel crosslinked by γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Huang, Xin; Wei, Shicheng; Zhai, Maolin

    2012-11-01

    Under γ-irradiation, concentrated collagen solutions yielded collagen hydrogels and liquid products. The molecular structure of collagen hydrogels and the source of the liquid products were studied. Furthermore, preliminary biological properties of the hydrogels were investigated. The results revealed that crosslinking occurred to form collagen hydrogel and the crosslinking density increased with the increasing of the absorbed dose, and the collagen hydrogels showed enhanced mechanical properties. Meanwhile, collagen underwent radiation degradation and water was squeezed out from hydrogel by contraction of hydrogel, yielding liquid products. Collagen hydrogels induced by γ-irradiation maintained the backbone structure of collagen, and tyrosine partially involved in crosslinking. The irradiated collagen hydrogels have higher denatured temperature, can promote fibroblasts proliferation, and their degradation rate in vivo depended on the absorbed dose. The comprehensive results suggested that the collagen hydrogels prepared by radiation crosslinking preserved the triple helical conformation, possessed improved thermal stability and mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility, which is expected to favor its application as biomaterials.

  2. EVALUATION OF AN ACTIVE PERSONAL DOSIMETRY SYSTEM IN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY AND NEURORADIOLOGY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, M; D'Ercole, L; Quaretti, P; Moramarco, L; Lafe, E; Zappoli Thyrion, F

    2016-12-01

    Active personal dosimeters (APD) supply real-time data on radiation dose rates and equivalent doses, enabling reduction of operator exposure to radiation in diagnostic and surgical procedures. Data from the use of the Raysafe i2 APD system in an angiography room are reported. Preliminary characterisation of the APD system was first carried out in terms of angular dependence and of Hp(10) response during the simulation of five typical surgical protocols. Reference measurements, simultaneously obtained from TLDs, were used to obtain a correction factor. APD data for patients and for primary and secondary operators were then recorded over 52 surgical procedures. The correlation between kerma air product (KAP) and reference point air kerma (Kar) and operator dose as a function of position with respect to the source of radiation is reported. The data indicate that the APD system could help operators to optimise behaviours and use of room protection to effectively minimise radiation dose.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  4. Evaluating the impact of interdisciplinary research: a multilayer network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, scientific challenges usually require approaches that cross traditional boundaries between academic disciplines, driving many researchers towards interdisciplinarity. Despite its obvious importance, there is a lack of studies on how to quantify the influence of interdisciplinarity on the research impact, posing uncertainty in a proper evaluation for hiring and funding purposes. Here we propose a method based on the analysis of bipartite interconnected multilayer networks of citations and disciplines, to assess scholars, institutions and countries interdisciplinary importance. Using data about physics publications and US patents, we show that our method allows to reveal, using a quantitative approach, that being more interdisciplinary causes -- in the Granger sense -- benefits in scientific productivity and impact. The proposed method could be used by funding agencies, universities and scientific policy decision makers for hiring and funding purposes, and to complement existing methods to rank univer...

  5. Evaluating the impact of new anticoagulants in the hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braidy N

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The short-comings of current anticoagulants have led to the development of newer, albeit more expensive, oral alternatives.Objective: To explore the potential impact the new anticoagulants dabigatran and rivaroxaban in the local hospital setting, in terms of utilisation and subsequent costing.Method: A preliminary costing analysis was performed based on a prospective 2-week clinical audit (29th June - 13th July 2009. Data regarding current anticoagulation management were extracted from the medical files of patients admitted to Ryde Hospital. To model potential costing implications of using the newer agents, the reported incidence of VTE/stroke and bleeding events were obtained from key clinical trials.Results: Data were collected for 67 patients treated with either warfarin (n=46 or enoxaparin (n=21 for prophylaxis of VTE/stroke. At least two-thirds of all patients were deemed suitable candidates for the use of newer oral anticoagulants (by current therapy: warfarin: 65.2% (AF, 34.8% (VTE; enoxaparin: 100%, (VTE. The use of dabigatran in VTE/stroke prevention was found to be more cost-effective than warfarin and enoxaparin due to significantly lower costs of therapeutic monitoring and reduced administration costs. Rivaroxaban was more cost-effective than warfarin and enoxaparin for VTE/stroke prevention when supplier-rebates (33% were factored into costing.Conclusion: This study highlights the potential cost-effectiveness of newer anticoagulants, dabigatran and rivaroxaban, compared to warfarin and enoxaparin. These agents may offer economic advantages, as well as clinical benefits, in the hospital-based management of anticoagulated patients.

  6. Evaluation of U.S. Building Energy Benchmarking and Transparency Programs: Attributes, Impacts, and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Kramer, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Faesy, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-30

    In the last decade, a new policy area has emerged to boost energy efficiency in buildings that focuses on the simple action of measuring energy use as compared to buildings of similar type and size, and making that data publicly available. These efforts, referred to as benchmarking and transparency (B&T) policies, seek to unlock new energy efficiency opportunities in the country’s existing buildings by promoting data-driven decision-making and creating stronger market signals. This report focuses on the 24 state and local jurisdictions that (as of December 31, 2016) require owners of privately owned commercial buildings, multifamily buildings, or both to comply with a B&T policy. The report provides a summary of U.S. B&T policy design and implementation characteristics, reports results and impacts for jurisdictions with B&T policies, and discusses opportunities for increasing the efficacy of B&T policies, as well as suggested areas for further research. Among the findings, all but one of the B&T policy evaluation studies reviewed indicate some reduction (from 1.6% to 14%) in energy use, energy costs, or energy intensity over the two- to four-year period of the analyses. More specifically, most of the studies reviewed indicate 3% to 8% reductions in gross energy consumption or energy use intensity over a two- to four-year period of B&T policy implementation. Two additional evaluation studies indicate that there is a causal relationship between B&T policies and energy savings or energy cost savings. These documented impacts should be reviewed with some caution. While consistently showing energy savings benefits associated with B&T policies, these savings estimates should be considered preliminary because of the limited period of analyses and inconsistencies in analysis methods for the various studies. A nationally standardized method for data collection, reporting, and evaluation of B&T policies—developed with an advisory group of state and local jurisdictions

  7. The Utility of Pitch Elevation in the Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald; Logemann, Jeri A.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a pitch elevation task in the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Method: This study was a pilot prospective cohort study including 40 consecutive patients (16 male and 24 female) who were referred by their physician for a swallowing evaluation. Patients were evaluated with a noninstrumental clinical…

  8. Impact evaluation for the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program: Technical appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Taylor, Z.T.; Schrock, D.W.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Chin, R.I.

    1995-10-01

    This document supplements the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) impact evaluation report, Lee et al. (1995). MAP is a voluntary energy-efficiency program for HUD-code manufactured homes conducted in the Pacific Northwest beginning in April 1992. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this and the impact evaluation reports for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville). Lee et al. (1995) presents the objectives, methodology, and findings of the program evaluation. This report presents more details about specific aspects of the analysis. The authors used a three-tier approach to analyze the energy consumption of MAP and baseline homes. Chapter 2 discusses Tier 1, the billing data and simplified regression analysis. Chapter 3 presents the details of the Tier 2 analysis, the PRInceton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). Chapter 4 presents details of the primary analysis technique that they used, a comprehensive regression analysis. Chapter 5 and 6 review two other studies of energy savings associated with MAP. Chapter 5 discusses the simulation model analysis conducted by Ecotope, Inc. Chapter 6 reviews the analysis by Regional Economic Research conducted for three Pacific Northwest investor-owned utilities. The final chapter, Chapter 7, presents details of the Bonneville levelized cost methodology used to estimate the cost of energy savings associated with MAP. Results are presented and discussed in many cases for the three different climate zones found in the Pacific Northwest. 18 refs., 29 tabs.

  9. Intensive Evaluation of Satellite TV Impact on Four Alaskan Villages. Supplement to Basic ESCD Evaluation Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Concepts, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A supplement to the final report, "Design for an Analysis and Assessment of the Education Satellite Communications Demonstration (ESCD)," this document is both: (1) a separable, sociologically oriented evaluation of the ESCD impact on Alaskan native villages; and (2) a direct extension of the work described in sections 4 and 5 in the…

  10. Systematic review of methods for evaluating healthcare research economic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdzadeh Reza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant Web sites were identified. Results The initial search yielded 8,416 articles. After studying titles, abstracts, and full texts, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Eleven other reports were found on Web sites. We found that the outcomes assessed as healthcare research payback included direct cost-savings, cost reductions in healthcare delivery systems, benefits from commercial advancement, and outcomes associated with improved health status. Two methods were used to study healthcare research payback: macro-economic studies, which examine the relationship between research studies and economic outcome at the aggregated level, and case studies, which examine specific research projects to assess economic impact. Conclusions Our study shows that different methods and outcomes can be used to assess the economic impacts of healthcare research. There is no unique methodological approach for the economic evaluation of such research. In our systematic search we found no research that had evaluated the economic return of research in low and middle income countries. We therefore recommend a consensus on practical guidelines at international level on the basis of more comprehensive methodologies (such as Canadian Academic of Health Science and payback frameworks in order to build capacity, arrange for necessary informative infrastructures and promote necessary skills for economic evaluation studies.

  11. 78 FR 2379 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Impact Evaluation of Math Professional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Impact Evaluation of Math Professional... of Collection: Impact Evaluation of Math Professional Development. OMB Control Number: 1850-NEW. Type..., and teachers for a study of math professional development. The study will provide important...

  12. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, three crosstalk cancellation techniques were evaluated and compared under different conditions. Least square approximations in frequency and time domain were evaluated along with a method based on minimum-phase approximation and a frequency independent delay. In general, the ...... at the horizontal plane and an elevated position, where a typical 60 degrees stereo setup is compared with two closely spaced loudspeaker. Additionally, two- and four-channels arrangements are evaluated....

  13. Preliminary evaluation of a self-report tool for Learned Helplessness and Mastery Orientation in Italian students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learned helplessness (LH is defined as a passive behavior characterized by an inability to learn that may affect the academic success of students. Conversely, students who show good motivation skills, optimism and perseverance are more focused on tasks and ‘mastery oriented’ (derived from Mastery Orientation, MO. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measurement of LH and MO - the Learned Helplessness Questionnaire (LHQ - for the Italian scholastic context. We translated and adapted a student self-evaluation register, the Student behaviour checklist, and administered the questionnaire to Italian students in order to provide a preliminary factor structure. Exploratory factor analyses conducted support a two-factor model and acceptable internal reliability of the Italian LHQ.The results encourage the conduction of further analysis to assess the psychometric characteristics of the LHQ in depth.

  14. Extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Mentha piperita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Sun, Zhen-Liang; Jia, Ai-Rong; Shi, Ya-Ping; Li, Rui-Hong; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP). The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  15. Design, synthesis and preliminary bio-evaluation of glucose-cholesterol derivatives as ligands for brain targeting liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Lei; Wei Fan; Xian Kun Li; Shan Wang; Li Hai; Yong Wu

    2011-01-01

    A series of glucose-cholesterol derivatives 8a-8e as ligands for brain targeting liposomes were synthesized. The preparation of compound 6 involved temporary protection of glucose with chlorotrimethylsilicane and hexamethyldisilazane followed by selectively hydrolyzed. The known cholesteryl tosylate 1 were coupled to ethylene glycols to afford alcohol 2a-2e. Substitution and deprotection of alcohol 2a-2e furnished the acids 4a-4e, which was condensed with compound 6 to get compounds 7a-7e, and then was deprotected in tetrahydrofuran with TEA to obtain the title compounds. As a model drug, tegafur was entrapped by liposomes coupled with 8b, and preliminary in vivo evaluation shown 8b could enhance the ability of liposomes delivering tegafur across the blood brain barrier.

  16. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential established based on dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of oilfield water samples were analyzed in this work. Research on the relationship between the concentrations and distribution of dissolved hydrocarbons sug gested that the contents and composition of dissolved hydrocarbons varied with the hydrocar bon-generating potential of reservoirs. The concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons were low in dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers, but high in gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, especially in gas reservoirs with condensed oil. Series of carbon-number alkanes were usually absent in oilfield water from dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers but abundant in oil field water from oil-water reservoirs, gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, whose carbon numbers varied most widely in oil reservoirs and least in gas reservoirs. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential was established based on the characteristics of dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water to assist hydrocarbon exploration.

  17. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening And Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity Of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni From Different Geographical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitasta Mandal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a natural non-caloric substitute to conventional sugar, is also popular as the “sweet herb of Paraguay”. It is a storehouse of various bioactive constituents mainly, the ent-kaurene diterpene glycosides namely stevioside, rebaudioside A, B, C, D and E. The plant is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities like hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, anticancer, antibacterial activities. The present research is based on a preliminary phytochemical screening and comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of the dried leaves of five varieties of Stevia rebaudiana procured from five different geographical locations of India viz., Delhi, Surat, Kangra, Bangalore and Indore. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content was also determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and aluminum chloride colorimetric. The result showed that the variety from Kangra showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content of 5.87 and 62.22 mg GAE/L respectively.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a virtual reality dental simulation system on drilling operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhao, Siming; Li, Teng; Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the fidelity of the iDental system and investigate its utility and performance on simulated drilling operations, user studies consisting of objective and subjective evaluations were performed. A voxel-based drilling simulation sub-system in the iDental system was employed for evaluation. Twenty participants were enrolled to take part in the experiments and were divided into two groups: novice and resident. A combined evaluation method including objective and subjective methods was employed. The objective evaluation included two dental drilling tasks: caries removal operation and pulp chamber opening operation. In the subjective method, participants were required to complete a questionnaire to evaluate the fidelity of the system after the operation task. Based on the structured global assessment scales in the questionnaire, the average subjective evaluation scores of the proposed metrics were greater than 4.5, demonstrating that the system operated above medium fidelity. Dentists expressed great interest and positive attitudes toward the potential of the iDental system. The objective evaluation data including time spent and the volume of removed healthy and carious tissue were obtained. Although no significant differences could be found between the two groups, the volume of removed caries and the depth of pulp chamber insertion manifested small standard deviations. Evaluation results illustrated that dentists were willing to use the virtual reality training system. Several future research topics were identified, including increasing the task difficulty, improving the system fidelity and introducing appropriate finger rest points.

  19. Improving Phonological Awareness in Parents of Children at Risk of Literacy Difficulties: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Boost Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Boyes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPhonological awareness is an important skill underpinning the development of early literacy. Given the central role of parents in supporting the development of children’s early literacy skills, and that poor parental phonological awareness is associated with poorer child literacy outcomes, it is possible that improving parent phonological awareness may aid literacy development for at-risk children. This study is a preliminary evaluation of a program aiming to improve phonological awareness skills of parents in low socioeconomic status communities, and also provide these parents with strategies to support their child’s literacy development.MethodsAfter completing the program, participants were asked if it had helped them learn about how to assist their child’s reading and spelling, whether they planned on using the resources provided, and if they would be likely to attend a future workshop building on the Boost program. Phonological awareness measures (rhyme, syllable, and phoneme level, and measures of overall confidence in performance on the phonological awareness tasks, were administered both before and after attending the program.ResultsAlmost all parents indicated that the program helped with learning how to assist their child’s reading and spelling, that they would use the resources provided, and would likely attend a future workshop. Significant increases in pre- to post-program phonological awareness scores were obtained at the rhyme and phoneme level.ConclusionThe program and associated resources appear acceptable to parents in communities with high rates of literacy problems and improved parents’ phonological awareness skills. However, findings are preliminary and further evaluation using more rigorous methodologies and testing whether improvements in parents’ phonological awareness translate into better literacy outcomes for children is needed.

  20. Measuring attitudes towards suicide: Preliminary evaluation of an attitude towards suicide scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Jan Christopher; Till, Benedikt; Bieda, Angela; Blackwell, Simon E; Walter, Carolin; Teismann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to validate a previously published scale assessing attitudes towards suicide. Factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictive validity were investigated. Adult German participants (N=503; mean age=24.74years; age range=18-67years) anonymously completed a set of questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and incongruous items were deleted. Subsequently, scale properties of the reduced scale and its construct validity were analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted in an independent sample (N=266; mean age=28.77years; age range=18-88years) to further confirm the factor structure of the questionnaire. Parallel analysis indicated a three-factor solution, which was also supported by confirmatory factor analysis: right to commit suicide, interpersonal gesture and resilience. The subscales demonstrated acceptable construct and discriminant validity. Cronbach's α for the subscales ranged from 0.67 to 0.83, explaining 49.70% of the total variance. Positive attitudes towards suicide proved to be predictive of suicide risk status, providing preliminary evidence for the utility of the scale. Future studies aiming to reproduce the factor structure in a more heterogeneous sample are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Physiological Mechanisms of Action for Sleep Restriction Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Vallières

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the physiological mechanisms involved in the sleep restriction treatment of insomnia. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used. Sleep of five participants suffering from insomnia was assessed throughout the experimentation by sleep diaries and actigraphy. Ten nights of polysomnography were conducted over five occasions. The first two-night assessment served to screen for sleep disorders and to establish a baseline for dependent measures. Three assessments were undertaken across the treatment interval, with the fifth and last one coming at follow-up. Daily cortisol assays were obtained. Sleep restriction therapy was applied in-lab for the first two nights of treatment and was subsequently supervised weekly. Interrupted time series analyses were computed on sleep diary data and showed a significantly decreased wake time, increased sleep efficiency, and decreased total sleep time. Sleepiness at night seems positively related to sleep variables, polysomnography data suggest objective changes mainly for stage 2, and power spectral analysis shows a decrease in beta-1 and -2 powers for the second night of treatment. Cortisol levels seem to be lower during treatment. These preliminary results confirm part of the proposed physiological mechanisms and suggest that sleep restriction contributes to a rapid decrease in hyperarousal insomnia.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of an experimental clinical chemistry analyzer developed for space medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A H; Gornet, T G; Schenkel, O; Smith-Cronin, L; Graham, G A; Tonnesen, A S; McKinley, B A

    1993-01-01

    An experimental clinical chemistry analyzer system was designed and built to demonstrate the feasibility of clinical chemistry as part of a medical-care system at NASA's planned space station Freedom. We report the performance of the experimental analyzer, called a medical development unit (MDU), for selected analytes in a laboratory setting in preparation for a preliminary clinical trial at patients' bedsides in an intensive-care unit. Within-run CVs ranged from 0.7% for sodium to 7.1% for phosphorus; day-to-day CVs ranged from 1.0% for chloride to 23.4% for calcium. Correlation of patients' blood sample analyses compared well with those by Ektachem E700 and other high-volume central laboratory analyzers (r ranged from 0.933 for creatine kinase MB isoenzyme to 0.997 for potassium), except for hemoglobin (r = 0.901) and calcium (r = 0.823). Although several CVs obtained in this study exceeded theoretical desired precision limits based on biological variations, performance was adequate for clinical laboratory diagnosis. We examined the effect of potentially interfering concentrations of hemoglobin, bilirubin, and lipids: the only effect was negative interference with calcium analyses by high concentrations of bilirubin. We also examined the effects of preanalytical variables and the performance of experimental sample-transfer cups designed to retain sample and reference liquid in microgravity. Continued development of the MDU system is recommended, especially automation of sample processing.

  3. Biogeographic perspective of speciation among desert tortoises in the genus Gopherus: a preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Taylor; Vaughn, Mercy; Meléndez Torres, Cristina; Karl, Alice E.; Rosen, Philip C.; Berry, Kristin H.; Murph, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The enduring processes of time, climate, and adaptation have sculpted the distribution of organisms we observe in the Sonoran Desert. One such organism is Morafka’s desert tortoise, Gopherus morafkai. We apply a genomic approach to identify the evolutionary processes driving diversity in this species and present preliminary findings and emerging hypotheses. The Sonoran Desert form of the tortoise exhibits a continuum of genetic similarity spanning 850 km of Sonoran desertscrub extending from Empalme, Sonora, to Kingman, Arizona. However, at the ecotone between desertscrub and foothills thornscrub we identify a distinct, Sinaloan lineage and this occurrence suggests a more complex evolutionary history for G. morafkai. By using multiple loci from throughout the tortoise’s genome, we aim to determine if divergence between these lineages occurred in allopatry, and further to investigate for signatures of past or current genetic introgression. This international, collaborative project will assist state and federal agencies in developing management strategies that best preserve the evolutionary potential of Morafka’s desert tortoise. Ultimately, an understanding of the evolutionary history of desert tortoises will not only clarify the forces that have driven the divergence in this group, but also contribute to our knowledge of the biogeographic history of the Southwestern deserts and how diversity is maintained within them.

  4. Biosorption of {sup 241}Am by Rhizopus arrihizus: preliminary investigation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ning E-mail: 5416507@mail.sc.cninfo.net; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali; Hua Xifeng

    2002-08-01

    The biosorption of {sup 241}Am from solution by a fungus--Rhizopus Arrihizus (R. arrihizus), and the effect of experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the biosorption of {sup 241}Am by R. arrihizus is very efficient. An average of more than 99% of the total {sup 241}Am was removed by R. arrihizus of 1.3 g/l (dry weight) from {sup 241}Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/l (44.3-877.2 {mu}g/l) (C{sub 0}), with adsorption capacities (W) of 4.2-79.4 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (33.2-627.5 {mu}g/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h and the optimum pH ranged from 1 to 3. No significant differences in {sup 241}Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 deg. C, or in solutions containing Au{sup 3+} or Ag{sup +}, even 2000 times above {sup 241}Am concentration. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of {sup 241}Am indicated that the {sup 241}Am biosorption by R. arrihizus obeys the Freundlich adsorption equation.

  5. Benthic foraminifera from two coastal lakes of southern Latium (Italy). Preliminary evaluation of environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Maria Gabriella; Succi, Maria Cristina; Bergamin, Luisa; Di Bella, Letizia; Frezza, Virgilio; Landini, Bruna

    2009-01-01

    Benthic foraminifera and sediment texture were studied on a total of 37 samples, collected from two brackish-water coastal basins: Fogliano Lake and Lungo Lake (central Italy). The research was performed as a preliminary low-cost survey to highlight the degree of the environmental stress and to recognize a possible anthropogenic disturbance. The sedimentological and foraminiferal data were processed by bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Three distinct assemblages, referable to different environments were recognized for the Fogliano Lake: inner, intermediate and outer lagoon. Only the outer lagoon assemblage was found in the Lungo Lake. The distribution of foraminifera in the Fogliano Lake suggests a natural environmental stress probably due to the ecological instability typical of marginal environments, while the absence of the inner and intermediate lagoon assemblages in the Lungo Lake suggests an environmental disturbance possibly related to human activities. An interdisciplinary survey including geochemical analyses is recommended in order to deduce the nature and degree of pollution in the Lungo Lake.

  6. Video-Assisted Anal Fistula Treatment (VAAFT) for Complex Anal Fistula: A Preliminary Evaluation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui-Hong; Liu, Hai-Long; Li, Zhen; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Li, A-Jian; Chang, Yi; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Liang; Lin, Mou-Bin

    2017-04-30

    BACKGROUND Although many attempts have been made to advance the treatment of complex anal fistula, it continues to be a difficult surgical problem. This study aimed to describe the novel technique of video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT) and our preliminary experiences using VAAFT with patients with complex anal fistula. MATERIAL AND METHODS From May 2015 to May 2016, 52 patients with complex anal fistula were treated with VAAFT at Yangpu Hospital of Tongji University School of Medicine, and the clinical data of these patients were reviewed. RESULTS VAAFT was performed successfully in all 52 patients. The median operation time was 55 minutes. Internal openings were identified in all cases. 50 cases were closed with sutures, and 2 were closed with staplers. Complications included perianal sepsis in 3 cases and bleeding in another 3 cases. Complete healing without recurrence was achieved in 44 patients (84.6%) after 9 months of follow-up. No fecal incontinence was observed. Furthermore, a significant improvement in Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) score was observed from preoperative baseline (mean, 85.5) to 3-month follow-up (mean, 105.4; panal fistula with preservation of anal sphincter function.

  7. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  8. A Short-Term Evaluation of Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education): Preliminary Indications of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William

    1987-01-01

    Assessed impact of Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) on knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior of seventh graders who received DARE curriculum in sixth grade. Compared to controls, DARE students reported significantly lower use of alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs. Findings were especially strong for boys. (Author/NB)

  9. The impact of depression and somatic symptoms on treatment outcomes in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a preliminary study in a naturalistic treatment setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J S; Ko, H J; Wang, S-M; Cho, K J; Kim, J C; Lee, S-J; Pae, C-U

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of depression and somatic symptoms on treatment outcomes in Korean male patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) attending a routine clinical practice. This was a 12-week prospective observational study (n = 80). The Korean version of the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) to measure the severity of CP/CPPS, the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depression, the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) to evaluate somatisation and the Korean version of the EuroQol Questionnaire-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), specifically the EQ-5D utility index and the EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ-5D VAS), to assess quality of life, were utilised and given at baseline and week 12. The primary and secondary end-points in this study were changes in the NIH-CPSI total score from baseline to week 12 according to depression and somatisation. The change in NIH-CPSI total score was significantly higher in those without depression than in those with depression (p = 0.003), with a magnitude of difference of 2.8. The responder rate (a ≥ 4 point decrease in NIH-CPSI total score from baseline) was significantly higher in those without depression (42.9%) than in those with depression (17.2%, p = 0.023). However, significant differences were not observed between the two groups in the other outcome measures or in all study outcomes between subjects with or without somatisation. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence or absence of depression may be a principal predictor of response to treatment. These preliminary results indicate that depression may have a negative impact on treatment outcome and is a likely predictor of response to treatment in patients with CP/CPPS. However, additional studies with adequate power and improved design are necessary to further support the present findings. © 2014

  10. Evaluating the impact of image preprocessing on iris segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Valencia-Murillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is one of the most important stages in iris recognition systems. In this paper, image preprocessing algorithms are applied in order to evaluate their impact on successful iris segmentation. The preprocessing algorithms are based on histogram adjustment, Gaussian filters and suppression of specular reflections in human eye images. The segmentation method introduced by Masek is applied on 199 images acquired under unconstrained conditions, belonging to the CASIA-irisV3 database, before and after applying the preprocessing algorithms. Then, the impact of image preprocessing algorithms on the percentage of successful iris segmentation is evaluated by means of a visual inspection of images in order to determine if circumferences of iris and pupil were detected correctly. An increase from 59% to 73% in percentage of successful iris segmentation is obtained with an algorithm that combine elimination of specular reflections, followed by the implementation of a Gaussian filter having a 5x5 kernel. The results highlight the importance of a preprocessing stage as a previous step in order to improve the performance during the edge detection and iris segmentation processes.

  11. Impact Evaluation of Low Flow Showerheads for Hong Kong Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-tim Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS on showers for bathing in Hong Kong is a water conservation initiative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR Government. As shower water consumption has been identified as a potential area for carbon emissions reductions, this study examines, from a five-month measurement survey of the showering practices of 37 local residents, a range of showerheads with resistance factors k = 0.54–4.05 kPa·min2·L−2 with showering attributes including hot shower temperature, temperature difference between hot and cold water supply, flow rate and water consumption and shower duration. A Monte Carlo model is proposed for evaluating the water consumption and carbon-reducing impacts of WELS on showers for bathing at confidence intervals with input parameters determined from the measurement survey. The simulation results indicate that full implementation of WELS rated showerheads with k ≥ 4.02 can reduce water consumption by 37%, energy use by 25% and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions by 26%. This study is also a useful source of reference for policymakers and practitioners to evaluate the impacts of water efficient showerheads on water consumption, energy use, and CO2 emissions.

  12. Impact of teaching students to use evaluation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R. Warren

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Students often make mistakes in physics courses and are expected to identify, correct, and learn from their mistakes, usually with some assistance from an instructor, textbook, or fellow students. This aid may come in many forms, such as problem solutions that are given to a class, tutoring to an individual student, or a peer discussion among several students. However, in each case a student relies upon an external agent in order to determine whether, and how, her work is mistaken. Consequently, the student’s learning process is largely contingent upon the availability and quality of external evaluating agents. One may suspect that if a student developed the ability to evaluate her own work, her dependence on external agents could be moderated and result in an enhancement of her learning. This paper presents the results of a study investigating the impact of novel activities that aim to teach students when, why, and how to use the strategies of unit analysis and special-case analysis. The data indicate that it is possible to help students dramatically improve their understanding of each strategy, and that this has a significant impact on problem-solving performance.

  13. Impact of pain behaviors on evaluations of warmth and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton-James, Claire E; Richardson, Daniel C; de C Williams, Amanda C; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; Dekker, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the social judgments that are made about people who appear to be in pain. Fifty-six participants viewed 2 video clips of human figures exercising. The videos were created by a motion tracking system, and showed dots that had been placed at various points on the body, so that body motion was the only visible cue. One of the figures displayed pain behaviors (eg, rubbing, holding, hesitating), while the other did not. Without any other information about the person in each video, participants evaluated each person on a variety of attributes associated with interpersonal warmth, competence, mood, and physical fitness. As well as judging them to be in more pain, participants evaluated the person who displayed pain behavior as less warm and less competent than the person who did not display pain behavior. In addition, the person who displayed pain behavior was perceived to be in a more negative mood and to have poorer physical fitness than the person who did not, and these perceptions contributed to the impact of pain behaviors on evaluations of warmth and competence, respectively. The implications of these negative social evaluations for social relationships, well-being, and pain assessment in persons in chronic pain are discussed.

  14. Comparing three methods for evaluating impact wrench vibration emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Thomas W; Marcotte, Pierre; Warren, Cristopher; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2009-08-01

    To provide a means for comparing impact wrenches and similar tools, the international standard ISO 8662-7 prescribes a method for measuring the vibrations at the handles of tools during their operations against a cotton-phenolic braking device. To improve the standard, alternative loading mechanisms have been proposed; one device comprises aluminum blocks with friction brake linings, while another features plate-mounted bolts to provide the tool load. The objective of this study was to evaluate these three loading methods so that tool evaluators can select appropriate loading devices in order to obtain results that can be applied to their specific workplace operations. Six experienced tool operators used five tool models to evaluate the loading mechanisms. The results of this study indicate that different loads can yield different tool comparison results. However, any of the three devices appears to be adequate for initial tool screenings. On the other hand, vibration emissions measured in the laboratory are unlikely to be fully representative of those in the workplace. Therefore, for final tool selections and for reliably assessing workplace vibration exposures, vibration measurements should be collected under actual working conditions. Evaluators need to use appropriate numbers of tools and tool operators in their assessments; recommendations are provided.

  15. Evaluation of connected vehicle impact on mobility and mode choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Minelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Connected vehicle is emerging as a solution to exacerbating congestion problems in urban areas. It is important to understand the impacts of connected vehicle on network and travel behavior of road users. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of connected vehicle on the mode choice and mobility of transportation networks. An iterative methodology was used in this paper where demands for various modes were modified based on the changes in travel time between each origin-destination (OD pair caused by introduction of connected vehicle. Then a traffic assignment was performed in a micro-simulation model, which was able to accurately simulate vehicle-to-vehicle communication. It is assumed that vehicles are equipped with a dynamic route guidance technology to choose their own route using real-time traffic information obtained through communication. The travel times obtained from the micro-simulation model were compared with a base scenario with no connected vehicle. The methodology was tested for a portion of Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In order to quantify changes in mode share with changes in travel time associated with each OD pair, mode choice models were developed for auto, transit, cycling and pedestrians using data mainly from the Transportation Tomorrow Survey. The impact of connected vehicle on mode choice was evaluated for different market penetrations of connected vehicle. The results of this study show that average travel times for the whole auto mode will generally increase, with the largest increase from connected vehicles. This causes an overall move away from the auto mode for high market penetrations if a dynamic route guidance algorithm is implemented.

  16. External evaluation in municipal level: The impacts of an experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Ferrarotto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The external evaluation is a consolidated reality in our country. Besides the state and federal ones, there are some municipalities that develop their own evaluation programs. To contribute with the debate about the external evaluations, this article presents data from a research which aim was to identify the actions from the Educational Secretariat from a city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, opposite to the results of PROMASE (Municipal Assessment of the Educational System and its impact in school’s units. It is still being analyzed the path taken by the program with the aim of explaining its conception of the teaching quality. This way, the qualitative research was chosen based on the interviews with the Educational Secretary, teachers and school’s managers. Accordingly with the Secretary, after PROMASE, actions since improvements in the buildings to curricular restructuring and continuing educational were made. Even without the rankings and performance payments, it is noticeable in schools the built of what is called “hidden” and “adjustment” rankings of the pedagogical and evaluative practices to the matrix and to the evaluative instrument of the program to improve the teaching quality and improve the index. For an evaluative system to bring contributions to the network, it is noticeable that the quality must be anchored to the social quality, which more than the index, establishes its own scale as a protagonist in the process of looking to itself, adverse to the blaming of the teachers for the standards tests results and that, consequently, favors the social, political, cultural and human formation of the students.

  17. Consequences Validity Evidence: Evaluating the Impact of Educational Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Lineberry, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Because tests that do not alter management (i.e., influence decisions and actions) should not be performed, data on the consequences of assessment constitute a critical source of validity evidence. Consequences validity evidence is challenging for many educators to understand, perhaps because it has no counterpart in the older framework of content, criterion, and construct validity. The authors' purpose is to explain consequences validity evidence and propose a framework for organizing its collection and interpretation.Both clinical and educational assessments can be viewed as interventions. The act of administering or taking a test, the interpretation of scores, and the ensuing decisions and actions influence those being assessed (e.g., patients or students) and other people and systems (e.g., physicians, teachers, hospitals, schools). Consequences validity evidence examines such impacts of assessments. Despite its importance, consequences evidence is reported infrequently in health professions education (range 5%-20% of studies in recent systematic reviews) and is typically limited in scope and rigor.Consequences validity evidence can derive from evaluations of the impact on examinees, educators, schools, or the end target of practice (e.g., patients or health care systems); and the downstream impact of classifications (e.g., different score cut points and labels). Impact can result from the uses of scores or from the assessment activity itself, and can be intended or unintended and beneficial or harmful. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods are useful. The type, quantity, and rigor of consequences evidence required will vary depending on the assessment and the claims for its use.

  18. The Impact of Restricting Over-the-Counter Sales of Antimicrobial Drugs: Preliminary Analysis of National Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Maria Luísa; Boszczowski, Icaro; Mortari, Naíma; Barrozo, Lígia Vizeu; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Lobo, Renata Desordi; Pedroso de Lima, Antonio Carlos; Levin, Anna S

    2015-09-01

    To describe the nationwide impact of a restrictive law on over-the-counter sales of antimicrobial drugs, implemented in Brazil in November 2010. Approximately 75% of the population receives healthcare from the public health system and receives free-of-charge medication if prescribed. Total sales in private pharmacies as compared with other channels of sales of oral antibiotics were evaluated in this observational study before and after the law (2008-2012). Defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) was used as standard unit. In private pharmacies the effect of the restrictive law was statistically significant (P sales was observed (P = 0.643). The impact in the South and Southeast (more developed) regions was higher than in the North, Northeast, and Mid-West. The state capitals had a 19% decrease, compared with 0.8% increase in the rest of the states. Before the law, the sales of antimicrobial drugs were steadily increasing. From November 2010, with the restrictive law, there was an abrupt drop in sales followed by an increase albeit at a significantly lower rate. The impact was higher in regions with better socio-economic status.

  19. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  20. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Insubria University of Varese, Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  1. Preliminary the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS Norms for Evaluating the Nutrient Status of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS is an important tool for increasing fruit yield and fruit quality. There are still no studies on the use of DRIS for nutritional diagnosis of the apple tree for China conditions. The objectives of this study were to establish norms for apple, to compare mean yield, leaf nutrient contents and variance of nutrient ratios of low- and high-yielding subpopulations. The study covered the apple producing areas of the Wei-bei Loess Plateau in the northwest of China, in 164 orchards selected for their high productivity and employment of excellent management techniques. The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc were determined in leaf samples. The data were divided into high-yielding (>45 t/ha and low-yielding (<45 t/ha subpopulations and norms were computed using standard DRIS procedures and a preliminary DRIS norms for apple growing in the Wei-bei Loess Plateau are selected. These norms were developed with data from only one region, so data from future surveys and field trials may subsequently be used to enlarge the database allowing the refinement of model parameters. The results elucidate that the DRIS model for apple, developed in this study, is a diagnostic tool that may be used to predict if insufficiencies or imbalances in N, P, K Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn supplies are occurring in apple production area in the Wei-bei Loess Plateau, China and indeed elsewhere in the other apple production areas with similar c1imatic and soil conditions.

  2. A Brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment to evaluate concussions: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Anne; Collins, Michael W; Elbin, R J; Furman, Joseph M; Troutman-Enseki, Cara; DeWolf, Ryan M; Marchetti, Greg; Kontos, Anthony P

    2014-10-01

    Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues. To describe and provide initial data for the internal consistency and validity of a brief clinical screening tool for vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms after sport-related concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-four patients, aged 13.9 ± 2.5 years and seen approximately 5.5 ± 4.0 days after a sport-related concussion, and 78 controls were administered the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment, which included 5 domains: (1) smooth pursuit, (2) horizontal and vertical saccades, (3) near point of convergence (NPC) distance, (4) horizontal vestibular ocular reflex (VOR), and (5) visual motion sensitivity (VMS). Participants were also administered the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Sixty-one percent of patients reported symptom provocation after at least 1 VOMS item. All VOMS items were positively correlated to the PCSS total symptom score. The VOR (odds ratio [OR], 3.89; P VMS (OR, 3.37; P VMS, NPC distance, and ln(age) that resulted in a high predicted probability (area under the curve = 0.89) for identifying concussed patients. The VOMS demonstrated internal consistency as well as sensitivity in identifying patients with concussions. The current findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the VOMS as a brief vestibular/ocular motor screen after sport-related concussions. The VOMS may augment current assessment tools and may serve as a single component of a comprehensive approach to the assessment of concussions. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Tacca integrifolia in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatree Autsavakitipong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This is a preliminary investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia (TIE for the analgesic activity using writhing response in mice, tail flick test in rats and for anti-inflammatory activity using ethyl phenyl propiolate (EPP-induced ear edema, carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema, as well as cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. The results showed that TIE (200 mg/kg, PO significantly inhibited pain caused by acetic acid injection (65.9% but did not exhibit effect in tail flick test in rats. These findings suggest that analgesic mechanism of TIE may act via peripherally pathway. The study of anti-inflammatory effect showed that TIE significantly inhibited ear edema induced by EPP. TIE (200 mg/kg, PO inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (55.5% and arachidonic acid (48.6% but had no effect on cotton-induced granuloma formation in rats. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of leaf of T. integrifolia possessed anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation and analgesic activity.Industrial relevant. Plants of the genus Tacca have been reported to possess many activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and, antipyretic activities. Many species have been used to treat high blood pressure, burn, gastric ulcer, and hepatitis. The scientific studies supporting the traditional uses of Tacca integrifolia for some of the alleged activities are still lacking. The screening test for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia provides scientific data to confirm the potentials of T. integrifolia as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. In addition, the outcomes may be useful to develop a new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the future. Key words. Tacca integrifolia; Taccaceae; ethyl acetate extract; analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity

  4. Stress and burnout among critical care fellows: preliminary evaluation of an educational intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Kashani, Kianoush; Carrera, Perliveh; Gallo de Moraes, Alice; Sood, Amit; Onigkeit, James A; Ramar, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a demanding work environment, information on stress and burnout of critical care fellows is limited.Objectives: To assess 1) levels of burnout, perceived stress, and quality of life in critical care fellows, and 2) the impact of a brief stress management training on these outcomes.Methods: In a tertiary care academic medical center, 58 critical care fellows of varying subspecialties and training levels were surveyed to assess baseline levels of stress and burnout. Twenty-o...

  5. An Unexpected Means of Embedding Ethics in Organizations: Preliminary Findings from Values-Based Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Burford; Elona Hoover; Lee Stapleton; Marie K. Harder

    2016-01-01

    Ethical principles constitute a crucial area of debate and discussion in the global conversation around transitions to sustainability, and of particular relevance to the contribution of businesses and other organizations. Scholars in business ethics have recently identified several challenges in this area, such as problems of measurement, rigor, and meaningfulness to practitioners; corporate social responsibility; and institutionalization of ethics in businesses. In this paper, the impacts of...

  6. Preliminary evaluations of the undesirable patient dose from a BNCT treatment at the ENEA-TAPIRO reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P; Gualdrini, G; Nava, E; Burn, K W

    2007-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental technique for the treatment of certain kinds of tumors. Research in BNCT is performed utilizing both thermal and epithermal neutron beams. Epithermal neutrons (0.4 eV-10 keV) penetrate more deeply into tissue and are thus used in non-superficial clinical applications such as the brain glioma. In the last few years, the fast reactor TAPIRO (ENEA-Casaccia Rome) has been employed as a neutron source for research into BNCT applications. Recently, an 'epithermal therapeutic column' has been designed and its construction has been completed. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was employed to optimize the design of the column and to evaluate the dose profiles and the therapeutic parameters in the cranium of the anthropomorphic phantom ADAM. In the same context, some preliminary evaluations of the undesirable doses to the patient were performed with MCNPX. A hermaphrodite phantom derived from ADAM and EVA was employed to evaluate the energy deposition in some organs during a standard BNCT treatment. The total dose consists of the contributions from the primary neutron beam, the neutron interactions with boron and the neutron induced photons generated in the epithermal column structures and in the patient's tissues. The paper summarizes the computational procedure and provides a general dosimetric framework of the patient radiological protection aspects related to a BNCT treatment scenario at the TAPIRO reactor.

  7. A Methodology for Evaluating Quantitative Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Through several accidents of NPPs including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, nuclear safety culture has been emphasized in reactor safety world-widely. In Korea, KHNP evaluates the safety culture of NPP itself. KHNP developed the principles of the safety culture in consideration of the international standards. A questionnaire and interview questions are also developed based on these principles and it is used for evaluating the safety culture. However, existing methodology to evaluate the safety culture has some disadvantages. First, it is difficult to maintain the consistency of the assessment. Second, the period of safety culture assessment is too long (every two years) so it has limitations in preventing accidents occurred by a lack of safety culture. Third, it is not possible to measure the change in the risk of NPPs by weak safety culture since it is not clearly explains the effect of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. In this study, Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) is developed overcoming these disadvantages. In this study, SCIAM which overcoming disadvantages of exiting safety culture assessment method is developed. SCIAM uses SCII to monitor the statues of the safety culture periodically and also uses RCDF to quantify the safety culture impact on NPP's safety. It is significant that SCIAM represents the standard of the healthy nuclear safety culture, while the exiting safety culture assessment presented only vulnerability of the safety culture of organization. SCIAM might contribute to monitoring the level of safety culture periodically and, to improving the safety of NPP.

  8. An Economic Impact Analysis of the Proposed Yakima/Klickitat Fishery Enhancement Project; Preliminary Design Report, Appendix D.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Richard S.; Cocheba, Donald J.; Green, Daniel; Hedrick, David W.

    1989-12-27

    The objective of this study is to estimate the economic impact of the proposed Yakima/Klickitat Production Project on the local economies of the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins. The project, when operating at planned maximum production, will augment the total number of salmon and steelhead returning to the subbasins by 77,600 and will increase the sustainable terminal harvest by 55,160. These estimates do not include fish harvested in the ocean or in the mainstem Columbia. In addition to evaluating the impacts of the construction, operations and maintenance, experimentation and monitoring, and harvest activities described in the Draft Environmental Assessment (Bonneville Power Administration, 1989), our analysis also evaluates some passageway improvements and Phase II screening of irrigation structures. Both of these augmentations are required In order for the project to reach maximum planned harvest levels. The study area includes the Yakima Subbasin economy (Yakima and Kittitas counties), the mid-Columbia Basin/Klickitat Subbasin economies (Klickitat, Hood River, and Wasco counties), and the Tri-Cities economy (Benton and Franklin counties). The study period extends from 1990 through 2015: from preconstruction planning activities through reaching maximum production.

  9. An economic evaluation of Columbia River anadromous fish programs: A preliminary study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper evaluates the economics of the Columbia River anadromous fish programs. The paper begins with a description of the Columbia River watershed and discusses...

  10. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  11. Synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluations of polyurethane microstructures for transdermal drug delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borcan, Florin; Soica, Codruta M; Ganta, Srinivas; Amiji, Mansoor M; Dehelean, Cristina A; Munteanu, Melania F

    2012-01-01

    .... This study evaluates polyurethane as material for hollow microstructures preparation.Polyurethane microstructures were obtained by interfacial polyaddition combined with spontaneous emulsification and present slightly acid pH values...

  12. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  13. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THIN POURS ON SALTSTONE PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Langton, C.; Fox, K.

    2012-10-02

    The proposed Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) is a larger structure than the SDU4 cells and larger than the disposal units (SDU2, SDU3, and SDU5) currently in use or under construction. The additional capacity provided by SDU6 is desired to reduce life cycle costs and support site accelerated closure goals. The larger size of the planned SDU6 could result in saltstone being placed in thinner lifts as the unit is filled. This study was performed to determine whether thinner layers of saltstone negatively impact the performance of the waste form. A larger number of cold joints could potentially result in increased drying, salt deposition, and surface oxidation. A matrix of samples was prepared to simulate thin pours ranging from 0.5 to 6 inches thick. Each sample was cured for at least 28 days prior to further characterization. Leachability results showed that there is no obvious impact of the number of grout layers on the Leachability Index values for Na and NO{sub 3}. The concentrations of Cr, NO{sub 2}, and C{sub 2}O{sub 4} were below detection limits for all of the leachates. No attempt was made to evaluate the oxidation of these samples since no measureable Cr was leached, although this would appear to indicate that Cr in the samples remained reduced for cold joints with surfaces exposed for approximately four days. The results of hydraulic conductivity measurements showed that the number of cold joints in the samples did not have a significant impact on the measured values for the vertical lift orientation (i.e., when the flow path is perpendicular to the cold joints). For the horizontal lift orientation (i.e., when the flow path is parallel to the cold joints), the number of cold joints in the samples also did not appear to have a significant impact on hydraulic conductivity. The measured hydraulic conductivity was faster when the flow path was parallel to the cold joints as compared to when the flow path was perpendicular to the cold joints. Percolation

  14. Evaluating the landscape impact of renewable energy plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Romanos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2017-04-01

    Different types of renewable energy have been on an ongoing competition with each other. There has been a lot of research comparing the most common types of renewable energy plants in relation with their efficiency, cost and environmental impact. However, few papers so far have attempted to analyse their impact on landscape and there has never been in depth research on which type of renewable energy causes the least impact on the natural, cultural and aesthetic characteristics of a landscape. This seems to be a significant omission given the vast areas of land already covered with renewable energy plants and the worldwide plans for many more renewable energy projects in the future. Meanwhile, the low aesthetic quality of renewable energy plants has already been an obstacle to their further development, with several relevant examples from countries such as Spain and the Netherlands. There have even been cases where aesthetic degradation is the primary or even the single argument of the opposition to proposed plants. In any case, the aesthetic design and the integration of renewable energy plants into the landscape should really be important design parameters if we plan those projects to truly be sustainable and to be considered complete works of engineering. To initiate dialogue over those aspects of renewable energy, we provide a first comparison on hydro, solar and wind energy. To materialize this comparison, we use data from existing dams, photovoltaic and wind farms. Initially, the average area per MW covered by each type of energy plant is calculated and then evaluated qualitatively from a landscape-impact perspective. Although the area affected is comparable in these three cases, the analysis of the data suggests that dams offer a considerable amount of advantages compared to the other two types of plants. This conclusion arises from the fact that dams, whose basic impact to the landscape is the creation of an artificial lake, contribute much less to the

  15. Evaluating an impact origin for Mercury's high-magnesium region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Elizabeth A.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Abramov, Oleg; James, Peter B.; Klima, Rachel L.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2017-03-01

    During its four years in orbit around Mercury, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft's X-ray Spectrometer revealed a large geochemical terrane in the northern hemisphere that hosts the highest Mg/Si, S/Si, Ca/Si, and Fe/Si and lowest Al/Si ratios on the planet. Correlations with low topography, thin crust, and a sharp northern topographic boundary led to the proposal that this high-Mg region is the remnant of an ancient, highly degraded impact basin. Here we use a numerical modeling approach to explore the feasibility of this hypothesis and evaluate the results against multiple mission-wide data sets and resulting maps from MESSENGER. We find that an 3000 km diameter impact basin easily exhumes Mg-rich mantle material but that the amount of subsequent modification required to hide basin structure is incompatible with the strength of the geochemical anomaly, which is also present in maps of Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer data. Consequently, the high-Mg region is more likely to be the product of high-temperature volcanism sourced from a chemically heterogeneous mantle than the remains of a large impact event.abstract type="synopsis">Plain Language SummaryDuring its four years in orbit around Mercury, chemical measurements from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft revealed a large region of unusual composition relative to the rest of the planet. Its elevated magnesium abundance, in particular, led to the name of the "high-magnesium region" (HMR). High magnesium abundance in rock can be an indicator of its origin, such as high-temperature volcanism. Although the HMR covers approximately 15% of Mercury's surface, its origin is not obvious. It does roughly correspond to a depression with thin crust, which previously led to the hypothesis that it is an ancient impact crater that was large enough to excavate mantle material, which, in rocky planets, is rich in

  16. Monitoring and Evaluating Projects : A Step-by-Step Primer on Monitoring, Benchmarking, and Impact Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekka E. Grun

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to be a practical step-by-step guide to prepare and carry out benchmarking and impact analyses of projects. It's purpose is to attempt to present analytical tools solidly grounded in economic theory all while focusing on the practical questions of evaluations. Little space is given to theory, in order to spend more time on the actual steps involved, trying to make this ...

  17. Hyperacuity test to evaluate vision through dense cataracts: research preliminary to a clinical study in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M.; Giraldez, Maria J.; Huang, Doahua; Hirose, Hiroshi; Knowles, Richard A.; Namperumalsamy, P.; LaBree, Lauri; Azen, Stanley P.

    1995-03-01

    Using high luminance point-of-light stimuli, Vernier judgments can be made in the presence of markedly degraded retinal imagery. Without coaching, observers perform center-of-gravity assessments of relative locations of degraded point images. We seek to defined, presurgery, individuals who will derive the most benefit from advanced cataract removal (a form of triage), and to determine which of two cataractous eyes has the better postsurgical visual prognosis. There are incredible and growing backlogs of patients with severe cataracts (and other dense media opacities) in the developing world, and generally, limited resources are available for provision of health care. Postcataract surgical failure rates for good visual function are often high, and only one eye is operated on in over 95% of indigent patients treated. Prior to initiating advanced studies in the developing world, at Berkeley we conducted preliminary research on Vernier acuity test techniques on normal adult subjects. We sought to determine the number of repeat trials necessary; to compare a two-point and a three-point Vernier display; to determine the shape of the measured response function at large gap separations between test points (required when testing advanced cataract patients); to assess the effect(s) of a broad range of uncorrected refractive errors on outcomes; and to consider means to minimize refraction-based errors. From these and prior data and analyses, we defined a protocol for use in the developing world. Using a newly designed and rugged precision instrument, these tests were repeated on an advanced cataract population at Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Although we had much prior experience in India, the initial protocol required major revision on site. Necessary changes in test methods and analytical approaches were made, and next stages in this program were planned. And a new and simple gap `visual acuity' (gap `VA') test was added to the protocol, which greatly facilitated

  18. Preliminary Experience Using Dynamic MRI at 3.0 Tesla for Evaluation of Soft Tissue Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the use of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) at 3.0 T for differentiating the benign from malignant soft tissue tumors. Also we aimed to assess whether the shorter length of DCE-MRI protocols are adequate, and to evaluate the effect of temporal resolution. Materials and Methods Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, at 3.0 T with a 1 second temporal resolution in 13 patients with pathologically confirmed soft tissue tu...

  19. Design and evaluation of a patient website to reduce crowding in emergency departments: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Jessica; Marcilly, Romaric; Leroy, Nicolas; Wawrzyniak, Clément; Martinot, Alain; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to identify the information useful to support a patients' EDs' choice in order to design a patient Web-based system. For that purpose, a focus group and a formative user test have been performed. The results show that five types of information can be relevant. The spontaneous favored information is the "distance" to EDs. The "Wait time", that is sanctified in literature, is only used in a second time. A larger summative evaluation should be planned to evaluate and validate the befits of this kind of tool.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the air and fuel specific-impulse characteristics of several potential ram-jet fuels IV : hydrogen, a-methylnaphthalene, and carbon / Benson E. Gammon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Benson E

    1951-01-01

    A preliminary analytical evaluation of the air and fuel specific-impulse characteristics of hydrogen, a-methylnapthalene, and graphite carbon has been made. Adiabatic constant-pressure combustion flame temperatures for each fuel at several equivalence ratios were calculated for an initial air temperature of 560 degrees R and a pressure of 2 atmospheres.

  1. Description and Preliminary Evaluation of a Curriculum for Teaching Conversational Skills to Children with High-Functioning Autism and Other Social Cognition Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eve; Cannon, Lynn R.; Kornblum, Courtney; Clark, Jonna; Powers, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this clinical focus article is to provide (a) a detailed description of a school-based intervention designed to teach children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASDs) and other social cognition challenges both the "how" and the "why" of conversation and (b) a preliminary evaluation of…

  2. Evaluating Escherichia coli removal performance in stormwater biofilters: a preliminary modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, G I; Deletic, A; McCarthy, D T

    2013-01-01

    Stormwater biofilters are not currently optimised for pathogen removal since the behaviour of these pollutants within the stormwater biofilters is poorly understood. Modelling is a common way of optimising these systems, which also provides a better understanding of the major processes that govern the pathogen removal. This paper provides an overview of a laboratory-scale study that investigated how different design and operational conditions impact pathogen removal in the stormwater biofilters. These data were then used to develop a modelling tool that can be used to optimise the design and operation of the stormwater biofilters. The model uses continuous simulations where adsorption and desorption were dominant during wet weather periods and first order die-off kinetics were significant in dry periods between the wet weather events. Relatively high Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies (>0.5) indicate that the calibrated model is in good agreement with observed data and the optimised model parameters were comparable with values reported in the literature. The model's sensitivity is highest towards the adsorption process parameter followed by the die-off and desorption rate parameters, which implies that adsorption is the governing process of the model. Vegetation is found to have an impact on the wet weather processes since the adsorption and desorption parameters vary significantly with the different plant configurations. The model is yet to be tested against field data and needs to be improved to represent the effect of some other biofilter design configurations, such as the inclusion of the submerged zone.

  3. In Vivo Evaluation of Wearable Head Impact Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lyndia C; Nangia, Vaibhav; Bui, Kevin; Hammoor, Bradley; Kurt, Mehmet; Hernandez, Fidel; Kuo, Calvin; Camarillo, David B

    2016-04-01

    Inertial sensors are commonly used to measure human head motion. Some sensors have been tested with dummy or cadaver experiments with mixed results, and methods to evaluate sensors in vivo are lacking. Here we present an in vivo method using high speed video to test teeth-mounted (mouthguard), soft tissue-mounted (skin patch), and headgear-mounted (skull cap) sensors during 6-13 g sagittal soccer head impacts. Sensor coupling to the skull was quantified by displacement from an ear-canal reference. Mouthguard displacements were within video measurement error (sensor error, we found that in-plane skin patch linear acceleration in the anterior-posterior direction could be modeled by an underdamped viscoelastic system. In summary, the mouthguard showed tighter skull coupling than the other sensor mounting approaches. Furthermore, the in vivo methods presented are valuable for investigating skull acceleration sensor technologies.

  4. Model-based evaluation of scientific impact indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Medo, Matus

    2016-01-01

    Using bibliometric data artificially generated through a model of citation dynamics calibrated on empirical data, we compare several indicators for the scientific impact of individual researchers. The use of such a controlled setup has the advantage of avoiding the biases present in real databases, and allows us to assess which aspects of the model dynamics and which traits of individual researchers a particular indicator actually reflects. We find that the simple citation average performs well in capturing the intrinsic scientific ability of researchers, whatever the length of their career. On the other hand, when productivity complements ability in the evaluation process, the notorious $h$ and $g$ indices reveal their potential, yet their normalized variants do not always yield a fair comparison between researchers at different career stages. Notably, the use of logarithmic units for citation counts allows us to build simple indicators with performance equal to that of $h$ and $g$. Our analysis may provide ...

  5. Evaluating Impact of Mobility on Wireless Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, N; Ahmad, A; Naveed, A; Djouani, K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate, analyze, and compare the impact of mobility on the behavior of three reactive protocols (AODV, DSR, DYMO) and three proactive protocols (DSDV, FSR, OLSR) in multi-hop wireless networks. We take into account throughput, end-to-end delay, and normalized routing load as performance parameters. Based upon the extensive simulation results in NS-2, we rank all of six protocols according to the performance parameters. Besides providing the interesting facts regarding the response of each protocol on varying mobilities and speeds, we also study the trade-offs, the routing protocols have to make. Such as, to achieve throughput, a protocol has to pay some cost in the form of increased end-to-end delay or routing overhead.

  6. Evaluating the economic impact of casino liberalization in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Victor; Hung, Eva P W

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the economic impact after Macao decided to liberalize its gaming industry. By analysing both objective data of official statistics and subjective data of the perceptions of quality of life, we painted a picture of mixed blessings. Although objective indicators showed strong economic growth in terms of a rise in per capita GDP and public revenue as well as a decline in unemployment rate, subjective indicators revealed that local residents were less than optimistic about their own employment outlook and did not perceive any improvement in their overall economic situation. While casino liberalization brought forth tremendous economic gain, the general population did not subjectively feel the benefits. An integrative analysis of both objective and subjective indicators would therefore allow us to look closer how residents' lives in the micro-level could have been adversely affected by the prosperous economic outlook at the macro-level.

  7. Use of Web 2.0 Social Media Platforms to Promote Community-Engaged Research Dialogs: A Preliminary Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Soto, Miguel; Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Bishop, Shawn G; Aase, Lee A; Timimi, Farris K; Montori, Victor M; Patten, Christi A

    2016-09-09

    Community-engaged research is defined by the Institute of Medicine as the process of working collaboratively with groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interests, or similar situations with respect to issues affecting their well-being. Traditional face-to-face community-engaged research is limited by geographic location, limited in resources, and/or uses one-way communications. Web 2.0 technologies including social media are novel communication channels for community-engaged research because these tools can reach a broader audience while promoting bidirectional dialogs. This paper reports on a preliminary program evaluation of the use of social media platforms for promoting engagement of researchers and community representatives in dialogs about community-engaged research. For this pilot program evaluation, the Clinical and Translational Science Office for Community Engagement in Research partnered with the Social Media Network at our institution to create a WordPress blog and Twitter account. Both social media platforms were facilitated by a social media manager. We used descriptive analytics for measuring engagement with WordPress and Twitter over an 18-month implementation period during 2014-2016. For the blog, we examined type of user (researcher, community representative, other) and used content analysis to generate the major themes from blog postings. For use of Twitter, we examined selected demographics and impressions among followers. There were 76 blog postings observed from researchers (48/76, 64%), community representatives (23/76, 32%) and funders (5/76, 8%). The predominant themes of the blog content were research awareness and dissemination of community-engaged research (35/76, 46%) and best practices (23/76, 30%). For Twitter, we obtained 411 followers at the end of the 18-month evaluation period, with an increase of 42% (from 280 to 411) over the final 6 months. Followers reported varied geographic location (321/411, 78

  8. Use of Web 2.0 Social Media Platforms to Promote Community-Engaged Research Dialogs: A Preliminary Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Soto, Miguel; Bishop, Shawn G; Aase, Lee A; Timimi, Farris K; Montori, Victor M; Patten, Christi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-engaged research is defined by the Institute of Medicine as the process of working collaboratively with groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interests, or similar situations with respect to issues affecting their well-being. Traditional face-to-face community-engaged research is limited by geographic location, limited in resources, and/or uses one-way communications. Web 2.0 technologies including social media are novel communication channels for community-engaged research because these tools can reach a broader audience while promoting bidirectional dialogs. Objective This paper reports on a preliminary program evaluation of the use of social media platforms for promoting engagement of researchers and community representatives in dialogs about community-engaged research. Methods For this pilot program evaluation, the Clinical and Translational Science Office for Community Engagement in Research partnered with the Social Media Network at our institution to create a WordPress blog and Twitter account. Both social media platforms were facilitated by a social media manager. We used descriptive analytics for measuring engagement with WordPress and Twitter over an 18-month implementation period during 2014-2016. For the blog, we examined type of user (researcher, community representative, other) and used content analysis to generate the major themes from blog postings. For use of Twitter, we examined selected demographics and impressions among followers. Results There were 76 blog postings observed from researchers (48/76, 64%), community representatives (23/76, 32%) and funders (5/76, 8%). The predominant themes of the blog content were research awareness and dissemination of community-engaged research (35/76, 46%) and best practices (23/76, 30%). For Twitter, we obtained 411 followers at the end of the 18-month evaluation period, with an increase of 42% (from 280 to 411) over the final 6 months. Followers reported varied

  9. Preliminary Benchmark Evaluation of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Darrell Bess

    2009-05-01

    A benchmark model of the initial fully-loaded start-up core critical of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was developed to provide data in support of ongoing validation efforts of the Very High Temperature Reactor Program using publicly available resources. The HTTR is a 30 MWt test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. The benchmark was modeled using MCNP5 with various neutron cross-section libraries. An uncertainty evaluation was performed by perturbing the benchmark model and comparing the resultant eigenvalues. The calculated eigenvalues are approximately 2-3% greater than expected with an uncertainty of ±0.70%. The primary sources of uncertainty are the impurities in the core and reflector graphite. The release of additional HTTR data could effectively reduce the benchmark model uncertainties and bias. Sensitivity of the results to the graphite impurity content might imply that further evaluation of the graphite content could significantly improve calculated results. Proper characterization of graphite for future Next Generation Nuclear Power reactor designs will improve computational modeling capabilities. Current benchmarking activities include evaluation of the annular HTTR cores and assessment of the remaining start-up core physics experiments, including reactivity effects, reactivity coefficient, and reaction-rate distribution measurements. Long term benchmarking goals might include analyses of the hot zero-power critical, rise-to-power tests, and other irradiation, safety, and technical evaluations performed with the HTTR.

  10. Preliminary Study on Establishing the New System of Assessment and Evaluation Of "Athletic Physiology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the light of the problems existing in assessment of the course of "athletic physiology" in universities at present, this article makes reflections upon the assessment mode of students for this course and takes a general survey on development of the evaluation system by comprehensively employing both the quantitative method and…

  11. Preliminary evaluation of AERMOD using site specific stack and ambient sampling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cotton ginning industry-supported project was initiated in 2008 to develop a robust particulate matter (PM) dispersion modeling dataset that could be used for evaluating current and future PM dispersion models. This paper compares total PM data collected by the industry-supported study at one gin ...

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of an Educational Outcomes Assessment Process for Dental Interpretive Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Richard A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for testing the ability of dental students to detect presence and depth of dental caries was evaluated. Students (n=40) from four experience groups examined radiographs obtained from a model. Results indicated that this method of assessing student competence in radiographic interpretation is valid. (MSE)

  13. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren Vester; Baker, Felicity A.; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Primary objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed...

  14. Nursing Student Performance, 1986-1993: Preliminary Findings. Program Evaluation PE93-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughan, Karl

    A study was conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC), in Maryland, to evaluate nursing student performance from point of admission to the taking of the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX). A sample of 853 students who enrolled in the nursing program entry course between fall 1986 and spring 1992 were surveyed to determine…

  15. Teacher Aides, Class Size and Academic Achievement: A Preliminary Evaluation of Indiana's Prime Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Daytner, Katrina M.; Kelly, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.

    This large-scale evaluation of Indiana's Prime Time, a funding mechanism designed to reduce class size or pupil-teacher ratio (PTR) in grades K-3 examined the academic performance of nearly 11,000 randomly selected third graders on the state mandated standardized achievement test as a function of class size, PTR, and presence of an instructional…

  16. Synthesis and preliminary cytotoxic evaluation of substituted indoles as potential anticancer agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A variety of indole derivatives were designed, synthesized and preliminarily evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity in the A431 and H460 cell lines. All the compounds examined conferred unusual potency in a tumor cell cytotoxicity assay. The findings showed the indole derivatives would be a promising candidate for the development of new anticancer agents.

  17. Nondestructive methods for the structural evaluation of wood floor systems in historic buildings : preliminary results : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael O. Hunt; Robert J. Ross; Lawrence A. Soltis

    1999-01-01

    To date, there is no standard method for evaluating the structural integrity of wood floor systems using nondestructive techniques. Current methods of examination and assessment are often subjective and therefore tend to yield imprecise or variable results. For this reason, estimates of allowable wood floor loads are often conservative. The assignment of conservatively...

  18. A Preliminary Evaluation of Instructional Effectiveness of Online Training Implemented at a Government Agency in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanakorn-Davila, Supawan; Bolliger, Doris U.

    2012-01-01

    Online training has become popular in the professional development of government employees in Thailand. One large government agency developed an online program to provide training to its employees across the country using two systems: an Internet and Intranet-based system. With the new program implemented, the evaluation of the instructional…

  19. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f O. kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion and Recommendation: In general the antimicrobial activity of the plant observed here support the tradition therapeutic claim of the society. Further study should be conducted in further evaluating its antimicrobial effectiveness and also purification of the active chemical constituents that could be responsible for its biological activity. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  20. Model-based evaluation of scientific impact indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medo, Matúš; Cimini, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    Using bibliometric data artificially generated through a model of citation dynamics calibrated on empirical data, we compare several indicators for the scientific impact of individual researchers. The use of such a controlled setup has the advantage of avoiding the biases present in real databases, and it allows us to assess which aspects of the model dynamics and which traits of individual researchers a particular indicator actually reflects. We find that the simple average citation count of the authored papers performs well in capturing the intrinsic scientific ability of researchers, regardless of the length of their career. On the other hand, when productivity complements ability in the evaluation process, the notorious h and g indices reveal their potential, yet their normalized variants do not always yield a fair comparison between researchers at different career stages. Notably, the use of logarithmic units for citation counts allows us to build simple indicators with performance equal to that of h and g . Our analysis may provide useful hints for a proper use of bibliometric indicators. Additionally, our framework can be extended by including other aspects of the scientific production process and citation dynamics, with the potential to become a standard tool for the assessment of impact metrics.

  1. Impacts of soil moisture content on visual soil evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, Giulia; Creamer, Rachel; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSE) techniques offer tools for soil quality assessment. They involve the visual and tactile assessment of soil properties such as aggregate size and shape, porosity, redox morphology, soil colour and smell. An increasing body of research has demonstrated the reliability and utility of VSE techniques. However a number of limitations have been identified, including the potential impact of soil moisture variation during sampling. As part of a national survey of grassland soil quality in Ireland, an evaluation of the impact of soil moisture on two widely used VSE techniques was conducted. The techniques were Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Guimarães et al., 2011) and Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) (Shepherd, 2009). Both generate summarising numeric scores that indicate soil structural quality, though employ different scoring mechanisms. The former requires the assessment of properties concurrently and the latter separately. Both methods were deployed on 20 sites across Ireland representing a range of soils. Additional samples were taken for soil volumetric water (θ) determination at 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth. No significant correlation was observed between θ 5-10 cm and either VSE technique. However, VESS scores were significantly related to θ 10-20 cm (rs = 0.40, sig = 0.02) while VSA scores were not (rs = -0.33, sig = 0.06). VESS and VSA scores can be grouped into quality classifications (good, moderate and poor). No significant mean difference was observed between θ 5-10 cm or θ 10-20 cm according to quality classification by either method. It was concluded that VESS scores may be affected by soil moisture variation while VSA appear unaffected. The different scoring mechanisms, where the separate assessment and scoring of individual properties employed by VSA, may limit soil moisture effects. However, moisture content appears not to affect overall structural quality classification by either method. References

  2. Evaluating herbivore management outcomes and associated vegetation impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina C.C. Grant

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available African savannas are characterised by temporal and spatial fluxes that are linked to fluxes in herbivore populations and vegetation structure and composition. We need to be concerned about these fluxes only when management actions cause the system to shift towards a less desired state. Large herbivores are a key attribute of African savannas and are important for tourism and biodiversity. Large protected areas such as the Kruger National Park (KNP manage for high biodiversity as the desired state, whilst private protected areas, such as those adjacent to the KNP, generally manage for high income. Biodiversity, sustainability and economic indicators are thus required to flag thresholds of potential concern (TPCs that may result in a particular set of objectives not being achieved. In large conservation areas such as the KNP, vegetation changes that result from herbivore impact, or lack thereof, affect biodiversity and TPCs are used to indicate unacceptable change leading to a possible loss of biodiversity; in private protected areas the loss of large herbivores is seen as an important indicator of economic loss. Therefore, the first-level indicators aim to evaluate the forage available to sustain grazers without deleteriously affecting the vegetation composition, structure and basal cover. Various approaches to monitoring for these indicators were considered and the importance of the selection of sites that are representative of the intensity of herbivore use is emphasised. The most crucial step in the adaptive management process is the feedback of information to inform management decisions and enable learning. Feedback loops tend to be more efficient where the organisation’s vision is focused on, for example, economic gain, than in larger protected areas, such as the KNP, where the vision to conserve biodiversity is broader and more complex.Conservation implications: In rangeland, optimising herbivore numbers to achieve the management

  3. Family planning impact evaluation: the evolution of techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermalin, Albert I.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a slightly revised version of a paper prepared for the seminar on methods for inpact evaluation of family planning programs held in Jaco, Costa Rica, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID, the Carolina Population Center of the University of North Carolina, and the Central American Population Program of the University of Costa Rica. The goal of the seminar was to look at current methodological problems facing careful evaluation of the impact of programs, to examine some of the new methods that have been developed to address persistent issues, and to assess the methodological challenges posed by the expanded goals of many programs following the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. This paper was designed to serve as the background to discussions of current methodologies and issues by tracing the development and nature of methods for assessing impact that started soon after the first programs were initiated in the 1950s. The techniques discussed include standardization and trend analysis, the analyses of acceptor data, experimental designs, multivariate areal analysis, population-based surveys, and multilevel strategies. The intent of the program sponsors and coordinators was to publish the collected papers but various contingencies intervened to make this infeasible. A description of the seminar and many of the papers are maintained on the University of Costa Rica website:http://ccp.ucr.ac.cr/noticias/plani/iusspi.htm. As a background chapter, the original version contained references to many of the other chapters planned for the volume. As many of these papers appear on the website, relevant references are given to the authors and this website throughout the paper.

  4. Evaluating the impact of high Pluronic® F68 concentrations on antibody producing CHO cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Goudar, Chetan T

    2015-04-01

    Pluronic® F68 (P-F68) is an important component of chemically-defined cell culture medium because it protects cells from hydrodynamic and bubble-induced shear in the bioreactor. While P-F68 is typically used in cell culture medium at a concentration of 1 g/L (0.1%), higher concentrations can offer additional shear protection and have also been shown to be beneficial during cryopreservation. Recent industry experience with variability in P-F68-associated shear-protection has opened up the possibility of elevated P-F68 concentrations in cell culture media, a topic that has not been previously explored in the context of industrial cell culture processes. Recognizing this gap, we first evaluated the effect of 1-5 g/L P-F68 concentrations in shake flask cultures over ten 3-day passages for cell lines A and B. Increase in terminal cell density and cell size was seen over time at higher P-F68 concentrations but protein productivity was not impacted. Results from this preliminary screening study suggested no adverse impact of high P-F68 concentrations. Subsequently fed-batch bioreactor experiments were conducted at 1 and 5 g/L P-F68 concentrations with both cell lines where cell growth, viability, metabolism, and product quality were examined under process conditions reflective of a commercial process. Results from these bioreactor experiments confirmed findings from the preliminary screen and also indicated no impact of elevated P-F68 concentration on product quality. If additional shear protection is desired, either due to raw material variability, cell line sensitivity, or a high-shear cell culture process, our results suggest this can be accomplished by elevating the P-F68 concentration in the cell culture medium without impacting cell culture performance and product quality.

  5. Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Wang

    2004-11-18

    ''Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry'' focuses on the potential for microbial communities that could be active in repository emplacement drifts to influence the in-drift bulk chemical environment. This report feeds analyses to support the inclusion or exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), but this work is not expected to generate direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. The purpose was specified by, and the evaluation was performed and is documented in accordance with, ''Technical Work Plan For: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Analyses'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172402], Section 2.1). This report addresses all of the FEPs assigned by the technical work plan (TWP), including the development of exclusion arguments for FEPs that are not carried forward to the TSPA-LA. Except for an editorial correction noted in Section 6.2, there were no other deviations from the TWP. This report documents the completion of all assigned tasks, as follows (BSC 2004 DIRS 172402, Section 1.2.1): (1) Perform analyses to evaluate the potential for microbial activity in the waste emplacement drift under the constraints of anticipated physical and chemical conditions. (2) Evaluate uncertainties associated with these analyses. (3) Determine whether the potential for microbes warrants a feed to TSPA-LA to account for predicted effects on repository performance. (4) Provide information to address the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NUREG-1804) (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) and Key Technical Issues and agreements, as appropriate. (5) Develop information for inclusion or exclusion of FEPs.

  6. Clinical evaluation of children testing positive in screening tests for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skounti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Screening tests are of great diagnostic value in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, however final diagnosis relies on a clinical examination by an expert. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate children who had been screened positive for ADHD through both a parent and a teacher questionnaire. Methods: Parent interview and child behavior checklist and clinical assessment were used to confirm the preliminary diagnosis in 42 children aged 8 years, who have been screened positive for ADHD out of 1,708 children, in a large, two-setting screening study conducted in Crete, Greece. Results: The diagnosis of ADHD was confirmed for 31 children (74%. In the remaining 11 children, ADHD manifestations were attributed to other primary disorders. None of the 42 children was classified as lacking symptoms suggesting ADHD. Among the 31 children with confirmed ADHD, only 2 had been diagnosed prior to the screening test. Conclusions: Although clinical evaluation is the golden standard for diagnosis of ADHD, two-setting screening questionnaires by parent and teacher are useful tools in identifying children who need further investigation and intervention.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the toxicity of some synthetic furan derivatives in two cell lines and Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, María I; Monasterios, Melina; Avendaño, Milagros; Charris, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the preliminary toxicity evaluation of five new furan derivatives, 2-[2-acetylamino-2-[(benzothiazolyl-substituted)aminocarbonyl]vinyl]-5-nitro furane (compounds A, B, D and E) and 2-[2-phenylamino-2-[benzothiazolylaminocarbonyl]vinyl]furane (compound C). Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT (tetrazolium salt) method over BHK21 (Syrian baby hamster kidney) and Hep-2 (human larynx carcinoma) cells, which had previously been used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the 5-nitrofuran derivatives. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was determined using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay. Nitrofurantoin was used as reference compound. The results demonstrate that BHK21 cells are more sensitive than Hep-2 cells. This structurally related serial of compounds shows a differential toxicity, which is an indication that the toxicity naturally arising from the nitro group can be modulated by the substituents over the furan ring. Additionally, compound C, the only derivative with no nitro group, was least toxic to Hep-2, but exhibits toxicity to BHK21 cells and brine shrimp. The LC(50 )brine shrimp test (BST) bioassay results were as follows: A, 654.2 microg ml(-1); B, 50.0 microg ml(-1); C, 533.4 microg ml(-1); D, 172.1 microg ml(-1); E, 76.4 microg ml(-1), and NF, >1000 microg ml(-1).

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Spence

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone.

  9. The Evaluation Scale: Exploring Decisions About Societal Impact in Peer Review Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Gemma E; Samuel, Gabrielle N

    Realising the societal gains from publicly funded health and medical research requires a model for a reflexive evaluation precedent for the societal impact of research. This research explores UK Research Excellence Framework evaluators' values and opinions and assessing societal impact, prior to the assessment taking place. Specifically, we discuss the characteristics of two different impact assessment extremes - the "quality-focused" evaluation and "societal impact-focused" evaluation. We show the wide range of evaluator views about impact, and that these views could be conceptually reflected in a range of different positions along a conceptual evaluation scale. We describe the characteristics of these extremes in detail, and discuss the different beliefs evaluators had which could influence where they positioned themselves along the scale. These decisions, we argue, when considered together, form a dominant definition of societal impact that influences the direction of its evaluation by the panel.

  10. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  11. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  12. Radiochemical synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Michał; Garnuszek, Piotr

    2010-02-01

    Pt(II)(IT-[(125)I]Carnosine) complex; however, at the same time the lowest concentration in kidneys was noted. Preliminary studies in the rat's tumor model indicated for this complex a favorable tumor to muscle ratio. In the case of Pt(IV)(IT-[*I]Carnosine) apart from ca. 12-times decrease of the liver accumulation, additional 4-times decrease of an accumulation in kidneys was observed in comparison to the Pt(IV)([*I]Hist)(2) complex. Our study showed that the short peptides can be efficiently substituted to the platinum core via the reactive sulfhydryl group introduced by SATA or 2-IT. The new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine possess favorable biodistribution schemes, which make them potential candidates for radio-chemotherapeutical agents. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A steady-state approach for evaluating the impact of solute transport through composite liners on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foose, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    New adaptations of analytical equations for predicting the impact of solute transport through composite landfill liners on groundwater quality for steady-state conditions are presented. Analytical equations are developed for evaluating average concentration and mass flow rate in an underlying aquifer resulting from diffusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through intact composite liners and transport of inorganic constituents through defects in composite liners. The equations are applied to evaluate the effectiveness and equivalency of composite liners having either a 0.6 m-thick compacted soil liner or a 6.5 mm-thick geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) overlying an intermediate attenuation layer and an aquifer having horizontal flow. Example analyses for designing composite liners meeting particular performance criteria are also provided. The analytical equations are relatively simple to apply and can be used for preliminary design and analysis, to evaluate experimental results, and to possibly verify more complex numerical models for evaluating the impact of landfills on groundwater quality if consistency of the assumptions of the analytical equations and the more complex numerical models can be specified.

  14. Early Impacts of a Human-in-the-Loop Evaluation in a Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky; Vos, Gordon; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2008-01-01

    The development of a new space vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), provides Human Factors engineers an excellent opportunity to have an impact early in the design process. This case study highlights a Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) evaluation conducted in a Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility and will describe the human-centered approach and how the findings are impacting design and operational concepts early in space vehicle design. The focus of this HITL evaluation centered on the activities that astronaut crewmembers would be expected to perform within the functional internal volume of the Crew Module (CM) of the space vehicle. The primary objective was to determine if there are aspects of a baseline vehicle configuration that would limit or prevent the performance of dynamically volume-driving activities (e.g. six crewmembers donning their suits in an evacuation scenario). A second objective was to step through concepts of operations for known systems and evaluate them in integrated scenarios. The functional volume for crewmember activities is closely tied to every aspect of system design (e.g. avionics, safety, stowage, seats, suits, and structural support placement). As this evaluation took place before the Preliminary Design Review of the space vehicle with some designs very early in the development, it was not meant to determine definitely that the crewmembers could complete every activity, but rather to provide inputs that could improve developing designs and concepts of operations definition refinement.

  15. Preliminary Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System: Task 2.1.1: Evaluating Effects of Stressors – Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.

    2010-11-15

    Possible environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development are not well understood, and yet regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term effects. An understanding of risk associated with likely interactions between MHK installations and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help reduce the level of uncertainty and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. As a first step in developing the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), PNNL scientists conducted a preliminary risk screening analysis on three initial MHK cases - a tidal project in Puget Sound using Open Hydro turbines, a wave project off the coast of Oregon using Ocean Power Technologies point attenuator buoys, and a riverine current project in the Mississippi River using Free Flow turbines. Through an iterative process, the screening analysis revealed that top-tier stressors in all three cases were the effects of the dynamic physical presence of the device (e.g., strike), accidents, and effects of the static physical presence of the device (e.g., habitat alteration). Receptor interactions with these stressors at the four highest tiers of risk were dominated by marine mammals (cetaceans and pinnipeds) and birds (diving and non-diving); only the riverine case (Free Flow) included different receptors in the third tier (fish) and the fourth tier (benthic invertebrates). Although this screening analysis provides a preliminary analysis of vulnerability of environmental receptors to stressors associated with MHK installations, probability analysis, especially of risk associated with chemical toxicity and accidents such as oil spills or lost gear, will be necessary to further understand high-priority risks. Subject matter expert review of this process and results is required and is

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks. Plutonium finishing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company`s Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems.

  17. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2014-01-01

    development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Methods: Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings......-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement ,and Enjoyment, were found. Conclusions: This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties...... despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other...

  18. Preliminary Performance Evaluation of MEMS-based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters in Extended Temperature Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, R.; Borregaard, L.M.; Lei, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work a batch of MEMS-based vibration energy harvesters consisting of a silicon/PZT thick film ntilever with integrated proof mass is characterized. The purpose of a vibration energy harvester is to convert low grade vibrations to useful electrical power. Optimally, the natural frequency...... of the harvester should match the frequency of he ambient vibration. The first step to achieve this is to evaluate the uniformity of the fabricated harvesters and nderstand the effects of temperature on the harvesters during operation. Therefore, the uniformity of 40 energy harvesters from one wafer has been...... evaluated. Thereafter the performance of the energy harvesters operating at emperatures between -30°C to 100°C was measured....

  19. Computer–Based Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers: Preliminary Results from Two Evaluation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna H Oxstrand

    2013-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. nuclear industry are collaborating on a research effort aimed to augment the existing guidance on computer-based procedure (CBP) design with specific guidance on how to design CBP user interfaces such that they support procedure execution in ways that exceed the capabilities of paper-based procedures (PBPs) without introducing new errors. Researchers are employing an iterative process where the human factors issues and interface design principles related to CBP usage are systematically addressed and evaluated in realistic settings. This paper describes the process of developing a CBP prototype and the two studies conducted to evaluate the prototype. The results indicate that CBPs may improve performance by reducing errors, but may increase the time it takes to complete procedural tasks.

  20. A preliminary neutronic evaluation of high temperature engineering test reactor using the SCALE6 code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanure, L. P. A. R.; Sousa, R. V.; Costa, D. F.; Cardoso, F.; Veloso, M. A. F.; Pereira, C.

    2014-02-01

    Neutronic parameters of some fourth generation nuclear reactors have been investigated at the Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/UFMG. Previous studies show the possibility to increase the transmutation capabilities of these fourth generation systems to achieve significant reduction concerning transuranic elements in spent fuel. To validate the studies, a benchmark on core physics analysis, related to initial testing of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor and provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was simulated using the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE). The CSAS6/KENO-VI control sequence and the 44-group ENDF/B-V 0 cross-section neutron library were used to evaluate the keff (effective multiplication factor) and the result presents good agreement with experimental value.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of adhesion strength measurement devices for ceramic/titanium matrix composite bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlchuck, Bobby; Zeller, Mary V.

    1992-01-01

    The adhesive bond between ceramic cement and a titanium matrix composite substrate to be used in the National Aerospace Plane program is evaluated. Two commercially available adhesion testers, the Sebastian Adherence Tester and the CSEM REVETEST Scratch Tester, are evaluated to determine their suitability for quantitatively measuring adhesion strength. Various thicknesses of cements are applied to several substrates, and bond strengths are determined with both testers. The Sabastian Adherence Tester has provided limited data due to an interference from the sample mounting procedure, and has been shown to be incapable of distinguishing adhesion strength from tensile and shear properties of the cement itself. The data from the scratch tester has been found to be difficult to interpret due to the porosity and hardness of the cement. Recommendations are proposed for a more reliable adhesion test method.

  2. Target Population Involvement in Urban Ciclovias: A Preliminary Evaluation of St. Louis Open Streets

    OpenAIRE

    Hipp, J. Aaron; Eyler, Amy A.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    Ciclovias are active street events when roads are open to walkers, cyclists, and families and closed to automobiles. Over 70 cities in the USA have implemented ciclovias to promote physical activity. The authors evaluated four events during 2010 to determine what activities participants perform and who is attending. For two ciclovia events in St. Louis, Missouri, observation reports of activities, gender, and age of 1,452 participants were collected, and 82 adults were interviewed via direct ...

  3. What did audit achieve? Lessons from preliminary evaluation of a year's medical audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, J; McNicol, M C; Spiby, J; Davies, S C; Layton, A J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the experience of a year's audit of care of medical inpatients. DESIGN--Audit of physicians by monthly review of two randomly selected sets of patients' notes by 12 reviewers using a detailed questionnaire dedicated to standards of medical records and to clinical management. Data were entered into a database and summary statistics presented quarterly at audit meetings. Assessment by improvement in questionnaire scores and by interviewing physicians. SETTING--1 District ...

  4. Allied health research positions: a qualitative evaluation of their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hickman, Ingrid; Hulcombe, Julie; Phillips, Rachel; Mickan, Sharon

    2017-02-06

    Research positions embedded within healthcare settings have been identified as an enabler to allied health professional (AHP) research capacity; however, there is currently limited research formally evaluating their impact. In 2008, a Health Practitioner industrial agreement funded a research capacity building initiative within Queensland Health, Australia, which included 15 new allied health research positions. The present project used a qualitative and realist approach to explore the impact of these research positions, as well as the mechanisms which facilitated or hindered their success within their respective organisations. Forty-four AHP employees from six governmental health services in Queensland, Australia, participated in the study. Individual interviews were undertaken, with individuals in research positions (n = 8) and their reporting line managers (n = 8). Four stakeholder focus groups were also conducted with clinicians, team leaders and professional heads who had engaged with the research positions. Nine key outcomes of the research positions were identified across individual, team/service and organisational/community levels. These outcomes included clinician skill development, increased research activity, clinical and service changes, increased research outputs and collaborations, enhanced research and workplace culture, improved profile of allied health, development of research infrastructure, and professional development of individuals in the research positions. Different mechanisms that influenced these outcomes were identified. These mechanisms were grouped by those related to the (1) research position itself, (2) organisational factors and (3) implementation factors. The present findings highlight the potential value of the research positions for individuals, teams and clinical services across different governmental healthcare services, and demonstrate the impact of the roles on building the internal and external profile of allied health

  5. CT enterography: a preliminary experience in the evaluation of small bowel diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Silva, Luciana [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Medical School. Dept. of Supplementary Propedeutics; Martins, Tatiana [Ecoar Medicina Diagnostica, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Passos, Maria do Carmo Friche [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Medical School. Dept. of Medical Practice

    2010-09-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at demonstrating the value of computed tomography enterography (CT enterography) and how this imaging method can be useful in the diagnostic elucidation and assessment of patients with small bowel diseases. Materials and methods: retrospective evaluation of 35 patients submitted to CT enterography in a 16-row multidetector CT equipment from May/2008 to March/2009. All the patients received intravenous and neutral oral iodinated contrast agents (polyethylene glycol). Main indications were: Crohn's disease, diarrhea of undetermined origin and suspicion of neoplasia. Results: a good correlation was observed between CT enterography findings and clinical, laboratory and endoscopic data related to the disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. In 15 cases alterations compatible with Crohn's disease were identified, nine of them suggesting disease activity. A diagnosis was achieved in the majority of the patients with diarrhea. Carcinoid tumors were identified in two patients. Conclusion: CT enterography is a simple and effective method in the evaluation of inflammatory/neoplastic small bowel diseases, particularly in cases of Crohn's disease, indicating disease activity. One of the main advantages of this method is the possibility of evaluating associated mesenteric and extraintestinal alterations (author)

  6. Transperineal ultrasonography for evaluation of the perianal fistula and abscess in pediatric Crohn disease: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung; Kim, Wee Kyung; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeoun Joo [Dept. of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children' s Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Mo [Dept. of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children' s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transperineal ultrasonography (TPUS) for the evaluation of perianal Crohn disease (PCD) in pediatric patients. Between September 2010 and August 2013, 64 TPUS examinations were performed in 43 patients (34 males and 9 females; mean age±standard deviation, 13.3±2.4 years; age range, 6 to 17 years) to evaluate PCD. The pain severity, location, and activity of perianal fistula, the presence of an abscess, and anal canal hyperemia were retrospectively evaluated. Spearman rank correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the severity of the pain and the fistula activity, the presence of an abscess, and anal canal hyperemia. All examinations were successfully performed. Thirty-nine examinations (60.9%) were performed without any pain experienced by the patient, 19 examinations (29.7%) with mild pain, five examinations (7.8%) with moderate pain, and one examination (1.6%) with severe pain. The pain severity was correlated with the fistula activity (P<0.01). An anterior fistula location was more common than a posterior location. Active fistulas and abscesses were identified during 30 examinations (46.9%) and 12 examinations (18.8%), respectively. Anal canal hyperemia was identified in 31 examinations (48.4%). TPUS with a color Doppler study is useful for visualizing a perianal fistula or abscess and for assessing its inflammatory activity in pediatric Crohn patients.

  7. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure.

  8. 网络信息挖掘系统评价初探%Preliminary Exploration of the Evaluation of Web Mining Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丰; 张燕

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes an evaluation scheme of Web mining system capabilities based on the investigation of several existing survey projects of data mining systems. The scheme covers 4 aspects, i. e. commercial capability, algorithm capability, application capability and Web mining process capability. The preliminary evaluation scheme is then used to investigate 19 systems, which are either commercial products or research prototypes. Finally, the results of the survey are described.

  9. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  10. Preliminary experience with dynamic MR projection angiography in the evaluation of cervicocranial steno-occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, S.G.; Haselhorst, R.; Bilecen, D.; Radue, E.W. [Section of Neuroradiology, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Lyrer, P.A. [Dept. of Neurology, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Seifritz, E. [Psychiatric University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Bongartz, G. [Inst. for Diagnostic Radiology, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Scheffler, K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    The application of a contrast-enhanced, two-dimensional MR technique, which provides dynamic projection angiograms at a subsecond temporal frame rate for depiction of the cervical and intracranial arteries, was evaluated in three healthy volunteers and seven patients with various cervicocranial steno-occlusive diseases. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) served as standard of reference for findings in the patients. Magnetic resonance projection angiography (MRPA) was performed on a standard 1.5-T clinical MR imaging system at intravenous injection of a single dose of contrast agent (0.1 mmol/kg GdDTPA-BMA). Sixty consecutive images of the cerebral circulation were acquired at a temporal frame rate of 900 ms per image in the coronal plane. The collateral flow and the perfusion of the compromised vessel territory were readily assessed by MPRA in patients with occlusion of the internal cerebral artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA). The leptomeningeal collateralisation of these patients was displayed in a dynamic fashion. Furthermore, quantitative perfusion measurement provided a difference between both MCA territories in the time to peak ({delta}DTTP) of the contrast bolus of 1.12 {+-} 0.28 s in five patients with severe stenosis or occlusion of the ICA (healthy volunteers 0.19 {+-} 0.05 s). However, important pathological findings, such as the evaluation of carotid artery stenoses and the intracranial collateral flow pattern in patients with severe carotid stenoses, were not sufficiently assessable as compared with DSA. We conclude that the possibility of obtaining simultaneously information about morphology and perfusion dynamics of the cervicocranial vessels is unique in MPRA as compared with other MR techniques. However, in the applied form, the technique is not a reliable tool for the complete evaluation of the cervicocranial vessels in patients with steno-occlusive disease. (orig.)

  11. Balance impairment in people with multiple sclerosis: preliminary evidence for the Balance Evaluation Systems Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jesse V; Kasser, Susan L

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) to identify balance impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) by evaluating differences in BESTest performance between people with and without MS. We also assessed the BESTest's validity by correlation with objective measures of postural performance as well as with disease severity and fall status. Thirteen subjects with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS: 0-4.5) and 13 matched subjects without MS were evaluated on the BESTest, asked about fall history, and assessed by force plates and motion capture as they performed laboratory tasks of step initiation, forward leaning to the limits of stability, and postural responses to rotations of the support surface. Compared to subjects without MS, subjects with MS exhibited lower total BESTest scores (mean (95%) score for subjects with MS=91 (83-99); subjects without MS=105 (104-107)) as well as section scores pertaining to mechanical constraints, limits of stability, anticipatory postural adjustments, and gait. BESTest scores significantly correlated with objective laboratory measures of step velocity during step initiation (Pearson r(2)=0.48, P<0.01) as well as center-of-pressure displacements during both the leaning (Pearson r(2)=0.55, P<0.005) and postural-response tasks (Pearson r(2)=0.76, P<0.0001). BESTest total scores were 92% accurate to identify fallers and non-fallers, and BESTest scores significantly correlated with EDSS scores (Spearman's rho=0.85, P<0.0005). Thus, the BESTest provides a valid clinical assessment of balance impairments in people with MS.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of the pivot-shift phenomenon with use of kinetic analysis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Baydal-Bertomeu, José-María; Castelli, Andrea; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Marín-Roca, Susana; Garrido-Jaén, José-David

    2011-07-06

    Currently, a suitable and reliable noninvasive method to evaluate rotational stability in vivo in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees, particularly during sports movements, does not exist. We speculated that if there is a rotational instability, the patient would avoid reaching a high pivoting moment during pivoting activities as a defense mechanism, and that the ground reaction moment, as registered by dynamometric platforms, would be reduced. On the basis of this hypothesis, we developed a study using kinetic analysis to evaluate rotational stability under dynamic loading. Thirty recreationally active athletes, including fifteen healthy subjects and fifteen with an anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee, were recruited for this study. Patients performed jumping with pivoting with internal tibial rotation and external tibial rotation on the dynamometric platform with both the healthy and the injured limb. The quantitative results were graphically plotted, and the following parameters were evaluated: loading moment, pivoting moment, torque amplitude, loading slope, pivoting slope, percentage of pivoting with load, loading impulse, pivoting impulse, and maximum body rotation angle. There were no significant differences between the dominant and nondominant knees in the control group during the jumping with pivoting and external tibial rotation test with regard to the pivoting moment (p = 0.805), pivoting slope (p = 0.716), pivoting impulse 2 (p = 0.858), and pivoting impulse 3 (p = 0.873). In patients with a chronic tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, there was a significant decrease of the pivoting moment (p = 0.02), pivoting slope (p = 0.005), pivoting impulse 2 (p = 0.006), and pivoting impulse 3 (p = 0.035) during the jumping with pivoting and external tibial rotation test in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee compared with the healthy, contralateral knee. Kinetic analysis with use of a dynamic platform can objectively detect alterations

  13. ULTRASONOGRAPHY V / S COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF PANCREATITIS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Maheswara Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The pancreas is a difficult organ to evaluate by both clinical and routine radiological methods. An inflammatory pathology involving the pancreas will form part of the differential diagnosis of other conditions presenting with abdominal pain. The combinati on of appropriate clinical findings and laboratory tests permit an accurate diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in most patients. Chronic pancreatitis, on the other hand, forms a much more difficult entity to evaluate clinically or biochemically. The clinical and biochemical parameters form a key factor in the diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis. Cross - sectional imaging with ultrasound and CT has afforded rapid, accurate and noninvasive evaluation of the pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study included 50 cases of Acute and chronic pancreatitis of 16 to 67 years age of both male and females who were diagnosed on imaging studies (Ultrasound and/or CT or on a constellation of signs, symptoms and laboratory data indicative of pancreatitis during the period from Au gust 2011 to July 2013. RESULTS: A total of 50 cases were studied of which 40 had acute pancreatitis and 10 had chronic pancreatitis. In the 40 cases with acute pancreatitis, ultrasound alone was done in 16 cases, CT alone in 4 cases and both modalities we re employed in the remaining 20 patients. All the 10 cases with chronic pancreatitis had an ultrasound study but only one required a CT scan. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography is an initial screening modality in a suspected case of pancreatitis and MDCT is the i nvestigation of choice for definitive diagnosis and estimation of severity of pancreatitis. The pancreas is a difficult organ to evaluate by both clinical and routine radiological methods. An inflammatory pathology involving the pancreas will form part of the differential diagnosis of other conditions presenting with abdominal pain. The combination of appropriate clinical findings and laboratory tests such as serum

  14. The Evaluation of Game-based E-learning for Medical Education: a Preliminary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Cheng; Li, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Wan, Hsu-Tien

    2005-01-01

    Game-Based e-learning (GBeL) was a newly designed platform for education of students with higher education, especially for medical students. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the attraction of GBeL, the motivation toward GBeL and the learning effect. We found more than 80% of students thought that GBeL was attractive and more interesting than traditional class. However, the percentage of enhancing interest to learn and learning more complete and deep knowledge were less than 50%. PMID:16779319

  15. The evaluation of Game-Based e-learning for medical education: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Cheng; Li, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Wan, Hsu-Tien

    2005-01-01

    Game-Based e-learning (GBeL) was newly designed platform for education of students with higher education, especially for medical students. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the attraction of GBeL, the motivation toward GBeL and the learning effect. We found more than 80% of students thought that GBeL was attractive and more interesting than traditional class. However, the percentage of enhancing interest to learn and learning more complete and deep knowledge were less than 50%.

  16. SIFT - A preliminary evaluation. [Software Implemented Fault Tolerant computer for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, D. L.; Butler, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a performance evaluation of the SIFT computer system conducted in the NASA AIRLAB facility. The essential system functions are described and compared to both earlier design proposals and subsequent design improvements. The functions supporting fault tolerance are found to consume significant computing resources. With SIFT's specimen task load, scheduled at a 30-Hz rate, the executive tasks such as reconfiguration, clock synchronization and interactive consistency, require 55 percent of the available task slots. Other system overhead (e.g., voting and scheduling) use an average of 50 percent of each remaining task slot.

  17. Simultaneous PET/MR head–neck cancer imaging: Preliminary clinical experience and multiparametric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covello, M., E-mail: echoplanare@gmail.com [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy); Cavaliere, C.; Aiello, M.; Cianelli, M.S. [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy); Mesolella, M.; Iorio, B. [Department of Otorhinolaryngoiatry, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Rossi, A.; Nicolai, E. [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous PET/MRI is a suitable tool for head/neck T-staging. • No significant differences have been found for PET measures get by both PET/CT and PET/MRI. • SUV 2D and 3D measures in HN lesion offer comparable estimations. • Multiparametric evaluation allows a complete characterization of HN lesions. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the role of simultaneous hybrid PET/MR imaging and to correlate metabolic PET data with morpho-functional parameters derived by MRI in patients with head–neck cancer. Methods: Forty-four patients, with histologically confirmed head and neck malignancy (22 primary tumors and 22 follow-up) were studied. Patients initially received a clinical exam and endoscopy with direct biopsy. Next patients underwent whole body PET/CT followed by PET/MR of the head/neck region. PET and MRI studies were separately evaluated by two blinded groups (both included one radiologist and one nuclear physician) in order to define the presence or absence of lesions/recurrences. Regions of interest (ROIs) analysis was conducted on the primary lesion at the level of maximum size on metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K{sup trans}, V{sub e}, k{sub ep} and iAUC) parameters. Results: PET/MR examinations were successfully performed on all 44 patients. Agreement between the two blinded groups was found in anatomic allocation of lesions by PET/MR (Primary tumors: Cohen's kappa 0.93; Follow-up: Cohen's kappa 0.89). There was a significant correlation between CT-SUV measures and MR (e.g., CT-SUV VOI vs. MR-SUV VOI: ρ = 0.97, p < 0.001 for the entire sample). There was also significant positive correlations between the ROI area, SUV measures, and the metabolic parameters (SUV and MTV) obtained during both PET/CT and PET/MR. A significant negative correlation was observed between ADC and K{sup trans} values in the primary tumors. In addition, a significant negative correlation existed between MR SUV and ADC in

  18. Review and Preliminary Evaluation of Lifting Horizontal-Axis Rotating-Wing Aeronautical Systems (HARWAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ship propulsion and cycloidal ship propulsion . Approximately 1200 references are listed. A series of cross-index tables is also included to provide a quick means for the reader to determine the content and availability of the references. An analysis of the various lift systems pertinent to the HARWAS field is made with a view to potential air vehicle applications. Over 20 original aeronautical applications are identified and evaluated in the light of recent advances in power plants, transmissions and lightweight structural techniques. This analysis

  19. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Simpevarp subarea are: to determine, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in the report SKB-TR--00-12. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that even considering remaining uncertainties, the Simpevarp subarea meets all safety requirements and most of the safety preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Simpevarp subarea. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Still, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry within the Simpevarp subarea would allow for a more specified layout, although the sensitivity analysis shows that the space needed is rather robust with respect to uncertainties in the zones. There is substantial uncertainty in the discrete fracture network (DFN

  20. Preliminary evaluation of cryogenic two-phase flow imaging using electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huangjun; Yu, Liu; Zhou, Rui; Qiu, Limin; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2017-09-01

    The potential application of the 2-D eight-electrode electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) to the inversion imaging of the liquid nitrogen-vaporous nitrogen (LN2-VN2) flow in the tube is theoretically evaluated. The phase distribution of the computational domain is obtained using the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique with variable iterative step size. The detailed mathematical derivations for the calculations are presented. The calculated phase distribution for the two detached LN2 column case shows the comparable results with the water-air case, regardless of the much reduced dielectric permittivity of LN2 compared with water. The inversion images of total eight different LN2-VN2 flow patterns are presented and quantitatively evaluated by calculating the relative void fraction error and the correlation coefficient. The results demonstrate that the developed reconstruction technique for ECT has the capacity to reconstruct the phase distribution of the complex LN2-VN2 flow, while the accuracy of the inversion images is significantly influenced by the size of the discrete phase. The influence of the measurement noise on the image quality is also considered in the calculations.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of trust and shared decision making among intensive care patients' family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth G; Wolfe, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate ICU family members' trust and shared decision making using modified versions of the Wake Forest Trust Survey and the Shared Decision Making-9 Survey. Using a descriptive approach, the perceptions of family members of ICU patients (n=69) of trust and shared decision making were measured using the Wake Forest Trust Survey and the 9-item Shared Decision Making (SDM-9) Questionnaire. Both surveys were modified slightly to apply to family members of ICU patients and to include perceptions of nurses as well as physicians. Overall, family members reported high levels of trust and inclusion in decision making. Family members who lived with the patient had higher levels of trust than those who did not. Family members who reported strong agreement among other family about treatment decisions had higher levels of trust and higher SDM-9 scores than those who reported less family agreement. The modified surveys may be useful in evaluating family members' trust and shared decision making in ICU settings. Future studies should include development of a comprehensive patient-centered care framework that focuses on its central goal of maintaining provider-patient/family partnerships as an avenue toward effective shared decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating an experimental dentifrice containing chloramine-T: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapelli, Camila; Landi, Flávio; Ribas, José Paulo; Panzeri, Heitor; Lara, Elza Helena

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an experimental dentifrice (CH) containing an antimicrobial agent (1% chloramine-T). A clinical, fully randomised, double-blind comparative study was designed for 30 selected patients aged 15 to 50 years, with no periodontal disease, decay or other oral diseases, good general health and the presence of dental plaque and sulcus bleeding. Baseline Turesky modified plaque index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were scored for all patients. Volunteers randomly received the experimental dentifrice (CH) or a commercial-brand dentifrice containing triclosan (TR). Both dentifrices were provided in identical, number-labelled tubes, and the subjects were instructed to use the supplied dentifrice only for their usual oral hygiene, three times a day for a duration of 7 days. After 7-day use of dentifrices, the PI and SBI were assessed again. The data obtained were subjected to the Kruskal– Wallis test, followed by Dunn's post hoc test. After 7-day use of dentifrices, the PI scores diminished significantly for both evaluated dentifrices. The SBI values decreased significantly for both experimental and commercial-brand dentifrices. Both dentifrices reduced PI and SBI. By comparing the experimental and gold-standard dentifrice, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the PI and SBI scores after their use, suggesting that they exerted a similar effect on the oral health indexes.

  3. Spectral CT evaluation of interstitial brachytherapy in pancreatic carcinoma xenografts: preliminary animal experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shudong [Jiangsu University, Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Renmin Hospital, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Shanghai Jiao tong University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Huang, Wei; Song, Qi; Lin, Xiaozhu; Wang, Zhongmin; Chen, Kemin [Shanghai Jiao tong University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yerong [Jiangsu University, Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Renmin Hospital, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-09-15

    We sought to evaluate the capability of spectral CT to detect the therapeutic response to {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy in a pancreatic carcinoma xenograft nude mouse model. Twenty mice bearing SWl990 human pancreatic cancer cell xenografts were randomly separated into two groups: experimental (n = 10; 1.0 mCi) and control (n = 10; 0 mCi). After a two-week treatment, spectral CT was performed. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and iodine concentration (IC) in the lesions were measured and normalized to the muscle tissue, and nIC CD31 immunohistochemistry was used to measure microvessel density (MVD). The relationships between the nIC and MVD of the tumours were analysed. The nIC of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group during the multiphase examination. A significant difference in the MVD was observed between the two groups (P <0.001). The nIC values of the three-phase scans have a certain positive correlation with MVD (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001; r = 0.48, p = 0.002; r = 0.63, p = 0.0017 in the 10, 25, and 60 s phase, respectively). Spectral CT can be a useful non-invasive imaging modality in evaluating the therapeutic effect of {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy to a pancreatic carcinoma. (orig.)

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Inclusion of Oregano Extract on Growth Performance in Fattening Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerine Alexandra Prieto García

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   Oregano as vegetal extract has been investigated scientifically and has proven to be an effective antibiotic; it does not generate resistant strains as it happens with the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, and is also considered an alternative to improve productive performance in livestock farms. This is why the aim of study was to evaluate the use of oregano extract on the gain of final weight, conversion and feed efficiency in rabbits, for this purpose an experiment completely randomized with 12 New Zealand rabbits divided into 3 treatment was performed; T1, was determined as control, and the base feed was 100 g of rabbit feed; T2, to 100 g of rabbit feed was added 1 ml of oregano extract and T3, 100 g of rabbit feed plus 3 ml of oregano. The research lasted 60 days, 8 which were dietary adaptation. The obtained data were evaluated by ANOVA and the statistical differences between treatments by TUKEY test, with significance level of 0,05. The results showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 for the variables final weight gain and feed efficiency for T1 relative to T2 and T3; for feed conversion no statistical difference (p>0.05 between treatments. For this experiment it was concluded that the addition of oregano extract showed no improvement in productive parameters of broiler rabbits.

  5. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  6. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 2-arylhydroxyquinoline derivatives for tau imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Tetsuro; Furumoto, Shozo; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Harada, Ryuichi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Ren; Kudo, Yukitsuka

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Senile plaques, consisting of β-amyloid, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), composed of tau protein, are representative pathological hallmarks of AD. It is believed that the accumulation of NFTs precedes the onset of clinical symptoms of AD and correlates with the progression of memory dysfunction. Thus, the use of noninvasive detection techniques including radiolabeled probes and positron emission tomography (PET) will facilitate early diagnosis or staging of AD. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated novel hydroxylated 2-arylquinoline derivatives as tau imaging PET probes. The binding affinities of compounds for tau were evaluated by fluorescent staining of the AD hippocampal section and a competitive binding assay using [(18) F]THK-523. THK-951 showed high binding affinity for tau pathology in an AD brain section and K18Δ280K fibrils (Ki  = 20.7 nM); thus, we radiosynthesized a (11) C-labeled THK-951 and further studied its potential as a tau PET probe. The [(11) C]THK-951 demonstrated excellent kinetics in a normal mouse brain (3.23% ID/g at 2 min postinjection and 0.15% ID/g at 30 min postinjection) and showed the labeling of NFTs in an AD brain section by autoradiography assay. These findings indicate the availability of [(11) C]THK-951 for in vivo PET imaging of tau pathology in AD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a Candidate Multi-Epitope-Vaccine Against the Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Jian; DONG Xiaonan; CHEN Yinghua

    2008-01-01

    A multi-epitope-vaccine MEVABC consisting of two linear neutralizing determinants (BC1: aa693-716; A6: aa844-865) located on antigenic unit B/C and unit A of glycoprotein E2 was prepared to evaluate whether a combination strategy is effective in the design of peptide vaccines.After immunization,pig sera collected every one to two weeks were evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.C-strain- induced anti-sera and hyper-immune sera cannot recognize overlapping peptides that cover the E2 N-terminus,while MEVABC is able to elicit high levels of peptide-specific antibody response.When compared with previously studied peptide vaccines PV-BC1 and PV-A6,the same dose of either component in the MEVABC increases the BC1- or A6-specific antibodies (to 1/3-1/2 of the levels of the separate vaccines).However,the synergy between the antibodies may make MEVABC much more potent.Moreover,anti-C-strain immunity pre-existing in pigs does not disturb the sequent MEVABC vaccination.Thus,MEVABC can be ad- ministrated to pigs which already possess anti-classical swine fever virus immunity.MEVABC is a promising candidate marker vaccine.

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of Convective Heat Transfer in a Water Shield for a Surface Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson J. Boise; Reid, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Vision for Space Exploration, the end of the next decade will bring man back to the surface of the moon. A crucial issue for the establishment of human presence on the moon will be the availability of compact power sources. This presence could require greater than 10's of kWt's in follow on years. Nuclear reactors are well suited to meet the needs for power generation on the lunar or Martian surface. Radiation shielding is a key component of any surface power reactor system. Several competing concepts exist for lightweight, safe, robust shielding systems such as a water shield, lithium hydride (LiH), and boron carbide. Water offers several potential advantages, including reduced cost, reduced technical risk, and reduced mass. Water has not typically been considered for space reactor applications because of the need for gravity to fix the location of any vapor that could form radiation streaming paths. The water shield concept relies on the predictions of passive circulation of the shield water by natural convection to adequately cool the shield. This prediction needs to be experimentally evaluated, especially for shields with complex geometries. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed the experience and facilities necessary to do this evaluation in its Early Flight Fission - Test Facility (EFF-TF).

  9. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Italian food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Mancini, Simone; Fratini, Filippo; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Cerri, Domenico

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some probiotic properties of 42 wild Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from different Italian foods of animal origin. The strains were first screened for their antibiotic resistance profile (chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline), subsequently they were tested for their in vitro resistance to lysozyme (100 mg L⁻¹), low pH (3.0, 2.5 and 2.0) and bile salts (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %). Moreover, agglutination property was studied (adhesion to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells), as well as the presence of bsh and msa genes. The strains with the best characteristics were subjected to a further trial in order to evaluate their ability to survive to multiple stresses over time (lysozyme, low pH and bile salts) and the effect of these treatments on adhesion to yeast cells. All the strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, while 6 strains were excluded from further evaluation because of their resistant phenotype against tetracycline. All the strains were able to grow in presence of lysozyme, as well as in MRS broth at pH 3.0. Only 4 strains showed a growth rate lower than 80 % when grown in MRS broth at pH 2.5, while a relevant growth rate decrease was observed after exposure to pH 2.0. Bile salts didn't affect the viability of the L. plantarum cells. Twenty-one strains out of 33 tested strains were able to adhere to S. cerevisiae cells. Presence of both bsh and msa genes was detected in 6 strains. The strains resistant to all the stresses, positive to agglutination with S. cerevisiae and showing bsh and msa genes were selected for further evaluation and subjected to different stress treatments over time. The assessment of growth rates showed that exposure to lysozyme significantly increased low pH resistance in L. plantarum. This increase ranged from 2.35 to 15.57 %. The consequential lysozyme and low pH exposures didn't affect the growth rate values after bile salts treatment

  10. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smigovec, Igor; Dapic, Tomislav [University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zagreb (Croatia); Trkulja, Vladimir [Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  11. Stress and burnout among critical care fellows: preliminary evaluation of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Kashani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a demanding work environment, information on stress and burnout of critical care fellows is limited. Objectives: To assess 1 levels of burnout, perceived stress, and quality of life in critical care fellows, and 2 the impact of a brief stress management training on these outcomes. Methods: In a tertiary care academic medical center, 58 critical care fellows of varying subspecialties and training levels were surveyed to assess baseline levels of stress and burnout. Twenty-one of the 58 critical care fellows who were in the first year of training at the time of this initial survey participated in a pre-test and 1-year post-test to determine the effects of a brief, 90-min stress management intervention. Results: Based on responses (n=58 to the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, reported burnout was significantly lower in Asian fellows (p=0.04 and substantially higher among graduating fellows (versus new and transitioning fellows (p=0.02. Among the intervention cohort, burnout did not significantly improve – though two-thirds of fellows reported using the interventional techniques to deal with stressful situations. Fellows who participated in the intervention rated the effectiveness of the course as 4 (IQR=3.75–5 using the 5-point Likert scale. Conclusions: In comparison with the new and transitioning trainees, burnout was highest among graduating critical care fellows. Although no significant improvements were found in first-year fellows’ burnout scores following the single, 90-min training intervention, participants felt the training did provide them with tools to apply during stressful situations.

  12. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  13. Synthesis of Xylitan Derivatives and Preliminary Evaluation of in Vitro Trypanocidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Elias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel xylitan derivatives derived from xylitol were synthesized using operationally simple procedures. A xylitan acetonide was the key intermediate used to prepare benzoate, arylsulfonate esters and 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of xylitan. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite in T. cruzi-infected cell lineages. Benznidazole was used as positive control against T. cruzi and cytotoxicity was determined in mammalian L929 cells. The arylsulfonate xylitan derivative bearing a nitro group displayed the best activity of all the compounds tested, and was slightly more potent than the reference drug benznidazole. The importance of the isopropylidene ketal moiety was established and the greater lipophilicity of these compounds suggests enhancement in cell penetration.

  14. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most common shape was oval, opening direction was posterior-superior, horizontal position was in line with second premolar, and vertical position was apical to the adjacent dental root. The mean of foremen diameter was 3.59 mm. Conclusion. In addition to the most common types of mental foramen, other variations exist, too. Hence, it reflects the significance of preoperative radiographic examinations, especially 3-dimensional images to prevent nerve damage.

  15. Synthesis of Xylitan Derivatives and Preliminary Evaluation of in Vitro Trypanocidal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Paula Regina; Coelho, Gleicekelly Silva; Xavier, Viviane Flores; Sales Junior, Policarpo Ademar; Romanha, Alvaro José; Murta, Silvane Maria Fonseca; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Camilo, Nilton Soares; Hilário, Flaviane Francisco; Taylor, Jason Guy

    2016-10-10

    A series of novel xylitan derivatives derived from xylitol were synthesized using operationally simple procedures. A xylitan acetonide was the key intermediate used to prepare benzoate, arylsulfonate esters and 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of xylitan. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite in T. cruzi-infected cell lineages. Benznidazole was used as positive control against T. cruzi and cytotoxicity was determined in mammalian L929 cells. The arylsulfonate xylitan derivative bearing a nitro group displayed the best activity of all the compounds tested, and was slightly more potent than the reference drug benznidazole. The importance of the isopropylidene ketal moiety was established and the greater lipophilicity of these compounds suggests enhancement in cell penetration.

  16. Primary progressive aphasia patients evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based volumetry-preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pascotto de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are individuals who have a progressive language deficit without presenting cognitive deficits in other areas. One of the diseases related to this presentation is primary progressive aphasia (PPA. OBJECTIVE: Identify by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and measurements of cortical volume, brain areas that lead to dysphasia when presenting signs of impaired connectivity or reduced volume. METHOD: Four patients with PPA were evaluated using DTI, and measurements of cortical volumes in temporal areas. These patients were compared with two normal volunteers. RESULTS: There is a trend to a difference in the number and volume of related fibers between control group and patients with PPA. Comparing cortical volumes in temporal areas between groups yielded a trend to a smaller volume in PPA patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with PPA have a trend to impairment in cortical and subcortical levels regarding relevant areas.

  17. [Generation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus-like Particle Vaccine and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Protective Efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfang; Du, Ruikun; Huang, Shaomei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jinliang; Zhu, Bibo; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei; Cao, Shengbo

    2016-03-01

    The cDNA fragment of JEV prME gene was cloned into the baculovirus shuttle vector (bacmid) to construct a recombinant baculovirus vector, defined as AcBac-prME. Then the recombinant baculovirus Ac-prME was obtained by transfecting Sf9 cells with AcBac-prME. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence results indicated that both prM and E proteins were efficiently expressed in Sf9 cells. Electron microscopy suggested that prME was assembled into JEV-VLPs. To further evaluate the potential of JEV-VLPs as vaccine, the mice were immunized with JEV-VLPs and then challenged with lethal JEV. The results of mice survival and pathological changes demonstrated that the JEV-VLPs performed complete protection against JEV-P3 strain and relieved pathological changes in the mice brain significant. This study suggest that JEV-VLPs would be a potential vaccine for Japanese encephalitis virus.

  18. Development and preliminary evaluation of an Android based heart rate variability biofeedback system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, F; Berndtsson, A; Abtahi, S; Seoane, F; Lindecrantz, K

    2014-01-01

    The reduced Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is believed to be associated with several diseases such as congestive heart failure, diabetes and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In these cases, HRV biofeedback may be a potential intervention method to increase HRV which in turn is beneficial to these patients. In this work, a real-time Android biofeedback application based on a Bluetooth enabled ECG and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (respiration) measurement device has been developed. The system performance and usability have been evaluated in a brief study with eight healthy volunteers. The result demonstrates real-time performance of system and positive effects of biofeedback training session by increased HRV and reduced heart rate. Further development of the application and training protocol is ongoing to investigate duration of training session to find an optimum length and interval of biofeedback sessions to use in potential interventions.

  19. Materials Characterization of Feraheme/Ferumoxytol and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Potential for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feraheme, is a recently FDA-cleared superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION-based MRI contrast agent that is also employed in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Feraheme nanoparticles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 30 nm and consist of iron oxide crystallites complexed with a low molecular weight, semi-synthetic carbohydrate. These features are attractive for other potential biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH, since the carboxylated polymer coating affords functionalization of the particle surface and the size allows for accumulation in highly vascularized tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. This work presents morphological and magnetic characterization of Feraheme by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. Additionally, the results of an initial evaluation of the suitability of Feraheme for MFH applications are described, and the data indicate the particles possess promising properties for this application.

  20. A preliminary evaluation of wave attenuation by four species of seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Mark S.; Cahalan, Jennifer A.

    1992-12-01

    Seagrasses are able to modify current flow and sediment composition, yet little information exists describing their effect on waves. Four species of seagrass, Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, Thalassia testudinum and Zostera marina were evaluated for their ability to reduce wave energy under various combinations of shoot density and water depths over a 1 m test section in a wave tank. Percent wave energy reduction per meter of seagrass bed equaled 40% when the length of these seagrasses was similar to the water depth. Seagrasses are approximately equal to saltmarshes in reducing wave energy on a unit distance basis, but only when water depth is scaled to plant size. When seagrass beds occur as broad, shallow meadows, the influence of seagrasses on wave energy will be substantial.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of nanoscale biogenic magnetite-based ferromagnetic transduction mechanisms for mobile phone bioeffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranfield, Charles; Wieser, Heinz Gregor; Al Madan, Jaffar; Dobson, Jon

    2003-03-01

    Ferromagnetic transduction models have been proposed as a potential mechanism for mobile phone bioeffects. These models are based on the coupling of RF and pulsed electromagnetic emissions to biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) present in the human brain via either ferromagnetic resonance or mechanical activation of cellular ion channels. We have tested these models experimentally for the first time using a bacterial analogue (Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum) which produces intracellular biogenic magnetite similar to that present in the human brain. Experimental evaluation revealed that exposure to mobile phone emissions resulted in a consistent and significantly higher proportion of cell death in exposed cultures versus sham exposure (p = 0.037). Though there appears to be a repeatable trend toward higher cell mortality in magnetite-producing bacteria exposed to mobile phone emissions, it is not yet clear that this would extrapolate to a deleterious health effect in humans.

  2. Evaluation of an additive efficacy in broiler litter microbial level control in field: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pennacchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate in field the efficacy of an additive (SOP® C POULTRY, as an agent for the control of micro-organisms in broiler litter. The Total aerobic Microbial Count (TMC, Staphylococcus species (spp., Coliforms, and Salmonella spp. in broiler litter samples of both the Houses, 2 (H2 and 3 (H3, were determined, and also at the end of each cycle the mortality rate was recorded. The results showed significant reduction of all the microbial counts: P= 0.0078 (CMT, 0,0021 (Staphylococcus spp. and 0.0541 (Coliforms, and mortality (P= 0.00106 in treated litter samples H2 and the control H3.

  3. Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for evaluation of gastric mucosal blood flow: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquillon, Nicolas; Mordon, Serge R.; Mathieu, D.; Maunoury, Vincent; Marechal, Xavier-Marie; Neviere, Remi; Wattel, Francis; Chopin, Claude

    1999-02-01

    Microcirculatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract appear to be a major compound of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome secondary to sepsis or septic shock. A better analysis of mucosal hypoperfusion in critically ill patients with sepsis may be helpful for the comprehension of this high mortality-associated syndrome. Fluorescence endoscopy has been recognized as a non-invasive method for both spatial and temporal evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion. We performed this imaging technique during routine gastric endoscopy in patients with sepsis criteria. The study included gastric observation and appearance time of gastric fluorescence after an intravenous 10% sodium - fluorescein bolus. Qualitative analysis of high fluorescence areas was compared with mucosal blood flow measurements by laser - Doppler flowmetry. We concluded that the fluorescence endoscopic imaging in critically ill patients with sepsis may reveal spacial and temporal differences in the mucosal microcirculation distribution.

  4. Preliminary development and evaluation of online tobacco and alcohol modules for dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter M; Heideman, Paul W; Ravenel, Michele C; Spangler, John G; Mauldin, Mary P; Hill, Elizabeth G; Onicescu, Georgiana

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco use and heavy alcohol consumption are major risk factors for the development of oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC). Detection and modification of these risks by dentists are keys in preventing OPC. While dentists are encouraged to screen patients for tobacco and alcohol use and educate them about the oral health risks they pose, dental students receive little formalized training in this area. This pilot project was designed to develop and evaluate two online training modules for dental students: one on tobacco and oral health risk factors, and one on methods of alcohol screening. Results indicated that online tobacco/alcohol education for dental students is feasible. The modules resulted in meaningful improvement in dental students' knowledge of tobacco and alcohol use as well as alcohol screening methods. The alcohol module resulted in statistically significant increases in intention to screen patients for alcohol use and in comfort level in performing alcohol screening.

  5. Preliminary measurement performance evaluation of a new white light interferometer for cylindrical surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, Armando Jr; Pont, Alex Dal [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Metrology and Automation Laboratory, Cx Postal 5053, CEP 88 040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new design of a white light interferometer, suitable for measurement of cylindrical or quasi-cylindrical parts. A high precision 45 deg. conical mirror is used to direct collimated light radially, making it possible to measure in true cylindrical coordinates. The image of the measurand, distorted by the conical mirror, is projected in a high resolution digital camera. A mapping algorithm is used to reconstruct the cylindrical geometry from the distorted image. The rest of the interferometer is quite similar to a conventional white light interferometer: A flat reference mirror is scanned through the measurement range while an algorithm is searching for the maximum contrast position of the interference pattern. The performance evaluation of a configuration suitable for measurement of external cylindrical surfaces is also presented in this paper. A master cylinder was used as reference. Uncertainties of about 1.0 {mu}m were found at the present stage of development.

  6. Design and preliminary performance evaluation of airborne hyper-spectral imaging spectograph Air-OPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shin-ichiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Yoshida, Shigeomi; Sano, Takuki; Watanabe, Masaharu; Ogawa, Toshihiro

    2003-06-01

    Air-OPUS is a hyper spectral imaging spectrograph, with 0.34 nm spectral step, 190-455 nm spectral coverage, and 330 spatial channels covering 15 degrees field of view (FOV). It is designed as an airborne instrument for the demonstration of spaceborne-OPUS. After two-demonstration campaign using the Gulfstream-II aircraft, the performances of AIR-OPUS, such as spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ration (SNR) have been evaluated. It is concluded that the performances have agreed with designed value. This paper describes design, the performance, and the first results of Air-OPUS. Concept of next generation Air-OPUS, with wider FOV and visible/near-IR spectral coverage, will be also briefly presented.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a MRI-compatible Modular Robotic System for MRI-guided Prostate Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

    2010-09-26

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided robotic interventions have been introduced in order to advance prostate cancer detection and treatment. To overcome problems of such robotic interventions, we have been developing a pneumatically actuated MRI-compatible modular robotic system for MRI-guided transperineal prostate intervention and its interventional procedure. For system evaluation, a series of experiments have been conducted and this paper reports a needle insertion experiment using prostate phantom and patient mockup trials. The needle insertion experiment resulted in noticeable consistent error in one direction, which we will investigate further. Nonetheless, patient mockup experiences suggest that the modular robotic system and its interventional procedure are well integrated and implemented in clinical environment.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the MLAA algorithm with the Philips Ingenuity PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lougovski, Alexandr; Schramm, Georg; Maus, Jens; Hofheinz, Frank [PET Center, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrae 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Ho, Jörg van den [PET Center, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrae 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Uni-versität Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Combined PET/MR is a promising tool for simultaneous investigation of soft tissue morphology and function. However, contrary to CT, MR images do not provide information on photon attenuation in tissue. In the currently available systems issue is solved by synthesizing attenuation maps from MR images using segmentation algorithms. This approach has been shown to provide reason-able results in most cases. However, sporadically occurring segmentation errors can cause serious problems. Recently, algorithms for simultaneous estimation of attenuation and tracer distribution (MLAA) have been introduced. So far, validity of MLAA has mainly been demonstrated in simulated data. We have integrated the MLAA algorithm [2] into the THOR reconstruction []. An evaluation of MLAA was performed using both phantom and patient data acquired with the Ingenuity PET/MR.

  9. Preliminary Comparative Evaluation Study on Reference Design of GEN-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Hong, Ser Gi (and others)

    2005-11-15

    A fast reactor has a good transmutation capability and it enables breeding of fuel and use of a closed fuel cycle. By these characteristics of a fast reactor, the limited uranium resources of the world can be much more effectively utilized and the nuclear wastes of a high level of radioactivity and toxicity from the current nuclear power reactors of LWRs and HWRs can be drastically reduced in its volume and the management of the wastes can be easily treated. Also electricity can be generated more effectively since a fast reactor has the feature of high operation temperature. These features of a fast reactor makes it inevitable on a long term basis to construct fast reactors in Korea. The domestic fast reactor technology level, however, is at the level of coming out of a beginning stage and needs utilization of international expertise. Recently an international cooperation program called GIF has been formulated and our KALIMER was selected as one of the two reference designs for the international joint R and D works with JSFR of Japan. In the current frame of the GIF program, the two selected reference designs are supposed to be evaluated against each other in future and one design is to be finally selected. To make the international cooperation program directed more useful to our fast reactor technology development, it is required to strengthen the competitiveness of KALIMER so that it can be selected. To meet the necessity, a study was made in this research for pre-evaluation of the GIF reference designs and setting up plans for development of designs and technology that will enhance the competitiveness of KALIMER.

  10. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anazawa Ryoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese, which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis.

  11. Preliminary experience using dynamic MRI at 3.0 tesla for evaluation of soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Micheal; Jee, Won Hee; Jung, Joon Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We aimed to evaluate the use of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) at 3.0 T for differentiating the benign from malignant soft tissue tumors. Also we aimed to assess whether the shorter length of DCE-MRI protocols are adequate, and to evaluate the effect of temporal resolution. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, at 3.0 T with a 1 second temporal resolution in 13 patients with pathologically confirmed soft tissue tumors, was analyzed. Visual assessment of time-signal curves, subtraction images, maximal relative enhancement at the first (maximal peak enhancement [Emax]/1) and second (Emax/2) minutes, Emax, steepest slope calculated by using various time intervals (5, 30, 60 seconds), and the start of dynamic enhancement were analyzed. The 13 tumors were comprised of seven benign and six malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Washout on time-signal curves was seen on three (50%) malignant tumors and one (14%) benign one. The most discriminating DCE-MRI parameter was the steepest slope calculated, by using at 5-second intervals, followed by Emax/1 and Emax/2. All of the steepest slope values occurred within 2 minutes of the dynamic study. Start of dynamic enhancement did not show a significant difference, but no malignant tumor rendered a value greater than 14 seconds. The steepest slope and early relative enhancement have the potential for differentiating benign from malignant soft tissue tumors. Short-length rather than long-length DCE-MRI protocol may be adequate for our purpose. The steepest slope parameters require a short temporal resolution, while maximal peak enhancement parameter may be more optimal for a longer temporal resolution.

  12. Evaluating rate, accuracy, and fluency of young children's diadochokinetic productions: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaruss, J Scott; Logan, Kenneth J

    2002-01-01

    Diadochokinetic (DDK) rates are commonly assessed in children with speech-language disorders, even though the implications of fast or slow DDK rates are not clear. This study explored the possibility that the accuracy and fluency of DDK productions may provide a meaningful supplement to traditional measures of DDK rate. Participants were 15 boys, age 3-7, with normal speech-language development, who were asked to produce "puh-tuh-kuh" or "pattycake" in a standard DDK task. Analyses revealed that normally developing children produce frequent articulation errors but few disfluencies during DDK tasks. Errors and disfluencies did not affect DDK rate, suggesting that the rate of DDKs may be a relatively insensitive measure of children's speaking abilities. Although an expected correlation was found between age and overall DDK rate, no correlations were found between age and the frequency of articulation errors or speech disfluencies. Findings suggest that measures of DDK accuracy and fluency may provide information about children's speech development that is independent of age and may be more closely related to oral motor development than rate. Overall, results underscore concerns with the interpretation of DDK rate and highlight ways that rate measures might be supplemented with measurement of accuracy and fluency in the evaluation of children's speaking abilities. The reader will learn about a technique that may facilitate the evaluation of young children's oral DDK abilities. The reader will learn about the frequency and type of errors children produce on DDKs and how this information can be used in the assessment of children's oral motor abilities.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of a gel tube agglutination major cross-match method in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarnovo, Dania; Burton, Shelley A; Horney, Barbara S; MacKenzie, Allan L; Vanderstichel, Raphaël

    2016-09-01

    A major cross-match gel tube test is available for use in dogs yet has not been clinically evaluated. This study compared cross-match results obtained using the gel tube and the standard tube methods for canine samples. Study 1 included 107 canine sample donor-recipient pairings cross-match tested with the RapidVet-H method gel tube test and compared results with the standard tube method. Additionally, 120 pairings using pooled sera containing anti-canine erythrocyte antibody at various concentrations were tested with leftover blood from a hospital population to assess sensitivity and specificity of the gel tube method in comparison with the standard method. The gel tube method had a good relative specificity of 96.1% in detecting lack of agglutination (compatibility) compared to the standard tube method. Agreement between the 2 methods was moderate. Nine of 107 pairings showed agglutination/incompatibility on either test, too few to allow reliable calculation of relative sensitivity. Fifty percent of the gel tube method results were difficult to interpret due to sample spreading in the reaction and/or negative control tubes. The RapidVet-H method agreed with the standard cross-match method on compatible samples, but detected incompatibility in some sample pairs that were compatible with the standard method. Evaluation using larger numbers of incompatible pairings is needed to assess diagnostic utility. The gel tube method results were difficult to categorize due to sample spreading. Weak agglutination reactions or other factors such as centrifuge model may be responsible. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Development of Innovative Aerogel Based Plasters: Preliminary Thermal and Acoustic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and acoustic properties of innovative insulating systems used as building coatings were investigated: Granular silica aerogel was mixed with natural plaster in different percentages. This coating solution is transpiring and insulating, thanks to the use of a natural lime coat and aerogel, a highly porous light material with very low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the proposed solution was evaluated by means of a Heat Flow meter apparatus (EN ISO 12667, considering different percentages of aerogel. The natural plaster without aerogel has a thermal conductivity of about 0.50 W/m K; considering a percentage of granular aerogel of about 90% in volume, the thermal conductivity of the insulating natural coating falls to 0.050 W/m K. Increasing the percentage of granular aerogel, a value of about 0.018–0.020 W/m K can be reached. The acoustic properties were also evaluated in terms of the acoustic absorption coefficient, measured by means of a Kundt’s Tube (ISO 10534-2. Two samples composed by a plasterboard support, an insulation plaster with aerogel (thicknesses 10 mm and 30 mm respectively and a final coat were assembled. The results showed that the absorption coefficient strongly depends on the final coat, so the aerogel-based plaster layer moderately influences the final value. The application of this innovative solution can be a useful tool for new buildings, but also for the refurbishment of existing ones. This material is in development: until now, the best value of the thermal conductivity obtained from manufacturers is about 0.015 W/m K.

  15. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  16. Analytical evaluation of technical and operational indicators impact on the transportation technology by automobile trailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Tson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of technological and operational indicators on the efficiency of using operational time during goods transportation by automobile trailers is analytically studied. The failure cause of automobile trailers undercarriages is analysed. The analytical dependences for the preliminary assessment of metal undercarriages performance in the design phases are developed. The proposed mathematical standard vehicle-performance test is compared with the obtained experimental data.

  17. Evaluation of tumour necrosis during chemotherapy with diffusion-weighted MR imaging: preliminary results in osteosarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, Markus; Saueressig, Ulrich; Bley, Thorsten; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Koehler, Gabriele [University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Freiburg (Germany); Kontny, Udo [University Hospital, Children' s Hospital, Freiburg (Germany); Niemeyer, Charlotte [University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Reichardt, Wilfried; Ilyasof, Kamil [University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    During successful chemotherapy of osteosarcomas tumour size does not diminish significantly because the therapy has limited impact on the mineralized matrix of the tumour. Treatment response is considered successful if, histologically, more than 90% of tumour cells show necrosis. To determine if osteosarcomas change their water diffusion during preoperative chemotherapy in relation to the amount of tumour necrosis. Eight patients (age 11-19 years) with histologically proven limb osteosarcoma underwent T1-weighted, fat-suppressed T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo imaging together with diffusion-weighted EPI sequences (b = 700) at 1.5 T before and after five cycles of standard chemotherapy. Tumour volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated before and after chemotherapy. The degree of tumour necrosis after chemotherapy was assessed using the histological Salzer-Kuntschik classification (grades 1-6). During chemotherapy, the ADC values of osteosarcomas changed significantly. The ADC of untreated tumour was 2.1 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (mean {+-} SD) (95% CI 1.6-2.0). The ADC of chemotherapy-treated sarcomas was 2.5 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI 1.8-2.2). Necrotic areas, which were confirmed by macroscopic examination, showed ADC values up to 2.7 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. Four patients with little viable tumour tissue within the neoplasm (Salzer-Kuntschik grades 1-2) had an increase in ADC of 0.4 up to 0.7 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. Four patients with larger areas of viable tumour (Salzer-Kuntschik grade 4) showed a lesser increase in ADC of 0.0 up to 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. The differences in ADC values in tumour tissue before and after chemotherapy were highly significant (P = 0.01). During chemotherapy of osteosarcomas, tumour ADC changes are related to the degree of tumour necrosis. (orig.)

  18. 3D–2D registration in mobile radiographs: algorithm development and preliminary clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Aygun, Nafi; Lo, Sheng-fu L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2015-03-07

    An image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented using radiographs acquired in the uncalibrated, unconstrained geometry of mobile radiography. The approach extends a previous method for six degree-of-freedom (DOF) registration in C-arm fluoroscopy (namely 'LevelCheck') to solve the 9-DOF estimate of geometry in which the position of the source and detector are unconstrained. The method was implemented using a gradient correlation similarity metric and stochastic derivative-free optimization on a GPU. Development and evaluation were conducted in three steps. First, simulation studies were performed that involved a CT scan of an anthropomorphic body phantom and 1000 randomly generated digitally reconstructed radiographs in posterior-anterior and lateral views. A median projection distance error (PDE) of 0.007 mm was achieved with 9-DOF registration compared to 0.767 mm for 6-DOF. Second, cadaver studies were conducted using mobile radiographs acquired in three anatomical regions (thorax, abdomen and pelvis) and three levels of source-detector distance (~800, ~1000 and ~1200 mm). The 9-DOF method achieved a median PDE of 0.49 mm (compared to 2.53 mm for the 6-DOF method) and demonstrated robustness in the unconstrained imaging geometry. Finally, a retrospective clinical study was conducted with intraoperative radiographs of the spine exhibiting real anatomical deformation and image content mismatch (e.g. interventional devices in the radiograph that were not in the CT), demonstrating a PDE = 1.1 mm for the 9-DOF approach. Average computation time was 48.5 s, involving 687 701 function evaluations on average, compared to 18.2 s for the 6-DOF method. Despite the greater computational load, the 9-DOF method may offer a valuable tool for target localization (e.g. decision support in level counting) as well as safety and quality assurance checks at the conclusion of a procedure (e.g. overlay of planning data on the radiograph for verification of the surgical product

  19. 3D-2D registration in mobile radiographs: algorithm development and preliminary clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S.; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Aygun, Nafi; Lo, Sheng-fu L.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-03-01

    An image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented using radiographs acquired in the uncalibrated, unconstrained geometry of mobile radiography. The approach extends a previous method for six degree-of-freedom (DOF) registration in C-arm fluoroscopy (namely ‘LevelCheck’) to solve the 9-DOF estimate of geometry in which the position of the source and detector are unconstrained. The method was implemented using a gradient correlation similarity metric and stochastic derivative-free optimization on a GPU. Development and evaluation were conducted in three steps. First, simulation studies were performed that involved a CT scan of an anthropomorphic body phantom and 1000 randomly generated digitally reconstructed radiographs in posterior-anterior and lateral views. A median projection distance error (PDE) of 0.007 mm was achieved with 9-DOF registration compared to 0.767 mm for 6-DOF. Second, cadaver studies were conducted using mobile radiographs acquired in three anatomical regions (thorax, abdomen and pelvis) and three levels of source-detector distance (~800, ~1000 and ~1200 mm). The 9-DOF method achieved a median PDE of 0.49 mm (compared to 2.53 mm for the 6-DOF method) and demonstrated robustness in the unconstrained imaging geometry. Finally, a retrospective clinical study was conducted with intraoperative radiographs of the spine exhibiting real anatomical deformation and image content mismatch (e.g. interventional devices in the radiograph that were not in the CT), demonstrating a PDE = 1.1 mm for the 9-DOF approach. Average computation time was 48.5 s, involving 687 701 function evaluations on average, compared to 18.2 s for the 6-DOF method. Despite the greater computational load, the 9-DOF method may offer a valuable tool for target localization (e.g. decision support in level counting) as well as safety and quality assurance checks at the conclusion of a procedure (e.g. overlay of planning data on the radiograph for verification of

  20. Preliminary evaluation of magnetic resonance fresh blood imaging for diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Ke; XU Ke; SUN Wen-ge; CHEN Yu-shuai; QI Xi-xun; LI Ran-liang; JIN An-yu

    2007-01-01

    Background Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare disease with portal hypertension caused by the blockage of the hepatic vein and/or the inferior vena cava (IVC). Angiography is the "golden standard" for diagnosis, but it is an invasive examination. To assess the diagnostic value of a fresh blood imaging (FBI) relative to BCS, we used a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with an FBI sequence for a preoperative evaluation of the BCS patients in this study. Methods Fifty patients who were suspected of having BCS after they had been checked by a B-ultrasound were studied. 2D and 3D FBI were performed on a 1.5T superconductive MR scanner. Original images were rebuilt using a maximal intensity projection (MIP) method on the console. Two doctors reviewed all images before they learned of the angiography results. We then compared the diagnoses obtained from the FBI and angiography results to evaluate the diagnostic value of the FBI.Results Forty-one patients were diagnosed as BCS and 9 as non-BCS based on an angiography. The FBI correctly diagnosed 38 patients, incorrectly diagnosed 1 patient, and missed diagnosis in 3 patients. Thus, the diagnostic sensitivity of the FBI is 93% (38/41), the specificity is 89% (8/9) and the accuracy is 92% (46/50). The FBI images of the 13 membranous stenoses of the IVC showed a sudden stenosis of the post-liver segment of the IVC. The Images of the 5 patients with a membranous obstruction of the IVC showed IVC thickening and an absence of blood signals in the post-hepatic segment of the IVC. The images of the 4 patients with the segmental thrombosis of the IVC showed abnormal and intermittent signals in the IVC. The images of the 6 patients with a simple hepatic vein obstruction showed obstructive hepatic veins. The images of the 6 patients with the stenosis of both the IVC and the hepatic veins showed the stenosis of the IVC, the thickening of the hepatic veins and the formation of a compensatory circulation within the liver. Lastly

  1. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Immediate Loaded Dental Implants With Local Application of Melatonin: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gammal, Mona Y; Salem, Ahmed S; Anees, Mohamed M; Tawfik, Mohamed A

    2016-04-01

    Immediate loading of dental implants in situations where low bone density exist, such as the posterior maxillary region, became possible recently after the introduction of biomimetic agents. This 1-year preliminary clinical trial was carried out to clinically and radiographically evaluate immediate-loaded 1-piece implants with local application of melatonin in the osteotomy site as a biomimetic material. 14 patients with missing maxillary premolars were randomized to receive 14 implants of 1-piece type that were subjected to immediate loading after 2 weeks of initial placement. Group I included 7 implants with acid-etched surface while group II included 7 implants with acid-etched surface combined with local application of melatonin gel at the osteotomy site. Patients were recalled for follow up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after loading. All implants were considered successful after 12 months of follow-up. Significant difference (P implant loading when considering the implant stability. At 1 and 3 months there were significant differences in the marginal bone level between the 2 groups. These results suggest that the local application of melatonin at the osteotomy site is associated with good stability and minimal bone resorption. However, more studies for longer follow-up periods are required to confirm the effect of melatonin hormone on osseointegration of dental implants.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the CellFinder literature curation pipeline for gene expression in kidney cells and anatomical parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mariana; Damaschun, Alexander; Mah, Nancy; Lekschas, Fritz; Seltmann, Stefanie; Stachelscheid, Harald; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Kurtz, Andreas; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical literature curation is the process of automatically and/or manually deriving knowledge from scientific publications and recording it into specialized databases for structured delivery to users. It is a slow, error-prone, complex, costly and, yet, highly important task. Previous experiences have proven that text mining can assist in its many phases, especially, in triage of relevant documents and extraction of named entities and biological events. Here, we present the curation pipeline of the CellFinder database, a repository of cell research, which includes data derived from literature curation and microarrays to identify cell types, cell lines, organs and so forth, and especially patterns in gene expression. The curation pipeline is based on freely available tools in all text mining steps, as well as the manual validation of extracted data. Preliminary results are presented for a data set of 2376 full texts from which >4500 gene expression events in cell or anatomical part have been extracted. Validation of half of this data resulted in a precision of ~50% of the extracted data, which indicates that we are on the right track with our pipeline for the proposed task. However, evaluation of the methods shows that there is still room for improvement in the named-entity recognition and that a larger and more robust corpus is needed to achieve a better performance for event extraction. Database URL: http://www.cellfinder.org/

  3. Design, synthesis and preliminary evaluation of dopamine-amino acid conjugates as potential D1 dopaminergic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutone, Marco; Chinnici, Aurora; Almerico, Anna Maria; Perricone, Ugo; Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana

    2016-11-29

    The dopamine-amino acid conjugate DA-Phen was firstly designed to obtain a useful prodrug for the therapy of Parkinson's disease, but experimental evidence shows that it effectively interacts with D1 dopamine receptors (D1DRs), leading to an enhancement in cognitive flexibility and to the development of adaptive strategies in aversive mazes, together with a decrease in despair-like behavior. In this paper, homology modelling, molecular dynamics, and site mapping of D1 receptor were carried out with the aim of further performing docking studies on other dopamine conjugates compared with D1 agonists, in the attempt to identify new compounds with potential dopaminergic activity. Two new conjugates (DA-Trp 2C, and DA-Leu 3C) have been identified as the most promising candidates, and consequently synthesized. Preliminary evaluation in terms of distribution coefficient (D(pH7.4)), stability in rat brain homogenate, and in human plasma confirmed that DA-Trp (2C), and DA-Leu (3C) could be considered as very valuable candidates for further in vivo studies as new dopaminergic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of a 99mTc labeled hybrid nanoparticle bearing a cobalt ferrite core: in vivo biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimadas, Dimitrios; Baldi, Giovanni; Ravagli, Costanza; Bouziotis, Penelope; Xanthopoulos, Stavros; Franchini, Mauro Comes; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Loudos, George

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have become important tools for imaging a wide range of diseases, improving drug delivery and applying hyperthermic treatment. Iron oxide based nanoparticles have been widely examined, unlike cobalt ferrite based ones. Herein, monodisperse and stable CoFe2O4 nanoparticles have been produced, coated and further stabilized using ethyl 12-(hydroxyamino)-12-oxododecanoate, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and bovine serum albumin. The final product, NBRh1, was fully characterized and has been directly radiolabeled with 99mTc using SnCl1 as the reducing agent in high yields. In vitro stability and hyperthermic properties of 99mTC-NBRh1 were encouraging for further application in low frequencies hyperthermia and biomagnetic applications. In vivo evaluation followed after injection in healthy mice. The planar and SPECT imaging data as well as the biodistribution results were in accordance, showing high liver and spleen uptake as expected starting almost immediately after administration. In conclusion the preliminary results for nanoparticles bearing a cobalt ferrite core justify further investigations towards potential hyperthermic applications, drug transportation and liver or spleen imaging.

  5. Novel Benzothiazole, Benzimidazole and Benzoxazole Derivatives as Potential Antitumor Agents: Synthesis and Preliminary in Vitro Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous hit-to-lead research program targeting anticancer agents, two promising lead compounds, 1a and 1b, were found. However, the poor solubility of 1a and 1b made difficult further in vivo studies. To solve this problem, a lead optimization was conducted through introducing N-methyl-piperazine groups at the 2-position and 6-position. To our delight, the optimized analogue 1d showed comparable antiproliferative activity in vitro with better solubility, compared with 1a. Based on this result, the replacement of the benzothiazole scaffold with benzimidazole and benzoxazole moieties afforded 1f and 1g, whose activities were fundamentally retained. In the preliminary in vitro biological evaluation, the immunofluorescence staining of HCT116 cells indicated that 1d, 1f and 1g led to cytosolic vacuolization which was not induced by 1a at low micromolecular concentrations. These results suggest that these optimized compounds might potentially constitute a novel class of anticancer agents, which merit further studies.

  6. Novel benzothiazole, benzimidazole and benzoxazole derivatives as potential antitumor agents: synthesis and preliminary in vitro biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Pu; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Liang; Sun, Chang-Yan; Hu, Jing; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Yang, Li

    2012-01-17

    In a previous hit-to-lead research program targeting anticancer agents, two promising lead compounds, 1a and 1b, were found. However, the poor solubility of 1a and 1b made difficult further in vivo studies. To solve this problem, a lead optimization was conducted through introducing N-methyl-piperazine groups at the 2-position and 6-position. To our delight, the optimized analogue 1d showed comparable antiproliferative activity in vitro with better solubility, compared with 1a. Based on this result, the replacement of the benzothiazole scaffold with benzimidazole and benzoxazole moieties afforded 1f and 1g, whose activities were fundamentally retained. In the preliminary in vitro biological evaluation, the immunofluorescence staining of HCT116 cells indicated that 1d, 1f and 1g led to cytosolic vacuolization which was not induced by 1a at low micromolecular concentrations. These results suggest that these optimized compounds might potentially constitute a novel class of anticancer agents, which merit further studies.

  7. Development and preliminary evaluation of a music-based attention assessment for patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Lesiuk, Teresa L

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in attention are commonly seen in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). While visual attention assessment measurements have been rigorously developed and frequently used in cognitive neurorehabilitation, there is a paucity of auditory attention assessment measurements for patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to field test a researcher-developed Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA), a melodic contour identification test designed to assess three different types of attention (i.e., sustained attention, selective attention, and divided attention), for patients with TBI. Additionally, this study aimed to evaluate the readability and comprehensibility of the test items and to examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the scale and test items. Fifteen patients diagnosed with TBI completed 3 different series of tasks in which they were required to identify melodic contours. The resulting data showed that (a) test items in each of the 3 subtests were found to have an easy to moderate level of item difficulty and an acceptable to high level of item discrimination, and (b) the musical characteristics (i.e., contour, congruence, and pitch interference) were found to be associated with the level of item difficulty, and (c) the internal consistency of the MAA as computed by Cronbach's alpha was .95. Subsequent studies using a larger sample of typical participants, along with individuals with TBI, are needed to confirm construct validity and internal consistency of the MAA. In addition, the authors recommend examination of criterion validity of the MAA as correlated with current neuropsychological attention assessment measurements.

  8. Preliminary evidence that sub-chronic citalopram triggers the re-evaluation of value in intimate partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilderbeck, Amy C; Wakeley, Judi; Godlewska, Beata R; McGlone, Francis; Harris, Tirril; Cowen, Phillip J; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Depression frequently involves disrupted inter-personal relationships, while treatment with serotonergic anti-depressants can interfere with libido and sexual function. However, little is known about how serotonin activity influences appraisals of intimate partnerships. Learning more could help to specify how serotonergic mechanisms mediate social isolation in psychiatric illness. Forty-four healthy heterosexual adults, currently in romantic relationships, received 8 days treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (N = 21; 10 male) or placebo (N = 23; 12 male). Participants viewed photographs of unknown, heterosexual couples and made a series of judgements about their relationships. Participants also indicated the importance of relationship features in their own close partnerships, and close partnerships generally. Citalopram reduced the rated quality of couples' physical relationships and the importance attributed to physical and intimate aspects of participants' own relationships. In contrast, citalopram also enhanced the evaluated worth of mutual trust in relationships. Amongst males, citalopram was associated with judgements of reduced turbulence and bickering in others' relationships, and increased male dominance. These data constitute preliminary evidence that enhancing serotonin activity modulates cognitions about sexual activity as part of a re-appraisal of sources of value within close intimate relationships, enhancing the judged importance of longer-term benefits of trust and shared experiences.

  9. Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Evaluation of in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP. The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I, and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  10. Methodolgy For Evaluation Of Technology Impacts In Space Electric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holda, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The Analysis and Management branch of the Power and Propulsion Office at NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for performing complex analyses of the space power and In-Space propulsion products developed by GRC. This work quantifies the benefits of the advanced technologies to support on-going advocacy efforts. The Power and Propulsion Office is committed to understanding how the advancement in space technologies could benefit future NASA missions. They support many diverse projects and missions throughout NASA as well as industry and academia. The area of work that we are concentrating on is space technology investment strategies. Our goal is to develop a Monte-Carlo based tool to investigate technology impacts in space electric power systems. The framework is being developed at this stage, which will be used to set up a computer simulation of a space electric power system (EPS). The outcome is expected to be a probabilistic assessment of critical technologies and potential development issues. We are developing methods for integrating existing spreadsheet-based tools into the simulation tool. Also, work is being done on defining interface protocols to enable rapid integration of future tools. Monte Carlo-based simulation programs for statistical modeling of the EPS Model. I decided to learn and evaluate Palisade's @Risk and Risk Optimizer software, and utilize it's capabilities for the Electric Power System (EPS) model. I also looked at similar software packages (JMP, SPSS, Crystal Ball, VenSim, Analytica) available from other suppliers and evaluated them. The second task was to develop the framework for the tool, in which we had to define technology characteristics using weighing factors and probability distributions. Also we had to define the simulation space and add hard and soft constraints to the model. The third task is to incorporate (preliminary) cost factors into the model. A final task is developing a cross-platform solution of this framework.

  11. Evaluation Framework EFI for Measuring the Impact of Learning, Education and Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Evaluation Framework EFI for the Impact Measurement of learning, education and training: The Evaluation Framework for Impact Measurement was developed for specifying the evaluation phase and its objectives and tasks within the IDEAL Reference Model for the introduction an

  12. Evaluating the Non-Academic Impact of Academic Research: Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of academic research plays a significant role in government efforts to steer public universities. The scope of such evaluation is now being extended to include the "relevance" or "impact" of academic research outside the academy. We address how evaluation of non-academic research impact can promote more such impact…

  13. Evaluation Framework EFI for Measuring the Impact of Learning, Education and Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Evaluation Framework EFI for the Impact Measurement of learning, education and training: The Evaluation Framework for Impact Measurement was developed for specifying the evaluation phase and its objectives and tasks within the IDEAL Reference Model for the introduction an

  14. Evaluation Framework EFI for Measuring the Impact of Learning, Education and Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Evaluation Framework EFI for the Impact Measurement of learning, education and training: The Evaluation Framework for Impact Measurement was developed for specifying the evaluation phase and its objectives and tasks within the IDEAL Reference Model for the introduction

  15. Evaluating the Non-Academic Impact of Academic Research: Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of academic research plays a significant role in government efforts to steer public universities. The scope of such evaluation is now being extended to include the "relevance" or "impact" of academic research outside the academy. We address how evaluation of non-academic research impact can promote more such impact…

  16. Evaluation of the level of difficulty of patient cases for veterinary problem-solving examination: a preliminary comparison of three taxonomies of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Heli

    2007-01-01

    An important issue that has received insufficient attention in the use of problem-based learning in the medical curriculum is the mode of assessing the level of difficulty of patient cases. In the present study, the level of difficulty of case-based questions in a veterinary degree final examination in reproduction was evaluated. First, cognitive taxonomies were evaluated to clarify whether qualitative methods such as Bloom's taxonomy, the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy, and the Amsterdam Clinical Challenge Scale (ACCS) differed from each other as evaluation tools for problem-based cases. Using these taxonomies, 30 case-based questions from the final examination in reproduction in the Helsinki veterinary program were initially evaluated to determine which one was best suited to the evaluation of the difficulty of cases. In follow-up, the same cases were also evaluated by an experienced veterinary instructor in reproduction, with the aim of gaining insight into using these approaches to evaluating difficulty. It would appear, from this preliminary assessment, that the SOLO taxonomy may be the most suitable for evaluating the difficulty of patient cases, since the instructor's quality rating resembled more closely the SOLO than the Bloom taxonomy or the ACCS. It is to be emphasized that the purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of possible approaches that might be used to assess patient-case difficulty. Resolving all issues will require a greater number of evaluations of all components.

  17. A Performance Evaluation for IT/IS Implementation in Organisation: Preliminary New IT/IS Capability Evaluation (NICE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Salleh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the traditional IT/IS performance measures are based on productivity and process, which mainly focus on method of investment appraisal. There is a need to produce alternative holistic measurement models that enable soft and hard issues to be measured qualitatively. A New IT/IS Capability Evaluation (NICE framework has been designed to measure the capability of organisations to'successfully implement IT systems' and it is applicable across industries.The idea is to provide managers with measurement tools to enable them to identify where improvements are required within their organisations and to indicate their readiness prior to IT investment. The NICE framework investigates four organisational key elements: IT, Environment, Process and People, and is composed of six progressive stages of maturity that a company can achieve its IT/IS capabilities. For each maturity stage, the NICE framework describes a set of critical success factors that must be in place for the company to achieve each stage.

  18. Evaluating the impact of conceptual knowledge engineering on the design and usability of a clinical and translational science collaboration portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O; Borlawsky, Tara B; Rice, Robert; Embi, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    With the growing prevalence of large-scale, team science endeavors in the biomedical and life science domains, the impetus to implement platforms capable of supporting asynchronous interaction among multidisciplinary groups of collaborators has increased commensurately. However, there is a paucity of literature describing systematic approaches to identifying the information needs of targeted end-users for such platforms, and the translation of such requirements into practicable software component design criteria. In previous studies, we have reported upon the efficacy of employing conceptual knowledge engineering (CKE) techniques to systematically address both of the preceding challenges in the context of complex biomedical applications. In this manuscript we evaluate the impact of CKE approaches relative to the design of a clinical and translational science collaboration portal, and report upon the preliminary qualitative users satisfaction as reported for the resulting system.

  19. Evaluation of Muscle Performance in Patients with Vitamin D De ciency: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Tuna Öztürk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D de ciency is very common in general population and has potentially harmful effect on musculoskeletal system. We aimed to show the effect of vitamin D de ciency on the muscle performance by using isokinetic test. Meterial and Methods: This study includes 12 women with vitamin D de ciency for patient group and 12 healthy women for control group. We compared knee muscles performance of these two groups by using isokinetic test. Results: The mean age was 40.71 (26-57 years in patients and 41.43 (28-58 years in healthy group. There was no statistical difference between two groups at knee  exion and extension pick-torque values in 60°/s velocity and fatigue index in 180°/s velocity (respectively, p1=0.86, p2=0.12, p3=0.42. Conclusion: Vitamin D de ciency has no effect on muscle performance. Further invastigations that evaluating larger populations are needed. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19: 17-9

  20. Temperature-sensitive mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: isolation and preliminary immunological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A M; Arroyo, P J; Oeschger, M P; Bellanti, J A

    1982-01-01

    The immunogenicity of two temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa immunotype 1, isolated and characterized for the development of a safe, live vaccine strain, was evaluated in a mouse protection model. One mutant, A/10/25, had a limited "coasting" property (i.e., continued replication for two divisions) at the nonpermissive temperature (36 degrees C), whereas the other mutant, E/9/9, continued replication for five generations after transfer to 36 degrees C. Groups of 3- to 5-week-old ICR mice were immunized intraperitoneally with various doses of the two ts mutants; at various times thereafter, the mice were challenged intraperitoneally with lethal doses of the parental wild type. The more extensive coaster, E/9/9, induced 100% protection at immunizing doses lower than those required for A/10/25 to induce the same protection (1 x 10(8) to 2 x 10(8) and 6 x 10(8) colony-forming units, respectively). Both ts strains induced significant protection for up to 5 weeks after immunization. The results of these studies suggest that the use of P. aeruginosa ts mutants might provide a novel approach to the prevention of P. aeruginosa colonization of patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:6815088

  1. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, S N; Imamura, Y; Tsuchiya, F; Ohsato, K

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270 degrees C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  3. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm. leaf and bark extracts as antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Duavy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Caryocar coriaceum Wittm (C. coriaceum has been traditionally used as wound healing and for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity of the tree leaf and fruit bark extracts from C.coriaceum. The extracts exhibited a similar and significant DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and were effective in reducing and chelating iron. Indeed, the extracts diminished lipid peroxidation ferrous-induced and reactive species overproduction calcium-induced in liver homogenate. The extracts did not modify the levels of superoxide radical in liver mitochondria treated with antimicin A. The extract samples presented significant content of total phenols. Our findings showed that the extracts from species C. coriaceum were strong antioxidants in vitro and point that they might be useful as potent sources of natural bioactive compounds for further in vivo studies. Industrial Relevance. This study demonstrated, for the first time, the in vitro antioxidant action of leaf and bark fruit extracts from species C. Coriaceum. The extracts were able to scavenge free radicals, modulate iron redox state and inhibit lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS overproduction. In addition to the pharmacological activities already documented toward fruit known as Pequi, the results obtained here highlight leaves and fruit barks as important antioxidant agents and sources of phenolic compounds, characteristics that potentiate the relevance of species C. Coriaceum as functional/nutraceutical food. Keywords: Caryocar coriaceum Wittm; pequi; antioxidant activity; oxidative stress

  4. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Singhai AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martyniaannua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods: Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results: The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing.

  5. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  6. Design and preliminary evaluation of a portable device for the measurement of bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Wang, Jue; Yu, Gang; Niu, Feilong; He, Ping

    2006-12-01

    Portable bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) devices are of great value for monitoring the pathological status of biological tissues in clinical and home environments. The two traditional techniques for measuring complex bioimpedance, the bridge method and quadrature demodulation method, are either time-consuming or often associated with high cost, high power consumption, and large board space, and therefore are not ideally suitable for designing a portable device for BIS measurement. This paper describes a novel design of a portable BIS device based on the magnitude-ratio and phase-difference detection method and its implementation using the newest generation of analog electronic products which greatly decrease the complexity of both hardware and software. In order to improve the accuracy of the device, a three-reference calibration algorithm was applied. Experimental sweep-frequency measurements on RC circuits were carried out to preliminarily evaluate the performances of the device. The results obtained by the device were found to be in good agreement with the results measured by a commercial impedance analyzer HP4194, with an overall mean error of 0.014% in magnitude and 0.136 degrees in phase over a frequency range of 20 kHz to 1 MHz.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the rock-mass disturbance resulting from shaft, tunnel, or borehole excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Chabannes, C.R.

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of nuclear wastes in deep, mined repositories will require the sealing of all penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes, into or nearby the repository. An important consideration in penetration sealing is the disturbed zone, or zone of increased permeability, which may be created in the rock mass adjacent to the penetration as a result of excavation. Disturbed zone characteristics for shafts, tunnels, and boreholes are evaluated by analysis and by review of previous laboratory and field tests. Consideration is given also to test methods for characterizing the disturbed zone in situ, and to methods for treating the disturbed zone in seal construction. Laboratory tests indicate that the disturbed zone associated with small-diameter boreholes is probably insignificant. In contrast, the disturbed zone is potentially a significant pathway for flow through seals placed in shafts and tunnels. Because a major mechanism for disturbance is believed to be stress relief acting across fractures, much of the disturbance occurs regardless of the excavation method used. Various test methods are proposed for disturbed zone characterization in shafts and tunnels, with seismic refraction identified as a promising index test. A proposed method for treating the disturbed zone uses cutoffs constructed as a series of overlapping boreholes. Each hole is filled with concrete which is allowed to cure before the adjacent holes are drilled.

  8. Jet-lag: prevention with Pycnogenol. Preliminary report: evaluation in healthy individuals and in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Steigerwalt, R J; Di Renzo, A; Grossi, M G; Ricci, A; Stuard, S; Ledda, A; Dugall, M; Cornelli, U; Cacchio, M

    2008-10-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of showing the effects of Pycnogenol on controlling jet-lag symptoms. Oral Pycnogenol, 50 mg tablets 3 times/die, for 7 days starting 2 days prior to the flight was used. The study was divided into two separate parts. In study 1 the most common complaints of patients with jet-lag were evaluated with a rating scale consisting in of a scoring system. In study 2 a brain CT scan was performed after the flight in order to assess minimal brain edema (MBE) in association with typical signs and symptoms, observed in previous published flight studies. Study one included 38 subjects treated with Pycnogenol and 30 controls. The symptomatic jet-lag related total score was significantly lower (indicating a lower level of jet-lag) in the Pycnogenol group. The average duration of any jet lag symptom following the flight was significantly reduced from 39.3 (SD=0.8) hours in controls to an average of 18.2 (SD=3.3) hours in the Pycnogenol group (PPycnogenol and 31 controls. The main observation was the brain CT scan performed within 28 hours after the end of the flight. The difference between the Pycnogenol and the control groups was statistically significant (PPycnogenol group. A number of spontaneously reported symptoms was also scored and there was a statistically significant difference (PPycnogenol and control groups. In conlusion, Pycnogenol was useful to control jet-lag and minimal brain edema.

  9. Design, synthesis, and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of new imidazolinones as L-DOPA prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgioni, Gianfabio; Claudi, Francesco; Ruggieri, Sabrina; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Palmieri, Giovanni F; Di Stefano, Antonio; Sozio, Piera; Cerasa, Laura S; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Ferrante, Claudio; Orlando, Giustino; Glennon, Richard A

    2010-03-01

    L-DOPA, the immediate biological precursor of dopamine, is still considered the drug of choice in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, therapy with L-DOPA is associated with a number of acute problems. With the aim to increase the bioavailability after oral administration, we designed a multi-protected L-DOPA prodrugs able to release the drug by both spontaneous chemical or enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis. The new compounds have been synthesized and preliminarily evaluated for their water solubility, log P, chemical stability, and enzymatic stability. The results indicate that the incorporation of the amino acidic moiety of L-DOPA into an imidazoline-4-one ring provides prodrugs sufficiently stable to potentially cross unchanged the acidic environment of the stomach, and to be absorbed from the intestine. They also might be able to release L-DOPA in human plasma after enzymatic hydrolysis. The ability of prodrugs 6a-b to increase basal levels of striatal DA, and influence brain neurochemistry associated with dopaminergic activity following oral administration, as well as the radical-scavenging activity against DPPH for compounds 6a-b and 15a are also reported.

  10. A preliminary evaluation of comparative effectiveness of riluzole in therapeutic regimen for irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Surya Prakash Mishra; Sunit Kumar Shukla; Bajrang Lal Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop agents that are specifically effective in controlling the key disturbance of visceral hyperalgesia besides abating of associated multiple symptoms, and evaluate comparative effectiveness for IBS symptom relief for standard regimen (antispasmodic and probiotic) and add-on amitriptyine or riluzole regimens following two weeks administration.Methods:groups were studied. First group received standard treatment (mebeverine 200 mg twice daily and probiotic 200 mg twice daily). Second group received add-on amitriptyline 25 mg before bedtime, while the third group got add-on riluzole 50 mg twice daily. Overall gastrointestinal symptom rating scale improving symptoms and hospital anxiety depression scale improving associated psychological morbidity were employed as measures at induction and at two-week follow-up period. Individual symptom scores were also examined to define the outcome profiles.Results:108 patients with visceral hypersensitivity accompanying IBS, divided into three rating scale score, not the other two regimens. Pain relief was seen with both riluzole and amitriptyline regimens significantly superior to standard treatment regimen, but riluzole effect appeared specific and independent anxiolytic effect. Amitriptyline caused relief in diarrhea and did not benefit in constipation point to non-specific remedial role in IBS. Riluzole regimen resulted in significant reduction of overall gastrointestinal symptom Conclusions: Riluzole specifically relieves visceral hypersensitivity and is proved to be superior to current treatments in IBS patients. It appears a lead remedy based on glutamate transporter mechanisms in visceral hypersensititvity.

  11. Cardiovascular-interventional-surgery virtual training platform and its preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaozheng; Xie, Le; Shen, Xianglong; Luo, Maisheng; Wu, Zhaoli; Gu, Lixu

    2014-10-13

    Cardiovascular interventional surgery (CIS) training has mainly been performed with fluoroscopic guidance on animals. However, this has potential drawbacks, including from the anatomical differences between animal models and the human body. The purpose of this research is to develop a virtual training platform for inexperienced trainees. The CIS virtual training platform is composed of a mechanical manipulation unit, a simulation platform and a user interface. A decoupled haptic device offers high-quality force feedback. An efficient physically based hybrid model was simulated. The CIS procedure was tested with three simulation studies. Translational and rotational tests were employed to preliminarily evaluate the platform. Tests showed that accuracies improved by 50% and 32.5%. Efficient collision detection and continuous collision response allowed real-time interactions. Furthermore, three simulation studies indicated that the platform had reasonable accuracy and robustness. The proposed simulation platform has the potential to be a good virtual training platform. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. MRI evaluation of infectious and non-infectious synovitis: preliminary studies in a rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, P.J.; DiPietro, M.A.; Teo, E.L.H.J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Londy, F. [Division of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chrisp, C.E. [Unit of Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Doi, K. [Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Background. Literature on magnetic resonance imaging (MR) evaluation of inflammatory joint effusions is sparse. Objective. To describe an animal model for studying infectious and non-infectious joint effusions with magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods. Ten rabbit knees with septic arthritis and four with talc synovitis were imaged with MR. Contralateral knees injected with saline served as controls. Fat saturation T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were assessed for joint effusion, and periarticular and adjacent intraosseous increased signal or enhancement. Each knee was cultured and underwent pathologic examination. Results. Both Staphylococcus aureus and talc produced effusions in all knees. The degree of periarticular signal and enhancement was greater in infected knees than talc-injected knees. No abnormal enhancement was seen within bone. Pathologic examination showed a greater degree of inflammation and joint destruction in the infected knees, but no evidence of osteomyelitis. Conclusion. A greater degree of abnormal signal and enhancement seen on MR suggests a more vigorous inflammatory process, as seen with septic arthritis. In spite of advanced septic arthritis, no enhancement was evident within bone, suggesting that enhancement within bone is not an expected finding in isolated septic arthritis and should raise concern for osteomyelitis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 15 refs.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of manassantin A, a potential neuroleptic agent from Saururus cernuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V; Puri, V N; Diwan, P K; Alvarez, F M

    1987-09-01

    Manassantin A (MNS-A), a novel dineolignan isolated from Saururus cernuus was evaluated for its central depressant effects. Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of MNS-A to mice at nontoxic doses caused a decrease in spontaneous motor activity and inhibition of amphetamine-induced stereotypy, with an ED50 of 0.21 +/- 0.02 mg/kg for its antiamphetamine activity. Doses of MNS-A up to the LD50 did not produce catalepsy and ptosis as were observed with haloperidol used as a reference drug. The compound caused a dose-dependent hypothermia, while haloperidol was not very effective in this test. Potentiation of pentobarbital-sleeping time was observed to be of comparable degree with both drugs. In spite of the higher toxicity (acute LD50 5.4 +/- 0.2 mg/kg, IP) than that shown by haloperidol, the somewhat selective neuroleptic profile of MNS-A makes it an interesting candidate for more detailed studies.

  14. Preliminary Evaluation on In-vessel Source Term based on 4S Methodology in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Won; Chang, Won-Pyo; Seong, Seung Hwan; Ahn, Sang June; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chi-Woong; Lee, Jin Yoo; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Jeong, Taekyeong; Ha, Kwi-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This strategy requires nuclear plants to have features that prevent radionuclide release and multiple barriers to the escape from the plants of any radionuclides that are released despite preventive measures. Considerations of the ability to prevent and mitigate release of radionuclides arise at numerous places in the safety regulations of nuclear plants. The effectiveness of mitigative capabilities in nuclear plants is subject to quantitative analysis. The radionuclide input to these quantitative analyses of effectiveness is the Source Term (ST). All features of the composition, magnitude, timing, chemical form and physical form of accidental radionuclide release constitute the ST. Also, ST is defined as the release of radionuclides from the fuel and coolant into the containment, and subsequently to the environment. The many assumptions and equations evaluated in 4S are used. The in-vessel STs are calculated through several phases: The inventory of each radionuclide is calculated by ORIGEN-2 code using the peak burnup conditions. The nominal value of the radiological inventory is multiplied by a factor of 1.5 as an uncertainty margin to give the radiological inventory. ST in the release from the core to primary sodium is calculated by using the assumption of 4S methodology. Lastly, ST in the release from the primary sodium to cover gas space is calculated by using the assumption of 4S methodology.

  15. Coincidence FDG-PET in the evaluation of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A.; Adler, Brent H. [Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, OH (United States); Olshefski, Randal S. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, OH (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Bone involvement in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is common. Both bone scintigraphy and plain films are used to identify osseous lesions, but lack specificity for disease activity and response to therapy. FDG-PET is a sensitive technique for identifying bone lesions when histiocytes are present. To describe the potential of coincidence FDG-PET (cFDG-PET) for identification of active bone lesions in LCH and to determine whether it can provide more specific information regarding lesional response to therapy than bone scintigraphy or radiography. The clinical data and imaging findings of three patients with osseous lesions of LCH were retrospectively reviewed. cFDG-PET identified all active LCH osseous lesions in these patients, differentiated active from healed lesions, and demonstrated normalization of uptake in a treated lesion earlier than bone scintigraphy and radiography. cFDG-PET appears to have greater specificity than bone scintigraphy and radiography for the identification of active osseous lesions in LCH. It also may predict response to treatment earlier than conventional techniques. Its use in the evaluation of LCH warrants further study. (orig.)

  16. The evaluation of local oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients with pityriasis versicolor: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Ozturk, Perihan

    2016-11-01

    Yeast of Malassezia, members of the microbiologic flora of the skin, cause pityriasis versicolor and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other superficial dermatoses. The mechanisms by which the yeast cause these dermatoses, however, are not yet clear, and there have been no studies on the interaction between fungi and keratinocytes, especially the effects of fungi on the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species by human keratinocytes. This is the first study we aimed to evaluate the role of oxidative/nitrosative stress in affected skin areas in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Sixty pityriasis versicolor patients and 60 healthy subjects as control group were enrolled. Scraping samples were obtained from the lesional skin areas in patients and from the normal skin areas in controls. The distribution of lesions of pityriasis versicolor was mild in all patients. We have isolated two Malassezia species: M. furfur being isolated in 75% of patients, followed by M. globosa (25%). The levels of oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers were significantly higher in patients than the controls (P pityriasis versicolor is associated with significant alteration in oxidant/antioxidant balance. It might be secondary consequence of pityriasis versicolor infection or contributing factor in its pathogenesis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Evaluation of photopatch test allergens for Indian patients of photodermatitis: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a strong need to develop a photopatch test tray suitable for Indian patients of photodermatitis as European/Scandinavian photopatch test trays may not be wholly relevant for them. Aim: We carried out this study using photoallergens relevant in the Indian context to determine their relevance in patients of photodermatitis. Methods: Thirty patients (M:F, 23:7 between 19 and 76 years of age of photodermatitis and 10 controls were patch- and photopatch tested with 20 common photoallergens. In addition, the patients were also (photo patch tested with articles of daily use as and when these were suspected to be the cause. Results: Forty-three positive reactions to one or more antigens were seen in 22 (74% patients. Fourteen positive photopatch tests to seven allergens were observed in 10 (33% patients, and nine (30% of them had a definite relevance. The most common contact allergen was fragrance mix (FM (30%, followed by p-phenylenediamine (20% and Parthenium hysterophorous (17%. The definite relevance of the patch- and photopatch tests could be correlated in 47% of these patients. Conclusions: FM is the most common contact and photocontact allergen among the various photopatch test antigens. Although differences in technique and evaluation make direct comparison between different centers difficult, still photopatch testing remains an integral part and gold standard for the work-up of the photosensitive patients.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western US, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. During this quarter pure concentrates of resinite from Herrin No. 6 Seam were produced by the density gradient centrifugation technique. This material is also now being characterized by petrographic and chemical methods. Another accomplishment this quarter was the completion of a series of microbubble column flotation tests under eight different conditions. The tests were successful in producing concentrates that are now being evaluated. The significance of the work done during this quarter is the confirmation that the resinite in an Illinois coal can be successfully separated in quantities useful for testing and analysis.

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Intelligent Intention Estimation Algorithms for an Actuated Lower-Limb Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin Chandrapal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experimental testing of an actuated lower-limb exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is designed to alleviate the loading at the knee joint by supplying assistive torque. It is hypothesized that the support provided will reduce the muscular effort required to perform activities of daily living and thus facilitate the execution of these movements by those who previously had limited mobility. The exoskeleton is actuated by four pneumatic artificial muscles, each providing 150N of pulling force to assist in the flexion and extension of the knee joint. The exoskeleton system estimates the user's intended motion using muscle activity information recorded from five thigh muscles, together with the knee angle. To experimentally evaluate the performance of the device, the exoskeleton was worn by an able-bodied user, whilst performing the sit-to-stand-to-sit movement. In addition, the three intention estimation algorithms were also tested to determine the influence of the various algorithms on the support provided. The results show a significant reduction in the user's muscle activity (≈ 20% when assisted by the exoskeleton in a predictable manner.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of variable compliance joystick for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Harshal P; Spaeth, Donald M; Dicianno, Brad E; Brown, Karl; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-01-01

    Upper-limb fatigue is a common problem that may restrict people with multiple sclerosis (MS) from using their electric powered wheelchair effectively and for a long period of time. The objective of this research is to evaluate whether participants with MS can drive better using a variable compliance joystick (VCJ) and customizable algorithms than with a conventional wheelchair joystick. Eleven participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The groups used either the VCJ in compliant or noncompliant isometric mode and a standard algorithm, personally fitted algorithm, or personally fitted algorithm with fatigue adaptation running in the background in order to complete virtual wheelchair driving tasks. Participants with MS showed better driving performance metrics while using the customized algorithms than while using the standard algorithm with the VCJ. Fatigue adaptation algorithms are especially beneficial in improving overall task performance while using the VCJ in isometric mode. The VCJ, along with the personally fitted algorithms and fatigue adaptation algorithms, has the potential to be an effective input interface for wheelchairs.

  1. Production and preliminary evaluation of Trypanosoma evansi HSP70 for antibody detection in Equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jaideep; Chaudhury, Ashok; Bera, Bidhan C; Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, Rajender; Tatu, Utpal; Yadav, Suresh Chandra

    2015-12-01

    The present immuno-diagnostic method using soluble antigens from whole cell lysate antigen for trypanosomosis have certain inherent problems like lack of standardized and reproducible antigens, as well as ethical issues due to in vivo production, that could be alleviated by in vitro production. In the present study we have identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) from T. evansi proteome. The nucleotide sequence of T. evansi HSP70 was 2116 bp, which encodes 690 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of T. evansi HSP70 showed that T. evansi occurred within Trypanosoma clade and is most closely related to T. brucei brucei and T. brucei gambiense, whereas T. congolense HSP70 laid in separate clade. The two partial HSP70 sequences (HSP-1 from N-terminal region and HSP-2 from C-terminal region) were expressed and evaluated as diagnostic antigens using experimentally infected equine serum samples. Both recombinant proteins detected antibody in immunoblot using serum samples from experimental infected donkeys with T. evansi. Recombinant HSP-2 showed comparable antibody response to Whole cell lysate (WCL) antigen in immunoblot and ELISA. The initial results indicated that HSP70 has potential to detect the T. evansi infection and needs further validation on large set of equine serum samples.

  2. A preliminary evaluation of limb salvage surgery for osteosarcoma around knee joint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and drawbacks of diversified procedures of limb salvage surgery (LSS, providing a reference of rational surgical criterion of LSS. METHODS: Fifty eight patients with stage IIB extremity osteosarcoma around knee joint area between 1992 and 2002 were studied retrospectively. Among them, 43 patients were treated by LSS followed by reconstruction. Reconstruction approaches included re-implantation of irradiation-devitalized tumor bone (n = 12, autoclaving-devitalized tumor bone (n = 8, prosthetic replacement (n = 11, allograft transplantation (n = 8 and vascularized fibula autograft implantation (n = 4. Amputations were performed in 15 patients. Patients were followed up for 6-16 years. RESULTS: There were no significant difference between LSS and amputation groups regarding disease free survival and local recurrence rates. The actuarial 5-year continuous disease free survival and local recurrence rate were 30.0% and 25.0% in patients of devitalized LSS group, whereas those were 56.5% and 8.7% in patients of non-devitalized reconstruction group. The complication rate was significantly higher in LSS group compared to amputation group (P = 0.003. CONCLUSION: LSS with non-devitalized procedures is the optimal treatment for osteosarcoma around knee joint area. Prosthesis implantation is the preferred option for bone reconstruction following LSS. Prevention and treatment of post-operative complications should be paid more attention to get good long-term outcomes of surgery.

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Intelligent Intention Estimation Algorithms for an Actuated Lower-Limb Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin Chandrapal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experimental testing of an actuated lower-limb exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is designed to alleviate the loading at the knee joint by supplying assistive torque. It is hypothesized that the support provided will reduce the muscular effort required to perform activities of daily living and thus facilitate the execution of these movements by those who previously had limited mobility. The exoskeleton is actuated by four pneumatic artificial muscles, each providing 150N of pulling force to assist in the flexion and extension of the knee joint. The exoskeleton system estimates the user’s intended motion using muscle activity information recorded from five thigh muscles, together with the knee angle. To experimentally evaluate the performance of the device, the exoskeleton was worn by an able-bodied user, whilst performing the sit-to-stand-to-sit movement. In addition, the three intention estimation algorithms were also tested to determine the influence of the various algorithms on the support provided. The results show a significant reduction in the user’s muscle activity (≈ 20% when assisted by the exoskeleton in a predictable manner.

  4. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  6. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  7. Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Tim

    2010-05-01

    In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-11-21

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  9. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea which represents the third evaluation of the available Simpevarp area groundwater analytical data collected up to November, 2004. Model version 1.2 focusses on improving the methodology and tools used for evaluating the hydrochemistry combined with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the available data. The major goal has been to consolidate groundwater geochemical understanding and the models used at the site. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1,000 m depending on local topography. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is small, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked. In contrast, the Laxemar subarea is characterised by higher topography resulting in a much more dynamic groundwater circulation which appears to extend to 1,000 m depth in the vicinity of borehole KLX02. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between the Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  12. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea which represents the third evaluation of the available Simpevarp area groundwater analytical data collected up to November, 2004. Model version 1.2 focusses on improving the methodology and tools used for evaluating the hydrochemistry combined with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the available data. The major goal has been to consolidate groundwater geochemical understanding and the models used at the site. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1,000 m depending on local topography. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is small, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked. In contrast, the Laxemar subarea is characterised by higher topography resulting in a much more dynamic groundwater circulation which appears to extend to 1,000 m depth in the vicinity of borehole KLX02. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between the Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major

  13. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf coast region. Volume I. Comparison of prospect areas on the basis of potential environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    The results of a preliminary environmental assessment of the following geopressured-geothermal prospect areas in the Louisiana Gulf coast region are presented: South Johnson's Bayou, Sweet Lake, Rockefeller Refuge, Southeast Pecan Island, Atchafalaya Bay, and Lafourche Crossing. These prospect areas have been compared to determine their relative environmental acceptability for the test program. Trade-offs among the prospects in terms of potential impacts are highlighted. This assessment was made on the basis of the nature and extent of the proposed testing activities in view of the environmental characteristics of each prospect area: land use, geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and quality, ecological systems, and natural hazards. The comparison of prospect areas includes consideration of worst case situations. However, we believe that the test program activities, because they are so small in scale, will not result in major adverse impacts.

  14. Brain spect in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Buchpiguel

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients consists of neurological examination, intensive electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring and anatomical studies (CT and MRI. Functional methods such as PET and SPECT imaging are now used more frequently. We have studied pre-operatively 15 adult epileptic patients (8 female, 7 male using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc_HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas. In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions. Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hyperperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: (a in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; (b in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; (c in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10 SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and hete-rogenicity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery.

  15. A preliminary evaluation of volcanic rock powder for application in agriculture as soil a remineralizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Claudete G., E-mail: claudeterms@brturbo.com.br [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Querol, Xavier [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC), C/Luis Solé y Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Pires, Karen [Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral (DNPM), Washington Luiz, 815, Centro, 90010-460 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, Luis F.S., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rock residue, from a crushing plant in the Nova Prata Mining District, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, in this work named rock powder, were investigated in view of its potential application as soil ammendment in agriculture. Abaut 52,400 m{sup 3} of mining waste is generated annually in the city of Nova Prata without a proper disposal. The nutrients potentially available to plants were evaluated through leaching laboratory tests. Nutrient leaching tests were performed in Milli-Q water; citric acid solution 1% and 2% (AC); and oxalic acid solution 1% and 5% (AO). The bulk and leachable contents of 57 elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Mining waste were made up by CaO, K{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the major occurence of quartz, anorthite, cristobalite, sanidine, and augite. The water leachable concentrations of all elements studied were lower than 1.0 mg/kg, indicating their low solubility. Leaching tests in acidic media yield larger leachable fractions for all elements being studied are in the leachate of the AO 1%. These date usefulness of volcanic rock powder as potential natural fertilizer in agriculture in the mining district in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. - Highlights: • Volcanic rock powder as fertilizer in agriculture • Volcanic rock powder as a source of nutrients to plants • This technology may favor the use of volcanic rock in agriculture.

  16. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer treatment using quantitative CT image biomarkers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and apply quantitative image biomarkers for early prediction of the tumor response to the chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer patients participated in the clinical trials of testing new drugs. In the experiment, we retrospectively selected 30 cases from the patients who participated in Phase I clinical trials of new drug or drug agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Each case is composed of two sets of CT images acquired pre- and post-treatment (4-6 weeks after starting treatment). A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was developed to extract and analyze the quantitative image features of the metastatic tumors previously tracked by the radiologists using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The CAD scheme first segmented 3-D tumor volumes from the background using a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, for each segmented tumor, CAD computed three quantitative image features including the change of tumor volume, tumor CT number (density) and density variance. The feature changes were calculated between the matched tumors tracked on the CT images acquired pre- and post-treatments. Finally, CAD predicted patient's 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) using a decision-tree based classifier. The performance of the CAD scheme was compared with the RECIST category. The result shows that the CAD scheme achieved a prediction accuracy of 76.7% (23/30 cases) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.493, which is significantly higher than the performance of RECIST prediction with a prediction accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 60% (17/30) and 0.062, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing quantitative image features to improve the early predicting accuracy of the tumor response to the new testing drugs or therapeutic methods for the ovarian cancer patients.

  17. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Søren V; Baker, Felicity A; Ridder, Hanne Mette O

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed on the proxy-rating version aiming to establish if it revealed meaningful constructs. ICCS was translated from English to Danish language, pilot tested and slightly modified for use as a self-rating scale with people with ABI. A relative/staff version of the scale was also constructed for testing. Participants with medium-to-severe ABI self-rated their interpersonal communication skills using the modified ICCS. Cronbach Alpha test was performed on both scales followed by a correlation analysis. Seventeen participants with medium-to-severe ABI and staff and relatives (n = 37) were involved in testing the ICCS-staff/relative rating and ICCS-self-rating. The ICCS-Staff/Relative showed an overall Cronbach alpha of α = 0.774 and the ICCS-Self-rating α = 0.675. A factor extraction of the ICCS-Staff/Relative revealed six meaningful sub-groups that corresponded well with the original ICCS. There was a low but significant correlation between the ratings performed by the two staff members most familiar with the participants (r = 0.280, p = 0.04). The ICCS-Staff/Relative revealed a good overall internal consistency, whereas the ICCS-Self-rating revealed acceptable internal consistency. The factor analysis of the proxy-rating revealed six meaningful sub-groups of interpersonal communication competencies.

  18. Evaluation of salivary sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in oral cancer: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, noninvasive methods like analysis of saliva may provide a cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Thus, this study aimed to estimate salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in the oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. Study Design: Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy controls (Group I and 30 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II. Estimations of salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar were performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical Analysis and Results: The Student′s ′ t ′ test and multivariate regression analysis were performed. The results showed that salivary levels of total protein, total sugar, protein-bound sialic acid, and free sialic acid were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to those of normal healthy controls ( P values in all the results were less than 0.001. The salivary free sialic acid levels were found to be significantly higher in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma than in moderately differentiated carcinoma ( P < 0.001. However, protein-bound sialic acid, total proteins, and total sugars did not show any statistical significance between well and moderately differentiated carcinomas. Conclusion: Biochemical analysis of saliva can be used in early detection of cancer and is best correlated with histopathological degree of squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Glutamine-Loaded Liposomes: Preliminary Investigation, Characterization, and Evaluation of Neutrophil Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Larissa Chaves; Souza, Bárbara Nayane Rosário Fernandes; Almeida, Fábio Fidélis; Lagranha, Cláudia Jacques; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Lira-Nogueira, Mariane Cajubá de Britto

    2016-04-01

    Glutamine has received attention due to its ability to ameliorate the immune system response. Once conventional liposomes are readily recognized and captured by immune system cells, the encapsulation of glutamine into those nanosystems could be an alternative to reduce glutamine dosage and target then to neutrophils. Our goals were to nanoencapsulate glutamine into conventional liposomes (Gln-L), develop an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for its quantification, and evaluate the viability of neutrophils treated with Gln-L. Liposomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration technique followed by sonication and characterized according to pH, mean size, zeta potential, and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE%). We also aimed to study the effect of liposomal constituent concentrations on liposomal characteristics. The viability of neutrophils was assessed using flow cytometry after intraperitoneal administration of free glutamine (Gln), Gln-L, unloaded-liposome (UL), and saline solution as control (C) in healthy Wistar rats. The selected liposomal formulation had a mean vesicle size of 114.65 ± 1.82 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.30 ± 0.00, a positive surface charge of 36.30 ± 1.38 mV, and an EE% of 39.49 ± 0.74%. The developed chromatographic method was efficient for the quantification of encapsulated glutamine, with a retention time at 3.8 min. A greater viability was observed in the group treated with glutamine encapsulated compared to the control group (17%), although neutrophils remain viable in all groups. Thus, glutamine encapsulated into liposomes was able to increase the number of viable neutrophils at low doses, thereby representing a promising strategy for the treatment of immunodeficiency conditions.

  20. Application of Computed Tomography Virtual Noncontrast Spectral Imaging in Evaluation of Hepatic Metastases: A Preliminary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Feng Tian; Ai-Lian Liu; Jing-Hong Liu; Mei-Yu Sun; He-Qing Wang; Yi-Jun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The objective was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate hepatic metastases using computed tomography (CT) virtual noncontrast (VNC) spectral imaging in a retrospective analysis.Methods:Forty hepatic metastases patients underwent CT scans including the conventional true noncontrast (TNC) and the tri-phasic contrast-enhanced dual energy spectral scans in the hepatic arterial,portal venous,and equilibrium phases.The tri-phasic spectral CT images were used to obtain three groups of VNC images including in the arterial (VNCa),venous (VNCv),and equilibrium (VNCe) phase by the material decomposition process using water and iodine as a base material pair.The image quality and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of metastasis of the four groups were compared with ANOVA analysis.The metastasis detection rates with the four nonenhanced image groups were calculated and compared using the Chi-square test.Results:There were no significant differences in image quality among TNC,VNCa and VNCv images (P > 0.05).The quality of VNCe images was significantly worse than that of other three groups (P < 0.05).The mean CNR of metastasis in the TNC and VNCs images was 1.86,2.42,1.92,and 1.94,respectively; the mean CNR of metastasis in VNCa images was significantly higher than that in other three groups (P < 0.05),while no statistically significant difference was observed among VNCv,VNCe and TNC images (P > 0.05).The metastasis detection rate of the four nonenhanced groups with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).Conclusions:The quality of VNCa and VNCv images is identical to that of TNC images,and the metastasis detection rate in VNC images is similar to that in TNC images.VNC images obtained from arterial phase show metastases more clearly.Thus,VNCa imaging may be a surrogate to TNC imaging in hepatic metastasis diagnosis.