WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary experimental operation

  1. Preliminary CFD Assessment of an Experimental Test Facility Operating with Heavy Liquid Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Lizzoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The CFD analysis of a Venturi nozzle operating in LBE (key component of the CIRCE facility, owned by ENEA is presented in this paper. CIRCE is a facility developed to investigate in detail the fluid-dynamic behavior of ADS and/or LFR reactor plants. The initial CFD simulations have been developed hand in hand with the comparison with experimental data: the test results were used to confirm the reliability of the CFD model, which, in turn, was used to improve the interpretation of the experimental data. The Venturi nozzle is modeled with a 3D CFD code (STAR-CCM+. Later on, the CFD model has been used to assess the performance of the component in conditions different from the ones tested in CIRCE: the performance of the Venturi is presented, in terms of pressure drops, for various operating conditions. Finally, the CFD analysis has been focused on the evaluation of the effects of the injection of an inert gas in the flow of the liquid coolant on the performance of the Venturi nozzle.

  2. Preliminary Experimental Results of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Operation Using Hardware Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, Alberto; Tucker, David; Haynes, Comas L.

    2012-07-01

    A newly developed integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) hybrid system concept has been tested using the Hybrid Performance (Hyper) project hardware-based simulation facility at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. The cathode-loop hardware facility, previously connected to the real-time fuel cell model, was integrated with a real-time model of a gasifier of solid (biomass and fossil) fuel. The fuel cells are operated at the compressor delivery pressure, and they are fueled by an updraft atmospheric gasifier, through the syngas conditioning train for tar removal and syngas compression. The system was brought to steady state; then several perturbations in open loop (variable speed) and closed loop (constant speed) were performed in order to characterize the IGFC behavior. Coupled experiments and computations have shown the feasibility of relatively fast control of the plant as well as a possible mitigation strategy to reduce the thermal stress on the fuel cells as a consequence of load variation and change in gasifier operating conditions. Results also provided an insight into the different features of variable versus constant speed operation of the gas turbine section.

  3. The Experimental Regional Ensemble Forecast System (ExREF): Its Use in NWS Forecast Operations and Preliminary Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David; Rasch, William; Kozlowski, Daniel; Burks, Jason; Zavodsky, Bradley; Bernardet, Ligia; Jankov, Isidora; Albers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Experimental Regional Ensemble Forecast (ExREF) system is a tool for the development and testing of new Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) methodologies. ExREF is run in near-realtime by the Global Systems Division (GSD) of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and its products are made available through a website, an ftp site, and via the Unidata Local Data Manager (LDM). The ExREF domain covers most of North America and has 9-km horizontal grid spacing. The ensemble has eight members, all employing WRF-ARW. The ensemble uses a variety of initial conditions from LAPS and the Global Forecasting System (GFS) and multiple boundary conditions from the GFS ensemble. Additionally, a diversity of physical parameterizations is used to increase ensemble spread and to account for the uncertainty in forecasting extreme precipitation events. ExREF has been a component of the Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) NWP suite in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 winters. A smaller domain covering just the West Coast was created to minimize band-width consumption for the NWS. This smaller domain has and is being distributed to the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Office and California Nevada River Forecast Center in Sacramento, California, where it is ingested into the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS I and II) to provide guidance on the forecasting of extreme precipitation events. This paper will review the cooperative effort employed by NOAA ESRL, NASA SPoRT (Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center), and the NWS to facilitate the ingest and display of ExREF data utilizing the AWIPS I and II D2D and GFE (Graphical Software Editor) software. Within GFE is a very useful verification software package called BoiVer that allows the NWS to utilize the River Forecast Center's 4 km gridded QPE to compare with all operational NWP models 6-hr QPF along with the ExREF mean 6-hr QPF so the forecasters can build confidence in the use of the

  4. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  5. Experimental natural circulation circuit - preliminaries results; Circuito experimental de circulacao natural - resultados experimentais preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccini, Jose Luiz H.; Botelho, David A.; Soares, Milton; Coutinho, Jorge A.; Freitas, Sergio Carlos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: faccini@cnen.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    These are the preliminaries results of the tests carried out at experimental natural circulation system of IEN/CNEN. The experimental system is a reduced scale similar model in power, pressure, and length of a passive residual heat removal prototype system. It enables studies of natural circulation phenomena in an advanced PWR. The experimental results refer to the steps of data acquisition system calibration, power control system calibration, and single-phase operational tests. The results of single-phase tests show temperature in time measured by the thermocouples placed along the natural circulation system. It is also presented a brief commentary on the experimental results, based on theory and preliminary computational simulations. (author)

  6. Photon Detection with Cooled Avalanche Photodiodes: Theory and Preliminary Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. L.; Hays, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) can be operated in a geiger-tube mode so that they can respond to single electron events and thus be used as photon counting detectors. Operational characteristics and theory of APDs while used in this mode are analyzed and assessed. Preliminary experimental investigation of several commercially available APDs has commenced, and initial results for dark count statistics are presented.

  7. Experimental interstellar organic chemistry - Preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of some explicit experimental simulation of interstellar organic chemistry consisting in low-temperature high-vacuum UV irradiation of condensed simple gases known or suspected to be present in the interstellar medium. The results include the finding that acetonitrile may be present in the interstellar medium. The implication of this and other findings are discussed.

  8. Experimental interstellar organic chemistry - Preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of some explicit experimental simulation of interstellar organic chemistry consisting in low-temperature high-vacuum UV irradiation of condensed simple gases known or suspected to be present in the interstellar medium. The results include the finding that acetonitrile may be present in the interstellar medium. The implication of this and other findings are discussed.

  9. Failure of Magnetic Fluid Seals Operating in Water: Preliminary Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewski Leszek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses properties of magnetic fluid seals installed in rotary sealing nodes which operate in the utility water environment. Seals of this type have been examined as a possible solution to the problem with ship manoeuvring propulsion sealing. The present analysis bases on laboratory durability tests of magnetic fluid seals exposed to longterm utility water loads, at different water pressures and shaft revolutions. The basic seal durability criterion was the number of revolutions made by the sealing node shaft until the appearance of water tightness loss (leakage. It was found that the main factor leading to the wear of the seal is the relative speed of the magnetic fluid with respect to that of the utility water, and this process is heavily affected by the pressure acting on the seal. The reported test results are presented in the form of diagrams showing the seal durability (time until water tightness loss as a function of rotational speed. The curves shown in the diagrams are regular, with two different rotational speed ranges: the highspeed range, when the tightness loss is relatively fast, and the low-speed range, with a clear tendency to prolong the seal lifetime. These diagrams were given the name of durability curves of the MF seal operating in water. The results of the performed tests suggest formal similarity between the experimental data distribution concerning tightness loss processes occurring in magnetic fluid seals operating in water environment and metal fatigue processes. The article proposes a preliminary simplified durability model to describe the examined phenomenon.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of Helicopter Options to Support Tunisian Counterterrorism Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    results of the current analysis and in Mouton et al., 2015, is the relative cost -effectiveness between the CH-47D and the Mi-17v5. In the previous...helicopters from Sikorsky to fulfill a number of roles in counterterrorism operations. Rising costs and delays in delivery raised the question of...whether other cost -effective options exist to meet Tunisia’s helicopter requirement. Approach Our team conducted a preliminary assessment of

  11. Preliminary evaluation and experimentation of the push-slip method for achieving micrometer and submicrometer step sizes with a miniature piezoactuated three-legged robot operating under high normal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain M.; Saraswat, Anant; Michel, Arthur; Hunter, Ian W.

    2000-10-01

    The NanoWalker is a miniature autonomous wireless robot under development. The robot is designed to accomplish complex tasks at the molecular and atomic scales. One concern is the total mass of the robot. With all the components including the mechanical structure and the complex electronic system necessary to embed the required functionality of throughput for such tasks, the mass of such a robot is estimated to be in the range of 100-200 grams depending on tradeoffs in the final design. With such a mass and limitations on the maximum voltage and current outputs that can be generated in a small form factor to deflect the piezo-ceramic legs with high-precision, a preliminary evaluation and experimentation phase of the motion behavior is essential prior to completing the final desing. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that adequate motions are possible under such high normal forces. This was achieved through a new walking strategy referred to here as the push-slip method. The method uses the high normal forces combined with the resulting coefficient of friction between the termination of each leg and the walking surface to create initial opposite forces to the bending forces of each leg. These opposite forces, bounded by the maximum static force of friction, can be used for pushing or slipping through additional torque if the bending forces are applied reciprocal or in the direction of intended motions respectively. With the right parameters combined with tight and proper synchronizations of the legs, very effective motions can be achieved.

  12. A preliminary experimental investigation into lateral pedestrian-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Knudsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a preliminary experimental study on lateral human-structure dynamic interaction on footbridges using an instrumented platform. The platform has a natural frequency within the range of an average pedestrian and consists of a suspended concrete girder. With a length...... of 17 m and weight of 19.6 ton, the platform provides a realistic comparison to an actual footbridge. Based on experiments with single pedestrians walking across the platform at resonance, the fundamental dynamic load factor is determined using only the recorded acceleration signal. Furthermore, tests...

  13. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  14. Preliminary experimental results on studying possibility of variable mass liner (VML) formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of the present experiment was to study the formation process and initial stage of acceleration of a variable-mass plasma liner (VML). The method is based on magnetic acceleration of a liner with the mass reduced during such acceleration. The experiment was carried out on February 16 at VNIIEF. This report describes the results of measurements obtained in the experiment and preliminary analysis of the results characterizing operation of the test facility main units: helical EMG; 5-module disk EMG 400 mm in diameter (DEMG); ponderomotive unit (PU) with a cylindric condensed liner and a special tooth-cutoff. The first part of the report presents measurement results obtained on the VNIIEF`s diagnostic equipment that are compared with those obtained by American specialists on their diagnostic equipment. Information submitted by American specialists is included in part 2 of this report. The second part of the report presents preliminary computational-theoretic analysis of the main measured results describing operation of DEMG TL system in the experiment; experimental data are compared with theoretical ones obtained before and after the experiment. But more emphasis is placed on the data preliminary analysis indicating that in the experiment a variable mass liner is formed (VML or plasma bubble).

  15. 47 CFR 73.72 - Operating during the experimental period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating during the experimental period. 73.72... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.72 Operating during the experimental period. (a) An AM station may operate during the experimental period (the time between midnight and sunrise,...

  16. 76 FR 63628 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... [Docket ID FEMA-2011-0022] Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327... Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR). DATES: Comments must be... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Please note that this proposed manual is not...

  17. Experimental Operations and Support for LITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This scope of this task was to provide for the setup, measurement and data analysis of current and future efforts related to high-power solid state lasers. Laboratory operations and fiber laser development support are discussed.

  18. Experimental method and preliminary studies of the passive containment water film evaporation mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [State Nuclear Power Technology Research, Beijing (China). Development Center; State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Beijing (China); Yang, Lin; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Shan; Du, Wangfang; Gao, Zhan; Li, Honegsen [State Nuclear Power Technology Research, Beijing (China). Development Center

    2017-05-15

    For larger containments and higher operation parameters, characteristics of the outside cooling of the PCCS are very important for the analysis on the containment integrity. A preliminary analysis was made and a four-step experimental method was used to numerically analyze the falling water film evaporation for the advanced passive containment. Then, the water flow stability along the outside wall of the containment was studied. The results fit well with those correlations without airflow when the air velocity is less than 5.0 m/s. However, when the air velocity is larger than 5.0 m/s, the influence of the air velocity on the water film will appear and the mean water film thickness will be thicker. Based on the prototype operation parameters, experimental studies were carried and the results were compared with the Dittus-Boelter correlation within the operation ranges. A modification factor was proposed for the conservative application of this correlation for nuclear safety analysis.

  19. Operational aspects of experimental accelerator physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    During the normal course of high energy storage ring operations, it is customary for blocks of time to be allotted to something called ``machine studies,`` or more simply, just ``studies.`` It is during these periods of time that observations and measurement of accelerator behavior are actually performed. Almost invariably these studies are performed in support of normal machine operations. The machine physicist is either attempting to improve machine performance, or more often trying to recover previously attained ``good`` operation, for example after an extended machine down period. For the latter activity, a good portion of machine studies time is usually devoted to ``beam tuning`` activities: those standard measurements and adjustments required to recover good operations. Before continuing, please note that this paper is not intended to be comprehensive. It is intended solely to reflect one accelerator physicist`s impressions as to what goes on in an accelerator control room. Many topics are discussed, some in more detail than others, and it is not the intention that the techniques described herein be applied verbatim to any existing accelerator. It is hoped,, however, that by reading through the various sections, scientists, including accelerator physicists, engineers, and accelerator beam users, will come to appreciate the types of operations that are required to make an accelerator work.

  20. Design concept and preliminary experimental demonstration of MEMS gyroscopes with 4-DOF master-slave architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Cenk; Shkel, Andrei M.

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports a design concept for MEMS gyroscopes that shifts the complexity of the design from control architecture to system dynamics, utilizing the passive disturbance rejection capability of the 4-DOF dynamical system. Specifically, a novel wide-bandwidth micromachined gyroscope design approach based on increasing the degrees-of-freedom of the oscillatory system by the use of two independently oscillating interconnected proof masses is presented along with preliminary experimental demonstration of implementation feasibility. With the concept of using a 4-DOF system, inherent disturbance rejection is achieved due to the wide operation frequency range of the dynamic system, providing reduced sensitivity to structural and thermal parameter fluctuations. Thus, less demanding active control strategies are required for operation under presence of perturbations. The fabricated prototype dual-mass gyroscopes successfully demonstrated a dramatically wide driving frequency range within where the drive direction oscillation amplitude varies insignificantly without any active control, in contrast to the conventional gyroscopes where the mass has to be sustained in constant amplitude oscillation in a very narrow frequency band. Mechanical amplification of driven mass oscillation by the sensing element was also experimentally demonstrated, providing large oscillation amplitudes, which is crucial for sensor performance.

  1. Preliminary Experimental Investigation on MHD Power Generation Using Seeded Supersonic Argon Flow as Working Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yiwen; LI Yinghong; LU Haoyu; ZHU Tao; ZHANG Bailing; CHEN Feng; ZHAO Xiaohu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary experimental investigation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation using seeded supersonic argon flow as working fluid.Helium and argon are used as driver and driven gas respectively in a shock tunnel.Equilibrium contact surface operating mode is used to obtain high temperature gas,and the conductivity is obtained by adding seed K2CO3 powder into the driven section.Under the conditions of nozzle inlet total pressure being 0.32 MPa,total temperature 6 504 K,magnetic field density about 0.5 T and nozzle outlet velocity 1 959 m/s,induction voltage and short-circuit current of the segmentation MHD power generation channel are measured,and the experimental results agree with theoretical calculations; the average conductivity is about 20 S/m calculated from characteristics of voltage and current.When load factor is 0.5,the maximum power density of the MHD power generation channel reaches 4.797 1 MW/m3,and the maximum enthalpy extraction rate is 0.34%.Finally,the principle and method of indirect testing for gas state parameters are derived and analyzed.

  2. Experimental Realization of Perfect Discrimination for Two Unitary Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Jun; HONG Zhi

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate perfect discrimination between two unitary operations by using the sequential scheme proposed by Duan et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 100503] Also, we show how to understand the scheme and to calculate the parameters for two-dimensional operations in the picture of the Bloch sphere.

  3. Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Davenport, R.

    1980-04-01

    There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.

  4. Preliminary experimental investigation of boundary layer in decelerating flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Příhoda J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of characteristics of turbulence inside boundary layer under decelerating flow were studied by means of constant temperature anemometer. The decelerating flow was simulated in the closed circuit wind tunnel 0.9 m × 0.5 m at IT AS CR. The free stream turbulence was either natural o risen up by square mesh plane grid. The details of experimental settings and measurement procedures of the instantaneous longitudinal velocity component are described and the distributions of intensity, skewness and kurtosis of turbulent fluctuations are discussed in the contribution.

  5. A preliminary experimental study on virtual sound barrier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haishan; Qiu, Xiaojun; Lu, Jing; Niu, Feng

    2007-10-01

    Virtual sound barrier (VSB) is an array of loudspeakers and microphones forming an acoustic barrier, which creates a quiet zone without blocking air and light. A 16-channel cylindrical VSB system has been developed and its feasibility is verified by both numerical simulations and experiments. Experimental results in a normal room show that it can create a quiet zone larger than the size of a human head in the low-middle frequency, with a total sound pressure level reduction of more than 10 dB in the quiet zone. The control performance of the system with respect to the frequency, the distribution of the error sensors and the control sources are discussed.

  6. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoping, E-mail: zhangxiaoping@nudt.edu.cn; Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  7. Largest Experimental Facility for Acetylene Production in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Scientists from the CAS Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) completed in early November, 2004, a 2-megawatt experimental facility for acetylene production by coal plasma pyrolysis. The successful operation of the largest installation of the kind in the world confirms a new method for the large-scale industrialization of acetylene production.

  8. The freshwater snail lymnaea rubiginosa as an experimental host of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondero, T J; Lim, B L

    1976-03-01

    Preliminary studies have shown that Lymnaea rubiginosa, a common fresh-water snail in Peninsular Malaysia, which is easily colonized and reared in the laboratory, is a capable experimental intermediate host for Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. Overall 73% of the snails tested became infected following 6 hours exposure to infective rat faeces. Higher infection rates, up to 100%, and heavier worm loads, occurred among the larger sized snails. Snail attrition was low except when very heavy worm loads were acquired.

  9. Parallel Guided Local Search and Some Preliminary Experimental Results for Continuous Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Tairan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Parallel Guided Local Search (PGLS framework for continuous optimization. In PGLS, several guided local search (GLS procedures (agents are run for solving the optimization problem. The agents exchan ge information for speeding up the search. For example, the information exchanged could be kno wledge about the landscape obtained by the agents. The proposed algorithm is applied to co ntinuous optimization problems. The preliminary experimental results show that the algo rithm is very promising .

  10. Characterizing the Experimental Procedure in Science Laboratories: A Preliminary Step towards Students Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cedric; Ney, Muriel; Sanchez, Eric; Wajeman, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have stressed students' lack of understanding of experiments in laboratories. Some researchers suggest that if students design all or parts of entire experiment, as part of an inquiry-based approach, it would overcome certain difficulties. It requires that a procedure be written for experimental design. The aim of this paper is to…

  11. Comparing effects of tillage treatments performed with animal traction on soil physical properties and soil electrical resistivity: preliminary experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Tomillo Aitor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil Compaction results from compressive forces applied to compressible soil by machinery wheels, combined with tillage operations. Draft animal‐pulled equipment may also cause soil compaction, but a huge gap exists on experimental data to adequately assess their impacts and, actually, animal traction is an option seen with increasing potential to contribute to sustainable agriculture, especially in mountain areas. This study was conducted to assess the impacts on soil compaction of tillage operations with motor tractor and draft animals. In a farm plot (Vale de Frades, NE Portugal treatments were applied in sub‐plots (30 m × 3 m, consisting in a two way tillage with tractor (T, a pair of cows (C and a pair of donkeys (D. Undisturbed soil samples (120 were taken before and after operations for bulk density (BD and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks. The relative changes in BD observed after tillage in the 0-0.05 m soil depth increased after operations in all treatments. The increase was higher in the tractor sub-plot (15% than in those where animal traction was used (8%. Before operation Ks class was rapid and fast in all samples, and after operation this value was reduced to 33% in T, whereas it reached 83% in C. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT was useful as a tool to identify the alterations caused by tillage operations on soil physical status. These preliminary results confirm the potential of animal traction as an option for mountain agri‐environments, yet it requires much wider research to soundly ground its assets.

  12. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  13. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Bodek, A

    2015-01-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  14. Preliminary Experimental Results for Indirect Vector-Control of Induction Motor Drives with Forced Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents an extension of indirect vector control of electric drives employing induction motors to 'Forced Dynamic Control'. This method of control offers an accurate realisation of dynamic response profiles, which can be selected by the user. The developed system can be integrated into a drive with a shaft position encoder or a shaft sensoriess drive, in which only the stator currents are measured. The applied stator voltages are determined by a computed inverter switching algorithm. Simulation results and preliminary experimental results for indirect vector control of an idle running induction motor indicate good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  15. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  16. Preliminary report on operational guidelines developed for use in emergency preparedness and response to a radiological dispersal device incident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.-J.; Kamboj, S.; Domotor, S.; Wallo, A.; Environmental Science Division; DOE

    2006-12-15

    This report presents preliminary operational guidelines and supporting work products developed through the interagency Operational Guidelines Task Group (OGT). The report consolidates preliminary operational guidelines, all ancillary work products, and a companion software tool that facilitates their implementation into one reference source document. The report is intended for interim use and comment and provides the foundation for fostering future reviews of the operational guidelines and their implementation within emergency preparedness and response initiatives in the event of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) incident. The report principally focuses on the technical derivation and presentation of the operational guidelines. End-user guidance providing more details on how to apply these operational guidelines within planning and response settings is being considered and developed elsewhere. The preliminary operational guidelines are categorized into seven groups on the basis of their intended application within early, intermediate, and long-term recovery phases of emergency response. We anticipate that these operational guidelines will be updated and refined by interested government agencies in response to comments and lessons learned from their review, consideration, and trial application. This review, comment, and trial application process will facilitate the selection of a final set of operational guidelines that may be more or less inclusive of the preliminary operational guidelines presented in this report. These and updated versions of the operational guidelines will be made available through the OGT public Web site (http://ogcms.energy.gov) as they become finalized for public distribution and comment.

  17. Preliminary analysis of Alvito-Odivelas reservoir system operation under climate change scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The present study provides a preliminary analysis of the impact of climate change on a water resources system of Alentejo region in the South of Portugal. Regional climate model HadRM3P forced by the Global Circulation Model HadAM3P A2 of the Hadley Centre, is used to derive temperature and precipitation data, which in turn is used as input to hydrological model (SHETRAN) for simulation of future streamflow. Dynamic programming based models are used for operation of reservoir system in order ...

  18. Effect of Operating Conditions on CSTR performance: an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Danish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Saponification reaction of ethyl acetate by sodium hydroxide is studied experimentally in a continuous stirred tank reactor at 1 atmospheric pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of operating conditions on the conversion and specific rate constant. The parameters considered for analysis are temperature, feed flow rate, residence time, volume of reactor and stirrer rate. The steady state conversion of 0.45 achieved after a period of 30 minutes. Conversion decreases with increase of reactant flow rate due to decrease of residence time. The stirrer rate has a positive effect on the conversion and rate constant. Specific rate constant and conversion increase with temperature within the studied temperature range. Within the range of reactor volume selected for analysis, conversion increases with increase in reactor volume. The results obtained in this study may be helpful in maximizing the conversion of ethyl acetate saponification reaction at industrial scale in a CSTR.

  19. Preliminary Concept of Operations for a Global Cylinder Identification and Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, J. M. [ORNL; White-Horton, J. L. [ORNL; Morgan, J. B. [InSolves Associates

    2013-08-01

    This report describes a preliminary concept of operations for a Global Cylinder Identification and Monitoring System that could improve the efficiency of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in conducting its current inspection activities and could provide a capability to substantially increase its ability to detect credible diversion scenarios and undeclared production pathways involving UF6 cylinders. There exist concerns that a proliferant State with access to enrichment technology could obtain a cylinder containing natural or low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and produce a significant quantity (SQ)1 of highly enriched uranium in as little as 30 days. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative sponsored a multi-laboratory team to develop an integrated system that provides for detecting scenarios involving 1) diverting an entire declared cylinder for enrichment at a clandestine facility, 2) misusing a declared cylinder at a safeguarded facility, and 3) using an undeclared cylinder at a safeguarded facility. An important objective in developing this integrated system was to improve the timeliness for detecting the cylinder diversion and undeclared production scenarios. Developing this preliminary concept required in-depth analyses of current operational and safeguards practices at conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The analyses evaluated the processing, movement, and storage of cylinders at the facilities; the movement of cylinders between facilities (including cylinder fabrication); and the misuse of safeguarded facilities.

  20. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-04-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation in to the development of new models and guidance for concepts of operations (ConOps) in advanced small modular reactor (aSMR) designs. In support of this objective, three important research areas were included: operating principles of multi-modular plants, functional allocation models and strategies that would affect the development of new, non-traditional concept of operations, and the requiremetns for human performance, based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements. As part of the approach for this report, we outline potential functions, including the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a new functional allocation model and the identification of specific regulatory requirements that will influence the development of future concept of operations. The report also highlights changes in research strategy prompted by confirmationof the importance of applying the work domain analysis methodology to a reference aSMR design. It is described how this methodology will enrich the findings from this phase of the project in the subsequent phases and help in identification of metrics and focused studies for the determination of human performance criteria that can be used to support the design process.

  1. China ADS sub-critical experimental assembly-Venus-1 and preliminary experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yongqian; ZHANG Wei; CAO Jian; QUAN Yanhui; LUO Huangda; WU Xiaofei; XIA Pu; LUO Zhanglin; ZHAO Zhixiang; DING Dazhao; LI Yiguo; ZHU Qinfu; XIA Haihong; LI Jien

    2007-01-01

    China's accelerator-driven sub-critical system (ADS) sub-critical experimental assembly--Venus-1 and the preliminary experiment is presented. The core of Venus-1 is a coupled one of a fast neutron zone and a thermal neutron zone. The fast neutron zone is at the centre of the core and formed by natural uranium fuel. A fast neutron spectrum field can be produced in the fast neutron zone and used for the transmutation of minor actinides (Mas). The thermal neutron zone surrounds the fast neutron zone and is formed by low-enriched uranium fuel. It is a fission zone. An epithermal neutron zone between the fast neutron zone and the thermal neutron zone can be established for the transmutation of longlived fission products (LLFP). On July 18, 2005, the first fuel element was loaded into the Venus-Ⅰ sub-critical assembly and some preliminary experiments about the subcritical neutronics were performed. The Venus-1 can be driven by an Am-Be source or other steady neutron source (Cf-252, D-D reaction and D-T reaction) to study the effect of the external neutron source with different energies or a D-T pulsed neutron source on the dynamic characteristics.

  2. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  3. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

    2015-09-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal (σL) and transverse (σT) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= σLT for nuclei (RA) and for deuterium (RD) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, RA < RD.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of an experimental clinical chemistry analyzer developed for space medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A H; Gornet, T G; Schenkel, O; Smith-Cronin, L; Graham, G A; Tonnesen, A S; McKinley, B A

    1993-01-01

    An experimental clinical chemistry analyzer system was designed and built to demonstrate the feasibility of clinical chemistry as part of a medical-care system at NASA's planned space station Freedom. We report the performance of the experimental analyzer, called a medical development unit (MDU), for selected analytes in a laboratory setting in preparation for a preliminary clinical trial at patients' bedsides in an intensive-care unit. Within-run CVs ranged from 0.7% for sodium to 7.1% for phosphorus; day-to-day CVs ranged from 1.0% for chloride to 23.4% for calcium. Correlation of patients' blood sample analyses compared well with those by Ektachem E700 and other high-volume central laboratory analyzers (r ranged from 0.933 for creatine kinase MB isoenzyme to 0.997 for potassium), except for hemoglobin (r = 0.901) and calcium (r = 0.823). Although several CVs obtained in this study exceeded theoretical desired precision limits based on biological variations, performance was adequate for clinical laboratory diagnosis. We examined the effect of potentially interfering concentrations of hemoglobin, bilirubin, and lipids: the only effect was negative interference with calcium analyses by high concentrations of bilirubin. We also examined the effects of preanalytical variables and the performance of experimental sample-transfer cups designed to retain sample and reference liquid in microgravity. Continued development of the MDU system is recommended, especially automation of sample processing.

  5. [Low field intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging for brain tumour surgery: preliminary experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Pedro; García, Sergio; González, Josep; Reyes, Luis Alberto; Torales, Jorge; Valero, Ricard; Oleaga, Laura; Enseñat, Joaquim

    Intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is a recently introduced tool in the most advanced neurosurgical operating rooms worldwide. We present our preliminary experience in brain tumour surgery with low field PoleStar N30® intraoperative MRI since its introduction in 2013 in the Barcelona Clinic Hospital. A prospective non-randomised study was conducted on cases operated on using iMRI and intention of complete removal up to October 2015. A record was made of the data as regards surgical times, resection rates, histological diagnosis, hospital stay, and survival rates during follow-up. The study included 50 patients, with a mean age of 55 years (±13.7), a preoperative mean Karnofsky of 92 (being 81 post-operatively), and a mean follow-up of 10.5 months (±6.5). There were 26% re-operations due to recurrence. High-grade gliomas were reported in 56%, low-grade gliomas in 24%, and 20% "Other" tumours. Overall hospital stay was 10 days (±4.5). Depending on the histologiacl diagnosis, the "Others" group had a longer hospital stay. Overall, there were 52% complete removal, 18% of maximum removals, and 30% of partial removals. The overall survival rates during follow-up was 84%. iMRI is a safe and effective tool for brain tumour surgery. Its use allows an increase in resection rates, and minimises post-operative complications. Its implementation involves an increase in surgical time, which improves with the characteristic learning curve. More studies are needed to establish its role in the long-term survival of patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary risks associated with postulated tritium release from production reactor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Horton, W.H.

    1988-09-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor operation is evaluating the offsite risk due to tritium releases during postulated full or partial loss of heavy water moderator accidents. Preliminary determination of the frequency of average partial moderator loss (including incidents with leaks as small as 0.5 kg) yields an estimate of --1 per reactor-year. The full moderator loss frequency is conservatively chosen as 5x10/sup -3/ per reactor-year. Conditional consequences, determined with a version of the MACCS code modified to handle tritium, are found to be insignificant. The 95th percentile individual cancer risk is 2x10/sup -8/ per reactor-year within 16 km of the release point. The full moderator loss accident contributes about 80% of the evaluated risks.

  7. Preliminary Survey of Icing Conditions Measured During Routine Transcontinental Airline Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Porter J.

    1952-01-01

    Icing data collected on routine operations by four DC-4-type aircraft equipped with NACA pressure-type icing-rate meters are presented as preliminary information obtained from a statistical icing data program sponsored by the NACA with the cooperation of many airline companies and the United States Air Force. The program is continuing on a much greater scale to provide large quantities of data from many air routes in the United States and overseas. Areas not covered by established air routes are also being included in the survey. The four aircraft which collected the data presented in this report were operated by United Air Lines over a transcontinental route from January through May, 1951. An analysis of the pressure-type icing-rate meter was satisfactory for collecting statistical data during routine operations. Data obtained on routine flight icing encounters from.these four instrumented aircraft, although insufficient for a conclusive statistical analysis, provide a greater quantity and considerably more realistic information than that obtained from random research flights. A summary of statistical data will be published when the information obtained daring the 1951-52 icing season and that to be obtained during the 1952-53 season can be analyzed and assembled. The 1951-52 data already analyzed indicate that the quantity, quality, and range of icing information being provided by this expanded program should afford a sound basis for ice-protection-system design by defining the important meteorological parameters of the icing cloud.

  8. Review article: review of behavioral operations experimental studies of newsvendor problems for operating room management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

    2010-06-01

    Operating room (OR) managers must plan staffing in the face of uncertain demand for OR time. Planning too much staffing results in underutilized OR time. Planning too little staffing causes overutilized time, which is approximately twice as expensive as underutilized time. Deciding how much staffing to plan for an OR is analogous to the classic newsvendor problem in operations research. A newsvendor must decide how much product to order based on its cost c and sales price p, plus estimates of the uncertain future demand for the product. The newsvendor problem has a simple mathematical solution. The correct amount of product to order is the (p - c)/p quantile of the demand for the product. This optimal order quantity is analogous mathematically to the number of hours of OR time for which staffing should be planned. We performed a systematic review of the behavioral operations experimental literature on newsvendor problems relevant to OR management. Student volunteers participating in experimental studies have great difficulty knowing how much product to order, given c, p, and the demand distribution. Decision making is only modestly improved by more frequent feedback. Even scores of rounds of ordering are insufficient for much learning to occur. Suboptimal decisions result from innate psychological biases. Students anchor on mean demand, make insufficient adjustments, and rely disproportionately on the most recent demand values. The behavior of OR managers who plan staffing for the OR is analogous to that of students participating in a newsvendor experiment. Month after month, an OR manager will plan too little staffing for the surgeon who consistently ends the day late and too much staffing for the surgeon who consistently does not fill an OR. Experimental studies of the newsvendor problem provide mechanistic insights into the reasons that OR managers make poor decisions when planning OR staffing. The students face no organizational factors or personality issues

  9. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

  10. Numerical and experimental study of local heat transfer enhancement in helically coiled pipes. Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzoli, F.; Cattani, L.; Rainieri, S.; Zachár, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the last years, the attention of heat transfer equipments manufacturers turned toward helically coiled-tube heat exchangers, especially with regards to applications for viscous and/or particulate products. The recent progress achieved in numerical simulation motivated many research groups to develop numerical models for this kind of apparatuses. These models, intended both to improve the knowledge of the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms in curved geometries and to support the industrial design of this kind of apparatuses, are usually validated throughout the comparison with either theoretical or experimental evidences by considering average heat transfer performances. However, this approach doesn't guarantee that the validated models are able to reproduce local effects in details, which are so important in this kind of non-standard geometries. In the present paper a numerical model of convective heat transfer in coiled tubes for laminar flow regime was formulated and discussed. Its goodness was checked throughout the comparison with the latest experimental outcomes of Bozzoli et al. [1] in terms of convective heat flux distribution along the boundary of the duct, by ensuring the effectiveness of the model also in the description of local behaviours. Although the present paper reports only preliminary results of this simulation/validation process, it could be of interest for the research community because it proposes a novel approach that could be useful to validate many numerical models for nonstandard geometries.

  11. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  12. Automated operator procedure prompting for startup of Experimental Breeder Reactor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renshaw, A.W.; Ball, S.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the development of an operator procedure prompting aid for startup of a nuclear reactor. This operator aid is a preliminary design for a similar aid that eventually will be used with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) presently in the design stage. Two approaches were used to develop this operator procedure prompting aid. One method uses an expert system software shell, and the other method uses database software. The preliminary requirements strongly pointed toward features traditionally associated with both database and expert systems software. Database software usually provides data manipulation flexibility and user interface tools, and expert systems tools offer sophisticated data representation and reasoning capabilities. Both methods, including software and associated hardware, are described in this report. Proposals for future enhancements to improve the expert system approach to procedure prompting and for developing other operator aids are also offered. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-09-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving "e-confederates" who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the "chat room" were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors.

  14. Preliminary experimental results using the thermal-hydraulic integral test facility (VISTA) for the pilot plant of the system integrated modular advanced reactor, SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; Pak, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok; Pak, Choon Kyung; Lee, Sung Jae; Song, Chul Hwa; Chung, Moon Ki [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Preliminary experimental tests were carried out using the thermal-hydraulic integral test facility, VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents), which has been constructed to simulate the SMART-P. The VISTA facility is an integral test facility including the primary and secondary systems as well as safety-related Passive Residual heat removal (PRHR) systems. Its scaled ratio with respect to the SMART-P is 1/1 in height and 1/96 in volume and heater power. So far, several steady states and transient tests have been carried out to verify the overall thermal hydraulic primary and secondary characteristics in a range of 10% to 100% power operation. As results of preliminary results, the steady state conditions were found to coincide with the expected design values of the SMART-P. But the major thermal hydraulic parameters are greatly affected by the initial water level and the nitrogen pressure in the reactor upper annular cavity. In the PRHR transient tests, the steam inlet temperature of the PRHR system is found to drop suddenly from a superheated condition to a saturated condition at the end period of PRHR operation.

  15. An experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.

    2012-05-01

    Results obtained from an experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode are presented. The obtained empirical dependence for calculating the power of heat exchangers operating in the steam condensation mode is presented.

  16. Experimental Operation of SSC RF Cavities at Higher Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For many years,SSC RF cavities were operated at about half of its designing voltages,which are from 100 kV at 6.5 MHz to 250 kV at 14.5 MHz respectively.But,with the construction of new project HIRFL-CSR,high intensity beams are required to be extracted from SSC.Therefore,in order to achieve this aim,SSC Dee voltages must be enhanced to higher operation level.

  17. Preliminary risks associated with postulated tritium release from production reactor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Horton, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor operation is assessing the off-site risk due to tritium releases during postulated full or partial loss of heavy water moderator accidents. Other sources of tritium in the reactor are less likely to contribute to off-site risk in non-fuel melting accident scenarios. Preliminary determination of the frequency of average partial moderator loss (including incidents with leaks as small as .5 kg) yields an estimate of /approximately/1 per reactor year. The full moderator loss frequency is conservatively chosen as 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/3/ per reactor year. Conditional consequences, determined with a version of the MACCS code modified to handle tritium, are found to be insignificant. The 95th percentile individual cancer risk is 4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/ per reactor year within 16 km of the release point. The full moderator loss accident contributes about 75% of the evaluated risks. 13 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Preliminary design of a space system operating a ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Marco; Ponte, Salvatore; Grassi, Michele; Moccia, Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radars (GPR) are currently used only in ground campaigns or in few airborne installations. A feasibility analysis of a space mission operating a GPR for archaeological applications is presented in this work with emphasis on spacecraft critical aspects: antenna dimension and power required for achieving adequate depth and accuracy. Sensor parametric design is performed considering two operating altitudes (250 and 500 km) and user requirements, such as minimum skin depth, vertical and horizontal resolution. A 500-km altitude, 6 a.m.-6 p.m. sun-synchronous orbit is an adequate compromise between atmospheric drag and payload transmitted average power (12 kW) to achieve a 3-m penetration depth. The satellite bus preliminary design is then performed, with focus on critical subsystems and technologies. The payload average power requirement can be kept within feasible limits (1 kW) by using NiH2 batteries to supply the radar transmitter, and with a strong reduction of the mission duty cycle ( 40km×1100km are observed per orbit). As for the electric power subsystem, a dual-voltage strategy is adopted, with the battery charge regulator supplied at 126 V and the bus loads at 50 V. The overall average power (1.9 kW), accounting for both payload and bus needs, can be supplied by a 20m2 GaAs solar panel for a three-year lifetime. Finally, the satellite mass is kept within reasonable limits (1.6 tons) using inflatable-rigidisable structure for both the payload antenna and the solar panels.

  19. Construction of PREMUX and preliminary experimental results, as preparation for the HCPB breeder unit mock-up testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, F., E-mail: francisco.hernandez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Kolb, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT) (Germany); Annabattula, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Department of Mechanical Engineering (India); Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • PREMUX has been constructed as preparation for a future out-of-pile thermo-mechanical qualification of a HCPB breeder unit mock-up. • The rationale and constructive details of PREMUX are reported in this paper. • PREMUX serves as a test rig for the new heater system developed for the HCPB-BU mock-up. • PREMUX will be used as benchmark for the thermal and thermo-mechanical models developed in ANSYS for the pebble beds of the HCPB-BU. • Preliminary results show the functionality of PREMUX and the good agreement of the measured temperatures with the thermal model developed in ANSYS. - Abstract: One of the European blanket designs for ITER is the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket. The core of the HCPB-TBM consists of so-called breeder units (BUs), which encloses beryllium as neutron multiplier and lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) as tritium breeder in form of pebble beds. After the design phase of the HCPB-BU, a non-nuclear thermal and thermo-mechanical qualification program for this device is running at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Before the complex full scale BU testing, a pre-test mock-up experiment (PREMUX) has been constructed, which consists of a slice of the BU containing the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed. PREMUX is going to be operated under highly ITER-relevant conditions and has the following goals: (1) as a testing rig of new heater concept based on a matrix of wire heaters, (2) as benchmark for the existing finite element method (FEM) codes used for the thermo-mechanical assessment of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed, and (3) in situ measurement of thermal conductivity of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed during the tests. This paper describes the construction of PREMUX, its rationale and the experimental campaign planned with the device. Preliminary results testing the algorithm used for the temperature reconstruction of the pebble bed are reported and compared qualitatively with first analyses

  20. Hazards by shock waves during explosive eruptions: preliminary results of experimental investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, Teresa; Alatorre Ibarguengoïtia, Miguel; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    A recent study (Scolamacchia and Shouwenaars, 2009) investigated the nature of microscopic craters on the steel surface of a basketball pole left standing in one of the villages destroyed by the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano. The craters were attributed to the impacts of ash particles (70-280 μm) accelerated by shock waves due to an efficient momentum coupling with a gas phase, such that a sudden expansion of the gas, caused by shock wave propagation, drag the particles up to speeds of 710 to 980 m/s. Several open questions existed on this kind of phenomena. Preliminary tests were performed to investigate the correlation between particle size and the high velocities calculated, based on inner deformation of the steel and crater geometry. We used a shock tube apparatus consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave, pressurized with Ar gas, and a low pressure (LP) tank at atmospheric conditions. We used ash and lapilli bulk samples from El Chichón trachyandesites, and lapilli with random irregular shapes obtained by crushing and abrading dacitic blocks from pyroclastic flow deposits of Unzen volcano. The samples were placed inside an autoclave at ambient T and P, located between the HP autoclave and the LP tank. Steel plates (same type of the original impacted material), were fixed to the LP tank walls, 10 cm above the autoclave that contained the samples. Shock waves were generated by the sudden decompression of the Ar gas due to the systematical failure of a diaphragm (which separate the LP from the HP section). Air expansion accelerated the particles from below toward the steel plate. The speed of the particles was measured using a system of 4 copper wires conducting an electric signal. The signals dropped when the particles reached the wires. We used low pressure ranges (3.1 to 9.8 MPa) for all experimental runs, obtaining a range of particles velocities between 40 and 257 m/s. These velocities can be attained by pyroclastic density currents. Higher

  1. A full optically operated magnetometer array: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselsteijn, R; Kielpinski, M; Woetzel, S; Scholtes, T; Kessler, E; Stolz, R; Schultze, V; Meyer, H-G

    2012-11-01

    We show the operation of an optically pumped magnetometer array in a 50 μT magnetic field. The various components for a fully optical and non-magnetic detector unit were constructed and evaluated, from which a prototype unit was assembled with fiber coupled electronics. In this unit the magnetometers were operated using the intensity modulated method and heated with an off-resonant laser. Calculations on the temperature distribution were used to design the magnetometer array. Different magnetometers in such a detector unit were characterized and showed identical performance. Without applying noise reduction schemes, the obtained magnetic field resolution is a factor 2.5 above the shot noise level down to frequencies of about 7 Hz.

  2. Preliminary study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 1. [Development and testing of experimental protocols and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    The major objective of this preliminary study is to develop and thoroughly test the experimental protocols and apparatus, which are planned for a major study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. The behavior of baboons will be observed before, during, and after exposure to 60 Hz electric fields at a maximum intensity of 60 kV/m. Both individual performance (operant conditioning) and social behavior will be examined. The preliminary study will differ from the planned major study as follows: subjects will be used as their own controls; a smaller number of subjects will be run; field intensity will not be varied; the electric field should be non-uniform; the preliminary study exposure facility will be basically an outdoor facility; to avoid deterioration of plastic materials, the high intensity fields will not be turned on during or just after rainfall; and in the preliminary study the biological work will be restricted to the clinical determination of the health of subjects before and after exposure. The present report is the first of three quarterly technical progress reports. It covers approximately the first two and one-half months of activity and, therefore, consists primarily of plans. The report addresses four major areas: the high intensity field exposure facility; the field measurement instrumentation; the operation conditioning equipment; and experimental methods including experimental design and data analysis.

  3. Experimental Results from Initial Operation of Plasma Injector 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    General Fusion has begun operation of its first full-scale plasma injector, designed to accelerate high density spheromak plasmas into the compression chamber of a proposed MTF reactor. The geometry of Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is that of a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with a conical converging accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, while pulsed power is applied in the same configuration as the RACE device. PI-1 is 5 meters in length and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration/compression stage is 4 m long and tapers to a final outer diameter of 40 cm. PI-1 is now operating at 1 MJ of total capacitor power, which will be doubled again before it reaches its design parameters. Diagnostics include 3 interferometer chords, 21 magnetic probes (2 axis poloidal/toroidal), 13 fast photodiode chords, as well as one Thomson scattering chord, a visible light survey spectrometer, and a Langmuir triple probe. Electrode voltage and current are also monitored. So far spheromaks of poloidal flux exceeding 100 mWb have been formed in the expansion region, and spheromaks of 40-50 mWb have been formed and accelerated out the end of the accelerator into a flux conserving target chamber. Expansion region densities are typically ˜5 x10^14cm-3, while conditions in the target chamber have reached ne˜10^16cm-3, and lifetimes of 300 μs.

  4. A new extra-abdominal channel alternative to the mitrofanoff principle: experimental and preliminary clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Macedo Jr.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The appendix is the gold-standard channel for the Mitrofanoff principle in pediatric urology, but the search for alternatives is justified considering it may not be available or preferably used for colonic stomas (Malone antegrade continence enema. The aim of this study is to report on technical feasibility of a new approach for creating catheterizable channels in a rabbit model and to present our preliminary clinical experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We configured a tube from two rectangular skin flaps 1x4 cm opposite each other in the middle line of the lower inferior abdomen. The channel was anastomosed to the bladder dome with embedding sutures to create a valvular mechanism. The experimental study consisted of 12 rabbits, divided in 4 groups according to the sacrifice schedule at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. At 30th postoperative day, an urodynamic evaluation was performed to record continence of the stoma. A histological analysis of the specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome and Picrosirius red was also done in group 2 (sacrifice at 4 weeks postoperatively. We used this method in 3 patients with congenital non-neurogenic bladder disease presenting with massive residual volumes without compliance deficits. RESULT: The technique proved feasible in all animals, 9 of 12 could be easily catheterized and underwent urodynamic study. No stoma leakage was observed in 7 animals at high bladder pressures (> 50 cm H20 and only 2 animals had some leakage at 40 cm H20. Urodynamics performed through the stoma showed urethral leakage at 20 cm H20, therefore demonstrating the efficacy of the valvular mechanism. Histological analysis confirmed good integration between the tube and the bladder. Mean follow-up of the clinical series (3 patients was 7.2 months. Two patients remained continent up to 4 hours, whereas 1 patient had some leakage after 2 hours. CONCLUSION: We were able to confirm feasibility of a new extra

  5. Ossiculoplasty in Missing Malleus and Stapes Patients : Experimental and Preliminary Clinical Results With a New Malleus Replacement Prosthesis With the Otology-Neurotology Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, Robert; Bittermann, Arnold J. N.; Wenzel, Gentiana; Oates, John; Sperling, Neil; Lenarz, Thomas; Grolman, Wilko

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present the preliminary results of new malleus replacement prosthesis combined with a total ossicular prosthesis in middle ear reconstruction in patients missing the malleus and stapes. Study Design: Prospective experimental and nonrandomized clinical study. Setting: Tertiary referral

  6. Pb-16Li/water interaction: Experimental results and preliminary modelling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampichetti, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.ciampichetti@enea.it [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugno (Italy); Ricapito, Italo [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Forgione, Nicola; Pesetti, Alessio [Università di Pisa, DIMNP, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 2, 56122 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between pressurised water and liquid Pb16Li. • The free volume is more impacting than the water enthalpy in determining the pressure evolution of the system. • If a large quantity of water is injected in Pb16Li the temperature increase is very high. • The pressure trends computed by the SIMMER code show a quite good agreement with the experimental data. • From the results some recommendations about the WCLL blanket design can be derived. -- Abstract: The Water Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket is based on the eutectic liquid alloy Pb16Li as breeder material and neutron multiplier, and pressurised water as coolant. The liquid breeder flows at few mm/s in the blanket module while the pressurised water is circulated inside double-wall tubes. In spite of the adoption of double-wall tubes for the coolant, the probability of a water large leak because of a tube rupture accident cannot be considered negligible. As a consequence, the Pb16Li/water interaction due to a large break in one or more cooling tubes still remains one of the biggest concerns for this blanket concept. This paper reports the results of three experimental tests on Pb16Li/water interaction carried out at ENEA-Brasimone operating the LIFUS 5 facility. Water was injected into the reaction tank, containing Pb16Li at 330 °C, at a pressure of 155 bar with different values of sub-cooling and with different free volumes in the reaction system. In addition, post test analyses with SIMMER III code are presented in order to compare the pressure evolution measured during the experiments with that calculated by the code.

  7. Analysis of the operation of a diffraction-radiation generator with preliminary HF modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, A. G.

    1991-05-01

    The excitation conditions and output characteristics of a diffraction-radiation generator with preliminary HF modulation are determined. Attention is given to the effects of the modulation parameter, the phase shift, and the aiming distance on the displacement of the generation zone, variations of the minimum starting current, the frequency shift, the oscillation amplitude, and the efficiency of the generator. It is shown that the efficiency of a generator with preliminary HF modulation can be twice as high as that of a generator without modulation.

  8. 27 CFR 19.71 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. (a) General. The... scientific research to produce, receive, blend, treat, test, and store spirits, without payment of tax, for... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental or...

  9. Topics on Test Methods for Space Systems and Operations Safety: Applicability of Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews topics on test methods for space systems and operations safety through experimentation and analysis. The contents include: 1) Perception of reality through experimentation and analysis; 2) Measurements, methods, and correlations with real life; and 3) Correlating laboratory aerospace materials flammability data with data in spacecraft environments.

  10. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 9; Preliminary Development Plan for an Integrated Booster Propulsion Module (BPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBlasi, Angelo G.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary development plan for an integrated propulsion module (IPM) is described. The IPM, similar to the Space Transportation Main engine (STME) engine, is applicable to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) baseline vehicle. The same STME development program ground rules and time schedule were assumed for the IPM. However, the unique advantages of testing an integrated engine element, in terms of reduced number of hardware and number of system and reliability tests, compared to single standalone engine and MPTA, are highlighted. The potential ability of the IPM to meet the ALS program goals for robustness, operability and reliability is emphasized.

  11. SINGLE-SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT ANALYSIS OF RECORD-PRELIMINARY MODELING PLAN FOR THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; BAPANAALLI SK; DEIBLER JE; GUZMAN-LEONG CE; JOHNSON KI; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; SANBORN SE

    2010-10-22

    This document is a Phase I deliverable for the Single-Shell Tank Analysis of Record effort. This document is not the Analysis of Record. The intent of this document is to guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort. Preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. The preliminary analysis document reviews and preliminary modeling analysis results are reported herein. In addition, this report provides recommendations for the next phase of the SST AOR project, SST detailed modeling. Efforts and results discussed in this report do not include seismic modeling as seismic modeling is covered by a separate report. The combined results of both static and seismic models are required to complete this effort. The SST AOR project supports the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) mission for obtaining a better understanding of the structural integrity of Hanford's SSTs. The 149 SSTs, with six different geometries, have experienced a range of operating histories which would require a large number of unique analyses to fully characterize their individual structural integrity. Preliminary modeling evaluations were conducted to determine the number of analyses required for adequate bounding of each of the SST tank types in the Detailed Modeling Phase of the SST AOR Project. The preliminary modeling was conducted in conjunction with the Evaluation Criteria report, Johnson et al. (2010). Reviews of existing documents were conducted at the initial stage of preliminary modeling. These reviews guided the topics

  12. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require Fluorine based (F-based) gases for optimal performance. Recent European regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade, several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector with these new ecological gas mixtures, in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard CMS electronic setup are under test. In this paper preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze, with CO2 and CF3I based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  13. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Cauwenbergh, Simon Marc D; Ferrini, Mauro; Muhammad, Saleh; Passamontic, L; Pierluigi, Daniele; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Russo, Alessandro; Savianoc, G; Tytgat, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard cms electronic setup are under test. In this talk preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze and with CO2 based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  14. Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-12

    This report presents the effort to extend the single-phase analytical Terry turbine model to cover two-phase off-design conditions. The work includes: (1) adding well-established two-phase choking models – the Isentropic Homogenous Equilibrium Model (IHEM) and Moody’s model, and (2) theoretical development and implementation of a two-phase nozzle expansion model. The two choking models provide bounding cases for the two-phase choking mass flow rate. The new two-phase Terry turbine model uses the choking models to calculate the mass flow rate, the critical pressure at the nozzle throat, and steam quality. In the divergent stage, we only consider the vapor phase with a similar model for the single-phase case by assuming that the liquid phase would slip along the wall with a much slower speed and will not contribute the impulse on the rotor. We also modify the stagnation conditions according to two-phase choking conditions at the throat and the cross-section areas for steam flow at the nozzle throat and at the nozzle exit. The new two-phase Terry turbine model was benchmarked with the same steam nozzle test as for the single-phase model. Better agreement with the experimental data is observed than from the single-phase model. We also repeated the Terry turbine nozzle benchmark work against the Sandia CFD simulation results with the two-phase model for the pure steam inlet nozzle case. The RCIC start-up tests were simulated and compared with the single-phase model. Similar results are obtained. Finally, we designed a new RCIC system test case to simulate the self-regulated Terry turbine behavior observed in Fukushima accidents. In this test, a period inlet condition for the steam quality varying from 1 to 0 is applied. For the high quality inlet period, the RCIC system behaves just like the normal operation condition with a high pump injection flow rate and a nominal steam release rate through the turbine, with the net addition of water to the primary system; for

  15. Preliminary Hybrid Modeling of the Panama Canal: Operations and Salinity Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the initial modeling of water salinity and its diffusion into the lakes during lock operation on the Panama Canal. A hybrid operational model was implemented using the AnyLogic software simulation environment. This was accomplished by generating an operational discrete-event simulation model and a continuous simulation model based on differential equations, which modeled the salinity diffusion in the lakes. This paper presents that unique application and includes the effective integration of lock operations and its impact on the environment.

  16. The results of early operation in talipes quino-varus. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, B J; Crider, R J; Polk, M; Lloyd-Roberts, G C; Swann, M; Kamdar, B A

    1977-08-01

    The results of operation performed within the first six months of life upon seventy-seven resistant club feet are presented. The indications for and the rationale of early operation are discussed. Particular attention has been paid to the relationship between the age at operation and the outcome more than four years later; the results were greatly superior when operation was undertaken early. Two surgical techniques are compared, the postero-medial release proving better than a simple posterior release. The relationship between clinical and radiological assessment is discussed, and also the influence of the results reported upon future practice.

  17. Analytical and Experimental Modal Analysis for Operational Validation and Calibration of a Miniature Silicon Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P. Q.; Tang, X. L.; Shan, B. X.; Brandon, J. A.; Kwan, A. S. K.

    1998-07-01

    The development of micromechanical sensors poses new challenges in design, calibration and operation. The paper reports a study where analytical and experimental techniques are applied to a prototype sensor. Analytically, a substructuring method is used together with a proprietary finite element package. Experimentally, novel excitation and response transducers are used to provide input data for specialised time domain identification algorithms. The resulting comparisons provide confidence in the combination of techniques used in the study.

  18. Experimental realization of programmable quantum gate array for directly probing commutation relations of Pauli operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xing-Can; Fiurásek, Jaromír; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-09-17

    We experimentally demonstrate an advanced linear-optical programmable quantum processor that combines two elementary single-qubit programmable quantum gates. We show that this scheme enables direct experimental probing of quantum commutation relations for Pauli operators acting on polarization states of single photons. Depending on a state of two-qubit program register, we can probe either commutation or anticommutation relations. Very good agreement between theory and experiment is observed, indicating high-quality performance of the implemented quantum processor.

  19. A hybrid passive localization method under strong interference with a preliminary experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Yang, Yixin; Yang, Kunde; Wang, Yong; Shi, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Strong interference exists in many passive localization problems and may lead to the inefficacy of traditional localization methods. In this study, a hybrid passive localization method is proposed to address strong interference. This method combines generalized cross-correlation and interference cancellation for time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurement, followed by a time-delay-based iterative localization method. The proposed method is applied to a preliminary experiment using three hydrophones. The TDOAs estimated by the proposed method are compared with those obtained by the particle filtering method. Results show that the positions are in agreement when the TDOAs are accurately obtained. Furthermore, the proposed method is more capable of localization in the presence of a strong moving jamming source.

  20. Preliminary checklist of fungi of the Fernow Experimental Forest. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, S.L.; Kumar, A.; Bhatt, R.; Dubey, T.; Landolt, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The report provides a checklist of fungi found on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia during 4 years of research and collecting by the authors. More than 500 fungi in seven major taxonomic groups (Acrasiomycetes, Myxomycetes, Chytridiomycetes, Oomycetes, Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, and Basidiomycetes) are listed alphabetically by genus and species. Also provided is a general description of the forest vegetation of the Fernow Experimental Forest.

  1. Operation of Oil Burning Equipment and Incinerators. An Air Pollution Control Workbook, Preliminary Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Trenton. Bureau of Air Pollution Control.

    This workbook has been prepared for use by persons charged with the burning of fuels and waste products in the State of New Jersey. It is written for building superintendents, custodians, porters, handymen and operating engineers of public, apartment, commercial and office buildings. The manual emphasizes operating procedures that will help meet…

  2. 77 FR 43606 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Operations Manual (9327.2-PR) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR). The Federal Emergency Management Agency..., 2011. DATES: This manual is effective July 18, 2012. ADDRESSES: This final manual is available...

  3. Attitudes toward predeployment and experimental vaccinations among troops deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Mark S; Patel, Shimul S; Sanders, John W; Armstrong, Adam W; Putnam, Shannon D; Schlett, Carey D; Tribble, David R

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Defense is actively engaged in the research and development of vaccine(s) to mitigate the burden of disease associated with diarrhea among deployed troops. Soldiers' attitudes and beliefs toward predeployment vaccines and participation in experimental research with vaccines are unknown. To assess these attitudes, a survey was distributed among soldiers who had been and were currently deployed to Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. Sixty-one percent of soldiers believe that predeployment vaccines are important, and 21% are hesitant to receive these vaccinations. Fifteen percent of soldiers stated that they would be willing to enroll in a study evaluating experimental vaccines, and 14% stated that they would participate in military research for vaccine development. Both male and female soldiers agreed that predeployment vaccines were important (86 and 92%, respectively); however, compared to their male counterparts, females were more hesitant to receive routine vaccinations (45% vs 37%) and less likely to volunteer for an experimental vaccine study (12% vs 20%). Officers and Air Force personnel were less hesitant to receive routine vaccinations compared to enlisted and other service personnel, respectively. Furthermore, if a soldier experienced three or more episodes of diarrhea, he or she was more likely to try an experimental vaccine to prevent diarrhea (23% vs 13%, p belief that immunizations are important and the hesitancy to receive them. Future studies should be directed to understand this gap and emphasize the critical importance of vaccines for health of US personnel in garrison and on deployment.

  4. An Automated, Experimenter-Free Method for the Standardised, Operant Cognitive Testing of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Munawar, Humaira; Fuchs, Anna; Winter, York

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of human pathology are essential for biomedical research. However, a recurring issue in the use of animal models is the poor reproducibility of behavioural and physiological findings within and between laboratories. The most critical factor influencing this issue remains the experimenter themselves. One solution is the use of procedures devoid of human intervention. We present a novel approach to experimenter-free testing cognitive abilities in rats, by combining undisturbed group housing with automated, standardized and individual operant testing. This experimenter-free system consisted of an automated-operant system (Bussey-Saksida rat touch screen) connected to a home cage containing group living rats via an automated animal sorter (PhenoSys). The automated animal sorter, which is based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology, functioned as a mechanical replacement of the experimenter. Rats learnt to regularly and individually enter the operant chamber and remained there for the duration of the experimental session only. Self-motivated rats acquired the complex touch screen task of trial-unique non-matching to location (TUNL) in half the time reported for animals that were manually placed into the operant chamber. Rat performance was similar between the two groups within our laboratory, and comparable to previously published results obtained elsewhere. This reproducibility, both within and between laboratories, confirms the validity of this approach. In addition, automation reduced daily experimental time by 80%, eliminated animal handling, and reduced equipment cost. This automated, experimenter-free setup is a promising tool of great potential for testing a large variety of functions with full automation in future studies. PMID:28060883

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EFFECTS OF OPERATING CONDITIONS ON THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER HYDRAULIC THROTTLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yinshui; Nie Songlin; Zhu Yuquan; He Xiaofeng; Li Zhuangyun

    2004-01-01

    Experimental investigations are made on the effects of operating conditions on the flow characteristics of throttle when tap water is used as the working media. The researched throttles include cone poppet valve, ball valve, disc valve and dumping orifice. Operating condition includes poppet lift, working media, back pressure, medium temperature, etc. Because the vapourous pressure of water is much higher than that of oil, cavitation is easier to occur in water hydraulic elements and systems, so the effects of operating conditions on the cavitation characteristics of throttle are also researched.

  6. Operational readiness review for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    An Operational Readiness Review (ORR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) was conducted by EG&G Idaho, Inc., to verify the readiness of WERF to resume operations following a shutdown and modification period of more than two years. It is the conclusion of the ORR Team that, pending satisfactory resolution of all pre-startup findings, WERF has achieved readiness to resume unrestricted operations within the approved safety basis. ORR appraisal forms are included in this report.

  7. Preliminary experimental investigation of an X-band Cerenkov-type high power microwave oscillator without guiding magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liming; Shu, Ting; Li, Zhiqiang; Ju, Jinchuan; Fang, Xiaoting

    2017-02-01

    Among high power microwave (HPM) generators without guiding magnetic field, Cerenkov-type oscillator is expected to achieve a relatively high efficiency, which has already been realized in X-band in our previous simulation work. This paper presents the preliminary experimental investigations into an X-band Cerenkov-type HPM oscillator without guiding magnetic field. Based on the previous simulation structure, some modifications regarding diode structure were made. Different cathode structures and materials were tested in the experiments. By using a ring-shaped graphite cathode, microwave of about one hundred megawatt level was generated with a pure center frequency of 9.14 GHz, and an efficiency of about 1.3%. As analyzed in the paper, some practical issues reduce the efficiency in experiments, such as real features of the electron beam, probable breakdown regions on the cathode surface which can damage the diode, and so forth.

  8. Experimental study on dielectric barrier discharge actuators operating in pulse mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsonis, M.; Veldhuis, L.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation is performed on the operation of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators used as manipulators of secondary and unsteady flow structures such as boundary layer instabilities or shedding vortices. The actuators are tested mainly in pulse mode. High sample rate hot-w

  9. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or hire. (b) No person may operate an aircraft that has an experimental certificate outside of an...— (1) Tow a glider that is a light-sport aircraft or unpowered ultralight vehicle in accordance with... glider that is a light-sport aircraft or unpowered ultralight vehicle for compensation or hire or...

  10. Evaluating an experimental dentifrice containing chloramine-T: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapelli, Camila; Landi, Flávio; Ribas, José Paulo; Panzeri, Heitor; Lara, Elza Helena

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an experimental dentifrice (CH) containing an antimicrobial agent (1% chloramine-T). A clinical, fully randomised, double-blind comparative study was designed for 30 selected patients aged 15 to 50 years, with no periodontal disease, decay or other oral diseases, good general health and the presence of dental plaque and sulcus bleeding. Baseline Turesky modified plaque index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were scored for all patients. Volunteers randomly received the experimental dentifrice (CH) or a commercial-brand dentifrice containing triclosan (TR). Both dentifrices were provided in identical, number-labelled tubes, and the subjects were instructed to use the supplied dentifrice only for their usual oral hygiene, three times a day for a duration of 7 days. After 7-day use of dentifrices, the PI and SBI were assessed again. The data obtained were subjected to the Kruskal– Wallis test, followed by Dunn's post hoc test. After 7-day use of dentifrices, the PI scores diminished significantly for both evaluated dentifrices. The SBI values decreased significantly for both experimental and commercial-brand dentifrices. Both dentifrices reduced PI and SBI. By comparing the experimental and gold-standard dentifrice, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the PI and SBI scores after their use, suggesting that they exerted a similar effect on the oral health indexes.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGIES AND PRELIMINARY TRANSFER FACTOR DATA FOR ESTIMATION OF DERMAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental efforts and experimental data are described that focused on quantifying the transfer of particles on a mass basis from indoor surfaces to human skin. Methods were developed that utilized a common fluorescein-tagged Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a possible surrogate ...

  12. Preliminary analysis of the Nocturnal Atmospheric Boundary Layer during the experimental campaign CIBA 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, C.; Maqueda, G.; Ramos, D.; Sastre, M.; Viana, S.; Serrano, E.; Morales, G.; Ayarzagüena, B.; Viñas, C.; Sánchez, E.

    2009-04-01

    An Atmospheric Boundary Layer campaign was developed in Spain along June 2008 at the CIBA (Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere) site which is placed on a fairly homogeneous terrain in the centre of an extensive plateau (41°49' N, 4°56' W). Different instrumentation at several levels was available on a new 10m meteorological mast, including temperature and humidity sensors, wind vanes and cup anemometers, as well as one sonic anemometer. Besides, two quartz-based microbarometers were installed at 50 and 100m on the main permanent 100m tower placed at CIBA. Three additional microbarometers were deployed on the surface on a triangular array of approximately 200 m side, and a tethered balloon was used in order to record vertical profiles of temperature, wind and humidity up to 1000m. Finally, a GRIMM particle monitor (MODEL 365), which can be used to continuously measure each six seconds simultaneously the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 values, was deployed at 1.5m. This work will show some preliminary results from the campaign CIBA 2008, analysing the main physical processes present in the atmospheric Nocturnal Boundary Layer (NBL), the different stability periods observed and the corresponding turbulent parameters, as well as the coherent structures detected. The pressure perturbations measured from the surface and tower levels make possible to study the main wave parameters from wavelet transform, and compared the structures detected by the microbarometers with those detected in the wind and particles records.

  13. Chemopreventive Effects of Morindia Citrifolia Juice (noni on Experimental Breast Cancer in Rats: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Serrano Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the effect of Morindia citrifolia juice (Tahitian Noni® in the development of breast cancer induced by carcinogen agent 7.12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA in rats. For this purpose, the breast cancer induction model 1.7-DMBA was used on Spraguey Dawley nulliparous rats of 35 days of age, randomly divided into three groups: group 1 control, which received no treatment, and groups 2 and 3, induced with DMBA at a dose of 55 mg/kg. The latter received a dose of noni juice of 4 ml/kg per day for 90 days. The results showed that a significant percentage (83.33% of the rats from the group induced with DMBA not treated with noni juice developed palpable breast tumors ( ≤ 2 cm of the ductal carcinoma in situ type and atypical ductal hyperplasia, compared to the other groups that did not develop any kind of tumors. In addition, it was found that rats that developed breast cancer had a lower weight gain and significantly increased water consumption (p < 0.05 compared to the other two groups. The results of the hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes between groups. Histopathological changes compatible with liver toxicity were found in rats treated with noni juice. In conclusion, it was found in this preliminary study that noni juice has positive effects in modulating the development of breast cancer induced by DMBA.

  14. Theoretical and experimental researches on the operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F.-V.; Anton, I.-A.

    2015-11-01

    Purpose of the work: The total cost of a sewage plants is often determined by the present value method. All of the annual operating costs for each process are converted to the value of today's correspondence and added to the costs of investment for each process, which leads to getting the current net value. The operating costs of the sewage plants are subdivided, in general, in the premises of the investment and operating costs. The latter can be stable (normal operation and maintenance, the establishment of power) or variables (chemical and power sludge treatment and disposal, of effluent charges). For the purpose of evaluating the preliminary costs so that an installation can choose between different alternatives in an incipient phase of a project, can be used cost functions. In this paper will be calculated the operational cost to make several scenarios in order to optimize its. Total operational cost (fixed and variable) is dependent global parameters of wastewater treatment plant. Research and methodology: The wastewater treatment plant costs are subdivided in investment and operating costs. We can use different cost functions to estimate fixed and variable operating costs. In this study we have used the statistical formulas for cost functions. The method which was applied to study the impact of the influent characteristics on the costs is economic analysis. Optimization of plant design consist in firstly, to assess the ability of the smallest design to treat the maximum loading rates to a given effluent quality and, secondly, to compare the cost of the two alternatives for average and maximum loading rates. Results: In this paper we obtained the statistical values for the investment cost functions, operational fixed costs and operational variable costs for wastewater treatment plant and its graphical representations. All costs were compared to the net values. Finally we observe that it is more economical to build a larger plant, especially if maximum loading

  15. [Modular project of the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Preliminary operational experience. I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Palma, L; Ukovich, W; Stacul, F; Cuttin Zernich, R; Carbi, N; Giribona, P

    1990-01-01

    Since september 1988 a PAC System (Comm View by AT & T and Philips) has been operating in the Radiology Department of the University Hospital, Trieste. A research project is presently in progress aiming at providing factual evidence for the evaluation of this kind of systems as far as operational, technical, clinical and economic aspects are concerned. The general approach to this research consists in implementing and monitoring a PACS in a stepwise way, starting with a small system connected to some digital modalities only, in order to test the feasibility and effectiveness of the system within a Radiology Department, and to test the possibility of matching the PACS to the Radiological System. The present paper describes in detail the present configuration of this entry-level system and its technical features. The planned development (october 1989) is also depicted. Further developments devise at managing in an integrated way all the radiological images of the four hospitals of Trieste. At present, the PACS is currently used to manage and store on optical disks all the images acquired from the connected modalities plus the related reports, and to perform the reporting sessions for CT examinations (brain and abdomen). The present research effort is devoted to two main areas: clinical evaluation and operational analysis. The object of the operational analysis was the assessment of the impact of PACS on the operations of a Radiology Department. The general approach followed for this research consists in analysing the procedures as they are performed in the conventional way (manual operations), and comparing them to the way they are, or could be, performed using a PACS System (automatic operations). This stage of the project is divided into three phases, concerning respectively the analysis of the organization and operations before PACS, the analysis of the impact of PACS in its initial configuration and the forecast of the influence of PACS in its future setting. A

  16. Preliminary evaluation of a virtual reality dental simulation system on drilling operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhao, Siming; Li, Teng; Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the fidelity of the iDental system and investigate its utility and performance on simulated drilling operations, user studies consisting of objective and subjective evaluations were performed. A voxel-based drilling simulation sub-system in the iDental system was employed for evaluation. Twenty participants were enrolled to take part in the experiments and were divided into two groups: novice and resident. A combined evaluation method including objective and subjective methods was employed. The objective evaluation included two dental drilling tasks: caries removal operation and pulp chamber opening operation. In the subjective method, participants were required to complete a questionnaire to evaluate the fidelity of the system after the operation task. Based on the structured global assessment scales in the questionnaire, the average subjective evaluation scores of the proposed metrics were greater than 4.5, demonstrating that the system operated above medium fidelity. Dentists expressed great interest and positive attitudes toward the potential of the iDental system. The objective evaluation data including time spent and the volume of removed healthy and carious tissue were obtained. Although no significant differences could be found between the two groups, the volume of removed caries and the depth of pulp chamber insertion manifested small standard deviations. Evaluation results illustrated that dentists were willing to use the virtual reality training system. Several future research topics were identified, including increasing the task difficulty, improving the system fidelity and introducing appropriate finger rest points.

  17. Preliminary experimental results from the ICARUS test facility at INFN-LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varanini, F. [Dept. of Physics and INFN, University of Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    A liquid Argon TPC with a sensitive volume of 27 l has been operated with cosmic rays in the INFN-LNL laboratories. This detector is used to test possible DAQ and trigger solutions for ICARUS and future liquid Argon TPCs.

  18. DEEP-South: Preliminary Lightcurves of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids from the First Year Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Young-Jun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Jintae; Roh, Dong-Goo; Lee, Hee-Jae; Oh, Young-Seok; Bae, Young-Ho

    2016-10-01

    Deep Ecliptic Patrol of the Southern Sky (DEEP-South) observation is being made during the off-season for exoplanet search. It started in October 2015, using Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), a network of three identical telescopes with 1.6 m aperture equipped with 18K × 18K CCDs located in Chile (CTIO), South Africa (SAAO), and Australia (SSO). The combination of KMTNet's prime focus optics and the 340 million pixel CCD provides four square degree field of view with 0.4 arcsec/pixel plate scale.Most of the allocated time for DEEP-South is devoted to targeted photometry of PHAs and NEAs to increase the number of those objects with known physical properties. It is efficiently achieved by multiband, time series photometry. This Opposition Census (OC) mode targets objects near their opposition, with km-sized PHAs in early stage and goes down to sub-km objects. Continuous monitoring of the sky with KMTNEt is optimized for spin characterization of various kinds of asteroids, including binaries, slow/fast- and non-principal axis- rotators, and hence expected to facilitate the debiasing of previously reported lightcurve observations. We present the preliminary lightcurves of PHAs from year one of the DEEP-South Project.

  19. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Duffield, W. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (USA)); Martinelli, L.; Aycinena, S. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1990-01-01

    A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater, which has been proposed as the source of pyroxene pumice deposits in the Tecuamburro area. TCB-1 is located 300 m south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco; the core hole penetrates the thin edge of a tuff ring surrounding Ixpaco and zones of hydrothermal brecciation within the upper 150 m may be related to the phreatic blast, dated at 2,910 {sup 14}C years. At the time of this writing, the unequilibrated temperature at a depth of 570m was 180{degree}C. Data on fracturing, permeability, hydrothermal alteration, and temperature will be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Preliminary remediation goals for use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report presents Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for use in human health risk assessment efforts under the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office Environmental Restoration (ER) Division. Chemical-specific PRGs are concentration goals for individual chemicals for specific medium and land use combinations. The PRGs are referred to as risk-based because they have been calculated using risk assessment procedures. Risk-based calculations set concentration limits using both carcinogenic or noncarcinogenic toxicity values under specific exposure pathways. The PRG is a concentration that is derived from a specified excess cancer risk level or hazard quotient. This report provides the ER Division with standardized PRGs which are integral to the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process. By managing the assumptions and systems used in PRG derivation, the Environmental Restoration Risk Assessment Program will be able to control the level of quality assurance associated with these risk-based guideline values.

  1. Preliminary remediation goals for use at the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This technical memorandum presents Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for use in human health risk assessment efforts under the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office Environmental Restoration (ER) Division. This document provides the ER Division with standardized PRGs which are integral to the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process. They are used during project scooping (Data Quality Objectives development), in screening level risk assessments to support early action or No Further Investigation decisions, and in the baselines risk assessment where they are employed in the selection of chemicals of potential concern. The primary objective of this document is to standardize these values and eliminate any duplication of effort by providing PRGs to all contractors involved in risk activities. In addition, by managing the assumptions and systems used in PRG derivation, the ER Risk Assessment Program will be able to control the level of quality assurance associated with these risk-based guideline values.

  2. Effect of Reinforcement on Early-Age Concrete Temperature Stress: Preliminary Experimental Investigation and Analytical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianda Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For concrete under short-term loading, effect of reinforcement on concrete crack resistance capability is usually negligible; however, recent research results show that extension of this viewpoint to concrete under long-term loading (temperature variation may be unsuitable. In order to investigate this phenomenon, this paper presents the experimental and analytical results of early-age reinforced concrete temperature stress development under uniaxial restraint. The experiments were carried out on a temperature stress testing machine (TSTM. Experimental results show that the coupling of reinforcement and concrete creep behavior influenced the concrete temperature stress development, and nearly 16% of concrete stress was reduced in the current research. Moreover, the cracking time of reinforced concrete was also delayed. Finally, based on the principle of superposition, analytical simulations of effect of reinforcement on concrete temperature stress have been performed.

  3. A mechanical experimental setup to simulate vocal folds vibrations. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Ruty, Nicolas; Pelorson, Xavier; Lopez-Arteaga, Ines; Hirschberg, Avraham

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of vocal folds oscillation during phonation. In order to test theoretical models of phonation, a new experimental set-up using a deformable vocal folds replica is presented. The replica is shown to be able to produce self sustained oscillations under controlled experimental conditions. Therefore different parameters, such as those related to elasticity, to acoustical coupling or to the subglottal pressure can be quantitatively studied. In this work we focused on the oscillation fundamental frequency and the upstream pressure in order to start (on-set threshold) either end (off-set threshold) oscillations in presence of a downstream acoustical resonator. As an example, it is shown how this data can be used in order to test the theoretical predictions of a simple one-mass model.

  4. Deep Boreholes Seals Subjected to High P, T conditions – Preliminary Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James Lavada [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-18

    The objective of this planned experimental work is to evaluate physio-chemical processes for ‘seal’ components and materials relevant to deep borehole disposal. These evaluations will encompass multi-laboratory efforts for the development of seals concepts and application of Thermal-Mechanical-Chemical (TMC) modeling work to assess barrier material interactions with subsurface fluids, their stability at high temperatures, and the implications of these processes to the evaluation of thermal limits. Deep borehole experimental work will constrain the Pressure, Temperature (P, T) conditions which “seal” material will experience in deep borehole crystalline rock repositories. The rocks of interest to this study include the silicic (granitic gneiss) end members. The experiments will systematically add components to capture discrete changes in both water and EBS component chemistries.

  5. Immune Biomarker Response Depends on Choice of Experimental Pain Stimulus in Healthy Adults: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenisel Cruz-Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in healthy subjects have examined the neuroimmune responses associated with specific experimental pain stimuli, while none has measured multiple biomarkers simultaneously. The aim of the present study was to compare the neuro-immune responses following two common experimental pain stimuli: cold pressor test (CPT and focal heat pain (FHP. Eight adults participated in two counterbalanced experimental sessions of FHP or CPT with continuous pain ratings and blood sampling before and 30 minutes after the sessions. Despite similar pain intensity ratings (FHP = 42.2±15.3; CPT = 44.5±34.1; P=0.871, CPT and FHP induced different neuro-immune biomarker responses. CPT was accompanied by significant increases in cortisol (P=0.046 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (P=0.043 with significant decreases in several pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β (P=0.028, IL-12 (P=0.012, TNF-α (P=0.039, and MCP-1 (P=0.038. There were nonsignificant biomarker changes during the FHP session. There were close to significant differences between the sessions for IL-1β (P=0.081, IFN-γ (P=0.072, and IL-12 (P=0.053 with biomarkers decreasing after CPT and increasing after FHP. There were stronger associations between catastrophizing and most biomarkers after CPT compared to FHP. Our results suggest that CPT is a stressful and painful stimulus, while FHP is mostly a painful stimulus. Thus, each experimental pain stimulus can activate different neuro-immune cascades, which are likely relevant for the interpretation of studies in chronic pain conditions.

  6. Wageningen Urban Rainfall Experiment 2014 (WURex14): Experimental setup and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Thomas C.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Hazenberg, Pieter; Berne, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    the preliminary results.

  7. Experimental operation of the production line for carbon fiber-reinforced plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldin, V.M.; Denezhkin, N.M.; Krivoshchekova, N.P.; Krotova, Z.S.; Yermakov, V.F.

    1979-01-01

    Verifications of the quality of the manufactured tubings established that in physical-mechanical indicators the carbon fiber-reinforced plastic corresponds to the requirements which are made for the material of the timbering rising, operated in the zone of intensive manifestation of mine pressure, and exposed to the effect of a stream of coal transmitted through it. Average data are presented for physical-mechanical properties of the carbon fiber-reinforced plastic according to samples manufactured from the tubings. In 1974-1978 the production line produced over 130,000 tubings, or 6600m of timbering to two type-sizes with inner diameter of 850 and 1090 mm. Experimental operation of the production line indicated that as a whole it is efficient, simple and convenient to operate, and guarantees safe working conditions of the service personnel. Verification and pinpointing of the production parameters for making timbering, as well as generalization of the experience of operating the line made it possible to plan a production line with maximum mechanization and automation of the operations of the production process and increase its productivity two-fold. The production line will be put into operation in 1980 in the experimental shop TsEMM No 4 of the production association ''Prokop'yevskugol'.''

  8. [Anatomo-clinical and experimental studies on pneumocystis carinii. Preliminary note].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christol, D; Bouton, C; Trihn, D H; Kernbaum, S

    1976-01-09

    The authors have been interested over the last year in the detection of pneumocystis carinii in patients with immune deficiencies, whether natural or artificial. After a brief historical and general introduction, they discuss their procedures, the pathological substances available, the staining techniques and the examination of autopsy specimens. They undertook experimental work on this micro-organism, e.g. the development of the germ in immuno-depressed rats and, from this material, numerous varied trials of culture and inoculation in new-born animals, chick embryos and cell cultures. Microphotographs illustrate this work which is still in progress.

  9. Preliminary study of S-CO{sub 2} cycle control logic for part load operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The benefits of S-CO{sub 2} cycle are relatively high efficiency under the mild turbine inlet temperature region, simple layout configuration and small foot-print. In addition, the safety of the SFR system can be inherently enhanced as the violent sodium-water reaction can be substituted with the mild sodium-CO{sub 2} reaction. 75MWe S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle with radial type turbomachineries and PCHE was designed. Under various part load conditions (30-100% thermal load), off-design performance of the designed system was assessed, and different control logics were first tested. It was identified that the inventory control strategy is the most efficient logic for the part load operation. In the system operation, the compressor surge condition is seriously considered and controlled to avoid the system damage.

  10. Preliminary Assessment of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) Roadmap Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A set of five developmental steps building from the NASA TASAR (Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests) concept are described, each providing incrementally more efficiency and capacity benefits to airspace system users and service providers, culminating in a Full Airborne Trajectory Management capability. For each of these steps, the incremental Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements are identified for later use in future formal safety assessments intended to lead to certification and operational approval of the equipment and the associated procedures. Two established safety assessment methodologies that are compliant with the FAA's Safety Management System were used leading to Failure Effects Classifications (FEC) for each of the steps. The most likely FEC for the first three steps, Basic TASAR, Digital TASAR, and 4D TASAR, is "No effect". For step four, Strategic Airborne Trajectory Management, the likely FEC is "Minor". For Full Airborne Trajectory Management (Step 5), the most likely FEC is "Major".

  11. Preliminary Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedure for Drainage and Erosion Control at McMurdo Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    NSF National Science Foundation O&M Operations and Maintenance PAH Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PLR Division of Polar Programs SOP Standard...merges downstream into WQB. Sub-basin 5 drains the area around the dorm, along the road towards the bay, and below the Wa- ter Treatment Plant . Sub...included heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs ), total hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Sources of these contaminants are

  12. Study on critical heat flux in narrow rectangular channel with repeated-rib roughness. 1. Experimental facility and preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-10-01

    In the design of a spallation target system, the water cooling system, for example a proton beam window and a safety hull, is used with narrow channels, in order to remove high heat flux and prevent lowering of system performance by absorption of neutron. And in narrow channel, heat transfer enhancement using 2-D rib is considered for reduction the cost of cooling component and decrease inventory of water in the cooling system, that is, decrease of the amount of irradiated water. But few studies on CHF with rib have been carried out. Experimental and analytical studies with rib-roughened test section, in 10:1 ratio of pitch to height, are being carried out in order to clarify the CHF in rib-roughened channel. This paper presents the review of previous researches on heat transfer in channel with rib roughness, overview of the test facility and the preliminary experimental and analytical results. As a result, wall friction factors were about 3 times as large as that of smooth channel, and heat transfer coefficients are about 2 times as large as that of smooth channel. The obtained CHF was as same as previous mechanistic model by Sudo. (author)

  13. SINGLE-SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT ANALYSIS OF RECORD-PRELIMINARY MODELING PLAN FOR THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; BAPANAALLI SK; DEIBLER JE; GUZMAN-LEONG CE; JOHNSON KI; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; SANBORN SE

    2010-10-22

    This document is a Phase I deliverable for the Single-Shell Tank Analysis of Record effort. This document is not the Analysis of Record. The intent of this document is to guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort. Preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. The preliminary analysis document reviews and preliminary modeling analysis results are reported herein. In addition, this report provides recommendations for the next phase of the SST AOR project, SST detailed modeling. Efforts and results discussed in this report do not include seismic modeling as seismic modeling is covered by a separate report. The combined results of both static and seismic models are required to complete this effort. The SST AOR project supports the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) mission for obtaining a better understanding of the structural integrity of Hanford's SSTs. The 149 SSTs, with six different geometries, have experienced a range of operating histories which would require a large number of unique analyses to fully characterize their individual structural integrity. Preliminary modeling evaluations were conducted to determine the number of analyses required for adequate bounding of each of the SST tank types in the Detailed Modeling Phase of the SST AOR Project. The preliminary modeling was conducted in conjunction with the Evaluation Criteria report, Johnson et al. (2010). Reviews of existing documents were conducted at the initial stage of preliminary modeling. These reviews guided the topics

  14. Experimentally Induced Pulpal Lesion and Substance P Expression: Effect of Ketoprofen—A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco Abbate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate substance P (SP and the effect of ketoprofen administration, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, on SP in the pulp of upper third molars with experimentally induced pulpal lesion. Materials and Methods. A sample of 20 young systemically healthy adults of both sexes, nonsmokers, with a healthy upper third molar to extract for orthodontic purposes, was selected. Prior to the procedure, an inflammatory process was generated by mechanical exposure of the pulp. After 15 minutes, the pulp was collected using a sterile barbed broach. SP levels were determined by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA kit. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 received a dose of ketoprofen 30 minutes prior to the experimental procedure. The subjects of group 2 did not receive any kind of drug administration. The patients were asked to complete a diary on the postoperative pain. Results. No statistically significant difference could be detected in SP expression between the two groups. In group 1, pain manifestation was significantly delayed in comparison with group 2. Conclusions. Preventive administration of ketoprofen did not significantly affect the pulpal levels of SP but resulted in a significantly postponed manifestation of pain after extraction.

  15. The experimental studies of operating modes of a diesel-generator set at variable speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Surkov, M. A.; Sumarokova, L. P.

    2017-02-01

    A diesel generator set working at variable speed to save fuel is studied. The results of experimental studies of the operating modes of an autonomous diesel generator set are presented. Areas for regulating operating modes are determined. It is demonstrated that the transfer of the diesel generator set to variable speed of the diesel engine makes it possible to improve the energy efficiency of the autonomous generator source, as well as the environmental and ergonomic performance of the equipment as compared with general industrial analogues.

  16. Gas Bearing Control for Safe Operation in Critical Speed Regions - Experimental Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas R. S.; Niemann, Hans H.; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Gas bearings are popular for their high speed capabilities, low friction and clean operation, but require low clearances and suffer from poor damping properties. The poor damping properties cause high disturbance amplification near the natural frequencies. These become critical when the rotation...... supported by gas bearings to extend their operating range. Using H∞-design methods, active lubrication techniques are proposed to enhance the damping, which in turn reduces the vibrations to a desired safe level. The control design is validated experimentally on a laboratory test rig, and shown to allow...

  17. Tele-Operated Laboratories for Online Production Engineering Education - Platform for E-Learning and Telemetric Experimentation (PeTEX)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Erman Tekkaya; Isa Jahnke; Christian Pleul; Claudius Terkowsky

    2011-01-01

    The development of tele-operated experimentation and its provision to distance learners opens new dimensions for experience-based scientific and engineering education, particularly where experiments...

  18. Gold Nanoparticles as Probes for Nano-Raman Spectroscopy: Preliminary Experimental Results and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Le Nader

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectrometer (TERS in backscattering reflection configuration. It combines a tip-probe nanopositioning system with Raman spectroscope. Specific tips were processed by anchoring gold nanoparticles on the apex of tapered optical fibers, prepared by an improved chemical etching method. Hence, it is possible to expose a very small area of the sample (~20 nm2 to the very strong local electromagnetic field generated by the lightning rod effect. This experimental configuration was modelled and optimised using the finite element method, which takes into account electromagnetic effects as well as the plasmon resonance. Finally, TERS measurements on single-wall carbon nanotubes were successfully performed. These results confirm the high Raman scattering enhancement predicted by the modelling, induced by our new nano-Raman device.

  19. Science-based HRA: experimental comparison of operator performance to IDAC (Information-Decision-Action Crew) simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, Rachel [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Li, Yuandan [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Mosleh, Ali [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Information-Decision-Action Crew (IDAC) operator model simulations of a Steam Generator Tube Rupture are compared to student operator performance in studies conducted in the Ohio State University’s Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Facility. This study is presented as a prototype for conducting simulator studies to validate key aspects of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods. Seven student operator crews are compared to simulation results for crews designed to demonstrate three different decision-making strategies. The IDAC model used in the simulations is modified slightly to capture novice behavior rather that expert operators. Operator actions and scenario pacing are compared. A preliminary review of available performance shaping factors (PSFs) is presented. After the scenario in the NPP Simulator Facility, student operators review a video of the scenario and evaluate six PSFs at pre-determined points in the scenario. This provides a dynamic record of the PSFs experienced by the OSU student operators. In this preliminary analysis, Time Constraint Load (TCL) calculated in the IDAC simulations is compared to TCL reported by student operators. We identify potential modifications to the IDAC model to develop an “IDAC Student Operator Model.” This analysis provides insights into how similar experiments could be conducted using expert operators to improve the fidelity of IDAC simulations.

  20. Preliminary Experimental Results of Deep Levels for Dielectronic Recombination in He-Like High-Z Ions at Heidelberg Electron Beam Ion Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-Mei(张雪梅); GUO Pan-Lin(郭盘林); A.Gonzalez; J.CRESPO

    2003-01-01

    An experimental system for dielectronic recombination was set-up on H-EBIT in order to carry out dielectronic recombination study. Some preliminary results of He-like Ge32+ and Cu27+ are obtained. Space charge shift on determination of the resonance position for Ge32+ at 100mA is around 18% and that for Cu27+ is around 38%.Further analysis of experimental data is in progress.

  1. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of CaPaMan 2bis Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Hernandez‐Martinez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the operation performance of CaPaMan 2bis (Cassino Parallel Manipulator 2 bis was investigated through labexperimental tests and computer simulations. Milli‐CaTraSys (Milli‐Cassino Tracking System was implemented to determinedisplacements and orientation variations of CaPaMan 2bis end‐effector during experimental tests. A 3D (three dimensionvirtual model was built in ADAMS environment to simulate the operation behavior for different prescribed motions. Severalprescribed motions have been simulated and tested under different conditions in order to characterize the system behavior. Inparticular, the kinematic characteristics were obtained from both, experimental tests and numerical simulations. Finally,experiment results and simulation computations were compared for purpose of performance evaluation and designcharacterization of the parallel manipulator structure and its prototype.

  2. Experimental research on dynamic operating characteristics of a novel silica gel-water adsorption chiller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dechang; WU Jingyi; WANG Ruzhu; DOU Weidong

    2007-01-01

    A novel silica gel-water adsorption chiller consisting of two adsorption/desorption chambers and an evaporator with one heat-pipe working chamber is experimentally studied.The dynamic operating characteristics of the chiller and the thermodynamic characteristics of the adsorber are obtained.The experimental results show that the dynamic operating characteristics of the chiller and the thermodynamic characteristics of the adsorber are satisfactory and that the cycle is a novel and effective adsorption cycle.A mass recovery process increases the cyclic adsorption capacity of the system and improves adaptability of the chiller to a lowgrade heat source.In addition,the experiment indicates that this novel chiller is highly suitable for an air conditioning system with a low dehumidification requirement or a system with a large cycle flowrate and an industrial cooling water system.

  3. Wave Synchronizing Crane Control during Water Entry in Offshore Moonpool Operations - Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    A new strategy for active control in heavy-lift offshore crane operations is suggested, by introducing a new concept referred to as wave synchronization. Wave synchronization reduces the hydrodynamic forces by minimization of variations in the relative vertical velocity between payload and water using a wave amplitude measurement. Wave synchronization is combined with conventional active heave compensation to obtain accurate control. Experimental results using a scale model of a semi-submerge...

  4. Experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center is described. A sensory evaluation of the high density foods was conducted first to test the acceptability of the products. A shelf-life study of the high density foods was also conducted for three different time lengths at three different temperatures. The nutritional analysis of the high density foods is at present incomplete.

  5. Preliminary studies on the antinociceptive activity of Vaccinium ashei berry in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria Rosana; Guterres, Leandra; Dickel, Odila E; de Castro, Micheli R; Henriques, Amelia T; de Souza, Márcia M; Barros, Daniela Martí

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out pharmacological screening in order to evaluate the potential effects of lyophilized fruits of different cultivars of Vaccinium ashei Reade (Family Ericaceae) berries, commonly known as rabbiteye blueberries, on nociception. This was achieved using the formalin, hot plate, tail-flick, and writhing tests in mice. During this experiment the mice consumed approximately 3.2-6.4 mg/kg/day (p.o.) of the anthocyanins. The extract was administered for 21 days or 60 minutes before test. Morphine and diclofenac (10 mg/kg, p.o.) as the standard drug (positive control) and water (via oral gavage) as the negative control were administered before all tests. The blueberry extract produced a significant decrease in constrictions induced by acetic acid and caused graded inhibition of the second phase of formalin-induced pain. Moreover, in both the hot plate and tail-flick tests, it significantly increased the threshold. These data suggest that the extract from V. ashei produced antinociceptive effects, as demonstrated in the experimental models of nociception in mice. Additional experiments are necessary in order to clarify the true target for the antinociceptive effects of rabbiteye blueberry extract.

  6. Preliminary Experimental Study on Pressure Loss Coefficients of Exhaust Manifold Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-lu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow characteristic of exhaust system has an important impact on inlet boundary of the turbine. In this paper, high speed flow in a diesel exhaust manifold junction was tested and simulated. The pressure loss coefficient of the junction flow was analyzed. The steady experimental results indicated that both of static pressure loss coefficients L13 and L23 first increased and then decreased with the increase of mass flow ratio of lateral branch and public manifold. The total pressure loss coefficient K13 always increased with the increase of mass flow ratio of junctions 1 and 3. The total pressure loss coefficient K23 first increased and then decreased with the increase of mass flow ratio of junctions 2 and 3. These pressure loss coefficients of the exhaust pipe junctions can be used in exhaust flow and turbine inlet boundary conditions analysis. In addition, simulating calculation was conducted to analyze the effect of branch angle on total pressure loss coefficient. According to the calculation results, total pressure loss coefficient was almost the same at low mass flow rate of branch manifold 1 but increased with lateral branch angle at high mass flow rate of branch manifold 1.

  7. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G. [Halden Reactor Project (Norway); Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  8. Experimental modeling of Wiener filters estimated on an operating diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouet, Julie; Leclère, Quentin; Parizet, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Sound source separation in diesel engines can be implemented using a Wiener filter, or spectrofilter, that can extract the combustion contribution in the overall noise. In this study this filter characterizes the transfer function between a cylinder pressure and a measurement point. An engine is characterized by several filters (one for each cylinder) which are estimated for many operating conditions (engine speed and load). The purpose of this work is to obtain an averaged spectrofilter allowing the synthesis of combustion noise in all operating conditions. This synthesis should be accurate enough to be used in perceptive studies. In order to refine the spectrofilter estimation in the medium frequency band, this paper consists in taking advantage of the multitude of information given by the estimations from different operating conditions. To do this, an experimental model is adopted so modal parameters are extracted from a great number of measured filters. Different procedures such as the ESPRIT method or the LSCE method (modal analysis) are used to decompose the impulse responses on a complex exponential basis. The spectrofilters estimated from different operating conditions are analyzed and compared in this reduced basis, in order to identify the underlying structural parameters. These parameters are compared to the results of an experimental characterization of the stopped engine. The accuracy of the synthesis (number of components of the filter) is an important issue because these filters will be used in perceptive applications, extracting combustion noises. This paper is an extended version of the work initially presented at the conference Surveillance 6 in November 2011 in Compiègne, France [1] (J. Drouet, Quentin Leclere, Etienne Parizet. Experimental modeling of Wiener filters estimated on an operating diesel engine, in: Proceedings of the Surveillance, vol. 6, Compi'egne, France, 2011.).

  9. Preliminary Study of Ideal Operational MHD Beta Limit in HL-2A Tokamak Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yong; DONG Jiaqi; HE Hongda; A. D. TURNBULL

    2009-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) n=1 kink mode with n the toroidal mode number is studied and the operational beta limit, constrained by the mode, is calculated for the equilibrium of HL-2A by using the GATO code. Approximately the same beta limit is obtained for configurations with a value of the axial safety factor q0 both larger and less than 1. Without the stabilization of the conducting wall, the beta limit is found to be 0.821% corresponding to a normalized beta value of βcN=2.56 for a typical HL-2A discharge with a plasma current Ip=0.245 MA, and the scaling of βcN~constant is confirmed.

  10. DISTRACTION OF OSTEOGENESIS AND LENGTHENING OF CRANIOFACIAL BONE-PRELIMINARY REPORT OF AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective The method of bone lengthening by distraction of callus was used on dog mandible as a model to study the capability and changes of membranous bone during distraction osteogenesis. Methods 15 dogs aged 5~7 months were chosen as the subjects. The operation included a unilateral or bilateral periosteal preserving corti cotomy of mandibular bone, and an introral mini lengthening device were fixed to the buccal side of the mandible. After 7d, the mandible was lengthened lmm/d for 20d and then held in internal fixation for 7~ 140d (1 ~ 20 weeks). Results The dogs were killed at 3 times. Anthropometric measurements, X-ray examination and histological observa tion were conducted and conformed that the distracted bone had formed in the expanded zone successfully. Conclu sion The results suggested that we could use the DO technique in the area of craniofacial clinic. The strong ability of generating new bone in membranous skeleton by DO technique should be further demonstrated in the future.

  11. Preliminary operational results of the low-temperature solar industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    Six solar industrial process heat field tests have been in operation for a year or more - three are hot water systems and three are hot air systems. All are low-temperature projects (process heat at temperatures below 212/sup 0/F). Performance results gathered by each contractor's data acquisition system are presented and project costs and problems encountered are summarized. Flat-plate, evacuated-tube, and line-focus collectors are all represented in the program, with collector array areas ranging from 2500 to 21,000 ft/sup 2/. Collector array efficiencies ranged from 12% to 36% with net system efficiencies from 8% to 33%. Low efficiencies are attributable in some cases to high thermal losses and, for the two projects using air collectors, are due in part to high parasitic power consumption. Problems have included industrial effluents on collectors, glazing and absorber surface failures, excessive thermal losses, freezing and overheating, control problems, and data acquisition system failure. With design and data acquisition costs excluded costs of the projects ranged from $25/ft/sup 2/ to $87/ft/sup 2/ and $499/(MBtu/yr) to $1537/(MBtu/yr).

  12. Preliminary report of a gas conditioner to improve operational reliability of cryotherapy in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broekhuizen Fredrik

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryotherapy is a safe, affordable, and effective method of treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In some low-resource settings, environmental conditions or qualities of the refrigerant gas can lead to blockage of cryotherapy equipment, terminating treatment. A prototype of a gas conditioner to prevent operational failure was designed, built, and field tested. Methods The prototype conditioner device consists of an expansion chamber that filters and dries the refrigerant gas. Users in Peru and Kenya reported on their experience with the prototype conditioner. In Ghana, simulated cryotherapy procedures were used to test the effects of the prototype conditioner, as well as the commonly used "cough technique." Results Anecdotal reports from field use of the device were favorable. During simulated cryotherapy, the prevalence of blockage during freezing were 0% (0/25 with the device alone, 23.3% (7/30 with the cough technique alone, 5.9% (1/17 with both, and 55.2% (16/29 with neither (Pearson's Chi square = 26.6, df = 3, p Conclusion This prototype design of a cryotherapy gas conditioner is a potential solution for low-resource settings that are experiencing cryotherapy device malfunction.

  13. CT-discography in the evaluation of the post-operative lumbar spine. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crenier, N.; Greselle, J.F.; Richard, O.; Houang, B.; Pinol-Daubisse, H.; Caille, J.M.; Vital, J.M.; Senegas, J.

    1988-06-01

    Thirty-three patients with recurrent sciatica after lumbar-disk surgery were studied for recurrent herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) by CT alone and CT-discography (CTD). Twenty-six patients underwent surgical reexploration allowing correlation with CTD. CTD made a correct diagnosis of recurrent HNP in twenty-one patients showing an extravasation of the contrast medium from the disk space into the medullary canal. In two cases CTD was positive for recurrent HNP but surgery showed only fibrosis. The amount of contrast leak was very small in these two cases along the posterior common longitudinal ligament, and the junction with the disk was very narrow. Because of their clinical presentation three patients with negative studies were operated upon. One showed only fibrosis and the two others showed an associated disk fragment. Among the twenty-one true-positive cases, seven showed a combination of recurrent HNP and scarring. Contamination of CSF by the contrast medium through the dura was observed in two patients. Although a prospective comparative study between CTD and IV-contrast-enhanced CT is necessary, CTD appears to be a useful diagnostic procedure for recurrent HNP after surgery of the lumbar spine.

  14. Videotaped Feedback Method to Enhance Learning in Preclinical Operative Dentistry: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dipali Yogesh; Dadpe, Ashwini Manish; Kalra, Dheeraj Deepak; Garcha, Vikram P

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a videotaped feedback method enhanced teaching and learning outcomes in a preclinical operative laboratory setting for novice learners. In 2013, 60 dental students at a dental school in India were randomly assigned to two groups: control (n=30) and experimental (n=30). The control group prepared a Class II tooth preparation for amalgam after receiving a video demonstration of the exercise. The experimental group received the same video demonstration as the control group, but they also participated in a discussion and analysis of the control groups' videotaped performance and then performed the same exercise. The self-evaluation scores (SS) and examiner evaluation scores (ES) of the two groups were compared using the unpaired t-test. The experimental group also used a five-point Likert scale to rate each item on the feedback form. The means of SS (13.65±2.43) and ES (14.75±1.97) of the experimental group were statistically higher than the means of SS (11.55±2.09) and ES (11.60±1.82) of the control group. Most students in the experimental group perceived that this technique enhanced their learning experience. Within the limits of this study, the videotaped feedback using both ideal and non-ideal examples enhanced the students' performance.

  15. A preliminary cyber-physical security assessment of the Robot Operating System (ROS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Jarrod; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2013-05-01

    Over the course of the last few years, the Robot Operating System (ROS) has become a highly popular software framework for robotics research. ROS has a very active developer community and is widely used for robotics research in both academia and government labs. The prevalence and modularity of ROS cause many people to ask the question: "What prevents ROS from being used in commercial or government applications?" One of the main problems that is preventing this increased use of ROS in these applications is the question of characterizing its security (or lack thereof). In the summer of 2012, a crowd sourced cyber-physical security contest was launched at the cyber security conference DEF CON 20 to begin the process of characterizing the security of ROS. A small-scale, car-like robot was configured as a cyber-physical security "honeypot" running ROS. DEFFCON-20 attendees were invited to find exploits and vulnerabilities in the robot while network traffic was collected. The results of this experiment provided some interesting insights and opened up many security questions pertaining to deployed robotic systems. The Federal Aviation Administration is tasked with opening up the civil airspace to commercial drones by September 2015 and driverless cars are already legal for research purposes in a number of states. Given the integration of these robotic devices into our daily lives, the authors pose the following question: "What security exploits can a motivated person with little-to-no experience in cyber security execute, given the wide availability of free cyber security penetration testing tools such as Metasploit?" This research focuses on applying common, low-cost, low-overhead, cyber-attacks on a robot featuring ROS. This work documents the effectiveness of those attacks.

  16. Subject-specific estimation of central aortic blood pressure via system identification: preliminary in-human experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Nima; Kim, Chang-Sei; Rashedi, Mohammad; Chappell, Alyssa; Wang, Shaohua; MacArthur, Roderick; McMurtry, M Sean; Finegan, Barry; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2014-10-01

    This paper demonstrates preliminary in-human validity of a novel subject-specific approach to estimation of central aortic blood pressure (CABP) from peripheral circulatory waveforms. In this "Individualized Transfer Function" (ITF) approach, CABP is estimated in two steps. First, the circulatory dynamics of the cardiovascular system are determined via model-based system identification, in which an arterial tree model is characterized based on the circulatory waveform signals measured at the body's extremity locations. Second, CABP waveform is estimated by de-convolving peripheral circulatory waveforms from the arterial tree model. The validity of the ITF approach was demonstrated using experimental data collected from 13 cardiac surgery patients. Compared with the invasive peripheral blood pressure (BP) measurements, the ITF approach yielded significant reduction in errors associated with the estimation of CABP, including 1.9-2.6 mmHg (34-42 %) reduction in BP waveform errors (p < 0.05) as well as 5.8-9.1 mmHg (67-76 %) and 6.0-9.7 mmHg (78-85 %) reductions in systolic and pulse pressure (SP and PP) errors (p < 0.05). It also showed modest but significant improvement over the generalized transfer function approach, including 0.1 mmHg (2.6 %) reduction in BP waveform errors as well as 0.7 (20 %) and 5.0 mmHg (75 %) reductions in SP and PP errors (p < 0.05).

  17. Experimental Study of the Influence of Operating Position on the Behavior of an Electromechanical Actuator with Volatile Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NITAN Ilie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the influence of operating position on the behavior of an electrochemical actuator with volatile liquid. In the introduction, the operating principle of electromechanical actuators with volatile liquid is described. Are then presented experimental stand used, the study results and conclusions drawn from the studies.

  18. Experimentally Switching from Factory Made to Self-Made Cigarettes: A Preliminary Study of Perceptions, Toxicant Exposure and Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Rosenberry, Zachary R; Strasser, Andrew A; Pickworth, Wallace B

    2014-04-01

    There is currently the potential for a great deal of transition and product switching among cigarette smokers. Studies on the transition when cigarette smokers switch from one type of nicotine delivery product to another are needed to understand subsequent toxicant exposure. A preliminary study was performed to determine the feasibility of experimentally replicating the transition from factory made (FM) to personal machine made (PMM) cigarette smoking. The adaptability and perceptions of the consumer and the consequent exposure to cigarette-delivered toxins were assessed. Six adults (4 men) were recruited for four laboratory visits (V1-V4) on study days 1, 5, 10 and 15, respectively. All of the participants agreed to switch from exclusive FM smoking to exclusive PMM cigarette smoking for the duration of the study. Compliance was very high among these participants. Participants progressively accepted the PMM cigarettes and became efficient producers of PMMs as evidenced in the reduced time to make 5 PMMs in the laboratory. Participants reported a preference for FM at visit 2 (V2), but had stated no preference by the fourth visit. Compared to the FMs, the PMMs at V3 (psmoking (for both FM and PMM) and 34.0±5.3 ng/mL after smoking; there were no significant differences in the plasma nicotine boost (average 17.7 and 15.4ng/ml after FM and PMM smoking, respectively). Although there were differences between individual subjects' filter butt levels of deposited solanesol the within-subject levels were remarkably similar. Puff topography measures did not vary across visits or cigarette type. Although interpretation of study results must be conservative because of the small sample size, this study demonstrates that experimentally-induced transition from FM to PMM smoking is feasible for laboratory study and the subsequent toxicant exposure is comparable for FM and PMM cigarettes.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Factors Influencing Operating Rotor Tip Clearance in Multistage Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid A. Berdanier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of compressor rotor tip clearance measurements using capacitance probe instrumentation is discussed for a three-stage axial compressor. Thermal variations and centrifugal effects related to rotational speed changes affect clearance heights relative to the assembled configuration. These two primary contributions to measured changes are discussed both independently and in combination. Emphasis is given to tip clearance changes due to changing loading condition and at several compressor operating speeds. Measurements show a tip clearance change approaching 0.1 mm (0.2% rotor span when comparing a near-choke operating condition to a near-stall operating condition for the third stage. Additional consideration is given to environmental contributions such as ambient temperature, for which changes in tip clearance height on the order of 0.05 mm (0.1% rotor span were noted for temperature variations of 15°C. Experimental compressor operating clearances are presented for several temperatures, operating speeds, and loading conditions, and comparisons are drawn between these measured variations and predicted changes under the same conditions.

  20. Transition from Research to Operations: Assessing Value of Experimental Forecast Products within the NWSFO Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, William M.; Wohlman, Richard; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Jedlovec, Gary; Goodman, Steve; Darden, Chris; Meyer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center seeks to accelerate the infusion of NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NWS forecast operations and decision-making. To meet long-term program expectations, it is not sufficient simply to give forecasters sophisticated workstations or new forecast products without fully assessing the ways in which they will be utilized. Close communication must be established between the research and operational communities so that developers have a complete understanding of user needs. In turn, forecasters must obtain a more comprehensive knowledge of the modeling and sensing tools available to them. A major goal of the SPoRT Program is to develop metrics and conduct assessment studies with NWS forecasters to evaluate the impacts and benefits of ESE experimental products on forecast skill. At a glance the task seems relatively straightforward. However, performing assessment of experimental products in an operational environment is demanding. Given the tremendous time constraints placed on NWS forecasters, it is imperative that forecaster input be obtained in a concise unobtrusive manor. Great care must also be taken to ensure that forecasters understand their participation will eventually benefit them and WFO operations in general. Two requirements of the assessment plan developed under the SPoRT activity are that it 1) Can be implemented within the WFO environment; and 2) Provide tangible results for BOTH the research and operational communities. Supplemental numerical quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) were chosen as the first experimental SPoRT product to be evaluated during a Pilot Assessment Program conducted 1 May 2003 within the Huntsville AL National Weather Service Forecast Office. Forecast time periods were broken up into six- hour bins ranging from zero to twenty-four hours. Data were made available for display in AWIPS on an

  1. Transition from Research to Operations: Assessing Value of Experimental Forecast Products within the NWSFO Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, William M.; Wohlman, Richard; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Jedlovec, Gary; Goodman, Steve; Darden, Chris; Meyer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center seeks to accelerate the infusion of NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NWS forecast operations and decision-making. To meet long-term program expectations, it is not sufficient simply to give forecasters sophisticated workstations or new forecast products without fully assessing the ways in which they will be utilized. Close communication must be established between the research and operational communities so that developers have a complete understanding of user needs. In turn, forecasters must obtain a more comprehensive knowledge of the modeling and sensing tools available to them. A major goal of the SPoRT Program is to develop metrics and conduct assessment studies with NWS forecasters to evaluate the impacts and benefits of ESE experimental products on forecast skill. At a glance the task seems relatively straightforward. However, performing assessment of experimental products in an operational environment is demanding. Given the tremendous time constraints placed on NWS forecasters, it is imperative that forecaster input be obtained in a concise unobtrusive manor. Great care must also be taken to ensure that forecasters understand their participation will eventually benefit them and WFO operations in general. Two requirements of the assessment plan developed under the SPoRT activity are that it 1) Can be implemented within the WFO environment; and 2) Provide tangible results for BOTH the research and operational communities. Supplemental numerical quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) were chosen as the first experimental SPoRT product to be evaluated during a Pilot Assessment Program conducted 1 May 2003 within the Huntsville AL National Weather Service Forecast Office. Forecast time periods were broken up into six- hour bins ranging from zero to twenty-four hours. Data were made available for display in AWIPS on an

  2. Experimental study of operation performance of a low power thermoelectric cooling dehumidifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huajun, Qi Chengying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed to apply thermoelectric technology to a low power dehumidifying device as an alternative to the conventional vapor-compression refrigeration systems. The experimental prototype of a small-scale thermoelectric dehumidifier (TED with rectangular cooling fins was built and its operation performance was studied experimentally. The results showed that the TED experienced two typical thermodynamic processes including the cooling dehumidification and the isothermal dehumidification, where the latter was dominated. It was found that there existed a peak during the variation of the average coefficient of performance (COP as a function of the input power of the thermoelectric module. Under the present experimental conditions, the COP of the TED reached the maximum of 0.32 and the corresponding dehumidifying rate was 0.0097 g/min, when the input power was kept at 6.0 W. The rapid elimination of condensed liquid-drops on the cooling fins amounted on the thermoelectric module is a major approach to improving the operation performance of the TED.

  3. Computing the modal mass from the state space model in combined experimental-operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Modal parameters comprise natural frequencies, damping ratios, modal vectors and modal masses. In a theoretic framework, these parameters are the basis for the solution of vibration problems using the theory of modal superposition. In practice, they can be computed from input-output vibration data: the usual procedure is to estimate a mathematical model from the data and then to compute the modal parameters from the estimated model. The most popular models for input-output data are based on the frequency response function, but in recent years the state space model in the time domain has become popular among researchers and practitioners of modal analysis with experimental data. In this work, the equations to compute the modal parameters from the state space model when input and output data are available (like in combined experimental-operational modal analysis) are derived in detail using invariants of the state space model: the equations needed to compute natural frequencies, damping ratios and modal vectors are well known in the operational modal analysis framework, but the equation needed to compute the modal masses has not generated much interest in technical literature. These equations are applied to both a numerical simulation and an experimental study in the last part of the work.

  4. Experimental investigation of operating and dynamic properties of adsorption filter prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos Miomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is an examination of flow-thermal, operating and dynamic properties (velocities of gas mixture, flows, pressure drops, temperature, humidity, chemical pollutants tests, and efficiency and performance of the adsorption filter prototype in the filter-ventilation system. The paper presents the results of the experimental research conducted on the original apparatus in the laboratory for air quality management at the Faculty of Occupational Safety in Niš. The examination of flow-thermal, operating and dynamic parameters of the observed filter prototype was carried out on an experimental ventilation setup with a variable flow rate of gas mixture. Experimental data were registered with appropriate measuring equipment, which helped us obtain a picture of the behavior of the adsorption filter prototype compared to simulated parameters of the gas mixture. By measuring and data acquisition, we reached the assumptions for identifying the observed process, and thus the possibility of modeling and controlling process parameters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-43014

  5. Experimental investigations on a common centrifugal pump operating under gas entrainment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schäfer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schaefer@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Neumann, Martin [Technische Universität Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering (Germany); Bieberle, André [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Hampel, Uwe [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions. • The gas entraining flow regime has a large impact on the pump performance. • High-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) has been applied. • Gas holdup inside the operating impeller has been visualized and quantified. • Gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of additional gas entrainment in centrifugal pumps designed for conveying liquid phases only. The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions, and for various operational settings of the pump, such as its alignment and the rotational speed of the impeller. As a main performance indicator the impact of entrained gas on the hydraulic power of the pump has been analyzed using experimental data. Additionally, high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) operated in time-averaged rotation-synchronized scanning mode has been applied to quantify local phase fraction distributions inside the rapidly rotating pump impeller. Based on these quantitative tomographic measurements, gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated and gas accumulation areas inside the impeller chambers have been visualized. Thus, various internally accumulated gas holdup patterns have been identified and, eventually, associated with characteristic pump performance behaviors. Moreover, the tomographic measuring method allowed an enhanced gas holdup analysis in specified pump compartments. As a result, the related specific gas and liquid phase holdup profiles have been evaluated.

  6. Utilizing the ECHO Model in the Veterans Health Affairs System: Guidelines for Setup, Operations and Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herschel Knapp

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2011, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA consulted with the Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes team at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, to reproduce their successful model within the VHA. Methods: The VHA launched SCAN-ECHO (Specialty Care Access Network-Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes, a multisite videoconferencing system to conduct live clinical consultations between specialists at a VHA Medical Center (hospital and primary care providers stationed at satellite VHA CBOCs (Community-Based Outpatient Clinic. Results: Analysis of the first three years rendered a mean attendee satisfaction of 89.53% and a consultation satisfaction score of 88.10%. About half of the SCAN-ECHO consultations resulted in patients receiving their treatment from their local primary care providers; the remaining half were referred to the VHA Medical Center when the treatment involved equipment or services not available at the CBOCs (e.g., MRI, surgery. Conclusion: This paper details the setup, operation logistics and preliminary findings, suggesting that SCAN-ECHO is a viable model for providing quality specialty clinical consultation service, prompter access to care, reduced commutes and continuing education. Additionally, the use of a secured Internet-based videoconferencing system that supports connectivity to multiple (mobile devices could expand the utilization of this service.

  7. SNOW TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS AT VOSTOK STATION FROM AN AUTONOMOUS RECORDING SYSTEM (TAUTO: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE FIRST YEAR OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lefebvre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature gradients in the upper layers of the snow pack are of importance for studying the emissivity properties of the snow surface with respect to microwaves used in remote sensing as well as for the heat and mass transfer in snow thickness. Gradients drive the initial snow microstructure metamorphisms that probably influence the firn properties in regard to air molecules fractionation and the air bubble enclosure process at close-off depths. As a contribution to investigation of these problems and following J.-M. Barnola initiative, we developed an autonomous recording system to monitor the temperature of the upper layers of the snow pack. The instrument was built to be autonomous and to be continuously operating within environmental conditions of the Antarctic plateau and the polar night. The apparatus which monitors temperature from the first 10 mof snow by 15 sensors of a «temperature grape» was set at Vostok station during 55th Russian Antarctic Expedition within the frame of the French Russian collaboration (GDRI Vostok. From the available hourly measurements over the first year, we present preliminary results on the thermal diffusive properties of the snow pack as well as some character of the temperature variations on the Antarctic plateau.

  8. Breast operative technique for single-stage reconstruction after conservative skin sparing and nipple sparing mastectomies: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Riggio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Authors present a novel technique of immediate breast reconstruction with definite implants after mastectomy conserving the nipple- areola complex and, less frequently, in skin-sparing mastectomy. The increase of indications for both oncologic and prophylactic nipple-sparing mastectomy has induced the research for a single-stage technique that could replace the two-stage reconstruction with expanders and/or autogenous reconstructions with flaps. The new techniques introduce modifications of the pocket coverage for the implants occurring in two ways: i autologous adaptation of muscle-fascia-fat-skin layers, ii application of alloplastic materials as the meshes. A series of 124 immediate reconstructions were performed from 2008 to 2011 using a continuous composite pocket made of pectoralis maior and serratus anterior muscle above, and skin-fat flap below. The innovation is represented by an extended electrosurgical scoring of the lower pole of the mammary pocket at two levels. The first is the deep-fascia and muscle layer; the second is the superfiacial fascial system. This operative technique represents an advancement of a prior procedure described by the Authors in 1998. This preliminary study would primarily describe the technique step by step. Discussion debates about alternative techniques in terms of either surgical details of technique or cosmetic results are still to be reached.

  9. Experimental Study ofa New Operative Procedure for Non-Ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy-Overlapping Cardiac Volume Reduction Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗滨; 孟春营; 温定国; 松居喜朗; 安田庆秀

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To assess anewly devised procedure of cardiac volume reduction without resection of cardiac muscle and evaluated in experimental settings. Methods Ten beagle dogs underwent a rapid pacing leading to heart failure for 3 weeks and received the left ventricular reduction termed overlapping cardiac volume reduction operation (OLCVR) ,which consisted of a longitudinal incision in left ventricular (LV) free wall, sutures of the left marginal to the septal wall, and the right marginal to LV free wall.A slope of the linear preload recruitable stroke work relationship (Mw) , with a X - intercept (Vo) were calculated as the precise indicators of left ventricular systolic function. The constant of isovolumic pressure decay (Tau) and a peak filling rate (PFR) were also calculated as the indicators of LV diastolic function.Results LV end- diastolic dimensions was significantly reduced by OLCVR (43±2 to 25±1; mm).Fractional shortening was significantly improved by OLCVR (11±2 to 30±4;%). Mw (erg* cm-3* 103)was also significantly improved (21±2 to 33 ±3 (p<0. 001 ) ) , whereas Vo, Tau and PFR did not show significant changes. Conclusions The OLCVR significantly increased in the early LV systolic function without detrimental effects on diastolic function. This procedure may become a therapeutic option for end - stage cardiomyopathy.

  10. Reference-based combined deterministic stochastic subspace identification for experimental and operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Edwin; Roeck, Guido De

    2008-04-01

    The modal analysis of mechanical or civil engineering structures consists of three steps: data collection, system identification and modal parameter estimation. The system identification step plays a crucial role in the quality of the modal parameters, that are derived from the identified system model, as well as in the number of modal parameters that can be determined. This explains the increasing interest in sophisticated system identification methods for both experimental and operational modal analysis. In purely operational or output-only modal analysis, absolute scaling of the obtained mode shapes is not possible and the frequency content of the ambient forces could be narrow banded so that only a limited number of modes are obtained. This drives the demand for system identification methods that take both artificial and ambient excitation into account so that the amplitude of the artificial excitation can be small compared to that of the ambient excitation. An accurate, robust and efficient system identification method that meets this requirements is combined deterministic-stochastic subspace identification. It can be used both for experimental modal analysis and for operational modal analysis with deterministic inputs. In this paper, the method is generalized to a reference-based version which is faster and, if the chosen reference outputs have the highest SNR values, more accurate than the classical algorithm. The algorithm is validated with experimental data from the Z24 bridge that overpassing the A1 highway between Bern and Zurich in Switzerland, that have been proposed as a benchmark for the assessment of system identification methods for the modal analysis of large structures. With the presented algorithm, the most complete set of modes reported so far is obtained.

  11. Experimental investigation on stern-boat deployment system and operability for Korean coast guard ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Hwan Chun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The stern boat deployment system was investigated to evaluate the capability of launching and recovering rigid hull inflatable boat (RHIB via the stern ramp. The main parameters to launch and recover RHIB were tested at the design stage. The combined hydrodynamic effect of the stern wake and the water jet flow made it difficult to maintain the maneuvering and sea-keeping ability of RHIB approaching to the stern ramp. The safe recovery course was proposed to maintain the directional control of RHIB and to reduce the combined hydrodynamic effect in the transom zone. To evaluate the feasibility of RHIB recovery, the stern sill depth was measured in various conditions and the ramp availability time was obtained. Also, the experimental percent time operability (PTO test was performed by the number of successive launching and recovering operations.

  12. Experimental demonstration of an excited-state Faraday filter operating at 532 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmers, R I; Gayen, S K; Squicciarini, M F; Contarino, V M; Scharpf, W J; Allocca, D M

    1995-01-01

    We outline what is to our knowledge the first experimental demonstration of an excited-state Faraday filter. The filter consists of potassium vapor between crossed polarizers in a dc magnetic field and operates on the 4P((1/2)) ? 8S((1/2)) transition in potassium. The 4P((1/2)) state is populated by a linearly polarized, 10-ns light pulse from a dye laser operating at 769.9 nm. Another linearly polarized, 10-nsec pulse at 532.33 nm traverses the pumped volume of the K cell and is absorbed from the 4P((1/2)) state to the 8S((1/2)) state. The transmission of the filter is approximately 3.5% at 532.33 nm with a bandwidth of less than 10 GHz.

  13. Influence of operation of national experimental nuclear reactor on the natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of experimental nuclear reactor operations on the national environment, based on assessment reports of the radiological protection of active nuclear technology sources. Using the analysis of measurements carried out in the last 15 years, the trends are presented in selected elements of the environment on the Świerk Nuclear Centre site and its surroundings. In addition, the impact of research results is presented from the fi fteen year period of environmental analysis on building public confi dence on the eve of the start of construction of the first Polish nuclear power plant.

  14. Post-operative levamisole may compromise early healing of experimental intestinal anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, J. W.; Wobbes, T.; de Man, B. M.; van der Linden, C. J.; Hendriks, T.

    1995-01-01

    There exists growing interest in immediate post-operative local adjuvant therapy after resection of intestinal malignancies. It is therefore necessary to assess it potential effect on the healing of intestinal anastomoses. Five groups (n = 20) of rats underwent resection and anastomosis of both ileum and colon: a control group and four experimental groups receiving intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-FU plus leucovorin, 5-FU plus levamisole or levamisole alone, on the day of surgery and the next 2 days. Animals were killed 3 or 7 days after operation. Another three groups (n = 6) of animals were used to compare anastomotic collagen synthetic capacity in control rats or rats receiving 5-FU or 5-FU plus levamisole. On the third post-operative day, the average anastomotic bursting pressure in the 5-FU/levamisole group was reduced by 36% as compared with the control group, both in ileum (P = 0.02) and in colon (P = 0.01). Values in the other groups were similar to those in the control group. Anastomotic breaking strength was significantly (P < 0.025) lowered in the ileum from the levamisole group at both days 3 and 7. Anastomotic collagen synthetic capacity was strongly reduced in the 5-FU and 5-FU/levamisole groups. However, there was no significant difference between the control group and the four experimental groups with regard to anastomotic hydroxyproline concentration and content, either 3 or 7 days after operation. Thus, limited use of levamisole, alone or in combination with intraperitoneal 5-FU, may compromise intestinal healing. PMID:7640232

  15. Resonant and nonresonant new phenomena of four-fermion operators for experimental searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    She-Sheng Xue

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the fermion content and gauge symmetry of the standard model (SM, we study the four-fermion operators in the torsion-free Einstein–Cartan theory. The collider signatures of irrelevant operators are suppressed by the high-energy cutoff (torsion-field mass Λ, and cannot be experimentally accessible at TeV scales. Whereas the dynamics of relevant operators accounts for (i the SM symmetry-breaking in the domain of infrared-stable fixed point with the energy scale v≈239.5 GeV and (ii composite Dirac particles restoring the SM symmetry in the domain of ultraviolet-stable fixed point with the energy scale E≳5 TeV. To search for the resonant phenomena of composite Dirac particles with peculiar kinematic distributions in final states, we discuss possible high-energy processes: multi-jets and dilepton Drell–Yan process in LHC pp collisions, the resonant cross-section in e−e+ collisions annihilating to hadrons and deep inelastic lepton–hadron e−p scatterings. To search for the nonresonant phenomena due to the form-factor of Higgs boson, we calculate the variation of Higgs-boson production and decay rate with the CM energy in LHC. We also present the discussions on four-fermion operators in the lepton sector and the mass-squared differences for neutrino oscillations in short baseline experiments.

  16. An experimental investigation and statistical modelling for trim cutting operation in WEDM of Nimonic-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trim cutting operation in wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is considered as a probable solution to improve surface characteristics and geometrical accuracy by removing very small amount of work materials from the surface obtained after a rough cutting operation. In this study, an attempt has been made to model the surface roughness and dimensional shift in trim cutting operations in WEDM process through response surface methodology (RSM. Four process parameters; namely pulse-on time (Ton, servo voltage (SV, wire depth (Wd and Dielectric flow rate (FR have been considered as input parameters in trim cutting operations for modelling. Desirability function has been employed to optimize multi performance characteristics. Increasing the value of Ton, Wd and FR increases the surface roughness and dimensional shift but increasing SV decreases both surface roughness and dimensional shift. Quadratic models have been proposed for both the performance characteristics. In present experimentation, thickness of recast layer was observed in the range of 6μm to 12μm for low to high value of discharge parameters.

  17. Experimental Analysis of a Small Generator set Operating on Dual Fuel Diesel-Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Alex Vailatti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the operation of a generator set on single fuel mode with diesel oil, and on dual fuel mode using diesel–ethanol blends. The engine used to realize the experimental analysis was a diesel cycle model, single cylinder, direct injection, air refrigerated and coupled to a three-phase electric generator, whose set capacity was 8.0 kVA. The generated electric energy was dissipated in electrical resistances inside a reservoir with running water. Fuels were blended in different volumetric ratios, using a small portion of vegetable castor oil to promote the homogenization. The percentages of substitutions of diesel oil were by 10% to 50%, increasing by 10% the replacement for each sample. Also, the engine was operated with 100% substitution of diesel oil, i.e., for this condition, the samples were composed of ethanol/castor oil 90/10 (volume/volume, 80/20 and 75/25. The blends of diesel and ethanol did not obtain good performance, mainly in taxes of substitution above 40%, causing combustion failures, operational instability, and increase of fuel consumption, although it has achieved a greatly reduction on opacity percentages. The blends with 100% of substitution of diesel oil obtained good performance except to blend with 90% ethanol, where occurred combustion failures, which caused operational instability. To these conditions, the results achieved are increase of consumption by 17%, decrease of opacity by 79%, decrease of exhaust gas temperature by 3.5% and increase of engine thermal efficiency by 1.3%. At the ethanol – castor oil blends there was a decrease in the percentage of opacity by 96%, decrease of exhaust gas temperature by 17.6%, with a minimum of operational irregularities, although fuel consumption has increased by 52.4% and the engine thermal efficiency has decreased almost 1.7%.

  18. An experimental analysis of ongoing verbal behavior: reinforcement, verbal operants, and superstitious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, S

    1996-01-01

    Four adult humans were asked to asked to "find" and talk about a particular topic to a person in an adjoining room, and were instructed that they would hear a short beep (the only form of reply from the other person) when they were talking about the topic, or were "close" to the topic. In Session 1, the experimenter in the adjoining room presented the beeps in the manner of shaping, or the differential reinforcement of successive approximations, "toward" the designated topic. In Session 2, the same conditions were in effect but the experimenter was unable to hear the subject and the beeps were presented noncontingently in a way that roughly matched the frequency and distribution of presentations in Session 1. In Session 3, shaping conditions were again in effect but with a different topic than that designated for Session 1. Audio recordings were transcribed in a way that was designed to show the progress of shaping over time. These and additional forms of supporting data and accompanying rationale are presented and discussed in detail. Issues raised by the methodology and results of the experiment include the nature of the verbal operant, superstitious verbal behavior, and a variety of methodological issues relevant to the experimental analysis of ongoing or continuous verbal behavior.

  19. A rail system for circular synthetic aperture sonar imaging and acoustic target strength measurements: design/operation/preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J L; Marston, T M; Lee, K; Lopes, J L; Lim, R

    2014-01-01

    A 22 m diameter circular rail, outfitted with a mobile sonar tower trolley, was designed, fabricated, instrumented with underwater acoustic transducers, and assembled on a 1.5 m thick sand layer at the bottom of a large freshwater pool to carry out sonar design and target scattering response studies. The mobile sonar tower translates along the rail via a drive motor controlled by customized LabVIEW software. The rail system is modular and assembly consists of separately deploying eight circular arc sections, measuring a nominal center radius of 11 m and 8.64 m arc length each, and having divers connect them together in the underwater environment. The system enables full scale measurements on targets of interest with 0.1° angular resolution over a complete 360° aperture, without disrupting target setup, and affording a level of control over target environment conditions and noise sources unachievable in standard field measurements. In recent use, the mobile cart carrying an instrumented sonar tower was translated along the rail in 720 equal position increments and acoustic backscatter data were acquired at each position. In addition, this system can accommodate both broadband monostatic and bistatic scattering measurements on targets of interest, allowing capture of target signature phenomena under diverse configurations to address current scientific and technical issues encountered in mine countermeasure and unexploded ordnance applications. In the work discussed here, the circular rail apparatus is used for acoustic backscatter testing, but this system also has the capacity to facilitate the acquisition of magnetic and optical sensor data from targets of interest. A brief description of the system design and operation will be presented along with preliminary processed results for data acquired from acoustic measurements conducted at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division Test Pond Facility. [Work Supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and

  20. Experimental fuel cell performance analysis under different operating conditions and bipolar plate designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranzo, Alfredo; Pino, Javier; Rosa, Felipe [Energy Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of Seville, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Munoz, Miguel; Lopez, Eduardo [INTA - National Institute for Aerospace Technology, Ctra. San Juan del Puerto-Matalascanas km 33, 21130 Mazagon (Huelva) (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This work presents experimental performance results for a 50 cm{sup 2} Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell, including polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis of the Fuel Cell. EIS results were used for the determination of the cell ohmic resistance as well as charge transfer resistances under different operating conditions. Different combinations of operating conditions and bipolar plate designs were analysed. In particular, the effect of the cathode oxygen concentration, reactant gases humidification, and bipolar plate (BP) design were assessed. Butler-Volmer (BV) kinetic parameters such as the charge transfer coefficient were also determined from Tafel plots. The electronic contact resistances were measured for both Bipolar Plate designs, and the membrane protonic resistances were calculated. Its dependence on the BP flow field design and operating conditions is addressed. The results obtained in this work are aimed both at gaining insight into the fundamental processes determining the fuel cell performance, and at determining parameters needed for Computational Fuel Cell Dynamics (CFCD) numerical simulations. (author)

  1. Commissioning of two RF operation modes for RF negative ion source experimental setup at HUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Chen, D.; Liu, K.; Zhao, P.; Zuo, C.; Wang, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, L.

    2017-08-01

    An RF-driven negative ion source experimental setup, without a cesium oven and an extraction system, has been built at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The working gas is hydrogen, and the typical operational gas pressure is 0.3 Pa. The RF generator is capable of delivering up to 20 kW at 0.9 - 1.1 MHz, and has two operation modes, the fixed-frequency mode and auto-tuning mode. In the fixed-frequency mode, it outputs a steady RF forward power (Pf) at a fixed frequency. In the auto-tuning mode, it adjusts the operating frequency to seek and track the minimum standing wave ratio (SWR) during plasma discharge. To achieve fast frequency tuning, the RF signal source adopts a direct digital synthesizer (DDS). To withstand high SWR during the discharge, a tetrode amplifier is chosen as the final stage amplifier. The trend of maximum power reflection coefficient |ρ|2 at plasma ignition is presented at the fixed frequency of 1.02 MHz with the Pf increasing from 5 kW to 20 kW, which shows the maximum |ρ|2 tends to be "steady" under high RF power. The experiments in auto-tuning mode fail due to over-current protection of screen grid. The possible reason is the relatively large equivalent anode impedance caused by the frequency tuning. The corresponding analysis and possible solution are presented.

  2. Resonant and nonresonant new phenomena of four-fermion operators for experimental searches

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, She-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    In the fermion content and gauge symmetry of the standard model (SM), we study the four-fermion operators in the torsion-free Einstein-Cartan theory. The collider signatures of irrelevant operators are suppressed by the high-energy cutoff (torsion-field mass) $\\Lambda$, and cannot be experimentally accessible at TeV scales. Whereas the dynamics of relevant operators accounts for (i) the SM symmetry-breaking in the domain of infrared-stable fixed point with the energy scale $v\\approx 239.5$ GeV and (ii) composite Dirac particles restoring the SM symmetry in the domain of ultraviolate-stable fixed point with the energy scale ${\\mathcal E}\\gtrsim 5$ TeV. To search for the resonant phenomena of composite Dirac particles with peculiar kinematic distributions in final states, we discuss possible high-energy processes: multi-jets and dilepton Drell-Yan process in LHC $p\\,p$ collisions, the resonant cross-section in $e^-e^+$ collisions annihilating to hadrons and deep inelastic lepton-hadron $e^-\\,p$ scatterings. To ...

  3. Preliminary Polar Sea Trials of Nereid-UI: A Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle for Oceanographic Access Under Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, L. L.; Jakuba, M.; German, C. R.; Bowen, A.; Yoerger, D.; Kinsey, J. C.; Mayer, L.; McFarland, C.; Suman, S.; Bailey, J.; Judge, C.; Elliott, S.; Gomez-Ibanez, D.; Taylor, C. L.; Machado, C.; Howland, J. C.; Kaiser, C.; Heintz, M.; Pontbriand, C.; O'Hara, L.; McDonald, G.; Boetius, A.

    2014-12-01

    We report the development and deployment of a remotely-controlled underwater robotic vehicle capable of being teleoperated under ice under real-time human supervision. The Nereid Under-Ice (Nereid-UI or NUI) vehicle enables exploration and detailed examination of biological and physical environments including the ice-ocean interface in marginal ice zones, in the water column of ice-covered seas, at glacial ice-tongues, and ice-shelf margins, delivering realtime high definition video in addition to survey data from on board acoustic, optical, chemical, and biological sensors. The vehicle employs a novel lightweight fiber-optic tether that will enable it to be deployed from a ship to attain standoff distances of up to 20 km from an ice-edge boundary. We conducted NUI's first under-ice deployments during the July 2014 F/V Polarstern PS86 expedition at 86° N 6 W° in the Arctic Ocean - near the Aurora hydrothermal vent site on the Gakkel Ridge approximately 200 km NE of Greenland. We conducted 4 dives to evaluate and develop NUI's overall functioning and its individual engineered subsystems. On each dive, dead-reckoning (Ice-locked Doppler sonar and north-seeking gyrocompass) complemented by acoustic ranging provided navigation, supporting closed-loop control of heading, depth, and XY position relative to the ice. Science operations included multibeam transects of under-ice topography, precision vertical profiles for the bio-sensor suite and IR/radiance sensor suite, IR/radiance/multibeam transects at constant depth interlaced with vertical profiles and upward-looking digital still-camera surveys of the ice, including areas rich with algal material. The fiber-optic tether remained intact throughout most of all 4 dives. Consistent with the NUI concept of operations, in 3 of 4 dives the fiber-optic tether eventually failed, and the vehicle was then commanded acoustically in a series of short-duration maneuvers to return to Polarstern for recovery. These preliminary

  4. Wave Synchronizing Crane Control during Water Entry in Offshore Moonpool Operations - Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor A. Johansen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy for active control in heavy-lift offshore crane operations is suggested, by introducing a new concept referred to as wave synchronization. Wave synchronization reduces the hydrodynamic forces by minimization of variations in the relative vertical velocity between payload and water using a wave amplitude measurement. Wave synchronization is combined with conventional active heave compensation to obtain accurate control. Experimental results using a scale model of a semi-submerged vessel with a moonpool shows that wave synchronization leads to significant improvements in performance. Depending on the sea state and payload, the results indicate that the reduction in the standard deviation of the wire tension may be up to 50

  5. Experimental Evaluation of the Surface Alteration of Gasket Samples under Operative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Bignozzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the surface alteration of gasket samples commercialized by two alternative producers. These gaskets, in polymeric materials, are installed in process plants used for cleaning tires molds by a pioneering ultrasonic process. They are exposed to a combination of ultrasonic waves, temperature, humidity and acid attack causing several erosion phenomena. Their surface degradation under ordinary operative conditions was investigated using mechanical and tribological tests. The experimental characterization was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermograms, differential scanning calorimetry curves and infrared spectra aiming at defining the specific mechanics of wearing. As a conclusion, it was possible to state that even if samples exhibit similar chemical structures, their thermal and mechanical properties as well as their geometric dimensions are different. Such differences in the materials might cause various unexpected wear behaviors when gaskets are employed in the same working conditions.


  6. Experimental Investigation on Operational Performance of PAFS for CIV Opening Stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok; Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Park, Yusun; Kang, Kyoung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The test facility, ATLAS-PAFS was constructed to experimentally investigate the thermal hydraulic behavior in the primary and secondary systems of the APR+ during a transient when PAFS is actuated. In this study, PAFS-CIV-01 test was performed for validating the cooling rate of the reactor according to the CIV opening stroke at the FLB accident, which was analyzed as the most severe case in the APR+ SSAR (Standard Safety Analysis Report). With an aim of simulating a FLB+CIV accident of the APR+ as realistically as possible, the three-level scaling methodology was taken into account to determine the test conditions of the steady-state and the transient. The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR+ during changes of CIV opening stroke but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate a thermal hydraulic safety analysis code. The initial steady-state conditions and the sequence of event in the FLB scenario for the APR+ were successfully simulated with the ATLAS-PAFS facility. The pressure and the temperature gradient of the primary system was reduced as the stroke of the CIV was decreased during the heat removal by PAFS operation. The mean temperature gradient of the core was reduced as the stroke of the CIV was decreased. The cooling rate of the core under 60% stroke (70.4 mm{sup 2}) of the CIV met the criteria. The water in the PCCT was heated up to the saturation condition by the heat transfer from the PCHX tube surface. In PAFS-CIV-01 test, the major sequence of events was ended before the water level decrease in the PCCT. From the present experimental result, it could be concluded that the cooling rate of the core was controlled by the adjustment of the CIV opening stroke when the APR+ PAFS was operating.

  7. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  8. Experimental and operational modal analysis of a laboratory scale model of a tripod support structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, M. M.; Mucchi, E.; Telega, J.

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the research is to develop a vibration-based procedure for the identification of structural failures in a laboratory scale model of a tripod supporting structure of an offshore wind turbine. In particular, this paper presents an experimental campaign on the scale model tested in two stages. Stage one encompassed the model tripod structure tested in air. The second stage was done in water. The tripod model structure allows to investigate the propagation of a circumferential representative crack of a cylindrical upper brace. The in-water test configuration included the tower with three bladed rotor. The response of the structure to the different waves loads were measured with accelerometers. Experimental and operational modal analysis was applied to identify the dynamic properties of the investigated scale model for intact and damaged state with different excitations and wave patterns. A comprehensive test matrix allows to assess the differences in estimated modal parameters due to damage or as potentially introduced by nonlinear structural response. The presented technique proves to be effective for detecting and assessing the presence of representative cracks.

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ruben P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, Wendy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  10. Pre-operative diclofenac HPβCD for pain control of needle biopsy in musculoskeletal neoplasm: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arienzo, Antonio; Beltrami, Giovanni; Mancini, Daniele; Scoccianti, Guido; Cuomo, Pierluigi; Muratori, Francesco; Matera, Davide; Ippolito, Massimiliano; Mondanelli, Nicola; Frenos, Filippo; Totti, Francesca; Capanna, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Needle biopsy is the main standard method used for diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumors of the limbs and superficial trunk. Pain control during this procedure is through the use of Local Anaestetic (L.A.). In order to achieve a complete pain control in our cases, recently we started using diclofenac HPβCD 50 mg via s.c. preoperativly. We present the clinical results of a non-randomized study of two eterogeneous groups of patients: "Experimental" Group (1): diclofenac HPβCD 50 mg via s.c. one hour before surgical procedure, local anesthesia and ev. diclofenac HPβCD 50 mg via s.c. 12 hours postoperative; "Conventional" Group (2): local anesthesia and ev. postoperative tramadol 100 mg via oral for pain control. In October 2014, at the Department of Orthopedic Oncology and Reconstructive Surgery of Florence, 37 musculoskeletal biopsies for a bone or a soft tissue lesion were performed. Exclusion criteria for this study were: known allergies to lidocaine, diclofenac, tramadol; known gastric or duodenal ulcers; known gastrointestinal bleed or perforation; refusal of the patients to collaborate. For one or more of these reasons, 6 patients were excluded from this study. In the Group 1, 10 patients (59%) referred no pain during the surgical procedure (8/14 biopsies on soft tissue and 2/3 on bone). In 5 cases (29%) no exacerbation of previous chronic pain, and in 2 cases (12%) a progression of local pain after biopsy (average 1 points higher in the VAS). In Group 2, only 6 patients (42%) did not have any pain during the procedure, 4 (29%) no exacerbation of previous chronic pain and 4 (29%) a progression of local pain (average 2 points higher in the VAS). Despite similar results in both Groups, Group 1 seemed to have a mild better control of perioperative pain. The use of diclofenac HPβCD 50 mg preoperative seems to be a rational approach for minimizing perioperative pain and the preliminary data of our study seem encouraging. Obviously many bias are present in this

  11. Experimental investigation and modeling of an aircraft Otto engine operating with gasoline and heavier fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldivar Olague, Jose

    A Continental "O-200" aircraft Otto-cycle engine has been modified to burn diesel fuel. Algebraic models of the different processes of the cycle were developed from basic principles applied to a real engine, and utilized in an algorithm for the simulation of engine performance. The simulation provides a means to investigate the performance of the modified version of the Continental engine for a wide range of operating parameters. The main goals of this study are to increase the range of a particular aircraft by reducing the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and to show that such an engine can burn heavier fuels (such as diesel, kerosene, and jet fuel) instead of gasoline. Such heavier fuels are much less flammable during handling operations making them safer than aviation gasoline and very attractive for use in flight operations from naval vessels. The cycle uses an electric spark to ignite the heavier fuel at low to moderate compression ratios, The stratified charge combustion process is utilized in a pre-chamber where the spray injection of the fuel occurs at a moderate pressure of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa). One advantage of fuel injection into the combustion chamber instead of into the intake port, is that the air-to-fuel ratio can be widely varied---in contrast to the narrower limits of the premixed combustion case used in gasoline engines---in order to obtain very lean combustion. Another benefit is that higher compression ratios can be attained in the modified cycle with heavier fuels. The combination of injection into the chamber for lean combustion, and higher compression ratios allow to limit the peak pressure in the cylinder, and to avoid engine damage. Such high-compression ratios are characteristic of Diesel engines and lead to increase in thermal efficiency without pre-ignition problems. In this experimental investigation, operations with diesel fuel have shown that considerable improvements in the fuel efficiency are possible. The results of

  12. Influence of experimental set-up on the infiltration characteristics during managed aquifer recharge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Thomas; Vanzella de Melo, Julio Augusto; Stefan, Catalin

    2016-04-01

    The main focus during operation of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is on clogging processes, specifically on the changes of infiltration capacities and degradation of infiltrated organic substances including vadose zone oxygen dynamics. Lab scale experiments are one opportunity to understand and characterize these processes under different drying and wetting cycles and infiltration rates. However, the multitude of assumptions and scale-related limitations of downscale investigations often lead to over- or underestimations, rendering their results useless when translated to field-like conditions. Therefore, the specific objective of this investigation is to compare the results obtained from two different experimental set-ups with different scales: a 3D, rectangular shaped, stainless steel lysimeter (1.5 x 1.0 x 1.0 m) with an infiltration basin installed in the centre of its surface and a 1D soil column (1m, ᴓ 0.15 m) with the infiltration over the complete column surface. The study focuses on the influence of the experimental setup conditions on the soil clogging, water flow pattern, oxygen dynamics and degradation of organic substances. The results should allow making statements about the suitability of these lab experiments for the investigation of processes taking place in the unsaturated soil zone during operation of MAR. Both experimental units were packed with the same soil and equipped with tensiometers, TDR-probes, oxygen probes and suction cups in two depths for the estimation of spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture, oxygen and infiltrated substances. The lysimeter and the column were placed inside of a fully automatic climate tent, which facilitates the exact control of air temperature and humidity. The first results confirm that both infiltration units are suitable to simulate the clogging and the oxidation of easily degradable organic substances. However, the velocity of water transport is higher in the column compared with the lysimeter

  13. Preliminary Study on Mass Flow Rate in Passive Cooling Experimental Simulation During Transient Using NC-Queen Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Juarsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research related to thermal management has been significantly inreased, especially for NPP safety. The use of passive cooling systems both during the accident and operation become reliable in the advanced reactor safety systems. Therefore it should be enhanced through experimental studies to investigate heat transfer phenomenon of the heat decay in transient cooling condition.An investigation has been performed through experiment using an NC-Queen apparatusconstructed with rectangular loop. Piping were consisting of tubes of SS316L with diameter, length, and width of 3/4 inch, 2.7 m, and 0.5 m respectively. The height between heater and cooler was 1.4 m. The experiment used initial water temperature at 70oC, 80oC, and 90oC in heater area. Transient temperature was used as experimental data to calculate water mass flow rate. The results showed that the temperature in heater area and cooler area were decreasing of about 90.6% and 95.7% at initial temperatur of 80oC, and of about 71.1% and 59.4% at initial temperature of 70oC. Those results were at higher initial temperature of 90oC compared with the initial temperature of 90oC. The average of water mass flow rate increased 81.03% from initial temperatur of 70oC. It was shown that the averages of removed heat in every second from water due to heat loss and cooler,were 3.51 watts, 5.06 watts and 6.85 watts respectively. The initial condition of heat stored in the water was quite different, but to the cooler heat removal capacity and heat loss was almost the same.

  14. Reliable experimental setup to test the pressure modulation of Baerveldt Implant tubes for reducing post-operative hypotony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Ajay

    Glaucoma encompasses a group of conditions that result in damage to the optic nerve and can cause loss of vision and blindness. The nerve is damaged due to an increase in the eye's internal (intraocular) pressure (IOP) above the nominal range of 15 -- 20 mm Hg. There are many treatments available for this group of diseases depending on the complexity and stage of nerve degradation. In extreme cases where drugs or laser surgery do not create better conditions for the patient, ophthalmologists use glaucoma drainage devices to help alleviate the IOP. Many drainage implants have been developed over the years and are in use; but two popular implants are the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant and the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implant. Baerveldt Implants are non-valved and provide low initial resistance to outflow of fluid, resulting in post-operative complications such as hypotony, where the IOP drops below 5 mm of Hg. Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implants are valved implants which initially restrict the amount of fluid flowing out of the eye. The long term success rates of Baerveldt Implants surpass those of Ahmed Valve Implants because of post-surgical issues; but Baerveldt Implants' initial effectiveness is poor without proper flow restriction. This drives the need to develop new ways to improve the initial effectiveness of Baerveldt Implants. A possible solution proposed by our research team is to place an insert in the Baerveldt Implant tube of inner diameter 305 microns. The insert must be designed to provide flow resistance for the early time frame [e.g., first 30 -- 60 post-operative days] until sufficient scar tissue has formed on the implant. After that initial stage with the insert, the scar tissue will provide the necessary flow resistance to maintain the IOP above 5 mm Hg. The main objective of this project was to develop and validate an experimental apparatus to measure pressure drop across a Baerveldt Implant tube, with and without inserts. This setup will be used in the

  15. Experimental investigation of mixing of non-isothermal water streams at BWR operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergagio, Mattia, E-mail: bergagio@kth.se [AlbaNova University Center, Nuclear Reactor Technology Division, Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Anglart, Henryk, E-mail: henryk@kth.se [AlbaNova University Center, Nuclear Reactor Technology Division, Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 21/25 Nowowiejska Street, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Temperatures are measured in the presence of mixing at BWR operating conditions. • The thermocouple support is moved along a pattern to extend the measurement region. • Uncertainty of 1.58 K for temperatures acquired at 1000 Hz. • Momenta of the hot streams and thermal stratification affect the data examined. • Unconventional spectral analysis is required to further study the data collected. - Abstract: In this experimental investigation, wall surface temperatures have been measured during mixing of three water streams in the annular gap between two coaxial stainless-steel tubes. The inner tube, with an outer diameter of 35 mm and a thickness of 5 mm, holds six K-type, ungrounded thermocouples with a diameter of 0.5 mm, which measured surface temperatures with a sampling rate of either 100 Hz or 1000 Hz. The tube was rotated from 0 to 360° and moved in a range of 387 mm in the axial direction to allow measurements of surface temperatures in the whole mixing region. The outer tube has an inner diameter of 80 mm and a thickness of 10 mm to withstand a water pressure of 9 MPa. A water stream at a temperature of either 333 K or 423 K and a Reynolds number between 1657 and 8410 rose vertically in the annular gap and mixed with two water streams at a temperature of 549 K and a Reynolds number between 3.56 × 10{sup 5} and 7.11 × 10{sup 5}. These two water streams entered the annulus radially on the same axial level, 180° apart. Water pressure was kept at 7.2 MPa. Temperature recordings were performed at five axial and eight azimuthal locations, for each set of boundary conditions. Each recording lasted 120 s to provide reliable data on the variance, intermittency and frequency of the surface temperature time series at hand. Thorough calculations indicate that the uncertainty in the measured temperature is of 1.58 K. The mixing region extends up to 0.2 m downward of the hot inlets. In most cases, measurements indicate non-uniform mixing in the

  16. Experimental verification of an energy consumption signal tool for operational decision support in an office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlak, Gregory S.; Henze, Gregor P.; Hirsch, Adam I.; Florita, Anthony R.; Dodier, Robert H.

    2016-12-01

    This paper demonstrates an energy signal tool to assess the system-level and whole-building energy use of an office building in downtown Denver, Colorado. The energy signal tool uses a traffic light visualization to alert a building operator to energy use which is substantially different from expected. The tool selects which light to display for a given energy end-use by comparing measured energy use to expected energy use, accounting for uncertainty. A red light is only displayed when a fault is likely enough, and abnormal operation costly enough, that taking action will yield the lowest cost result. While the theoretical advances and tool development were reported previously, it has only been tested using a basic building model and has not, until now, been experimentally verified. Expected energy use for the field demonstration is provided by a compact reduced-order representation of the Alliance Center, generated from a detailed DOE-2.2 energy model. Actual building energy consumption data is taken from the summer of 2014 for the office building immediately after a significant renovation project. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a first look at the building following its major renovation compared to the design intent. The tool indicated strong under-consumption in lighting and plug loads and strong over-consumption in HVAC energy consumption, which prompted several focused actions for follow-up investigation. In addition, this paper illustrates the application of Bayesian inference to the estimation of posterior parameter probability distributions to measured data. Practical discussion of the application is provided, along with additional findings from further investigating the significant difference between expected and actual energy consumption.

  17. Geant4 simulations on medical Linac operation at 18 MV: Experimental validation based on activation foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagena, E.; Stoulos, S.; Manolopoulou, M.

    2016-03-01

    The operation of a medical linear accelerator was simulated using the Geant4 code regarding to study the characteristics of an 18 MeV photon beam. Simulations showed that (a) the photon spectrum at the isocenter is not influenced by changes of the primary electron beam's energy distribution and spatial spread (b) 98% of the photon energy fluence scored at the isocenter is primary photons that have only interacted with the target (c) the number of contaminant electrons is not negligible since it fluctuated around 5×10-5 per primary electron or 2.40×10-3 per photon at the isocenter (d) the number of neutrons that are created by (γ, n) reactions is 3.13×10-6 per primary electron or 1.50×10-3 per photon at the isocenter (e) a flattening filter free beam needs less primary electrons in order to deliver the same photon fluence at the isocenter than a normal flattening filter operation (f) there is no significant increase of the surface dose due to the contaminant electrons by removing the flattening filter (g) comparing the neutron fluences per incident electron for the flattened and unflattened beam, the neutron fluencies is 7% higher for the unflattened beams. To validate the simulations results, the total neutron and photon fluence at the isocenter field were measured using nickel, indium, and natural uranium activation foils. The percentage difference between simulations and measurements was 1.26% in case of uranium and 2.45% in case of the indium foil regarding photon fluencies while for neutrons the discrepancy is higher up to 8.0%. The photon and neutron fluencies of the simulated experiments fall within a range of ±1 and ±2 sigma error, respectively, compared to the ones obtained experimentally.

  18. Thermal Conductivity Measurements By Means of a New `Small Hot-Box' Apparatus: Manufacturing, Calibration and Preliminary Experimental Tests on Different Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, C.; Belloni, E.; Lunghi, L.; Barbanera, M.

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation of the thermal performance building components requires a high level of accuracy. Windows, doors and thermal bridges are not homogeneous, and their thermal transmittance can be evaluated by means of Hot-Box, used for full-scale elements. For homogeneous materials and one-dimensional heat flux, the thermal conductivity can be easily measured through other experimental apparatuses, such as the guarded hot plate and the heat flow meters. This study presents a new experimental apparatus named Small Hot-Box, built at the University of Perugia. No European standards are available for this innovative facility, but it takes into account some prescriptions of EN ISO 8990 and EN ISO 12567; it was built for the evaluation of the thermal properties of small specimens. The apparatus was designed, built, and calibrated by means of preliminary measurements. It is composed of a hot and a cold side, and the external walls are made of thick insulation. The thermal conductivity can be calculated by two different methodologies: the Hot-Box and the thermal flux meter method. Preliminary calibrations were carried out and different materials with known thermal transmittance were tested. The aim is the development of a new experimental apparatus; guidance documents could be defined for the measurements methodology requirements.

  19. Simulation of batch-operated experimental wetland mesocosms in AQUASIM biofilm reactor compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Njenga; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Stein, Otto R; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-02-15

    In this study, a mathematical biofilm reactor model based on the structure of the Constructed Wetland Model No.1 (CWM1) coupled to AQUASIM's biofilm reactor compartment has been used to reproduce the sequence of transformation and degradation of organic matter, nitrogen and sulphur observed in a set of constructed wetland mesocosms and to elucidate the development over time of microbial species as well as the biofilm thickness of a multispecies bacterial biofilm in a subsurface constructed wetland. Experimental data from 16 wetland mesocosms operated under greenhouse conditions, planted with three different plant species (Typha latifolia, Carex rostrata, Schoenoplectus acutus) and an unplanted control were used in the calibration of this mechanistic model. Within the mesocosms, a thin (predominantly anaerobic) biofilm was simulated with an initial thickness of 49 μm (average) and in which no concentration gradients developed. The biofilm density and area, and the distribution of the microbial species within the biofilm were evaluated to be the most sensitive biofilm properties; while the substrate diffusion limitations were not significantly sensitive to influence the bulk volume concentrations. The simulated biofilm density ranging between 105,000 and 153,000 gCOD/m(3) in the mesocosms was observed to vary with temperature, the presence as well as the species of macrophyte. The biofilm modeling was found to be a better tool than the suspended bacterial modeling approach to show the influence of the rhizosphere configuration on the performance of the constructed wetlands.

  20. Experimental study of one-stage VM cryocooler operating below 8 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Changzhao; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2015-12-01

    The Vuilleumier (VM) refrigerator, known as heat driven refrigerator, is one kind of closed-cycle Stirling type regenerative refrigerator. The VM refrigerator with power being supplied by liquid nitrogen was proposed by Hogen and developed by Zhou, which shows great potential for development below 10 K. This paper describes the experimental development of a VM cryocooler operating below 8 K, which was achieved by using liquid nitrogen as a heat sink of middle cavity. The regenerator was optimized by using a part of metallic magnetic regenerator material Er3Ni to replace the lead sphere and a no-load temperature of 7.8 K was obtained. Then all the lead spheres were replaced by Er0.6Pr0.4 material and a no-load temperature of 7.35 K was obtained, which is the lowest temperature for this kind of refrigerator reported so far. The cooling power at 10 K is about 500 mW with a pressure ratio near 1.6 and a charge pressure of 1.8 MPa. Especially, the magnetic material Er0.6Pr0.4 was found to be a potential substitution for the conventional lead.

  1. Thermal energy storage in aquifiers: preliminary information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.

    1979-12-01

    Topics discussed include: conceptual designs; numerical modelling; field experiments; relevant technical information; feasibility studies; preliminary aquifer selection considerations; and preliminary design and operating considerations. (TFD)

  2. Preliminary experimental characterization of the ambient humidity response of Bi{sub 3}TiNbO{sub 9}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galuppo, E; Avila, R E [Departamento de Materiales Nucleares, Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear, Cas. 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Serafini, D [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dudik, L [Electronics Design Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cabrera, A L [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ravila@cchen.cl

    2008-11-01

    A preliminary electrical characterization of Bi{sub 3}TiNb0{sub 9} pellets, prepared by mechanochemical activation shows a nearly exponential conductivity increase over 4 orders of magnitude from dry ambient to dew point of 10 deg. C, at 23 deg. C ambient temperature; or 5 order of magnitude in thick films over interdigitated electrodes. Relaxation currents, following bias stress, respond also, at a lower sensitivity level. Under different DP on either electrode, the lower DP value controls the overall current, which flows through the bulk, not through the mantle of the cylindrical pellets. Repetitive cycling does not deteriorate the response to the ambient humidity.

  3. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  4. Experimental implementation of encoded logical qubit operations in a perfect quantum error correcting code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingfu; Laflamme, Raymond; Suter, Dieter

    2012-09-07

    Large-scale universal quantum computing requires the implementation of quantum error correction (QEC). While the implementation of QEC has already been demonstrated for quantum memories, reliable quantum computing requires also the application of nontrivial logical gate operations to the encoded qubits. Here, we present examples of such operations by implementing, in addition to the identity operation, the NOT and the Hadamard gate to a logical qubit encoded in a five qubit system that allows correction of arbitrary single-qubit errors. We perform quantum process tomography of the encoded gate operations, demonstrate the successful correction of all possible single-qubit errors, and measure the fidelity of the encoded logical gate operations.

  5. Relationships between post operative pain management and short term functional mobility in total knee arthroplasty patients with a femoral nerve catheter: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pain management following total knee arthroplasty (TKA is fundamental in achieving positive rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of our study was to investigate post operative pain management in relation to short term functional mobility in an intervention group receiving concomitant use of an IV narcotic PCA and a continuous infusion of local anaesthetic via a femoral nerve catheter (CFNC, compared to a group receiving narcotic PCA alone. This was a preliminary study conducted to establish an appropriate design for a larger investigative study. Methods A prospective design was used to measure the effect of a CFNC on post operative pain management and functional mobility prior to hospital discharge. The amount of fentanyl used, pain and nausea scores, timed up and go (TUG tests and active range of knee movement (AROM were used to compare a CFNC and supplemental narcotic patient controlled analgesia (PCA group (n = 27 with a PCA only group (n = 25. Results The CFNC group used significantly less fentanyl than the PCA only group (p s = .505 p s = .529 p s = .328, p = .034 Conclusions In this small preliminary study improved TUG performance at Day 4 post op was not influenced by the use of a CFNC but was positively correlated with male gender, preoperative performance, time elapsed since last oral analgesia and pain score. However AROM was decreased in the CFNC group suggesting further research on the relationship between CFNCs, local anaesthetic concentration and quadriceps strength should be incorporated in the follow up study's design.

  6. The experimental research of the operating processes in slow speed stages of air reciprocating medium-pressure compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusha, V. L.; Busarov, S. S.; Goshlya, R. Yu.; Vasiliev, V. K.

    2017-08-01

    To study operating processes of slow speed long-stroke compressors with special structural parameters, a test bench is developed. Experimental dependences of the gas instantaneous parameters in a working chamber and integral characteristics of a stage with intensive cylinder external cooling are obtained.

  7. CFD Analysis of a Supersonic Air Ejector. Part I: Experimental Validation of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Hemidi, Amel; Henry, François; Leclaire, Sébastien; Seynhaeve, Jean-Marie; Bartosiewicz, Yann

    2009-01-01

    CFD Analysis of a Supersonic Air Ejector. Part I: Experimental Validation of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Operation correspondance: Corresponding author. (Bartosiewicz, Yann) (Bartosiewicz, Yann) Universite catholique de Louvain UCL--> , Faculty of Applied Sciences--> , Mechanical Engineering Department--> , TERM Division--> , Place du Levant 2--> , B-1348--> , L...

  8. The experimental setup of a large field operational test for cooperative driving vehicles at the A270

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Netten, B.D.; Hoedemaeker, M.; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a large field operational test (FOT) for cooperative driving systems, which take place on a public highway, is discussed. The experimental setup consist of a specific driver support system, which is closely related to cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) systems. Instead of auto

  9. A Comprehensive Experimental Comparison of Event Driven and Multi-Threaded Sensor Node Operating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac Duffy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of a sensor network are strongly influenced by the operating system used on the sensor nodes. In general, two different sensor network operating system types are currently considered: event driven and multi-threaded. It is commonly assumed that event driven operating systems are more suited to sensor networks as they use less memory and processing resources. However, if factors other than resource usage are considered important, a multi-threaded system might be preferred. This paper compares the resource needs of multi-threaded and event driven sensor network operating systems. The resources considered are memory usage and power consumption. Additionally, the event handling capabilities of event driven and multi-threaded operating systems are analyzed and compared. The results presented in this paper show that for a number of application areas a thread-based sensor network operating system is feasible and preferable.

  10. An Application of Two Experimental Modal Analysis Methods for the Determination of Operational Deflection Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromulski, J.; Hojan, E.

    1996-10-01

    Two methods are presented for the determination of operational deflection shapes (ODSs). The first method allows one to determine the ODSs by measuring mechanical vibrations at test points of the operating machine (created by the forces occurring in the actual work cycle). The second method is based on the modal model of the machine, including the forces which occur in the operation process, and yields the operational modes of vibration. The forces introduced into the model are determined by methods of pseudo-inversion of the matrix of the spectral transmissibility functions of the mechanical system and the vector of operating vibrations. The determination of the forces involved is necessary for the definition of the paths of energy transfer and the analysis of the noise emitted by the mechanical system (machine).

  11. Carbon deposition in CH4/CO2 operated SOFC: Simulation and experimentation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona, K.; Laurencin, J.; Fouletier, J.; Lefebvre-Joud, F.

    2012-07-01

    Due to their high operating temperatures, SOFCs can be directly fed with biogas, mainly composed of CH4 and CO2. In this work, experiments was performed with a classical Ni-YSZ cermet//YSZ//LSM cell fed either with a synthetic simulated biogas (CH4/CO2 ratio equal to 1 with 6% humidity), or with humidified H2. In both cases, the performances are found to be very similar, which confirms the ability of SOFCs to operate with internal reforming of biogas. Nevertheless, carbon formation in these operating conditions needs to be considered because of durability concerns. Thermodynamic calculations and modelling are carried out to evaluate the risk of carbon deposition depending on operating parameters. In the ternary diagram Csbnd Hsbnd O, the limits for carbon deposition are plotted, allowing the determination of “safe” operating conditions in terms of CH4 inlet flow rate and cell voltage. First experiments confirm these modelling results.

  12. Protein folding: Defining a standard set of experimental conditions and a preliminary kinetic data set of two-state proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Karen L.; Wildes, D.; Zarrine-Afsar, A.;

    2005-01-01

    constructs. The lack of a single approach to data analysis and error estimation, or even of a common set of units and reporting standards, further hinders comparative studies of folding. In an effort to overcome these problems, we define here a consensus set of experimental conditions (25°C at pH 7.0, 50 m...... rates, thermodynamics, and structure across diverse sets of proteins. These difficulties include the wide, potentially confounding range of experimental conditions and methods employed to date and the difficulty of obtaining correct and complete sequence and structural details for the characterized......M buffer), data analysis methods, and data reporting standards that we hope will provide a benchmark for experimental studies. We take the first step in this initiative by describing the folding kinetics of 30 apparently two-state proteins or protein domains under the consensus conditions. The goal of our...

  13. Treatment of mechanically sorted organic waste by bioreactor landfill: Experimental results and preliminary comparative impact assessment with biostabilization and conventional landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sisani, Luciano; Rotondi, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Treatment and disposal of the mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste using a full-scale hybrid bioreactor landfill was experimentally analyzed. A preliminary life cycle assessment was used to compare the hybrid bioreactor landfill with the conventional scheme based on aerobic biostabilization plus landfill. The main findings showed that hybrid bioreactor landfill was able to achieve a dynamic respiration index (DRI)55% v/v started within 140days from MSOF disposal, allowing prompt energy recovery and higher collection efficiency. With the exception of fresh water eutrophication with the bioreactor scenario there was a reduction of the impact categories by about 30% compared to the conventional scheme. Such environmental improvement was mainly a consequence of the reduction of direct and indirect emissions from conventional aerobic biostabilization and of the lower amount of gaseous loses from the bioreactor landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary Report on Experimental Investigation of Engine Dynamics and Controls for a 48-inch Ram-jet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, George; Hart, Clint E; Dunbar, William R

    1956-01-01

    Engine dynamics and controls data are presented for a ram-jet engine which was operated in a free-jet facility at a Mach number of 2.76 and altitudes from 68,000 to 82,000 feet. The predominant engine dynamic characteristics was dead time, with values ranging from 0.018 to 0.053 sec. The control systems were designed to hold a constant ratio of a diffuser static pressure to an inlet-cone reference static pressure. Response times and percent overshoot to fuel-flow disturbances that would have caused subcritical operation without control are included for a wide range of control settings. For all settings, the control response was fast enough (0.08 to 0.5 sec) to prevent subcritical operation.

  15. Stibine/arsine monitoring during EV operation: summary report on preliminary tests at ANL and at LILCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutfy, R.O.; Graczyk, D.G.; Varma, R.; Hayes, E.R.; Williams, F.L.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-02-01

    A series of tests was performed to monitor the evolution and dispersal of stibine and arsine from the lead-acid propulsion batteries in three different Electra-Van Model 600 vehicles operated by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and by the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO). Ambient air was sampled at several locations inside the vehicles and in the garages where testing was done during charge, equalization charge, and on-the-road discharge operations. In addition, direct sampling of cell off-gases was performed with the ANL van. Interpretation of the individual test results was carried out in the context of vehicle characteristics, sampling protocol, and operating conditions. The test results demonstrated that under the test conditions only small concentrations of stibine and arsine accumulated in occupiable work areas. Measured concentrations in the vehicles and in the garages never exceeded 25% of the Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) standards. A threshold voltage for hydride production, at about 2.45 V per cell, was reflected in the results of the experiments performed during charging of the batteries. Hydride evolution rates were lower during equalization charge than during the overcharge portion of a charge cycle when the on-board charger was used in a normal operating mode. A delayed release of the metal hydrides from the battery cells was observed during on-the-road operation of the vehicles. The implications of these observations for electric vehicle (EV) operation are discussed. An engineering analysis of the generation and dispersal of the metal hydrides is presented, and equations are derived for estimating minimum ventilation requirements for the EV battery compartment and for garages housing EV operations. Recommendations are made regarding safe handling procedures for battery off-gases, procedures for conducting stibine/arsine monitoring tests and future work.

  16. Selberg zeta functions and transfer operators an experimental approach to singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Markus Szymon

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a method for evaluating Selberg zeta functions via transfer operators for the full modular group and its congruence subgroups with characters. Studying zeros of Selberg zeta functions for character deformations allows us to access the discrete spectra and resonances of hyperbolic Laplacians under both singular and non-singular perturbations. Areas in which the theory has not yet been sufficiently developed, such as the spectral theory of transfer operators or the singular perturbation theory of hyperbolic Laplacians, will profit from the numerical experiments discussed in this book. Detailed descriptions of numerical approaches to the spectra and eigenfunctions of transfer operators and to computations of Selberg zeta functions will be of value to researchers active in analysis, while those researchers focusing more on numerical aspects will benefit from discussions of the analytic theory, in particular those concerning the transfer operator method and the spectral theory of hyperbolic spac...

  17. Preliminary study towards a novel experimental model to study localized cutaneous leishmaniasis caused bY Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ivett Sosa-Bibiano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is not an experimental model of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL caused by Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana. The aim of the present study was to characterize the clinical and histological features of Peromyscus yucatanicus experimentally infected with L. (L. mexicana. A total of 54 P. yucatanicus (groups of 18 were inoculated with 1x10(6 promastigotes of L. (L. mexicana in the base of the tail. They were euthanized at three and six months post experimental infection. The control group was inoculated with RPMI-1640. The predominant clinical sign observed was a single ulcerated lesion in 27.77% (5/18 and in 11.11% (2/18 P. yucatanicus at three and six months respectively. The histological pattern described as chronic granulomatous inflammation with or without necrosis was found in 7/7 (100% biopsies of euthanized P. yucatanicus at three (n = 5 and six (n = 2 months, respectively. These results resembled clinical and histological features caused by L. (L. mexicana in humans, and support the possibility to employ P. yucatanicus as a novel experimental model to study LCL caused by this parasite.

  18. Preliminary fMRI findings in experimentally sleep-restricted adolescents engaged in a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tlustos Sarah J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we report preliminary findings from a small-sample functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study of healthy adolescents who completed a working memory task in the context of a chronic sleep restriction experiment. Findings were consistent with those previously obtained on acutely sleep-deprived adults. Our data suggest that, when asked to maintain attention and burdened by chronic sleep restriction, the adolescent brain responds via compensatory mechanisms that accentuate the typical activation patterns of attention-relevant brain regions. Specifically, it appeared that regions that are normally active during an attention-demanding working memory task in the well-rested brain became even more active to maintain performance after chronic sleep restriction. In contrast, regions in which activity is normally suppressed during such a task in the well-rested brain showed even greater suppression to maintain performance after chronic sleep restriction. Although limited by the small sample, study results provide important evidence of feasibility, as well as guidance for future research into the functional neurological effects of chronic sleep restriction in general, the effects of sleep restriction in children and adolescents, and the neuroscience of attention and its disorders in children.

  19. Design and preliminary experimental investigation of a 4 K Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with precooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hua GAN; Zhuo-pei LI; Jie CHEN; Li DAI; Li-min QIU

    2009-01-01

    that the operating frequency has a significant influence on the performance of the Stirling-type PTC and a relatively low average pressure is favorable for decreasing the loss associated with the real gas effects ofa 4 K Stirling-type PTC.

  20. Preliminary assessment of accident-tolerant fuels on LWR performance during normal operation and under DB and BDB accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, L. J.; Robb, K. R.; Wang, D.

    2014-05-01

    Following the severe accidents at the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, the US Department of Energy initiated research and development on the enhancement of the accident tolerance of light water reactors by the development of fuels/cladding that, in comparison with the standard UO2/Zircaloy (Zr) system, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations. Analyses are presented that illustrate the impact of these new candidate fuel/cladding materials on the fuel performance at normal operating conditions and on the reactor system under DB and BDB accident conditions.

  1. Preliminary assessment of existing experimental data for validation ofreactor physics codes and data for NGNP design and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, W. K.; Jewell, J. K.; Briggs, J. B.; Taiwo, T. A.; Park, W.S.; Khalil, H. S.

    2005-10-25

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a demonstration reactor and hydrogen production facility proposed for construction at the INEEL, is expected to be a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Computer codes used in design and safety analysis for the NGNP must be benchmarked against experimental data. The INEEL and ANL have examined information about several past and present experimental and prototypical facilities based on HTGR concepts to assess the potential of these facilities for use in this benchmarking effort. Both reactors and critical facilities applicable to pebble-bed and prismatic block-type cores have been considered. Four facilities--HTR-PROTEUS, HTR-10, ASTRA, and AVR--appear to have the greatest potential for use in benchmarking codes for pebble-bed reactors. Similarly, for the prismatic block-type reactor design, two experiments have been ranked as having the highest priority--HTTR and VHTRC.

  2. Experimental use of a novel single-port gasless laparoendoscopic operative field formation device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional laparaendoscopic surgery using CO2 pneumoperitoneum is associated with complications and the existing gasless laparaendoscopic surgery has shortcomings such as poor visibility in the operation field. To overcome the disadvantages of the current lifting gasless laparaendoscopic operation platforms, we developed an inflatable device for gasless laparoscopic operation field formation (LOFF that can be internally installed and applied in practice.We initially designed operation platforms for gasless laparaendoscopic single-port (GLESP surgery. Subsequently, a triangular prismatic LOFF device was selected and applied successfully to GLESP cholecystectomy of five pigs. Ultimately, using pigs as a model, three surgical approaches (LOFF-assisted laparaendoscopic single-site (LOFF-LESS, LESS surgery, and traditional lifting (GLESP were compared, and the advantages and drawbacks of inflatable devices for gasless laparoscopic operation field assessed.The use of the LOFF device in GLESP cholecystectomy was first evaluated. The time for surgical space formation (4.4 ± 1.2 and 4.8 ± 1.0, the operating time for gallbladder removal (25.2 ± 4.8 and 25.4 ± 2.7, and the loss of blood (9.4 ± 3.1and 9.2 ± 2.4 was similar between LESS and LOFF, respectively (Table 2. In contrast these parameters were higher in GLESP (6.6 ± 1.0, 30.3 ± 4.4 and 10.1 ± 2.0, respectively. The LOFF-LESS surgery exhibited a clearer exposure of the surgical field and shorter operating time than the GLESP surgery. LESS technology showed less postoperation pain, fast recovery, and extremely high cosmetic satisfaction.The LOFF device provides a safe, effective, and feasible operation platform that can be internally installed and inflated for GLESP surgery during cholescytectomy in animal models.•Traditional carbon dioxide laparaendoscopy is a high risk surgery.•The existing gasless laparaendoscopies have attendant poor visibility of the abdominal

  3. Experimental Verification of Dynamic Operation of Continuous and Multivessel Batch Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgens, Bernd

    1999-07-01

    This thesis presents a rigorous model based on first principles for dynamic simulation of the composition dynamics of a staged high-purity continuous distillation columns and experiments performed to verify it. The thesis also demonstrates the importance of tray hydraulics to obtain good agreement between simulation and experiment and derives analytic expressions for dynamic time constants for use in simplified and vapour dynamics. A newly developed multivessel batch distillation column consisting of a reboiler, intermediate vessels and a condenser vessel provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The total reflux operation of this column was presented previously and the present thesis proposes a simple feedback control strategy for its operation based on temperature measurements. The feasibility of this strategy is demonstrated by simulations and verified by laboratory experiments. It is concluded that the multivessel column can be easily operated with simple temperature controllers, where the holdups are only controlled indirectly. For a given set of temperature setpoints, the final product compositions are independent of the initial feed composition. When the multivessel batch distillation column is compared to a conventional batch column, both operated under feedback control, it is found that the energy required to separate a multicomponent mixture into highly pure products is much less for the multivessel system. This system is also the simplest one to operate.

  4. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Results show that the system flow rate is determined by the sliding vane pump. In order to ensure the stability of the series operation pumping system, the energy consumption required by the pipeline under the system flow should be greater than the pressure energy centrifugal pump can generate. Otherwise, the centrifugal pump can not operate stably, with reflux, swirl, gas-liquid two-phase flow in the runner and strong vibration and noise. The sliding vane pump can be in serial operation with the centrifugal pump under limited conditions.

  5. Sodium alginate as an ideal submucosal injection material for endoscopic submucosal resection: preliminary experimental and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Tomonori; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Masaaki; Suzuki, Kosuke; Inomata, Masafumi; Shiraishi, Norio; Sato, Yuhki; Kitano, Seigo

    2011-11-01

    Sodium alginate is used clinically in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Because of its viscosity, sodium alginate could possibly become a new submucosal injection material for use in endoscopic resection. We evaluated the feasibility of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using sodium alginate. The lesion-lifting properties of sodium alginate were examined in porcine stomachs and were compared with those of normal saline solution and sodium hyaluronate solution. After confirming the proper concentration of sodium alginate, ESD using sodium alginate was performed in 11 patients with gastric mucosal cancer or adenoma. The lesion-lifting properties of sodium alginate and clinical outcomes were assessed. The thickness of the submucosal elevation created by 3% sodium alginate in porcine stomach was equivalent to that of sodium hyaluronate. ESD using sodium alginate was completed successfully in all patients without adverse effects except in 1 patient in whom transient shrinkage of the gastric wall disappeared spontaneously after approximately 30 minutes. The mean tumor size was 15.3 mm. En bloc resection and a negative resection margin were obtained in all. Histopathologic examination revealed that all tumors were confined to the mucosal layer except for 1 that was confined to the submucosal layer without lymphovascular invasion, and there were no adverse effects such as tissue damage. No patient required additional treatment, and none showed recurrence during a median follow-up period of 28 months. Small sample size. This preliminary study suggests that sodium alginate might be a novel, safe submucosal injection material for use in endoscopic resection. Further investigation of the properties of sodium alginate is warranted. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations of the torsional mode for two acoustic viscometers with preliminary experimental tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuhui; Lange, Rebecca A

    2008-03-01

    A rigorous analysis of the torsional modes in both a cylindrical wave guide and the associated static viscous fluid field has been conducted from the solid and the fluid wave equations and the coupled boundary conditions. As a result, two acoustic viscometer models, along with four independent equations connecting the density and the viscosity of the fluid with the attenuation and the phase velocity of the torsional wave in the wave guide, have been developed. The analysis shows that the product of the viscosity and the density of the fluid can be measured from the end reflection coefficient of the torsional wave in the wave guide and that both the viscosity and the density can be determined simultaneously from either the phase velocity or the attenuation of the torsional wave in a single cylindrical wave guide. For the simultaneous measurements of the viscosity and the density, the independent equations have to be solved numerically, for example, using Matlab (The MathWorks, Natick, MA), given either the attenuation or the phase velocity in the wave guide that is surrounded by the fluid. To demonstrate the technical feasibility, numerical simulations have been conducted to discern viscosity, phase velocity, and density, all versus attenuation, at different frequencies, and with variable dimension of a molybdenum rod, so that both the advantages and the disadvantages of the simultaneous measurements can be explored. In the end, to test the two models, preliminary experiments on two viscous standards were conducted at 23 degrees C, and good agreements have been achieved between the viscosities measured from both models and for both standards.

  7. Hepatocyte metaplasia in experimental chagasic pancreatitis: preliminary report Metaplasia hepatocítica em pancreatite chagásica experimental: nota prévia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning the study of chronic pathologic changes in pancreas of hamsters experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Vic strain, hepatocyte metaplasia was observed in one animal from infected group. This is the first report of oncocytes in Chagas' disease, which could be due to aberrant regenerative response to pancreas inflammatory process.Iniciando estudo de alterações patológicas crônicas no pâncreas de hamsters experimentalmente infectados com a cepa Vic de Trypanosoma cruzi, metaplasia oncocítica foi observada em um dos animais infectados. Este é o primeiro relato de oncocitos na doença de Chagas, que poderiam decorrer de resposta regenerativa aberrante ao processo inflamatório pancreático.

  8. Experimental on-demand recovery of entanglement by local operations within non-Markovian dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orieux, Adeline; D'Arrigo, Antonio; Ferranti, Giacomo; Lo Franco, Rosario; Benenti, Giuliano; Paladino, Elisabetta; Falci, Giuseppe; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo

    2015-02-25

    In many applications entanglement must be distributed through noisy communication channels that unavoidably degrade it. Entanglement cannot be generated by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), implying that once it has been distributed it is not possible to recreate it by LOCC. Recovery of entanglement by purely local control is however not forbidden in the presence of non-Markovian dynamics, and here we demonstrate in two all-optical experiments that such entanglement restoration can even be achieved on-demand. First, we implement an open-loop control scheme based on a purely local operation, without acquiring any information on the environment; then, we use a closed-loop scheme in which the environment is measured, the outcome controling the local operations on the system. The restored entanglement is a manifestation of "hidden" quantum correlations resumed by the local control. Relying on local control, both schemes improve the efficiency of entanglement sharing in distributed quantum networks.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Zinc Antimonide Thin Film Thermoelectric Element over Wide Range of Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba Mir; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    2017-01-01

    flows in plane with the thin film. At first, the effect of applying different temperatures at the hot side of the specimen is investigated to reach steady state in an open circuit analysis. Then, the study focuses on performance and stability analysis of the thermoelectric element operating under...... different resistive loads and over a wide range of operating temperatures from 160 °C to 350 °C. The results show that, at a hot side temperature equal to 275 °C, the Seebeck coefficient (α) reaches its maximum value (242 μV/K), which is comparable to that of bulk materials reported in the literature...

  10. Progress in preparing scenarios for operation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, A. C. C.; Giruzzi, G.; Ide, S.; Kessel, C.; Luce, T. C.; Snipes, J. A.; Stober, J. K.

    2015-02-01

    The development of operating scenarios is one of the key issues in the research for ITER which aims to achieve a fusion gain (Q) of ˜10, while producing 500 MW of fusion power for ≥300 s. The ITER Research plan proposes a success oriented schedule starting in hydrogen and helium, to be followed by a nuclear operation phase with a rapid development towards Q ˜ 10 in deuterium/tritium. The Integrated Operation Scenarios Topical Group of the International Tokamak Physics Activity initiates joint activities among worldwide institutions and experiments to prepare ITER operation. Plasma formation studies report robust plasma breakdown in devices with metal walls over a wide range of conditions, while other experiments use an inclined EC launch angle at plasma formation to mimic the conditions in ITER. Simulations of the plasma burn-through predict that at least 4 MW of Electron Cyclotron heating (EC) assist would be required in ITER. For H-modes at q95 ˜ 3, many experiments have demonstrated operation with scaled parameters for the ITER baseline scenario at ne/nGW ˜ 0.85. Most experiments, however, obtain stable discharges at H98(y,2) ˜ 1.0 only for βN = 2.0-2.2. For the rampup in ITER, early X-point formation is recommended, allowing auxiliary heating to reduce the flux consumption. A range of plasma inductance (li(3)) can be obtained from 0.65 to 1.0, with the lowest values obtained in H-mode operation. For the rampdown, the plasma should stay diverted maintaining H-mode together with a reduction of the elongation from 1.85 to 1.4. Simulations show that the proposed rampup and rampdown schemes developed since 2007 are compatible with the present ITER design for the poloidal field coils. At 13-15 MA and densities down to ne/nGW ˜ 0.5, long pulse operation (>1000 s) in ITER is possible at Q ˜ 5, useful to provide neutron fluence for Test Blanket Module assessments. ITER scenario preparation in hydrogen and helium requires high input power (>50 MW). H

  11. Toward next-generation optical networks: a network operator perspective based on experimental tests and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaojun; Du, Chunsheng; Zhou, Rongsheng

    2004-04-01

    As a result of data traffic"s exponential growth, network is currently evolving from fixed circuit switched services to dynamic packet switched services, which has brought unprecedented changes to the existing transport infrastructure. It is generally agreed that automatic switched optical network (ASON) is one of the promising solutions for the next generation optical networks. In this paper, we present the results of our experimental tests and economic analysis on ASON. The intention of this paper is to present our perspective, in terms of evolution strategy toward ASON, on next generation optical networks. It is shown through experimental tests that the performance of current Pre-standard ASON enabled equipments satisfies the basic requirements of network operators and is ready for initial deployment. The results of the economic analysis show that network operators can be benefit from the deployment of ASON from three sides. Firstly, ASON can reduce the CAPEX for network expanding by integrating multiple ADM & DCS into one box. Secondly, ASON can reduce the OPEX for network operation by introducing automatic resource control scheme. Finally, ASON can increase margin revenue by providing new optical network services such as Bandwidth on Demand, optical VPN etc. Finally, the evolution strategy is proposed as our perspective toward next generation optical networks. We hope the evolution strategy introduced may be helpful for the network operators to gracefully migrate their fixed ring based legacy networks to next generation dynamic mesh based network.

  12. Members' Preferences for Co-operative Structures: An Experimental Conjoint Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Lans, van der I.A.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Dijk, van G.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract As market conditions change rapidly in the 21st century, questions arise concerning how the organizational structures of co-operatives (co-ops) can meet the challenges that these new conditions pose. This paper introduces a framework to structure marketing co-ops (MCs) based on members¿

  13. Initial Experimental Result of Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal System (ACROSS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Chengwang; Zhuang Cantao; Liang Hongsen

    2003-01-01

    The principle of Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal System (ACROSS) isintroduced in this paper. A sample machine is made and tested. The experiment shows that thesignal-stacking technique is effective in improving signal-to-noise ratio and the sompi cepstrummethod is applicable to deconvolute a set of travel times of wave elements from accuratetransfer function data in frequency domain.

  14. Experimental investigation of a draft tube spouted bed for effects of geometric parameters on operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizaddini, Seyednezamaddin; Lin, Weigang; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Experiments are performed in a draft tube spouted bed (DTSB) to investigate effects of the operating conditions and the geometric parameters on the hydrodynamics. Geometry parameters, such as heights of the entrained zone, draft tube inner diameter, inner angle of the conical section were studied...

  15. Experimental Laboratory Research and Evaluation of Periodic Operation Small Size Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalij Kolodynskij

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation device – small size periodic operation bioreactors, which are developed for the production of biogas from different organic, vegetable waste. The device operates by maintaining optimum operating temperature and oxygen concentration required for anaerobic treatment process inside the bioreactor. Under favorable conditions, organic substance is being degradated because of anaerobic processess, colonies of microorganisms grow, and methane bacteria produce CH4 – useful flammable gases, which can be used as natural gas analogue. The gas is stored in special tanks of gas – gas holders. A study was implemented by analizing five different loads, according to the mixing ratio of vegetables (potatoes and chicken manure waste. The quality and quantity of biogas was analized as well. It was found that the highest concentration of methane (67.8% was achieved by using a load consisting only of chicken manure, but after evaluation of biogas yield, it was found that the best result (according to the quantity of biogas, a high concentration of CH4 and time of load degradation is achieved using chicken manure and potato waste mix (relatively 70 and 30%. Mesophilic process temperature during the experiment was 33–35 °C, and oxygen concentration – 0.0–0.1%. After research implementation there will be an opportunity to create small size periodic operation bioreactors, which can be used in small farms or private houses, where the small amount of organic waste and manure are formed.

  16. Proposed use of a digital signal processor in an experimental tactile hearing aid for the profoundly deaf: preliminary communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, R W; Leliveld, W H

    1989-01-01

    An experimental system for a tactile hearing aid using a digital signal processor (DSP) is being developed. This system can be used to test and evaluate not only the familiar techniques for a tactile hearing aid, such as energy level display, filterbank analysis, etc., but also novel techniques. The system is being developed especially to try out new recognition strategies, because the currently available strategies are not satisfactory. A portable tactile hearing aid that can recognize certain environmental sounds (alarm sounds) and certain features from the speech signal (such as pitch, voiced/voiceless, or even complete phonemes), being a good support for lipreading, should be the final result of the experiments.

  17. Preliminary studies for the Development of S.E.T.U.P. : "Experimental and Theoretical Simulations Useful for Planetology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, E.; Es-Sebbar, Et.; Romanzin, C.; Perrier, S.; Bénilan, Y.; Gazeau, M.-C.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents studies performed in the frame of the SETUP program (a French acronym for Experimental and Theoretical Simulations Useful for Planetology). The final goal of this project is to perform representative simulations of Titan's atmosphere and to be able to determine the physicochemical processes involved in its atmosphere. The simulation experiments will be performed in a reactor where an initial gas mixture will be exposed, for the first time, to both major energy sources (electrons and photons) that are responsible for the chemical evolution of Titan's atmosphere. Thus, the complex chemistry between N atoms and CH3, CH2, CH fragments, issued from electron dissociation of N2 and photodissociation of CH4 respectively, will be initiated. For these simulation experiments, we are planning to use a pulsed excimer KrF laser delivering photons at 248 nm to dissociate methane via a multiphotonic process because the Lyman-α radiation, mainly responsible for the dissociation of this compound in the upper atmosphere, cannot be easily reproduced in the laboratory. A first attempt to check for the energetic equivalence of the two processes - 2 photons at 248 nm vs. one single photon at Lyman-α - has already been performed and a more extensive re-examination of the methane photolysis at both wavelengths has been undertaken. The available literature indeed provides contradictory results for the methane's primary photolytic scheme at Lyman-α and no studies at all have been performed yet to establish the different photolytic decomposition pathways at 248 nm. One has to note that the available literature provides contradictory results for methane's primary photolytic scheme at Lyman-α and no studies at all have been performed yet to establish the different photolytic decomposition pathways at 248 nm. Thus, a re-examination of the methane photolysis at both wavelengths has been undertaken. Photolysis of methane has been carried out using a photochemical classic

  18. NASA Desert RATS 2010: Preliminary Results for Science Operations Conducted in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lofgren, G. E.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Bell, E. R.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with international partners to develop the space architectures and mission plans necessary for human spaceflight beyond earth orbit. These mission plans include the exploration of planetary surfaces with significant gravity fields. The Apollo missions to the Moon demonstrated conclusively that surface mobility is a key asset that improves the efficiency of human explorers on a planetary surface. NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona. Conducted since 1998, these activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in relatively harsh climatic conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable

  19. EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITE FUEL ON DIESEL OPERATION IN IDLE MODE

    OpenAIRE

    Godina, E.; Ukhanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Unfavorable condition of the diesel engine is a separate idle mode, which is characterized by incomplete combustion, wasteful fuel consumption and increased emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. To evaluate the feasibility of using radish oil (RadishO) as the biological component of the diesel composite fuel (DCF) the experimental studies of tractor diesel engine D-243 at idle were conducted and the degree of the effect of different composition of radish and mineral fuel on eco...

  20. [Clinical and experimental study on using Cassia angustifolia extract as enema after abdominal operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yan, S; Wang, J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the curative effect and mechanism of using Cassia angustifolia extract (CAE) in treating gastrointestinal tract dysfunction after abdominal operations. Enema administration of CAE (Clyster method) was used. The result of 130 patients was very effective in reducing the rate of gastrointestinal decompression, accelerating the restitution of borborygmi and the time of exhaustion. Animal experiment showed the CAE function is very obvious in enhancing the bowel movement of rats (P < 0.05). It can enhance peristalsis and contraction amplitude of vibration in the isolated ileum of rats (P < 0.05). It can push on the charcoal powder in intestinal tract of mice obviously (P < 0.05). CAE could regulate disordered function of gastrointestinal tract after abdominal operations.

  1. Guidance and control of iceberg towing operation in open water, with experimental testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sundland, Mika Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Icebergs pose serious threats to existing and planned offshore structures, vessels, and operations in Arctic waters such as the East Coast of Canada, East and West Greenland, the Barents Sea, and the Kara Sea. A collision between an offshore installation and an iceberg could cause serious damage to the installation, and in a worst case scenario take life. Therefore, if an iceberg is evaluated as a threat, physical iceberg management must be mobilized to mitigate the threat. For open water, th...

  2. Intraperitoneal cytostatics impair early post-operative collagen synthesis in experimental intestinal anastomosesP6.

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, M F; Hendriks, T; Wobbes, T; DE PONT J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Collagen synthesis in intestinal anastomoses has been measured in rats after in vivo administration of cytostatics. The cytostatics were administered during 5 consecutive days either intravenously or intraperitoneally. On day 3 of the course the rats received both an ileal and a colonic anastomosis. The animals were sacrificed 3 and 7 days after operation. The cytostatics regimen used was a combination of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and cisplatinum in a dose of 10, 2 and 0.35 mg kg-1 day-1, res...

  3. Experimental investigation on operating instability of a dual compensation chamber loop heat pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The operating instability of a dual compensation chamber loop heat pipe (DCC-LHP) including temperature hysteresis, reverse flow and temperature oscillation is described and explained in this paper. Test results indicate that the steady state operating temperature under the variable conductance mode is not the same during the power cycle tests with the same heat load, and it is lower during the power reduction cycle than that during the power increase cycle. Orientation has an effect on the heat load range when temperature hysteresis occurs, and the effect of power variation amplitude can be ignored. Reverse flow tends to occur in some of the startups at low heat loads, even if vapor existed in the vapor grooves initially, which is caused by a higher pressure inside the wick due to evaporation in the evaporator core or vapor penetration into it. Temperature oscillation tends to occur in some of the startups at low head loads or some steady-state operations at high heat loads. Especially when the compensation chamber with the bayonet through is above the evaporator, the incidence rate of temperature oscillation is high.

  4. Experimental design, operation, and results of a 4 kW high temperature steam electrolysis experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; O'Brien, James E.; Tao, Greg; Zhou, Can; Housley, Gregory K.

    2015-11-01

    High temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) is a promising technology for large-scale hydrogen production. However, research on HTSE performance above the kW level is limited. This paper presents the results of 4 kW HTSE long-term test completed in a multi-kW test facility recently developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The 4 kW HTSE unit consisted of two solid oxide electrolysis stacks electrically connected in parallel, each of which included 40 electrode-supported planar cells. A current density of 0.41 A cm-2 was used for the long-term operating at a constant current mode, resulting in a theoretical hydrogen production rate about 23 slpm. A demonstration of 830 h stable operation was achieved with a degradation rate of 3.1% per 1000 h. The paper also includes detailed descriptions of the piping layout, steam generation and delivery system, test fixture, heat recuperation system, hot zone, instrumentation, and operating conditions. This successful demonstration of multi-kW scale HTSE unit will help to advance the technology toward near-term commercialization.

  5. Evaluating the improvements of the BOLAM meteorological model operational at ISPRA: A case study approach - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Lastoria, B.; Accadia, C.; Flavoni, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Institute for Environmental Protection and Research - ISPRA (former Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services - APAT) runs operationally since 2000 an integrated meteo-marine forecasting chain, named the Hydro-Meteo-Marine Forecasting System (Sistema Idro-Meteo-Mare - SIMM), formed by a cascade of four numerical models, telescoping from the Mediterranean basin to the Venice Lagoon, and initialized by means of analyses and forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The operational integrated system consists of a meteorological model, the parallel verision of BOlogna Limited Area Model (BOLAM), coupled over the Mediterranean sea with a WAve Model (WAM), a high-resolution shallow-water model of the Adriatic and Ionian Sea, namely the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), and a finite-element version of the same model (VL-FEM) on the Venice Lagoon, aimed to forecast the acqua alta events. Recently, the physically based, fully distributed, rainfall-runoff TOPographic Kinematic APproximation and Integration (TOPKAPI) model has been integrated into the system, coupled to BOLAM, over two river basins, located in the central and northeastern part of Italy, respectively. However, at the present time, this latter part of the forecasting chain is not operational and it is used in a research configuration. BOLAM was originally implemented in 2000 onto the Quadrics parallel supercomputer (and for this reason referred to as QBOLAM, as well) and only at the end of 2006 it was ported (together with the other operational marine models of the forecasting chain) onto the Silicon Graphics Inc. (SGI) Altix 8-processor machine. In particular, due to the Quadrics implementation, the Kuo scheme was formerly implemented into QBOLAM for the cumulus convection parameterization. On the contrary, when porting SIMM onto the Altix Linux cluster, it was achievable to implement into QBOLAM the more advanced convection parameterization by Kain and

  6. SPoRT: Transitioning NASA and NOAA Experimental Data to the Operational Weather Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. With the ever-broadening application of real-time high resolution satellite data from current EOS, Suomi NPP, and planned JPSS and GOES-R sensors to weather forecast problems, significant challenges arise in the acquisition, delivery, and integration of the new capabilities into the decision making process of the operational weather community. For polar orbiting sensors such as MODIS, AIRS, VIIRS, and CRiS, the use of direct broadcast ground stations is key to the real-time delivery of the data and derived products in a timely fashion. With the ABI on the geostationary GOES-R satellite, the data volumes will likely increase by a factor of 5-10 from current data streams. However, the high data volume and limited bandwidth of end user facilities presents a formidable obstacle to timely access to the data. This challenge can be addressed through the use of subsetting techniques, innovative web services, and the judicious selection of data formats. Many of these approaches have been implemented by SPoRT for the delivery of real-time products to NWS forecast offices and other weather entities. Once available in decision support systems like AWIPS II, these new data and products must be integrated into existing and new displays that allow for the integration of the data with existing operational products in these systems. SPoRT is leading the way in demonstrating this enhanced capability. This paper will highlight the ways SPoRT is overcoming many of the challenges presented by the enormous data

  7. Contribution to the theoretical and experimental analysis of camshaft engine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Guy

    1991-02-01

    A study concerning an alternative engine whose linkage is replaced by a piston-pad-cam assembly is presented. The transmission systems are described in order to study the volume generated by the piston movement at output shaft rotation. The cam power transmission study is presented as follows: global description; piston dynamics; cam shaft synchronization; profile analysis. A mathematical model of the real time operation of the engine related to a cam shaft engine prototype study shows the advantage of choosing a cam profile, particularly during combustion. A method for determining the principle characteristics of the main components of a cam shaft engine, whose desired performances are known, is defined.

  8. Experimental evaluation of the wind effects on an operating power transmission tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Static and dynamic effects on power transmission towers can be evaluated by methodologies available in codes, which suggest the use of linear static analysis. By using numerical simulations, it is possible to observe the strong influence of the geometric nonlinear behavior of transmission cables. Dynamic effects also strongly influence this behavior, with the possibility of resonance between the cables and the structure, but up to the moment, the existent analysis procedures have not been completely validated on an experimental basis. In order to validate a complete analysis methodology, experimental procedures are proposed for a suspension tower of a 138kV transmission line in use. A tridimensional anemometer was installed on this structure in order to measure the values and directions of wind speeds. Simultaneous strain values were collected on the main elements of the tower through optical extensometers. Optical sensor technology with Fiber Bragg Gratings was used, due to the characteristic of immunity to the electromagnetic field occasioned by high electric currents. The string swing angle was evaluated through a high-resolution camera and a tridimensional accelerometer. With this instrumentation, it is possible to create a complete database that correlates wind speeds with the responses of the structural set. At the moment, 5 months of data have been collected and the instrumentation is in the final testing phase and synchronized. After this step, real-time measurements will be performed.

  9. A Preliminary experimental study of the boron concentration in vapor and the isotopic A preliminary experimental study of the boron concentrationin vapor and the isotopic fractionation of boron betweenseawater and vapor during evaporation of seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO; Yingkai

    2001-01-01

    [1]Gast, J. A., Thompson, T. G., Evaporation of boric acid from seawater, Tellus, 1959, 6: 344-347.[2]Nishimura, M., Tanaka, K., Seawater may not be a source of boron in the atmosphere, J. Geoph. Res., 1972, 77: 5239-5242.[3]Fogg, T. R., Duce, R. A., Fasching, J. L., Sampling and determination of boron in the atmosphere, Anal. Chem., 1983, 55:2179-2184.[4]Fogg, T. R., Duce, R. A., Boron in the troposphere: Distribution and fluxes, J. Geoph. Res., 1985, 90: 3781-3796.[5]Spivack, A. J., Berndt, M. E., Seyfreid, W. E., Boron isotope fractionation during supercritical phase separation, Geochim.Cosmochim. Acta, 1990, 54: 2337-2339.[6]Palmer, M. R., London, D., Morgan, G. B. et al., Experimental determination of fractionation of 11B/10B between tourma-line and aqueous vapor: A temperature and pressure-dependent isotopic system, Chem. Geol., 1992, 101:123-129.[7]Hervig, R. L., London, D., Morgan, G. B. et al., Large boron isotope fractionation between hydrous vapor and silicate meltat igneous temperatures, in the Seventh Annual V. M. Goldschmidt Conf., LPI Contribution No. 921, Houston: Lunar and Planetary Institute, 1997, 93-94.[8]Vengosh, A., Starinsky, A., Kolodny, Y. et al., Boron isotope variations during fractional evaporation of seawater: New constraints on the marine vs. nonmarine debate, Geology, 1992, 20: 799-802.[9]Zhang, X. P., Shi, Y. E, Yao, T. D., The variation characteristics of δo18O in precipitation in Northeastern Qing-Zhang Plateau, Science in China, Series B (in Chinese), 1995, 25(5): 540-547.[10]Yu, J. S., Yu, E J., Liu, D. P., The hydrogen and oxygen of isotopic compositions of meteoric water in the eastern part of China, Geochimica (in Chinese), 1987, (1): 22-26.[11]Xiao, Y. K., Xiao, Y., Swihart, G. H. et al., Separation of boron by ion exchange with boron specific resin, Acta Geosci.Sinica (in Chinese), 1997, 18: 286-289.[12]Kiss, E., Ion-exchange separation and spectrophotometric determination of

  10. Continuous adductor-canal-blockade for adjuvant post-operative analgesia after major knee surgery: preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, J; Jenstrup, M T; Jæger, P;

    2011-01-01

    Because both the saphenous nerve and in part the obturator nerve are traversing the adductor canal of the thigh, we hypothesised that repeated administration of a local anaesthetic (LA) into this aponeurotic space could be a useful option for post-operative analgesia after knee replacement surgery....... A systematic search of the literature pertinent to the blockade of the saphenous and/or obturator nerves for pain relief after knee surgery was conducted. Further, pain and opioid requirements were evaluated in eight patients receiving a continuous blockade of the saphenous and obturator nerve (adductor-canal......-blockade) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Finally, we performed cross-sectional MR scans of the adductor canal after injection of ropivacaine 30ml in one patient. The systematic literature search revealed only one controlled study, where selective blockade of the saphenous nerve was investigated...

  11. Quantifying microwear on experimental Mistassini quartzite scrapers: preliminary results of exploratory research using LSCM and scale-sensitive fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W James; Lerner, Harry J; Kristant, Elaine H

    2013-01-01

    Although previous use-wear studies involving quartz and quartzite have been undertaken by archaeologists, these are comparatively few in number. Moreover, there has been relatively little effort to quantify use-wear on stone tools made from quartzite. The purpose of this article is to determine the effectiveness of a measurement system, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), to document the surface roughness or texture of experimental Mistassini quartzite scrapers used on two different contact materials (fresh and dry deer hide). As in previous studies using LSCM on chert, flint, and obsidian, this exploratory study incorporates a mathematical algorithm that permits the discrimination of surface roughness based on comparisons at multiple scales. Specifically, we employ measures of relative area (RelA) coupled with the F-test to discriminate used from unused stone tool surfaces, as well as surfaces of quartzite scrapers used on dry and fresh deer hide. Our results further demonstrate the effect of raw material variation on use-wear formation and its documentation using LSCM and RelA. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pre-operative chemoradiation therapy with 5-fluorouracil and low-dose daily cisplatin for esophageal cancer. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Shouji; Konishi, Toshiro; Kawahara, Masaki; Ito, Akihiko; Hoji, Keiichi; Takeda, Yuichi; Oba, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Seiichiro [Showa General Hospital, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Kaminishi, Michio

    1999-03-01

    A combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemoradiation therapy; CRT) has recently been developed to improve the survival of esophageal cancer patients. However, the optimal choice of chemotherapeutic agents and their doses, as well as chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens, remain unclear. Based on recent advances in knowledge on the radiosensitizing and biochemical modulation effects of chemotherapeutic agents, we have recently developed concurrent CRT which consisted of continuous 5-fluorouracil (5FU) administration (600 mg/m{sup 2}/day, days 1-5) combined with a low dose of daily cisplatin administration (10 mg/m{sup 2}/day, days 1-5, and 5 or 10 mg/m{sup 2}/day, days 8-12 and 15-19) before each fraction of radiation (2 Gy each). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of our concurrent CRT, 10 esophageal cancer patients received one or one and a half courses of the CRT. All patients tolerated and completed a full course of the CRT. The effectiveness of the CRT on the primary tumor included pathologically or endoscopically complete responses in three patients (30%), partial response in five (50%), no response in two (20%) and tumoral downstaging (T-classification) in five (50%). Grade 2 and Grade 3 toxicity, seen in six patients, did not affect surgical operation. No patients showed CRT-related deaths. Eight patients (80%) underwent resection with no operative mortality. Of these, two patients (25%) showed pathologically or endoscopically complete responses, and four (50%) showed partial response. Three patients died of cancer after resection. The two inoperable patients showed a pathologically complete response and partial response, respectively. They were relieved of their cancer-related complaints and were living without hospitalization at the time of this analysis. These results suggest that the concurrent CRT based on the theoretical backgrounds is effective and has acceptable toxicities with maintaining its efficacy for the treatment of esophageal

  13. Operating Wireless Sensor Nodes without Energy Storage: Experimental Results with Transient Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is increasingly used for powering wireless sensor network nodes. Recently, it has been suggested to combine it with the concept of transient computing whereby the wireless sensor nodes operate without energy storage capabilities. This new combined approach brings benefits, for instance ultra-low power nodes and reduced maintenance, but also raises new challenges, foremost dealing with nodes that may be left without power for various time periods. Although transient computing has been demonstrated on microcontrollers, reports on experiments with wireless sensor nodes are still scarce in the literature. In this paper, we describe our experiments with solar, thermal, and RF energy harvesting sources that are used to power sensor nodes (including wireless ones without energy storage, but with transient computing capabilities. The results show that the selected solar and thermal energy sources can operate both the wired and wireless nodes without energy storage, whereas in our specific implementation, the developed RF energy source can only be used for the selected nodes without wireless connectivity.

  14. Experimental methods to validate measures of emotional state and readiness for duty in critical operations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, Louise Marie

    2007-09-01

    A recent report on criticality accidents in nuclear facilities indicates that human error played a major role in a significant number of incidents with serious consequences and that some of these human errors may be related to the emotional state of the individual. A pre-shift test to detect a deleterious emotional state could reduce the occurrence of such errors in critical operations. The effectiveness of pre-shift testing is a challenge because of the need to gather predictive data in a relatively short test period and the potential occurrence of learning effects due to a requirement for frequent testing. This report reviews the different types of reliability and validity methods and testing and statistical analysis procedures to validate measures of emotional state. The ultimate value of a validation study depends upon the percentage of human errors in critical operations that are due to the emotional state of the individual. A review of the literature to identify the most promising predictors of emotional state for this application is highly recommended.

  15. Experimental study of hydrodynamic and operation start of a baffled anaerobic reactor treating sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Silveira Perico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to provide individual sanitation systems for sewage peri-urban communities or rural areas to minimize impacts on the environment and human health caused by sewage discharge in natura into water resources. In this context, the anaerobic digestion of effluent has been one of the main considered technologies due to easy implementation, material minimization and reduction in waste production. The objective of this work was to study a Baffled Anaerobic Reactor (BAR including its hydrodynamic characteristics, percentile of inoculum to be applied and reactor operation start. It was concluded that the flow is dispersed with 3.84% of dead spaces and that 20% of the cow manure provided best results; however, due to the high fiber content of the manure, its use is not recommended as inoculum. The BAR system, composed of four chambers, presented good performance for sewage treatment of a rural community in terms of organic substance removal (COD, turbidity and solids meeting effluent disposal standards of these parameters considering the Federal and Minas Gerais State legislation, in Brazil, even in a transient phase of operation, at temperatures below 20°C. However, the effluents from the BAR can’t be released into water bodies without other parameters such as nitrogen, phosphorus, fecal coliforms, and others are investigated to be conforming to those standards.

  16. Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic porcine pancreas and preliminary case study on the human pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, C; Fröhlich, M; Brandstädter, K; Bruns, C; Stoll, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the mechanical properties of the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanical properties of the pancreas are not sufficiently characterized. The possibility of intraoperative mechanical testing of pathological pancreata will allow the classification of pancreatic diseases in the future. The application of mechanical parameters instead of the intraoperative frozen section analysis shortens waiting times in the operating room. This study proves the general applicability of shear rheology for the determination of the mechanical properties of pancreas and the assessment of graft quality for transplantation. Porcine and human pancreas samples were examined ex vivo and a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was observed. Pancreas was found to be more viscous than liver but both abdominal organs showed a similar flow behavior. The shear deformation dependence of healthy human pancreas was similar to porcine pancreas. An increase in the post-mortem time led to an increase in the complex modulus for a post-mortem time up to 8.5 days. Histological investigations showed that an increased amount of collagen coincides with the stiffening of the pancreatic tissue.

  17. Spin-selective recombination reactions of radical pairs: Experimental test of validity of reaction operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Kiminori [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Centre for Advanced Electron Spin Resonance, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom); Liddell, Paul; Gust, Devens [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287-1604 (United States); Hore, P. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-21

    Spin-selective reactions of radical pairs are conventionally modelled using an approach that dates back to the 1970s [R. Haberkorn, Mol. Phys. 32, 1491 (1976)]. An alternative approach based on the theory of quantum measurements has recently been suggested [J. A. Jones and P. J. Hore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 488, 90 (2010)]. We present here the first experimental attempt to discriminate between the two models. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to investigate intramolecular electron transfer in the radical pair form of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene molecular triad. The rate of spin-spin relaxation of the fullerene radical in the triad was found to be inconsistent with the quantum measurement description of the spin-selective kinetics, and in accord with the conventional model when combined with spin-dephasing caused by rotational modulation of the anisotropic g-tensor of the fullerene radical.

  18. The Experimental Investigation Of The Screen Operation In The Parametric Resonance Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Łukasz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the experimental studies of the screen working in the parametric resonance condition are discussed. The investigations are conducted for laboratory parametric resonance screen. The measuring test is performed for four cases of tension force values. The full sheet metal instead of the sieve is used. For each considered case the natural frequency of the plate and the parameter modulation frequency are determined. The achieved results are presented and discussed. It is shown that the highest sieve plate amplitude is obtained when the parameter modulation frequency is two times larger than natural frequency of the sieve plate. This parametric resonance vibration was observed only for tension force equal to 4000 N because of the rotational speed limits of electrical vibratos.

  19. Steady state heat transfer experimental studies of LHC superconducting cables operating in cryogenic environment of superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Santandrea, Dario; Tuccillo, Raffaele; Granieri, Pier Paolo

    The heat management is a basic and fundamental aspect of the superconducting magnets used in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Indeed, the coil temperature must be kept below the critical value, despite the heat which can be generated or deposited in the magnet during the normal operations. Therefore, this thesis work aims at determining the heating power which can be extracted from the superconducting cables of the LHC, specially through their electrical insulation which represents the main thermal barrier. An experimental measurement campaign in superfluid helium bath was performed on several samples reproducting the main LHC magnets. The heating power was generated in the sample by Joule heating and the temperature increase was measured by means of Cernox bare chip and thermocouples. An innovative instrumentation technique which also includes the in-situ calibration of the thermocouples was developed. A thorough uncertainty analysis on the overall measurement chain concluded the experimental setup. The prese...

  20. Developing Tele-Operated Laboratories for Manufacturing Engineering Education. Platform for E-Learning and Telemetric Experimentation (PeTEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Erman Tekkaya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the PeTEX-project is to establish an e-Learning platform for the development, implementation, and delivery of educational training programs in the field of manufacturing engineering. The PeTEX team designs both: a technical platform for eLearning based on “Moodle” including distributed tele-operated experimentation facilities, and didactic and socio-technical requirements for a successful online learning community. User interfaces are deployed for remote access to instruments, data analysis and multiplexed data access via network protocols. Hence, the platform provides complex tools in order to perform various activities to support the educational process, from telemetric experimentation to virtual project groups for an entire community to the purpose of domain specific learning. This paper describes important steps of interdisciplinary participatory design and development of a remote lab-prototype in the field of manufacturing engineering.

  1. A new heterologous fibrin sealant as a scaffold to cartilage repair-Experimental study and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Caio Nunes; Miluzzi Yamada, Ana Lúcia; Junior, Rui Seabra F; Barraviera, Benedito; Hussni, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Jaqueline Brandão; Watanabe, Marcos Jun; Rodrigues, Celso Antônio; Garcia Alves, Ana Liz

    2016-07-01

    Autologous fibrin gel is commonly used as a scaffold for filling defects in articular cartilage. This biomaterial can also be used as a sealant to control small hemorrhages and is especially helpful in situations where tissue reparation capacity is limited. In particular, fibrin can act as a scaffold for various cell types because it can accommodate cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation. Despite knowledge of the advantages of this biomaterial and mastery of the techniques required for its application, the durability of several types of sealant at the site of injury remains questionable. Due to the importance of such data for evaluating the quality and efficiency of fibrin gel formulations on its use as a scaffold, this study sought to analyze the heterologous fibrin sealant developed from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus using studies in ovine experimental models. The fibrin gel developed from the venom of this snake was shown to act as a safe, stable, and durable scaffold for up to seven days, without causing adverse side effects. Fibrin gel produced from the venom of the Crotalus durissus terrificus snake possesses many clinical and surgical uses. It presents the potential to be used as a biomaterial to help repair skin lesions or control bleeding, and it may also be used as a scaffold when applied together with various cell types. The intralesional use of the fibrin gel from the venom of this snake may improve surgical and clinical treatments in addition to being inexpensive and adequately consistent, durable, and stable. The new heterologous fibrin sealant is a scaffold candidate to cartilage repair in this study.

  2. A new heterologous fibrin sealant as a scaffold to cartilage repair—Experimental study and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Caio Nunes; Miluzzi Yamada, Ana Lúcia; Junior, Rui Seabra F; Barraviera, Benedito; Hussni, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Jaqueline Brandão; Watanabe, Marcos Jun; Rodrigues, Celso Antônio

    2015-01-01

    Autologous fibrin gel is commonly used as a scaffold for filling defects in articular cartilage. This biomaterial can also be used as a sealant to control small hemorrhages and is especially helpful in situations where tissue reparation capacity is limited. In particular, fibrin can act as a scaffold for various cell types because it can accommodate cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation. Despite knowledge of the advantages of this biomaterial and mastery of the techniques required for its application, the durability of several types of sealant at the site of injury remains questionable. Due to the importance of such data for evaluating the quality and efficiency of fibrin gel formulations on its use as a scaffold, this study sought to analyze the heterologous fibrin sealant developed from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus using studies in ovine experimental models. The fibrin gel developed from the venom of this snake was shown to act as a safe, stable, and durable scaffold for up to seven days, without causing adverse side effects. Fibrin gel produced from the venom of the Crotalus durissus terrificus snake possesses many clinical and surgical uses. It presents the potential to be used as a biomaterial to help repair skin lesions or control bleeding, and it may also be used as a scaffold when applied together with various cell types. The intralesional use of the fibrin gel from the venom of this snake may improve surgical and clinical treatments in addition to being inexpensive and adequately consistent, durable, and stable. The new heterologous fibrin sealant is a scaffold candidate to cartilage repair in this study. PMID:26264444

  3. Operator- and software-related post-experimental variability and source of error in 2-DE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millioni, Renato; Puricelli, Lucia; Sbrignadello, Stefano; Iori, Elisabetta; Murphy, Ellen; Tessari, Paolo

    2012-05-01

    In the field of proteomics, several approaches have been developed for separating proteins and analyzing their differential relative abundance. One of the oldest, yet still widely used, is 2-DE. Despite the continuous advance of new methods, which are less demanding from a technical standpoint, 2-DE is still compelling and has a lot of potential for improvement. The overall variability which affects 2-DE includes biological, experimental, and post-experimental (software-related) variance. It is important to highlight how much of the total variability of this technique is due to post-experimental variability, which, so far, has been largely neglected. In this short review, we have focused on this topic and explained that post-experimental variability and source of error can be further divided into those which are software-dependent and those which are operator-dependent. We discuss these issues in detail, offering suggestions for reducing errors that may affect the quality of results, summarizing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach.

  4. Reinforcing the continent mechanism of continent cutaneous diversions by wrapped rectus abdominis muscle flap: a preliminary experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-ru; XU Yue-min; FENG Chao; YU Jian-jun; SONG Lu-jie; FEI Xiao-fang

    2009-01-01

    Background Continent cutaneous diversion (CCD) has been widely used in almost any lower urinary reconstruction. We have been continually trying to modify this procedure because of the high complications rate, especially as they relate to the efferent tube. In this study, we reported a modified procedure with a tapered ileum wrapped by the rectus abdominalis flap (RAMF) and assessed the feasibility of this new technique to achieve urinary continence. Methods A procedure in which two ileal segments were tapered and connected to a U-shaped reservoir was performed in ten dogs. A RAMF with its blood supply was wrapped around one of the tapered ileum, in control groups, the tapered ileum was brought to the abdominal skin. Urodynamic studies were conducted In the 1st, 3rd and 6th months post-operatively. The data of maximum inner pressure (MIP) and functional pressure length (FPL) in every group at each phase were recorded. Retrograde radiograms of the efferent limbs were performed before sacrifice.Results MIP in the study group was significantly higher than that in the control group at each phase (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in MIP or FPL were found in the study group between an empty and full reservoir. In the control group, MIP increased (P<0.05) and FPL decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared with an empty and full reservoir. Retrograde radiograms confirmed that efferent limbs were positioned straigh beneath the abdominal wall. Histological examination of the study group demonstrated a layer of striated muscle around the outside surface of the ileum.Conclusion The continent mechanism of tapered ileum can be enhanced by extra support from wrapped RAMF.

  5. Operation of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters at sLHC luminosities, an experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Ferencei, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at sLHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters (EMEC, HEC, FCAL) in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built. The layout and the components used are very close to the ones used in the construction of the ATLAS calorimeter. The goal is to simulate in the high intensity proton beam at IHEP /Protvino the particle impact as expected for ATLAS in sLHC. Depending on the position in pseudorapidity |η|, each forward calorimeter has to cope with a different particle and energy flux. Placing absorber elements in-between the various small calorimeter modules, the particle and energy flux as expected in ATLAS later - given the variation due to |η| and longitudinal position - can be simulated very well.

  6. Experimental Research of Variable Operating Performance on Water Source Multi-Connected Air-Conditioning System with Digital Scroll Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Zhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we study the water source heat pump and digital scroll compressor and experimentally in the multi-connected air-conditioning system. Variable performance is developed when the unit operates in refrigerating and heating mode. The maximum of refrigerating capacity is 36519.95W when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 30°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 32°C, at the same time the maximum of EER is 4.33 when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 20°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 27°C. The unit operates in heating mode, the maximum of heating capacity and EER is 33275.73W and 3.86 when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 30°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 20°C.

  7. The Vienna comparative cognition technology (VCCT): an innovative operant conditioning system for various species and experimental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Michael Morten; Aust, Ulrike; Huber, Ludwig

    2012-12-01

    This article describes a laboratory system for running learning experiments in operant chambers with various species. It is based on a modern version of a classical learning chamber for operant conditioning, the so-called "Skinner box". Rather than constituting a stand-alone unit, as is usually the case, it is an integrated part of a comprehensive technical solution, thereby eliminating a number of practical problems that are frequently encountered in research on animal learning and behavior. The Vienna comparative cognition technology combines modern computer, stimulus presentation, and reinforcement technology with flexibility and user-friendliness, which allows for efficient, widely automatized across-species experimentation, and thus makes the system appropriate for use in a broad range of learning tasks.

  8. Material characterisation and preliminary mechanical design for the HL-LHC shielded beam screens operating at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C; Koettig, T; Machiocha, W; Morrone, M

    2015-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC) aims at increasing the luminosity (rate of collisions) in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value (from 300 to 3000 fb-1). It relies on new superconducting magnets, installed close to the interaction points, equipped with new beam screen. This component has to ensure the vacuum performance together with shielding the cold mass from physics debris and screening the cold bore cryogenic system from beam induced heating. The beam screen operates in the range 40-60 K whereas the magnet cold bore temperature is 1.9 K. A tungsten-based material is used to absorb the energy of particles. In this paper, measurements of the mechanical and physical properties of such tungsten material are shown at room and cryogenic temperature. In addition, the design and the thermal mechanical behaviour of the beam screen assembly are presented also. They include the heat transfer from the tungsten absorbers to the cooling pipes and the sup...

  9. Material characterisation and preliminary mechanical design for the HL-LHC shielded beam screens operating at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garion, C.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Koettig, T.; Machiocha, W.; Morrone, M.

    2015-12-01

    The High Luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC) aims at increasing the luminosity (rate of collisions) in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value (from 300 to 3000 fb-1). It relies on new superconducting magnets, installed close to the interaction points, equipped with new beam screen. This component has to ensure the vacuum performance together with shielding the cold mass from physics debris and screening the cold bore cryogenic system from beam induced heating. The beam screen operates in the range 40-60 K whereas the magnet cold bore temperature is 1.9 K. A tungsten-based material is used to absorb the energy of particles. In this paper, measurements of the mechanical and physical properties of such tungsten material are shown at room and cryogenic temperature. In addition, the design and the thermal mechanical behaviour of the beam screen assembly are presented also. They include the heat transfer from the tungsten absorbers to the cooling pipes and the supporting system that has to minimise the heat inleak into the cold mass. The behaviour during a magnet quench is also presented.

  10. The influence of melatonin and agomelatine on urodynamic parameters in experimental overactive bladder model – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dobrek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Overactive bladder (OAB is a common disease entity with complex pathogenesis that involves neurogenic, myogenic and abnormal paracrine urothelial activity mechanisms. Our objective was to estimate bladder functioning in urodynamic studies in experimental, both acute (AOAB and chronic (COAB cyclophosphamide (CYP-evoked OAB model in response to melatonin (MLT; antioxidant and MT receptor agonist or agomelatine (AMT; MT receptor agonist and 5HT2C receptor antagonist.Material/Methods:Seven groups were studied: 1 – control, 2–4 – MLT treated AOAB and COAB rats, 5–7 – AMT treated AOAB and COAB rats. AOAB model was evoked by single CYP administration (IP 200 mg/kg body weight, while COAB one was induced by a four-time administration of CYP (IP 75 mg/kg body weight. Each group underwent urethane anesthesia to perform urodynamic recordings in resting conditions and after administration 50 (group 2 or 5, 75 (group 3 or 6 or 100 mg/kg (group 4 or 7 of melatonin (groups 2–4 or agomelatine (groups 5–7, followed by classical urodynamic parameters assessment.Results:Neither melatonin nor agomelatine did not affect urodynamic parameters in the AOAB rats. In COAB model, after 75 and 100 mg/kg of MLT we revealed an improvement in urodynamic parameters. AMT (75 and 100 mg/kg administration caused deterioration of urodynamic findings suggesting bladder overactivity exacerbation.Disscussion:In summary, melatonin ameliorates bladder overactivity in cyclophosphamide-induced COAB. Agomelatine, contrary to melatonin, aggravates bladder dysfunction in this group. These findings suggest that the improvement in urodynamic parameters after melatonin administration may be due to its antioxidative profile and is not related to MT receptors activation. However, agomelatine’s unfavorable action on the bladder, resulting in its overactivity in COAB group, may not only be the result of MT receptor activation without the concomitant antioxidative

  11. [Application of operant conditioning techniques to forensic toxicology: experimental studies on alcohol and abusable drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, S

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes some experiments that apply the operant conditioning techniques to forensic toxicological research. These techniques may be useful in investigating the mechanisms of action, toxic symptoms, legal competence and drug metabolism associated with substance abuse such as abuse of alcohol, psychotropic drugs, narcotics, stimulants, and organic solvents. 1) Genetic research on alcohol preference in rats. We applied operant conditioning to investigate alcohol preference in rats and constructed an apparatus for the measurement of discriminated operate responses for water or alcohol reinforcement in rat. This apparatus is a modified Skinner box with a one-lever two-liquid system. Fixed ratio-10 (FR-10) schedules of reinforcement are used to increase the work of the rat before it obtains the reinforcement. The voluntary choice of water or 10% ethanol by the rat can be assessed quantitatively by measuring the lever-pushing responses. It is an extremely useful method for measuring the real alcohol preference of rats. A rat was kept in a Skinner box overnight. The numbers of responses and reinforcement for water and ethanol and the volumes of the two liquids consumed were recorded. The ratio of ethanol reinforcement was defined as the number of ethanol reinforcement to the total number of ethanol and water reinforcement. The ratio of ethanol intake was defined as the volume of ethanol consumed to the volume of water and ethanol consumed. Ethanol consumption per g body weight was calculated from the volume of ethanol consumed by the rat. We used this apparatus to investigate alcohol preference of more than 300 Wistar Albino Rats, and divided them into a high alcohol preference (HAP) group and a low alcohol preference (LAP) group. Inbreeding between littermates was conducted in each of the HAP and LAP groups. The liver tissue of each offspring was obtained and the cytosol fraction was collected and subjected to isoelectric focusing using polyacrylamide gel

  12. The effects of slash and stump removal on productivity and quality of forest regeneration operations-preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Veli-Matti [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    The object of this study was to survey the effects of slash and stump removal on work productivity and work quality, as well as on the technology of forest regeneration operations. Site preparation and planting were studied in different conditions. Slash and stump treatments 'removal' and 'no removal' were established at each site. Time studies were made during site preparation and planting. The quality of mounding and planting was analysed by measurements of the seedlings. After slash removal, the increase of work productivity (E{sub 0}) in mechanized planting was 18 per cent with a Bracke planting machine and 0 per cent with an Ecoplanter planting machine. The quality of mechanized planting was slightly improved by slash removal. After slash removal, the productivity (E{sub 0}) of excavator-mounted mounders was 22 per cent higher with a mounding blade and 53 per cent higher with a ditching bucket. The quality of mounding was the same for both slash treatments. The productivity (E{sub 0}) of three forwarder-mounted mounders was 5 per cent lower after slash removal, but at the same time the quality of the mounding was much better. In combined stump extraction and mounding, the time consumption of the mounding phase was about 40 per cent lower than for separate mounding after stump removal. The results show that slash and stump removal will improve work productivity and quality when using mechanized mounding and planting methods. In addition after slash and/or stump removal it may be possible and cost-effective to use new planting and site preparation methods based on forwarder-mounted mounders. (author)

  13. The Operational MODIS Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Product: Overview of the Collection 6 Algorithm and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Marchant, Benjamin; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Operational Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of cloud optical and microphysical properties (part of the archived products MOD06 and MYD06, for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) are currently being reprocessed along with other MODIS Atmosphere Team products. The latest "Collection 6" processing stream, which is expected to begin production by summer 2012, includes updates to the previous cloud retrieval algorithm along with new capabilities. The 1 km retrievals, based on well-known solar reflectance techniques, include cloud optical thickness, effective particle radius, and water path, as well as thermodynamic phase derived from a combination of solar and infrared tests. Being both global and of high spatial resolution requires an algorithm that is computationally efficient and can perform over all surface types. Collection 6 additions and enhancements include: (i) absolute effective particle radius retrievals derived separately from the 1.6 and 3.7 !-lm bands (instead of differences relative to the standard 2.1 !-lm retrieval), (ii) comprehensive look-up tables for cloud reflectance and emissivity (no asymptotic theory) with a wind-speed interpolated Cox-Munk BRDF for ocean surfaces, (iii) retrievals for both liquid water and ice phases for each pixel, and a subsequent determination of the phase based, in part, on effective radius retrieval outcomes for the two phases, (iv) new ice cloud radiative models using roughened particles with a specified habit, (v) updated spatially-complete global spectral surface albedo maps derived from MODIS Collection 5, (vi) enhanced pixel-level uncertainty calculations incorporating additional radiative error sources including the MODIS L1 B uncertainty index for assessing band and scene-dependent radiometric uncertainties, (v) and use of a new 1 km cloud top pressure/temperature algorithm (also part of MOD06) for atmospheric corrections and low cloud non-unity emissivity temperature adjustments.

  14. The Results of Experimental Investigation Recycling Meat and Plant Waste in the Periodic Operation Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonas Misevičius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste is unwanted materials that are mainly the result of human activities and one of the sources of environmental pollution. An increase in the world’s population causes a growth in the amounts of waste in the modern world. Every year, the increasing quantities of waste are the major problems these days; therefore, calls for taking effective measures to tackle this problem could be effective tools. The article presents the results of experimental studies on using meat waste and their mixes with herbal waste. The conducted experiments observed the concentrations of methane, hydrogen sulphide and oxygen under periodic mesophilic conditions in the bioreactor. Research has shown that the use of herbal supplements with meat waste produces better results than using only meat waste. The digestion of meat wastes points to an average amount of biogas which is 0.5 m3/m3d, that of meat and herbal waste mixture (19:1 – 0.51 m3/m3d, meat and herbal waste mixture (9:1 – 0.56 m3/m3d. The content of biogas methane was 0.074 m3/m3d, 0.083 m3/m3d, 0.101 m3/m3d respectively.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Experimental study of combustion behavior during continuous hydrogen injection with an operating igniter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhe, E-mail: zhe.liang@cnl.ca; Clouthier, Tony; Thomas, Bryan

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Combustion during continuous hydrogen release. • Periodical slow burning with a low release rate or weak turbulence. • Fast global burning with stratified hydrogen or strong turbulence. • Initiation of standing flame. - Abstract: Deliberate hydrogen ignition systems have been widely installed in many water cooled nuclear power plants to mitigate hydrogen risk in a loss-of-coolant accident. Experimental studies were performed at a large scale facility to simulate a post-accident containment scenario, where hydrogen is released into a volume (not closed) with an energized igniter. The test chamber had a volume of 60 m{sup 3}. The test parameters included hydrogen injection mass flow rate, injection elevation, igniter elevation, and level of turbulence in the chamber. Several dynamic combustion behaviors were observed. Under certain conditions, slow burning occurred periodically or locally without significant pressurization, and the hydrogen concentration could be maintained near the lean hydrogen flammability limit or a steady hydrogen distribution profile could be formed with a maximum hydrogen concentration less than 9 vol.%. Under other conditions, a global fast burn or a burn moving along the hydrogen dispersion pathway was observed and was followed by an immediate initiation of a standing flame. The study provided a better understanding of the dynamic combustion behavior induced by a deliberate igniter during a continuous hydrogen release. The data can be used for validation of combustion models used for hydrogen safety analysis.

  16. Experimental study of ELM-like heat loading on beryllium under ITER operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, B.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-02-01

    The experimental fusion reactor ITER, currently under construction in Cadarache, France, is transferring the nuclear fusion research to the power plant scale. ITER’s first wall (FW), armoured by beryllium, is subjected to high steady state and transient power loads. Transient events like edge localized modes not only deposit power densities of up to 1.0 GW m-2 for 0.2-0.5 ms in the divertor of the machine, but also affect the FW to a considerable extent. Therefore, a detailed study was performed, in which transient power loads with absorbed power densities of up to 1.0 GW m-2 were applied by the electron beam facility JUDITH 1 on beryllium specimens at base temperatures of up to 300 °C. The induced damage was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy and laser profilometry. As a result, the observed damage was highly dependent on the base temperatures and absorbed power densities. In addition, five different classes of damage, ranging from ‘no damage’ to ‘crack network plus melting’, were defined and used to locate the damage, cracking, and melting thresholds within the tested parameter space.

  17. Method for experimental investigation of transient operation on Laval test stand for model size turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, R.; Coulaud, M.; Aeschlimann, V.; Lemay, J.; Deschenes, C.

    2016-11-01

    With the growing proportion of inconstant energy source as wind and solar, hydroelectricity becomes a first class source of peak energy in order to regularize the grid. The important increase of start - stop cycles may then cause a premature ageing of runners by both a higher number of cycles in stress fluctuations and by reaching a higher stress level in absolute. Aiming to sustain good quality development on fully homologous scale model turbines, the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University has developed a methodology to operate model size turbines on transient regimes such as start-up, stop or load rejection on its test stand. This methodology allows maintaining a constant head while the wicket gates are opening or closing in a representative speed on the model scale of what is made on the prototype. This paper first presents the opening speed on model based on dimensionless numbers, the methodology itself and its application. Then both its limitation and the first results using a bulb turbine are detailed.

  18. Laboratory studies of H2SO4/H2O binary homogeneous nucleation from the SO2+OH reaction: evaluation of the experimental setup and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Kameel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new laboratory nucleation setup to study binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN of sulphuric acid and water (H2SO4/H2O. Here we provide a detailed evaluation of this new experimental setup and also discuss our preliminary results by comparing with other laboratory studies. H2SO4 is produced from the SO2+OH →HSO3 reaction and OH radicals are produced from water vapor UV absorption. The residual H2SO4 concentrations ([H2SO4] are measured at the end of the fast flow nucleation reactor with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The measured BHN rates (J ranged from 0.02 and 550 cm−3 s−1 at the residual [H2SO4] from 108 to 1010 cm−3, a temperature of 288 K and relative humidity (RH from 6 to 23%; J increased with increasing [H2SO4] and RH. J also showed a power dependence on [H2SO4] with the exponential power of 3 to 8. These results are consistent with other laboratory studies under similar [H2SO4] and RH, but different from atmospheric field observations which showed that particle number concentrations are often linearly dependent on [H2SO4]. Both particle sizes and number concentrations increased with increasing [H2SO4], RH, and nucleation time, consistent with the predictions from nucleation theories. Particle growth rates were estimated between 28 to 127 nm h−1, much higher than those seen from atmospheric field observations, because of the higher [H2SO4] used in our study. While these experimental results demonstrate a validation of our laboratory setup, there are also technical difficulties associated with nucleation studies, including wall loss and H2SO4 measurements.

  19. Concept report: Experimental vector magnetograph (EXVM) operational configuration balloon flight assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The observational limitations of earth bound solar studies has prompted a great deal of interest in recent months in being able to gain new scientific perspectives through, what should prove to be, relatively low cost flight of the magnetograph system. The ground work done by TBE for the solar balloon missions (originally planned for SOUP and GRID) as well as the rather advanced state of assembly of the EXVM has allowed the quick formulation of a mission concept for the 30 cm system currently being assembled. The flight system operational configuration will be discussed as it is proposed for short duration flight (on the order of one day) over the continental United States. Balloon hardware design requirements used in formulation of the concept are those set by the National Science Balloon Facility (NSBF), the support agency under NASA contract for flight services. The concept assumes that the flight hardware assembly would come together from three development sources: the scientific investigator package, the integration contractor package, and the NSBF support system. The majority of these three separate packages can be independently developed; however, the computer control interfaces and telemetry links would require extensive preplanning and coordination. A special section of this study deals with definition of a dedicated telemetry link to be provided by the integration contractor for video image data for pointing system performance verification. In this study the approach has been to capitalize to the maximum extent possible on existing hardware and system design. This is the most prudent step that can be taken to reduce eventual program cost for long duration flights. By fielding the existing EXVM as quickly as possible, experience could be gained from several short duration flight tests before it became necessary to commit to major upgrades for long duration flights of this system or of the larger 60 cm version being considered for eventual development.

  20. PRELIMINARY IN-SITU X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE EXAMINATION OF PT/C AND PTCO/C CATHODE CATALYSTS IN AN OPERATIONAL POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, B.T.; Myers, D.J.; Smith, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    State-of-the-art polymer electrolyte fuel cells require a conditioning period to reach optimized cell performance. There is insuffi cient understanding about the behavior of catalysts during this period, especially with regard to the changing environment of the cathode electrocatalyst, which is typically Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/C). The purpose of this research was to record preliminary observations of the changing environment during the conditioning phase using X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XAFS was recorded for a Pt/C cathode at the Pt L3-edge and a PtCo/C cathode at both the Pt L3-edge and Co K-edge. Using precision machined graphite cell-blocks, both transmission and fl uorescence data were recorded at Sector 12-BM-B of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Photon Source. The fl uorescence and transmission edge steps allow for a working description of the changing electrocatalyst environment, especially water concentration, at the anode and cathode as functions of operating parameters. These features are discussed in the context of how future analysis may correlate with potential, current and changing apparent thickness of the membrane electrode assembly through loss of catalyst materials (anode, cathode, carbon support). Such direct knowledge of the effect of the conditioning protocol on the electrocatalyst may lead to better catalyst design. In turn, this may lead to minimizing, or even eliminating, the conditioning period.

  1. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm: Preliminary note of analysis of data from spring 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    In February 1998, the Ministry of the Environment gave Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.a. approval to erect a wind farm, capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk off the west coast of Jutland. Construction activities at Horns Rev started in September 2001 and were finished in summer 2002. The entire project has been organised as a demonstration project to assess the technical, economic and environmental constraints on the future development of electric power production in Danish offshore environments. Within the framework of the environmental programme, bird investigations have been carried out in relation to the risk of collision between birds and wind turbines since 2002. To provide the latest update on the results from the bird investigations, this note presents results compiled during spring 2004 and deals with a preliminary analysis of effects on birds present at Horns Rev during commercial operation of the Horns Rev wind farm. Due to the remoteness of the area it has not been possible to obtain base-line investigation of bird occurrence and behaviour at the wind farm site. (au)

  2. Global performance parameters for different pneumatic bioreactors operating with water and glycerol solution: experimental data and CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G Y; Valverde-Ramírez, M; Mendes, C E; Béttega, R; Badino, A C

    2015-11-01

    Global variables play a key role in evaluation of the performance of pneumatic bioreactors and provide criteria to assist in system selection and design. The purpose of this work was to use experimental data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to determine the global performance parameters gas holdup ([Formula: see text]) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k L a), and conduct an analysis of liquid circulation velocity, for three different geometries of pneumatic bioreactors: bubble column, concentric-tube airlift, and split tube airlift. All the systems had 5 L working volumes and two Newtonian fluids of different viscosities were used in the experiments: distilled water and 10 cP glycerol solution. Considering the high oxygen demand in certain types of aerobic fermentations, the assays were carried out at high flow rates. In the present study, the performances of three pneumatic bioreactors with different geometries and operating with two different Newtonian fluids were compared. A new CFD modeling procedure was implemented, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The findings indicated that the concentric-tube airlift design was the best choice in terms of both gas holdup and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient. The CFD results for gas holdup were consistent with the experimental data, and indicated that k L a was strongly influenced by bubble diameter and shape.

  3. Experimental numerical study utilizing CFD in a stratified gasifier operating with biomass; Estudio numerico experimental de un gasificador estratificado que opera con biomasa, utilizando CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel Ramirez, Alejandro

    2007-07-01

    The central idea behind this work is the developing of a numeric-experimental model, useful to optimize the biomass stratified gasifier design. Firstly, model validation will be carried up by comparison with reference experimental data available. This study describes a 1-D + 2-D numerical model used to simulate the gasification of pine wood pellets in a stratified downdraft gasifier whereby Eulerian conservation equations are solved for particle and gas phase components, velocities and specific enthalpies. The model takes into account the biomass particle process such as heating up, drying, primary pyrolysis of biomass, secondary pyrolysis of tar, homogeneous reactions and heterogeneous combustion/gasification reactions, and particle size change. This CFD model can be used to predict temperature profiles, gas composition, producer gas lower heating value, and carbon conversion efficiency, and the reactor performance when operating parameters and feed properties are changed. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} and RNG {kappa}-{epsilon} models were used to simulate the turbulent flow conditions. [Spanish] La idea central del presente trabajo es el desarrollo de un modelo numerico- experimental, para optimizar el diseno de gasificadores estratificados de biomasa. Primeramente, el modelo sera validado utilizando datos experimentales disponibles en la literatura. Este estudio describe un modelo numerico 1-D+2-D, utilizado para simular la gasificacion de 'pelets' de madera de pino en un gasificador estratificado de flujos paralelos, en el que se resuelven ecuaciones de conservacion Eulerianas para los componentes de la fase gaseosa, la fase solida, velocidades y entalpias especificas. El modelo considera procesos como: calentamiento, secado de la biomasa, pirolisis primaria de la madera, pirolisis secundaria de los alquitranes, reacciones homogeneas, reacciones heterogeneas de combustion/gasificacion y cambio en el tamano de la particula. Este modelo CFD puede ser

  4. Design, operation, and monitoring capability of an experimental artificial-recharge facility at East Meadow, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B.J.; Oaksford, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial recharge with tertiary-treated sewage is being tested at East Meadow to evaluate the physical and chemical effects on the groundwater system. The recharge facility contains 11 recharge basins and 5 injection wells and is designed to accept 4 million gallons of reclaimed water per day. Of the 11 basins, 7 are recently constructed and will accept 0.5 million gallons per day each. An observation manhole (12-foot inside diameter and extending 16 feet below the basin floor) was installed in each of two basins to enable monitoring and sampling of percolating reclaimed water in the unsaturated zone with instruments such as tensiometers, gravity lysimeters, thermocouples, and soil-gas samplers. Five shallow (100-feet deep) injection wells will each return 0.5 million gallons per day to the groundwater reservoir. Three types of injection-well design are being tested; the differences are in the type of gravel pack around the well screen. When clogging at the well screen occurs, redevelopment should restore the injection capability. Flow to the basins and wells is regulated by automatic flow controllers in which a desired flow rate is maintained by electronic sensors. Basins can also operate in a constant-head mode in which a specified head is maintained in the basin automatically. An observation-well network consisting of 2-inch- and 6-inch-diameter wells was installed within a 1-square-mile area at the recharge facility to monitor aquifer response and recharge. During 48 days of operation within a 17-week period (October 1982 through January 1983), 88.5 million gallons of reclaimed water was applied to the shallow water table aquifer through the recharge basins. A 4.29-foot-high groundwater mound developed during a 14-day test; some water level increase associated with the mound was detected 1,000 ft from the basins. Preliminary water quality data from wells affected by reclaimed water show evidence that mechanisms of mixing, dilution, and dispersion are

  5. Improved operation of district heating consumer installations using a self-learning district heating meter. Preliminary project; Driftsoptimering af fjernvarmebrugerinstallationer vha. selvlaerende fjernvarmemaaler. Forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drysdale, A.

    2001-12-01

    In brief, the aim of the project has been to develop a 'self-learning' district heating meter that, after being trained with operational data from a consumer installation, can effectuate optimal control of the installation. As this is judged to be a difficult task for traditional control techniques, a control method based on the use of a neural network has been used. In the project two different neural network solutions have been developed: 1) NN (or NN controller) which is a pure neural network solution consisting of two nets. The nets are trained for predicting the overall demands (NN predictor) and for implementing the best-suited control strategy (NN controller) respectively; 2) NNPIFF (or NNPIFF controller) which combines the NN controller with other control mechanisms. These are a room model, a radiator model, a PI controller and two 'feed-forward' controllers compensating for changes in outdoor temperature and the effects of passive solar heating. The NN solution is based on controlling flow, while NNPIFF is based on controlling heat (this gives the possibility for feed-forward control and thus the of compensating for the effects of passive solar heating and changing outdoor temperatures). The conclusions from this preliminary project are that: 1) The initial results from testing the NN-controller with simulated data were very encouraging. This indicates that neural networks can be used to control heating systems and as a result of this achieve energy savings; 2) Field tests with the MAK controller in a test installation have shown that the PI controller is capable of regulating the meter-valve combination. Whilst the PI-controller is operative, the NN controller is 'rained behind the scenes'. The advantage of this form of operation is that training can take place without affecting the users' comfort. However, the results from the field test have also shown that training of the NN controller has not been sufficient for it

  6. Effects of palliative care training program on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists: A preliminary quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female of age (20.51±1.78 years who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants′ written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points, attitudes (9.46±8.06 points, beliefs (4.88±3.29 points and experiences (15.8±11.28 points out of a total score of 104 points. Conclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.

  7. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on the Spray Coating Process Using a Pneumatic Atomizer: Influences of Operating Conditions and Target Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyan Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation of the spray painting process using a pneumatic atomizer with the help of a computational fluid dynamics code. The droplet characteristics that are necessary for the droplet trajectory calculation were experimentally investigated using different shaping air flow rates. It was found that the droplet size distribution depends on both the atomizing and the shaping air flow rate. An injection model for creating the initial droplet conditions is necessary for the spray painting simulation. An approach for creating these initial conditions has been proposed, which takes different operating conditions into account and is suitable for practical applications of spray coating simulation using spray guns. Further, tests on complicated targets and complex alignments of the atomizer have been carried out to verify this numerical approach. The results confirm the applicability and reliability of the chosen method for the painting process.

  8. Using the Box-Behnken experimental design to optimise operating parameters in pulsed spray fluidised bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huolong; Wang, Ke; Schlindwein, Walkiria; Li, Mingzhong

    2013-05-20

    In this work, the influence factors of pulsed frequency, binder spray rate and atomisation pressure of a top-spray fluidised bed granulation process were studied using the Box-Behnken experimental design method. Different mathematical models were developed to predict the mean size of granules, yield, relative width of granule distribution, Hausner ratio and final granule moisture content. The study has supported the theory that the granule size can be controlled through the liquid feed pulsing. However, care has to be taken when the pulsed frequency is chosen for controlling the granule size due to the nonlinear quadratic relation in the regression model. The design space of the ranges of operating parameters has been determined based on constraints of the mean size of granules and granule yield. High degree of prediction obtained from validation experiments has shown the reliability and effectiveness of using the Box-Behnken experimental design method to study a fluidised bed granulation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Report for Thermal Hydraulic Behavior During Startup, Power Change and MCP Transient Operation by using the High Temperature/High Pressure Test Facility(VISTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok; Lee, Sung Jae; Choi, Nam Hyun; Min, Kyong Ho; Song, Chul Hwa; Park, Chun Kyong; Chung, Moon Ki

    2005-07-15

    The VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents) is an experimental facility to verify the performance and safety issues of the SMART-P (Pilot plant of the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). The basic design of the SMART-P has been completed by KAERI. The present report describes experimental test results for performance test items, including heatup, power change, MCP transient, and natural circulation operations by using the VISTA facility.

  10. Preliminary results from the experimental study of CO{sub 2}-brine-rock interactions at elevated T and P: implications for the pilot plant for CO{sub 2} storage in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarza, C.; Buil, B.; Pena, J.; Martin, P.L.; Gomez, P.; Garralon, A. [CIEMAT, Unidad de Geologia Ambiental Aplicada, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    A new experimental program has been carried out in order to study CO{sub 2}-brine-rock interactions susceptible to take place in conditions close to those expected in the pilot plant that is being developed in Spain (a carbonate reservoir located at more than 800 m depth, with 15% porosity, and a salinity of the native brine between 20 - 90 g/L). The combination of preliminary experimental and numerical modeling (PHREEQC) results suggests that the main geochemical processes are calcite dissolution and anhydrite precipitation. (authors)

  11. The impact of winter 2012 cold outbreak over the Northern Adriatic Sea dynamics: preliminary comparison among data and high resolution operational atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolio, Silvio; Miglietta, Mario M.; Carniel, Sandro; Benetazzo, Alvise; Buzzi, Andrea; Drofa, Oxana; Falco, Pierpaolo; Fantini, Maurizio; Malguzzi, Piero; Ricchi, Antonio; Russo, Aniello; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Sclavo, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    exceptionally dense water formation, registered during the 2012 winter in the northern Adriatic region. During late January and early February, indeed, the basin was characterized by a persistent and exceptional cold anomaly responsible for large energy losses due to cold and extremely strong winds. Sea waters temperatures dropped to about 6°C and the Venice lagoon got partially covered by ice. In the period of interest, available measurements in the northern Adriatic Sea (temperature, salinity, density, wind speed, direction and inferred heat fluxes) were used, together with satellite measurements, to carry out a first semi-quantitative comparison among existing meteorological models implemented over the region. Namely, the work presents an intercomparison among three state-of-the-art, non-hydrostatic NWP models: COSMO-I7, WRF and MOLOCH. All models are run in operational mode, and their results are used by several Regional authorities and institutions for weather forecasting and support to civil protection decision. Therefore, this evaluation is a useful assessment preliminary to a full coupling of the above mentioned atmospheric models with existing ocean models already implemented in the region (e.g. ROMS in the COAWST system). Preliminary results show also some uncommon mesoscale structures reproduced by the models in the proximity of the central-south Italian coast, and highlight their possible influence on the local surface sea circulation. These effects will be soon explored by means of fully-coupled ocean-atmosphere models within on-going projects.

  12. Experimental Design and Data Analysis in Receiver Operating Characteristic Studies: Lessons Learned from Reports in Radiology from 1997 to 20061

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Metz, Charles E.; Doi, Kunio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a broad perspective concerning the recent use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in medical imaging by reviewing ROC studies published in Radiology between 1997 and 2006 for experimental design, imaging modality, medical condition, and ROC paradigm. Materials and Methods: Two hundred ninety-five studies were obtained by conducting a literature search with PubMed with two criteria: publication in Radiology between 1997 and 2006 and occurrence of the phrase “receiver operating characteristic.” Studies returned by the query that were not diagnostic imaging procedure performance evaluations were excluded. Characteristics of the remaining studies were tabulated. Results: Two hundred thirty-three (79.0%) of the 295 studies reported findings based on observers' diagnostic judgments or objective measurements. Forty-three (14.6%) did not include human observers, with most of these reporting an evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system or functional data obtained with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The remaining 19 (6.4%) studies were classified as reviews or meta-analyses and were excluded from our subsequent analysis. Among the various imaging modalities, MR imaging (46.0%) and CT (25.7%) were investigated most frequently. Approximately 60% (144 of 233) of ROC studies with human observers published in Radiology included three or fewer observers. Conclusion: ROC analysis is widely used in radiologic research, confirming its fundamental role in assessing diagnostic performance. However, the ROC studies reported in Radiology were not always adequate to support clear and clinically relevant conclusions. © RSNA, 2009 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.2533081632/-/DC1 PMID:19864510

  13. Realization of Integrable Incommensurate-Fractional-Order-Rössler-System Design Using Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) and Its Experimental Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mohammad Rafiq; Kant, Nasir Ali; Khanday, Farooq Ahmad

    In this paper, electronic implementation of fractional-order Rössler system using operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) is presented which until now was only being investigated through numerical simulations. The realization offers the benefits of low-voltage implementation, integrability and electronic tunability. In addition, the proposed circuit is a MOS only design (as no BJTs have been used) which contains only grounded components and is therefore suitable for monolithic VLSI design. The chaotic behavior of the fractional-order Rössler system in consideration with the incommensurate orders has been demonstrated which finds many applications in several fields. The theoretical predictions of the proposed implementation have been verified through experimentation and HSPICE simulator using Austrian Micro System (AMS) 0.35μm CMOS process and the obtained results have been found in good agreement with the Matlab simulink theoretical results obtained using FOMCON simulink toolbox. Besides, a secure message communication system has been considered to demonstrate fully the usefulness of the chaotic system.

  14. Development of gas cooled reactors and experimental setup of high temperature helium loop for in-pile operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletić, Marija, E-mail: marija_miletic@live.com [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Fukač, Rostislav, E-mail: fuk@cvrez.cz [Research Centre Rez Ltd., Rez (Czech Republic); Pioro, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Pioro@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa (Canada); Dragunov, Alexey, E-mail: Alexey.Dragunov@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Gas as a coolant in Gen-IV reactors, history and development. • Main physical parameters comparison of gas coolants: carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen with water. • Forced convection in turbulent pipe flow. • Gas cooled fast reactor concept comparisons to very high temperature reactor concept. • High temperature helium loop: concept, development, mechanism, design and constraints. - Abstract: Rapidly increasing energy and electricity demands, global concerns over the climate changes and strong dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies are powerfully influencing greater use of nuclear power. In order to establish the viability of next-generation reactor concepts to meet tomorrow's needs for clean and reliable energy production the fundamental research and development issues need to be addressed for the Generation-IV nuclear-energy systems. Generation-IV reactor concepts are being developed to use more advanced materials, coolants and higher burn-ups fuels, while keeping a nuclear reactor safe and reliable. One of the six Generation-IV concepts is a very high temperature reactor (VHTR). The VHTR concept uses a graphite-moderated core with a once-through uranium fuel cycle, using high temperature helium as the coolant. Because helium is naturally inert and single-phase, the helium-cooled reactor can operate at much higher temperatures, leading to higher efficiency. Current VHTR concepts will use fuels such as uranium dioxide, uranium carbide, or uranium oxycarbide. Since some of these fuels are new in nuclear industry and due to their unknown properties and behavior within VHTR conditions it is very important to address these issues by investigate their characteristics within conditions close to those in VHTRs. This research can be performed in a research reactor with in-pile helium loop designed and constructed in Research Center Rez Ltd. One of the topics analyzed in this article are also physical characteristic and benefits of gas

  15. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 2{sup 3} experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa, Leyanis; Gonzalez, Erenio [Centro de Analisis de Procesos, Facultad de Quimica-Farmacia, Universidad Central de Las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba); Ruiz, Encarnacion; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal; Castro, Eulogio [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Felissia, Fernando [Programa de Celulosa y Papel, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Misiones (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 2{sup 3} full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and {beta}-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work. (author)

  16. A combined experimental and numerical approach for the control and monitoring of the SPES target during operation at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballan, Michele; Manzolaro, Mattia; Meneghetti, Giovanni; Andrighetto, Alberto; Monetti, Alberto; Bisoffi, Giovanni; Prete, Gianfranco

    2016-06-01

    The SPES project at INFN-LNL aims at the production of neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) technique. A 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam will directly impinge a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The target system is installed under vacuum inside a water-cooled chamber, and have to maintain high working temperatures, close to 2000 °C. During operation the proton beam provides the heating power required to keep the target at the desired temperature level. As a consequence, its characteristics have to be strictly controlled in order to avoid undesired overheating. According to the original design of the control system, the proton beam can be suddenly interrupted in case of out of range vacuum or cooling water flow levels. With the aim to improve the reliability of the control system a set of temperature sensors has been installed close to the target. Their types and installation positions were defined taking into consideration the detailed information coming from a dedicated thermal-electric model that allowed to investigate the most critical and inaccessible target hot-spots. This work is focused on the definition and experimental validation of the aforementioned numerical model. Its results were used to appropriately install two type C thermocouples, a PT100 thermo-resistance and a residual primary beam current detector. In addition the numerical model will be used for the definition of appropriate thresholds for each installed temperature sensor, since it allows to define a relationship between the locally measured values with the overall calculated temperature field. In case of over temperatures the monitoring system will send warning signals or in case interrupt the proton beam.

  17. A new proposal on the operational quantity H{sub p}(3): Monte Carlo and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, F., E-mail: francesca.mariotti@bologna.enea.i [ENEA Radiation Protection Institute, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Gualdrini, G.; Fantuzzi, E.; Ferrari, P.; Monteventi, F. [ENEA Radiation Protection Institute, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    The European Union is funding the ORAMED Contract (Optimization of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff) project that aims at developing methodologies for better assessing and reducing exposures to medical staff for procedures resulting in potentially large doses or complex radiation fields, such as interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and new developments. One of the ORAMED Working Tasks is addressed to the discussion and implementation in the radiation protection practice of the eye lens equivalent dose. The aim of this task group is to develop a personal dosemeter characterized in term of H{sub p}(3). Until now H{sub p}(3) conversion coefficients were not reported in the official recommendations and the available data were calculated for a 30 x 30 x 15 cm{sup 3} slab phantom that is far away to represent the head. A reduced slab phantom, for both calculating the quantities and type testing personal dosemeter in terms of the operational quantity, was previously proposed by ENEA Bologna team. The study demonstrated that a reduced slab phantom is better representative of a real situation, but the angular dependence of H{sub p}(3,{alpha}) due to the edges of the slab reduces its applicability. Therefore a better-suited phantom is proposed here. The dosimetric assessment in terms of this quantity is seldom performed in the various workplaces (e.g. hospitals) and therefore a question rises about its usefulness and practical implementation. The present work tries to introduce new elements in the discussion on the quantity H{sub p}(3) and to propose a more suitable theoretical cylindrical phantom (and a corresponding experimental one for the calibration procedures) to better approximate the head in which the eyes are placed.

  18. Preliminary FLUKA study of the proposed PSNF installation - A description of the implemented geometry with an analysis of some operational aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, M; Sala, P; Vlachoudis, V; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    A recent experimental proposal in the form of a Memorandum has been discussed at the SPSC (SPS and PS experiments Committee) session of April 2011, with the objective of investigating anomalous nu_mu --> nu_e neutrino oscillations; this proposal has followed a letter of intent published in 2009. The proposed experiment would be a short-baseline neutrino experiment with two detectors placed at 120 m and 850 m from the secondary production target. In order to achieve the required beam parameters, it has been proposed to reactivate the discontinued PS neutrino facility, which was operational in the early 80s, located in the TT7 tunnel. The present note describes the implementation of the secondary beam production elements of the proposed PS Neutrino Facility within the FLUKA Monte Carlo code as well as the complete infrastructure of the TT7 tunnel; the note also contains a respective analysis of some critical aspects related to energy deposition in the beam line, of the ambient dose rate equivalent in public a...

  19. MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena J.; Jones, Peter; Hensley, Daniel; Holbrook, Andrew; Plata, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris J.

    2013-02-01

    Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13-14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1-3 cm diameter tumors located 2-10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally

  20. Application of Preliminary Hazard Analysis in Operation and Management at Secondary Surveillance Radar Station%预先危险分析方法在航管二次雷达站运行管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒涛

    2012-01-01

    本文对预先危险分析方法作了简单介绍。重点研究了PHA在航管二次雷达站运行管理中的应用,找出了广汉机场航管二次雷达站运行管理中存在的危险源,采用定性和定量的方法从危险的后果严重程度和发生可能性两方面对风险进行了分析,提出了控制危险性的有效措施。%This paper gives a brief introduction of preliminary hazard analysis and keys the study on application of preliminary hazard analysis in the operation and management at Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) Stations. It finds out the dangerous source in the operation and management of SSR Station at Guanghan Airport and analyzes the risks with the qualitative and quantitative meth- ods from the viewpoints of serious corisequences and potential dangers. It proposes effective measures to control the risks, reduce the probability of accidents, ensure the normal operation of the SSR, and secure the flight training of our college.

  1. Experimental and numerical analysis for high intensity swirl based ultra-low emission flameless combustor operating with liquid fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy

    2014-06-21

    Flameless combustion offers many advantages over conventional combustion, particularly uniform temperature distribution and lower emissions. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed and adopted to scale up a burner operating in flameless combustion mode from a heat release density of 5.4-21 MW/m(3) (thermal input 21.5-84.7 kW) with kerosene fuel. A swirl flow based configuration was adopted for air injection and pressure swirl type nozzle with an SMD 35-37 lm was used to inject the fuel. Initially, flameless combustion was stabilized for a thermal input of 21.5 kW ((Q) over dot \\'\\'\\'= 5.37 MW/m(3)). Attempts were made to scale this combustor to higher intensities i.e. 10.2, 16.3 and 21.1 MW/m(3). However, an increase in fuel flow rate led to incomplete combustion and accumulation of unburned fuel in the combustor. Two major difficulties were identified as possible reasons for unsustainable flameless combustion at the higher intensities. (i) A constant spray cone angle and SMD increases the droplet number density. (ii) Reactants dilution ratio (R-dil) decreased with increased thermal input. To solve these issues, a modified combustor configuration, aided by numerical computations was adopted, providing a chamfer near the outlet to increase the R-dil. Detailed experimental investigations showed that flameless combustion mode was achieved at high intensities with an evenly distributed reaction zone and temperature in the combustor at all heat intensities. The emissions of CO, NOx and HC for all heat intensities (Phi = 1-0.6) varied between 11-41, 6-19 and 0-9 ppm, respectively. These emissions are well within the range of emissions from other flameless combustion systems reported in the literature. The acoustic emission levels were also observed to be reduced by 8-9 dB at all conditions. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary planning study for safety relief valve experiments in a Mark III BWR pressure suppression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.

    1980-04-21

    In response to a request from the Water Reactor Safety Research Division of the US NRC, a preliminary study is provided which identifies key features and consideration involved in planning a comprehensive in-plant Safety Relief Valve experimental program for a Mark III containment design. The report provides identification of program objectives, measurement system requirements, and some details quantifying expected system response. In addition, a preliminary test matrix is outlined which involves a supporting philosophy intended to enhance the usefulness of the experimental results for all members of the program team: experimentalists, analysts, and plant operator.

  3. Experimental results of ammonia operated condensate polishing plants in combined cycle power plants; Untersuchungsergebnisse zur Ammoniumfahrweise einer Kondensatreinigungsanlage bei GuD-Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochsmann, Christian [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Jahr, Henrik; Glueck, Wolfgang [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Neumann, Stefan; Wedemeyer, Hans-Juergen [Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    Modern combined cycle power plants with once-through boilers require highly pure boiler feedwater. Typically a condensate polishing plant (CPP) is used as 'salt sink' in the water-steam cycle, with a combination of cation and anion exchanger resin in a mixed bed filter. Ammonia ions are removed which reduces the lifetime of CPP. An alternative is the so-called 'ammonium form operation' which is being presented and discussed. This mode was investigated. The experimental results show that the 'ammonium form operation' is an attractive technology, which offers reduced operating costs and therefore meets economical expectations of power plant operators. (orig.)

  4. Experimental-based Modelling and Simulation of Water Hydraulic Mechatronics Test Facilities for Motion Control and Operation in Environmental Sensitive Applications` Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Pobedza, J.; Sobczyk, A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents experimental-based modelling, simulation, analysis and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. The contributions includes results from on-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic...... proportional valves and servo actuators for motion control and power transmission undertaken in co-operation by Technical University, DTU and Cracow University of Technology, CUT. The results of this research co-operation include engineering design and test of simulation models compared with two mechatronic...

  5. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 1; Fan Stage Design and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. To this end, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric (GE) teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10 ), fan speed (7 ), inlet mass flow (3.5 ), inlet pressure (8 ), and inlet temperature (3 ). In this paper, NASA has set out to characterize a TBCC engine fan stage aerodynamic performance and stability limits over a wide operating range including power-on and hypersonic-unique "windmill" operation. Herein, we will present the fan stage design, and the experimental test results of the fan stage operating from 15 to 100 percent corrected design speed. Whereas, in the companion paper, we will provide an assessment of NASA s APNASA code s ability to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speed and bypass ratio.

  6. 实验昆虫实验动物化的初步研究%Preliminary Research on Experimental Animalization of Experiment Insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安学芳; 夏克祥; 朱幼玲

    2003-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, life-science is involving in many fields. The requirements for the methods of experiment and experiment object are more abroad, more strict and more diversified. As laboratory animals of experimental material in the life-science, great changes have taken place since then. As for the exploitation of new kind of laboratory animals, it is not only limited in experimental Animalization of ordinary mammals but also expands steadily from Experimental Animalization of birds, reptiles, fish and invertebrates. Now insects of invertebrate have been used in life science research and are enriched gradually in application fields.

  7. Experimental-based Modelling and Simulation of Water Hydraulic Mechatronics Test Facilities for Motion Control and Operation in Environmental Sensitive Applications` Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Pobedza, J.; Sobczyk, A.

    2003-01-01

    proportional valves and servo actuators for motion control and power transmission undertaken in co-operation by Technical University, DTU and Cracow University of Technology, CUT. The results of this research co-operation include engineering design and test of simulation models compared with two mechatronic......The paper presents experimental-based modelling, simulation, analysis and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. The contributions includes results from on-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic...... test rig facilities powered by environmental friendly water hydraulic servo actuator system. Test rigs with measurement and data acquisition system were designed and build up with tap water hydraulic components of the Danfoss Nessie® product family. This paper presents selected experimental...

  8. Experimental Investigation on the Operating Characteristics of a Semi-hermetic Twin Screw Refrigeration Compressor by means of p-V Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Zhaorui; Chen, Wenqing; Xing, Ziwen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive experimental investigation is carried out to evaluate the operating characteristics of a semi-hermetic twin screw refrigeration compressor at different oil flow rates and slide valve positions under various conditions. The working volume pressure of the compressor is recorded by a serial of sensors arranged in consecutive positions in the housing. These measured pressure data are then transformed into an indicator diagram. Based on the p-V diagrams, the effect m...

  9. Preliminary experimental study and simulation of an energy-tunable quasi-monochromatic laser-Compton X/γ-ray source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO We; XU Wang; ZHUO Hong-Bin; MA Yan-Yun

    2012-01-01

    We propose a slanting collision scheme for Compton scattering of a laser light against a relativistic electron beam.This scheme is suitable to generate an energy-tunable X/γ-ray source.In this paper,we present theoretical study and simulation of the spectral,spatial and temporal characteristics of such a source.We also describe two terms laser-Compton scattering (LCS) experiments at the 100 MeV Linac of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics,where quasi-monochromatic LCS X-ray energy spectra with peak energies of ~30 keV are observed successfully.These preliminary investigations are carried out to understand the feasibility of developing an energy-tunable quasi-monochromatic X/γ-ray source,the future Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source.

  10. Effect of fluid-filled support-surface utilization on prevention of pressure ulcers in the operating room: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Gül

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of fluid-filled support-surface utilization on the prevention of pressure ulcers.Methods: A fluid-filled support surface was placed onto the operating table of patients in the experimental group (n: 30 whereas patients in the control group (n: 30 were treated on standard operating tables. The study was carried out between February 2011 and May 2011 in a university hospital. A total of 60 patients who underwent surgery in orthopedic and neurosurgery clinics were included in the study. The study was an experimental study.  Results: PUs were observed in only one patient (3.3% in the experimental group, they were observed in 15 patients (50% in the control group (p<0.05. All developing pressure ulcers were stage 1 PUs. A positive relationship was found between the development of pressure ulcers and the BPURAS score, and the duration of operation.Conclusions: We conclude that a support surface is beneficial when surgery lasts more than 4 hours and in patients whose preoperative risk score is high.

  11. Preliminary Results of High-Energy Cosmic Ray Muons as Observed by a Small Multiwire Detector Operated at High Cutoff Rigidity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdullrahnan Maghrabi; Mohammed Alanazi; A. Aldosari; M. Almuteri

    2017-03-01

    Solar disturbances modulate primary cosmic rays on different time scales. Studying cosmic ray variation is an important subject that attracts scientists from different disciplines. We have constructed and installed (in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Rc =14.4 GV) a three-layer small (20 × 20 cm2) MultiWire Chamber (MWC) telescope to study cosmic ray variations and investigate their influence on various atmospheric and environmental processes. Preliminary results obtained from the developed detector are given. The influence of both atmospheric pressure and temperature was studied. Both the temperature and pressure coefficients were calculated and were consistent with those previously obtained. Short-term cosmic ray periodicities, such as the 27-day period, and its two harmonics, have been identified. Sporadic variations caused by some solar activity processes have been inspected. The obtained results from this detector have been compared to the existing 1 m2 scintillator detector, as well as to some of the neutron monitors, showing comparable results.

  12. Durability and Reliability of Electric Vehicle Batteries under Electric Utility Grid Operations. Part 1: Cell-to-Cell Variations and Preliminary Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Devie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-grid (V2G and grid-to-vehicle (G2V strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion batteries. This first part looks into the preliminary testing performed prior to the start of degradation studies to ensure that the selected cells are compatible. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic cell-to-cell variation within the selected batch and the diagnostic-ability of the cells were investigated. The cells were found to have low cell-to-cell variations and are thus consistent. Moreover, the emulation of the full cell from the half-cell data prepared from harvested electrodes was successful and the degradation forecast showed that the main degradation modes can be differentiated.

  13. An experimental and numerical study of wind turbine seismic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Prowell, I.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents an experimental and numerical investigation into the seismic response of modern wind turbines. Currently, no consensus exists in the industry and there is significant interest in improving prediction of the behavior of wind turbines simultaneously subjected to wind, earthquake, and operational excitation. To this end, an experimental program was planned in order to evaluate seismic loading of wind turbines. In 2004, a preliminary shake table test of a 65-kW utility ...

  14. Multivariate dynamic linear models for estimating the effect of experimental interventions in an evolutionary operations setup in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stygar, Anna Helena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Kristensen, Troels

    2017-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to construct a tool to assess the intervention effect on milk production in an evolutionary operations setup. The method used for this purpose was a dynamic linear model (DLM) with Kalman filtering. The DLM consisted of parameters describing milk yield in a herd, individual cows...

  15. A web-based remote radiation treatment planning system using the remote desktop function of a computer operating system: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keishiro; Hirasawa, Yukinori; Yaegashi, Yuji; Miyamoto, Hideki; Shirato, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    We developed a web-based, remote radiation treatment planning system which allowed staff at an affiliated hospital to obtain support from a fully staffed central institution. Network security was based on a firewall and a virtual private network (VPN). Client computers were installed at a cancer centre, at a university hospital and at a staff home. We remotely operated the treatment planning computer using the Remote Desktop function built in to the Windows operating system. Except for the initial setup of the VPN router, no special knowledge was needed to operate the remote radiation treatment planning system. There was a time lag that seemed to depend on the volume of data traffic on the Internet, but it did not affect smooth operation. The initial cost and running cost of the system were reasonable.

  16. Experimental evidence for the effect of small wind turbine proximity and operation on bird and bat activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Minderman

    Full Text Available The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating <50 kW sector is growing rapidly. In spite of evidence of effects of large wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m, bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour decreases from 84% (71-91% to 28% (11-54% as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89% to 59% (32-81%, and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat.

  17. Experimental evidence for the effect of small wind turbine proximity and operation on bird and bat activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderman, Jeroen; Pendlebury, Chris J; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Park, Kirsty J

    2012-01-01

    The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height) and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m), bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour) decreases from 84% (71-91%) to 28% (11-54%) as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m) from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89%) to 59% (32-81%)), and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat.

  18. Experimental otitis media with effusion induced by electron beam irradiation to pharyngeal orifice of auditory tube in guinea pig. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubu, Michiyo; Amatsu, Mutsuo (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain a more natural tubal insufficiency than that obtained by the conventional methods to clarify the middle ear pathology associated with tubal dysfunction. For this purpose, the pharyngeal orifice of the auditory tube in the guinea pigs was irradiated with electron beam with a dose of 2,000 rad following the preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate dose. The guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Pryer reflex were used for the present experiment series. A specially devised apparatus was used for avoiding the dipersing beam. Histopathological changes of the middle ear and auditory tube were observed in a series of single specimen with H-E staining 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 months after irradiation. In this study, middle ear with effusion was used to clarify the dynamic process of the pathological changes between the auditory tube and the middle ear. In summary, the present study revealed that the electron beam irradiation to the pharyngeal orifice caused various grades of otitis media with effusion which could be classified into three groups. Of these groups 1) and 2), 3) were likely to be corresponding with so-called serous and purulent otitis media with effusion in human respectively. Infection due to the malfunction caused by the epithelial damage of the auditory tube was an important promoting factor to change the serous type effusion for the purulent type effusion.

  19. Preliminary Discuss on the Rational Use of Experimental Animals in Experimental Teaching of Animal Function%《动物机能学》课程实验教学中实验动物的合理利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菊花; 阮祥春; 丁建平; 周杰

    2016-01-01

    实验动物在《动物机能学》实验课教学中有着重要作用。为了在实验教学中合理利用实验动物,首先需要整合和优化其各门课程的教学内容,设计综合性实验项目,减少实验动物使用量;其次通过改进实验教学手段与方法,利用计算机辅助实验手段代替活体的使用,同时将计算机辅助实验手段与传统实验方法相结合,使学生熟悉实验过程,减少不必要的实验动物耗损;推广动物福利的3R动物实验替代方法,在学生中宣传实验动物福利和伦理学的相关知识,引导学生珍惜实验机会,严格控制实验成本。%Experimental animals play important roles in the experimental teaching of Animal Function. In order to implement the rational utilization of experimental animals in experiment teaching, firstly, the teaching content in different courses is needed to be integrated and optimized and the comprehensive experiment projects are needed to be designed to reduce experimental animal usage;secondly, the teaching means and methods in experimental teaching are expected to be improved by replacing the using of experimental animals with computer aided experiment method, meanwhile, it was necessary to make the undergraduates familiar to the process of the experiments by combining computer aided experiment method with traditional experimental methods, so as to reduce the unnecessary loss of experimental animals; thirdly, 3R animal welfare alternatives should be promoted, the related knowledge on experimental animal welfare and ethics are supposed to be propagated for the undergraduates, so as to guide them to cherish the opportunity to participate experimental courses and to strictly control the experimental cost.

  20. Field Test Report: Preliminary Aquifer Test Characterization Results for Well 299-W15-225: Supporting Phase I of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2009-09-23

    This report examines the hydrologic test results for both local vertical profile characterization and large-scale hydrologic tests associated with a new extraction well (well 299-W15-225) that was constructed during FY2009 for inclusion within the future 200-West Area Groundwater Treatment System that is scheduled to go on-line at the end of FY2011. To facilitate the analysis of the large-scale hydrologic test performed at newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225 (C7017; also referred to as EW-1 in some planning documents), the existing 200-ZP-1 interim pump-and-treat system was completely shut-down ~1 month before the performance of the large-scale hydrologic test. Specifically, this report 1) applies recently developed methods for removing barometric pressure fluctuations from well water-level measurements to enhance the detection of hydrologic test and pump-and-treat system effects at selected monitor wells, 2) analyzes the barometric-corrected well water-level responses for a preliminary determination of large-scale hydraulic properties, and 3) provides an assessment of the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225. The hydrologic characterization approach presented in this report is expected to have universal application for meeting the characterization needs at other remedial action sites located within unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  1. Single Operation with Simplified Incisions to Build an Experimental Cerebral Aneurysm Model by Induced Hemodynamic Stress and Estrogen Deficiency in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong; Liu, Yi; He, Min; Zhu, Lei; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    To implement a surgical technique consisting of simplified incisions that allows all required procedures to be performed in one single operation for the purpose of reducing surgical stress in experimental animals. Experimental animals (rats) were assigned to one of four groups: Group 0 was the (normal) control group, Group 1 consisted of rats that had an operation using multiple incisions, Group 2 consisted of rats who received a midline incision and were raised for 3 months, and Group 3 consisted of rats who also received a midline incision, but had been raised for 6 months. Rat blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method. The surgical characteristics and outcomes of the rats in Groups 1 and 2 were compared. Aneurysmal lesions of both branching and non-branching sites were compared amongst the 4 groups by observation of the cerebral vascular corrosion casts through a scanning electron microscope. Histological analyses of the induced aneurysms were performed. The simplified incision technique significantly reduced the length of surgery and need for anesthesia redose during the operation. No aneurysms formed in the normal control rats. The incidence of saccular aneurysm formation significantly increased in Group 3. Histological analyses confirmed the aneurysms induced in the rats shared the same characteristics as human aneurysms. Our modified surgical method reduced the surgical stress in rats. It also successfully induced both saccular and fusiform cerebral aneurysms. While longer incubation duration for aneurysm formation could be applied in future researches.

  2. Direct Experimental Evidence for Current-Transfer Mode Operation of Nested Tungsten Wire Arrays at 16 19 MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, M. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Bliss, D. E.; Waisman, E. M.; Porter, J. L.; Stygar, W. A.; Lebedev, S. V.; Chittenden, J. P.; Sarkisov, G. S.; Afeyan, B. B.

    2005-06-01

    Nested tungsten wire arrays (20-mm on 12-mm diam.) are shown for the first time to operate in a current-transfer mode at 16 19 MA, even for azimuthal interwire gaps of 0.2 mm that are the smallest typically used for any array experiment. After current transfer, the inner wire array shows discrete wire ablation and implosion characteristics identical to that of a single array, such as axially nonuniform ablation, delayed acceleration, and trailing mass and current. The presence of trailing mass from the outer and the inner arrays may play a role in determining nested array performance.

  3. Experimental Study of Helical Shape Memory Alloy Actuators: Effects of Design and Operating Parameters on Thermal Transients and Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane J. Yates

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloy actuators’ strokes can be increased at the expense of recovery force via heat treatment to form compressed springs in their heat-activated, austenitic state. Although there are models to explain their behaviour, few investigations present experimental results for support or validation. The aim of the present paper is to determine via experimentation how certain parameters affect a helical shape memory alloy actuator’s outputs: its transformation times and stroke. These parameters include wire diameter, spring diameter, transition temperature, number of active turns, bias force and direct current magnitude. Six investigations were performed: one for each parameter manipulation. For repeatability and to observe thermo-mechanical training effects, the springs were cyclically activated. The resultant patterns were compared with results predicted from one-dimensional models to elucidate the findings. Generally, it was observed that the transformation times and strokes converged at changing stress levels; the convergence is likely the peak where the summation of elastic stroke and transformation stroke has reached its maximum. During cyclic loading, the actuators’ strokes decreased to a converged value, particularly at larger internal stresses; training should therefore be performed prior to the actuator’s implementation for continual use applications.

  4. Preliminary experimental research to detect grease stain of petroleum pipeline by sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma-ray transmission method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Shi Heng

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on the detection of grease stain for petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field of Xinjiang is carried out by gamma-ray transmission method. Experimental provision consists of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma radiator and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The response of grease stain thickness of petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00548 d-0.0046, and the response of paraffin thickness is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00522d-0.0126. The result of experiment indicates that the response of grease stain thickness is more sensitive than the response of paraffin thickness

  5. Design and construction of a spectrometer facility and experiment for intermediate energy proton scattering on helium. [Wave functions, preliminary experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate proton scattering on nuclei at intermediate energies and in particular to investigate proton scattering on helium. A theoretical investigation of the helium nucleus and the nature of the intermediate energy interaction, design and optimization of an energy-loss spectrometer facility for proton-nucleus scattering, and the unique superfluid helium target and experimental design are discussed.

  6. [A preliminary evaluation of mental status and an investigation of occupational health knowledge demand in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S Q; Zhang, Q; Zhu, X H; Sun, K; Chen, S Z; Liu, A G; Luo, G L; Huang, W

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the mental status, level of occupational health knowledge, health behaviors, and occupational health knowledge demand in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants, and to provide a basis for formulating protective measures of occupational health for operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants. Methods: A cluster sampling was performed in regionally representative wind power plants in the wind power industry from May 2014 to June 2015, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and a self-made evaluation questionnaire were used to investigate the general status, mental health, and occupational health knowledge demand in 160 operating and maintenance workers. Results: Of all respondents, 26.9% had mental health issues. The awareness rate of infectious disease knowledge and preventive measures was 11.9%. Of all workers, 96.5% wanted to know the occupational hazard factors in the workplace, and 96.3% wanted to get the knowledge of the prevention of related diseases. Conclusion: Mental health issues in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants cannot be neglected and there is a high demand for occupational health services and related knowledge. Comprehensive intervention measures for health promotion in the workplace should be adopted to improve working environment, enhance individual mental health education, increase the level of occupational health management, and protect the health of workers.

  7. A preliminary clinical trial using flowable glass-ionomer cement as a liner in proximal-ART restorations: the operator effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; Hesse, D.; Bönecker, M.; van Loveren, C.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Raggio, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    .Objectives: This in vivo study was carried out to assess the influence of the operator experience on the survival rate of proximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique to insert the glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Study Design: Forty five proximal cavities in primary molars were restored in a s

  8. A preliminary clinical trial using flowable glass-ionomer cement as a liner in proximal-ART restorations: the operator effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; Hesse, D.; Bönecker, M.; van Loveren, C.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Raggio, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    .Objectives: This in vivo study was carried out to assess the influence of the operator experience on the survival rate of proximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique to insert the glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Study Design: Forty five proximal cavities in primary molars were restored in a s

  9. A preliminary clinical trial using flowable glass-ionomer cement as a liner in proximal-ART restorations: the operator effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; Hesse, D.; Bönecker, M.; van Loveren, C.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Raggio, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    .Objectives: This in vivo study was carried out to assess the influence of the operator experience on the survival rate of proximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique to insert the glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Study Design: Forty five proximal cavities in primary molars were restored in a

  10. Real-time Linux operating system for plasma control on FTU--implementation advantages and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, V. E-mail: vitale@frascati.enea.it; Centioli, C.; Iannone, F.; Mazza, G.; Panella, M.; Pangione, L.; Podda, S.; Zaccarian, L

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the experiment carried out at the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) on the porting of the plasma control system (PCS) from a LynxOS architecture to an open source Linux real-time architecture. The old LynxOS system was implemented on a VME/PPC604r embedded controller guaranteeing successful plasma position, density and current control. The new RTAI-Linux operating system has shown to easily adapt to the VME hardware via a VME/INTELx86 embedded controller. The advantages of the new solution versus the old one are not limited to the reduced cost of the new architecture (based on the open-source characteristic of the RTAI architecture) but also enhanced by the response time of the real-time system which, also through an optimization of the real-time code, has been reduced from 150 {mu}s (LynxOS) to 70 {mu}s (RTAI). The new real-time operating system is also shown to be suitable for new extended control activities, whose implementation is also possible based on the reduced duty cycle duration, which leaves space for the real-time implementation of nonlinear control laws. We report here on recent experiments related to the optimization of the coupling between additional radiofrequency power and plasma.

  11. Experimental method to quantify the efficiency of the first two operational stages of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, G.; Avallone, F.; Starikovskiy, A. Yu

    2016-12-01

    A method to quantify the efficiency of the first two operational stages of a nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuator is proposed. The method is based on the independent measurements of the energy of electrical pulses and the useful part of the energy which heats up the gas in the discharge region. Energy input is calculated via a back current shunt technique as the difference between the energy given and the energy reflected back. The ratio of the difference of the latter two quantities and the energy input gives the electrical efficiency (η E) of a ns-DBD. The extent of the energy deposited is estimated via Schlieren visualizations and infrared thermography measurements. Then, the ideal power flux obtained if all the inputted energy was converted into heat is calculated. Transient surface temperature was measured via infrared thermography and used to solve a 1D inverse heat transfer problem in a direction normal to the surface. It gives as output the actual power flux. The estimated ratio between the two power fluxes represents a quantification of the mechanical fluid efficiency (η FM) of a ns-DBD plasma actuator. Results show an inverse proportionality between η E, and η FM, and the thickness of the barrier. The efficiency of the first two operational stages of a ns-DBD is further defined as η  =  η E · η FM.

  12. Experimental diagnosis of the influence of operational variables on the performance of a solar absorption cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas, M.; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, M.C.; Lecuona, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Gutierrez, G. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Bayamon, 500 Carretera Dr. John Will Harris Bayamon, PR 00957-6257 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents the analysis of the performance of a solar cooling facility along one summer season using a commercial single-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller aiming at domestic applications. The facility works only with solar energy using flat plate collectors and it is located at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain. The statistical analysis performed with the gathered data shows the influence of five daily operational variables on the system performance. These variables are solar energy received along the day (H) and the average values, along the operating period of the solar cooling facility (from sunrise to the end of the cold-water production), of the ambient temperature (anti T), the wind velocity magnitude (V), the wind direction ({theta}) and the relative humidity (RH). First order correlation functions are given. The analysis of the data allows concluding that the most influential variables on the daily cooling energy produced and the daily averaged solar COP are H, V and {theta}. The period length of cold-water production is determined mainly by H and anti T. (author)

  13. Experimental study on effects of particle shape and operating conditions on combustion characteristics of single biomass particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the ignition, devolatilization, and burnout of single biomass particles of various shapes and sizes under process conditions that are similar to those in an industrial combustor. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is used to record the whole...... combustion process. For the particles with similar volume (mass), cylindrical particles are found to lose mass faster than spherical particles and the burnout time is shortened by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area). The conversion times of cylindrical particles with almost the same surface...... area/volume ratio are very close to each other. The ignition, devolatilization, and burnout times of cylindrical particles are also affected by the oxidizer temperature and oxygen concentration, in which the oxygen concentration is found to have a more pronounced effect on the conversion times at lower...

  14. Experimental Study on Effects of Particle Shape and Operating Conditions on Combustion Characteristics of Single Biomass Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, M.; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the ignition, devolatilization, and burnout of single biomass particles of various shapes and sizes under process conditions that are similar to those in an industrial combustor. A chargecoupled device (CCD) camera is used to record the whole...... combustion process. For the particles with similar volume (mass), cylindrical particles are found to lose mass faster than spherical particles and the burnout time is shortened by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area). The conversion times of cylindrical particles with almost the same surface...... area/volume ratio are very close to each other. The ignition, devolatilization, and burnout times of cylindrical particles are also affected by the oxidizer temperature and oxygen concentration, in which the oxygen concentration is found to have a more pronounced effect on the conversion times at lower...

  15. [Intrafemoral pressure measurement in different cement removal procedures during hip prosthesis replacement operations--experimental study with cadaver femora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, M; Schmidt, J; Brimmers, P; Menne, A; Merkle, W

    1998-03-01

    During primary hip arthroplasty an increase in intramedullary pressure (IMP) of up to 1000 mm Hg can be observed. As a result of this increased intrafemoral pressure, intramedullary constituents can pass into the venous circulation creating a risk of fat embolism syndrome (FES). In the present experimental study on 9 femora obtained from human corpses, we investigated the question as to whether various methods of cement removal during total hip revision arthroplasty are also associated with increased intramedullary pressure and a risk of FES. The IMP was recorded with a standardized experimental set-up during removal of cement from the proximal and distal regions, including removal of the cement "tip" and the intramedullary plug. The methods employed for this purpose included the osteotome and mallet, a compressed air powered chisel, and a modified intracorporal lithotripter. All the methods induced fluctuations in the IMP the highest values being recorded for the conventional method using the osteotome and mallet (45 mm Hg) and the lowest values for the intracorporeal lithotripter (7.5 mm Hg). Working on the distal cement caused higher fluctuations in comparison with the proximal region. The study failed to reveal any increase in mean IMP, and all measured values were in the low pressure range (considerably below 150 mm Hg). While there seems to be no apparent risk of an FES developing during removal of cement, careless manipulation of the distal cement plug may result in higher intrafemoral pressures--above 150 mm Hg--thus increasing the risk of a fat embolism syndrome.

  16. Dynamic behaviour studies of a vertical axis wind turbine blade using Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) and Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najafi, Nadia; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Belloni, F.

    are mounted at different points on the projection of the centroid line of the blade structure. Measurements are set up in PULSE LabShop software (product of Brüel & Kjær Company). In each measurement set, one reference point is subjected to an impulse force, and acceleration responses are recorded at three...... different points. This process continues until the data set contains all the points with their degrees of freedom. Finally the frequency response function (FRF) is obtained for all points, and the natural frequencies and the mode shapes are estimated by peak picking method. Operational Modal Analysis (OMA......) is the second approach used in this project in parallel with stereo vision technique. In this method, only the output is required to be measured; actually the input is random and unknown. In this experiment markers are put on the blade centroid projection line (the same place as the accelerometer positions...

  17. Dynamic behaviour studies of a vertical axis wind turbine blade using Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) and Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najafi, Nadia; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Belloni, F.

    2014-01-01

    are mounted at different points on the projection of the centroid line of the blade structure. Measurements are set up in PULSE LabShop software (product of Brüel & Kjær Company). In each measurement set, one reference point is subjected to an impulse force, and acceleration responses are recorded at three...... different points. This process continues until the data set contains all the points with their degrees of freedom. Finally the frequency response function (FRF) is obtained for all points, and the natural frequencies and the mode shapes are estimated by peak picking method. Operational Modal Analysis (OMA......) is the second approach used in this project in parallel with stereo vision technique. In this method, only the output is required to be measured; actually the input is random and unknown. In this experiment markers are put on the blade centroid projection line (the same place as the accelerometer positions...

  18. Experimental investigations of thermal-hydraulic processes arising during operation of the passive safety systems used in new projects of nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.; Kalyakin, D. S.

    2014-05-01

    The results obtained from experimental investigations into thermal-hydraulic processes that take place during operation of the passive safety systems used in new-generation reactor plants constructed on the basis of VVER technology are presented. The experiments were carried out on the model rigs available at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering. The processes through which interaction occurs between the opposite flows of saturated steam and cold water moving in the vertical steam line of the additional system for passively flooding the core from the second-stage hydro accumulators are studied. The specific features pertinent to undeveloped boiling of liquid on a single horizontal tube heated by steam and steam-gas mixture that is typical for of the condensing operating mode of a VVER reactor steam generator are investigated.

  19. Experimental Determination of Operating and Maximum Power Transfer Efficiencies at Resonant Frequency in a Wireless Power Transfer System using PP Network Topology with Top Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Hema; Pillai, K. P. P.; Bindu, G. R.

    2016-08-01

    A two-port network model for a wireless power transfer system taking into account the distributed capacitances using PP network topology with top coupling is developed in this work. The operating and maximum power transfer efficiencies are determined analytically in terms of S-parameters. The system performance predicted by the model is verified with an experiment consisting of a high power home light load of 230 V, 100 W and is tested for two forced resonant frequencies namely, 600 kHz and 1.2 MHz. The experimental results are in close agreement with the proposed model.

  20. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Stage 3. McClellan Air Force Base. Operable Unit B. Preliminary Assessment Summary Report. Volume 3. Appendices C, D & E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Types of materials handled: PCBs Acids Bases Radionucleides Specific chemicals handled: ammonium hydroxide hydrochloric acid nitric acid potassium...on the ground at PRL 30, which includes Building 631. Period of operation: 1960 to 1980 Types of materials handled: Radionucleides "Solvents Specific... radionucleides were handled or disposed. The following sites should be considered for radioactivity screening as part of future remedial investigations: o Site

  1. Neuro-fuzzy computing for vibration-based damage localization and severity estimation in an experimental wind turbine blade with superimposed operational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Fueled by increasing demand for carbon neutral energy, erections of ever larger wind turbines (WTs), with WT blades (WTBs) with higher flexibilities and lower buckling capacities lead to increasing operation and maintenance costs. This can be counteracted with efficient structural health monitoring (SHM), which allows scheduling maintenance actions according to the structural state and preventing dramatic failures. The present study proposes a novel multi-step approach for vibration-based structural damage localization and severity estimation for application in operating WTs. First, partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) are estimated from vibrational responses. Second, principal component analysis is applied to PACCs from the healthy structure in order to calculate scores. Then, the scores are ranked with respect to their ability to differentiate different damage scenarios. This ranking information is used for constructing hierarchical adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (HANFISs), where cross-validation is used to identify optimal numbers of hierarchy levels. Different HANFISs are created for the purposes of structural damage localization and severity estimation. For demonstrating the applicability of the approach, experimental data are superimposed with signals from numerical simulations to account for characteristics of operational noise. For the physical experiments, a small scale WTB is excited with a domestic fan and damage scenarios are introduced non-destructively by attaching small masses. Numerical simulations are also performed for a representative fully functional small WT operating in turbulent wind. The obtained results are promising for future applications of vibration-based SHM to facilitate improved safety and reliability of WTs at lower costs.

  2. An Airborne Ultrasonic Imaging System Based on 16 Elements: 150 kHz Piezopolymer Transducer Arrays—Preliminary Simulated and Experimental Results for Cylindrical Targets Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capineri, L.; Bulletti, A.; Calzolai, M.; Giannelli, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a 16-element transducer array for airborne ultrasonic imaging operating at 150 kHz, that can operate both at close range (50 mm) in the near field of a synthetic aperture, and up to 250 mm. The proposed imaging technique is based on a modified version of the delay and sum algorithm implemented with a synthetic aperture where each pixel amplitude is determined by the integration of the signal obtained by the coherent summation of the acquired signals over a delayed window with fixed length. The image reconstruction methods using raw data provides the possibility to detect targets with smaller feature size on the order of one wavelength because the coherent signals summation over the selected window length while the image reconstruction methods using the summation of enveloped signals increases the amplitude response at the expenses of a lower spatial resolution. For the implementation of this system it is important to design compact airborne transducers with large field of view and this can be obtained with a new design of hemi-cylindrical polyvinylidene fluoride film transducers directly mounted on a printed circuit board. This new method is low cost and has repeatable transducer characteristics. The complete system is compact, with a modular architecture, in which eight boards with dual ultrasonic channels are mounted on a mother board. Each daughter board hosts a microcontroller unit and can operate with transducers in the bandwidth 40-200 kHz with on-board data acquisition, pre-processing and transfer on a dedicated bus.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigation of flame characteristics during swirl burner operation under conventional and oxy-fuel conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-fuel coal combustion, together with carbon capture and storage or utilization, is a set of technologies allowing to burn coal without emitting globe warming CO2. As it is expected that oxy-fuel combustion may be used for a retrofit of existing boilers, development of a novel oxy-burners is very important step. It is expected that these burners will be able to sustain stable flame in oxy-fuel conditions, but also, for start-up and emergency reasons, in conventional, air conditions. The most cost effective way of achieving dual-mode boilers is to introduce dual-mode burners. Numerical simulations allow investigation of new designs and technologies at a relatively low cost, but for the results to be trustworthy they need to be validated. This paper proposes a workflow for design, modeling, and validation of dual-mode burners by combining experimental investigation and numerical simulations. Experiments are performed with semi-industrial scale burners in 0.5 MWt test facility for flame investigation. Novel CFD model based on ANSYS FLUENT solver, with special consideration of coal combustion process, especially regarding devolatilization, ignition, gaseous and surface reactions, NOx formation, and radiation was suggested. The main model feature is its ability to simulate pulverized coal combustion under different combusting atmospheres, and thus is suitable for both air and oxy-fuel combustion simulations. Using the proposed methodology two designs of pulverized coal burners have been investigated both experimentally and numerically giving consistent results. The improved burner design proved to be a more flexible device, achieving stable ignition and combustion during both combustion regimes: conventional in air and oxy-fuel in a mixture of O2 and CO2 (representing dry recycled flue gas with high CO2 content. The proposed framework is expected to be of use for further improvement of multi-mode pulverized fuel swirl burners but can be also used

  4. 高职“人体解剖学”实验教学改革初探%Preliminary Experimental Teaching Reform of Human Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小勇; 付庆; 刘菲

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy experimental teaching is an important teaching link of human anatomy. By constructing teaching mode of"take the teacher as the leadership, take the student as the main body", it should adjust the content of experiment teaching, increase teaching resources, use a variety of teaching methods, and establish the experimental evaluation system to achieve medicine basic course combined with clinical professional course.%实验教学是“人体解剖学”的重要教学环节。该文通过建立“以教师为主导、以学生为主体”的双主教学模式,调整实验教学内容,综合运用多种教学方法和手段,改革实验考核评价体系,实现高职院校医学基础课程与临床专业课程的良性接轨。

  5. Manual Ventilation and Sustained Lung Inflation in an Experimental Model: Influence of Equipment Type and Operator's Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane do Prado

    Full Text Available To compare the influence of devices for manual ventilation and individual experience on the applied respiratory mechanics and sustained lung inflation.A total of 114 instructors and non-instructors from the Neonatal Resuscitation Program of the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics participated in this study. Participants ventilated an intubated manikin. To evaluate respiratory mechanics and sustained lung inflation parameters, a direct comparison was made between the self-inflating bag and the T-shaped resuscitator (T-piece, followed by an analysis of the effectiveness of the equipment according to the participants' education and training.A difference between equipment types was observed for the tidal volume, with a median (interquartile range of 28.5 mL (12.6 for the self-inflating bag and 20.1 mL (8.4 for the T-piece in the instructor group and 31.6 mL (14 for the self-inflating bag and 22.3 mL (8.8 for the T-piece in the non-instructor group. Higher inspiratory time values were observed with the T-piece in both groups of professionals, with no significant difference between them. The operator's ability to maintain the target pressure over the 10 seconds of sustained lung inflation was evaluated using the area under the pressure-time curve and was 1.7-fold higher with the use of the T-piece. Inspiratory pressure and mean airway pressure applied during sustained lung inflation were greater with the self-inflating bag, as evaluated between the beginning and the end of the procedure.The T-piece resulted in lower tidal volume and higher inspiratory time values, irrespective of the operator's experience, and increased the ease of performing the sustained lung inflation maneuver, as demonstrated by the maintenance of target pressure for the desired period and a higher mean airway pressure than that obtained using the self-inflating bag.

  6. Development and Experimental Benchmark of Simulations to Predict Used Nuclear Fuel Cladding Temperatures during Drying and Transfer Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Radial hydride formation in high-burnup used fuel cladding has the potential to radically reduce its ductility and suitability for long-term storage and eventual transport. To avoid this formation, the maximum post-reactor temperature must remain sufficiently low to limit the cladding hoop stress, and so that hydrogen from the existing circumferential hydrides will not dissolve and become available to re-precipitate into radial hydrides under the slow cooling conditions during drying, transfer and early dry-cask storage. The objective of this research is to develop and experimentallybenchmark computational fluid dynamics simulations of heat transfer in post-pool-storage drying operations, when high-burnup fuel cladding is likely to experience its highest temperature. These benchmarked tools can play a key role in evaluating dry cask storage systems for extended storage of high-burnup fuels and post-storage transportation, including fuel retrievability. The benchmarked tools will be used to aid the design of efficient drying processes, as well as estimate variations of surface temperatures as a means of inferring helium integrity inside the canister or cask. This work will be conducted effectively because the principal investigator has experience developing these types of simulations, and has constructed a test facility that can be used to benchmark them.

  7. Measurement of hand dynamics in a microsurgery environment: Preliminary data in the design of a bimanual telemicro-operation test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Steve; Williams, Roy

    1989-01-01

    Data describing the microsurgeon's hand dynamics was recorded and analyzed in order to provide an accurate model for the telemicrosurgery application of the Bimanual Telemicro-operation Test Bed. The model, in turn, will guide the development of algorithms for the control of robotic systems in bimanual telemicro-operation tasks. Measurements were made at the hand-tool interface and include position, acceleration and force between the tool-finger interface. Position information was captured using an orthogonal pulsed magnetic field positioning system resulting in measurements in all six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). Acceleration data at the hands was obtained using accelerometers positioned in a triaxial arrangement on the back of the hand allowing measurements in all three cartesian-coordinate axes. Force data was obtained by using miniature load cells positioned between the tool and the finger and included those forces experienced perpendicular to the tool shaft and those transferred from the tool-tissue site. Position data will provide a minimum/maximum reference frame for the robotic system's work space or envelope. Acceleration data will define the response times needed by the robotic system in order to emulate and subsequently outperform the human operator's tool movements. The force measurements will aid in designing a force-reflective, force-scaling system as well as defining the range of forces the robotic system will encounter. All analog data was acquired by a 16-channel analog-to-digital conversion system residing in a IBM PC/AT-compatible computer at the Center's laboratory. The same system was also used to analyze and present the data.

  8. A Preliminary Shielding Study on the Integrated Operation Verification System in the Head-End Hot-Cell of the Pyro-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinhwam; Kim, Yewon; Park, Se-Hwan; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Cho, Gyuseong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Nuclear power accounts for more than 30 percent of power production in Korea. Its significance has annually been increased. Disposal spent fuel containing uranium, transuranic elements, and fission products is unavoidable byproduct of nuclear power production. it is recognized that finding appropriate sites for interim storage of disposal spent fuel is not easy because isolated sites should be required. Pyro-processing technology, Pyro-processing should be operated under high radiation environment in hot-cell structures. Because of this reason, all workers should be unauthorized to access inside the hot-cell areas under any circumstances except for acceptable dose verification and a normal operation should be remotely manipulated. For the reliable normal operation of pyroprocessing, it is noted that an evaluation of the space dose distribution in the hot-cell environments is necessary in advance in order to determine which technologies or instruments can be utilized on or near the process as the Integrated Operation Verification System (IOVS) is measured. Not like the electroreduction and electro-refining hot-cells, the head-end hot-cell equips Camera Radiation Detector (CRD) in which plutonium is securely measured and monitored for the safeguard of the pyro-processing. Results have been obtained using F2 surface tally in order to observe the magnitude of the gamma-ray and neutron flux which pass through the surface of the process cell. Furthermore, T-mesh tally has also been used to obtain the space dose distribution in the headend hot-cell. The hot-cell was divided into 7,668 cells in which each dimension was 1 x 1 x 1m for the T-mesh tally. To determine the position of the CRD and the surveillance camera, divergent approaches were required. Because the purpose of the CRD which contains a gamma-ray detector and a neutron detector is to identify the material composition as the process proceeds, the position in which detectable flux is exposed is required, whereas

  9. The Battle for Leyte Gulf, October 1944. Strategical and Tactical Analysis. Volume I. Preliminary Operations until 0719 October 17th, 1944 Including Battle off Formosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    from the mobile forces.* The base air forces included naval -land-based air units and carrier air groups when they operated from shore-bases. Plate " XII ...Mabalaeat and Tablas had estimated capacities of from one hundred to two hundred planes each. The four satellite fields of the Clark Air Base complex...July-Septumber T944, WDC Doc~uentTM-1•Y--A * The Campaigns of the Pacific War USSHS, 1946, Chapter XII , page 280; also USSIOi InterrogationA NAV No. 9

  10. Preliminary analysis of modeling of Pars and steam injectors to support long-term operation of LWR passive ECCS using a best estimate thermal-hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales S, J. B.; Sanchez J, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: jaimebmoraless@gmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    In order to control the amount of hydrogen produced, during the chemical reaction of steam and strongly overheated zirconium in a LWR severe accident, several control methos have been proposed. In a considerable number of nuclear power plants the initial preferred solution was either the use of an inert containment atmosphere or the use of igniters. However, the use of Pars (Passive autocatalytic recombiners) has been considered an important addition to this set of H{sub 2} controls. Pars have appealing features such as, low maintenance, do not require active components to start operation, and can initiate the H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} recombination at low concentrations. However, under certain conditions these Pars may trigger H{sub 2} ignition leading to deflagration s with possible containment damages. Combustions, poisons and liquid may inhibit or reduce the Pars operation. Advanced LWR designs (generation III + and IV) are also considering the use of Pars as a supporting system to the long term operation of their passive ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling Systems) because they may transport the energy of containment H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gases to external sinks. Even when the ECCS of modern nuclear power plants are designed to maintain containment conditions under established limits, there are small amounts of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} produced mainly by H{sub 2}O radiolysis, and after several days of containment isolation, these gases may accumulate in places where the possibility of a H{sub 2} deflagration increases. Therefore, the use of Pars looks initially as an interesting solution to long-term H{sub 2} control during a Dba. However, the H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} recombination is an exothermic process resulting in additional steam and energy releases to the containment. In order to avoid a direct deposition of the steam and energy (Pars produced) into the containment atmosphere, we propose to use them to operate steam injectors that can bring cold water to replenish ECCS

  11. A new type mixture refrigeration auto-cascade cycle with partial condensation and separation reflux exchanger and its preliminary experimental test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Liu, J. L.; Luo, E. C.; Qi, Y. F.; Hu, Q. G.

    2002-05-01

    A new type of mixture refrigeration cycle with reflux exchanger is presented in this paper. In this cycle, a new type of L-V separator with inner heat and mass transfer is employed to replace the combination of conventional L-V separator or complicated rectifier and succeeding heat exchanger used in traditional auto-cascade cycle or Kleemenko cycle. A prototype is developed based on this refrigeration cycle. The thermodynamic performance is discussed as well as some other specifications such as cost, reliability, etc. The experimental results show that this prototype can reach 74 W at 135 K and 265 W at 171 K with a nominal input power of 1.5 HP.

  12. Bacterial translocation as a source of Dacron-graft contamination in experimental aortic operation: the importance of controlling SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Francisco S; Cascajo, Carlos; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Barros, Marcello B; García-Criado, Francisco J; Parreño, Felipe; García-Sánchez, José Elias; Gómez-Alonso, Alberto

    2006-07-01

    Several experimental studies have shown the beneficial effects of nitric oxide (NO) in the modulation of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Nitric oxide is involved in and affects almost all stages in the development of inflammation. We have attempted to ascertain whether the nitric oxide donor molsidomine prevents aortic graft contamination through control of the SIRS and a decrease in bacterial translocation (BT). Twenty-four mini-pigs were divided into 4 groups. The animals were subjected to suprarenal aortic/iliac cross-clamping (for 30 minutes) and by-pass with a Dacron-collagen prosthetic graft impregnated in rifampicin. Groups: 1) sham (aortic dissection alone); 2) cross-clamping and bypass; 3) hemorrhage of 40% of total blood volume before cross-clamping and by-pass; and 4) the same as in group 3 but also including the administration of the NO donor molsidomine (4 mg/kg) 5 minutes before cross-clamping. 1) bacteriology of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), kidney, blood, and prosthesis; 2) serum TNF-alpha (ELISA); and 3) iNOS expression in kidney and liver (Western blot). Aortic cross-clamping with or without hemorrhage was associated with BT in 80% and 100% of the animals, respectively. About 86% of the bacteria isolated in the graft were also present in MLN. This contamination coincided with an increase in TNF-alpha and with a greater expression of iNOS. Molsidomine administration decreased TNF-alpha and iNOS, decreased BT (from 100% to 20% of the animals), and decreased graft contamination (from 83% to 20%). The present model induces high levels of BT and SIRS, both acted as sources of contamination for the implanted Dacron graft. Molsidomine administration decreased the presence of bacteria in the graft by controlling BT and modulating SIRS.

  13. The investigation of the impact of basic operational parameters on the dynamics of water jacket in a biomass boiler using numerical and experimental methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szubel Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass boiler application, despite its many advantages, is dependent upon many technical aspects, which require tests and optimization. Because of practical constraints, one of the most problematic areas of research is the analysis of phenomena occurring inside the water jacket of the boiler during the combustion process. The issue referred to above is significant due to its direct impact on the heating up of the operating medium for current power of the device and the total efficiency. The paper presents the analytical possibilities of the operating medium in a biomass boiler water jacket. The experimental works conducted as a part of the study were performed using an actual device – EKOPAL RM 40 straw boiler. They were aimed at defining the values of significant boundary conditions. Resistance thermometers and K-type thermocouples connected to a data acquisition system were placed in selected points of the water jacket and the combustion chambers to allow the monitoring of the conditions of the water heating process during biomass combustion. A measurement of inlet water mass flow rate was performed. To develop a numerical model of heat transfer into the water jacket, ANSYS CFX software was applied. The results of the experiments and simulations were compared and discussed. The paper describes the methodology and instruments used to perform the experimental studies, as well as some optimization solutions developed based on the results of the numeric alanalysis.

  14. Numerical and experimental evidence of the inter-blade cavitation vortex development at deep part load operation of a Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    Francis turbines are subject to various types of the cavitation flow depending on the operating conditions. In order to compensate for the stochastic nature of renewable energy sources, it is more and more required to extend the operating range of the generating units, from deep part load to full load conditions. In the deep part load condition, the formation of cavitation vortices in the turbine blade to blade channels called inter-blade cavitation vortex is often observed. The understanding of the dynamic characteristics of these inter-blade vortices and their formation mechanisms is of key importance in an effort of developing reliable flow simulation tools. This paper reports the numerical and experimental investigations carried out in order to establish the vortex characteristics, especially the inception and the development of the vortex structure. The unsteady RANS simulation for the multiphase flow is performed with the SST- SAS turbulence model by using the commercial flow solver ANSYS CFX. The simulation results in terms of the vortex structure and the cavitation volume are evaluated by comparing them to the flow visualizations of the blade channel acquired through a specially instrumented guide vane as well as from the downstream of the runner across the draft tube cone. The inter-blade cavitation vortex is successfully captured by the simulation and both numerical and experimental results evidence that the inter-blade vortices are attached to the runner hub.

  15. The exploration and study on basic experimental operation in sheep%羊实验基本操作方法的探索和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汝文; 陈洁; 陈丽玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对羊的保定、采血、麻醉、给药、手术,探索适合于羊实验的操作方法.方法 用24只羊通过反复实验,分析实验操作,总结实验前、后准备及护理.结果 总结出适合羊实验的快速保定、采血、麻醉剂量与方法.结论 利用羊做实验操作方便、适宜多次实验.%Objective To fasten the sheep to pole for collecting blood, giving anesthesia, medication or surgery for exploration of suitable approach for experimentation. Methods The data of twenty four sheep after repeated experiments were analyzed for methods of experimental operation and to summarize the experience in experiments before and after preparation and care. Results The experiments in sheep had been summarized for quick stationariness, blood collection, anesthetic dosage and procedures. Conclusion Experiment by using sheep can be easier in operation and it is suitable for many experiments.

  16. Kidney shear wave speed values in subjects with and without renal pathology and inter-operator reproducibility of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography (ARFI--preliminary results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu Bob

    Full Text Available to assess the inter-operator reproducibility of kidney shear wave speed, evaluated by means of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI elastography, and the factors which influence it.Our prospective pilot study included 107 subjects with or without kidney pathology in which kidney shear wave speed was evaluated by means of ARFI elastography. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to assess ARFI elastography reproducibility.A strong agreement was obtained between kidney shear wave speed measurements obtained by the two operators: ICC = 0.71 (right kidney and 0.69 (left kidney. Smaller ICCs were obtained in "healthy subjects", as compared to patients with kidney diseases (0.68 vs. 0.75, in women as compared with men (0.59 vs. 0.78, in subjects younger than 50 years as compared with those aged at least 50 years (0.63 vs. 0.71, in obese as compared with normal weight and overweight subjects (0.36 vs. 0.66 and 0.78 and in case of measurements depth 6 cm as compared with those performed at a depth of 4-6 cm from the skin (0.32 and 0.60 vs. 0.81.ARFI elastography is a reproducible method for kidney shear wave speed assessment.

  17. Determining optimal operation parameters for reducing PCDD/F emissions (I-TEQ values) from the iron ore sintering process by using the Taguchi experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh

    2008-07-15

    This study is the first one using the Taguchi experimental design to identify the optimal operating condition for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) formations during the iron ore sintering process. Four operating parameters, including the water content (Wc; range = 6.0-7.0 wt %), suction pressure (Ps; range = 1000-1400 mmH2O), bed height (Hb; range = 500-600 mm), and type of hearth layer (including sinter, hematite, and limonite), were selected for conducting experiments in a pilot scale sinter pot to simulate various sintering operating conditions of a real-scale sinter plant We found that the resultant optimal combination (Wc = 6.5 wt%, Hb = 500 mm, Ps = 1000 mmH2O, and hearth layer = hematite) could decrease the emission factor of total PCDD/Fs (total EF(PCDD/Fs)) up to 62.8% by reference to the current operating condition of the real-scale sinter plant (Wc = 6.5 wt %, Hb = 550 mm, Ps = 1200 mmH2O, and hearth layer = sinter). Through the ANOVA analysis, we found that Wc was the most significant parameter in determining total EF(PCDD/Fs (accounting for 74.7% of the total contribution of the four selected parameters). The resultant optimal combination could also enhance slightly in both sinter productivity and sinter strength (30.3 t/m2/day and 72.4%, respectively) by reference to those obtained from the reference operating condition (29.9 t/m (2)/day and 72.2%, respectively). The above results further ensure the applicability of the obtained optimal combination for the real-scale sinter production without interfering its sinter productivity and sinter strength.

  18. The quantitative and functional changes of post-operative PB immune cell subsets relate to SAH patients' prognosis: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yugang; Zhou, Yu; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Mingming

    2017-08-30

    It has been suggested that the preoperative (PRE) and postoperative (POST) immune system alteration triggered by aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and surgical treatment itself may affect patients' prognosis and contribute to postoperative complications. The mechanisms maybe attributed to immune-suppression triggered infection or immune-overreaction triggered aseptic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the dynamic changes in peripheral immune cell subsets as well as the alterations of inflammatory cytokines in aneurysmal SAH patients who received craniotomy and clipping surgery. In addition, we studied the association of those changes with postoperative complications and clinical prognosis. We investigated 27 patients who received craniotomy and clipping surgery for the aneurysmal SAH. The operations were all performed within 24h after the occurrence of aneurysm rupture. Detailed immune monitoring (Peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphocyte subsets, inflammatory cytokines) was performed in PRE (on admission), day1, day3 and day 6 after operation. Our data displayed that the percentage of CD3+, CD8+, NKT, CD4+, Tregs cells significantly decreased and the level of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-2 significantly increased 1 day after surgery as compared to the data in PRE. On the contrary, NK, NKG2D, B cells increased and the level of IL-10 in plasma decreased. In study the relationship between POST fever and the change in immune cell subgroups, it was noted that the fever group had a lower percentage of CD3+, CD4+, NKT, Tregs and B cells in day 1, day 3 and day 6 post surgery as compared to the non-fever patients' , while CD8+, NK, NKG2D subsets showed the opposite trend. Furthermore, we analyzed the association between immune profile changes and the prognosis of those patients. The patients were divided into unfavorable prognosis (n=6) and favorable prognosis (n=21) according to Glasgow score and post-operation (POST) coma. Our results displayed that except for

  19. Experimental study on the effect of varying syngas composition on the emissions of dual fuel CI engine operating at various engine speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, B. K. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Karim, Z. A. A.; Hagos, F. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using syngas as a supplement fuel of diesel in dual fuel mode is a proposed solution in the effort to protect the environment and control the serious threats posed by greenhouse gas emissions from compression ignition engines. The objective of this study was to experimentally examine the effect of syngas composition on the exhaust emission of dual fuel compression ignition (CI) engine at various engine speeds, and to compare the operating ranges of imitated syngas versus pure diesel. The study was conducted using a naturally aspirated, two strokes, single cylinder 3.7 kW diesel engine operated at speeds of 1200, 2000 and 3000 rpm. The engine was tested with three different syngas compositions. Diesel fuel was partially substituted by syngas through the air inlet. The test results disclose the impact of using syngas in CI engines on emission of CO2, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The experimental measurements confirmed that all syngas compositions are capable of reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOX compared with diesel fuel. Wide range of diesel replacement ratios (up to 72%) was attained without any penalty. Syngas with composition of 49% N2, 12% CO2, 25% CO, 10% H2, and 4% CH4 reduced the emissions of CO2 and NOx at engine speed of 1200 rpm up to 1% and 108 ppm, respectively. The lowest emission of UHC and NOx was emitted when the engine was operating at speed of 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm, respectively with composition of 38% N2, 8% Co2, 29% CO, 19% H2, and 6% CH4. Therefore, syngas could be a promising technique for controlling NOx emissions in CI engines. However, hydrogen content in syngas is important parameter that needs to be further investigation for its effect.

  20. Solar total energy: large scale experimental at Shenandoah, Georgia. Phase III. Preliminary design. Final report, October 1, 1977-July 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The basic function of the STES at Shenandoah is to supply the electric power, process steam, and space heating and cooling demands of the expanded 3900 square meters (42,000 ft/sup 2/) Bleyle Plant and for the STES Mechanical Building. The Bleyle factory, initially equipped with its own independent (conventional) energy source, will derive at least 60% of its annual energy needs from the sun when the solar energy system becomes operational in the first quarter of 1981. The design and systems analysis of the STES are detailed. The Solar Collection Substation consists of an array of 192 seven meter diameter, parabolic dish collectors which provide a temperature rise to a flow of Syltherm 800 fluid through each collector in a parallel closed, hydraulic circuit. The receiver is a cavity type with the incident concentrated solar flux impinging upon an absorptive surface enclosed within an insulated cylindrical shell. The trickle oil/dual media concept was selected for the high temperature storage system. The Power Conversion Subsystem consists of a three piece pool-type boiler with preheater, boiler, and superheater, a GFE steam turbine-generator set rated at 400kWe supplied by Mechanical Technology, Inc., a condenser and condensate storage tank, make-up demineralizer, deaerating heater, and boiler feed pump. In normal operation, steam at 655/sup 0/K (720/sup 0/F) and 4.8 x 10/sup 6/ N/m/sup 2/ (700 psig) is generated in the boiler-super-heater, heated by Syltherm 800, and delivered to the turbine inlet. The Thermal Utilization Subsystem major components include a 2.1 x 10/sup 10/ Joule (20 MBtu) capacity, sensible heat water, low temperature storage (LTS) subsystem, a 1.25 x 10/sup 6/ Joules/second (354 ton) absorption chiller derated to provide 6.09 x 10/sup 5/ Joules/second (173 tons) with inlet hot water at 372/sup 0/K (210/sup 0/F), and two separate cooling towers for heat rejection from both the absorption chiller and the PCS condenser. (WHK)

  1. Preliminary analysis in support to the experimental activities on the mixing process in the pressurizer of a small modular reactor integrated primary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Samira R.V.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Bezerra, Jair L.; Silva, Mario A.B.; Silva, Willdauany C.F., E-mail: samiraruana@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Lapa, Celso M.F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@crcn.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Otero, Maria E.M.; Hernandez, Carlos R.G., E-mail: mmontesi@instec.cu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, InSTEC/CUBA, Higher Institute of Technology and Applied Science, La Habana (Cuba)

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a renewed interest in the development of advanced/innovative small and medium sized modular reactors (SMRs). The SMRs are variants of the Generation IV systems and usually have attractive characteristics of simplicity, enhanced safety and require limited financial resources. The concept of the integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) is characterized by the inclusion of the entire primary system within a single pressure vessel, including the steam generator and pressurizer. The pressurizer is located within the reactor vessel top, this configuration involves changes on the techniques and is necessary investigate the boron mixing. The present work represents a contribution to the design of an experimental facility planned to provide data relevant for the mixing phenomena in the pressurizer of a compact modular reactor. In particular, in order to evaluate the boron concentration in the surge orifices to simulate the in-surge and out-surge in a facility, scaled 1:200, respect to the ¼ of the pressurizer. The facility behavior studied from one inlet and one outlet of the test section with represent one in-surge e one out-surge the pressurizer of a small modular reactor integrated primary system. (author)

  2. Biomechanical characteristics of the porcine denticulate ligament in different vertebral levels of the cervical spine-preliminary results of an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Katarzyna; Czyż, Marcin; Ścigała, Krzysztof; Jarmundowicz, Włodzimierz; Będziński, Romuald

    2014-06-01

    Few studies exist on the mechanical properties of denticulate ligaments and none report the variation in these properties at different levels of the spine. The aim of this study was to perform an experimental determination of load-extension and stress-strain characteristics of the denticulate ligament and to establish if their properties change at different vertebral levels of the cervical spine. The study was carried out on a total of 98 porcine denticulate ligament samples dissected from seven fresh porcine cervical spinal cord specimens. All of the samples were subjected to an uniaxial tensile test at a speed of 2mm/min, during which the load-extension characteristics were registered. The analysis revealed a decrease of the failure force in the caudal orientation indicated by significant differences between the C1 (1.04±0.41N) and C7 (0.55±0.12N) vertebral levels (P=0.037). The average ultimate force that broke the denticulate ligaments was 0.88N. The mean value of Young׳s modulus was 2.06MPa with a minimum of 1.31MPa for C7 and maximum of 2.46MPa for C5. The values of the denticulate ligament failure force in samples from different cervical vertebrae levels differ significantly. The presented data should be taken into consideration during numerical modelling of the human cervical spinal cord. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioimmunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using /sup 131/I-anti HCC isoferritin IgG: preliminary results of experimental and clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K.D.; Tang, Z.Y.; Bao, Y.M.; Lu, J.Z.; Qian, F.; Yuan, A.N.; Zhao, H.Y.

    1989-02-01

    Based on radioimmunoimaging for HCC using /sup 131/I-anti HCC isoferritin IgG, the experimental and clinical studies on radioimmunotherapy for HCC were reported. Thirty-six nude mice bearing human HCC were used for the study of labeled IgG, pure /sup 131/NaI and pure IgG. In the labeled IgG group, the tumor inhibition rate was significantly higher than that in other groups (81%, 60%, and 18%, respectively, p less than 0.05). The tumor cell DNA analysis showed the tumor cell was inhibited in the S stage of the cell cycle. Twenty pathologically proven unresectable HCC patients were treated by /sup 131/I-antihuman HCC isoferritin IgG 20-55mCi monthly for 1-3 times (via hepatic arterial catheter or intravenously). The short-term response was promising, a decline in AFP level and shrinkage of tumor were observed in 80% (12/15) and 65% (13/20) of patients respectively. Sequence resection was successful in five patients (5/20) after radioimmunotherapy. No marked toxic effects were noted in our limited experience, but some problems remain to be discussed.

  4. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  5. 管道电机噪声有源控制系统研究%Experimental research of duct active noise control for motor operating noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会灯; 邱阿瑞

    2011-01-01

    针对直流电机运行噪声的频谱特点,设计管道电机噪声有源控制的物理系统和软件硬件系统.对直流电机运行噪声,通过实验进行单通道有源噪声控制算法主要参数包括泄漏参数、迭代步长和滤波器长度的最优化设计.根据优化后的算法参数,进行管道电机噪声单通道和多通道有源控制实验.实验结果表明,电机转速为1 200r/min和1 500r/min时,对于单通道和多通道有源噪声控制系统,管道下游最大的降噪量分别为14.8dB和17.9dB以及16.42dB和19.75dB, 降噪效果也表明有源噪声控制系统能有效地降低电机运行噪声.%A duct active noise control (ANC) experimental platform including the physical system, hardware and software system was designed to control a DC motor operating noise. The parameters for the single channel ANC algorithms were optimized to achieve the maximum noise reduction when the practical DC motor operating noise was applied. With these optimized algorithm parameters, several experiments were conducted for both single channel and multi-channel duct ANC system to control the DC motor operating noise. The experimental results show that the maximum sound pressure level (SPL) reductions downstream of the duct are about 14. 8dB and 17.9dB for the single channel duct ANC system, 16. 42dB and 19. 72dB for the multi-channel duct ANC system when the DC motor operates at the speed of 1200r/min and 1500r/min respectively, which indicates that ANC can be a feasible way to reduce the motor operating noise.

  6. Preliminary study on psychosomatic status of nuclear power plant operators%核电厂操纵人员心身健康的初步报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕金玲; 刘玉龙; 李元; 卞华慧; 孙义玲; 邱梦悦; 刘春风

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the operators'psychosomatic health status in nuclear power plant;and provide the scientific basis of measures for preventing and reducing mental disorders in operators.Methods The Psychosomatic Health Battery(PSHB) was used to assess the psychosomatic health status in 109 operators who were random selected from Qinshan nuclear power plant,etc.They were tested from lie,emotional stability,liveliness,tension,apprehension,mental health,such as psychopathic deviatesuch 7 personality traits.Results Lie < 8,all inspected groups were normal.Psychopathic deviate:98.2% for normal group 0.9% for both of groups occurred possible mental health problems and confirmed mental health problems ;Mental health:80.7% (88/109) for fine mental health ones,29.4% (32/109) for those with excellent mental health,51.4% (56/109) for good mental health ones,13.8% (15/109) for general mental health ones,5.5% (6/109) for poor mental health ones.Age factor could influence the mean values of the factors of apprehension,tension,mental health and psychopathic deviate.Correlation analysis showed that there was a correlation between tension and psychopathic deviate(r = 0.664 ,P < 0.01),and the other correlation coefficient was between apprehension and mental health(r =-0.789 ,P < 0.01).Conclusions There is an excellent condition of psychosomatic health in most of the operators,however,there are still a very small percentage of psychosomatic disorders among these operators,to improve the quality of their psychosomatic health,psychological counseling should be particularly strengthened to those with problems of psychosomatic health.%目的 了解中国核电厂操纵人员的心身健康状况,为制定预防和减少操纵人员心理障碍发生的干预措施提供科学依据,确保核电厂安全运行.方法 采取整群随机取样法随机抽取在秦山核电基地等5家协作单位的109名操纵人员,采用心身健康成套测验(psychosomatic health battery,PSHB)

  7. Computerized errorless learning-based memory rehabilitation for Chinese patients with brain injury: a preliminary quasi-experimental clinical design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Z L; Man, D W K; Ou, H N; Zheng, J L; Tam, S F

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized, errorless learning-based memory rehabilitation program for Chinese patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study adopted a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design. A total of 37 patients with TBI were randomly assigned to a Computer-Assisted Memory Training Group (CAMG), a Therapist-administered Memory Training Group (TAMG) and a Control Group (CG). Except for the CG, the patients in both the CAMG and TAMG groups received, respectively, 1-month memory training programmes that were similar in content but differed in delivery mode. All patients were followed up 1 month after treatment. The outcome measures that were taken were the Neurobehavioural Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE or Cognistat), the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) and The Hong Kong List Learning Test (HKLLT). Repeated measure analyses were performed to investigate differences among the three groups. The patients in the Computer-assisted Memory Rehabilitation (CAMG) and Therapist-administered Memory Rehabilitation group (TAMG) were found to perform better than the CG in the NCSE and RBMT, but no significant differences were found between the CAMG and TAMG. The CAMG showed significant improvement in their HKLLT assessment as compared with the TAMG and CG. No statistically significant differences were found between the CAMG and TAMG when comparing the post-training outcome measures with the follow-up results. There is no difference between CAMG and TAMG, but the efficacy has been demonstrated when comparing with CG. It is suggested that the combined use of an errorless learning and a computerized approach may be an effective way of enhancing the memories of patients with TBI. This new method may smooth the progress of the whole human memory process and produce a better carryover treatment effect.

  8. A preliminary investigation of phoshodiesterase 7 inhibitor VP3.15 as therapeutic agent for the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Álvarez, R; Paúl-Fernández, N; Palomo, V; Gil, C; Martínez, A; Mengod, G

    2017-03-01

    cAMP plays a significant role in signal transduction pathways controlling multiple cellular processes such as inflammation and immune regulation. cAMP levels are regulated by a family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). We have studied the effects of a novel PDE7 inhibitor (PDE7i) treatment on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) and compared it with another PDE7i. EAE was induced by immunizing C57BL/6J mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) peptide. Mice were treated daily either from disease onset or from disease peak with each PDE7i and with fingolimod (used in therapy for MS patients) and disease evolution was followed by clinical symptoms. We examined neuropathology of spinal cord, ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, TNFα by ELISA and cAMP-PDE mRNAs expression by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) in spinal cord of EAE mice treated with both PDE7 inhibitors. Treatment of EAE mice with the novel PDE7i, VP3.15 showed more efficacy in reducing clinical signs at 10mgkg(-1) than the other PDE7i, BRL50481 and similar to fingolimod. VP3.15 acts on peripheral lymphocytes inhibiting their proliferation and TNFα secretion in a dose-dependent manner. PDE7i treatment alters the levels of PDE4B and PDE7 mRNA expression in EAE mice spinal cord. Given the interest in the development of new drugs for MS, including PDE7i as anti-inflammatory drugs, it is important to study the role played by PDE7 in neurodegenerative diseases with inflammatory component to better understand the beneficial and detrimental effects of a future therapy.

  9. Preliminary Research on Boeing 737 NG Pacific Conditioners RNAV Operation%波音737NG太平洋调机RNAV运行可行性初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方学东; 肖真真

    2011-01-01

    Due to early voyage of the property parameters, such as restraint, Boeing 737 aircraft was operated according to Seattle-Hawaii-Marshall islands- Saipan island route. The performance of B737-NG was improved to increase the aircraft flight distance. Without pay load, the MAX Range could be achieved to make Hawaii-Saipan non-stop RNAV operation possibly. Through analysis the premise condition and airborne navigation equipment performance of the RNAV operation.. In the great circle route model , planning on the Hawaiian-Saipan direct route, with B737-800 for example, quantitative calculation the fuel consumption. Hawaii-Saipan direct route than traditional Hawaiian-Marshall islands-Saipan routes shorten 688 kilometers. In the strong dead wind condition , the wind speed is 50 kn/h, oil sailing less than 15 tons. After related training of flight crew and equipped with full-time navigator, the civil aviation Boeing 737-NG has the feasibility of non-stop flight , reduce a take-off and landing and the time will shorter 0. 8 hour.%波音737的早期机型由于受到航程等性能参数的制约,按照西雅图—夏威夷—马绍尔群岛—塞班岛的航路运行.波音737NG对飞机的性能进行了改进,增大了飞机的航程.调机飞行时,波音737NG无业载情况下可达到最大航程,为夏威夷—塞班岛的直飞RNAV运行提供了可能性.通过RNAV运行的前提条件和机载导航设备性能分析,在大圆航线模型下对夏威夷—塞班岛直飞航线进行了航路规划,并以B737-800机型为实例,对耗油量等进行了定量计算.夏威夷—塞班岛直飞航线比传统夏威夷—马绍尔群岛—塞班岛航线缩短688 km,在50 km/h强顶风状态下飞行,航行用油小于15t,说明在机组经过相关培训并配备专职领航员的条件下,波音737NG太平洋调机具有夏威夷—塞班岛直飞的可行性,减少一次起降并缩短约0.8h飞行时间.

  10. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. On Preliminary Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  12. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Hachemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME)

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Hachemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME)

  13. Patency of experimental microvascular autografts of the common carotid artery after balloon dilatation in rats: a technical note and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, R E

    1998-10-01

    To study the patency rates of anastomoses in damaged common carotid arteries in a training model of microvascular surgery (Wistar rats). Under general anaesthesia with xylazine (Rompun) and ketamine (Ketanest) balloon dilatation was repeated five times in 31 left common carotid arteries of female Wistar rats. One minute after reflow an autograft of 4 mm was harvested, turned 180 degrees, and reinserted into the artery. The flow through the vessels was investigated by micro-Doppler ultrasound (60 s after balloon dilatation and 30 min after insertion of the autograft). Autografts were fashioned in a further 26 common carotid arteries but left undamaged. A further 14 arteries were dilated, but no autografts were inserted. The vessels were harvested after perfusion with 3% glutaraldehyde after one day, seven days, and one month. The specimens were evaluated by light microscopy in longitudinal sections of 1.5 microm slides embedded in Epon. In addition, cross-sections were taken from arteries treated by balloon dilatation. In no instance did dilatation lead to occlusion of the vessel as judged by micro-Doppler ultrasound. In the group with autografts that were not dilated, one vessel was occluded after flow had restarted. However, this vessel proved to be patent after perfusion and examination. In this group, therefore, all arteries were patent after perfusion. In the group in which dilatation preceded the insertion 13 vessels were occluded and 13 were patent on micro-Doppler ultrasound. At different perfusion times, 14 vessels were patent, and 12 vessels were completely thrombosed. The differences in patency in both groups with autografts was significant, both after Doppler imaging and on histological evaluation (P < 0.001). Balloon dilatation is recommended for the removal of a thrombus or to dilate a spastic vessel segment in anastomosed vessels that threaten the success of microvascular flaps. For experimental research, balloon dilatation of the common carotid

  14. Preliminary Tests of Blowers of Three Designs Operating in Conjunction with a Wing-Duct Cooling System for Radial Engines, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, David; Valentine, E. Floyd

    1939-01-01

    This paper is one of several dealing with methods intended to reduce the drag of present-day radial engine installations and improve the cooling at zero and low air speeds, The present paper describes model wind-tunnel tests of blowers of three designs tested in conjunction with a wing-nacelle combination. The principle of operation involved consists of drawing cooling air into ducts located in the wing root at the point of maximum slipstream velocity, passing the air through the engine baffles from rear to front, and exhausting the air through an annular slot located between the propeller and the engine with the aid of a blower mounted on the spinner. The test apparatus consisted essentially of a stub wing having a 5-foot chord and a 15-foot span, an engine nacelle of 20 inches diameter enclosing a 25-horsepower electric motor, and three blowers mounted on propeller spinners. Two of the blowers utilize centrifugal force while the other uses the lift from airfoils to force the air out radially through the exit slot. Maximum efficiencies of over 70 percent were obtained for the system as a whole. Pressures were measured over the entire flight range which were in excess of those necessary to cool present-day engines, The results indicated that blowers mounted on propeller spinners could be built sufficiently powerful and efficient to warrant their use as the only, or chief, means of forcing air through the cooling system, so that cooling would be independent of the speed of the airplane.

  15. 33 CFR 127.315 - Preliminary transfer inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.315 Preliminary...

  16. 自行火炮工作模态分析试验技术%Operational Modal Analysis Experimental Technique Used for Self-propelled Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝元; 刘朋科; 衡刚; 周发明; 杨东; 李明涛

    2009-01-01

    The experimental modal analysis of the selected self-propelled gun was completed with operational modal analysis experimental technique; the modal frequencies distribution and modal modes were obtained; the analyzed result by the proposed method was compared with that by the traditional one. The compared result shows that obtained result by the proposed method is in agreement with that by the traditional method.%利用工作模态分析试验技术完成了自行火炮全炮试验模态分析,得到了所选择自行火炮全炮模态频率分布及其模态振型,并和传统试验模态分析方法进行对比.结果表明:对相同试验对象,工作模态分析试验结果与传统试验模态分析结果一致.

  17. Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Coolant Concentration on Sub-Cooled Boiling and Crud Deposition on Reactor Cladding at Prototypical PWR Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultis, J., Kenneth; Fenton, Donald, L.

    2006-10-20

    Increasing demand for energy necessitates nuclear power units to increase power limits. This implies significant changes in the design of the core of the nuclear power units, therefore providing better performance and safety in operations. A major hindrance to the increase of nuclear reactor performance especially in Pressurized Deionized water Reactors (PWR) is Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA)--the unexpected change in the core axial power distribution during operation from the predicted distribution. This problem is thought to be occur because of precipitation and deposition of lithiated compounds like boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) and lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) on the fuel rod cladding. Deposited boron absorbs neutrons thereby affecting the total power distribution inside the reactor. AOA is thought to occur when there is sufficient build-up of crud deposits on the cladding during subcooled nucleate boiling. Predicting AOA is difficult as there is very little information regarding the heat and mass transfer during subcooled nucleate boiling. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics during subcooled nucleate boiling at prototypical PWR conditions. Pool boiling tests were conducted with varying concentrations of lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) and boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) solutions in deionized water. The experimental data collected includes the effect of coolant concentration, subcooling, system pressure and heat flux on pool the boiling heat transfer coefficient. The analysis of particulate deposits formed on the fuel cladding surface during subcooled nucleate boiling was also performed. The results indicate that the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient degrades in the presence of boric acid and lithium metaborate compared to pure deionized water due to lesser nucleation. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients decreased by about 24% for 5000 ppm concentrated boric acid solution and by 27% for 5000 ppm

  18. Voltage-Controlled Sapphire Oscillator: Design, Development, and Preliminary Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. T.; Dick, G. J.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2007-08-01

    We present the design for a new short-term frequency standard, the voltage-controlled sapphire oscillator, as a practical and lower-cost alternative to a cryogenic sapphire oscillator operating at liquid helium temperatures. Performance goals are a frequency stability of 1 x 10^-14 (1 second equal to or less than tau equal to or less than 100 seconds), more than 2 years of continuous operation, and practical operability. Key elements include the sapphire resonator, low-power and long-life cryocooler, frequency compensation method, and cryo-Pound design. We report the design verification, experimental results, and test results of the cryocooler environmental sensitivity, as well as a preliminary stability measurement.

  19. Accumulation chamber as monitoring system for biogas emission from solid waste land filling: preliminary experimental results and elaborations on italian provincial scale; Camera di accumulo portatile per il monitoraggio di emissioni di biogas da discarica: risultati sperimentali ed elaborazioni preliminari a scala provinciale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaccioni, B.; Pirillo, L. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Istituto di Vulcanologia e Geochimica; Didero, M. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Istituto di Geologia Applicata; Lucci, P.; Scartoni, P. [Area Territorio e Ambiente Provincia di Arezzo, Arezzo (Italy). Servizio Ecologia; Tatano, F. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Facolta' di Scienze Ambientali

    2005-04-01

    On site CO{sub 2} flux measurements with the static, not stationary accumulation chamber system were experimentally carried out in no. 5 MSW (active and closed) landfills located in the territory of the Province of Arezzo (Tuscany Region). Corresponding CO{sub 2} emission flux maps were contoured and analysed, revealing a possible, preliminary geometrical classification of biogas dispersion: diffuse dispersion (internal), lateral/angular dispersion (internal), and external dispersion. Also specific (volume and surface) biogas emission parameters were calculated and graphically compared for the monitored inactive facilities. [Italian] La metodologia strumentale portatile della camera di accumulo, statica non stazionaria, e' stata adoperata sperimentalmente per la misura on site di flussi puntuali di emissione di CO{sub 2} in cinque discariche (attive e non) per RSU ed assimilabili localizzate nel territorio della Provincia di Arezzo. Si sono elaborate, ed analizzate criticamente, le corrispondenti mappe areali di flusso, che hanno consentito di delineare una possibile classificazione geometrica - ancorche' preliminare - di dispersioni di biogas generabili da discarica: diffuse interne, laterali/angolari interne, esterne. Con riferimento alle discariche inattive d'indagine, si sono altresi' determinati, e rappresentati graficamente, i valori di possibili parametri specifici (volumetrico, superficiale) di dispersione di biogas.

  20. Estudio experimental sobre la utilización de células madre humanas en la terapia de los defectos periodontales: resultados preliminares Experimental study on the use of human stem cell therapy in periodontal defects: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Carini

    2011-08-01

    ón, con el fin de recrear la correcta anatomía estructural del periodonto perdido. Después de una fase de expansión celular, estas células se introducen en una estructura biomimética (andamios en colágeno, y se inducen a la diferenciación en sentido osteogénico. El producto final que consta de andamios y células mesenquimales diferenciadas en sentido osteoblástico, se instala por último en el defecto alveolar periodontal. La experimentación se basa en la posibilidad de utilizar células madre mesenquimales autólogas a partir de la médula ósea humana. La finalidad es la de estimular la regeneración de PDL cerca de la pared radicular y la formación de hueso nuevo sobre el PDL, beneficiándose de las técnicas de regeneración-reconstrucción ósea, de manera que se recree la correcta anatomía periodontal. Los resultados presentados en este trabajo conciernen el primer paciente tratado con esta metodología y afectarán los estudios siguientes para la prueba con una cobertura más amplia.Destruction of periodontal ligament and alveolar ridge rerorption caused by periodontal disease is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Therapy of advanced periodontal disease leads for a total recovery of the structure lost by the inability to regenerate the pristine correct anatomy system. The aim of this study is to assess the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in the regeneration of original periodontal structure. This study is an experimental phase 1 approved by the Italian Institute of Health on a limited number of patients; main objective will be to assess the biocompatibility and toxicity in vivo of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblast sense, supported by biomimetic collagen scaffolds in patients with severe periodontal disease. The protocol describes transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from samples of percutaneous bone marrow aspirate. The bone marrow cells are manipulated ex vivo to isolate mesenchymal stem cell

  1. A Preliminary Discussion on the Open Experimental Teaching Mode of Building Materials%建筑材料实验教学开放模式的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟杰

    2015-01-01

    随着科技的发展,建筑材料的日新月异,高校教育改革的深入,应用型人才培养目标的明确化,建筑材料实验课由于自身的特点和特殊性,目前大多数高校的建筑材料实验课传统教育教学方式已经逐渐不能适应高校培养学生目标的需要,不能适应应用型人才培养的需要。本文从建筑材料开放性实验室的建立,实验室开放后建筑材料的教学模式,实验类型的划分以及建筑材料的现场教学等几个方面入手就建筑材料实验教学开放模式的初步研究进行了论述。%With the development of science and technology, the fast-changing development of building materials, the deepening of higher education reform and the clarification of applied talent cultivation goals, due to the unique characteristics and particu-larities of building materials experiment course, its traditional styles of education and teaching can no longer meet the demands of applied talent cultivation goals in universities. This paper e-laborates the preliminary research on the open experimental teaching mode of building materials from the establishment of open laboratories for building materials, the teaching mode of building materials after the opening of laboratories, the division of experiment types, and the on-the-spot teaching of building ma-terials.

  2. Review of experimental studies in social psychology of small groups when an optimal choice exists and application to operating room management decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Braun, Michael T; Van Swol, Lyn

    2013-11-01

    Because operating room (OR) management decisions with optimal choices are made with ubiquitous biases, decisions are improved with decision-support systems. We reviewed experimental social-psychology studies to explore what an OR leader can do when working with stakeholders lacking interest in learning the OR management science but expressing opinions about decisions, nonetheless. We considered shared information to include the rules-of-thumb (heuristics) that make intuitive sense and often seem "close enough" (e.g., staffing is planned based on the average workload). We considered unshared information to include the relevant mathematics (e.g., staffing calculations). Multiple studies have shown that group discussions focus more on shared than unshared information. Quality decisions are more likely when all group participants share knowledge (e.g., have taken a course in OR management science). Several biases in OR management are caused by humans' limited abilities to estimate tails of probability distributions in their heads. Groups are more susceptible to analogous biases than are educated individuals. Since optimal solutions are not demonstrable without groups sharing common language, only with education of most group members can a knowledgeable individual influence the group. The appropriate model of decision-making is autocratic, with information obtained from stakeholders. Although such decisions are good quality, the leaders often are disliked and the decisions considered unjust. In conclusion, leaders will find the most success if they do not bring OR management operational decisions to groups, but instead act autocratically while obtaining necessary information in 1:1 conversations. The only known route for the leader making such decisions to be considered likable and for the decisions to be considered fair is through colleagues and subordinates learning the management science.

  3. Analytical evaluation of technical and operational indicators impact on the transportation technology by automobile trailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Tson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of technological and operational indicators on the efficiency of using operational time during goods transportation by automobile trailers is analytically studied. The failure cause of automobile trailers undercarriages is analysed. The analytical dependences for the preliminary assessment of metal undercarriages performance in the design phases are developed. The proposed mathematical standard vehicle-performance test is compared with the obtained experimental data.

  4. 农村宅基地抵押试点运行机制研究%Operation Mechanism for Experimental Mortgage of House Sites in the Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌珂

    2014-01-01

    现行农村宅基地使用权抵押试点分别以财产流转性收益和农村金融市场扩展为抵押主题,采取农民房屋所有权并附属宅基地使用权间接抵押和宅基地使用权直接抵押两种模式,多种类型。试点宅基地使用权抵押融资存在抵押权合法性、抵押物处置效力的法律风险。宅基地使用权抵押应遵循适合我国土地政策和农民利益需求的合理途径,完善抵押登记制度;宅基地使用权转让应适度市场化运作,其受让后的宅基地使用权期限界定为30年为宜。%Currently , there are two themes of experimental mortgage of right to use house sites in the cou-ntryside , one is income of transferring property , and the other expanding rural financial market .There are two experimental models and several types , one is indirect mortgage of ownership of farmers ’ house and affiliated right to use house sites , and the other direct mortgage of right to use house sites .Experimental mortgage finan-cing of right to use house sites may take such legal risks as mortgage legitimacy and the disposal of the mort -gaged property .Mortgage of right to use house sites should follow the reasonable ways that fit land policies in our country and the interest of the farmers .Improve the system of mortgage registration , and abide by market-oriented operation on transferring right to use house sites .It is suggested that the time for transferee ’ s right to use house sites shall be 30 years advisably .

  5. Experimental demonstration of strained Si nanowire GAA n-TFETs and inverter operation with complementary TFET logic at low supply voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, G. V.; Strangio, S.; Tiedemannn, A.; Lenk, S.; Trellenkamp, S.; Bourdelle, K. K.; Zhao, Q. T.; Mantl, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, strained Si (sSi) nanowire array of n-TFETs with gates all around (GAA) yielding ON-currents of 5 μA/μm at a supply voltage Vdd = 0.5 V are presented. Tilted ion implantation with BF2+ into NiSi2 dopant has been used to form a highly doped pocket for the source to channel tunneling junction. These devices indicate sub-threshold slopes (SS) below 60 mV/dec for Id Common analog device characteristics have been determined at Vdd = 0.5 V resulting in a transconductance gm = 24 μS/μm, transconductance efficiency gm/Id = 23 V-1 and the conductance gd = 0.8 μS/μm normalized to the gate width. Based on the good saturation behavior in the output characteristic, an intrinsic gain of 188 is observed. In addition, we present operation of the first experimental sSi GAA NW C-TFET inverter. In spite of ambipolar behavior, the voltage transfer curves (VTC) indicate wide and constant noise margin levels with steep transitions offering a voltage gain of 25 at Vdd = 1 V.

  6. Analytical modelling and experimental verification of the three-dimensional current distribution on the top surface of silicon solar cells operating under concentrated sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costagliola, Maurizio; Riccio, Michele; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Gianluca; Daliento, Santolo [Department of Biomedical, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The approximation that the current is constant in any point of the emitter is not true for solar cells operating under concentrated sunlight. The transverse paths followed by photogenerated carriers to reach metal grid electrodes causes voltage drops leading to non-uniform distributed surface potential and a consequent reduction of the conversion efficiency. Moreover, concentrating lens often provide non-uniform light intensity thus worsening non-uniform current distribution. The correct design of surface geometry of the cell (metal grid, emitter depth, sheet resistance) should always take into account the above effects. Unfortunately a lack of reliable models still exists. In this paper we analytically solve the three-dimensional semiconductor equations with proper boundary conditions and taking into account, as source term, a distributed generation contribute. The reliability of the model has been tested by numerical simulations and experimentally verified with a lock-in thermography technique (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Experimental studies for improvement of thermal effects in a high-power fiber-coupled diode laser module operating at 808 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Hussein, Khalid; Hassan, Mahmoud F.; Talat, Mahmoud M.

    2012-03-01

    High power diode laser module operating at 808 nm is required for different applications, such as developing an efficient high power Nd3+-doped solid state laser and Tm3+ -doped silica fiber laser, industrial, medical and military applications. Optical and thermal images characterization for a fiber-coupled high power diode laser module is presented experimentally for 6.6 Watt output optical power .An external temperature controller system was designed, which stabilizes the central wavelength at 808 nm at 25°C over a wide range of diode laser driving current from 1A to 6 A. without this cooling system, the wavelength changes by 0.35nm/°C for temperature changes from 20°C to 40°C at the same range of the driving current. In this paper we have present a methodology for temperature reduction of a 808 nm high power diode laser module, based on dynamically thermal control, which is known as dynamic thermal management. Stabilization of the output wavelength has been done by using proportional speed control (PSC) of a CPU cooling fan with certain scheme of straight fins heat sink. Two electronic circuits based on pulse width modulation (PWM) in microcontroller and comparators IC have been used. This technique can be considered as an effective mechanism for reducing temperature and power dissipation to make stabilization of the diode laser output wavelength by preventing heat accumulation from the thermo electric cooling (TEC) inside the diode laser module confirmed by thermal images.

  8. [A clinical and experimental study of the role of long-lasting perioperative epidural anesthesia in the prevention of phantom limb pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovechkin, A M; Kukushkin, M L; Gnezdilov, A V; Reshetniak, V K

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible onset of phantom limb pain (PLP) and its development depending on preoperative limb pain and type of anesthesia during limb amputation. It was experimentally proved that preliminary local anesthesia of rat sciatic nerve slowed down the development of pain syndrome after the operation as well as reduced the number of rats with pain syndrome, as compared to the group subjected to preliminary painful electrical stimulation of the operated on limb. The clinical data presented reveal a significant reduction in the incidence of PLP after perioperative epidural anesthesia, as compared to patients with preoperative pain operated on under general anesthesia.

  9. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  10. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  11. Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Quarterly report, January-March, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G.; Bischoff, W.S.; Bishop, H.K.

    1979-04-01

    The general operations and accomplishments of the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility during the period from January 1, 1979 through March 31, 1979 are summarized. The construction and installation of a reactor clarifier/media filter system to treat the effluent brine continued. Startup is expected during the next reporting period. Operations of the facility evaluated the two stage flash cycle characteristics of brines from the second production well (Woolsey No. 1). The results were similar to the characteristics of the first production well (Magmamax No. 1) that were reported previously. The 1979 test program has been initiated and preliminary results documented.

  12. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  13. THE CALIBRATION OF ULTRALOW PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT APPARATUS AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS%超低渗透率测量仪的测试标定及初步测量结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴曼; 杨晓松; 陈建业

    2011-01-01

    temperature. In this paper,we have introduced some calibrating parameters in pore pressure oscillation method and given the experimental results on typical sandstones under seasonal cycle conditions. Our experimental results have showed that; (1 ) permeability by pore pressure oscillation method decreases with cyclic numbers slightly while permeability by steady state method decreases markedly; (2) we have used empirical power law to fit the experimental values and the accuracy to pore pressure oscillation method is extremely high. We also have compared the results of the two different methods and found that pore pressure oscillation permeability is slightly larger than steady state permeability. Finally,we discussed the reasons that generate the discrepancy due to the method applied. Then we did some preliminary research on the pore pressure, and calculated effective pressure coefficent at intervals during the cycles. Large hysteresis in permeability has been observed, and effective pressure coefficient has been found to be loading path-dependent. At last,we used the least square method on all experimental data to get the optimal effective pressure coefficient to make the best correlation between the permeability and the effective pressure.

  14. Experimental study of complex flow and turbulence structure around a turbomachine rotor blade operating behind a row of Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranna, Francesco

    The flow and turbulence around a rotor blade operating downstream of a row of Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) are investigated experimentally in a refractive index matched turbomachinery facility that provides unobstructed view of the entire flow field. High resolution 2D and Stereoscopic PIV measurements are performed both at midspan and in the tip region of the rotor blade, focusing on effects of wake-blade, wake-boundary-layer and wake-wake interactions. We first examine the modification to the shape of an IGV-wake as well as to the spatial distribution of turbulence within it as the wake propagates along the rotor blade. Due to the spatially non-uniform velocity distribution, the IGV wake deforms through the rotor passage, expanding near the leading edge and shrinking near the trailing edge. The turbulence within this wake becomes spatially non-uniform and highly anisotropic as a result of interaction with the non-uniform strain rate field within the rotor passage. Several mechanisms, which are associated with rapid straining and highly non-uniform production rate (P), including negative production on the suction side of the blade, contribute to the observed trends. During IGV-wake impingement, the suction side boundary layer near the trailing edge becomes significantly thinner, with lower momentum thickness and more stable profile compared to other phases at the same location. Analysis of available terms in the integral momentum equation indicates that the phase-averaged unsteady term is the main contributor to the decrease in momentum thickness within the impinging wake. Thinning of the boundary/shear layer extends into the rotor near wake, making it narrower and increasing the phase averaged shear velocity gradients and associated production term just downstream of the trailing edge. Consequently, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) increases causing as much as 75% phase-dependent variations in peak TKE magnitude. Further away from the blade, the rotor wake is bent

  15. 网壳结构运行模态分析的模型试验%Experimental study of the operational modal analysis of latticed domes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓; 闫维明; 叶列平

    2011-01-01

    研究网壳结构在环境激励下的模态参数识别问题。采用模型试验的方法,通过试验模态和运行模态的分析方法和结果的对比,分析自然激励下参与网壳结构振动的模态阶次和参与程度、虚假模态的辨别以及频域分解法识别模态参数的准确度等问题。试验结果表明:对于具有密集模态的网壳结构,高阶模态主要参与环境激励下的结构响应,得到如下结论:使用频域分解法得到的模态频率识别值准确度高,对于参与结构振动程度强的模态,振型识别的准确度高;提出可以根据模态频率对应的奇异值大小进行虚假模态的辨别,奇异值最大的模态,识别准确度最高,可被认为是真实%Modal parameter identification of latticed domes with ambient excitation was analyzed in model tests.Analytical results are compared with experimental and operational modals to analyze the structural response of latticed domes during ambient excitation to indentify false modals and to calculate the identification accuracy of frequency domain decomposition(FDD).The analyses show that the participating modals in structural response with ambient excitation are mainly high-order modals for latticed domes with intensive modals.The FDD model accurately identifies modal frequencies.The FDD identification accuracy is also high for modes strongly participating in the structural response.The false modals identification is based on the magnitude of singular value.The modal corresponding to the maximum singular value can be treated as the real structural modal with the highest identification accuracy.

  16. 新型国产颈椎间盘实验山羊模型的建立及初步研究%Establishment of new home-made cervical disc experimental goat model and preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王逢贤; 徐林; 俞兴; 曹旭; 杨永栋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of new home-made cervical artificial disc system implantation goats,so as to provide a basis for further improvement and clinical applications.Methods 12 experimental goats were randomly divided into 2 groups:CDR group and control group.Neck 3/4 plate were removed in CDR group,replaced by home-made cervical disc prosthesis.The disc space height (DSH),intervertebral angle (ⅣA) and lordosis angle (LA) at this segment were observed by X ray preoperatively,and postoperatively,and analyzed statistically.Results All experiment goats survived after operation,without incision infection and paralysis,statistical comparison showed no significant difference between the 2 groups ofDSH,ⅣA and LA.Conclusion New home-made artificial cervical disc system is easy to operate,has less blood loss,shorter operative time,less complications and early recovery of movement,and maintaining postoperative disc space height and cervical lordosis.%目的 观察新型国产人工颈椎间盘系统植入山羊体内的效果,为其进一步改进和临床应用提供基础.方法 12只实验山羊随机分为2组,手术组摘除颈3/4间盘,行国产人工颈椎间盘植入术,对照组不手术.分不同时间点行颈椎正侧位X线检查,测量椎间隙高度、椎间角、前凸角,并进行统计学分析.结果 动物实验中所有山羊均成活,无切口感染及瘫痪,统计学比较显示,不同时间点的椎间隙高度、椎间角、前凸角无显著性差异.结论 新型国产人工颈椎间盘系统操作简便,手术中出血量少,手术时间短,术后动物并发症少,恢复活动早,术后较好的保持了椎间隙高度和生理曲度.

  17. Experimental demonstration of a model-based control design and calibration method for cost optimal euro-VI engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based control and calibration design method for online cost-based optimization of engine-aftertreatment operation under all operating conditions. The so-called Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy online minimizes the fuel and AbBlue consumption. Based on the

  18. Experimental demonstration of a model-based control design and calibration method for cost optimal euro-VI engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based control and calibration design method for online cost-based optimization of engine-aftertreatment operation under all operating conditions. The so-called Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy online minimizes the fuel and AbBlue consumption. Based on the act

  19. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 2; Comparison of CFD and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestina, Mark L.; Suder, Kenneth L.; Kulkarni, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    NASA and GE teamed to design and build a 57 percent engine scaled fan stage for a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space with multipoint operations. This fan stage was tested in NASA's transonic compressor facility. The objectives of this test were to assess the aerodynamic and aero mechanic performance and operability characteristics of the fan stage over the entire range of engine operation including: 1) sea level static take-off; 2) transition over large swings in fan bypass ratio; 3) transition from turbofan to ramjet; and 4) fan wind-milling operation at high Mach flight conditions. This paper will focus on an assessment of APNASA, a multistage turbomachinery analysis code developed by NASA, to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speeds (37 to 100 percent) and bypass ratios.

  20. Review of Experimental Studies in Social Psychology of Small Groups When an Optimal Choice Exists and Application to Operating Room Management Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Braun, Michael T; Van Swol, Lyn

    2013-01-01

    .... We reviewed experimental social-psychology studies to explore what an OR leader can do when working with stakeholders lacking interest in learning the OR management science but expressing opinions...

  1. Experimental Research on Operation Life of Special Magnetic Grease Seal%特种磁脂密封的寿命试验研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴露; 张秋翔; 蔡纪宁; 李双喜; 李岚

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at the seal reliability problems of special magnetic grease in large motor evaporative cooling technolo-gy under the working condition of large diameter and clearance,an experimental device for special magnetic grease seal was designed. The effects of magnetic grease filling dosage,shaft speed,seal gap,cooling water flow and seal series on the seal life were researched through operation tests. The results show that the seal life of special magnetic grease can be im-proved by reducing filling dosage of magnetic grease and increasing seal gap under the same seal bearing capacity. The seal life of special magnetic grease has no obvious change with stable performance within certain range of the speed. When out of the speed,the seal life is gradually reduced with increasing of the speed. The seal life of special magnetic grease can be improved effectively by increasing the flow rate of cooling water and increasing seal series. But the seal life can not be obvi-ously increased with too much of the water flow,and the seal series is limited by the seal axial size. Therefore,comprehen-sive consideration should be given in the selection of these two parameters.%  针对大直径、大间隙工况下大型电机蒸发冷却技术中特种磁脂密封的可靠性问题,设计一种特种磁脂密封试验装置,通过试验研究磁脂填加量、转轴转速、密封间隙、冷却水流量以及密封级数对磁脂密封寿命的影响。结果表明:相同密封承压能力下,降低磁脂填加量、增大密封间隙对提高密封寿命起到显著作用。磁脂密封在一定转速范围内性能稳定,运转寿命无明显变化;当转速超过稳定范围时,随转速的增大,磁脂密封寿命将逐渐降低。增大冷却水流量、增加密封级数能有效提高磁脂密封寿命,但冷却水流量过大对密封寿命提高不明显,而密封级数则会受到密封轴向尺寸限制,为此在二者参数的选取上应给予综合考虑。

  2. Development and Experimental Validation of Large Eddy Simulation Techniques for the Prediction of Combustion-Dynamic Process in Syngas Combustion: Characterization of Autoignition, Flashback, and Flame-Liftoff at Gas-Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihme, Matthias [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Driscoll, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The objective of this closely coordinated experimental and computational research effort is the development of simulation techniques for the prediction of combustion processes, relevant to the oxidation of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels at gas-turbine relevant operating conditions. Specifically, the research goals are (i) the characterization of the sensitivity of syngas ignition processes to hydrodynamic processes and perturbations in temperature and mixture composition in rapid compression machines and ow-reactors and (ii) to conduct comprehensive experimental investigations in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine (GT) combustor under realistic high-pressure operating conditions in order (iii) to obtain fundamental understanding about mechanisms controlling unstable flame regimes in HHC-combustion.

  3. Preliminary study of the {alpha} ratio measurement, ratio of the neutron capture cross section to the fission one for {sup 233}U, on the PEREN platform. Development and study of the experimental setup; Etude preliminaire de la mesure du rapport {alpha}, rapport de la section efficace moyenne de capture sur celle de fission de l'{sup 233}U, sur la plateforme PEREN. Developpement et etude du dispositif experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, M.A

    2007-12-15

    Producing nuclear energy in order to reduce anthropic CO{sub 2} emission and to meet high energy demand, implies three conditions to the nuclear plants of the IV. generation: safety improvements, radioactive waste minimization, and fuel breeding for a sustainable use of the resources. The Thorium fuel cycle used in Molten Salt Reactors seems promising. Many numerical studies based on probabilistic codes are carried out in order to analyse the behaviour of such reactors. Nevertheless, one of the most important parameters is badly known: the alpha ratio of {sup 233}U, ratio of the neutron capture cross section to fission one for {sup 233}U. This key-parameter is necessary to calculate the breeding ratio and thus, the deployment capacities of those reactors. This Ph-D thesis was intended to prepare a precise measurement of the alpha ratio of {sup 233}U between 1 eV and 10 keV. Preliminary measurements have been performed on the experimental platform PEREN. This experimental environment is composed of a lead slowing-down time spectrometer associated with an intense pulsed neutron generator. Capture and fission rates are measured thanks to eight scintillators with their photomultipliers, surrounding a fission chamber. A software analysis sets the coincidence rate between the scintillators. In order to understand perfectly the experimental setup, preliminary tests using a {sup 235}U fission chamber have been done. This experiment resulted in a very low signal to background ratio (1 %). The background coming from the scintillators themselves seriously handicapped the measurement. Another series of experiment has been done with scintillators 5 times thinner. Nevertheless, the signal to background ratio should still be increased to measure the capture of {sup 235}U. To make sure that the experimental setup has totally been understood, we made many comparisons between experimental results and simulations. Two simulation codes were mainly used: MCNP and GEANT4. We paid

  4. 科技馆实验类教育活动体系研究%A Research on the Operation System for Experimental Educations in Science and Technology Museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩霞

    2014-01-01

    Experimental education,as one of the most major education activities,has playing important roles in science and technology museums,especially for teenagers. But compared with some foreign successful international science centers,the current experimental educations in China have larger gaps not only in the choices of experimental content, but also in settings or audience aspects. So this article will firstly discuss the present situation for domestic experimental education and show some successful experiences from international science centers, and then provide an operational system for experimental education activities, which consists four parts, and finally proposes some targeted measures for the development of domestic experimental educations.%通过对国内外科技馆实验类教育活动的发展和现状的调研,分析国内科技馆在实验类教育活动方面的不足及努力方向,借鉴国外成功运作经验,建立表演台、外展项目、活动室和实验室三个层级的实验类教育活动运作体系,并指出各层级的侧重点和具体解决方案。

  5. Experimental demonstration of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor concept for energy efficient syngas production. Part 1: Influence of operating conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the technical feasibility of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) concept with porous membranes for energy efficient syngas production is investigated. In earlier work an experimental proof of principle was already provided [Smit, J., Bekink, G.J., van Sint Annala

  6. Research on ergonomics experimental system of emergency operation for high-speed train%高速列车应急作业工效学实验系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭北苑; 巨建涛; 王雅楠; 方卫宁

    2013-01-01

    高速列车司机应急作业的可靠性对维护列车正点安全运行具有重要作用,但在实际列车运行中无法开展针对司机应急作业特性的工效学实验,因此有必要构建高速列车应急作业流程工效学实验系统,以便在实验室环境下开展相关研究.高速列车应急作业流程工效学实验系统由实验管理子系统、应急作业子系统和工效学数据采集子系统3个子系统组成,该系统设计中引入了故障注入技术,实现了故障注入、辅助处理等管理操作;系统还能完成司机应急作业操作中相关工效学数据采集功能.系统已成功应用于CRH2型高速列车应急作业流程工效学实验中.%Emergency operation reliability of the high-speed train drivers plays an important role in train safe operation maintenance, but in actual train operation, since the driver operation is forbidden from disturbance and the fault scenario is unable to be controlled, the ergonomics experiment about driver emergency operation characteristics can't be carried out, so it is necessary to construct an ergonomics experiment system with highspeed train emergency operation procedures and carry out some related experiments in laboratory environment. This system consists of experimental management subsystem, emergency operation subsystem and ergonomics data acquisition subsystem. In the design of the system, the fault injection technology is introduced to realize the two experimental management operations of fault injection and the auxiliary handle. Also this system can acquire the ergonomics data about the driver emergency operations. This system has been successfully used in the ergonomics experiment on the emergency operation procedures of CRH2 high-speed train.

  7. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 1-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 1-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  8. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  9. Simulation and experimental studies of operators` decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators` individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators` individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators` decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface.

  10. Six-flow operations for catalyst development in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Bridging the gap between high-throughput experimentation and extensive product evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartipi, S.; Jansma, H.; Bosma, D.; Boshuizen, B.; Makkee, M.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.

    2013-01-01

    Design and operation of a “six-flow fixed-bed microreactor” setup for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is described. The unit consists of feed and mixing, flow division, reaction, separation, and analysis sections. The reactor system is made of five heating blocks with individual temperature controll

  11. Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Behavior of High-Speed Helical Gear Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Kilmain, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary experimental investigation of the thermal behavior of high-speed helical gears will be presented. A full-scale torque regenerative test stand has been built to test a representative helical gear train as that used in tiltrotor aircraft. Power loss and temperature data from a wide range of operating conditions were measured. Loop power ranged up to 3730 kW (5000 hp). Drive system components representative of flight quality hardware were used in the test program. The results attained in this initial study indicated that windage losses due to the high rotational speeds that were tested were far more important than the losses due to the gear meshing losses.

  12. Preliminary experimental study of bituminous coal gasification on dual fluidized beds%烟煤在双流化床中气化特性初步实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武小军; 范晓旭; 陈文义; 初雷哲

    2012-01-01

    利用一套高3m的双流化床煤气化实验系统,以烟煤为燃料进行了气化初步实验研究.烟煤在气化炉中进行热解气化,生成的半焦经下返料器送入燃烧炉进行燃烧,通过高温循环灰携带能量供给气化炉.通过调整气化炉内料层高度改变燃料在气化炉内的停留时间,从而影响气化效果,料层高度可以通过气化炉内压差进行监测.烟煤气化达到稳定工况时,燃烧炉和气化炉的温度和压差基本保持稳定.燃气热值为5.53 MJ/m3,尚未达到中热值标准,原因在于实验装置规模较小导致散热损失较大,同时返料器以空气为返料风降低了燃气品质.%Gasification experiments on bituminous coal were made in an experimental system of dual fluidized beds with 3 m in height. Gasifier was used for coal pyrolysis/gasification. Semicarbon was sent into burner for combustion by U-valve. Energy for gasification was carried by high temperature cycle ash. Status of gasification can be influenced by residence time of fuel which can be changed by adjusting the bed material level in gasifier. Differential pressures in gasifier were used for analyzed the bed material level. The temperature and differential pressure in gasifier and burner maintained stability when gasification condition operated steadily. The calorific value of gas was 5.53 MJ/Nm3 and didn't reach the standard of medium heat value. The cause is that the heat loss is bigger in small size and gas quality was decreased by the air which is used as return wind.

  13. Investigation of an experimental ejector refrigeration machine operating with refrigerant R245fa at design and off-design working conditions. Part 1. Theoretical analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Shestopalov, K.O.

    2015-07-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and IIR.All rights reserved. The ejector refrigeration machine (ERM) offers several advantages over other heat-driven refrigeration machine, including simplicity in design and operation, high reliability and low installation cost, which enable its wide application in the production of cooling. In this paper the theoretical analysis of ejector design and ejector refrigeration cycle performance is presented. It is shown that ERM performance characteristics depend strongly on the operating conditions, the efficiency of the ejector used, and the thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant used. A 1-D model for the prediction of the entrainment ratio ω, and an optimal design for ejectors with cylindrical and conical-cylindrical mixing chambers are presented in this paper. In order to increase ERM performance values, it is necessary first of all to improve the performance of the ejector.

  14. Six-flow operations for catalyst development in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: bridging the gap between high-throughput experimentation and extensive product evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartipi, Sina; Jansma, Harrie; Bosma, Duco; Boshuizen, Bart; Makkee, Michiel; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek

    2013-12-01

    Design and operation of a "six-flow fixed-bed microreactor" setup for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is described. The unit consists of feed and mixing, flow division, reaction, separation, and analysis sections. The reactor system is made of five heating blocks with individual temperature controllers, assuring an identical isothermal zone of at least 10 cm along six fixed-bed microreactor inserts (4 mm inner diameter). Such a lab-scale setup allows running six experiments in parallel, under equal feed composition, reaction temperature, and conditions of separation and analysis equipment. It permits separate collection of wax and liquid samples (from each flow line), allowing operation with high productivities of C5+ hydrocarbons. The latter is crucial for a complete understanding of FTS product compositions and will represent an advantage over high-throughput setups with more than ten flows where such instrumental considerations lead to elevated equipment volume, cost, and operation complexity. The identical performance (of the six flows) under similar reaction conditions was assured by testing a same catalyst batch, loaded in all microreactors.

  15. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  16. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  17. 1972 preliminary safety analysis report based on a conceptual design of a proposed repository in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-08-01

    This preliminary safety analysis report is based on a proposed Federal Repository at Lyons, Kansas, for receiving, handling, and depositing radioactive solid wastes in bedded salt during the remainder of this century. The safety analysis applies to a hypothetical site in central Kansas identical to the Lyons site, except that it is free of nearby salt solution-mining operations and bore holes that cannot be plugged to Repository specifications. This PSAR contains much information that also appears in the conceptual design report. Much of the geological-hydrological information was gathered in the Lyons area. This report is organized in 16 sections: considerations leading to the proposed Repository, design requirements and criteria, a description of the Lyons site and its environs, land improvements, support facilities, utilities, different impacts of Repository operations, safety analysis, design confirmation program, operational management, requirements for eventually decommissioning the facility, design criteria for protection from severe natural events, and the proposed program of experimental investigations. (DLC)

  18. Preliminary study of the behavioral and biological effects of high-intensity 60-Hz electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldstone, C.S.

    1979-02-01

    This preliminary study develops and thoroughly tests the experimental protocols and apparatus that are planned for a major study of the behavioral and biological effects of high-intensity 60-Hz electric fields. The behavior of baboons will be observed before, during, and after exposure to the field at maximum intensity of 60 kV/m. Both individual performance (operant conditioning) and social behavior will be examined. The present report covers Week 25 through Week 36 of the project. Construction of the facility was nearly completed, the preliminary training of the individual behavior animals was brought close to completion, and the two sets of social animals were allowed to adapt to each other and to their environment. The report addresses the following major areas: the high-voltage exposure facility; the electric-field-probe accuracy; the holding cages for social-behavior subjects; the preliminary shaping facility; the shaping procedures; and the social-behavior subjects.

  19. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  20. Experimental and theoretical analyses of gate oxide and junction reliability for 4H-SiC MOSFET under short-circuit operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Junjie; Namai, Masaki; Iwamuro, Noriyuki

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the experimental evaluation and numerical analysis of the short-circuit capability of the 1200 V SiC MOSFET with a thin gate oxide layer were carried out. Two different failures, including the gate oxide breakdown and thermal runaway of the device caused by the high gate electric field and elevated lattice temperature, were initially investigated and their critical temperature points for two failure modes were accurately extrapolated by solving the thermal diffusion equation; the obtained results are in good agreement with simulation results. It was confirmed that short-circuit robustness depends not only on thermal properties of the material but also on dimensional parameters of the device and that the heat is the dominant factor that causes device failure during short-circuit transient.

  1. 网上商店经营管理实践教学的研究与分析%A Research on Online Shop Operation Management Experimental Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 梁春晶

    2012-01-01

    Along with e-commerce's entering in people's life,online operation has become a key link and measure of business marketing.Through experiments of operating online shops,students could participate in enterprise management as practitioners,thus enhance their understanding to the theoretical knowledge of e-commerce.With teachers' guidance,students could learn to select online shop projects;apply innovation theory into the practice of online shop operation,taking full use of online marketing and their professional superiority;make flexible use of a variety of online marketing strategies;get to knowthe special pioneering work model given by this peculiar development period of network time,so as to accumulate valuable experience for their future job.This also helps lay a solid,theoretical and practical foundation for the exploration of e-commerce teachingmodel.%随着电子商务走进人们的生活,网络经营已成为企业营销管理中的一个重要环节和手段。学生通过网上商店经营管理的实践,可以以一个从业者的角度参与企业的运营,从而增强对电子商务专业的理论知识的理解。通过指导学生网店经营项目的选择,充分利用网络营销并结合专业的优势,把创新理论应用于网店经营的实践,让学生能够根据经营实际灵活地运用各种网络营销策略,认识到网络时代发展的特殊时期所赋予的特殊创业模式,为学生就业、创业提供宝贵经验,并为电子商务教学探讨新的模式打下坚实的理论和实践基础。

  2. Experimental study to distinguish the effects of methanol slip and water vapour on a high temperature PEM fuel cell at different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Sobi; Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Araya, Samuel Simon

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to separate out the effects of methanol and water vapour on a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell under different temperatures (160°C and 180°C) and current densities (0.2Acm-2, 0.4Acm-2 and 0.6Acm-2). The degradation rates at the different current...... to the anode after pure hydrogen operation at 180°C. A decrease in the total resistance corresponding to the voltage improvement is observed from the impedance spectra. There is minimal variation in performance with the introduction of 3% and 5% methanol along with water vapour in the anode feed at all current...

  3. 有机静电感应三级管动作特性的实验分析%Experimental analysis of operating characteristics of organic semiconductor static induction transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛严冰; 王东兴

    2006-01-01

    The organic static induction transistor (OSIT) fabricated with organic semiconductor material copper-phthalocyanine(CuPc)is discussed in the paper. It has Schottky Gate electrode and sandwich structure of Au/CuPc/Al/CuPc/Au/glass. The operation mechanism of the device is studied on the physical model with practical parameters. Potential distribution and field intensity distribution in the conduction channel are computed by using finite-element method. By processing static experimental data with some mathematic tools,the V- I expression of CuPc/Al Schottky Gate is obtained and it is verified that OSIT has insaturation current property along with the increase of Drain bias voltage. By using AC small signal circuit model and appropriate numerical simulation method, the dynamic operating characteristics are investigated, and some influenced factors are analyzed.

  4. 数学运算规则的样例学习:实验研究与理论探索%The Worked-Examples Learning of Mathematic Operation Rules:Experimental Studies and Theoretical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奇; 张笑笑

    2015-01-01

    在样例学习研究领域,作者着眼于规则的样例学习研究,尤其是对数学运算规则的样例学习做了一系列的实验研究和理论探索。最初的实验研究在小学生四则混合运算规则和“去括号”运算规则的实验中取得了预期结果。但在小学生代数运算规则的样例学习实验研究中却遇到了问题。经过对问题原因的深入分析,提出了数学运算样例中新算符及新规则设计的“解释法”“转换标记法”和“解释—标记法”,并在指数与对数转换规则和对数运算规则以及分数和比例运算规则的样例学习实验中证实了这些样例设计方法的优越性。根据上述实验研究,作者对样例学习的性质、样例学习理论的建构等理论问题以及样例学习如何兼顾学生个体差异等教学实践问题作出了明确的回答。%The authors conducted a series of experimental studies and theoretical exploration of mathematic operation rules. The initial experimental studies about elementary school student’s worked-examples learning the rules of “four fundamental operations arithmetic” and “removal of parenthesis” had acquired expected results. But the authorsd encountered problems in the experimental studies of the elementary school student’s worked-examples learning of algebraic operation rules. The authors proposed new methods that designed the new operators and new operation rules of the mathematic operation worked-examples,they were named the method of explanation,the method of converting label and the method of explanation-labels whose superiority had been verified in the experiments of the worked-examples learning of the rules of conversion form index to logarithmic, the rules of logarithmic operation,the rules of fractional arithmetic and the rules of proportion operation. On the basis of these experimental studies,the authors answered some questions in this paper,such as characters of

  5. Experimental investigation on rotating flow instabilities in the operation range of ventilation of a low pressure steam turbine; Experimentelle Untersuchung von rotierenden Stroemungsinstabilitaeten im Betriebsbereich der Ventilation einer Niederdruck-Dampfturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerschuetz, W.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental investigations at two different three-stage low-pressure (LP) model turbines operated at a very low or even zero flow rate will be presented. Experience shows that in this operating range, also called windage, the running blades of the last stage undergo the highest alternating stresses. The high stress caused by centrifugal and gas forces is superposed with these extreme dynamic stresses and thus form the critical load mechanism of the long and slender blades. Experimental investigations on the first of the turbines considered here showed high forced vibrations at resonant frequency in the 2{sup nd} mode. This excitation only occurs in a narrow band of the operating range at low volumetric flow numbers. To comprehend the aerodynamic stimulus the unsteady part of the flow-field in the last stage was determined with high-response pitot tubes. The analysis of the experimental data shows distinct disturbances in the flow field at a critical volumetric flow number, especially in the axial spacing between the guide vanes and the rotor at the outer casing. Frequency spectra gained in the axial gap especially in the area of blade tips of the rotor show a significant broadband level rise between 500 and 2000 Hz with several discrete, evenly spaced peaks superimposed. Detailed analysis shows some disturbances with particular high amplitudes occur in the flow field at distinct frequencies. These pressure fluctuations rotate in circumferential direction at a fraction of the rotor speed. In the second turbine with more recent blading, no vibrations at resonant frequency could be detected in the foremost four modes in this operating range. However, rotating flow instabilities comparable with the phenomenon discovered in the first turbine can also be found in the axial gap of the last stage. Comparing the pressure signals measured at two circumferential locations a so called 'rotating instability' can be observed. This unsteady phenomenon has previously

  6. The low level laser therapy (LLLT) operating in 660 nm reduce gene expression of inflammatory mediators in the experimental model of collagenase-induced rat tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Silva, Romildo; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Frigo, Lucio; Rahouadj, Rachid; Arnold, Gilles; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Magdalou, Jacques; Pallotta, Rodney; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat

    2015-09-01

    Tendinopathy is a common disease with a variety of treatments and therapies. Laser therapy appears as an alternative treatment. Here, we investigate the effects of laser irradiation in an experimental model of tendinitis induced by collagenase injection on rats' Achilles tendon, verifying its action in important inflammatory markers. Male Wistar rats were used and divided into five groups: control saline (C), non-treated tendinitis (NT) and tendinitis treated with sodium diclofenac (D) or laser (1 J) and (3 J). The tendinitis was induced by collagenase (100 μg/tendon) on the Achilles tendon, which was removed for further analyses. The gene expression for COX-2; TNF-α; IL-6; and IL-10 (RT-PCR) was measured. The laser irradiation (660 nm, 100 mW, 3 J) used in the treatment of the tendinitis induced by collagenase in Achilles tendon in rats was effective in the reduction of important pro-inflammatory markers such as IL-6 and TNF-α, becoming a promising tool for the treatment of tendon diseases.

  7. Experimental investigation of an optimum configuration for a high-voltage photoemission gun for operation at ≥500 kV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Ryoji; Matsuba, Shunya; Hajima, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Honda, Yosuke; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Iijima, Hokuto; Kuriki, Masao; Kuwahara, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrated the generation of a 500-keV electron beam from a high dc voltage photoemission gun for an energy recovery linac light source [N. Nishimori et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 234103 (2013)]. This demonstration was achieved by addressing two discharge problems that lead to vacuum breakdown in the dc gun. One is field emission generated from a central stem electrode. We employed a segmented insulator to protect the ceramic insulator surface from the field emission. The other is microdischarge at an anode electrode or a vacuum chamber, which is triggered by microparticle transfer or field emission from a cathode electrode. An experimental investigation revealed that a larger acceleration gap, optimized mainly to reduce the surface electric field of the anode electrode, suppresses the microdischarge events that accompany gas desorption. It was also found that nonevaporable getter pumps placed around the acceleration gap greatly help to suppress those microdischarge events. The applied voltage as a function of the total gas desorption is shown to be a good measure for finding the optimum dc gun configuration.

  8. Experimental and CFD-PBM Study of Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficient in Different Impeller Configurations and Operational Conditions of a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradkhani, Hamed; Izadkhah, Mir-Shahabeddin; Anarjan, Navideh

    2017-02-01

    In this work, gas dispersion in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor is analyzed by calculating volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient which is modeled using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD), code FLUENT 6.2. Dispersed oxygen bubbles dynamics is based on standard "k-ε" Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. This paper describes a three-dimensional CFD model coupled with population balance equations (PBE) in order to get more confirming results of experimental measurements. Values of k L a are obtained using dynamic gassing-out method. Using the CFD simulation, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient is calculated based on Higbie's penetration theory. Characteristics of mass transfer coefficient are investigated for five configurations of impeller and three different aeration flow rates. The pitched six blade type, due to the creation of downward flow direction, leads to higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, thereby, higher values of k L a compared with other impeller compositions. The magnitude of dissolved oxygen percentage in the aqueous phase has direct correlation with impeller speed and any increase of the aeration magnitude leads to faster saturation in shorter periods of time. Agitation speeds of 300 to 800 rpm are found to be the most effective rotational speeds for the mass transfer of oxygen in two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPB).

  9. Bond graph modeling and experimental verification of a novel scheme for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings in special operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, C.; Samantaray, A. K.; Chakraborty, G.

    2016-09-01

    Vibration analysis for diagnosis of faults in rolling element bearings is complicated when the rotor speed is variable or slow. In the former case, the time interval between the fault-induced impact responses in the vibration signal are non-uniform and the signal strength is variable. In the latter case, the fault-induced impact response strength is weak and generally gets buried in the noise, i.e. noise dominates the signal. This article proposes a diagnosis scheme based on a combination of a few signal processing techniques. The proposed scheme initially represents the vibration signal in terms of uniformly resampled angular position of the rotor shaft by using the interpolated instantaneous angular position measurements. Thereafter, intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are generated through empirical mode decomposition (EMD) of resampled vibration signal which is followed by thresholding of IMFs and signal reconstruction to de-noise the signal and envelope order tracking to diagnose the faults. Data for validating the proposed diagnosis scheme are initially generated from a multi-body simulation model of rolling element bearing which is developed using bond graph approach. This bond graph model includes the ball and cage dynamics, localized fault geometry, contact mechanics, rotor unbalance, and friction and slip effects. The diagnosis scheme is finally validated with experiments performed with the help of a machine fault simulator (MFS) system. Some fault scenarios which could not be experimentally recreated are then generated through simulations and analyzed through the developed diagnosis scheme.

  10. Experimental evidence for quantum cutting co-operative energy transfer process in Pr(3+)/Yb(3+) ions co-doped fluorotellurite glass: dispute over energy transfer mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Sathravada; Ghosh, Debarati; Biswas, Kaushik; Gupta, Gaurav; Annapurna, Kalyandurg

    2016-12-07

    Pr(3+)/Yb(3+) doped materials have been widely reported as quantum-cutting materials in recent times. However, the question of the energy transfer mechanism in the Pr(3+)/Yb(3+) pair in light of the quantum-cutting phenomenon still remains unanswered. In view of that, we explored a series of Pr(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped low phonon fluorotellurite glass systems to estimate the probability of different energy transfer mechanisms. Indeed, a novel and simple way to predict the probability of the proper energy transfer mechanism in the Pr(3+)/Yb(3+) pair is possible by considering the donor Pr(3+) ion emission intensities and the relative ratio dependence in the presence of acceptor Yb(3+) ions. Moreover, the observed results are very much in accordance with other estimated results that support the quantum-cutting phenomena in Pr(3+)/Yb(3+) pairs, such as sub-linear power dependence of Yb(3+) NIR emission upon visible ∼450 nm laser excitation, integrated area of the donor Pr(3+) ion's visible excitation spectrum recorded by monitoring the acceptor Yb(3+) ion's NIR emission, and the experimentally obtained absolute quantum yield values using an integrating sphere setup. Our results give a simple way of estimating the probability of an energy transfer mechanism and the factors to be considered, particularly for the Pr(3+)/Yb(3+) pair.

  11. Validation of electro-thermal simulation with experimental data to prepare online operation of a molten salt target at ISOLDE for the Beta Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Cimmino, S; Marzari, S; Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Beta Beams is to study oscillation property of pure electrons neutrinos. It produces high energy beams of pure electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos for oscillation experiments by beta decay of He-6 and Ne-18 radioactive ion beams, stored in a decay ring at gamma = 100. The production of He-6 beam has already been accomplished using a thick beryllium oxide target. However, the production of the needed rate of Ne-18 has proven to be more challenging. In order to achieve the requested yield for Ne-18 a new high power target design based on a circulating molten salt loop has been proposed. To verify some elements of the design, a static molten salt target prototype has been developed at ISOLDE and operated successfully. This paper describes the electro-thermal study of the molten salt target taking into account the heat produced by Joule effect, radiative heat exchange, active water cooling due to forced convection and air passive cooling due to natural convection. The numerical results...

  12. Experimental Study of HGSHP Operation in Summer%混合式地源热泵夏季运行的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正顺; 余跃进

    2015-01-01

    The hybrid ground source heat pump reasonable control method and the controlled variable were analyzed.By compa-ring the experiment result of hybrid ground source heat pump in the same operation mode of the parallel connection and series connection of cooling tower and ground heat exchanger,this article obtain the hybrid ground source heat pump reasonable control method and the controlled variable based on the comprehensive consideration of the efficiency of the system and the thermal equi-librium of the the hybrid ground source heat pump in Nanjing area.%分析了混合式地源热泵的控制方法和控制参数。通过试验对比了在相同运行方式下冷却塔与地埋管串、并联时混合式地源热泵的运行结果,得出了基于系统综合效率与热平衡条件下的南京地区较合理的混合式地源热泵连接与运行方式。

  13. Experimental and clinical studies with radiofrequency-induced thermal endometrial ablation for functional menorrhagia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, J.H.; Lewis, B.V.; Prior, M.V.; Roberts, T. (Watford General Hospital, Herts (England))

    1990-11-01

    A method of ablating the endometrium has been introduced into clinical practice that uses radiofrequency electromagnetic energy to heat the endometrium, using a probe inserted through the cervix. Preliminary studies suggest that over 80% of patients treated will develop either amenorrhea or a significant reduction in flow. The advantages of radiofrequency endometrial ablation over laser ablation or resection are the avoidance of intravascular fluid absorption, simplicity (no special operative hysteroscopic skills are required), speed of operation, and reduced cost compared with the Nd:YAG laser. In this paper, we describe the experimental studies performed during development of this new technique.

  14. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board`s Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary project of the Department`s needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation.

  15. Experimental Characterization of a Grid-Loss Event on a 2.5-MW Dynamometer Using Advanced Operational Modal Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helsen, J.; Weijtjens, W.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; McNiff, B.; Devriendt, C.; Guillaume, P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper experimentally investigates a worst case grid loss event conducted on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) drivetrain mounted on the 2.5MW NREL dynamic nacelle test-rig. The GRC drivetrain has a directly grid-coupled, fixed speed asynchronous generator. The main goal is the assessment of the dynamic content driving this particular assess the dynamic content of the high-speed stage of the GRC gearbox. In addition to external accelerometers, high frequency sampled measurements of strain gauges were used to assess torque fluctuations and bending moments both at the nacelle main shaft and gearbox high-speed shaft (HSS) through the entire duration of the event. Modal analysis was conducted using a polyreference Least Squares Complex Frequency-domain (pLSCF) modal identification estimator. The event driving the torsional resonance was identified. Moreover, the pLSCF estimator identified main drivetrain resonances based on a combination of acceleration and strain measurements. Without external action during the grid-loss event, a mode shape characterized by counter phase rotation of the rotor and generator rotor determined by the drivetrain flexibility and rotor inertias was the main driver of the event. This behavior resulted in significant torque oscillations with large amplitude negative torque periods. Based on tooth strain measurements of the HSS pinion, this work showed that at each zero-crossing, the teeth lost contact and came into contact with the backside flank. In addition, dynamic nontorque loads between the gearbox and generator at the HSS played an important role, as indicated by strain gauge-measurements.

  16. The Chief Role of Frontal Operational Module of the Brain Default Mode Network in the Potential Recovery of Consciousness from the Vegetative State: A Preliminary Comparison of Three Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that complex subjective sense of self is linked to the brain default-mode network (DMN). Recent discovery of heterogeneity between distinct subnets (or operational modules - OMs) of the DMN leads to a reconceptualization of its role for the experiential sense of self. Considering the recent proposition that the frontal DMN OM is responsible for the first-person perspective and the sense of agency, while the posterior DMN OMs are linked to the continuity of ‘I’ experience (including autobiographical memories) through embodiment and localization within bodily space, we have tested in this study the hypothesis that heterogeneity in the operational synchrony strength within the frontal DMN OM among patients who are in a vegetative state (VS) could inform about a stable self-consciousness recovery later in the course of disease (up to six years post-injury). Using EEG operational synchrony analysis we have demonstrated that among the three OMs of the DMN only the frontal OM showed important heterogeneity in VS patients as a function of later stable clinical outcome. We also found that the frontal DMN OM was characterized by the process of active uncoupling (stronger in persistent VS) of operations performed by the involved neuronal assemblies. PMID:27347264

  17. Preliminary study of preventive measures of anterior palatal fistula after operation of cleft palate%腭裂术后腭前瘘防治措施的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭立红; 古松钢; 谢思田; 唐世杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the preventive measures of anterior palatal fistula by modified the operation of cleft palate. Methods For 23 patients of complete cleft palate with alveolar ridge cleft, bilateral mucoperiosteum flap was moved forward as possible so as to close fistula front of hard palate, and incised junction of the hard and soft palate to prolong soft palate and the wound was repaired by buccal mucosal flap.The incidence of anterior palatal fistula and velopharyngeal closure after operation was observed. Results Twenty-three patients were rechecked 1 month after operation ,there was no anterior palatal fistula occurring,10 cases were examined by epipharyngoscope 1 year after operation,the velopharyngeal closure was 90%-100%. Six cases were followed up for 6 months,the velopharyngeal closure was 80%-85%. Conclusions For second-stage operation methods of anterior palatal fistula, there are too many discussions of selection criterias, advantages and disadvantages. If first-stage operation is taken measures to prevent anterior palatal fistula or decrease the diameter of fistula as possible. It reduces percentage of second-stage operation or decreases the difficulty. It should get more attention in the clinical works.%目的 探讨腭裂术后腭前瘘的防治措施.方法 对于23例完全性腭裂伴牙槽嵴裂患者,采用两瓣后退术式时,两侧黏骨膜瓣尽量前移,封闭硬腭前端腔隙,于软硬腭交界处切开,交界处创面以颊肌黏膜瓣覆盖,延长软腭,观察术后腭前瘘发生率及腭咽闭合情况.结果 23例患者,采用以上术式,术后1个月复查,无一例腭前瘘并发症出现,10例术后1年鼻咽镜检查腭咽闭合90%~100%,6例随访6个月,腭咽闭合80%~85%.结论 在一期手术中采取措施避免腭前瘘的发生或尽量缩小瘘口,减少二期手术几率或降低难度,减轻患者痛苦,不失为一种较好的预防措施.

  18. Capital and operating cost estimates. Volume I. Preliminary design and assessment of a 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant. [Grace C-M-G Plant, Henderson County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    This Deliverable No. 18b - Capital and Operating Cost Estimates includes a detailed presentation of the 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant from the standpoint of capital, preoperations, start-up and operations cost estimation. The base capital cost estimate in June 1982 dollars was prepared by the Ralph M. Parsons Company under the direction of Grace. The escalated capital cost estimate as well as separate estimates for preoperations, startup and operations activities were developed by Grace. The deliverable consists of four volumes. Volume I contains details of methodology used in developing the capital cost estimate, summary information on a base June 1982 capital cost, details of the escalated capital cost estimate and separate sections devoted to preoperations, start-up, and operations cost. The base estimate is supported by detailed information in Volumes II, III and IV. The degree of detail for some units was constrained due to proprietary data. Attempts have been made to exhibit the estimating methodology by including data on individual equipment pricing. Proprietary details are available for inspection upon execution of nondisclosure and/or secrecy agreements with the licensors to whom the data is proprietary. Details of factoring certain pieces of equipment and/or entire modules or units from the 50,000 BPD capital estimate are also included. In the case of the escalated capital estimate, Grace has chosen to include a sensitivity analysis which allows for ready assessment of impacts of escalation rates (inflation), contingency allowances and the construction interest financing rates on the escalated capital cost. Each of the estimates associated with bringing the plant to commercial production rates has as a basis the schedule and engineering documentation found in Deliverable No. 14b - Process Engineering and Mechanical Design Report, No. 28b - Staffing Plans, No. 31b - Construction Plan, and No. 33b - Startup and Operation Plan.

  19. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  20. Experimental analysis of armouring process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Alberto; Paris, Ennio

    Preliminary results from an experimental investigation on armouring processes are presented. Particularly, the process of development and formation of the armour layer under different steady flow conditions has been analyzed in terms of grain size variations and sediment transport rate associated to each size fraction.

  1. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include system candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test.

  2. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  3. Preliminary Study on the Standards of Operation Ventilation of Diesel Traction in High- altitude Tunnel%高海拔隧道内燃牵引运营通风标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙三祥; 张云霞; 李国良; 杨国柱; 谢君泰

    2011-01-01

    Research purposes: In order to solve the problem of standards about allowable concentration of harmful emission gases to operation ventilation of diesel traction in high - altitude ( >3 000 m) tunnel. Based on the comparison results of operation ventilation standards and allowable concentrations of harmful emission gases, CO, NO2 control of the maximum allowable concentration, the suggestion standards of operation ventilation control of diesel traction in high altitude tunnel is presented.Research conclusions: The national standards is more stringent than the developed countrie' s. The suggestion standards of operation ventilation control of diesel traction in high altitude tunnel are that time weightd average ( TWA) of Noχ (nitragen dioxide level) is 10 mg/m3 in workday, short term(30 min)exposure limit of Noχ≤30 mg/m3. TWA of CO is 30 mg/m3 in workday, short term(30 min)exposure limit of CO≤90 mg/m3.%目前国内高海拔地区(海拔>3 000 m)隧道内燃牵引运营通风设计中,有害气体容许浓度没有相应的规范可参照.通过国内外高、低海拔地区CO、NO2最高容许浓度的比较,国内外隧道运营通风与环境控制标准检索、分析,提出高海拔隧道内燃牵引运营通风控制标准建议值.研究结论:国内相关规范(标准)规定的有害气体最高容许浓度比国外发达国家的标准要求高.初步建议高海拔运营隧道内空气中内燃机车废气的容许浓度:NOx(以NO2计):工作日内平均容许浓度为10 mg/m3,工作日内任何一次30 min内接触废气的平均浓度不超过30 mg/m3.CO:工作日内平均容许浓度为30 mg/m3,工作日内任何一次30 min内接触废气的平均浓度不超过90 mg/m3.

  4. Environmental Fate of Synthetic Drilling fluids from Offshore Drilling Operations - An Experimental Study of an Olefin-, Ether- and Ester-Based Mud System on Cuttings Deposited in Benthic Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaanning, M.T.

    1996-03-01

    In offshore drilling operations, much of the mineral oil previously used in mud systems has been replaced by synthetic drilling fluid. The chemicals enter the North Sea environment attached to bore hole cuttings deposited on the seabed near the discharge sites. After deposition, erosion may occur by biodegradation, bioturbation, resuspension and release to the water mass of dissolved chemicals or metabolites. In the investigation described in this report aliquots of control sediment and three types of cuttings were deposited in duplicate benthic chambers. During an experimental period of 161 days, the loss of drilling fluids from the sediments as well as the change of the ratio between drilling fluid and barium was measured. The mineralization of drilling carbon fluid to CO{sub 2} and water was calculated from oxygen consumption measurements and effects on sediment pH and redox potentials were determined at various time intervals. 10 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. 实验教学相关能力分析(3):操作与社交能力类%Analysis of the related ability of Experimental Teaching (3) :Operation and social abilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾伦

    2015-01-01

    重点分析了中小学实验教学相关能力中的操作与社交能力类,其中涉及动手能力、独立完成任务的能力以及协作完成任务的能力.这3种能力是创新能力这一复合型能力的支持性、辅助性构成.%In this paper, we analyze the operation and social abilities of the relevant ability of the experimental teaching in primary and middle school, including the manipulative ability, ability to accomplish tasks independently and ability to collaborate on tasks. These three abilities are the support and auxiliary constitution of the compound ability of innovation ability.

  6. The "Life Potential": a new complex algorithm to assess "Heart Rate Variability" from Holter records for cognitive and diagnostic aims. Preliminary experimental results showing its dependence on age, gender and health conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Barra, Orazio A

    2013-01-01

    Although HRV (Heart Rate Variability) analyses have been carried out for several decades, several limiting factors still make these analyses useless from a clinical point of view. The present paper aims at overcoming some of these limits by introducing the "Life Potential" (BMP), a new mathematical algorithm which seems to exhibit surprising cognitive and predictive capabilities. BMP is defined as a linear combination of five HRV Non-Linear Variables, in turn derived from the thermodynamic formalism of chaotic dynamic systems. The paper presents experimental measurements of BMP (Average Values and Standard Deviations) derived from 1048 Holter tests, matched in age and gender, including a control group of 356 healthy subjects. The main results are: (a) BMP always decreases when the age increases, and its dependence on age and gender is well established; (b) the shape of the age dependence within "healthy people" is different from that found in the general group: this behavior provides evidence of possible illn...

  7. Preliminary experimental study of the role of periapical radiolucent areas in root resorption process%牙根吸收发生早期指征的动物实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 谭国琴; 王艳青; 曹军

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of peripical radiolucent area occurrence on the root resorptionprocess in an animal model. METHODS: Five male dogs were used in this study. 24 teeth (all maxillary incisors in 3 dogs and one side of maxillary insicors in 2 dogs) were assigned to experimental group, while 36 teeth were assigned to control group (one side of maxillary insicors in 2 dogs and all mandibular incisors in 5 dogs). Heavy intrusive force of 350 g was imposed to the experimental teeth with mini-implant as anchorage. The control teeth were not enforced. Then the peripical radiolucency and development of the resorption were observed by X-ray periapical films. Another 3 dogs were used to investigate the morphologic change of the teeth in periapical radiolucency period. RESULTS: In experimental group, the periapical radiolucent area was detected in 21 teeth (87.5%). It was found(2.6 ±0.54)w after force engagement. No periapical radiolucency was observed in all the control teeth, which was significantly different from the experimental teeth (P<0.05). When the heavy intrusive force was maintained for 8 weeks, root resorptionwas detected in 17 teeth in experimental group. By histomorphology study, it was shown diat no significant resorption appeared in the peripical radiolucent area, while the apical region of alveolar bone showed apparent reaorption, vacuol-ization and fatty degeneration. CONCLUSION: The periapical radiolucency occurrence was due to the continuous heavy intrusive force, and was possibly the initial period of root reaorption process. Taking appropriate measures at this stage might block the occurrence of root resoiption.%目的:针对动物实验中观察到牙根吸收发生早期出现的尖周稀疏聚集期,研究其在牙根吸收发生进程中的作用.方法:选用成年杂种雄性犬5只,以其中3只犬的全部上颌切牙和2只犬的一侧上颌切牙为实验组(共24个);以2只犬的另一侧上颌切牙和5只犬的全

  8. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  9. Experimental Research on Operating Frequency Effect on the Characteristics of Two?Phase Detonation Initiation%频率对两相爆震波起爆特性影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治武; 张洋; 陈星谷; 郑龙席; 卢杰

    2015-01-01

    为了掌握爆震频率对两相多循环爆震波起爆特性的影响规律,对采用高能火花塞点火的吸气式脉冲爆震发动机不同爆震频率下的起爆过程进行了试验研究,对比分析了不同频率下的P DE沿程压力分布,讨论了起爆特征参数,如DDT转变距离、着火延迟时间、DDT转变时间和起爆时间等,与爆震频率的变化关系. 试验结果显示,随着工作频率增加,爆燃燃烧向爆震燃烧的转变有所加快. 工作频率对着火延迟时间和爆震形成时间影响较大,对DDT时间影响很小,随着频率增加,着火延迟时间和爆震形成时间逐渐减小,而DDT时间略有下降.%In order to grasp the influence of detonation frequency on the initiation characteristics of two?phase multi?cycle detonation, an air?breathing pulse detonation engine mockup with high energy spark plug was designed and the experiments of detonation initiation process at different operating frequencies were carried out. The pressure dis?tributions along the length of PDE mockup at different operating frequencies were contrasted and analyzed. Mean?while , the relationship between the detonation frequency on the one hand and the initiation characteristic parameters on the other hand was discussed, such as the DDT transition distance, ignition delay time, DDT transition time and detonation initiation time and so on. The experimental results indicated that deflagration to detonation transition in?creased with increasing operating frequency. The operating frequency had obvious effect on ignition delay time and the detonation initiation time but had a weak effect on DDT time. As the operating frequency increased, the ignition delay time and detonation initiation time decreased linearly, while the DDT time declined slightly.

  10. Scenario Development for Information Operations (IO) Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-10

    country called DYSLEXIA , whose government has been making threats to invade and appropriate a region of its neighbouring country, ABSTEMIA, which is...Network Measures and Metrics 18 Conclusion Scenarios - Tailoring, Framework, Families of Scenario Experiments - Measures, Humans, Objectives Networks

  11. Communication Satellites: Experimental & Operational, Commercial & Public Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The title reflects the first and major article in an issue of this newsletter devoted entirely to communication satellites. This series of articles on the potential and applications of communication satellites in development projects is concerned with their development for commercial and public service, development in the Pacific region, SPACECOM…

  12. Validation of the IASI operational CH4 and N2O products using ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer: preliminary results at the Izaña Observatory (28ºN, 17ºW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaira García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the project VALIASI (VALidation of IASI level 2 products the validation of the IASI operational atmospheric trace gas products (total column amounts of H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, CO2 and CO as well H2O and O3 profiles will be carried out. Ground-based FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer trace gas measurements made in the framework of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change serve as the validation reference. In this work, we will present the validation methodology developed for this project and show the first intercomparison results obtained for the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory between 2008 and 2012. As example, we will focus on two of the most important greenhouse gases, CH4 and N2O.

  13. The Preliminary Reform of Analytical Chemistry Course Assessment for the Experimental Class of Pharmacy%面向药学实验班的分析化学课程考核改革初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐睿; 温金莲; 朱明芳

    2014-01-01

    传统分析化学课程考核方式存在一定局限性;药学创新实验班的课程考核体系革新表明,混合考试模式能加强考试对教学的引导功能,促进学生学习方法的自我改进,提升对所学知识体系的掌握和创造性运用,并使教师对学生的学习状况做出科学合理的评价。%The traditional curriculum assessment methods of ana-lytical chemistry had some limitations; the curriculum evaluation system reform of pharmaceutical innovation experimental class showed that the hybrid exam model could enhance the guiding function of exam at teaching,promote students' self-improvement, strengthen their grasp of the knowledge and creative use of it, and help the teacher make scientific evaluation on students' learning situation.

  14. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  15. 中医治疗方案在肝癌患者术后应用的初步分析%Preliminary Analysis on Chinese Medicine Therapeutic Program for the Liver Cancer Patients after Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红云; 岳小强; 郎庆波; 陈喆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To primarily analyze the efficacy of Chinese medicine therapeutic program for the liver cancer patients after operation. Methods The liver cancer patients after resection were selected from Changhai Hospital and Dongfang Liver and Gallbladder Hospital. According to the post - operative treatment situations,the patients were divided into a western medicine group and a cinobufotalin group. The cases were staged in light of the findings in operation and image examination. The recurrence and survival situation were investigated in follow - up visit. The complication of hepatitis B, AFP level, liver cancer TNM staging and the others were analyzed. Additionally, the different factors of recurrence were analyzed for the patients. Results The survival analysis for the liver cancer patients at la - lib stages suggested that the life span for the patients in the cinobufotalin group was longer than that in the western medicine group, in which the disease - free median life span was 18. 43 ,11. 97,11. 53 and 5. 7 months in the cinobufotalin group, and was 14. 81,7. 73 ,6. 00 and 4. 53 months in the western medicine group separately in each cancer stage. The life span of 1,2 and 3 years for the patients with AFP Mrna negative as well as the disease - free median life span were higher than those for the patients with AFP Mrna positive( P <0.05 ). In the cinobufotalin group, the disease - free media life span was 13. 00,11. 97 and 11. 93 months separately for the patients with AFP positive of different levels. In the western medicine group,that was 8. 10,71 and 5. 83 months separately. Conclusion Cinobufotalin is probably effective in the treatment of the recurrence of primary liver cancer after the operation. But,a further verification is required as for this conclusion is based on the retrospective study.%目的 对中医治疗方案在肝癌患者术后的效果进行初步分析.方法 选择在长海医院和东方肝胆医院进行手术切除术后的肝癌患

  16. 铬(Ⅵ)土著还原菌筛选及初步鉴定实验研究%Experimental Study on Indigenous Chromium (Ⅵ)-Reducing Bacteria Screen and Preliminary Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光辉; 常文越; 李雄勇; 刘智; 王馨

    2013-01-01

    Chromium (Ⅵ) indigenous reducing bacteria were screened using solid culture in which potassium dichromate was added as test material.16 chromium (Ⅵ) indigenous reducing bacteria stains were screened out and Z2 (35.2%),Z3 (45.2%),Z4 (38.6%),X8 (30.4%),X10 (29.4%) for their relatively high chromium (Ⅵ) reduction rate were picked out as chromium (Ⅵ)reduction advantages strains.Slide culture method,Gram staining,flagella staining,spore staining were used for reducing bacteria primary identification.Primary identification results are as follows:indigenous fungus Z2 is classified as Aspergillus niger; Z3 and Z4 are Fusarium sp.,indigenous bacteria X8,X10 are Bacillus sp.Experimental methods and results in this paper can provide technical support for popularization and application of microbial technology on chromium (Ⅵ) pollution control.%以重铬酸钾为供试物,用固体平板法和还原实验对铬(Ⅵ)土著还原菌进行筛选,用载片培养法、革兰氏染色法、鞭毛染色法、芽孢染色法对还原菌做初步的鉴定,共筛选出16株铬(Ⅵ)土著还原菌,并挑选出还原率相对较高的Z2(35.2%)、Z3(45.2%)、Z4(38.6%)、X8(30.4%)、X10(29.4%)作为铬(Ⅵ)的优势还原菌株.经初步鉴定,土著真菌Z2为黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger),Z3、Z4为镰刀菌属(Fusarium sp.),土著细菌X8、X10为芽孢杆菌(Bacillus sp.).实验的方法和成果将为铬(Ⅵ)污染土壤微生物治理技术的推广应用提供技术支持.

  17. Digital flat-panel X-ray technology based on cesium iodide and amorphous silicon: experimental studies and preliminary clinical results; Digitale Flachbilddetektortechnik basierend auf Caesiumjodid und amorphem Silizium: Experimentelle Untersuchungen und erste klinische Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strotzer, M.; Gmeinwieser, J.; Voelk, M.; Fruend, R.; Feuerbach, S. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Experimental and clinical evaluation of a digital flat-panel X-ray system based on cesium iodide (CsI) and amorphous silicon (a-Si). Methods: Performance of a prototype detector was compared with conventional screen-film radiography (SFR) using several phantom studies. Foreign bodies, fractures, osteolyses, and pulmonary lesions were analyzed. Additionally, 120 patients were studied prospectively, resulting in 400 comparative X-ray studies. The flat-panel detector was exposed with standard dose and with a dose reduction of up to 75%. Detector size was 15x15 cm, pixel matrix was 1x1 k with a pixel size of 143 {mu}m. Modulation-transfer function was determined to be 18% at the maximum spatial resolution of 3.5 Ip/mm. Results: The diagnostic results achieved with the digital detector were similar to those of conventional SFR, even at reduced radiation exposure. A potential for dose reduction was observed: 50% with respect to osteoarthrosis and fractures, and 75% for determining bony alignment. Discussion: This new technology can be used in thoracic and skeletal radiography. A significant dose reduction is possible, depending on the suspected disease. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Experimentelle und klinische Pruefung eines digitalen Flachbilddetektors aus Caesiumjodid (CsJ) und amorphem Silizium (a-Si). Methoden: Mit Hilfe verschiedener Phantommodelle wurde ein Detektor-Prototyp mit konventionellen Folien-Filmsystemen (FFS) verglichen. Untersucht wurden die Nachweisbarkeit von Fremdkoerpern, Frakturen, Osteolysen und artefiziellen pulmonalen Laesionen. Zusaetzlich erfolgten prospektiv an 120 Patienten insgesamt 400 vergleichende Skelettuntersuchungen. Der Flachbilddetektor wurde mit identischer Dosis bzw. mit um bis zu 75% reduzierter Dosis belichtet. Seine aktive Flaeche betrug ca. 15x15 cm bei einer Pixelmatrix von 1x1 k und eine Pixelgroesse von 143 {mu}m. Bei der Grenzaufloesung von 3,5 Lp/mm betrug der Wert der Modulationsuebertragungsfunktion 18%. Ergebnisse

  18. Preliminary results in surgery of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, J A; Confort, C I; Ferraz, A; Bouza, A A

    1998-09-01

    The authors present the preliminary results of 20 patients selected to be operated on between January 1996 and April 1997. These patients presented one of the present indications for stereotactic posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP), such as: rigidity, akinesia/bradykinesia, gait dysfunction, drug induced dyskinesias and tremor. Every patient of this protocol was evaluated by: UPDRS score, Schwab and England scale, Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale before and after surgery. The results in 3 months showed a remarkable improvement after PVP (P < 0.01) in all functional assessments, except for facial expression, speech and posture. The morbidity was 5%. 5 patients (25%) who were in Hoehn and Yahr 5 underwent a bilateral simultaneous PVP. In 5 patients (25%), who had tremor, during the PVP, VIM thalamotomy was added. These preliminary results, suggest that PVP is highly effective for PD symptoms.

  19. Preliminary experimental investigation on pulse detonation rocket engine with central cone configuration%中心锥体结构脉冲爆震火箭发动机初步实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严宇; 范玮; 王可; 穆杨

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the atomization of liquid fuel and mixing of reactants in side the pulse detonation rocket engine using liquid fuel, a pulse detonation rocket engine with a different configuration was invented. A central cone instead of Shchelkin spiral was used in this engine. Reactants could be injected into the engine both through the engine head and the central cone. With kerosene used as fuel, oxygen as oxidizer and nitrogen as purge gas, fully developed detonation waves were generated in this engine, which could operate steadily on multi cycle mode. The result also indicates that this engine could greatly shorten the DDT (deflagration to detonation transition) run-up distance, and the DDT ruwup distance is approximately five times of the inner diameter of detonation tube. Compared with the approach of installing Shchelkin spiral in the detonation tube as DDT enhancement de vice, the DDT run-up distance of this engine was shortened by 57.5%.%为了改善采用液态燃料的脉冲爆震火箭发动机内部燃料的雾化以及燃料混合物的掺混状况,采用了一种中心锥体结构.该结构发动机不采用Shchelkin螺旋增爆装置,而采用中心锥体结构、二级供应方式.采用航空煤油为燃料、压缩氧气为氧化剂、压缩氮气为隔离气体,在该结构脉冲爆震火箭发动机上获得了充分发展的爆震波并且能够在多循环条件下稳定工作.实验结果表明,该结构可以大大缩短DDT(deflagra-tion to detonation transition)距离,在实验条件下爆燃向爆震转变距离约为管径的5倍.较之同一管径采用Shchelkin螺旋增爆装置的脉冲爆震火箭发动机,该结构发动机的爆燃向爆震转变距离缩短了57.5%.

  20. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  1. 壁挂式太阳能空气集热器变风量控制运行效果研究%Experimental Study on Operational Effect of Wall-mounted Solar Air Collector (WSAC) by VAV Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志成; 陈滨; 姚微; 杨文晓

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, taking the wall-mounted solar air collector (WSAC) as a research object, the experimental and theoretical studies were carried out. In detail, based on the relationships of solar irradiance, supply air flowrate, WSAC transient thermal efficiency and WSAC net efficiency,a strategy to improve the operational efficiency was proposed under the VAV conditions when the building energy consumption was considered. Furthermore, in a physical experimental room, WSAC thermal performance and energysaving effect were analyzed under the air supply modes of constant, variable and intermittent air volumes, respectively. The results shown that the net efficiency of VAV air supply mode was larger than others in considering of the WSAC net efficiency, and compared to the constant air volume air supply mode, the energy-saving rate was 63%. In addition, the best control operation mode was obtained with the changing of solar irradiance.%本文以壁挂式太阳能空气集热器(Wall-mounted Solar Air Collector,WSAC)为研究对象,采用现场实测和理论分析的方法,通过研究太阳辐射照度、送风量与WSAC瞬时效率以及纯效率的关联性,提出了综合考虑建筑能耗时变风量工况下提高WSAC运行效率的途径.而后,利用实体大实验房,分别采用连续定风量送风、变风量送风以及问歇定风量送风的运行方式,对WSAC热性能及节能效果进行了实验研究.结果表明,在考虑WSAC纯效率的情况下,变风量送风的运行效率优于其它送风方式.相对连续定风量送风节能63%,同时还得到了随着太阳辐射照度变化的最佳控制运行模式.

  2. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  3. CFD modeling and experimental verification of a single-stage coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler without either double-inlet or multi-bypass operating at 30-35 K using mixed stainless steel mesh regenerator matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Zhao, Yibo

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the CFD modeling and experimental verifications of a single-stage inertance tube coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 30-35 K using mixed stainless steel mesh regenerator matrices without either double-inlet or multi-bypass. A two-dimensional axis-symmetric CFD model with the thermal non-equilibrium mode is developed to simulate the internal process, and the underlying mechanism of significantly reducing the regenerator losses with mixed matrices is discussed in detail based on the given six cases. The modeling also indicates that the combination of the given different mesh segments can be optimized to achieve the highest cooling efficiency or the largest exergy ratio, and then the verification experiments are conducted in which the satisfactory agreements between simulated and tested results are observed. The experiments achieve a no-load temperature of 27.2 K and the cooling power of 0.78 W at 35 K, or 0.29 W at 30 K, with an input electric power of 220 W and a reject temperature of 300 K.

  4. EUPORIAS: plans and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buontempo, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. In 2012 the European Commission funded EUPORIAS, a four year long project to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The poster describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.

  5. Preliminary design for a maglev development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zhang, Z.Y. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States); Myers, G.; Cvercko, A. [Sterling Engineering, Westchester, IL (United States); Williams, J.R. [Alfred Benesch and Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  6. Preliminary design for a maglev development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zhang, Z.Y. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Myers, G.; Cvercko, A. (Sterling Engineering, Westchester, IL (United States)); Williams, J.R. (Alfred Benesch and Co., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  7. Preliminary design for a MAGLEV development facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, H. T.; He, J. L.; Chang, S. L.; Bouillard, J. X.; Chen, S. S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L. O.; Lottes, S. A.; Rote, D. M.; Zhang, Z. Y.

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh from 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  8. Boolean Operations on Conic Polygons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Xi Gong; Yu Liu; Lun Wu; Yu-Bo Xie

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm for Boolean operations on conic polygons is proposed. Conic polygons are polygons consisting of conic segments or bounded conics with directions. Preliminaries of Boolean operations on general polygons are presented. In our algorithm, the intersection points and the topological relationships between two conic polygons are computed. Boundaries are obtained by tracking path and selecting uncrossed boundaries following rule tables to build resulting conic polygons.We define a set of rules for the intersection, union, and subtraction operations on conic polygons. The algorithm considers degeneration cases such as homology, complement, interior, and exterior. The algorithm is also evaluated and implemented.

  9. Experimental study of coherent synchrotron radiation in the emittance exchange line at the A0-photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Thangaraj, Jayakar C T; Johnson, A; Lumpkin, A H; Edwards, H; Ruan, J; Santucci, J; Sun, Y E -; Church, M; Piot, P

    2012-01-01

    Next generation accelerators will require a high current, low emittance beam with a low energy spread. Such accelerators will employ advanced beam conditioning systems such as emittance exchangers to manipulate high brightness beams. One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to investigate the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation could limit high current operation of the emittance exchanger. In this paper, we report on the preliminary experimental and simulation study of the coherent synchroton radiation (CSR) in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector.

  10. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits......, modulation schemes, LEDs and LED driving conditions are analyzed. A prototype radial mode PT optimized for ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) is designed. FEM (Final Element Method) and measurements validates the PT design. A prototype PT based AC/DC converter operating from european mains is proposed...

  11. SPHINX experimenters information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarick, T.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  12. Large co-axial pulse tube preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, N.; Caughley, A.; Meier, J.; Nation, M.; Tanchon, J.; Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that Callaghan Innovation, formally known as Industrial Research Ltd (IRL), has designed and built its largest of three high frequency single-stage co-axial pulse tubes, closely coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator (PWG). The previous pulse tube achieved 110 W of cooling power @ 77 K, with an electrical input power of 3.1 kW from a 90 cc swept volume PWG. The pulse tubes have all been tuned to operate at 50 Hz, with a mean helium working pressure of 2.5 MPa. Sage pulse tube simulation software was used to model the latest pulse tube and predicted 280 W of cooling power @ 77 K. The nominal 250 W cryocooler was designed to be an intermediate step to up-scale pulse tube technology for our 1000 cc swept-volume PWG, to provide liquefaction of gases and cooling for HTS applications. Details of the modeling, design, development and preliminary experimental results are discussed.

  13. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  14. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  15. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  16. Experiments, conceptual design, preliminary cost estimates and schedules for an underground research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbin, G.; Wollenberg, H.; Wilson, C.; Strisower, B.; Chan, T.; Wedge, D.

    1981-09-01

    Plans for an underground research facility are presented, incorporating techniques to assess the hydrological and thermomechanical response of a rock mass to the introduction and long-term isolation of radioactive waste, and to assess the effects of excavation on the hydrologic integrity of a repository and its subsequent backfill, plugging, and sealing. The project is designed to utilize existing mine or civil works for access to experimental areas and is estimated to last 8 years at a total cost for contruction and operation of $39.0 million (1981 dollars). Performing the same experiments in an existing underground research facility would reduce the duration to 7-1/2 years and cost $27.7 million as a lower-bound estimate. These preliminary plans and estimates should be revised after specific sites are identified which would accommodate the facility.

  17. A preliminary study of a negative hydrogen PIG-type ion source for the compact cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen; LONG Ji-Dong; DONG Pan; WANG Tao; WEI Tao; HE Xiao-Zhong; ZHANG Kai-Zhi; SHI Jin-Shui

    2012-01-01

    A Penning ion gauge (PIG)-type ion source has been used for the generation of negative hydrogen ions (H-) as the internal ion source of the compact cyclotron.The discharge characteristics of the ion source are systematically studied for hydrogen operation at different discharge currents and gas flow rates on the prototype cyclotron.The preliminary study results for the low DC voltage H- extraction measurements are presented in this paper.The H- beam current is measured by the order of magnitude from several tens to hundreds of microamperes at different parameter conditions.The discussion and analysis for the experimental results are good for improving the design and working stability of the ion source.

  18. Preliminary Investigations into the Development of Textile Based Temperature Sensor for Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kennon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human body temperature is an important sign of physical condition in terms of comfort, heat or cold stresses, and of performance. This paper presents the preliminary investigation into the design, manufacturing and testing of the textile based temperature sensor. This sensing fabric may be employed to measure the temperature of the human body on a continuous basis over extensive periods of time, outside the clinical environment. The sensing fabric was manufactured on an industrial scale flat-bed knitting machine by laying-in the sensing element (in the form of fine metal wire into the double layer knitted structure. The operational principle of the sensing fabric is based on the inherent tendency of metal wire to change in its electrical resistance because of the change in its temperature. An experimental resistance-temperature relationship showed promising validation in comparison with their modeled counterparts.

  19. Preliminary Modeling of Corrosion/Oxidation Properties of CrAl Alloy-coated Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hyo Chan; Shin, Chang Hwan; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding has been being developed globally after the Fukushima accident with the demands for the nuclear fuel having higher safety at normal operation conditions as well as even in a severe accident conditions. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developed some of remarkable ATF cladding candidates. They showed a superior oxidation/corrosion resistance in water and steam conditions to the commercial Zr alloys and totally different behaviors from commercial Zr alloys. Prior to evaluate entire fuel performance of newly developed CrAl alloy cladding by KAERI collectively, preliminary model of water-side corrosion and high temperature oxidation model were proposed. They were highly consistent with experimental results. Also this model is useful for the quantitative analysis with given with relative superior characteristics to existing commercial fuel claddings.

  20. Preliminary experimental research for silver recovery from radiographic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cânda, L. R.; Ardelean, E.

    2017-01-01

    Global demand for silver remains steadily to about 1,000 million ounces (28349500 kg), of which around 600 million ounces (17009700 kg) are used in industrial applications. Extraction of silver from the ore is expensive and harmful to the environment and low efficiency. X-ray films represent an important worldwide consumer as research on recovery of silver from exposed radiographic films must be oriented to achieve a maximum recovery and a high purity silver, with methods through the by-products will be less polluting for the environment. The paper presents some laboratory tests referring to the recovery of silver from radiographic films by leaching with sodium hydroxide. Two series of experiments were performed with different amounts of used X-ray film.

  1. Human-Robot Emergency Response - Experimental Platform and Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Leuven, Belgium, May 16–21 1998, pp. 3715–3720. [13] itseez, “ Opencv ,” http...function and camshift function in OpenCV [13]. In each image obtained form cameras, we first calculate back projection of a histogram model of a human. In

  2. Expanded microchannel heat exchanger: design, fabrication and preliminary experimental test

    CERN Document Server

    Denkenberger, David C; Pearce, Joshua M; Zhai, John; 10.1177/0957650912442781

    2012-01-01

    This paper first reviews non-traditional heat exchanger geometry, laser welding, practical issues with microchannel heat exchangers, and high effectiveness heat exchangers. Existing microchannel heat exchangers have low material costs, but high manufacturing costs. This paper presents a new expanded microchannel heat exchanger design and accompanying continuous manufacturing technique for potential low-cost production. Polymer heat exchangers have the potential for high effectiveness. The paper discusses one possible joining method - a new type of laser welding named "forward conduction welding," used to fabricate the prototype. The expanded heat exchanger has the potential to have counter-flow, cross-flow, or parallel-flow configurations, be used for all types of fluids, and be made of polymers, metals, or polymer-ceramic precursors. The cost and ineffectiveness reduction may be an order of magnitude or more, saving a large fraction of primary energy. The measured effectiveness of the prototype with 28 micro...

  3. Effectiveness of 10% povidone-iodine drying time before Peripheral Intravascular Catheter insertion: preliminary results from an explorative quasi-experimental study Eficacia del tiempo de secado de la yodopovidona al 10% antes de la inserción de catéter venoso periférico: resultados preliminares de un estudio exploratorio casi-experimental Eficácia de iodopovidona a 10% de acordo com tempo de secagem antes da inserção do cateter intravenoso periférico: resultados preliminares de um estudo exploratório quasi-experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvisa Palese

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: to investigate the effectiveness of 10% povidone-iodine after a 30-second or 2-minute drying time on microbial count reduction at the point of a Peripheral Intravascular Catheter (PIC insertion. A quasi-experimental design was adopted. In total, 53 patients were enrolled, 25 were exposed to a 2-m drying time and 28 to a 30-s drying time. From the preliminary results of this study, no differences in the occurrence of contamination have emerged between patients receiving 30-s and 2-m drying time for 10% povidone-iodine solutions.OBJETIVO: para investigar la eficacia de una solución yodopovidona al 10% tras tiempo de secado de 30 segundos o 2 minutos en la reducción del contaje microbiano en el local de inserción del Catéter Venoso Periférico, fue adoptado un diseño casi-experimental. Al total, fueron incluidos 53 pacientes, 25 expuestos a 2 min. de secado y 28 a 30 segundos. Con base en los resultados preliminares, no se encontraron diferencias en la ocurrencia de contaminaciones entre pacientes sometidos a un tiempo de secado de 30 s. o de 2 min tras desinfección con solución de yodopovidona al 10%.OBJETIVO: investigar a eficácia da solução iodopovidona a 10% sobre a redução da contagem microbiana no ponto de inserção do Cateter Venoso Periférico após tempo de secagem de 30s ou 2 min. MÉTODO: desenho quase-experimental. Foram incluídos 53 pacientes no estudo: 25 foram expostos a 2min de secagem e 28 foram expostos a 30s de secagem. RESULTADOS: Os resultados preliminares não apresentaram diferenças na ocorrência de contaminação entre os pacientes que foram submetidos a 30s ou 2min de secagem após desinfecção com solução de iodopovidona a 10%.

  4. Preliminary observations on an 18th-century wreck at Poompuhar (east coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Saxena, M.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    The preliminary results of detailed geophysical surveys and diving operations at the Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu (India) wreck site are presented and discussed. The exploration was undertaken in two phases. The first phase involved the use of geophysical...

  5. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system, preliminary test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary plan and procedure are presented for conducting an extended manned test program for a regenerative life support system. Emphasis will be placed on elements associated with long-term system operation and long-term uninterrupted crew confinement.

  6. 自然对流磁制冷工作原理及影响因素试验研究%Experimental research on operation theory and impact factors of natural convective magnetic refrigeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾国刚; 陈云贵; 王宝木; 唐永柏; 巫江虹

    2013-01-01

    Feasibility of the operation theory and impact factors of the heat transfer process for a natural convection typed magnetic refrigeration prototype were studied experimentally. The experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and pressure. The test part consisted of two aluminum plates with manganin heating wires stuck at back sides. The magnetic refrigerant magnetization of the magnetic refrigeration prototype was simulated through adjusting the heating voltages of heating wires, corresponding to adjust the heat flux. The magnetic refrigerant corresponds to an annulus that consists of many numbers of vertical narrow rectangular channels. The dimensions of the four channels investigated were 50 mm in height, 40 mm in width and 1.5 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm in the gap depth respectively. The experiment results show that the gap depth and the height-gap ratio have significant effect on heat transfer performance, also indicate that the operation theory of the natural convective magnetic refrigeration prototype is feasible.%试验研究了自然对流磁制冷样机工作原理的可行性以及换热过程的影响因素.试验在环境温度和压力下进行,试验件是背面粘有锰铜加热丝的铝板.通过调节加热丝上的电压,调节热流量,来模拟磁制冷样机中工质的磁化过程.制冷工质相当于多个竖直矩形窄通道构成的圆环.试验件间隙分别为1.5、2.5、5和10 mm,宽为40 mm,高为50 mm.试验结果表明:板间距的大小对换热性能有很大影响,较小的板间距能很好的提高换热性能;板高与板间距之比对换热性能也有较大影响,较大的板高-板间距比可以得到较大的传热系数;自然对流磁制冷样机的工作原理是可行的.

  7. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, W B

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses, and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with...

  8. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  9. [Temporary disability in operated spine patients. Preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabrera, Rafael; Ruiz-García, Diana; Velázquez-Ramírez, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: hoy en día, los problemas relacionados con padecimientos de la columna en trabajadores son de gran magnitud. Objetivo: revisar las diferencias en reincorporación laboral en pacientes con afecciones de la columna que generan incapacidad y los factores que podrían alterar el tiempo de recuperación y la posibilidad de reincorporar al paciente a su trabajo. Material y métodos: estudio preliminar, estadístico, de revisión de 37 pacientes trabajadores inscritos en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, operados por alguna afección de la columna vertebral en el que se compararon: días de incapacidad con lo propuesto internacionalmente y su retorno a laborar. Resultados: 37% de los pacientes estudiados continúan activos en la seguridad social dos años después de la intervención quirúrgica. Los días de incapacidad generados por este grupo de estudio (212.3 días) son significativamente mayores a lo que establece el Medical Disability Advisor (56 días, casi 4 veces más). Conclusiones: debido al tamaño de la muestra es necesario ampliar el estudio a otros centros de tratamiento dentro de la institución y comparar los resultados, principalmente lo relacionado con el retorno a laborar. La cirugía de columna no es garantía de retorno a laborar, lo que debe tenerse en cuenta al momento de plantearle al paciente los objetivos de la cirugía o un pronóstico laboral.

  10. Fabrication of preliminary fuel rods for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Ki; Oh, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Mo; Woo, Youn Myung; Kim, Ki Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Metal fuels was selected for fueling many of the first reactors in the US, including the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho, the FERMI-I reactor, and the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) in the UK. Metallic U.Pu.Zr alloys were the reference fuel for the US Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. Metallic fuel has advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant and inherent passive safety. U-Zr-Pu alloy fuels have been used for SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. Fabrication technology of metallic fuel for SFR has been in development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. For the final goal of SFR fuel rod fabrication with good performance, recently, three preliminary fuel rods were fabricated. In this paper, the preliminary fuel rods were fabricated, and then the inspection for QC(quality control) of the fuel rods was performed

  11. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...

  12. Implementation dimension-6 operators into WHIZARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, So Young; Reuter, Juergen [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    To test physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) at the LHC in a model-independent way, we studied an Effective Field Theory (EFT) consisting of the SM with additional dimension-6 operators. Using a special basis for the operators, the GIMR basis, we implemented the complete set of dim-6 operators into the Monte Carlo Event Generator WHIZARD. Focusing on electroweak boson observables, we show preliminary results for LHC Run II at 13 TeV.

  13. Large Hadron Collider commissioning and first operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S

    2012-02-28

    A history of the commissioning and the very successful early operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The accident that interrupted the first commissioning, its repair and the enhanced protection system put in place are fully described. The LHC beam commissioning and operational performance are reviewed for the period from 2010 to mid-2011. Preliminary plans for operation and future upgrades for the LHC are given for the short and medium term.

  14. Preliminary results of absolute wavelength calibration of imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiayun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, Fudi [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Lyu, Bo, E-mail: blu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Yingying; Fu, Jia; Xu, Liqing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Shi, Yuejiang [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Minyou [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wan, Baonian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The absolute wavelength calibration method for X-ray crystal spectrometer using X-ray fluorescence of the appropriate materials was first tested on EAST, and the preliminary experimental results were obtained. • The experimental results were thoroughly discussed and suggestion for further improvements of the experimental arrangement was proposed. • Rotation calibration of X-ray crystal spectrometer on EAST using MHD frequency was presented when the absolute wavelength calibration method is unavailable currently. - Abstract: Imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers (XCS) are currently operating on several major tokamaks to provide profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity. In order to acquire absolute rotation velocity, several indirect methods were pursued previously, however the direct and effective method is to use known X-ray lines for wavelength calibration. One way to produce standard spectral lines is X-ray fluorescence, which could be excited by X-rays from tokamak plasmas. As part of the upgrade of XCS system on EAST, wavelength calibration was studied using cadmium's L-shell lines, namely Lα{sub 1} line (3.9564 Å) and Lα{sub 2} line (3.9650 Å) as the reference wavelength. The Geant 4 code was used to optimize foil thickness to achieve a reasonable X-ray fluorescence intensity. The Cd foil was placed between the beryllium window and crystal and could be retracted to provide in situ wavelength calibration. The detailed arrangement and preliminary wavelength calibration results of imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer on EAST are presented, plus the calibration using MHD frequency.

  15. Monopoly experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers a firm facing an uncertain demand curve. The firm can experimentally adjust its output in order to gain information that willincrease expected future profits. We examine two basic questions. Under whatconditions is it worthwhile for the firm to experiment? How does the firmadjust its output away from the myopic optimism to exploit its ability to experiment? Two necessary conditions are established for experimentation tooccur, involving requirements that experimentation be...

  16. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  17. Title I preliminary engineering for: A. S. E. F. solid waste to methane gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    An assignment to provide preliminary engineering of an Advanced System Experimental Facility for production of methane gas from urban solid waste by anaerobic digestion is documented. The experimental facility will be constructed on a now-existing solid waste shredding and landfill facility in Pompano Beach, Florida. Information is included on: general description of the project; justification of basic need; process design; preliminary drawings; outline specifications; preliminary estimate of cost; and time schedules for design and construction of accomplishment of design and construction. The preliminary cost estimate for the design and construction phases of the experimental program is $2,960,000, based on Dec. 1975 and Jan. 1976 costs. A time schedule of eight months to complete the Detailed Design, Equipment Procurement and the Award of Subcontracts is given.

  18. The Preliminaries of a Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Sadl, Urska

    2017-01-01

    by the reasons why the Court after an oral hearing held in the presence of the parties and eight intervening Member States, and after hearing the Advocate General did not deliver one. The comment examines the legal framework, as well as the detailed procedural rules and guidelines that govern the cooperation...... of national courts in the preliminary reference procedure. It highlights the fact that preliminary references can only work when the preliminaries of a reference – the culture of sincere cooperation and litigation, efficient communication and flexible procedural rules – are in place....

  19. Status and Operation of the Linac4 Ion Source Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Hatayama, A; Nishida, K; Shibata, T; Yamamot, T; Otha, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 45 kV H- ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2MHz RF- plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H- beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the LEBT, RFQ and chopper of Linac4.

  20. Operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Boehme, Thomas K

    1987-01-01

    Operational Calculus, Volume II is a methodical presentation of operational calculus. An outline of the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients is presented. Integral operational calculus and advanced topics in operational calculus, including locally integrable functions and convergence in the space of operators, are also discussed. Formulas and tables are included.Comprised of four sections, this volume begins with a discussion on the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, focusing on such topics as homogeneous and non-ho

  1. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  2. Schwartz operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyl, M.; Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce Schwartz operators as a non-commutative analog of Schwartz functions and provide a detailed discussion of their properties. We equip them, in particular, with a number of different (but equivalent) families of seminorms which turns the space of Schwartz operators into a Fréchet space. The study of the topological dual leads to non-commutative tempered distributions which are discussed in detail as well. We show, in particular, that the latter can be identified with a certain class of quadratic forms, therefore making operations like products with bounded (and also some unbounded) operators and quantum harmonic analysis available to objects which are otherwise too singular for being a Hilbert space operator. Finally, we show how the new methods can be applied by studying operator moment problems and convergence properties of fluctuation operators.

  3. Transition Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock-Zeilinger, Judith

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give a generic algorithm of the transition operators between Hermitian Young projection operators corresponding to equivalent irreducible representations of SU(N), using the compact expressions of Hermitian Young projection operators derived in a companion paper. We show that the Hermitian Young projection operators together with their transition operators constitute a fully orthogonal basis for the algebra of invariants of $V^{\\otimes m}$ that exhibits a systematically simplified multiplication table. We discuss the full algebra of invariants over $V^{\\otimes 3}$ and $V^{\\otimes 4}$ as explicit examples. In our presentation we make use of various standard concepts such as Young projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan operators, and invariants (in birdtrack notation). We tie these perspectives together and use them to shed light on each other.

  4. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  5. Preliminary reference Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  6. 电生理监测下改良Foerster- Dandy手术治疗痉挛性斜颈初探%Preliminary exploration of modified Foerster-Dandys operation for the treatmen t of spasmodic torticollis with intraoperative neurophysioigical monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高进喜; 郑兆聪; 陈乃洁; 陈渊; 王守森

    2011-01-01

    quality. Postoperative complications included muscle weakness of neck and shoulder(85. 7% ). No severe complication occurred. There was one recurrence case during the follow-up duration, but curred by the duloxetine and trihexyphenidyl. Conclusion Modified Foerster-Dandy 's operation with intraoperative neurophysiolgical monitoring is an effective micro-surgical method for the treatment of spasmodic torticollis. The proper choice of cases, understanding of regional microanatomy, skilled microsurgical techniques are the keys to gain good effects. This study is only a Preliminary exploration of the treatmen t of spasmodic torticollis, more cases and long follow-up duration are needed to effort.

  7. Arapahoe NWR diversion reconstruction : Preliminary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary plan for a diversion reconstruction for Hubbard #2. Oklahoma #1, Dryer, Hill and Crowder sites on the Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge.

  8. Experimental Archaeology and the Denticulate Mousterian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Arnold

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available The following· essay is a summary of preliminary experimental work carried out in connection with my doctoral research on the nature of the Denticulate Mousterian facies, which was presented to the postgraduate seminar of the Institute of Archaeology, UCL on October 24th 1990.

  9. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  10. Preliminary test results for the SVX4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofek, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Rapidis, P.; Utes, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    We present and summarize the preliminary test results for SVX4 chip testing. There are presently two versions of the SVX4. Version 2 has on-chip bypassing and Version 1 does not. The on-chip bypassing is a layer of transistors under the front-end analog pipeline that acts as a bypassing capacitor for the voltage supply. Its size is about a microfarad. We aggressively choose to test Version 2 because of this feature. The feature is advantageous for hybrid design because it eliminates the need for an additional passive component on the hybrid itself by placing it on the actual SVX4 die. Also, the SVX4 was designed to operate in two modes: D. and CDF. One can set which mode the chip will operate by placing a jumper in the proper position on the SVX4 chip carrier. In either mode, the chip can either use the operating parameters from the shift register or the shadow register. Similarly, this is selected by placing a jumper on the SVX4 chip carrier. This chip has this feature because it was unknown whether the new design of the shadow register would be operable. The shadow register is also call the SEU register or Single Event Upset register. An introduction into the functionality of the chip and an explanation on the difference between D. and CDF mode can be found in the SVX4 User's Manual [1].

  11. Preliminary design of a coffee harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of an agricultural machine is a highly complex process due to interactions between the operator, machine, and environment. Mountain coffee plantations constitute an economic sector that requires huge investments for the development of agricultural machinery to improve the harvesting and post-harvesting processes and to overcome the scarcity of work forces in the fields. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary design for a virtual prototype of a coffee fruit harvester. In this study, a project methodology was applied and adapted for the development of the following steps: project planning, informational design, conceptual design, and preliminary design. The construction of a morphological matrix made it possible to obtain a list of different mechanisms with specific functions. The union between these mechanisms resulted in variants, which were weighed to attribute scores for each selected criterion. From each designated proposal, two variants with the best scores were selected and this permitted the preparation of the preliminary design of both variants. The archetype was divided in two parts, namely the hydraulically articulated arms and the harvesting system that consisted of the vibration mechanism and the detachment mechanism. The proposed innovation involves the use of parallel rods, which were fixed in a plane and rectangular metal sheet. In this step, dimensions including a maximum length of 4.7 m, a minimum length of 3.3 m, and a total height of 2.15 m were identified based on the functioning of the harvester in relation to the coupling point of the tractor.

  12. Preparation of experimental and numerical research on unsteady cavitating flow around hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komárek Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preparation of the experimental setup and the results of the CFD analysis for the investigation of the unsteady cavitating flow around a prismatic NACA 2412 hydrofoil at different flow conditions. The experimental research is carried out in the cavitation water tunnel located in the Centre of Hydraulic Research in Lutín. The tunnel is integrated into the closed horizontal loop of the hydraulic test rig. The transparent test section provides a full view of the flow around the hydrofoil. The hydrofoil incidence angle is fully adjustable. Two variants of hydrofoil of the same geometry have been designed. One variant is equipped with pressure tap holes for the measurement of the static pressure, and the other variant is covered with a grid of five PVDF films, fully integrated in the hydrofoil. The PVDF films enable to measure the impact forces exerted on the hydrofoil surface by the collapsing cavitation structures. The high-frequency pressure oscillations downstream of the hydrofoil trailing edge are measured using the PVDF hydrophone. The cavitating flow is visualized using two simultaneously operating high-speed cameras providing the top and side views of the flow. A preliminary CFD analysis using the ANSYS CFX package helped to determine the flow regimes for the experimental study. The obtained CFD results agree well with the preliminary measurements.

  13. Preparation of experimental and numerical research on unsteady cavitating flow around hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárek, Martin; Sedlář, Milan; Vyroubal, Michal; Zima, Patrik; Müller, Miloš; Pálka, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the preparation of the experimental setup and the results of the CFD analysis for the investigation of the unsteady cavitating flow around a prismatic NACA 2412 hydrofoil at different flow conditions. The experimental research is carried out in the cavitation water tunnel located in the Centre of Hydraulic Research in Lutín. The tunnel is integrated into the closed horizontal loop of the hydraulic test rig. The transparent test section provides a full view of the flow around the hydrofoil. The hydrofoil incidence angle is fully adjustable. Two variants of hydrofoil of the same geometry have been designed. One variant is equipped with pressure tap holes for the measurement of the static pressure, and the other variant is covered with a grid of five PVDF films, fully integrated in the hydrofoil. The PVDF films enable to measure the impact forces exerted on the hydrofoil surface by the collapsing cavitation structures. The high-frequency pressure oscillations downstream of the hydrofoil trailing edge are measured using the PVDF hydrophone. The cavitating flow is visualized using two simultaneously operating high-speed cameras providing the top and side views of the flow. A preliminary CFD analysis using the ANSYS CFX package helped to determine the flow regimes for the experimental study. The obtained CFD results agree well with the preliminary measurements.

  14. Operation REDWING

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-07-31

    only 16mm cinemascope films would be available after 1 August 1956t Act- tion was taken to modify the screens of the Terrace and Starlite theaters...approximately 900, was in operation throughout the interim and operational period. The Starlite Theater, which seats approximately 600, opened in

  15. OPERATION ASKARI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    operation using conventional arms against Swapo Plan, while they were still massed in their .... stationed there was no real threat to our planned operation. the idea was to sow confusion in the minds ...... A four by four transport vehi- cle, based ...

  16. Operational Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Rosendal; Hustvedt, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    by Bakhtinian theory, Brian Edmiston developed a solution to this in the 1990s: the principle of ‘dialogic sequencing’. Aiming to escape the conflict between relativism and absolutism, we present an alternative to Edmiston’s approach, based on Niklas Luhmann’s theory of ‘operational closure’: operational...

  17. Business & Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  18. Operation crosscheck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, F. C.

    1964-11-06

    This report consists of three sections covering the three major areas of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s participation in Operation Crosscheck. These areas are: Diagnostic Aircraft; Radiochemical Sampling; and Device Assembly and Handling, Barbers Point. The information contained in these sections has been extracted from Crosscheck post-operation reports.

  19. Operational Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  20. 一体化太阳能热泵热水器运行特性的实验研究%Experimental Study on the Operating Characteristics of Solar Heat Pump Water Heater Integrated With Collector, Storage and Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫梁彦; 王玲珑; 吴薇

    2011-01-01

    A novel solar heat pump water heater integrated with collector, storage and evaporation (SHPWHICSE) is presented and analyzed. By adding phase-changing materials into the collector/storage/evaporator, the solar energy can be absorbed and storied as latent heat. Calculating the storied energy according to temperature variation of the phasechange material which is chosen as paraffin, the result is that the storied energy can meet the heat load of this system. Solar got efficiency of this system is defined and compared with the direct expansion solar heat pump water heater. Experimental studies of SHPWHICSE with 150L water heating capacity are done at typical weather conditions in spring. The results indicate the system's COP is 5.63 on sunny days. Although on overcast or rainy days, the system's COP can reach 4. 13. Moreover, solar radiation intensity's unstable change has little influerace on the solar got efficiency and COP. Therefore, SHPWHICSE can be operating highly efficiently and stably at various weather conditions for domestic hot water.%介绍并研究了一种新型集热/蓄能/蒸发一体化太阳能热泵热水器系统(SHPWHICSE).该装置将真空管集热器、蓄能容器和蒸发器集于一体,通过相变潜热吸收并储存大量太阳能.根据相变材料(石蜡)在吸、放热过程中温度的变化计算蓄热量,确定相变材料中储存的热量能够满足系统热负荷.定义了一体化太阳能热泵系统的得热效率,并和直膨式太阳能热泵热水器得热效率进行比较.在春季典型工况下对容量为150L的SHPWHICSE进行实验研究,结果表明:晴天工况下,系统COP可达5.63;即使阴雨天,COP也可达4.13;太阳辐射强度的不稳定变化对热泵系统得热效率和COP的影响不大.因此,该系统在各种天气条件下都可以高效稳定地制取生活热水.