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Sample records for preliminary evaluations suggest

  1. Preliminary Site Suitability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. L. King

    2001-01-01

    Commercial electric power generation, nuclear weapons production, the operation of naval reactors, and research and development activities produce spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste have been accumulating at commercial reactor sites and storage facilities across the country since 1957. Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste have been accumulating at sites now managed by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since the mid-1940s. The DOE has the statutory obligation to dispose of these wastes. The U.S. has studied methods for the safe storage and disposal of radioactive waste for more than 40 years. Many organizations and government agencies have participated in these studies. In the 1950s, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission requested the National Academy of Sciences to evaluate options for land disposal of radioactive waste. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the DOE, continued to analyze radioactive waste management options throughout the 1960s and 1970s. In 1979, an Interagency Review Group that included representatives of 14 federal government entities provided findings and recommendations to the President. After analyzing a range of options, disposal in a geologic repository emerged as the preferred long-term environmental solution. This consensus is reflected in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The NWPA and related statutes established the framework for addressing the issues of radioactive waste disposal and designated the roles and responsibilities of the federal government and the owners and generators of the waste

  2. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  3. Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, L; Smith, T; Havsager, A M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield and to describe the spectrum of diagnosis encountered by evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 198 patients referred to a department of neurology...... with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy. The evaluation included nerve conduction studies with near-nerve technique, quantitative examination of temperature sensation, blood tests, chest x-rays, and skin biopsies as well as diagnostic tests for differential diagnoses. RESULTS: Polyneuropathy was found in 147......%), drugs (5%), connective tissue disease (3%), and a number of less frequent conditions. A previously undiagnosed condition was found in 30% of the patients with polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy reveals a high fraction of patients with previously...

  4. Suggestibility as a predictor of response to antidepressants: A preliminary prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Uri; Chalamish, Yossi; Krieger, Israel; Erez, Hany Burstein; Braw, Yoram; Lichtenberg, Pesach

    2015-10-01

    The growing awareness that so many do not respond adequately to antidepressant (AD) pharmacotherapy has sparked research seeking to characterize those who do. While the pharmacological mechanisms of AD treatment have been extensively evaluated, much remains unknown about the placebo component of the response to medication. This study examined the association between suggestibility levels and response to ADs amongst depressed patients. Twenty unipolar depression outpatients, recruited before starting AD monotherapy, received clear, standardized instructions that the therapeutic effects of AD, though not side effects, would require 2-4 weeks. At baseline (T1), 1 week (T2), and 1 month (T3), participants were evaluated for depressive symptoms, using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 items (HAM-D); for anxiety by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A); for side effects by the Antidepressant Side Effect Checklist (ASEC); and for suggestibility, using the Multidimensional Iowa Suggestibility Scale (MISS). High levels of baseline suggestibility were associated with less improvement in depression level and more side-effects during the first week. In accordance with our hypothesis the more suggestible patients improved more between T2 and T3. No significant correlations were found between baseline suggestibility levels and change in anxiety. Small sample size and a self-report questionnaire assessing suggestibility were limitations. This study offers a potentially new and clinically useful approach to understanding and predicting who will respond to AD treatment. Suggestibility seems to play a role, presumably by shaping expectation, in response to AD treatment. We hope that this avenue will be further explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br, E-mail: geice@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  7. The OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging scoring system (PsAMRIS): definitions of key pathologies, suggested MRI sequences, and preliminary scoring system for PsA Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, Fiona; Wiell, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance image scoring system (PsAMRIS) for evaluation of inflammatory and destructive changes in PsA hands, which was developed by the international OMERACT MRI in inflammatory arthritis group. MRI definitions of important...... pathologies in peripheral PsA and suggestions concerning appropriate MRI sequences for use in PsA hands are also provided....

  8. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Peugh, James L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Carroll W.

    2013-01-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n = 54) or to a waitlist control group (n = 51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation ap...

  9. Suicide intervention training evaluation: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, R J

    1994-01-01

    To date, very little work has been done on evaluating training in suicide intervention. This study developed and piloted a comprehensive method for evaluating suicide intervention training by applying three studies of immediate training effects on (a) suicide intervention abilities, (b) attitudes to suicide and suicide intervention, and (c) knowledge about suicide. The focus of the evaluation was a broadly used 2-day suicide intervention training program. Changes in suicide intervention abilities were measured by the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI) and by performance in simulated suicide intervention situations, scored with the Suicide Intervention Protocol (SIP). Subjects consisted of 19 workshop participants in a pre-post condition and 17 participants in a post-test only condition. Results indicated significant increases in skills in suicide intervention situations. No significant effects were noted on the SIRI. Results from the attitudes and knowledge studies were very preliminary. They are reported here so that others may become aware of the methodology being used and the status of evaluation of the target program. Implications for further research are discussed.

  10. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. National uranium resource evaluation, preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The results of the initial phase of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) are reported. NURE is a comprehensive nationwide program to evaluate uranium resources and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. Part I presents estimates of uranium ore reserves and potential resources available at costs (not prices) of $10, $15, and $30 per pound U 3 O 8 (uranium oxide). These estimates comprise the national uranium resource position. They are, however, preliminary because limitations of time and available geologic data prevented adequate assessment of some areas that may be favorable for potential resources. Part II presents the potential uranium resources for each of 13 regions, whose boundaries have been drawn chiefly on geologic considerations. The general geology is summarized, and the types of uranium deposits are described. Although limited geologic reconnaissance was done in various parts of the country, the report is based primarily on the compilation and evaluation of data in ERDA files. Mining companies furnished a substantial amount of information on exploration results, development, production, and future plans. Published, manuscript, and open-file reports by government agencies, universities, and research organizations were reviewed. In addition, many individuals affiliated with universities and with state and federal agencies provided supplemental geologic information. This was particularly helpful in the eastern and central states and in Alaska, where information on uranium occurrences is limited

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills.During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre and post content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. The majority of cosmology students had taken astronomy before whereas the astronomy students had not.When switching to an active mode of learning (e.g., flipped classroom instead of lecture), many instructors report pushback from students. We saw this effect from students in course evaluations, who reported dissatisfaction with "having to do more work." However, the students in the flipped section in astronomy made greater gains on the multiple choice content assessment than the students in either of the two lecture sections. On the attitude assessment (the CLASS), the cosmology students made a small shift toward more expert-like opinions. Preliminary results from open-ended content surveys indicate that, prior to instruction, students had difficulty answering 'why' or 'how do we know' questions; that post-instruction, students are less likely to respond "I don't know" or to leave an answer blank; and that students using the modules made gains in their content knowledge.Module development was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and Great River Technology

  13. Phytochemical Screening and Preliminary Evaluation of Analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the methanolic root extract of Cissus polyantha was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies. Phytochemical studies was carried out using standard phytochemical protocol while the analgesic studies was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing tests in ...

  14. Preliminary economic evaluation of the Alkox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.J.; Lilga, M.A.; Camaioni, D.M.; Snowden, L.J.

    1991-09-01

    A new chemical process has been invented at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories for converting alkanes to alcohols. This new chemistry has been named the ''Alkox Process.'' Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared a preliminary economic analysis for converting cyclohexane to cyclohexanol, which may be one of the most attractive applications of the Alkox process. A process flow scheme and a material balance were prepared to support rough equipment sizing and costing. The results from the economic analysis are presented in the non-proprietary section of this report. The process details, including the flow diagram and material balance, are contained in separate section of this report that is proprietary to Battelle. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Suggestions and comments about preliminary plans of ABNT 20:04.002-001 standard 'Seismic actions for nuclear facilities project'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of preliminary plans of standard 'seismic actions for nuclear facilities project'. This document presents since seismic event characterization up to details of structural project of nuclear facilities construction. (C.M.)

  16. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilles-Tirkkonen Tanja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58% of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC. Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group.

  17. Preliminary Finnish measures of eating competence suggest association with health-promoting eating patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-05-21

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group.

  18. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-01-01

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335

  19. Holmium:YAG laser stapedotomy: preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubig, Ingrid M.; Reder, Paul A.; Facer, G. W.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated the use of a pulsed Holmium:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.09 micrometers ) laser- fiber microsurgical system for laser stapedotomy. This system ablates human stapes bones effectively with minimal thermal damage. The study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the Ho:YAG laser (Schwartz Electro Optics, Inc., Orlando, FL) for stapedotomy and to evaluate temperature changes within the cochlea during the ablation process. Human cadaveric temporal bones were obtained and the stapes portion of the ossicular chain was removed. A 200 micrometers diameter low OH quartz fiber was used to irradiate these stapes bones in an air environment. The laser was pulsed at 2 Hz, 250 microsecond(s) ec pulse width and an irradiance range of 100 - 240 J/cm2 was used to ablate holes in the stapes footplate. The resultant stapedotomies created had smooth 300 micrometers diameter holes with a minimum of circumferential charring. Animal studies in-vivo were carried out in chinchillas to determine the caloric spread within the cochlea. A 0.075 mm Type T thermocouple was placed in the round window. Average temperature change during irradiation of the stapes footplate recorded in the round window was 3.6 degree(s)C. The data suggest that stapedotomy using the Ho:YAG laser can result in a controlled ablation of the stapes footplate with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding stapes. Optical coupling using fiberoptic silica fibers is an ideal method for delivering laser energy to the stapes during stapedotomy.

  20. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the BIODOSE computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, N.A.; Ng, Y.C.

    1979-09-01

    The BIODOSE computer program simulates the environmental transport of radionuclides released to surface water and predicts the dosage to humans. We have evaluated the program for its suitability to the needs of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Waste Management Program. In particular, it is an evaluation to determine whether BIODOSE models account for the significant pathways and mechanisms resulting in radiological doses to man. In general, BIODOSE is a satisfactory code for converting radionuclide releases to the aqueous environment into doses to man

  2. Treating Substance-Using Women and Their Children in Public Housing: Preliminary Evaluation Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsch, Lisa R.; Wolfe, Harlan P.; Fewell, Rebecca; McCoy, Clyde B.; Elwood, William N.; Wohler-Torres, Brad; Petersen-Baston, Pamela; Haskins, Henry V.

    2001-01-01

    SafePort is a residential substance abuse treatment program within public housing to provide drug treatment to parenting women in Key West, Florida. All family members--women, children, and significant others--receive comprehensive assessments to determine appropriate therapeutic interventions. Preliminary evaluation findings suggest that women…

  3. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  4. Evaluations on the R Wave in asymptomatic subjects: a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary cross-sectional survey on the R wave of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was undertaken to evaluate the normal R wave duration and amplitude of the young adult Nigerian from Jos; to ascertain significant correlation coefficients for R wave duration and amplitude, age and anthropometric ...

  5. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  6. Evaluating Youth Sexual Health Peer Education Programs: "Challenges and Suggestions for Effective Evaluation Practices"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Sriranganathan, Gobika; Clout, Jerri; Janssen, Jesse; Campbell, Lisa; Flicker, Sarah; Stadnicki, Dan; Erlich, Leah; Flynn, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Although peer sexual health education is a common form of sexual health promotion for youth, systematic reviews of these programs are relatively rare. In this study we interviewed youth peer educators to inquire about their experience of program evaluation and their perception of what is needed to develop effective evaluation practices. Data were…

  7. Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Seed Extracts of Cucurbita Maxima Duchense

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Sharma; Ashish K. Sharma; Tara Chand; Manoj Khardiya; Kailash Chand Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima Duchense (family:Cucurbitaceae) is a trailing annual herb, widely cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world, for used as vegetables as well as medicines. The present study deals with preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of seed extract of Cucurbita maxima. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detailed analysis. Different physicochemical parameters such as ash value (total ash, aci...

  8. Interrogative suggestibility: its relationship with assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and method of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate empirically in 30 subjects some of the theoretical components related to individual differences that are thought by Gudjonsson & Clark (1986) to mediate interrogative suggestibility as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS; Gudjonsson, 1984a). The variables studied were: assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and the coping methods subjects are able to generate and implement during interrogation. Low assertiveness and high evaluative anxiety were found to correlate moderately with suggestibility, but no significant correlations emerged for 'social avoidance and distress'. State anxiety correlated significantly with suggestibility, particularly after negative feedback had been administered. Coping methods (active-cognitive/behavioural vs. avoidance) significantly predicted suggestibility scores. The findings give strong support to the theoretical model of Gudjonsson & Clark.

  9. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10?17 Year Old Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-01-01

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, mea...

  10. Performance Evaluation and Suggestion of Upgraded Fuel Handling Equipment for Operating OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sang Gyoon; Hwang, Jeung Ki; Choi, Taek Sang; Na, Eun Seok; Lee, Myung Lyul; Baek, Seung Jin; Kim, Man Su; Kunik, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of upgraded FHE (Fuel Handling Equipment) for operating OPR 1000 (Optimized Power Reactor) by using data measured during the fuel reloading, and make some suggestions on enhancing the performance of the FHE. The fuel handling equipment, which serves critical processes in the refueling outage, has been upgraded to increase and improve the operational availability of the plant. The evaluation and suggestion of this study can be a beneficial tool related to the performance of the fuel handling equipment

  11. Preliminary shielding design evaluation for reactor assembly of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyo Youn; Kang, Chang M.; Kim, Ha Yong; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee

    1999-03-01

    This report describes a preliminary evaluations of SMART shielding design near the reactor core by using the DORT two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code. The results indicate that maximum neutron fluence at the bottom of reactor vessel is 1.64x10 17 n/cm 2 and that on the radial surface of reactor vessel is 6.71x10 16 n/cm 2 . These results meet the requirement, 1.0x10 20 n/cm 2 , in 10 CFR 50.61 and the integrity of SMART reactor vessel is confirmed during the lifetime of reactor. (Author). 20 refs., 11 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M.; Keenan, Madison F.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual’s genes may influence these relationships. PMID:27445764

  13. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Keenan, Madison F; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual's genes may influence these relationships.

  14. Primary graft dysfunction; possible evaluation by high resolution computed tomography, and suggestions for a scoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther; Jensen, Claus; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2009-01-01

    /exclusion criteria of patients, pilot testing, and training investigators through review of disagreements, were possibilities suggested for decreasing inter/intra observer variability. Factors affecting the image attenuation (Hounsfield numbers) and thus, the reproducibility of CT densitometric measurements were...... of parenchymal change in the lung. HRCT is considered relevant and superior in evaluating disease severity, disease progression, and in evaluating the effects of therapy regimes in the lung. It is, however, not clear to what extent these scoring methods may be implemented for grading PGD. Further efforts could...

  15. Evaluation of high pressure Freon decontamination. I. Preliminary tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    High-pressure Freon blasting techniques are being evaluated for applications involving the removal of non-adherent radioactive particulate contamination at SRP. Very little waste is generated by this technique because the used Freon can be easily distilled and reused. One of the principle advantages of this technique is that decontaminated electrical equipment can be returned to service immediately without drying, unlike high-pressure water blasting techniques. Preliminary scoutin tests evaluating high-pressure Freon blasting for decontamination at SRP were carried out at Quadrex Co., Oak Ridge, TN, October 12 and 13. DWPF-type contamination (raw sludge plus volatiles) and separations area-type contamination (diluted boiling point (47.6 0 C) allow it to rapidly separate from higher boiling contaminants via distillation with filtration to remove particulate material, and distillation with condensation, the solvent may be recovered for indefinite reuse while reducing the radioactive waste to a minimum. 3 references, 5 figures, 6 tables

  16. A Serious Games Platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation with Preliminary Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Paula Alexandra; Rocha, Rui; Faria, Brígida Mónica; Reis, Luís Paulo; Moreira, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years Serious Games have evolved substantially, solving problems in diverse areas. In particular, in Cognitive Rehabilitation, Serious Games assume a relevant role. Traditional cognitive therapies are often considered repetitive and discouraging for patients and Serious Games can be used to create more dynamic rehabilitation processes, holding patients' attention throughout the process and motivating them during their road to recovery. This paper reviews Serious Games and user interfaces in rehabilitation area and details a Serious Games platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation that includes a set of features such as: natural and multimodal user interfaces and social features (competition, collaboration, and handicapping) which can contribute to augment the motivation of patients during the rehabilitation process. The web platform was tested with healthy subjects. Results of this preliminary evaluation show the motivation and the interest of the participants by playing the games.

  17. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS

  18. Tritium removal: a preliminary evaluation of several getters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, C.W.; West, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    The removal of hydrogen isotopes from flowing gas streams is an important aspect of CTR technology for both decontamination and tritium recovery from plasma exhausts. Several getters have been evaluated for their tritium scrubbing potential at the parts per billion level. Measurements of total capacity and dynamic response have been made for barium, erbium, palladium dispersed on molecular sieve, General Electric H-36 (zirconium alloy), Union Carbide Y-993 (PdMnO 2 ), Societa Apparecchi Electtrici e Scientifici Getters ST101 (Zr--Al), ST171, and ST181, and a Sandia developed organic material, dimerized phenyl propargyl ether (DPPE). Preliminary flow studies were conducted by passing mixtures of either hydrogen or deuterium diluted with argon through packed beds containing the getter and periodically sampling the effluent with a gas chromatograph sensitive to 500 ppB H 2 . The results of this work, similar flow experiments using tritium and total capacity measurements are presented in the text

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the seismic hazard at Cernavoda NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingiuc, C.; Serban, V.; Androne, M.

    2001-01-01

    The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is a methodology by which one evaluates the probability of exceeding different parameters of the ground motions (the maximum ground acceleration - PGA and the ground response spectrum - SA) as effect of the seismic action, on a given site at a future time moment. Due to the large uncertainties in the geological, geophysical, seismological input data, as well as, in the models utilised, various interpretation schemes are applied in the PSHA analyses. This interpretation schemes lead to opinion discrepancies among specialists which finally lead to disagreements in estimating the values of the seismic design for a given site. In order to re-evaluate the methodology and to improve the PSHA result stability, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored a project for defining methodological guides of performing PSHA analyses. The project was implemented by a panel of 7 experts, the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee - SSHAC. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of the seismic hazard for the Cernavoda NPP site by application of the methodology mentioned, by taking into account the possible sources which could affect the site (the Vrancea focus, Galati - Tulcea fault, Sabla - Dulovo fault and local earthquakes)

  1. Preliminary fiscal evaluation of Alberta oil sands terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    The cost of oil sands projects varies significantly. While costs have escalated considerably over the past few years, oil prices have gone significantly higher. This report provided an economic evaluation of the current fiscal terms applicable to Alberta oil sands. The analysis was done to evaluate the profitability of oil sand projects to investors under current conditions based on the generic royalty regime based on bitumen values. The objective of the royalty review was to determine whether Albertans received a fair share from their oil and gas resources. It discussed the wide variety of oil sands projects in Alberta using five case studies as examples. Cases involving steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations were assessed for both the Athabasca Mine and Cold Lake. The report provided a discussion of the economic assumptions including economic cases as well as production, costs and price data. It then provided the preliminary results of the economic-fiscal evaluation from the investor perspective including profitability indicators; international comparisons; internal rate of return; and net present value. The government perspective was also discussed with reference to attractiveness indicators; royalties as a percentage of bitumen values; and non-discounted and discounted government take. A royalty and tax feature analysis was also provided. Several issues for possible further review were also presented. tabs

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  3. Preliminary data evaluation for thermal insulation characterization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeClue, J.F.; Moses, S.D.; Tollefson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Thermal Insulation Characterization Testing is to provide physical data to support certain assumptions and calculational techniques used in the criticality safety calculations in Section 6 of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) for drum-type packaging for Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Results of preliminary data evaluation regarding the fire-test condition reveal that realistic weight loss consideration and residual material characterization in developing calculational models for the hypothetical accident condition is necessary in order to prevent placement of unduly conservative restrictions on shipping requirements as a result of overly conservative modeling. This is particularly important for fast systems. Determination of the geometric arrangement of residual material is of secondary importance. Both the methodology used to determine the minimum thermal insulation mass remaining after the fire test and the treatment of the thermal insulation in the criticality safety calculational models requires additional evaluation. Specific testing to be conducted will provide experimental data with which to validate the mass estimates and calculational modeling techniques for extrapolation to generic drum-type containers

  4. Preliminary evaluation of FY98 KALIMER shielding design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Woon; Kang, Chang Mu; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a preliminary evaluation of the shielding design of FY98 KALIMER. The KALIMER shielding design includes the Inner Fixed Shield of a stainless cylinder located inside the support barrel; the Radial PSDRS Shields which are three B{sub 4}C cylinders located outside the support barrel at core level; the Lower IHX shield of a cylindrical B{sub 4}C plate located above the flow guide; and Inner and Outer IHX shields of B{sub 4}C cylinders located inside and outside of the support barrel, respectively. The DORT3.1 two-dimensional transport code was used to evaluate the KALIMER shielding design. The reactor system was represented by four axial zones, each of which was modeled in the R-Z geometry. The KAFAX-F22 library was used in the analyses, which was generated from the JEF-2.2 of OECD/NEA files for LMR applications by KAERI. The performance of the KALIMER shielding design is compared against the shielding design criteria. The results indicate that the support barrel, upper grid plate, and other reactor structures meet the maximum neutron fluence and DPA limits established in the shielding design criteria. Activities of the air effluent in the PSDRS were also evaluated and are shown to satisfy the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) limits in 10 CFR Part 20. In the future, the validation of the DORT model by a detailed three dimensional calculation such as MCNP and the justification of the current shielding design limits are needed. (author). 13 refs., 23 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl. The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA. The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%. No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease.

  6. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun; Erdos, Geza; Huang, Shaohua; Kenniston, Thomas; Falo, Louis D; Gambotto, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E) fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl). The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA). The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%). No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary safety evaluation for a medical therapy reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.L.; Neuman, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design of a passively safe reactor facility for boron neutron capture therapy has been previously described. The medical therapy reactor (MTR) has a maximum power level of 10 MW(thermal) and utilizes 45 wt% uranium in UZrH, 20 wt% 235 U enriched hydride fuel matrix with 1 wt% erbium, which is a burnable poison and provides prompt negative reactivity feedback. The facility has five beam ports for patient treatment and advanced neutron beam research and is capable of 2,000 to 10,000 treatments per year, assuming single 8h/day, 5 day/week operation. The epithermal treatment flux from the beam ports is large, enabling single-session treatment of brain cancers of <10-min duration, with minimal fast neutron and gamma contaminants. The reactor core is designed with sufficient excess reactivity to yield a core lifetime equal to a facility lifetime of 30 yr. A preliminary safety evaluation was performed using the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic code. The analysis addressed accidents in several major categories, including a pump coastdown, a loss of secondary heat sink, and a $0.5 step reactivity insertion

  8. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  9. Stokes polarimetry probe for skin lesion evaluation: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Daniel C.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmilla; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey; Lee, Tim K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the design of a prototype in-vivo Stokes polarimetry probe for skin lesion evaluation, and preliminary results from skin phantom and clinical trials of this device. The probe releases a single millisecond-long pulse from a laser diode with either linear or circular polarization. It then captures the resulting backscattered far-field polarization speckle and calculates the Stokes parameters. This probe was designed with three novel innovations in mind. First, the Stokes vector is captured quickly, using low-cost components without the use of moving parts. Second, a compact collimated laser diode was used as the light source. Third, the device and detector geometry were designed to produce and capture a uniform speckle field. In the first clinical trial of this device, measurements were taken from a variety of skin lesions, both cancerous and benign. The Stokes vector was measured and used to calculate the degree of polarization (DOP), the azimuth angle, and the ellipticity angle of the polarization ellipse for two input light polarizations. Among other findings, the DOP for circular polarized input light was consistently lower than the DOP for linear polarized input light. These findings indicate the potential for a fast and low-cost in-vivo skin cancer screening tool, and encourages the continuing development of this probe's techniques.

  10. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  11. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: alicesante@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  12. Preliminary physicochemical evaluation of Kushta tutia: A Unani Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kushta is an important solid dosage form of Unani system of medicine used to treat various ailments. Very small particle size of kushta is responsible for its rapid absorption in body leading to instant therapeutic actions. Kushta tutia (KT is one such renowned formulation used by hakims for successful management of various disorders. However, there is lack of scientific work on KT. Objectives: The present study was performed to evaluate KT physicochemically by testifying it on classical tests along with modern scientific techniques. Materials and Methods: Tutia was first detoxified as per classical literature. It was triturated with water and dried, afterwards subjected to calcination in furnace rather than cow dung cakes due to isolation of material being heated and better temperature control. Finished product was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics including preliminary tests mentioned in classical literature. Results: Floating and finger test were positive. Curd test showed no discoloration after 48 h. These findings indicate correct preparation of KT according to classical literature. Bulk density (0.96 ± 0.00 g/ml; tapped density (1.53 ± 0.00 g/ml; Hausner ratio (0.62 ± 0.00, compressibility index (37.52 ± 0.19%; loss of weight on drying (0.08 ± 0.00%; pH of 1 and 10% (5.20 ± 0.00 and 5.62 ± 0.00, respectively; total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash values 95.75 ± 0.09, 6.57 ± 0.02, and 45.02 ± 0.20%, respectively; and extractive values 0.85 ± 0.02% were reported in KT. Conclusion: Since this work has not been reported earlier, the results obtained could be considered as the standard for KT for future studies.

  13. Evaluation of the Danish mussel fishery: suggestions for an ecosystem management approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Frandsen, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    fishery are suggested. The suggested modifications include: a fishery practice where the mussel beds are thinned out when the mussels have attained good quality, and a transplantation practice of mussels from areas with a high mortality to areas with a high growth rate. Both practices intensify...

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  16. Evaluating suggestibility to additive and contradictory misinformation following explicit error detection in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mark J; Umanath, Sharda

    2018-06-01

    In 2 experiments, we assessed age-related suggestibility to additive and contradictory misinformation (i.e., remembering of false details from an external source). After reading a fictional story, participants answered questions containing misleading details that were either additive (misleading details that supplemented an original event) or contradictory (errors that changed original details). On a final test, suggestibility was greater for additive than contradictory misinformation, and older adults endorsed fewer false contradictory details than younger adults. To mitigate suggestibility in Experiment 2, participants were warned about potential errors, instructed to detect errors, or instructed to detect errors after exposure to examples of additive and contradictory details. Again, suggestibility to additive misinformation was greater than contradictory, and older adults endorsed less contradictory misinformation. Only after detection instructions with misinformation examples were younger adults able to reduce contradictory misinformation effects and reduced these effects to the level of older adults. Additive misinformation however, was immune to all warning and detection instructions. Thus, older adults were less susceptible to contradictory misinformation errors, and younger adults could match this misinformation rate when warning/detection instructions were strong. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Risk evaluation and management to reaching a suggested FSO in a steam meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosa Mejia, Z.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Steam meals are ready-to-eat meals composed of raw and semi-cooked ingredients, which get cooked while microwave heating. In this study, an Indian style meal was selected, Chicken Tandoori, from two different producers. These meals were first evaluated with the Risk Ranger® to identify the main

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars

    guide surgical treatment. The TTTG measures tibial tuberosity position relative to the axis of the femoral trochlea. A preliminary investigation of TTTG measurement was performed using the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers as a morphologically similar and homogenous substitute for dog cadavers. CT...

  19. Piloted "Well Clear" Performance Evaluation of Detect-and-Avoid Systems with Suggestive Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric R.; Santiago, Confesor; Watza, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of four prototype unmanned aircraft detect-and-avoid (DAA) display configurations, each with different informational elements driven by alerting and guidance algorithms. Sixteen unmanned aircraft pilots flew each combination of the display configurations, with half being given zero DAA surveillance sensor uncertainty and the other half experiencing errors that were comparable, and in some cases slightly better than, errors that were measured in DAA system flight tests. The displays that showed intruder alert information in altitude and heading bands had significantly fewer losses of well clear compared with alternative displays that lacked that information. This difference was significant from a statistical and practical perspective: those losses that did occur lasted for shorter periods and did not penetrate as far into the geometric "separation cylinder" as those in the non-banded displays. A modest level of DAA surveillance sensor uncertainty did not affect the proportion of losses of well clear or their severity. It is recommended that DAA traffic displays implement a band-type display in order to improve the safety of UAS operations in the National Airspace System. Finally, this report provides pilot response time distributions for responding to DAA alerts.

  20. Piloted Well Clear Performance Evaluation of Detect and Avoid Systems with Suggestive Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric; Santiago, Confesor; Watza, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Regulations to establish operational and performance requirements for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are being developed by a consortium of government, industry and academic institutions (RTCA, 2013). Those requirements will apply to the new detect-and-avoid (DAA) systems and other equipment necessary to integrate UAS with the United States (U.S) National Airspace System (NAS) and will be determined according to their contribution to the overall safety case. That safety case requires demonstration that DAA-equipped UAS collectively operating in the NAS meet an airspace safety threshold (AST). Several key gaps must be closed in order to link equipment requirements to an airspace safety case. Foremost among these is calculation of the systems risk ratio, the degree to which a particular system mitigates violation of an aircraft separation standard (FAA, 2013). The risk ratio of a DAA system, in combination with risk ratios of other collision mitigation mechanisms, will determine the overall safety of the airspace measured in terms of the number of collisions per flight hour. It is not known what the effectiveness is of a pilot-in-the-loop DAA system or even what parameters of the DAA system most improve the pilots ability to maintain separation. The relationship between the DAA system design and the overall effectiveness of the DAA system that includes the pilot, expressed as a risk ratio, must be determined before DAA operational and performance requirements can be finalized. Much research has been devoted to integrating UAS into non-segregated airspace (Dalamagkidis, 2009, Ostwald, 2007, Gillian, 2012, Hesselink, 2011, Santiago, 2015, Rorie 2015 and 2016). Several traffic displays intended for use as part of a DAA system have gone through human-in-the-loop simulation and flight-testing. Most of these evaluations were part of development programs to produce a deployable system, so it is unclear how to generalize particular aspects of those designs to general

  1. Geothermal Potential Evaluation for Northern Chile and Suggestions for New Energy Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Procesi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chile is a country rich in natural resources, and it is the world’s largest producer and exporter of copper. Mining is the main industry and is an essential part of the Chilean economy, but the country has limited indigenous fossil fuels—over 90% of the country’s fossil fuels must be imported. The electricity market in Chile comprises two main independent systems: the Northern Interconnected Power Grid (SING and the Central Interconnected Power Grid (SIC. Currently, the primary Chilean energy source is imported fossil fuels, whereas hydropower represents the main indigenous source. Other renewables such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermics are as yet poorly developed. Specifically, geothermal energy has not been exploited in Chile, but among all renewables it has the greatest potential. The transition from thermal power plants to renewable energy power plants is an important target for the Chilean Government in order to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. In this framework, the proposed study presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential for northern Chile in terms of power generation. The El Tatio, Surire, Puchuldiza, Orriputunco-Olca and Apacheta geothermal fields are considered for the analysis. The estimated electrical power is approximately 1300 MWe, and the energy supply is 10,200 GWh/year. This means that more than 30% of the SING energy could be provided from geothermal energy, reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels, saving 8 Mton/year of CO2 and supplying the mining industry, which is Chile’s primary energy user.

  2. [Evaluation of a child protecting team by an independent cooperation partner - suggestions for an optimized procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, E; Kitzelmann, I; Juen, F; Simma, B

    2013-07-01

    Cooperation between different institutions in cases of child abuse is essential for the children and their families. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cooperation between the Child Protection Team (CPT) and the Youth Welfare Agency (YWF) in an academic teaching hospital. Is the child or the family already be known to the YWF? Was the suspicion of child abuse confirmed by the CPT? What impact did the CPT's report to the YWF have on the situation of the children, their families, and the members of the YWF?Between 1999 and 2009 196 cases were investigated by the CPT; 80 of them had been reported to the YWF. In 45 of the 80 cases, structured interviews were completed by the YWF social workers. In the remaining 35, the questionnaires were not fully completed (n=15), the responsible social workers not present (n=6), or data were not available due to change of -residence (n=14).Maltreatment was suspected in 21/45 (47%), child abuse in 7 (16%), child neglect in 12 (26%), and a combination of the above in 5 (11%) children. Of the children, 26/45 (58%) were already known to the YWF before being contacted by the CPT, and in 34/45 (75%) children either institutions reported the case to the criminal prosecution authorities. Positive changes were seen in 35/45 (78%) children and in 19/45 (42%) families and the CPT's report was considered helpful for the social workers in 41/45 (91%) children.A CPT is able to correctly identify new cases of child abuse. The activity of the CPT has a positive influence on the situation of affected children, their families, and the respective staff members of the YWF. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of MapReduce for High-Performance Climate Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Daniel Q.; Schnase, John L.; Thompson, John H.; Freeman, Shawn M.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    MapReduce is an approach to high-performance analytics that may be useful to data intensive problems in climate research. It offers an analysis paradigm that uses clusters of computers and combines distributed storage of large data sets with parallel computation. We are particularly interested in the potential of MapReduce to speed up basic operations common to a wide range of analyses. In order to evaluate this potential, we are prototyping a series of canonical MapReduce operations over a test suite of observational and climate simulation datasets. Our initial focus has been on averaging operations over arbitrary spatial and temporal extents within Modern Era Retrospective- Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. Preliminary results suggest this approach can improve efficiencies within data intensive analytic workflows.

  4. Improving the Output Power Stability of a High Concentration Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitors: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The output power of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV system is very sensitive to fluctuating tracking errors and weather patterns. To help compensate this shortcoming, supercapacitors have been successfully incorporated into photovoltaic systems to improve their output power stability. This study examined the output power stability improvement of an HCPV module with a supercapacitor integrated into its circuit. Furthermore, the equivalent model of the experimental circuit is presented and analyzed. Experimental results suggest that integrating a supercapacitor into an HCPV module could improve its output power stability and further extend its acceptance angle. This paper provides preliminary data of the improvement and its evaluation method, which could be utilized for further improvements to an HCPV system.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties on low activation ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.Y.; Lechtenberg, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal has become a primary concern for the selection of materials for the structural components for fusion reactors. One way to minimize this potential environmental problem is to use structural materials in which the induced radioactivity decays quickly to levels that allow for near-surface disposal under 10CFR61 rules. The primary objective of this work is to develop low activation ferritic steels that exhibit mechanical and physical properties approximately equivalent to the HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo steels, but which only contain elements that would permit near-surface disposal under 10CFR61 after exposure to fusion neutrons. A preliminary evaluation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 9Cr-2.5W-0.3V-0.15C (GA3X) low activation ferritic steel has been performed. An optimum heat treatment condition has been defined for GA3X steel. The properties and microstructure of the quenched and tempered specimens were characterized via hardness measurement and optical metallographic observation. The hot-microhardness and ductility parameter measurements were used to estimate the tensile properties at elevated temperatures. The estimated tensile strengths of GA3X steel at elevated temperatures are comparable to both 9Cr-1Mo and the modified 9Cr-1Mo steels. These preliminary results are encouraging in that they suggest that suitable low activation alloys can be successfully produced in this ferritic alloy class

  6. Early Detection of Brain Pathology Suggestive of Early AD Using Objective Evaluation of FDG-PET Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for early detection of AD becomes critical as disease-modifying agents near the marketplace. Here, we present results from a study focused on improvement in detection of metabolic deficits related to neurodegenerative changes consistent with possible early AD with statistical evaluation of FDG-PET brain images. We followed 31 subjects at high risk or diagnosed with MCI/AD for 3 years. 15 met criteria for diagnosis of MCI, and five met criteria for AD. FDG-PET scans were completed at initiation and termination of the study. PET scans were read clinically and also evaluated objectively using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM. Using standard clinical evaluation of the FDG-PET scans, 11 subjects were detected, while 18 were detected using SPM evaluation. These preliminary results indicate that objective analyses may improve detection; however, early detection in at-risk normal subjects remains tentative. Several FDA-approved software packages are available that use objective analyses, thus the capacity exists for wider use of this method for MCI/AD.

  7. [Pathologic conditions in pregnancy. Preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of magnetic resonance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beomonte Zobel, B; Tella, S; Innacoli, M; D'Archivio, C; Cardone, G; Masciocchi, C; Gallucci, M; Cappa, F; Passariello, R

    1991-03-01

    Some authors suggested that MR imaging could represent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were normal and the newborn was healthy. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformations, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asymmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yield of MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformations and of intrauterine growth retardation.

  8. Evaluation of Financial Situation of Company DEK TECHNIK, spol. s r.o. and Suggestions for Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kuba, Štěpán

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this Bachelor thesis is to evaluate financial position of chosen company, trading in engineering. Financial analysis is used as a tool of evaluation resulting from financial statements, mainly the balance sheet, profit and loss statement and cash-flow statement from years in between 2004 and 2008. Based on obtained results is the company's financial situation evaluated and various actions are suggested, meant to be effective in successful future development of a company.

  9. Economic evaluation of integrated new technologies for health and social care: Suggestions for policy makers, users and evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, John; McMeekin, Peter; Grieve, Eleanor; Briggs, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    With an ageing population there is a move towards the use of assisted living technologies (ALTs) to provide social care and health care services, and to improve service processes. These technologies are at the forefront of the integration of health and social care. However, economic evaluations of ALTs, and indeed economic evaluations of any interventions providing both health benefits and benefits beyond health are complex. This paper considers the challenges faced by evaluators and presents a method of economic evaluation for use with interventions where traditional methods may not be suitable for informing funders and decision makers. We propose a method, combining economic evaluation techniques, that can accommodate health outcomes and outcomes beyond health through the use of a common numeraire. Such economic evaluations can benefit both the public and private sector, firstly by ensuring the efficient allocation of resources. And secondly, by providing information for individuals who, in the market for ALTs, face consumption decisions that are infrequent and for which there may be no other sources of information. We consider these issues in the welfarist, extra-welfarist and capabilities frameworks, which we link to attributes in an individual production model. This approach allows for the valuation of the health component of any such intervention and the valuation of key social care attributes and processes. Finally, we present a set of considerations for evaluators highlighting the key issues that need to be considered in this type of economic evaluation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation Of Commercial Supercapacitors For Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineste, Valery; Loup, Didier; Mattesco, Patrick; Neugnot, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    Supercapacitors are identified since years as a new technology enabling energy storage together with high power delivery capability to the system. A recent ESA study [1] led by Astrium has demonstrated the interest of these devices for space application, providing that reliability and end of life performances are demonstrated. A realistic commercial on the shelf (COTS) approach (or with limited design modification approved by potential suppliers) has been favoured (as for batteries). This paper presents preliminary test results done by Astrium on COTS supercapacitors: accelerated life tests, calendar life tests, technology analyses. Based on these results, assessment and lessons learnt are drawn in view of future exhaustive supercapacitor validation and future qualification.

  11. Preliminary phytochemicals evaluation of different solvent extracts of Gynura procumbens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Anuar, A.M.K.; Shafii Khamis

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in plants, such as vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, flowers, leaves and roots that work with nutrients and fibers to protect against various human diseases. Gynura procumbens or locally known as Sambung Nyawa is a plant species widely planted in many warmer regions. It is a perennial plant of the Asteraceae family, which may grow to 100 cm high with oval-shaped, leaves to 10 cm long and have a rather fleshy feel. Gynura procumbens has been used for the treatment of eruptive fevers, rash and kidney disease. The leaves of this plant continue to be used as folk medicine to control diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. The aim of this research was to evaluate the presence of phytochemicals constituents in different solvent extracts of Gynura procumbens leaves. Qualitative phytochemicals screening of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were carried out for the detection of terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, lipids, coumarin, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. The phytochemicals screening showed positive results for terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, lipids, coumarin and anthraquinones in methanol and water extracts of Gynura procumbens. The diversity of phytochemicals present suggests that Gynura procumbens leaves could serve as a source of useful drugs. (author)

  12. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  13. Hypnosis, suggestions, and altered states of consciousness: experimental evaluation of the new cognitive-behavioral theory and the traditional trance-state theory of "hypnosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T X; Wilson, S C

    1977-10-07

    Sixty-six subjects were tested on a new scale for evaluating "hypnotic-like" experiences (The Creative Imagination Scale), which includes ten standardized test-suggestions (e.g. suggestions for arm heaviness, finger anesthesia, time distortion, and age regression). The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (Think-With Instructions, trance induction, and Control), with 22 subjects to each group. The new Cognitive-Behavioral Theory predicted that subjects exposed to preliminary instructions designed to demonstrate how to think and imagine along with the suggested themes (Think-With Instructions) would be more responsive to test-suggestions for anesthesia, time distortion, age regression, and so on, than subjects exposed to a trance-induction procedure. On the other hand, the traditional Trance State Theory predicted that a trance induction would be more effective than Think-With Instructions in enhancing responses to such suggestions. Subjects exposed to the Think-With Instructions obtained significantly higher scores on the test-suggestions than those exposed either to the traditional trance-induction procedure or to the control treatment. Scores of subjects who received the trance-induction procedure were not significantly different from those of the subjects who received the control treatment. The results thus supported the new Cognitive-Behavioral Theory and contradicted the traditional Trance State Theory of hypnosis. Two recent experiments, by De Stefano and by Katz, confirmed the above experimental results and offered further support for the Cognitive-Behavioral Theory. In both recent experiments, subjects randomly assigned to a "Think-With Instructions" treatment were more responsive to test-suggestions than those randomly assigned to a traditional trance-induction treatment.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of DOE-NEPA monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to perform a preliminary investigation of the problems involved in designing a Department of Energy-National Environmental Policy Act (DOE-NEPA) compliance monitoring system. The requirement for such a system arose from the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ-NEPA regulation effective July 30, 1979. The CEQ regulation uses the term monitoring to denote any method by which the lead agency can assure implementation of Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD) environmental mitigation commitments. Monitoring is required for mitigation measures in important cases and may be carried out at agency discretion for all other cases. No definition of important is given in the regulation. The NEPA intent is that all environmental information and planning be incorporated into the decision process as early as possible. In keeping with this concept, any monitoring or enforcement program for a mitigation measure is expected to be adopted and briefly and concisely described in the ROD. Information is presented in four chapters entitled: federal and state compliance monitoring surveys; EIS information analysis; enforcement mechanisms; and administrative practice

  15. MR evaluation of renal function. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beomonte Zobel, B; Giammarile, F; Matarese, A; Gallucci, M; Mascicchi, C; Passariello, R; Di Renzi, P; Splendiani, G; Casciani, C U

    1988-01-01

    The amount of functioning renal parenchyma can be estimated by MRI by considering the ratio between the mean intensities of cortical and medullar zones of the kidney. Fifty-six patients and 5 healthy volunteers were studied by MRI in our department. Scanning was performed with a superconductive magnet system operating at 0.5 Tesla. Pulse sequence was Spin-Echo with TR 300/TE 30 ms. The cortimedullary ratio (CMR) and differentiation (CMD) were standardized and related with creatine blood levels. CMR data ranged from 1.05 to 3.00, while CMD data ranged from 0.04 to 0.50. High values (good cortico-medullary contrast) were observed in subjects with normal renal function. Patients with renal diseases had low CMR and CMD, proportionally to the degree of renal failure, as proved by laboratory findings. Our preliminary study seems to demonstrate that MRI is an useful technique in the follow-up of patients with chronic renal disease. 19 refs.

  16. Description and preliminary evaluation of a diabetes technology simulation course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca D; Bailey, Marilyn; Boyle, Mary E; Seifert, Karen M; Cortez, Karla Y; Baker, Leslie J; Hovan, Michael J; Stepanek, Jan; Cook, Curtiss B

    2013-11-01

    We aim to provide data on a diabetes technology simulation course (DTSC) that instructs internal medicine residents in the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) devices. The DTSC was implemented during calendar year 2012 and conducted in the institution's simulation center. It consisted of a set of prerequisites, a practicum, and completion of a web-based inpatient CSII-ordering simulation. DTSC participants included only those residents in the outpatient endocrinology rotation. Questionnaires were used to determine whether course objectives were met and to assess the satisfaction of residents with the course. Questionnaires were also administered before and after the endocrine rotation to gauge improvement in familiarity with CSII and CGMS technologies. During the first year, 12 of 12 residents in the outpatient endocrinology rotation completed the DTSC. Residents reported that the course objectives were fully met. The mean satisfaction score with the course ranged from 4.0 to 4.9 (maximum, 5), with most variables rated above 4.5. Self-reported familiarity with the operation of CSII and CGMS devices increased significantly in the postrotation survey compared with that on the prerotation survey (both p technologies. In light of these preliminary findings, the course will continue to be offered, with further data accrual. Future work will involve piloting the DTSC approach among other types of providers, such as residents in other specialties or inpatient nursing staff. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Preliminary safety evaluation, based on initial site investigation data. Planning document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan

    2002-12-01

    This report is a planning document for the preliminary safety evaluations (PSE) to be carried out at the end of the initial stage of SKBs ongoing site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The main purposes of the evaluations are to determine whether earlier judgements of the suitability of the candidate area for a deep repository with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of borehole data and to provide feed-back to continued site investigations and site specific repository design. The preliminary safety evaluations will be carried out by a safety assessment group, based on a site model, being part of a site description, provided by a site modelling group and a repository layout within that model suggested by a repository engineering group. The site model contains the geometric features of the site as well as properties of the host rock. Several alternative interpretations of the site data will likely be suggested. Also the biosphere is included in the site model. A first task for the PSE will be to compare the rock properties described in the site model to previously established criteria for a suitable host rock. This report gives an example of such a comparison. In order to provide more detailed feedback, a number of thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical analyses of the site will also be included in the evaluation. The selection of analyses is derived from the set of geosphere and biosphere analyses preliminarily planned for the comprehensive safety assessment named SR-SITE, which will be based on a complete site investigation. The selection is dictated primarily by the expected feedback to continued site investigations and by the availability of data after the PSE. The repository engineering group will consider several safety related factors in suggesting a repository layout: Thermal calculations will be made to determine a minimum distance between canisters avoiding canister surface temperatures above 100 deg C

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation for CSR1000 with passive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Pan; Gou, Junli; Shan, Jianqiang; Zhang, Bo; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The basic information of a Chinese SCWR concept CSR1000 is introduced. • An innovative passive safety system is proposed for CSR1000. • 6 Transients and 3 accidents are analysed with system code SCTRAN. • The passive safety systems greatly mitigate the consequences of these incidents. • The inherent safety of CSR1000 is enhanced. - Abstract: This paper describes the preliminary safety analysis of the Chinese Supercritical water cooled Reactor (CSR1000), which is proposed by Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC). The two-pass core design applied to CSR1000 decreases the fuel cladding temperature and flattens the power distribution of the core at normal operation condition. Each fuel assembly is made up of four sub-assemblies with downward-flow water rods, which is favorable to the core cooling during abnormal conditions due to the large water inventory of the water rods. Additionally, a passive safety system is proposed for CSR1000 to increase the safety reliability at abnormal conditions. In this paper, accidents of “pump seizure”, “loss of coolant flow accidents (LOFA)”, “core depressurization”, as well as some typical transients are analysed with code SCTRAN, which is a one-dimensional safety analysis code for SCWRs. The results indicate that the maximum cladding surface temperatures (MCST), which is the most important safety criterion, of the both passes in the mentioned incidents are all below the safety criterion by a large margin. The sensitivity analyses of the delay time of RCPs trip in “loss of offsite power” and the delay time of RMT actuation in “loss of coolant flowrate” were also included in this paper. The analyses have shown that the core design of CSR1000 is feasible and the proposed passive safety system is capable of mitigating the consequences of the selected abnormalities

  19. A preliminary safety evaluation of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac Julius; Mahmood, Seidu Abdulai; Awortwe, Charles; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo

    2014-01-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMGH) is used worldwide as an antimicrobial agent with broad spectra of activity and also for treating pool water. This non-GLP preliminary study aims at investigating in a subchronic toxicity study possible effects at supra-optimal doses of this biocide. Both acute and subchronic toxicity studies were conducted. LD(50) for PHMGH was estimated to be 600 mg/kg (ie LC(50) 2 ml of 7.5% solution) when administered as a single dose by gavage via a stomach tube in accordance with the expected route of administration. The acute studies showed that the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of 600 mg/kg was accompanied by signs of neurotoxicity. Haematological and biochemical parameters of subchronic toxicity studies were non-significant. Subchronic doses of 0.006 mg/kg, 0.012 mg/kg and 0.036 mg/kg were administered. 20% of the animals at a dose of 0.006 mg/kg and 0.036 mg/kg showed mild degrees of hydropic changes in proximal tubules while 10% of animals at all the doses had their liver tissues showing local areas of mild pericentral hepatocytes degeneration. PHMGH did not produce any major organ defect with regard to the kidney, heart, and liver. The LD(50) was much higher than the recommended dosage by a factor of about 50,000. The recommended residual concentration is far less than the median lethal dose using rats as test subjects. These results could serve as a basis for investigating the full toxicological profile if it is to be used for the treatment of raw water to make it potable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of solution-mining intrusion into a salt-dome repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    This report is the product of the work of an ONWI task force to evaluate inadvertant human intrusion into a salt dome repository by solution mining. It summarizes the work in the following areas: a general review of the levels of defense that could reduce both the likelihood and potential consequences of human intrusion into a salt dome repository; evaluation of a hypothetical intrusion scenario and its consequences; recommendation for further studies. The conclusions of this task force report can be summarized as follows: (1) it is not possible at present to establish with certainty that solution mining is credible as a human-intrusion event. The likelihood of such an intrusion will depend on the effectiveness of the preventive measures; (2) an example analysis based on the realistic approach is presented in this report; it concluded that the radiological consequences are strongly dependent upon the mode of radionuclide release from the waste form, time after emplacement, package design, impurities in the host salt, the amount of a repository intercepted, the solution mining cavity form, the length of time over which solution mining occurs, the proportion of contaminated salt source for human consumption compared to other sources, and the method of salt purification for culinary purposes; (3) worst case scenarios done by other studies suggest considerable potential for exposures to man while preliminary evaluations of more realistic cases suggest significantly reduced potential consequences. Mathematical model applications to process systems, guided by more advanced assumptions about human intrusion into geomedia, will shed more light on the potential for concerns and the degree to which mitigative measures will be required

  1. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Pathologic conditions in pregnancy; Preliminary evaluation of MR efficacy. Condizioni patologiche nella gravidanza; Valutazioni preliminari sull'efficacia della Risonanza Magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beomonte Zobel, B; Tella, S; Innacoli, M; D' Archivio, C; Cardone, G; Masciocchi, C; Gallucci, M; Passariello, R [L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Cattedra di Radiologia; Cappa, F [L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Clinica Ostetrica-Ginecologica

    1991-01-01

    Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of hepatoprotective potential of polyherbal formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: All of our findings suggest that PHF could protect the liver cells from CCl4 and ndash;induced liver damages and the mechanism may be through the anti and ndash;oxidative effect of PHF. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 118-124

  4. A Preliminary Evaluation of Efforts to Diversify Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Brea M.; D'Santiago-Eastman, Verenice

    2018-01-01

    Underrepresentation of individuals from diverse backgrounds in the field of psychology is a well-documented concern, as identified gaps directly impact individuals served (Rogers & Molina, 2006; Zhang & Katsiyannis, 2002). This pilot examination evaluated a task force that sought to address this deficit through targeting the recruitment…

  5. Preliminary evaluation of some forest trees for cocoa cultivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. campanulata would therefore be a suitable shade tree species for establishing young cocoa farms. Further evaluation of the growth pattern, shade provision and mineralization of the litter from the species continues. JOURNAL OF THE GHANA SCIENCE ASSOCIATION Volume 1 Number 1, July (1998) pp. 141-150 ...

  6. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  7. (11)C-labeling and preliminary evaluation of vortioxetine as a PET radioligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Valdemar L; Hansen, Hanne D; Herth, Matthias M

    2014-01-01

    . Preliminary evaluation of [(11)C]vortioxetine in a Danish Landrace pig showed rapid brain uptake and brain distribution in accordance with the pharmacological profile, all though an unexpected high binding in cerebellum was also observed. [(11)C]vortioxetine displayed slow tracer kinetics with peak uptake...

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Fast ForWord-Language as an Adjuvant Treatment in Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Marc E.; Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Gajewski, Byron J.; Popescu, Mihai; Lewine, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L) is designed to enhance children's processing of auditory-verbal signals and, thus, their ability to learn language. As a preliminary evaluation of this claim, we examined the effects of a 5-week course of FFW-L as an adjuvant treatment with a subsequent 5-week conventional narrative-based language…

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation for the spent nuclear fuel project`s cold vacuum drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) considers only the Cold Vacuum Drying System (CVDS) facility and its mission as it relates to the integrated process strategy (WHC 1995). The purpose of the PSE is to identify those CBDS design functions that may require safety- class and safety-significant accident prevention and mitigation features.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    to the loudspeakers. In this paper we present a follow up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when these conditions are violated. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeakers arrangements is described. Preliminary measurement results are presented for loudspeakers placed...

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  12. Evaluation of the preliminary auditory profile test battery in an international multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, T.E.M.; Kollmeier, B.; Vormann, M.; Lijzenga, J.; Houtgast, T.; Hallgren, M.; Larsby, B.; Athalye, S.P.; Lutman, M.E.; Dreschler, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the composition and international multi-centre evaluation of a battery of tests termed the preliminary auditory profile. It includes measures of loudness perception, listening effort, speech perception, spectral and temporal resolution, spatial hearing, self-reported

  13. Preliminary evaluation of alterant geophysical tomography in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of alterant geophysical tomography to delineate flow paths in a welded tuff rock mass has been preliminarily evaluated based on the results of a field experiment. Electromagnetic measurements were made before, during and after a water-based, dye tracer flowed through the rock mass. Alterant geophysical tomographs were generated and compared with independent evidence - borescope logs, neutron logs and dyed rock samples. Anomalies present in the tomograph match the location and orientation of fractures mapped with a borescope. The location of tracer-stained fractures coincides with the location of some image anomalies; other geophysical anomalies exist where tracer-stained fractures were not observed, perhaps due to poor core recovery. Additional drilling to locate stained flow paths and other experiments are planned so that the applicability of the technique can be further evaluated

  14. Product meaning, affective use evaluation, and transfer : a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Helfenstein, Sacha

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a) the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b) the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Althou...

  15. [Results evaluation in cervical vertigo kinesitherapy--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielińska, Marzena; Olszewski, Jurek

    2009-09-01

    The work aimed at analyzing results of kinesitherapeutic procedures in patients with cervical vertigo as well as evaluating a mobility range of the cervical spine. The study was conducted on 23 people, including 17 women and 6 men suffering from cervical vertigo, at the age of 23-73 (the average age of 49.5). All the patients had an individually selected cycle of kinesitherapeutic exercises through the period of 2 months. The objective efficiency evaluation of the applied therapy was made on the grounds of the videonystagmographic examination (VNG). Additionally, the range of active mobility of the cervical spine was analyzed and the evaluation of vertigo according to Silvoniemi's criteria was performed. After a 2-month therapy 4 patients (17.4%) out of the examined material showed a total lack of vertigo, 15 patients (65.2%) demonstrated a meaningful decrease in the vertigo intensity, also in the frequency of their occurrence in 14 cases (60.8%). Only 3 patients did not show any decrease in vertigo whereas in 1 patient a slight increase in the intensity was indicated. On the basis of a subjective evaluation of the vertigo increase according to the 5-stage Silvoniemi's scale it was proved that a mean point assessment claimed by the patients at the beginning of the therapy amounts to 3.0 points whereas after the therapy it was as follows: 1.43 pt after 2 weeks, 1.17 pt after 1 month and 1.13 pt after 2 months of kinesitherapy. It is extremely difficult to fully eliminate the symptoms of cervical vertigo (in the studied material in 4 cases--17.3%) because the causes of their occurrence, which are connected with excessive tension and degeneration in the cervical spine, cannot usually be eradicated. Additionally, as a diagnostic means, the videonystagmographic examination (VNG) accompanied by the positioning tests and the cervical rotation test facilitates precise and objective monitoring of the progress in treatment and rehabilitation of vertigo.

  16. Development and preliminary analyses of material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    Material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle has been developed using ORIGEN-2 code as basic engine. This model has feature of: It can treat more than 1000 nuclides including minor actinides and fission products. It has flexibility of modeling and graph output using a engineering work station. I made preliminary calculation of LWR fuel high burnup effect (reloading fuel average burnup of 60 GWd/t) on nuclear fuel cycle. The preliminary calculation shows LWR fuel high burnup has much effect on Japanese Pu balance problem. (author)

  17. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the air pollution in 2010; Luftbelastungssituation 2010. Vorlaeufige Auswertung. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-01-25

    In the contribution under consideration, the Federal Office for Environment Protection (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) evaluates the situation of air pollution in the year 2010 in comparison to the previous years. The evaluation is based on preliminary data and considers the pollutants fine dust (PM{sub 1}0), nitrogen dioxide and ozone. In 2010, these pollutants exceed the up-to-date valid limiting values for the protection of the human health.

  19. Restoring accommodation: surgical technique and preliminary evaluation in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahi, Hassan; Chapon, Pascal F.; Hamaoui, Marie; Lee, William E.; Holden, Brien; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose. To evaluate an innovative surgical technique for phaco-ersatz, a cataract surgery designed to restore accommodation. Techniques for very small capsulorhexis as well as the refilling procedure were developed. This study evaluates the feasibility and reproducibility of the surgical technique. Methods. The right eye of 8 NZW rabbits (~ 2 Kg) were operated following the ARVO Statements for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The surgery is begun by making a small peripheral capsulorhexis of about 1 mm using. The lens content is then removed. The lens is then refilled with a novel in situ polymerizable gel and the corneal incision is closed using one 10/0 Nylon interrupted stitch. Results. The capsulorhexis technique was succesfully performed and reproducible in all animals. The average size of the capsulorhexis opening was 1. 2 mm (+/-0.14). Lens material removal and refilling of the capsular bag with an in situ polymerizable material was also performed in each trial study. Conclusion. This surgical technique seemed feasible and reproducible.

  20. National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    federal, state, and local initiatives. For example, the use of computerized audits has increased, cooling and baseload measures have been added, weatherization approaches tailored to the unique construction characteristics of mobile homes have been developed, the weatherization of large multifamily buildings has expanded and become more sophisticated, the flexibility to improve 'energy-related' health and safety has been provided, and leveraging with utilities, other state programs, and owners of large multifamily buildings has increased considerably. The Department of Energy tasked ORNL with planning the new evaluation in light of its experience in conducting the previous national evaluation and the metaevaluations. This preliminary evaluation plan, developed by ORNL, documents how the new national evaluation will be performed. In the remaining portion of this section, the purpose and fundamental questions the evaluation will address are identified and how these questions were derived is discussed.

  1. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  2. Product Meaning, Affective Use Evaluation, and Transfer: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Helfenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Although the failure experience essentially caused frustration, this reaction varied substantially among consumers depending on product meaning, age, and gender. The results also showed that the emotion dimensions of pleasure, arousal, and dominance were affected in distinct ways, and that, in addition to the consumer variables, transfer was mainly dependent on the brand relation. Nevertheless, user frustration did not cause general brand aversion, indicating that poor designs do not unconditionally threaten the customer relationship.

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Nonlinear Effects on TCA Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Alan E.; Hartwich, Peter M.; Baker, Myles L.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of nonlinear aerodynamics, especially at high angles-of-attack with leading-edge separation, on the TCA flutter properties at transonic speeds. In order to achieve that objective, flutter simulations with Navier-Stokes CFD must be performed. To this end, time-marching Navier-Stokes solutions are computed for the TCA wing/body configuration at high angles-of-attack in transonic flight regimes. The approach is to perform non-linear flutter calculations on the TCA at two angles-of-attack, the first one being a case with attached flow (a=2.8 degrees) and the second one being a high angle-of-attack case with a wing leading edge vortex (a=12.11 degrees). Comparisons of the resulting histories and frequency damping information for both angles-of-attack will evaluate the impact of high-alpha aerodynamics on flutter.

  4. A preliminary evaluation of a reusable digital sterilization indicator prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaiah, R; Griggs, J; D'Onofrio, M

    2014-09-01

    Sterilization of critical and semicritical instruments used in patient care must undergo a terminal process of sterilization. Use of chemical and physical indicators are important in providing information on the sterilizer's performance during each cycle. Regular and periodic monitoring of sterilizers using biological indicators is necessary in periodically validating performance of sterilizers. Data loggers or independent digital parametric indicators are innovative devices that provide more information than various classes chemical indicators. In this study we evaluated a prototype of an independent digital parametric indicator's use in autoclaves. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an independent digital indicator/data logger prototype (DS1922F) that could be used for multiple cycles within an autoclave.MG Materials and methods: Three batches of the DS1922F (150 samples) were used in this study that was conducted in a series. The first batch was challenged with 300 sterilization cycles within an autoclave and the data loggers evaluated to study failures and the reason for failure, make corrections and improve the prototype design. After changes made based on studying the first batch, the second batch of the prototype (150 samples) were challenged once again with 300 sterilization cycles within an autoclave and failure studied again in further improvement of the prototype. The final batch (3rd batch) of the prototype (150 samples) was challenged again but with 600 cycles to see how long they would last. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis analyses of all three batches was conducted (α = 0.05) and failed samples qualitatively studied in understanding the variables involved in the failure of the prototype, and in improving quality. Each tested batch provided crucial information on device failure and helped in improvement of the prototype. Mean lifetime survival of the final batch (Batch 3) of prototype was 498 (480, 516) sterilization cycles

  5. Evaluating fatigue in lupus-prone mice: preliminary assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Allison; Larson, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a debilitating condition suffered by many as the result of chronic disease, yet relatively little is known about its biological basis or how to effectively manage its effects. This study sought to evaluate chronic fatigue by using lupus-prone mice and testing them at three different time periods. Lupus-prone mice were chosen because fatigue affects over half of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Eleven MLR⁺/(+) (genetic controls) and twelve MLR/MpJ-Fas/J (MRL/lpr; lupus-prone) mice were tested three times: once at 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age. All mice were subjected to a variety of behavioral tests including: forced swim, post-swim grooming, running wheel, and sucrose consumption; five of the MLR⁺/(+) and five of the MLR/lpr mice were also tested on a fixed ratio-25 operant conditioning task. MRL/lpr mice showed more peripheral symptoms of lupus than controls, particularly lymphadenopathy and proteinuria. Lupus mice spent more time floating during the forced swim test and traveled less distance in the running wheel at each testing period. There were no differences between groups in post-swim grooming or in number of reinforcers earned in the operant conditioning task indicating the behavioral changes were not likely due simply to muscle weakness or motivation. Correlations between performance in the running wheel, forced swim test and sucrose consumption were conducted and distance traveled in the running wheel was consistently negatively correlated with time spent floating. Based on these data, we conclude that the lupus-prone mice were experiencing chronic fatigue and that running wheel activity and floating during a forced swim test can be used to evaluate fatigue, although these data cannot rule out the possibility that both fatigue and a depressive-like state were mediating these effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Podoplanin Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using RNAscope and Immunohistochemistry - A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioca, Andreea; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Ceausu, Raluca Amalia; Tarlui, Valeria; Toma, Alina; Marin, Irina; Raica, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed in a variety of human cancer types, and contributes to tumor progression. Our goal was to evaluate PDPN expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RNAscope in situ hybridization. Twenty patients with HCC who underwent partial hepatectomy with curative intent were retrospectively analyzed. IHC gave positive results in 11 cases, while RNAscope assay for PDPN detected amplification in 16 cases. A significant association was noted between PDPN protein expression and histological tumor grade (p=0.036). Four cases that had negative PDPN results by RNAscope were also negative by IHC, while the remaining five cases with negative results by IHC were positive by RNAscope. A positive relationship was found between PDPN mRNA protein expression (p<0.001). Our preliminary results suggest that PDPN contributes to the malignant potential of HCC. RNAscope proved to be a more sensitive and reliable method than IHC in PDPN detection. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of PTSD Coach, a smartphone app for post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eric; Greene, Carolyn; Hoffman, Julia; Nguyen, Tam; Wald, Laura; Schmidt, Janet; Ramsey, Kelly M; Ruzek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    PTSD Coach is a mobile application (app) designed to help individuals who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms better understand and self-manage their symptoms. It has wide-scale use (over 130,000 downloads in 78 countries) and very favorable reviews but has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this study examines user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness, and usage patterns of PTSD Coach in a sample of 45 veterans receiving PTSD treatment. After using PTSD Coach for several days, participants completed a survey of satisfaction and perceived helpfulness and focus groups exploring app use and benefit from use. Data indicate that participants were very satisfied with PTSD Coach and perceived it as being moderately to very helpful with their PTSD symptoms. Analysis of focus group data resulted in several categories of app use: to manage acute distress and PTSD symptoms, at scheduled times, and to help with sleep. These findings offer preliminary support for the acceptability and perceived helpfulness of PTSD Coach and suggest that it has potential to be an effective self-management tool for PTSD. Although promising, future research is required to validate this, given study limitations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik

    2016-01-01

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of 40 K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept

  9. Preliminary evaluation of STRIDE programme in primary schools of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjeet, K; Wan Rozita, W M; How, T B; Santhana Raj, L; Baharudin, Omar

    2007-12-01

    The Students' Resilience and Interpersonal Skills Development Education (STRIDE) is a preventive drug education programme. The rational of this programme is that preventive drug education has to begin early in age, before the development of social attitudes and behaviour of students. A pre and a post intervention surveys were performed to evaluate the impact of this programme. Nine schools from three states were identified to participate in the intervention. These schools were selected based on their locations in high-drug-use areas (where the prevalence of drug use exceeds 0.5% of the student population). The new intervention curriculum was put into practice for three months in the nine schools. The overall scores obtained by each respondent to assess their knowledge on drugs and its implications were analysed. The results showed that the programme made a positive impact from the pre to post intervention programme by using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (p < 0.05). A high percentage of the questions showed significant evidence through the McNemar matched pair Chi-Squared test with Bonferonni correction that there were positive shifts in the answers by comparing the pre and post intervention results (p < 0.05). Recommendations have been discussed with the Ministry of Education to integrate this programme into the national primary school curriculum.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of the Diverse Protection System in PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Taekyeong; Chang, Won-Pyo; Seong, Seung Hwan; Ahn, Sang June; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chiwoong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Ha, Kwi-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) is defined as an abnormal transient with failure of scram actuation. It is one of the “worst case” accident based on the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC). Consideration frequently motivates the NRC to take regulatory action. An evaluation of this event is also a general requirement due to a potential safety issue that may lead to core damage under postulated condition. This paper estimated the set-points sensitivity test of the diverse protection system (DPS) related with unprotected events of the prototype generation-IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) including unprotected transient over power (UTOP) and unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) by MARS-LMR code. The variation of the power to flow (P/Q) of UTOP and ULOF is illustrated to conduct the set-points sensitivity test of DPS. Also we estimated the effect of the DPS introduction after selecting UTOP, ULOF event as the unprotected events which are predicted to aggravate the events. This paper estimated the set-points sensitivity test of DPS related with unprotected events of PGSFR including UTOP and ULOF by MARS-LMR code. The results indicated that there is no significant difference in both RPS and DPS about the initiating time of each event. Therefore, this study found that the urgent manage for safety of the reactor when RPS failed is possible by the applying DPS

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of the Diverse Protection System in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Taekyeong; Chang, Won-Pyo; Seong, Seung Hwan; Ahn, Sang June; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chiwoong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Ha, Kwi-Seok [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) is defined as an abnormal transient with failure of scram actuation. It is one of the “worst case” accident based on the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC). Consideration frequently motivates the NRC to take regulatory action. An evaluation of this event is also a general requirement due to a potential safety issue that may lead to core damage under postulated condition. This paper estimated the set-points sensitivity test of the diverse protection system (DPS) related with unprotected events of the prototype generation-IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) including unprotected transient over power (UTOP) and unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) by MARS-LMR code. The variation of the power to flow (P/Q) of UTOP and ULOF is illustrated to conduct the set-points sensitivity test of DPS. Also we estimated the effect of the DPS introduction after selecting UTOP, ULOF event as the unprotected events which are predicted to aggravate the events. This paper estimated the set-points sensitivity test of DPS related with unprotected events of PGSFR including UTOP and ULOF by MARS-LMR code. The results indicated that there is no significant difference in both RPS and DPS about the initiating time of each event. Therefore, this study found that the urgent manage for safety of the reactor when RPS failed is possible by the applying DPS.

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Potassium Extraction from Bamboo Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadhi Tjokorde W.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potentially economical fuel crop that has not been utilized at a substantial extent for energy generation in Indonesia. As a thermal conversion waste, bamboo ash is particularly interesting due to its high potassium content. This paper discusses the determination of several key parameters of a simple batchwise extraction process to recover potassium in the form of weak solution from bamboo ash. To produce the ash, black bamboo (Gigantochloa atroviolaceae is charred in a fixed bed combustor. The bamboo char is ground and ashed at 500 °C in an electric furnace. The ash yield is 3.3 %-mass relative to as-received ash, with an ash K2O content of 12.9 %-mass. The ash is ground until passing 100-mesh standard sieve, and extracted by deionized water on a 2-stage laboratory-scale batchwise extractor battery. Process variables include extractror battery configuration (counter-current and co-current, temperature (nominal setting at 45-80 °C, and contact period of 1-6 hours. The concentration of extracted K2O increases asymptotically with temperature and contact time. Counter-current extraction yields more than twice the extract K2O concentration compared to cross-current extraction. The optimum conditions for the counter-current extraction is identified as a temperature of 78 °C and contact time of 4 hours, resulting in a 0.70 %-mass K2O solution concentration. Spot sampling of commercial liquid fertilizer products in Indonesia indicates an equivalent K2O content of 0.08-13.6 %-mass, suggesting the potential of the bamboo ash extract as an intermediate for fertilizer product.

  13. Evaluation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) using item response theory reveals limitations and suggests revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alexander C; Sutherland, Jason M; Liu, Guiping; Crump, R Trafford; Karimuddin, Ahmer A

    2018-06-01

    The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) is a commonly used patient-reported outcome measure for fecal incontinence, often used in clinical trials, yet has not been validated in English since its initial development. This study uses modern methods to thoroughly evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the FIQL and its potential for differential functioning by gender. This study analyzed prospectively collected patient-reported outcome data from a sample of patients prior to colorectal surgery. Patients were recruited from 14 general and colorectal surgeons in Vancouver Coastal Health hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity. Item response theory was used to evaluate test reliability, describe item-level characteristics, identify local item dependence, and test for differential functioning by gender. 236 patients were included for analysis, with mean age 58 and approximately half female. Factor analysis failed to identify the lifestyle, coping, depression, and embarrassment domains, suggesting lack of construct validity. Items demonstrated low difficulty, indicating that the test has the highest reliability among individuals who have low quality of life. Five items are suggested for removal or replacement. Differential test functioning was minimal. This study has identified specific improvements that can be made to each domain of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale and to the instrument overall. Formatting, scoring, and instructions may be simplified, and items with higher difficulty developed. The lifestyle domain can be used as is. The embarrassment domain should be significantly revised before use.

  14. Analysis for preliminary evaluation of discrete fracture flow and large-scale permeability in sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.Y.; Lai, C.H.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-05-01

    Conceptual models for sedimentary rock settings that could be used in future evaluation and suitability studies are being examined through the DOE Repository Technology Program. One area of concern for the hydrologic aspects of these models is discrete fracture flow analysis as related to the estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume, evaluation of the appropriateness of continuum assumptions and estimation of the large-scale permeabilities of sedimentary rocks. A basis for preliminary analysis of flow in fracture systems of the types that might be expected to occur in low permeability sedimentary rocks is presented. The approach used involves numerical modeling of discrete fracture flow for the configuration of a large-scale hydrologic field test directed at estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume and large-scale permeability. Analysis of fracture data on the basis of this configuration is expected to provide a preliminary indication of the scale at which continuum assumptions can be made

  15. The influence of evaluation recommendations on instrumental and conceptual uses: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Isabelle; Whynot, Jane

    2018-06-01

    Evaluation recommendations are sometimes included in evaluation reports to highlight specific actions to be taken to improve a program or to make other changes to its operational context. This preliminary study sought to examine evaluation recommendations drawn from 25 evaluation reports published by Canadian federal government departments and agencies, in order to examine the evaluation issues covered and the focus of the recommendations. Our results show that in keeping with policy requirements, the evaluation recommendations focused on program relevance, effectiveness and efficiency and economy. Furthermore, a significant number of recommendations also focused on the implementation of more rigorous performance measurement strategies. The focus of the recommendations did not vary by publication date, recommendation type, and organizational sector. The findings also show that for the most part, the management responses produced as part of the broader evaluation process support the recommendations included in the report and identify specific timelines for implementation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Fadda, Maria Elisabetta; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica; Cosentino, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. ...

  17. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of {sup 40}K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept.

  18. Evaluation of Liver Stiffness After Radioembolization by Real-Time ShearWave™ Elastography: Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bas, Ahmet, E-mail: dr.ahmetbas@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Samanci, Cesur, E-mail: cesursamanci@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Gulsen, Fatih, E-mail: drfgulsen@yahoo.com; Cantasdemir, Murat, E-mail: cantasdemir@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kabasakal, Levent, E-mail: lkabasakal@tsnm.org [Istanbul University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kantarci, Fatih, E-mail: fatihkan@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Numan, Furuzan, E-mail: f.numan@superonline.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of ShearWave™ elastography (SWE) for the assessment of liver fibrosis after radioembolization (RE) in patients with liver malignancies.Materials and MethodsWe prospectively examined the effects of SWE before and after RE in 17 adult patients, from June 2012 to September 2013. All patients underwent SWE within 1 month before and 3 months (96.3 ± 22.9 days) after RE. Measurements were taken in segments III, IV, V, and VI (lateral/medial left lobe and anterior/posterior right lobe, respectively). Liver stiffness was studied in the 39 treated segments.ResultsThe mean stiffness of liver tissue according to the pre-RE SWE measurements was not different from the post-RE SWE measurements in the segments that did not undergo RE. Conversely, segments treated with RE were significantly stiffer according to the post-RE SWE measurements (mean SWE 17.4 kPa) than according to the baseline measurements (7.0 kPa) (p < 0.001). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and preexisting infection with hepatitis B and C viruses had higher pre-embolization stiffness, and the post-embolization stiffness of the treated segments in these patients was higher than that in the remainder of the study population.ConclusionThese data suggest that SWE measurements of liver stiffness increase as early as the third month after RE. SWE could be used as a noninvasive complementary imaging method for preliminary assessment of liver fibrosis before and after RE.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of beta-spodumene as a fusion reactor structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Schmunk, R.E.; Henslee, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    Beta-spodumene was investigated as a candidate material for use in fusion reactor environments. Properties which support the use of beta-spodumene include good thermal shock resistance, a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, a low-Z composition which would result in minimum impact on the plasma, and flexibility in fabrication processes. Specimens were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a fluence of 5.3 x 10 22 n/m 2 , E > MeV, and 4.9 x 10 23 n/m 2 thermal fluence in order to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the impact of irradiation on the material. Preliminary data indicate that the mechanical properties of beta-spodumene are little affected by irradiation. Gas production and release have also been investigated. (orig.)

  20. Interactive Block Games for Assessing Children's Cognitive Skills: Design and Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiju Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents design and results from preliminary evaluation of Tangible Geometric Games (TAG-Games for cognitive assessment in young children. The TAG-Games technology employs a set of sensor-integrated cube blocks, called SIG-Blocks, and graphical user interfaces for test administration and real-time performance monitoring. TAG-Games were administered to children from 4 to 8 years of age for evaluating preliminary efficacy of this new technology-based approach.Methods: Five different sets of SIG-Blocks comprised of geometric shapes, segmented human faces, segmented animal faces, emoticons, and colors, were used for three types of TAG-Games, including Assembly, Shape Matching, and Sequence Memory. Computational task difficulty measures were defined for each game and used to generate items with varying difficulty. For preliminary evaluation, TAG-Games were tested on 40 children. To explore the clinical utility of the information assessed by TAG-Games, three subtests of the age-appropriate Wechsler tests (i.e., Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Concept were also administered.Results: Internal consistency of TAG-Games was evaluated by the split-half reliability test. Weak to moderate correlations between Assembly and Block Design, Shape Matching and Matrix Reasoning, and Sequence Memory and Picture Concept were found. The computational measure of task complexity for each TAG-Game showed a significant correlation with participants' performance. In addition, age-correlations on TAG-Game scores were found, implying its potential use for assessing children's cognitive skills autonomously.

  1. Preliminary geotechnical evaluation of deep borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataraj, M.S.; New Orleans Univ., LA

    1991-01-01

    This study is concerned with a preliminary engineering evaluation of borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales. Some of the geotechnical properties of Pierre, Rhinestreet, and typical illite shale have been collected. The influence of a few geotechnical properties on strength and deformation of host material is briefly examined. It appears that Pierre shale is very unstable and requires support to prevent collapse. Typical illite shale is more stable than Rhinestreet shale, although it undergoes relatively more deformation. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Preliminary Seismic Performance Evaluation of RPS Cabinet in a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwag, Shinyoung; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Youngki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This RPS cabinet mainly provides the operators with the physical interface to monitor and handle the RPS. The objective of this paper is to perform seismic analyses and evaluate the preliminary structural integrity and seismic capacity of the RPS cabinet. For this purpose, a 3-D finite element model of the RPS cabinet is developed and its modal analyses are carried out for analyzing the dynamic characteristics. Response time history analyses and related safety evaluation are performed for the RPS cabinet subjected to seismic loads. Finally, the seismic margin and seismic fragility of the RPS cabinet are investigated. The seismic analysis, and preliminary structural integrity and seismic margin of the RPS cabinet under self weight and seismic load have been evaluated. For this purpose, 3-D finite element models of the RPS cabinet were developed. A modal analysis, response time history analysis, and seismic fragility analysis were then performed. From the structural analysis results, the RPS cabinet is below the structural design limit under PGA 0.3g (hor.) and 0.2g (ver.) and structurally withstands until PGA 3g (hor.) and 2g (ver.)

  3. 242Pu: Preliminary evaluation with consideration of 240Pu, and some sensitivity results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jary, J.; Lagrange, C.; Philis, C.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of 242 Pu nuclear data is presented for the neutron energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV. The fission cross section is based upon recent experimental measurements on 242 Pu. The remaining cross sections have been calculated using various nuclear models with parameters obtained mainly by both fits on 240 Pu experimental data and general reflexions on the actinides. Particular care has been taken of the direct interactions. The laws of secondary neutron energy spectra and the average number of neutrons produced per fission have been evaluated. The results have been placed in ENDF/BIV format and combined with the low energy region of ENDF/BIV MAT = 1161 data to make complete the evaluation over the whole energy range 10 -5 eV - 20 MeV. Finally, the sensitivities of some of these nuclear data available for reactor calculations are given in terms of the variation of the calculated critical masses

  4. A multimedia interactive education system for prostate cancer patients: development and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Michael A; Butz, Brian P

    2004-01-21

    A cancer diagnosis is highly distressing. Yet, to make informed treatment choices patients have to learn complicated disease and treatment information that is often fraught with medical and statistical terminology. Thus, patients need accurate and easy-to-understand information. To introduce the development and preliminary evaluation through focus groups of a novel highly-interactive multimedia-education software program for patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. The prostate interactive education system uses the metaphor of rooms in a virtual health center (ie, reception area, a library, physician offices, group meeting room) to organize information. Text information contained in the library is tailored to a person's information-seeking preference (ie, high versus low information seeker). We conducted a preliminary evaluation through 5 separate focus groups with prostate cancer survivors (N = 18) and their spouses (N = 15). Focus group results point to the timeliness and high acceptability of the software among the target audience. Results also underscore the importance of a guide or tutor who assists in navigating the program and who responds to queries to facilitate information retrieval. Focus groups have established the validity of our approach and point to new directions to further enhance the user interface.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Method to Monitor Landfills Resilience against Methane Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusna, Noor Amalia; Maryono, Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Methane emission from landfill sites contribute to global warming and un-proper methane treatment can pose an explosion hazard. Stakeholder and government in the cities in Indonesia been found significant difficulties to monitor the resilience of landfill from methane emission. Moreover, the management of methane gas has always been a challenging issue for long waste management service and operations. Landfills are a significant contributor to anthropogenic methane emissions. This study conducted preliminary evaluation of method to manage methane gas emission by assessing LandGem and IPCC method. From the preliminary evaluation, this study found that the IPCC method is based on the availability of current and historical country specific data regarding the waste disposed of in landfills while from the LandGEM method is an automated tool for estimating emission rates for total landfill gas this method account total gas of methane, carbon dioxide and other. The method can be used either with specific data to estimate emissions in the site or default parameters if no site-specific data are available. Both of method could be utilize to monitor the methane emission from landfill site in cities of Central Java.

  6. Ex-vessel core catcher design requirements and preliminary concepts evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, A.J.; Tilbrook, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the overall study of the consequences of a hypothetical failure to scram following loss of pumping power, design requirements and preliminary concepts evaluation of an ex-vessel core catcher (EVCC) were performed. EVCC is the term applied to a class of devices whose primary objective is to provide a stable subcritical and coolable configuration within containment following a postulated accident in which it is assumed that core debris has penetrated the Reactor Vessel and Guard Vessel. Under these assumed conditions a set of functional requirements were developed for an EVCC and several concepts were evaluated. The studies were specifically directed toward the FFTF design considering the restraints imposed by the physical design and construction of the FFTF plant

  7. Preliminary experimental evaluation of a four wheel motors, batteries plus ultracapacitors and series hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaldi, Lorenzo [Interuniversity Research Center on Sustainable Development, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Bocci, Enrico [Department of Mechanics and Aeronautics, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Orecchini, Fabio [Guglielmo Marconi University, Rome (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    This paper reports the preliminary experimental evaluation of a four wheel motors series hybrid prototype equipped with an internal combustion engine coupled to a generator and an energy recovery system (batteries plus ultracapacitors). The paper analyses global efficiency (energy dissipated to overcome the dissipative forces on energy dissipated in fuel), autonomy in electric configuration, and the efficiency of the regenerative braking system. The tests were carried out in a test cell equipped with a chassis dynamometer. The tests were performed according to the current regulated procedures. A constant speed test was performed in order to evaluate the autonomy of the vehicle in the electric configuration. The results show that the real tank to wheels efficiency is about 30% for HOST as a series hybrid and 79% for HOST as an electric vehicle. (author)

  8. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the expected radiation damage of the bayonet IFMIF back-plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoni, M. [Athena s.a.s, Via del Battiferro 3, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: manuela.frisoni@enea.it; Agostini, P. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (Italy); Fasanella, D. [Athena s.a.s, Via del Battiferro 3, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Micciche, G. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    This paper summarises and discusses the results of a preliminary damage assessment of the non-seizure coating of the bayonet IFMIF back-plate. Neutron-induced kerma factors, dpa and gas production cross sections libraries were produced in a multigroup structure for neutron energies up to 60 MeV, by processing evaluated nuclear data files with NJOY-99.259 system. The material damage evaluations in terms of heat deposition, displacement and gas production rates were calculated using these libraries and compared with the values obtained using the data contained in the pointwise ACE format files of MCNP5 code package. The calculations were performed with MCNP5 code both using the McEnea and the McDelicious neutron source models to reproduce the energy-angle distributions of the neutrons produced in IFMIF d-Li interactions.

  11. Preliminary safety evaluation of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, T.D.; Lommers, L.J.; Tangirala, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    A qualitative comparison between the safety characteristics of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) and those of the steam cycle shows that the two designs achieve equivalent levels of overall safety performance. This comparison is obtained by applying the scaling laws to detailed steam-cycle computations as well as the conclusions obtained from preliminary GT-MHR model simulations. The gas turbine design is predicted to be superior for some event categories, while the steam cycle design is better for others. From a safety perspective, the GT-MHR has a modest advantage for pressurized conduction cooldown events. Recent computational simulations of 102 column, 550 MW(t) GT-MHR during a depressurized conduction cooldown show that peak fuel temperatures are within the limits. The GT-MHR has a significantly lower risk due to water ingress events under operating conditions. Two additional scenarios, namely loss of load event and turbine deblading event that are specific to the GT-MHR design are discussed. Preliminary evaluation of the GT-MHR's safety characteristics indicate that the GT-MHR can be expected to satisfy or exceed its safety requirements

  12. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process

  13. Development and preliminary evaluation of a rehabilitation consult for survivors of head and neck cancer: an intervention mapping protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Sara E; Davis, Aileen M; Jones, Jennifer M; Martino, Rosemary; Poon, Ian; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Ringash, Jolie

    2015-01-09

    Evidence suggests that rehabilitation interventions can improve function and quality of life in survivors of head and neck cancer (HNC), but there is a lack of coordinated, integrated services, and those offered are inconsistent. To address these gaps, we will develop and conduct preliminary evaluation of a rehabilitation consult, built on the theoretical foundations of goal setting and self-management, and composed of a brief functional evaluation, a resource compendium, and collaborative goal-setting and action planning processes. The development of the rehabilitation consult will be guided by intervention mapping, which consists of six steps: 1. Needs assessment; 2. Definition of program objectives; 3. Selection of theory-based intervention methods; 4. Production and pretesting; 5. Adoption, implementation and sustainability planning; 6. Process and effect evaluation. Within the intervention mapping framework, an iterative process of constructing drafts and mini-evaluations with consumers and experts will be used, modifying the rehabilitation consult intervention until a version suitable for formal evaluation is established. The rehabilitation consult will then be evaluated using a prospective, mixed method, single group design with 30 survivors of head and neck cancer. Outcomes will be assessed pre- and post-intervention and at 6-month follow-up. Survivors of head and neck cancer have among the most complex rehabilitation needs of all cancer patients. The rehabilitation consult is expected to improve knowledge and uptake of rehabilitation resources and strategies in survivors of head and neck cancer and thereby improve long-term function and quality of life. If the rehabilitation consult is effective in cancer patients with such high and diverse needs, this project will produce a toolkit that will be adaptable for other types of cancer in other jurisdictions.

  14. Preliminary safety evaluation for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the Preliminary Safety Evaluation for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The US DOE has been mandated to develop plans for response to safety issues associated with the waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, and to report the progress of implementing those plans to Congress. The objectives of Project W-230 are to design, fabricate, develop, test, and operate a new retrieval system capable of removing a minimum of about 75% of the high-heat waste contained in C-106. It is anticipated that sluicing operations can remove enough waste to reduce the remaining radiogenic heat load to levels low enough to resolve the high-heat safety issue as well as allow closure of the tank safety issue

  15. Preliminary development and evaluation of an algae-based air regeneration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienow, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of air regeneration system based on the growth of microalgae on the surface of porous ceramic tubes is evaluated. The algae have been maintained in the system for extended periods, up to 360 days. Preliminary measurements of the photosynthetic capacity have been made for Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 259), Neospongiococcum punctatum (UTEX 786), Stichococcus sp., and Gloeocapsa sp. Under standard test conditions (photosynthetic photon flux approximately 66 micromoles m-2 s-1, initial CO2 concentration approximately 450 micromoles mol-1), mature tubes remove up to 0.2 micromoles of CO2 per tube per minute. The rate of removal increases with photon flux up to at least 225 micromoles m-2 s-1 (PPF); peak rates of 0.35 micromoles of CO2 per tube per minute have been achieved with Chlorella vulgaris. These rates correspond to between 120 and 210 micromoles of CO2 removed per square meter of projected area per minute.

  16. Identification and evaluation of areas of interest (AOIs): A screening tool for CERCLA preliminary assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Allen, K.L.; Smith, L.A.; Schumacher, J.; McDermott, M.

    1994-01-01

    A cost-effective alternative to the traditional Preliminary Assessment (PA) procedure is to identify and evaluate potential Areas of Interest (AOIs) that may become Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites prior to entry into Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and the execution of a PA. AOIs would be identified by using much of the same methodology as would be used for site discovery in a CERCLA investigation, including aerial photograph review, reviews of building drawings, a limited review of historical records, and limited interviews and site visits. Once AOIs have been identified in this manner, decision criteria can be used to ascertain the regulatory status of the AOI and, based on regulatory guidance, whether the site should be considered for further investigation under CERCLA. This approach was used at Griffiss Air Force Base to identify 463 AOIs, where the primary problem was petroleum spills

  17. An experimental apparatus to simulate body-powered prosthetic usage: Development and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Rodriguez, Johanan; Kapp, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Harness fitting in the body-powered prosthesis remains more art than science due to a lack of consistent and quantitative evaluation. The aim of this study was to develop a mechanical, human-body-shaped apparatus to simulate body-powered upper limb prosthetic usage and evaluate its capability of quantitative examination of harness configuration. The apparatus was built upon a torso of a wooden mannequin and integrated major mechanical joints to simulate terminal device operation. Sensors were used to register cable tension, cable excursion, and grip force simultaneously. The apparatus allowed the scapula to move up to 127 mm laterally and the load cell can measure the cable tension up to 445 N. Our preliminary evaluation highlighted the needs and importance of investigating harness configurations in a systematic and controllable manner. The apparatus allows objective, systematic, and quantitative evaluation of effects of realistic harness configurations and will provide insightful and working knowledge on harness fitting in upper limb amputees using body-powered prosthesis. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  18. Evaluation methodology for flood damage reduction by preliminary water release from hydroelectric dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, T.; Kawasaki, A.; Koike, T.

    2017-12-01

    IPCC AR5 (2014) reported that rainfall in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has been increasing since 1901, and it is claimed that warmer climate will increase the risk of floods. In contrast, world water demand is forecasted to exceed a sustainable supply by 40 percent by 2030. In order to avoid this expectable water shortage, securing new water resources has become an utmost challenge. However, flood risk prevention and the secure of water resources are contradictory. To solve this problem, we can use existing hydroelectric dams not only as energy resources but also for flood control. However, in case of Japan, hydroelectric dams take no responsibility for it, and benefits have not been discussed accrued by controlling flood by hydroelectric dams, namely by using preliminary water release from them. Therefore, our paper proposes methodology for assessing those benefits. This methodology has three stages as shown in Fig. 1. First, RRI model is used to model flood events, taking account of the probability of rainfall. Second, flood damage is calculated using assets in inundation areas multiplied by the inundation depths generated by that RRI model. Third, the losses stemming from preliminary water release are calculated, and adding them to flood damage, overall losses are calculated. We can evaluate the benefits by changing the volume of preliminary release. As a result, shown in Fig. 2, the use of hydroelectric dams to control flooding creates 20 billion Yen benefits, in the probability of three-day-ahead rainfall prediction of the assumed maximum rainfall in Oi River, in the Shizuoka Pref. of Japan. As the third priority in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, `investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience - public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures' was adopted. The accuracy of rainfall prediction is the key factor in maximizing the benefits

  19. Preliminary evaluation of rotational Vol-oxidizer for hot cell operation - 5320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Lee, J.W.; Cho, Y.Z.; Ahn, D.H.; Song, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    KAERI is developing a mechanical head-end process for pyro-processing. As a piece of the processing equipment, a vol-oxidizer that can handle several tens of kg of HM/batch is under development to supply U 3 O 8 powders to an electrolytic reduction (ER) reactor. To operate a vol-oxidizer in a hot cell, the reactor should be optimized by the mechanical design, and the vol-oxidizer should have a high hull recovery rate. In addition, a vol-oxidizer for hot cell demonstrations that handles the spent fuel of high radiation virulence in a limited space should have a small size and not scatter in its outlet. In this paper, we aim at a preliminary evaluation of a rotational vol-oxidizer for hot cell operation. To evaluate the preliminary situation, we produced a theoretical equation of an optimum reactor size, and verification tests were conducted using an acryl vessel and zircaloy-4 tube according to various weights and lengths. In addition, we predicted the terminal velocity of U 3 O 8 using the terminal velocity of SiO 2 , which will determine the optimum air flux, and through an oxidation experiment, we verified the theory form to detect the existence of U 3 O 8 powder in a discharge filter. In addition, hull separation tests were conducted using a reactor and hulls with a 50 kg HM/batch for the recovery rate of the hulls. The results indicate that we obtained an appropriate air flux so as to not cause U 3 O 8 powder dispersion from using a Stokes equation and density ratio equation prior to the demonstration. The optimum flow and experimental results of the hull separation test have been applied for the design of the demonstration oxidizer, and the operation conditions of the oxidizer were produced. (authors)

  20. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G. [Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the

  1. Suggestion of Design Evaluation Plan based on Star Life Cycle to introduce the Information Minimalism Concept of KOREA Nuclear Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Lee, Seung-min; Park, Gee-yong

    2018-01-01

    The design of Korea Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) main control rooms (MCR) has been changed to be fully digitalized. Five or six display devices are assigned to each operator in NPP MCR to provide the information of safety parameter and plant status, and various control functions by connecting computerized control devices. Under this circumstance, the distributed displays can induce a dispersion of the operators' attention and increase the workload while conducting monitoring and control tasks efficiently. In addition, to support human operators to reduce their workload and increase the performance, the concepts of the ecological interface design (EID) and the operator-centered design were applied to the design HMI display. However these designs are applied to a limited set of screens and did not differ largely from the traditional HMI design in that the layout of the information is somewhere similar to P&IDs. In this paper, we propose a design evaluation plan based on star life cycle to introduce the information minimalism concept for designing an HMI display.

  2. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft 2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft 2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  5. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of a Practice-Based EBVM Skills Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Firth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there is a small body of research that investigates the development of EBVM skills in veterinary undergraduates there is a paucity of research that aims to understand the development of EBVM skills in practice-based post-graduate veterinary surgeons. This paper is a small step in remedying that shortfall. In particular, the paper provides a progress report on an RCVS Knowledge funded study that is evaluating a practice-based EBVM development program. The program is being conducted with a cohort of 20 veterinary surgeons and veterinary nurses employed in a private practice veterinary company across multiple sites. The facilitated instruction approach incorporates multiple supports including; group based and one-to-one, synchronous and asynchronous, and, face-to-face and online strategies. This paper will provide details of both the facilitation and evaluation approaches that have been adopted. The paper will also report on preliminary results of the evaluation which focuses on barriers and facilitators to EBVM development.This is a podcast of Ava and Ian's talk at the Veterinary Evidence Today conference, Edinburgh November 2, 2016.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality model for 2002 over the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ralph E; McNally, Dennis E; Tesche, Thomas W; Tonnesen, Gail; Boylan, James W; Brewer, Patricia

    2005-11-01

    The Visibility Improvement State and Tribal Association of the Southeast (VISTAS) is one of five Regional Planning Organizations that is charged with the management of haze, visibility, and other regional air quality issues in the United States. The VISTAS Phase I work effort modeled three episodes (January 2002, July 1999, and July 2001) to identify the optimal model configuration(s) to be used for the 2002 annual modeling in Phase II. Using model configurations recommended in the Phase I analysis, 2002 annual meteorological (Mesoscale Meterological Model [MM5]), emissions (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernal Emissions [SMOKE]), and air quality (Community Multiscale Air Quality [CMAQ]) simulations were performed on a 36-km grid covering the continental United States and a 12-km grid covering the Eastern United States. Model estimates were then compared against observations. This paper presents the results of the preliminary CMAQ model performance evaluation for the initial 2002 annual base case simulation. Model performance is presented for the Eastern United States using speciated fine particle concentration and wet deposition measurements from several monitoring networks. Initial results indicate fairly good performance for sulfate with fractional bias values generally within +/-20%. Nitrate is overestimated in the winter by approximately +50% and underestimated in the summer by more than -100%. Organic carbon exhibits a large summer underestimation bias of approximately -100% with much improved performance seen in the winter with a bias near zero. Performance for elemental carbon is reasonable with fractional bias values within +/- 40%. Other fine particulate (soil) and coarse particular matter exhibit large (80-150%) overestimation in the winter but improved performance in the summer. The preliminary 2002 CMAQ runs identified several areas of enhancements to improve model performance, including revised temporal allocation factors for ammonia emissions to improve

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of the SMAP Radiometer Soil Moisture Product over China Using In Situ Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayong Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP satellite makes coincident global measurements of soil moisture using an L-band radar instrument and an L-band radiometer. It is crucial to evaluate the errors in the newest L-band SMAP satellite-derived soil moisture products, before they are routinely used in scientific research and applications. This study represents the first evaluation of the SMAP radiometer soil moisture product over China. In this paper, a preliminary evaluation was performed using sparse in situ measurements from 655 China Meteorological Administration (CMA monitoring stations between 1 April 2015 and 31 August 2016. The SMAP radiometer-derived soil moisture product was evaluated against two schemes of original soil moisture and the soil moisture anomaly in different geographical zones and land cover types. Four performance metrics, i.e., bias, root mean square error (RMSE, unbiased root mean square error (ubRMSE, and the correlation coefficient (R, were used in the accuracy evaluation. The results indicated that the SMAP radiometer-derived soil moisture product agreed relatively well with the in situ measurements, with ubRMSE values of 0.058 cm3·cm−3 and 0.039 cm3·cm−3 based on original data and anomaly data, respectively. The values of the SMAP radiometer-based soil moisture product were overestimated in wet areas, especially in the Southwest China, South China, Southeast China, East China, and Central China zones. The accuracies over croplands and in Northeast China were the worst. Soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation are crucial factors contributing to the error in the soil moisture product. Moreover, radio frequency interference contributes to the overestimation over the northern portion of the East China zone. This study provides guidelines for the application of the SMAP-derived soil moisture product in China and acts as a reference for improving the retrieval algorithm.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Marc F.; Schoenberg, Michael E.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant from 1918 to 1972 in St. Louis Park, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minn., resulted in ground-water contamination. This preliminary evaluation presents an overview of the problem based on the results of the first year (1979) of an ongoing study.

  10. Properties of ABNT 41xx and 86xx cast steel modified with niobium; evaluation methodology and experimental preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzczynski, E.F.; Chatterjee, S.; Mueller, Arno

    1982-01-01

    The experimental methodology to evaluate the mechanical properties of ABNT 41xx and 86xx steels modified with NB in the as cast and heat treated conditions and the first preliminary results obtained in a laboratory scale, are presented. (Author) [pt

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of a Social Skills Training and Facilitated Play Early Intervention Programme for Extremely Shy Young Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Coplan, Robert J.; Wang, Yuemin; Yin, Jingtong; Zhu, Jingjing; Gao, Zhuqing; Li, Linhui

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of a social skills and facilitated play early intervention programme to promote social interaction, prosocial behaviours and socio-communicative skills among young extremely shy children in China. Participants were a sample of n = 16 extremely shy young children attending kindergarten…

  13. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Physiological Mechanisms of Action for Sleep Restriction Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Vallières

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the physiological mechanisms involved in the sleep restriction treatment of insomnia. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used. Sleep of five participants suffering from insomnia was assessed throughout the experimentation by sleep diaries and actigraphy. Ten nights of polysomnography were conducted over five occasions. The first two-night assessment served to screen for sleep disorders and to establish a baseline for dependent measures. Three assessments were undertaken across the treatment interval, with the fifth and last one coming at follow-up. Daily cortisol assays were obtained. Sleep restriction therapy was applied in-lab for the first two nights of treatment and was subsequently supervised weekly. Interrupted time series analyses were computed on sleep diary data and showed a significantly decreased wake time, increased sleep efficiency, and decreased total sleep time. Sleepiness at night seems positively related to sleep variables, polysomnography data suggest objective changes mainly for stage 2, and power spectral analysis shows a decrease in beta-1 and -2 powers for the second night of treatment. Cortisol levels seem to be lower during treatment. These preliminary results confirm part of the proposed physiological mechanisms and suggest that sleep restriction contributes to a rapid decrease in hyperarousal insomnia.

  14. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  15. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  16. Preliminary evaluation of a novel energy-resolved photon-counting gamma ray detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L-J; Tan, J W; Spartiotis, K; Schulman, T

    2009-06-11

    In this paper, we present the design and preliminary performance evaluation of a novel energy-resolved photon-counting (ERPC) detector for gamma ray imaging applications. The prototype ERPC detector has an active area of 4.4 cm × 4.4 cm, which is pixelated into 128 × 128 square pixels with a pitch size of 350 µm × 350µm. The current detector consists of multiple detector hybrids, each with a CdTe crystal of 1.1 cm × 2.2 cm × 1 mm, bump-bonded onto a custom-designed application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The ERPC ASIC has 2048 readout channels arranged in a 32 × 64 array. Each channel is equipped with pre- and shaping-amplifiers, a discriminator, peak/hold circuitry and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for digitizing the signal amplitude. In order to compensate for the pixel-to-pixel variation, two 8-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are implemented into each channel for tuning the gain and offset. The ERPC detector is designed to offer a high spatial resolution, a wide dynamic range of 12-200 keV and a good energy resolution of 3-4 keV. The hybrid detector configuration provides a flexible detection area that can be easily tailored for different imaging applications. The intrinsic performance of a prototype ERPC detector was evaluated with various gamma ray sources, and the results are presented.

  17. Preliminary Evaluation Methodology of ECCS Performance for Design Basis LOCA Redefinition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Ahn, Seung Hoon; Seul, Kwang Won

    2010-01-01

    To improve their existing regulations, the USNRC has made efforts to develop the risk-informed and performance-based regulation (RIPBR) approaches. As a part of these efforts, the rule revision of 10CFR50.46 (ECCS Acceptance Criteria) is underway, considering some options for 4 categories of spectrum of break sizes, ECCS functional reliability, ECCS evaluation model, and ECCS acceptance criteria. Since the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from design basis LOCA redefinition is high relative to other options, the USNRC is proceeding with the rulemaking for design basis LOCA redefinition. An instantaneous break with a flow rate equivalent to a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) of the largest primary piping system in the plant is widely recognized as an extremely unlikely event, while redefinition of design basis LOCA can affect the existing regulatory practices and approaches. In this study, the status of the design basis LOCA redefinition and OECD/NEA SMAP (Safety Margin Action Plan) methodology are introduced. Preliminary evaluation methodology of ECCS performance for LOCA is developed and discussed for design basis LOCA redefinition

  18. Preliminary evaluation of uranium deposits. A geostatistical study of drilling density in Wyoming solution fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandefur, R.L.; Grant, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of a roll-front uranium deposit in Shirley Basin Wyoming indicate that preliminary evaluation of the reserve potential of an ore body is possible with less drilling than currently practiced in industry. Estimating ore reserves from sparse drilling is difficult because most reserve calculation techniques do not give the accuracy of the estimate. A study of several deposits with a variety of drilling densities shows that geostatistics consistently provides a method of assessing the accuracy of an ore reserve estimate. Geostatistics provides the geologist with an additional descriptive technique - one which is valuable in the economic assessment of a uranium deposit. Closely spaced drilling on past properties provides both geological and geometric insight into the occurrence of uranium in roll-front type deposits. Just as the geological insight assists in locating new ore bodies and siting preferential drill locations, the geometric insight can be applied mathematically to evaluate the accuracy of a new ore reserve estimate. By expressing the geometry in numerical terms, geostatistics extracts important geological characteristics and uses this information to aid in describing the unknown characteristics of a property. (author)

  19. Preliminary structural evaluations of the STAR-LM reactor vessel and the support design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong-Hoi; Sienicki, James J.; Moisseytsev, Anton

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary structural evaluations of the reactor vessel and support design of the STAR-LM (The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor - Liquid Metal variant), which is a lead-cooled reactor, are carried out with respect to an elevated temperature design and seismic design. For an elevated temperature design, the structural integrity of a direct coolant contact to the reactor vessel is investigated by using a detail structural analysis and the ASME-NH code rules. From the results of the structural analyses and the integrity evaluations, it was found that the design concept of a direct coolant contact to the reactor vessel cannot satisfy the ASME-NH rules for a given design condition. Therefore, a design modification with regards to the thermal barrier is introduced in the STAR-LM design. For a seismic design, detailed seismic time history response analyses for a reactor vessel with a consideration of a fluid-structure interaction are carried out for both a top support type and a bottom support type. And from the results of the hydrodynamic pressure responses, an investigation of the minimum thickness design of the reactor vessel is tentatively carried out by using the ASME design rules

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the profitability indexes of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva M, C.

    2010-10-01

    The Laguna Verde nuclear power plant of the Federal Commission of Electricity has an installed capacity of 1,350 MW and unit 1 started commercial operation in 1990 and unit 2 in 1995. This paper is a synthesis of the results of a preliminary evaluation of the expected profitability indexes of the power plant during an economic lifetime of 40 years. The following data was used as input to the evaluation model prescribed by the Finance and Public Credit Secretary for public investment projects. Unit investment cost: 3,500 US D/k W; Fixed operation and maintenance cost: 54. 45 US D/year-k W; Variable operation and maintenance cost: 0. 38 US D/M Wh; Nuclear fuel cycle cost: 10. 28 US D/M Wh; Lifetime capacity factor: 85%; Discount rate: 12.0% per year; Sale price of electricity to the interconnected electric system: 80. 75 US D/M Wh. The output of the evaluation model is the following: Cost of electricity generated: 60. 2 1 US D/M Wh; fixed cost 49. 55 US D/M Wh; variable cost 10. 66 US D/M Wh; Internal rate of return (Irr): 18.0%; Benefit to cost quotient (B/C): 1.341. A very systematic sensitivity analysis was done, that shows that the cost is very sensitive to the capacity factor and to the investment cost, but is very insensitive to the fixed operation and maintenance cost and to the nuclear fuel cost. Finally, a comparison was made to the evaluation of the profitability indexes of a natural gas fired combined cycle power plant. (Author)

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company's Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems

  2. Grid-connected ICES: preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    The HEAL Complex in New Orleans will serve as a Demonstration Community for which the ICES Demonstration System will be designed. The complex is a group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical educational facilities. The five tasks reported on are: preliminary energy analysis; preliminary institutional assessment; conceptual design; firming-up of commitments; and detailed work management plan.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of aircraft impact on a near term nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frano, R. Lo, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of PISA, L.go L. Lazzarino 2, via Diotisalvi, no. 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Forasassi, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of PISA, L.go L. Lazzarino 2, via Diotisalvi, no. 2-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of military/civilian airplanes crash in a NPP were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We adequately simulated the global response and safety margin of an SMR reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analyses allowed to represent the progressive failure/damaging processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outer containment seemed to suffer some localized penetration and spalling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results highlighted the plant integrity is ensured despite the impact damages. - Abstract: For the assessment of the safety and durability of a nuclear power plant (NPP), the containment building behaviour shall be evaluated, under various service and extreme conditions, both natural or produced by natural accident or vicious man activities, like September 2001 jet aircraft crashes. The aim of this paper is to preliminary evaluate the effects and consequences of the energy transmitted to the outer containment walls (according to the international safety and design code guidelines, as NRC or IAEA ones) due to a military or civil aircraft impact into a nuclear plant, considered as a 'beyond design basis' event. To perform reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and determine the structural effects of the propagation of this types of impulsive loads (response of containment structure), a realistic but still feasible numerical model with suitable materials characteristics were used by means of which relevant physical phenomena are reflected. Moreover a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out considering the effects of different containment wall thickness and reinforced/prestressed concrete features. The obtained results were analysed to check the NPP containment strength margins.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Hanford high-level defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Beary, M.M.; Gallagher, S.A.; Higley, B.A.; Johnston, R.G.; Jungfleisch, F.M.; Kupfer, M.J.; Palmer, R.A.; Watrous, R.A.; Wolf, G.A.

    1980-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of solid waste forms for immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive defense wastes is presented. Nineteen different waste forms were evaluated and compared to determine their applicability and suitability for immobilization of Hanford salt cake, sludge, and residual liquid. This assessment was structured to address waste forms/processes for several different leave-retrieve long-term Hanford waste management alternatives which give rise to four different generic fractions: (1) sludge plus long-lived radionuclide concentrate from salt cake and residual liquid; (2) blended wastes (salt cake plus sludge plus residual liquid); (3) residual liquid; and (4) radionuclide concentrate from residual liquid. Waste forms were evaluated and ranked on the basis of weighted ratings of seven waste form and seven process characteristics. Borosilicate Glass waste forms, as marbles or monoliths, rank among the first three choices for fixation of all Hanford high-level wastes (HLW). Supergrout Concrete (akin to Oak Ridge National Laboratory Hydrofracture Process concrete) and Bitumen, low-temperature waste forms, rate high for bulk disposal immobilization of high-sodium blended wastes and residual liquid. Certain multi-barrier (e.g., Coated Ceramic) and ceramic (SYNROC Ceramic, Tailored Ceramics, and Supercalcine Ceramic) waste forms, along with Borosilicate Glass, are rated as the most satisfactory forms in which to incorporate sludges and associated radionuclide concentrates. The Sol-Gel process appears superior to other processes for manufacture of a generic ceramic waste form for fixation of Hanford sludge. Appropriate recommendations for further research and development work on top ranking waste forms are made

  5. Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

    2012-06-01

    Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%. All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products.

  7. Preliminary hydrogeological evaluation of geological units from the Mesa de los Santos, Santander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Eliana Jimena; Contreras, Nathalia Maria; Pinto, Jorge Eduardo; Velandia, Francisco; Morales, Carlos Julio; Hincapie, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    This paper present a preliminary hydrogeological evaluation of La Mesa de Los Santos' lithostratigraphic formations, based on the geological mapping, stratigraphy and inventory of water points. All this is supplemented with the analysis of primary porosity by means of the petrographic study and the secondary porosity related statistically with the quantity of fractures of each formation, as well as opening, interconnection and dip. It is made an approach to hydrogeological potential of the geologic outcropping formations in La Mesa de Los Santos, Department of Santander, from the stratigraphic and petrographic analysis and the structural features of these formations. The Upper Member of Los Santos Formation presents the highest potential because of rock's fracturing, continued by the Lower Member with low primary porosity and half fracturing. Silgara Formation, Granito de Pescadero, Jordan Formation and some sections of the sandy levels of the Rosablanca Formation presents a lowest potential due to its low porosity and low grade of fracturing. Low permeability is presented in the Middle Member of the Los Santos Formation, Paja and Tablazo formations, as well as in sectors of the fore mentioned formations and in the Quaternary deposits.

  8. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterson, Melissa A; Luck, Joe D; Sama, Michael P

    2015-12-17

    An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  9. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools

  10. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Some Elicited Apple Genotypes Candidate as Cultivars Using Morphological and Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan Muzher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of 5 apple genotypes produced by seed selection in the germplasm of seed rootstocks in Sweida- Syria was carried out between 2005 and 2012, to study date of full flowering, maturity time, morphological characters of tree, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits, including chemical analysis. On the other hand, yield efficiency, fruit storability and the susceptibility to pests and physiological disorders were evaluated. Molecular characterization was achieved by using 8 pairs of SSR primers for the 5th genotypes in comparison with the two main commercial cultivars "Golden Delicious" and "Starking Delicious" to determine the genetic relationship between the studied genotypes and cultivars. The results divided the studied genotypes depending on the time of ripening into three groups: early, intermediate and late genotypes. All studied genotypes gave efficient and regular yield, and showed fixable fruit shape and size with variable storability due to maturity time. Molecular characterization reveled the ability of SSR technique to determine the genetic variation between the studied genotypes, the 8 primer pairs produced 22 alleles, 21 of them were polymorphic (95.45%. Cluster analysis divided the studied genotypes into 2 clusters, the first cluster included the two commercial cultivars Starking delicious and Golden delicious with one genotypes, while the second cluster contained the four remaining genotypes. Finally, the studied genotypes revealed high desired quantitative and qualitative traits, which assess to distribute these genotypes as new cultivars, and SSR technique was able to identify and revealed the genetic distance between the studied genotypes and commercial cultivars.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, page: 98-109

  12. Evaluation of additive effects of hydrolyzed jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) esters and glycerol: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jaimi; Marshall, Brooke; Gacula, Maximo; Rheins, Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol has long served the topical prescriptive and personal care industry as a versatile and functional active and inactive ingredient. In skin care products, it acts primarily as an emollient, softening the skin through robust humectant hydration action. Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters K-20W (K-20W) have been shown to increase skin hydration and improve sensory skin "feel" when included in a variety of skin, hair, and nail care cosmetic/personal care formulations. The addition of glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters provides a substantial long-acting 24 h (moisturizing) skin hydration effect for topical products. A small pilot study was conducted to support the "proof of concept" that an enhanced, additive role exists between these two ingredients resulting in a long-term (24 h) skin moisturization effect. Topical treatments were applied to the skin (lower leg) of subjects, and evaluations were made at baseline and 8- to 24-h post-application. Skin hydration data were obtained via bio-instrumental transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements and expert clinical skin grading, including standardized digital clinical photography. Clinical skin grading evaluations and TEWL measurements found that significantly lower evaporative (P jojoba esters) than with glycerol alone in a standard base skin care lotion at 8 and 24 h posttreatment. This preliminary data "proof of concept" supports the position that glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters work in tandem to enhance skin moisturization for at least 24 h. This unique moisturizing potential may prove valuable in the future development of cosmetic and over-the-counter/prescriptive topical products, including new medicaments containing botanicals. This fact is further reinforced with the recent greater commercial use and demand for defined safe botanicals in cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical topical formulations. Additional mechanistic studies are underway.

  13. Preliminary development of an advanced modular pressure relief cushion: Testing and user evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeto, Tyler; Mitchell, Steven J; Bogie, Kath M

    2018-02-01

    Effective pressure relief cushions are identified as a core assistive technology need by the World Health Organization Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology. High quality affordable wheelchair cushions could provide effective pressure relief for many individuals with limited access to advanced assistive technology. Value driven engineering (VdE) principles were employed to develop a prototype modular cushion. Low cost dynamically responsive gel balls were arranged in a close packed array and seated in bilayer foam for containment and support. Two modular cushions, one with high compliance balls and one with moderate compliance balls were compared with High Profile and Low Profile Roho ® and Jay ® Medical 2 cushions. ISO 16480-2 biomechanical standardized tests were applied to assess cushion performance. A preliminary materials cost analysis was carried out. A prototype modular cushion was evaluated by 12 participants who reported satisfaction using a questionnaire based on the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0) instrument. Overall the modular cushions performed better than, or on par with, the most widely prescribed commercially available cushions under ISO 16480-2 testing. Users rated the modular cushion highly for overall appearance, size and dimensions, comfort, safety, stability, ease of adjustment and general ease of use. Cost-analysis indicated that every modular cushion component a could be replaced several times and still maintain cost-efficacy over the complete cushion lifecycle. A VdE modular cushion has the potential provide effective pressure relief for many users at a low lifetime cost. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Boron-containing acids: preliminary evaluation of acute toxicity and access to the brain determined by Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin A; Farfán-García, Eunice D; López-Cabrera, Yessica; Querejeta, Enrique; Trujillo-Ferrara, José G

    2014-01-01

    Boron-containing compounds (BCCs), particularly boron containing acids (BCAs), have become attractive moieties or molecules in drug development. It has been suggested that when functional groups with boron atoms are added to well-known drugs, the latter are conferred with greater potency and efficacy in relation to their target receptors. However, the use of BCAs in drug development is limited due to the lack of a toxicological profile. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of boric and boronic acids. Thus, a determination was made of the lethal dose (LD50) of test compounds in male CD1 mice, as well as the effective dose required to negatively affect spontaneous motor activity and to produce notable behavioral abnormalities. After treatment of animals at different doses, macroscopic observations were made from a necropsy, and Raman scattering spectroscopic studies were carried out on brain tissue samples. In general, the results show that most of the tested BCAs have very low toxicity, evidenced by the high doses required to induce notable toxic effects (greater than 100 mg/kg of body weight for all compounds, except for 3-thyenilboronic acid). Such toxic effects, presumably mediated by action on the CNS, include eye damage, gastrointestinal effects (e.g., gastric-gut dilatation and fecal retention), sedation, hypnosis and/or trembling. This preliminary toxicological profile suggests that BCAs can be considered potential therapeutic agents or moieties to be added to other compounds in the development of new drugs. Future studies are required to explore possible chronic toxicity of BCCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A preliminary evaluation of a combined tire- and refuse-derived fuel (TDF-RDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stessel, R.I.; Amari, T.; Themelis, N.J.; Wearnick, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    In dense urban areas of the US, it is now becoming clear that waste management is far from economically-optimum. Even with the popularity of inexpensive land disposal, hauling and recycling costs are driving up the average waste bill. An historic option has been refuse-derived fuel, or RDF. Difficulties included low energy content and difficulty obtaining uniformity. Today, many resource-recovery technologies used in RDF are finding their way into materials recovery facilities (MRFs), some of which are reviving the automated processing of waste. Any MRF, automated or not, will have residue streams. Currently, one of the most significant problems is waste tires. Local options are difficult to locate in dense urban areas. As fuels, tires typically have energy contents considerably above those for which most solid-fuel combustors are designed, leading to thermal imbalances and various forms of failure. This paper suggests a new fuel that can be either co-fired with coal, or used in its own right in a combustor primarily designed for coal: TDF-RDF. A preliminary examination is undertaken of thermal and emissions characteristics, and possible costs for a few applications of the fuel. Immediately, TDF is already cleaner-burning than many coals, even in sulfur emissions. RDF has been widely-regarded as being similarly cleanly. Posited MRF residue streams should be still cleaner, and more consistent, than RDF. Overall, there is quite a potential for developing a fuel that would allow old coal powerplants in historic urban centers to be better neighbors, while helping with a few problems in municipal waste management.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation Of DWPF Impacts Of Boric Acid Use In Cesium Strip FOR SWPF And MCU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system includes the option to replace the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with boric acid. To support this effort, the impact of using 0.01M, 0.1M, 0.25M and 0.5M boric acid in place of 0.001M nitric acid was evaluated for impacts on the DWPF facility. The evaluation only covered the impacts of boric acid in the strip effluent and does not address the other changes in solvents (i.e., the new extractant, called MaxCalix, or the new suppressor, guanidine). Boric acid additions may lead to increased hydrogen generation during the SRAT and SME cycles as well as change the rheological properties of the feed. The boron in the strip effluent will impact glass composition and could require each SME batch to be trimmed with boric acid to account for any changes in the boron from strip effluent additions. Addition of boron with the strip effluent will require changes in the frit composition and could lead to changes in melt behavior. The severity of the impacts from the boric acid additions is dependent on the amount of boric acid added by the strip effluent. The use of 0.1M or higher concentrations of boric acid in the strip effluent was found to significantly impact DWPF operations while the impact of 0.01M boric acid is expected to be relatively minor. Experimental testing is required to resolve the issues identified during the preliminary evaluation. The issues to be addressed by the testing are: (1) Impact on SRAT acid addition and hydrogen generation; (2) Impact on melter feed rheology; (3) Impact on glass composition control; (4) Impact on frit production; and (5) Impact on melter offgas. A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system includes the option to replace the

  17. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of new radioiodinated MMP inhibitors for imaging MMP activity in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopka, Klaus E-mail: kopka@uni-muenster.de; Breyholz, Hans-Joerg; Wagner, Stefan; Law, Marilyn P.; Riemann, Burkhard; Schroeer, Sandra; Trub, Monika; Guilbert, Benedicte; Levkau, Bodo; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Non-invasive measurement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo is a clinical challenge in many disease processes such as inflammation, tumor metastasis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, radioiodinated analogues of the non-peptidyl broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (MMPI) CGS 27023A 1a were synthesized for non-invasive detection of MMP activity in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The compounds Br-CGS 27023A 1b and HO-CGS 27023A 1d were synthesized from the amino acid D-valine and used as precursors for radioiodinated derivatives of CGS 27023A and their non-radioactive references I-CGS 27023A 1c and HO-I-CGS 27023A 1e. Radioiodination of the precursors with [{sup 123}I]NaI or [{sup 125}I]NaI produced the no-carrier-added MMP inhibitors [{sup 123}I]I-CGS 27023A 1f, [{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1g, HO-[{sup 123}I]I-CGS27023A 1h, and HO-[{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1i. In vitro studies showed that the non-radioactive analogues of the MMP inhibitors exhibited affinities against gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) in the nanomolar range, comparable to the parent compound CGS 27023A. In vivo biodistribution using HO-[{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1i in CL57 Bl6 mice showed rapid blood and plasma clearance and low retention in normal tissues. The preliminary biological evaluation warrant further studies of these radioiodinated MMP inhibitors as potential new radiotracers for imaging MMP activity in vivo.

  18. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of new radioiodinated MMP inhibitors for imaging MMP activity in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopka, Klaus; Breyholz, Hans-Joerg; Wagner, Stefan; Law, Marilyn P.; Riemann, Burkhard; Schroeer, Sandra; Trub, Monika; Guilbert, Benedicte; Levkau, Bodo; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Non-invasive measurement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo is a clinical challenge in many disease processes such as inflammation, tumor metastasis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, radioiodinated analogues of the non-peptidyl broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (MMPI) CGS 27023A 1a were synthesized for non-invasive detection of MMP activity in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The compounds Br-CGS 27023A 1b and HO-CGS 27023A 1d were synthesized from the amino acid D-valine and used as precursors for radioiodinated derivatives of CGS 27023A and their non-radioactive references I-CGS 27023A 1c and HO-I-CGS 27023A 1e. Radioiodination of the precursors with [ 123 I]NaI or [ 125 I]NaI produced the no-carrier-added MMP inhibitors [ 123 I]I-CGS 27023A 1f, [ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1g, HO-[ 123 I]I-CGS27023A 1h, and HO-[ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1i. In vitro studies showed that the non-radioactive analogues of the MMP inhibitors exhibited affinities against gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) in the nanomolar range, comparable to the parent compound CGS 27023A. In vivo biodistribution using HO-[ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1i in CL57 Bl6 mice showed rapid blood and plasma clearance and low retention in normal tissues. The preliminary biological evaluation warrant further studies of these radioiodinated MMP inhibitors as potential new radiotracers for imaging MMP activity in vivo

  19. An evaluation of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale: A preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene van Wyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The positive organisational behaviour movement emphasises the advantages of psychological strengths in business. The psychological virtues of positive emotional experiences can potentially promote human strengths to the advantages of business functioning and the management of work conditions. This is supported by Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory that emphasises the broadening of reactive thought patterns through experiences of positive emotions. Research purpose: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of a positive measurement of dimensions of emotional experiences in the workplace, by rephrasing the Kiefer and Barclay Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale. Motivation for the study: This quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis investigates the factorial structure and reliability of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale, a positive rephrased version of the Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale. Research approach, design and method: This Exploratory Factor Analysis indicates an acceptable three-factor model for the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale. These three factors are: (1 psychological recurrent positive state, (2 social connectedness and (3 physical refreshed energy, with strong Cronbach’s alphas of 0.91, 0.91 and 0.94, respectively. Main findings: The three-factor model of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a valid measure in support of Fredrickson’s theory of social, physical and psychological endured personal resources that build positive emotions. Practical/Managerial implications: Knowledge gained on positive versus negative emotional experiences could be applied by management to promote endured personal resources that strengthen positive emotional experiences. Contribution/value-add: The contribution of this rephrased Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a reliable measure of assessment of the social, physical and endured psychological and personal resources identified in Fredrickson

  20. Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Lindsay; Kirby, Miranda; Etemad-Rezai, Roya; Wheatley, Andrew; McCormack, David G.; Parraga, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 ( 3 He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for 3 He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, 1 H MRI and hyperpolarized 3 He MRI at 3.0 T. 3 He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from 3 He static ventilation images and 1 H thoracic images and the 3 He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant 3 He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for 3 He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  1. Improving Phonological Awareness in Parents of Children at Risk of Literacy Difficulties: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Boost Program

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Mark E.; Leitão, Suze; Claessen, Mary; Dzidic, Peta; Boyle, Gemma; Perry, Alison; Nayton, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Background Phonological awareness is an important skill underpinning the development of early literacy. Given the central role of parents in supporting the development of children’s early literacy skills, and that poor parental phonological awareness is associated with poorer child literacy outcomes, it is possible that improving parent phonological awareness may aid literacy development for at-risk children. This study is a preliminary evaluation of a program aiming to improve phonologica...

  2. Replication and extension of the dual pathway model of disordered eating: The role of fear of negative evaluation, suggestibility, rumination, and self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldo, Toni M; Zhou, Wanni; Dowling, Jessica; Vander Wal, Jillon S

    2016-12-01

    The dual pathway model, a theoretical model of eating disorder development, suggests that thin ideal internalization leads to body dissatisfaction which leads to disordered eating via the dual pathways of negative affect and dietary restraint. While the dual pathway model has been a valuable guide for eating disorder prevention, greater knowledge of characteristics that predict thin ideal internalization is needed. The present study replicated and extended the dual pathway model by considering the addition of fear of negative evaluation, suggestibility, rumination, and self-compassion in a sample of community women and female university students. Results showed that fear of negative evaluation and suggestibility predicted thin ideal internalization whereas rumination and self-compassion (inversely) predicted body dissatisfaction. Negative affect was predicted by fear of negative evaluation, rumination, and self-compassion (inversely). The extended model fit the data well in both samples. Analogue and longitudinal study of these constructs is warranted in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical pharmacokinetics, safety, and preliminary efficacy evaluation of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyang; Zhang, Li; Wu, Yiwen; Jiang, Ji; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yingxiang; Liu, Yong; Hu, Pei

    2015-09-01

    To receive pharmacokinetics, safety, and anti-tumor activity of icotinib, a novel epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients (n=40) with advanced NSCLC were enrolled to receive escalating doses of icotinib, which was administrated on Day 1 followed by 28-day continuous dosing starting from Day 4. Four dosing regimens, 100mg b.i.d., 150 mg b.i.d., 125 mg t.i.d., and 200mg b.i.d. were studied. Pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and efficacy of icotinib were evaluated. Icotinib was well tolerated in Chinese patients with refractory NSCLC. No toxicity with >3 grades were reported in more than 2 patients under any dose levels. One complete response (3%) and 9 partial responses (23%) were received. Total disease control rate could reach at 73% and median progress-free survival (range) was 154 (17-462) days. PK exposure of icotinib increased with increase of dose in NSCLC patients. Food was suggested to increase PK exposure by ∼30%. Mean t1/2β was within 5.31-8.07 h. No major metabolite (>10% plasma exposure of icotinib) was found in NSCLC patients. Icotinib with up to 400 mg/day exhibited good tolerance and preliminary antitumor activity in Chinese NSCLC patients. Pharmacokinetics of icotinib and 5 major metabolites were fully investigated in NSCLC patients. Optimized biologic dose (OBD) was finally recommended to be 125 mg t.i.d. for the later clinical study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

    1978-02-15

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced

  6. Preparation of a Nanoemulsion with Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae Oil by a Low-Energy/Solvent-Free Method and Evaluation of Its Preliminary Residual Larvicidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia L. M. Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba (Carapa guianensis seeds are the source of an oil with a wide range of biological activities and ethnopharmacological uses. However, few studies have devoted attention to innovative formulations, including nanoemulsions. The present study aimed to obtain a colloidal system with the andiroba oil using a low-energy and organic-solvent-free method. Moreover, the preliminary residual larvicidal activity of the nanoemulsion against Aedes aegypti was evaluated. Oleic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids, in addition to the phytosterol β-sitosterol and limonoids (tetranortriterpenoids. The required hydrophile-lipophile was around 11.0 and the optimal nanoemulsion was obtained using polysorbate 85. The particle size distribution suggested the presence of small droplets (mean diameter around 150 nm and low polydispersity index (around 0.150. The effect of temperature on particle size distribution revealed that no major droplet size increase occurred. The preliminary residual larvicidal assay suggested that the mortality increased as a function of time. The present study allowed achievement of a potential bioactive oil in water nanoemulsion that may be a promising controlled release system. Moreover, the ecofriendly approach involved in the preparation associated with the great bioactive potential of C. guianensis makes this nanoemulsion very promising for valorization of this Amazon raw material.

  7. Clinical and histological evaluation of thermal injury thresholds in human teeth: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissara, P; Catapano, S; Scotti, R

    1997-11-01

    The effect on healthy dental pulp of thermal increases ranging from 8.9 to 14.7 degrees C was evaluated. These temperature increases correspond approximately to those caused by certain restorative procedures, such as tooth preparation with high-speed instruments and the fabrication of direct provisional crowns. Two criteria of evaluation have been used in conjunction, a clinical (symptomatic) and a histological one, to assert with greater precision potential damage to the pulp. The results suggest a low susceptibility of cells to heat, which does not appear to be a major factor of injury, at least in the short term. The main cause of postoperative inflammation or necrosis of the pulp is probably the injury of the dentine, a tissue in direct functional and physiological connection with the pulp.

  8. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachiba, Thomas Haruo; Carvalho, Bruno Demartini; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira; Cusinato, Marina; Prado, Clara Gaviao; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2012-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC 50 values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 μM), C. krusei (34 μM) and C. tropicalis (17 μM). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. (author)

  9. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Ligament: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dedicated Multi-Chamber Tension-Torsion Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric P. Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering may constitute a promising alternative to current strategies in ligament repair, providing that suitable scaffolds and culture conditions are proposed. The objective of the present contribution is to present the design and instrumentation of a novel multi-chamber tension-torsion bioreactor dedicated to ligament tissue engineering. A preliminary biological evaluation of a new braided scaffold within this bioreactor under dynamic loading is reported, starting with the development of a dedicated seeding protocol validated from static cultures. The results of these preliminary biological characterizations confirm that the present combination of scaffold, seeding protocol and bioreactor may enable us to head towards a suitable ligament tissue-engineered construct.

  10. A preliminary evaluation of the Scanditronix PC2048-15B brain scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holte, S.; Eriksson, L.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm; Dahlbom, M.

    1989-01-01

    The PC2048-15B is the brain version of the new generation of Scanditronix positron camera systems. It is based on a detection unit with 16 scintillating crystals mounted on 2 dual photomultiplier tubes. A system description is given and preliminary test results including spatial resolution, sensitivity to true and random coincidences, scatter correction, and count rate linearity are presented. (orig.)

  11. 78 FR 8522 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Evaluation of the Potential Risk From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0850; FRL-9376-5] Chlorpyrifos Registration... preliminary volatilization assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos and opens a public comment... assessment for chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing comments received during the public comment period, EPA...

  12. A kit prepared technetium-99m agent for cardiac imaging: a preliminary evaluation in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A new 99mTc cardiac agent that can be prepared by a kit method has been developed. The preliminary results in animals indicate that the agent is distributed in the myocardium according to the regional myocardial blood flow and has ability to delineate a myocardial region of infarction

  13. Preliminary seismic evaluation and ranking of bridges on and over the parkways in Western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Five parkways in Western Kentucky are located in the region that is greatly influenced by the New Madrid and Wabash Valley Seismic Zones. This report executes a preliminary screening process, known also as the Seismic Rating System, for bridges on an...

  14. Experimental study of sodium droplet burning in free fall. Evaluation of preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shinya; Ara, Kuniaki

    1998-08-01

    To study a sodium leak and combustion behavior phenomenologically and to construct the mechanistic evaluation method, an experimental series of a sodium droplet burning in free fall is under way. In this study, the accuracy of measurement technique used in the preliminary test was assessed and the modified technique was proposed for the next test series. Analytical study of the test results was also conducted to deduce dominant parameters and important measurement items which would play an important role in the droplet combustion behavior. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) Assessment of measurement accuracy and modified technique proposed for the next test series. a) Control accuracy of sodium supply system using β-alumina solid electrolyte was sufficient for generation of objective size of single droplet. However, it is necessary to calibrate the correlation between the quantity of electric charge for sodium supply system and that of supplied sodium. b) Measurement accuracy of falling velocity using high-speed video was ±0.33 m/s at an upper part and ±0.48 m/s at a lower part of the measurement. To reduce the error, a high-speed stroboscopic method is recommended to measure the falling velocity of droplet. (2) Results of analytical study and deduced dominant parameters and important measurement items. a) The falling behavior of a burning droplet was described solving the equation of free falling motion for a rigid sphere. In the case of higher falling height, it is necessary to study the burning effects on the falling behavior. b) The mass burned of a falling droplet was calculated using the combustion model according to 'D 2 ' law during the full burning phase. It is necessary to study the dominant chemical reaction in the burning flame because the mass burned depends on the composition of the reaction products. c) The mass burned was calculated using surface oxidation model for preignition phase together with above model. However, it is

  15. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  16. Finite-element model evaluation of barrier configurations to reduce infiltration into waste-disposal structures: preliminary results and design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, A.H.; Phillips, S.J.; Adams, M.R.

    1982-09-01

    Barriers to reduce infiltration into waste burial disposal structures (trenches, pits, etc.) may be required to provide adequate waste confinement. The preliminary engineering design of these barriers should consider interrelated barrier performance factors. This paper summarizes preliminary computer simulation activities to further engineering barrier design efforts. Several barrier configurations were conceived and evaluated. Models were simulated for each barrier configuration using a finite element computer code. Results of this preliminary evaluation indicate that barrier configurations, depending on their morphology and materials, may significantly influence infiltration, flux, drainage, and storage of water through and within waste disposal structures. 9 figures

  17. A suggestion for specification of the neutron energy scale in measurements, analyses and evaluations of differential reaction cross-section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron energy distributions (spectra) in differential neutron cross section measurements are represented conventionally by giving the energies (not well defined) and full widths at half maximum of the spectra. In most modern experiments, it is possible for investigators to provide a much more thorough representation of neutron spectra. However, reporting such information would entail more numerical detail than appears practical to document. Therefore, it is suggested that such spectra be represented in publications and files of experimental data by providing the following four moments of each distribution: mean value (energy), standard deviation (resolution), skewness (asymmetry), and kurtosis (sharpness). Implementation of such a standard for data reporting would offer evaluators a much more complete and rational basis for comparing reported values and performing evaluations than previously possible. Some examples are provided to illustrate the concepts

  18. A suggested procedure for resolving an anomaly in least-squares data analysis known as ''Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle'' and the general implications for nuclear data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Smith, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    Modern nuclear-data evaluation methodology is based largely on statistical inference, with the least-squares technique being chosen most often to generate best estimates for physical quantities and their uncertainties. It has been observed that those least-squares evaluations which employ covariance matrices based on absolute errors that are derived directly from the reported experimental data often tend to produce results which appear to be too low. This anomaly is discussed briefly in this report, and a procedure for resolving it is suggested. The method involves employing data uncertainties which are derived from errors expressed in percent. These percent errors are used, in conjunction with reasonable a priori estimates for the quantities to be evaluated, to derive the covariance matrices which are required for applications of the least-squares procedure. This approach appears to lead to more rational weighting of the experimental data and, thus, to more realistic evaluated results than are obtained when the errors are based on the actual data. The procedure is very straightforward when only one parameter must be estimated. However, for those evaluation exercises involving more than one parameter, this technique demands that a priori estimates be provided at the outset for all of the parameters in question. Then, the least-squares method is applied iteratively to produce a sequence of sets of estimated values which are anticipated to convergence toward a particular set of parameters which one then designates as the ''best'' evaluated results from the exercise. It is found that convergence usually occurs very rapidly when the a priori estimates approximate the final solution reasonably well

  19. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure.

  20. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Simpevarp subarea are: to determine, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in the report SKB-TR--00-12. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that even considering remaining uncertainties, the Simpevarp subarea meets all safety requirements and most of the safety preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Simpevarp subarea. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Still, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry within the Simpevarp subarea would allow for a more specified layout, although the sensitivity analysis shows that the space needed is rather robust with respect to uncertainties in the zones. There is substantial uncertainty in the discrete fracture network (DFN) model

  1. Synthesis, Spectral Analysis and Preliminary in Vitro Evaluation of Some Tetrapyrrolic Complexes with 3d Metal Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Socoteanu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two tetrapyrrolic complexes, Zn(II-5-(3-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenylporphyrin and Cu(II-5-(3-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenylporphyrin were synthesized, and characterized from a spectral and biological point of view. The study provided data concerning the behavior of identical external substituents vs. two different core insertions. Some of the properties of the proposed tetrapyrrolic structures were highlighted, having photodynamic therapy of cancer as a targeted biomedical application. Elemental analysis, NMR, FTIR and UV-Vis data in various solvents were provided. A preliminary in vitro study on normal and cancer cultured cells was carried out for biocompatibility assessment in dark conditions. The preliminary in vitro study performed on human peripheral mononuclear cells exposed to tetrapyrrolic compounds (2 µM showed that the proposed compounds had a convenient cytotoxic profile on human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells under dark conditions. Meanwhile, the investigated compounds reduced the number of metabolically active breast tumor MCF-7 cells, with the exception of Zn(II complex-containing a symmetrical ligand. Accordingly, preliminary in vitro data suggest that the proposed tetrapyrrolic compounds are good candidates for PDT, as they limit tumor expansion even under dark conditions, whilst sparing normal cells.

  2. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a compound library of triazolylcyclitols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Gonzalo; Drewes, Carine C; Shimada, Ana Lúcia B; Bertucci, Ana; Farsky, Sandra H P; Stefani, Helio A; Gonzalez, David

    2013-07-15

    A small library of compounds was prepared by a combination of toluene dioxygenase (TDO)-catalyzed enzymatic dihydroxylation and copper(I)-catalyzed Hüisgen cycloaddition. Some compounds were obtained by coupling an alkyne and a conduritol derivative, while more complex structures were obtained by a double Hüisgen reaction of a dialkyne and two molecules of the cyclitol. The compounds were fully characterized and subjected to preliminary biological screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The evaluation of GL impact in Physical sciences using bibliometric indicators : preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, Rosa (CNR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    A bibliometric study of the Italian grey literature in SIGLE database. Preliminary results. Given the increasing importance of Grey Literature (GL) for the information and documentation field, it is essential to apply a bibliometric analysis similar to the one widely used for the conventional literature. Study objectives: 1) impact evalutation of grey literature in physical sciences; and 2) differentiation between scientific and non scientific grey literature documents in the same discipline,...

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Outcomes of Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy for Armed Forces Veterans presenting with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harford

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This brief outline presents some initial findings from a pilot project conducted within a charity settingin the UK, examining clinical outcomes for a cohort of armed forces veterans presenting with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Outcomes were measuredusing CORE-OM (Evans et al 2000, PHQ-9 (Kroenke et al 2001 and GAD-7 (Spitzer et al 2006. Preliminary findings show that positive Reliable Change on global distress and anxiety had taken place within 16 sessions. These results suggest that transactional analysis psychotherapy has promise for treatment of PTSD with this client group and that further research is warranted.

  5. Evaluation of the therapeutic results of actinic keratosis treated with topical 5% fluorouracil by reflectance confocal laser microscopy: preliminary study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Priscila; Maia, Marcus; Rodrigues, Sarita Bartholomei; Marta, Alessandra Cristina; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Topical treatment for actinic keratosis with 5% fluorouracil has a recurrence rate of 54% in 12 months of follow-up. This study analyzed thirteen actinic keratoses on the upper limbs through confocal microscopy, at the time of clinical diagnosis and after 4 weeks of treatment with fluorouracil. After the treatment was established and evidence of clinical cure was achieved, in two of the nine actinic keratoses, confocal microscopy enabled visualization of focal areas of atypical honeycomb pattern in the epidermis indicating therapeutic failure. Preliminary data suggest the use of confocal microscopy as a tool for diagnosis and therapeutic control of actinic keratosis. PMID:26131881

  6. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity of guanylhydrazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Paulo H B; Da Silva-Júnior, Edeildo F; Aquino, Pedro G V; Santana, Antônio E G; Ferro, Jamylle N S; De Oliveira Barreto, Emiliano; Do Ó Pessoa, Cláudia; Meira, Assuero Silva; De Aquino, Thiago M; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna S; Schmitt, Martine; De Araújo-Júnior, João X

    2016-03-01

    Guanylhydrazones have shown promising antitumor activity in preclinical tumor models in several studies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the cytotoxic effect of a series of synthetic guanylhydrazones. Different human tumor cell lines, by including HCT-8 (colon carcinoma), MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) and SF-295 (glioblastoma) were continuous exposed to guanylhydrazone derivatives for 72 hours and growth inhibition of tumor cell lines and macrophages J774 was measured using tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay. Compounds 7, 11, 16 and 17 showed strong cytotoxic activity with IC50 values lower than 10 μmol L(-1) against four tumor cell lines. Among them, 7 was less toxic to non-tumor cells. Finally, obtained data suggest that guanylhydrazones may be regarded as potential lead compounds for the design of novel anticancer agents.

  7. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity of guanylhydrazone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    França Paulo H. B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guanylhydrazones have shown promising antitumor activity in preclinical tumor models in several studies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the cytotoxic effect of a series of synthetic guanylhydrazones. Different human tumor cell lines, by including HCT-8 (colon carcinoma, MDA-MB-435 (melanoma and SF-295 (glioblastoma were continuous exposed to guanylhydrazone derivatives for 72 hours and growth inhibition of tumor cell lines and macrophages J774 was measured using tetrazolium salt (MTT assay. Compounds 7, 11, 16 and 17 showed strong cytotoxic activity with IC50 values lower than 10 μmol L−1 against four tumor cell lines. Among them, 7 was less toxic to non-tumor cells. Finally, obtained data suggest that guanylhydrazones may be regarded as potential lead compounds for the design of novel anticancer agents.

  8. Development and preliminary evaluation of culturally specific web-based intervention for parents of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Kim, S; Ko, H; Kim, Y; Park, C G

    2016-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Problematic parent-child relationships have been identified as one of the main predictors of adolescents' mental health problems, but there are few existing interventions that address this issue. The format and delivery method of existing interventions for parents are relatively inaccessible for parents with full-time jobs and families living in rural areas. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The newly developed 'Stepping Stone' culturally specific web-based intervention, which is intended to help Korean parents of adolescents to acquire both knowledge and communication and conflict management skills, was found to be feasible and well-accepted by parents. This study enabled us to identify areas for improvement in the content and format of the intervention and strategies. This will potentially increase effect sizes for the outcome variables of parents' perception and behaviours. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This web-based intervention could be delivered across diverse settings, such as schools and community mental health centers, to increase parents' knowledge of adolescent's mental health and allow for early detection of mental health problems. Mental health nurses working in schools may spend a significant amount of time addressing students' mental health issues; thus, this web-based intervention could be a useful resource to share with parents and children. In this way, the mental health nurses could facilitate parental engagement in the intervention and then help them to continue to apply and practice the knowledge and skills obtained through the program. Introduction There is a need for accessible, culturally specific web-based interventions to address parent-child relationships and adolescents' mental health. Aims This study developed and conducted a preliminary evaluation of a 4-week web-based intervention for parents of adolescents aged 11 to 16 years in Korea. Methods We used a two-group, repeated

  9. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  10. Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gulluni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of essential oil from legal (THC <0.2% w/v hemp variety on the nervous system in 5 healthy volunteers. GC/EIMS and GC/FID analysis of the EO showed that the main components were myrcene and β-caryophyllene. The experiment consisted of measuring autonomic nervous system (ANS parameters; evaluations of the mood state; and electroencephalography (EEG recording before treatment, during treatment, and after hemp inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. The results revealed decreased diastolic blood pressure, increased heart rate, and significant increased skin temperature. The subjects described themselves as more energetic, relaxed, and calm. The analysis EEG showed a significant increase in the mean frequency of alpha (8–13 Hz and significant decreased mean frequency and relative power of beta 2 (18,5–30 Hz waves. Moreover, an increased power, relative power, and amplitude of theta (4–8 Hz and alpha brain waves activities and an increment in the delta wave (0,5–4 Hz power and relative power was recorded in the posterior region of the brain. These results suggest that the brain wave activity and ANS are affected by the inhalation of the EO of Cannabis sativa suggesting a neuromodular activity in cases of stress, depression, and anxiety.

  11. MRI evaluation of infectious and non-infectious synovitis: preliminary studies in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strouse, P.J.; DiPietro, M.A.; Teo, E.L.H.J.; Londy, F.; Chrisp, C.E.; Doi, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Literature on magnetic resonance imaging (MR) evaluation of inflammatory joint effusions is sparse. Objective. To describe an animal model for studying infectious and non-infectious joint effusions with magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods. Ten rabbit knees with septic arthritis and four with talc synovitis were imaged with MR. Contralateral knees injected with saline served as controls. Fat saturation T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were assessed for joint effusion, and periarticular and adjacent intraosseous increased signal or enhancement. Each knee was cultured and underwent pathologic examination. Results. Both Staphylococcus aureus and talc produced effusions in all knees. The degree of periarticular signal and enhancement was greater in infected knees than talc-injected knees. No abnormal enhancement was seen within bone. Pathologic examination showed a greater degree of inflammation and joint destruction in the infected knees, but no evidence of osteomyelitis. Conclusion. A greater degree of abnormal signal and enhancement seen on MR suggests a more vigorous inflammatory process, as seen with septic arthritis. In spite of advanced septic arthritis, no enhancement was evident within bone, suggesting that enhancement within bone is not an expected finding in isolated septic arthritis and should raise concern for osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  12. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to provide

  13. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  14. Evaluation of 4 mm implants in mandibular edentulous patients with reduced bone height. Surgical preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Calvo-Guirado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this short comunication was to evaluate the clinical use of implants < 10 mm in length and to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Materials and methods: Six women and three men were recruited for the treatment of edentulous mandibles. A total of 6 implants were inserted in each patient: two anterior implants of conventional lenght and four posterior 4 mm Titanium Zirconium (TiZr implants. The insertion torque and bone denisty were evaluated. Results: The mean insertion torque for the 4 mm implants was lower than for conventional ones, without any statistical difference. Moreover, most of the patients (88% showed a D2 bone type. Conclusion: The provision of short implant-supported prostheses in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges appears to be a successful treatment option in the short term; however, more scientific evidence is needed for the long term.

  15. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  16. A comparative evaluation of the regulation of GM crops or products containing dsRNA and suggested improvements to risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Jack A; Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Carman, Judy A

    2013-05-01

    Changing the nature, kind and quantity of particular regulatory-RNA molecules through genetic engineering can create biosafety risks. While some genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are intended to produce new regulatory-RNA molecules, these may also arise in other GMOs not intended to express them. To characterise, assess and then mitigate the potential adverse effects arising from changes to RNA requires changing current approaches to food or environmental risk assessments of GMOs. We document risk assessment advice offered to government regulators in Australia, New Zealand and Brazil during official risk evaluations of GM plants for use as human food or for release into the environment (whether for field trials or commercial release), how the regulator considered those risks, and what that experience teaches us about the GMO risk assessment framework. We also suggest improvements to the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A preliminary PET evaluation of the new dopamine D2 receptor agonist [11C]MNPA in cynomolgus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnema, Sjoerd J.; Seneca, Nicholas; Farde, Lars; Shchukin, Evgeny; Sovago, Judit; Gulyas, Balazs; Wikstroem, Hakan V.; Innis, Robert B.; Neumeyer, John L.; Halldin, Christer

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the preliminary positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation of a dopamine D 2 -like receptor agonist (R)-2- 11 CH 3 O-N-n-propylnorapomorphine ([ 11 C]MNPA), as a potential new radioligand for in vivo imaging of the high-affinity state of the dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R). MNPA is a selective D 2 -like receptor agonist with a high affinity (K i =0.17 nM). [ 11 C]MNPA was successfully synthesized by direct O-methylation of (R)-2-hydroxy-NPA using [ 11 C]methyl iodide and was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys. This study included baseline PET experiments and a pretreatment study using unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg). High uptake of radioactivity was seen in regions known to contain high D 2 R, with a maximum striatum-to-cerebellum ratio of 2.23±0.21 at 78 min and a maximum thalamus-to-cerebellum ratio of 1.37±0.06 at 72 min. The pretreatment study demonstrated high specific binding to D 2 R by reducing the striatum-to-cerebellum ratio to 1.26 at 78 min. This preliminary study indicates that the dopamine agonist [ 11 C]MNPA has potential as an agonist radioligand for the D 2 -like receptor and has potential for examination of the high-affinity state of the D 2 R in human subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders

  18. Evaluation of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in fenestrated stent grafts: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Allen, Y.; Fitzsimmons, B.; Hartely, D.; Lawrence-Brown, M.

    2007-01-01

    We aim in this study to investigate the potential value of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in patients diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing fenestrated stent grafts. Both pre-and post-fenestration (within 3 months of implantation) multislice CT data were collected in eight patients and used for generation of virtual endoscopy images in our preliminary study. Variable fenestrations were deployed in 25 aortic branches with scallop fenestration implanted in six aortic ostia, large fenestration in four aortic ostia and small fenestration in 15 renal ostia, respectively. Measurements of the aortic ostia diameters both pre- and post-fenestration were successfully performed with virtual intravascular endoscopy visualization, and endovascular stents as well as their relationship to the aortic ostia were clearly demonstrated. Our results showed that there was no significant change of diameter of the aortic ostia following fenestrated stem grafts. Endovascular stents were clearly visualized on virtual endoscopy images, and no apparent deformity or malrotation was observed in this small group. Our preliminary study provides new insights into anatomic configuration/dimension of aortic ostia and endovascular stents, and virtual intravascular endoscopy could be a valuable technique to follow-up patients treated with fenestrated stent grafts. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in fenestrated stent grafts: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z. [Dept. of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia); Allen, Y.; Fitzsimmons, B.; Hartely, D. [Cook R and D, WA (Australia); Lawrence-Brown, M. [Dept. of Public Health, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    We aim in this study to investigate the potential value of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in patients diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing fenestrated stent grafts. Both pre-and post-fenestration (within 3 months of implantation) multislice CT data were collected in eight patients and used for generation of virtual endoscopy images in our preliminary study. Variable fenestrations were deployed in 25 aortic branches with scallop fenestration implanted in six aortic ostia, large fenestration in four aortic ostia and small fenestration in 15 renal ostia, respectively. Measurements of the aortic ostia diameters both pre- and post-fenestration were successfully performed with virtual intravascular endoscopy visualization, and endovascular stents as well as their relationship to the aortic ostia were clearly demonstrated. Our results showed that there was no significant change of diameter of the aortic ostia following fenestrated stem grafts. Endovascular stents were clearly visualized on virtual endoscopy images, and no apparent deformity or malrotation was observed in this small group. Our preliminary study provides new insights into anatomic configuration/dimension of aortic ostia and endovascular stents, and virtual intravascular endoscopy could be a valuable technique to follow-up patients treated with fenestrated stent grafts. (orig.)

  20. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of serum total cholesterol concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, H; Viall, A; Ruaux, C; Bracha, S

    2017-10-01

    To determine if total serum cholesterol concentrations were altered in dogs with osteosarcoma. To evaluate association of total serum cholesterol concentration with clinical outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Retrospective, multi-institutional study on 64 dogs with osteosarcoma. Control population consisted of dogs with traumatic bone fractures (n=30) and healthy patients of similar age and weight as those of the osteosarcoma cases (n=31). Survival analysis was done on 35 appendicular osteosarcoma patients that received the current standard of care. Statistical associations were assessed by univariable and multi-variable analysis. Information about age, sex, primary tumour location, total cholesterol concentration, monocytes and lymphocyte counts and alkaline phosphatase were also included. Total cholesterol was elevated above the reference interval (3·89 to 7·12 mmol/L) (150 to 275 mg/dL) in 29 of 64 (45·3%) osteosarcoma-bearing dogs, whereas similar elevations were found in only 3 of 30 (10%) fracture controls (Posteosarcoma. These results suggest that elevated total cholesterol is associated with canine osteosarcoma and may have prognostic significance. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO 4 - in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O 4 - , which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The Cr oxidation front

  3. Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise in Finland: A preliminary investigation introducing the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukivi, Max; Kortekangas-Savolainen, Outi; Saxén, Ulla; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria

    2015-10-01

    Teaching medical professionalism is increasingly acknowledged as an important aspect of medical education. The Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise (P-MEX) is an assessment tool for evaluating medical professionalism, but no studies using it as a self-assessment instrument have been reported. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation of the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument as an assessment and self-assessment measure. The sample in the present cross-sectional study comprised all 23 medical students and recent graduates (15 females and 8 males) participating in a summer school of psychiatry program in 2014. The two-month program combines clinical work with multifaceted teaching and intensive tutoring. At the end of the program, the participants' medical professionalism was assessed by the tutors and other members of the work community as well as the students themselves using the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument. The P-MEX scores were compared, using the Friedman test. The mean values and SD for the P-MEX assessments were as follows: tutor assessment 3.26±0.21, work community assessment 3.32±0.26 and self-assessment 3.01±0.07. No significant gender differences were observed. The tutor and work community assessments were significantly correlated (r=0.573, p=0.040), but the self-assessment scores did not correlate with either of the other assessments. Overall, the students evaluated their skills significantly poorer in comparison to the other assessments. Although the small sample size limits the generalization of these preliminary results, the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument appears to be a feasible measure of medical professionalism. The instrument can also be used as a self-assessment instrument, but subjective evaluations should be complemented with external assessments or feedback in order to take individual and cultural aspects into account.

  4. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  5. Pharmacological evaluation and preliminary pharmacokinetics studies of a new diclofenac prodrug without gastric ulceration effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jean Leandro Dos; Moreira, Vanessa; Campos, Michel Leandro; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; de Castro Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Teixeira, Catarina; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Chin, Chung Man

    2012-11-19

    Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE(2) levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy.

  6. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preliminary Pharmacokinetics Studies of a New Diclofenac Prodrug without Gastric Ulceration Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Man Chin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenylindolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE2 levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  8. Evaluating the NOx Storage Catalysts (NSC Aging: A Preliminary Analytical Study with Electronic Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda Bellebuono

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an expeditious and reliable method for determining the thermal effects in a static condition of commercial NOx storage catalysts (NSCs using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analytical system (SEM/EDS. It is worth remarking that possible changes in the morphology and in the elemental composition of the catalyst may be considered as the most important causes of the lower conversion of NOx. The information attained in this work indicates that Pt nanoparticle sintering is strongly increased by the oxygen exposure, and this can be considered a very useful preliminary investigation for the studies already present in the literature on the efficiency of NSCs.

  9. Preliminary in Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Spadaccio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-L-lactide/poly-8-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings.

  10. Economic evaluation of short-term wind power forecast in ERCOT. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orwig, Kirsten D.; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Brinkman, Greg; Ela, Erik; Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Banunarayanan, Venkat; Nasir, Saleh [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Freedman, Jeff [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A number of wind energy integration studies have investigated the monetary value of using day-ahead wind power forecasts for grid operation decisions. Historically, these studies have shown that large cost savings could be gained by grid operators implementing the forecasts in their system operations. To date, none of these studies have investigated the value of shorter term (0- to 6-h ahead) wind power forecasts. In 2010, the Department of Energy and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration partnered to form the Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP) to fund improvements in short-term wind forecasts and determine the economic value of these improvements to grid operators. In this work, we discuss the preliminary results of the economic benefit analysis portion of the WFIP for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas. The improvements seen in the wind forecasts are examined and the economic results of a production cost model simulation are analyzed. (orig.)

  11. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of techniques for transforming regional climate model output to the potential repository site in support of Yucca Mountain future climate synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.; Behl, Y.K.

    1995-06-01

    The report describes a preliminary evaluation of models for transforming regional climate model output from a regional to a local scale for the Yucca Mountain area. Evaluation and analysis of both empirical and numerical modeling are discussed which is aimed at providing site-specific, climate-based information for use by interfacing activities. Two semiempirical approaches are recommended for further analysis

  13. Implementation of transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders in residential eating disorder programs: A preliminary pre-post evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Boswell, James F; Espel-Huynh, Hallie; Brooks, Gayle; Lowe, Michael R

    2018-03-19

    Data are lacking from empirically supported therapies implemented in residential programs for eating disorders (EDs). Common elements treatments may be well-suited to address the complex implementation and treatment challenges that characterize these settings. This study assessed the preliminary effect of implementing a common elements therapy on clinician treatment delivery and patient (N = 616) symptom outcomes in two residential ED programs. The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders was adapted to address ED and co-occurring psychopathology and implemented across sites. Therapists' treatment fidelity was rated independently to assess implementation success. Additionally, longitudinal (pre-post) design compared treatment outcomes among patients treated before and after implementation. Patient outcomes included ED and depressive symptoms, experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and mindfulness. Following training and implementation, clinicians demonstrated adequate to good fidelity. Relative to pre-implementation, post-implementation patients showed significantly greater improvements in experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and mindfulness at discharge (ps ≤ .04) and more favorable outcomes on ED symptom severity, depression, and experiential avoidance at 6-month follow up (ps ≤ .0001). Preliminary pilot data support the feasibility of implementing transdiagnostic common elements therapy in residential ED treatment, and suggest that implementation may benefit transdiagnostic outcomes for patients.

  14. A preliminary evaluation of the ability of from-reactor casks to geometrically accommodate commercial LWR spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.; Joy, D.S.; McLeod, N.B.; Peterson, R.W.; Rahimi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of cask design efforts to define several transportation casks to accommodate the various assemblies expected to be accepted by the Federal Waste Management System. At this time, three preliminary cask designs have been selected for the final design--the GA-4 and GA-9 truck casks and the BR-100 rail cask. In total, this assessment indicates that the current Initiative I cask designs can be expected to dimensionally accommodate 100% of the PWR fuel assemblies (other than the extra-long South Texas Fuel) with control elements removed, and >90% of the assemblies having the control elements as an integral part of the fuel assembly. For BWR assemblies, >99% of the assemblies can be accommodated with fuel channels removed. This paper summarizes preliminary results of one part of that evaluation related to the ability of the From-Reactor Initiative I casks to accommodate the physical and radiological characteristics of the Spent Nuclear Fuel projected to be accepted into the Federal Waste Management System. 3 refs., 5 tabs

  15. The Utility of Pitch Elevation in the Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald; Logemann, Jeri A.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a pitch elevation task in the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Method: This study was a pilot prospective cohort study including 40 consecutive patients (16 male and 24 female) who were referred by their physician for a swallowing evaluation. Patients were evaluated with a noninstrumental clinical…

  16. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  17. A Sensitivity Study for an Evaluation of Input Parameters Effect on a Preliminary Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Hyun-Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sheen, Dong-Hoon [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The tsunami hazard analysis has been based on the seismic hazard analysis. The seismic hazard analysis has been performed by using the deterministic method and the probabilistic method. To consider the uncertainties in hazard analysis, the probabilistic method has been regarded as attractive approach. The various parameters and their weight are considered by using the logic tree approach in the probabilistic method. The uncertainties of parameters should be suggested by analyzing the sensitivity because the various parameters are used in the hazard analysis. To apply the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis, the preliminary study for the Ulchin NPP site had been performed. The information on the fault sources which was published by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) had been used in the preliminary study. The tsunami propagation was simulated by using the TSUNAMI{sub 1}.0 which was developed by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). The wave parameters have been estimated from the result of tsunami simulation. In this study, the sensitivity analysis for the fault sources which were selected in the previous studies has been performed. To analyze the effect of the parameters, the sensitivity analysis for the E3 fault source which was published by AESJ was performed. The effect of the recurrence interval, the potential maximum magnitude, and the beta were suggested by the sensitivity analysis results. Level of annual exceedance probability has been affected by the recurrence interval.. Wave heights have been influenced by the potential maximum magnitude and the beta. In the future, the sensitivity analysis for the all fault sources in the western part of Japan which were published AESJ would be performed.

  18. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  19. Preliminary Evaluations of CSPACE for a Station Blackout Transient in APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. B.; Lee, D. K.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, G. W.; Choi, T. S. [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, R. J.; Kim, D. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper discusses the preliminary results of the simulated station blackout (SBO) transients using the CSPACE code and presents the information pertinent to the related safety issues. CSPACE is a merged program of a master processer of Safety and Performance Analysis Code (SPACE) for nuclear power plants and a child processer of Core Meltdown Progression Accident Simulation Software (COMPASS) generated as a dynamic-link library (DLL) codes. It has been developed to predict the best-estimate transient in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) for severe accidents. SPACE and COMPASS codes take charge of the thermal-hydraulic response of PWRs and the analysis of the severe accident progression in a vessel, respectively. The initial phase is estimated starting from time zero when the loss of off-site and on-site powers occurs simultaneously. Shortly after the RCS pressure initially falls and rises slightly due to the effects of the reactor and turbine trips, the RCS pressure declines in response to the cooling provided by heat removed to the SGs. During the period of the primary heat-up and boil-off, the RCS pressure increase is limited by two cycles of the POSRV. The RCS fluid mass is lost through the pressurizer POSRV and then the core uncovers and superheated steam flows out from the RV into the coolant loops starting at 5513.0 seconds.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of lung doses for dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Hadley, R.T.; Park, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A group of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 is being followed for life-span effects. This paper reports preliminary lung dose estimates and dose-response relationships for incidence of lung tumors and radiation pneumonitis which have been observed to date. Doses were estimated by using both conventional dose-averaging and microdosimetric techniques. Cascade impactor sampling data were used to reconstruct the original plutonium aerosol size distributions unique to each of about 120 individual dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 . Data providing the initial plutonium lung burden and lifetime lung retention-clearance functions of plutonium for each dog were used for calculating average dose rates, cumulative absorbed doses, and specific energy distributions. A linear dose-response relationship for lung tumor induction was estimated on the basis of cumulative lung dose. Average time to death was estimated as a function of average dose rate. Conclusions regarding the potential value of microdosimetry in the interpretation of such dose-response relationships are discussed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Measuring attitudes towards suicide: Preliminary evaluation of an attitude towards suicide scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Jan Christopher; Till, Benedikt; Bieda, Angela; Blackwell, Simon E; Walter, Carolin; Teismann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to validate a previously published scale assessing attitudes towards suicide. Factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictive validity were investigated. Adult German participants (N=503; mean age=24.74years; age range=18-67years) anonymously completed a set of questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and incongruous items were deleted. Subsequently, scale properties of the reduced scale and its construct validity were analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted in an independent sample (N=266; mean age=28.77years; age range=18-88years) to further confirm the factor structure of the questionnaire. Parallel analysis indicated a three-factor solution, which was also supported by confirmatory factor analysis: right to commit suicide, interpersonal gesture and resilience. The subscales demonstrated acceptable construct and discriminant validity. Cronbach's α for the subscales ranged from 0.67 to 0.83, explaining 49.70% of the total variance. Positive attitudes towards suicide proved to be predictive of suicide risk status, providing preliminary evidence for the utility of the scale. Future studies aiming to reproduce the factor structure in a more heterogeneous sample are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of a self-report tool for Learned Helplessness and Mastery Orientation in Italian students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learned helplessness (LH is defined as a passive behavior characterized by an inability to learn that may affect the academic success of students. Conversely, students who show good motivation skills, optimism and perseverance are more focused on tasks and ‘mastery oriented’ (derived from Mastery Orientation, MO. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measurement of LH and MO - the Learned Helplessness Questionnaire (LHQ - for the Italian scholastic context. We translated and adapted a student self-evaluation register, the Student behaviour checklist, and administered the questionnaire to Italian students in order to provide a preliminary factor structure. Exploratory factor analyses conducted support a two-factor model and acceptable internal reliability of the Italian LHQ.The results encourage the conduction of further analysis to assess the psychometric characteristics of the LHQ in depth.

  3. Preliminary engineering evaluation of heat and digest treatment for in-tank removal of radionuclides from complexed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klem, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report uses laboratory data from low temperature-ambient pressure digestion of actual complexed supernatant to evaluate digestion as a pretreatment method for waste in double-shell tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AN-107 and 241-AY-101. Digestion time requirements were developed at 100 degrees celsius to remove organic and meet NRC Class C criterion for TRU elements and NRC Class B criterion for 90Sr. The incidental waste ruling will establish the need for removal of 90Sr. Digestion pretreatment precipitates non radioactive metal ions and produces additional high-level waste solids and canisters of high level glass. This report estimates the amount of additional high-level waste produced and preliminary capital and operating costs for in-tank digestion of waste. An overview of alternative in-tank treatment methods is included

  4. Improving Phonological Awareness in Parents of Children at Risk of Literacy Difficulties: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Boost Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Boyes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPhonological awareness is an important skill underpinning the development of early literacy. Given the central role of parents in supporting the development of children’s early literacy skills, and that poor parental phonological awareness is associated with poorer child literacy outcomes, it is possible that improving parent phonological awareness may aid literacy development for at-risk children. This study is a preliminary evaluation of a program aiming to improve phonological awareness skills of parents in low socioeconomic status communities, and also provide these parents with strategies to support their child’s literacy development.MethodsAfter completing the program, participants were asked if it had helped them learn about how to assist their child’s reading and spelling, whether they planned on using the resources provided, and if they would be likely to attend a future workshop building on the Boost program. Phonological awareness measures (rhyme, syllable, and phoneme level, and measures of overall confidence in performance on the phonological awareness tasks, were administered both before and after attending the program.ResultsAlmost all parents indicated that the program helped with learning how to assist their child’s reading and spelling, that they would use the resources provided, and would likely attend a future workshop. Significant increases in pre- to post-program phonological awareness scores were obtained at the rhyme and phoneme level.ConclusionThe program and associated resources appear acceptable to parents in communities with high rates of literacy problems and improved parents’ phonological awareness skills. However, findings are preliminary and further evaluation using more rigorous methodologies and testing whether improvements in parents’ phonological awareness translate into better literacy outcomes for children is needed.

  5. Five-Kilometers Time Trial: Preliminary Validation of a Short Test for Cycling Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Jose Luiz; Pereira, Gleber; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo

    2015-09-01

    The five-kilometer time trial (TT5km) has been used to assess aerobic endurance performance without further investigation of its validity. This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the TT5km to rank well-trained cyclists based on aerobic endurance fitness and assess changes of the aerobic endurance performance. After the incremental test, 20 cyclists (age = 31.3 ± 7.9 years; body mass index = 22.7 ± 1.5 kg/m(2); maximal aerobic power = 360.5 ± 49.5 W) performed the TT5km twice, collecting performance (time to complete, absolute and relative power output, average speed) and physiological responses (heart rate and electromyography activity). The validation criteria were pacing strategy, absolute and relative reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Sensitivity index was obtained from the ratio between the smallest worthwhile change and typical error. The TT5km showed high absolute (coefficient of variation 0.95) reliability of performance variables, whereas it presented low reliability of physiological responses. The TT5km performance variables were highly correlated with the aerobic endurance indices obtained from incremental test (r > 0.70). These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1). TT5km is a valid test to rank the aerobic endurance fitness of well-trained cyclists and to differentiate changes on aerobic endurance performance. Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W) or relative power output (± 0.3 W.kg(-1)), the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s) and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h(-1)). Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness.

  6. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Insubria University of Varese, Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  7. A Preliminary Design of a Calibration Chamber for Evaluating the Stability of Unsaturated Soil Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H.-H.

    2012-04-01

    The unsaturated soil slopes, which have ground water tables and are easily failure caused by heavy rainfalls, are widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid areas. For analyzing the stability of slope, in situ tests are the direct methods to obtain the test site characteristics. The cone penetration test (CPT) is a popular in situ test method. Some of the CPT empirical equations established from calibration chamber tests. The CPT performed in calibration chamber was commonly used clean quartz sand as testing material in the past. The silty sand is observed in many actual slopes. Because silty sand is relatively compressible than quartz sand, it is not suitable to apply the correlations between soil properties and CPT results built from quartz sand to silty sand. The experience on CPT calibration in silty sand has been limited. CPT calibration tests were mostly performed in dry or saturated soils. The condition around cone tip during penetration is assumed to be fully drained or fully undrained, yet it was observed to be partially drained for unsaturated soils. Because of the suction matrix has a great effect on the characteristics of unsaturated soils, they are much sensitive to the water content than saturated soils. The design of an unsaturated calibration chamber is in progress. The air pressure is supplied from the top plate and the pore water pressure is provided through the high air entry value ceramic disks located at the bottom plate of chamber cell. To boost and uniform distribute the unsaturated effect, four perforated burettes are installed onto the ceramic disks and stretch upwards to the midheight of specimen. This paper describes design concepts, illustrates this unsaturated calibration chamber, and presents the preliminary test results.

  8. Evaluation of Passive Multilayer Cloud Detection Using Preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO Cloud Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chang, F.; Huang, J.; Nguyen, L.; Ayers, J. K.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Yi, Y.; Trepte, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    During the last few years, several algorithms have been developed to detect and retrieve multilayered clouds using passive satellite data. Assessing these techniques has been difficult due to the need for active sensors such as cloud radars and lidars that can "see" through different layers of clouds. Such sensors have been available only at a few surface sites and on aircraft during field programs. With the launch of the CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites on April 28, 2006, it is now possible to observe multilayered systems all over the globe using collocated cloud radar and lidar data. As part of the A- Train, these new active sensors are also matched in time ad space with passive measurements from the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E). The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) has been developing and testing algorithms to detect ice-over-water overlapping cloud systems and to retrieve the cloud liquid path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) for those systems. One technique uses a combination of the CERES cloud retrieval algorithm applied to MODIS data and a microwave retrieval method applied to AMSR-E data. The combination of a CO2-slicing cloud retireval technique with the CERES algorithms applied to MODIS data (Chang et al., 2005) is used to detect and analyze such overlapped systems that contain thin ice clouds. A third technique uses brightness temperature differences and the CERES algorithms to detect similar overlapped methods. This paper uses preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO data to begin a global scale assessment of these different methods. The long-term goals are to assess and refine the algorithms to aid the development of an optimal combination of the techniques to better monitor ice 9and liquid water clouds in overlapped conditions.

  9. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications

  10. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  11. Human Machine Interface and Usability Issues: Exploring a Preliminary Mission Management System Evaluation Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kardos, Monique

    2001-01-01

    ...) concept demonstrator test during June 2000. The questionnaire was designed to examine usability and interface issues relating to the design of the systems or tools, and to provide suggestions for future iterations of the system...

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Critical Wave Energy Thresholds at Natural and Created Coastal Wetlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    This technical note presents an evaluation of the wave climate at eight natural and created coastal wetland sites in an effort to identify the existence of critical wave energy thresholds for long-term marsh stability...

  13. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of the Computer-Based Tactics Certification Course--Principles of War Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pleban, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a portion of the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Infantry Forces Research Unit's work in the formative evaluation of the computer based Tactics Certification Course (TCC...

  15. The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Fitness to Plead: a preliminary evaluation of a research instrument for assessing fitness to plead in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkunmi, Akintunde A

    2002-01-01

    This study concerns the preliminary evaluation of an instrument, the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Fitness to Plead (MacCAT-FP), for assessing competence to stand trial, according to the legal requirements in England and Wales. The purposes of the study were to ascertain whether the instrument can be administered practically to groups of prisoners, both those with mental illness and those without; to examine its internal consistency and interrater reliability; to determine whether it can distinguish between fit and unfit individuals, as judged by expert forensic psychiatrists; and to discover whether it is sensitive to changes over time. The instrument was administered to two groups of remanded prisoners: those transferred to psychiatric units for treatment and those without mental illness. In addition to the MacCAT-FP, scales measuring symptom severity and IQ were administered to all participants. Results suggest that the instrument is practical, with good internal consistency and interrater reliability. The correlation of scores with psychiatrists' opinions as to fitness was 0.77. Scores of unfit patients were significantly different from those of fit individuals. The instrument was able to detect significant differences in scores over time. It is suggested that once the instrument has been further validated for research purposes, it may be developed for clinical application.

  16. Radium-223-Dichloride in Castration Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer—Preliminary Results of the Response Evaluation Using F-18-Fluoride PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome after Radium-223-dichloride (223RaCl2 treatment of patients with skeletal metastases of castration resistant prostate cancer using whole-body 18F-Fluoride PET/CT. Sodium 18F-fluoride [18F]-NaF PET/CT was performed prior the treatment of 223RaCl2, after the first cycle and after the sixth cycle. The skeletal metastases were analyzed quantitatively using modified PET response evaluation PERCIST criteria. The patients were also analyzed for S-PSA. All ten patients responded in [18F]-NaF scans after 6 cycles, but interim analysis after the 1st cycle did not give additional information about the outcome. The S-PSA decrease correlated with [18F]-NaF response, only 1 patient demonstrated progressive disease, i.e., >25% increase in S-PSA values during 223RaCl2. Our results (although preliminary suggest that 18F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in the follow-up of castration resistant prostate cancer with skeletal metastases.

  17. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2006-03-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  19. Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases : a review and suggested reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Decision analytic models play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of health technologies. Given uncertainties around the assumptions used to develop such models, several guidelines have been published to identify and assess 'best practice' in the model development process, including general modelling approach (e.g., time horizon), model structure, input data and model performance evaluation. This paper focuses on model performance evaluation. In the absence of a sufficient level of detail around model performance evaluation, concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs, and hence the credibility of such models, are frequently raised. Following presentation of its components, a review of the application and reporting of model performance evaluation is presented. Taking cardiovascular disease as an illustrative example, the review investigates the use of face validity, internal validity, external validity, and cross model validity. As a part of the performance evaluation process, model calibration is also discussed and its use in applied studies investigated. The review found that the application and reporting of model performance evaluation across 81 studies of treatment for cardiovascular disease was variable. Cross-model validation was reported in 55 % of the reviewed studies, though the level of detail provided varied considerably. We found that very few studies documented other types of validity, and only 6 % of the reviewed articles reported a calibration process. Considering the above findings, we propose a comprehensive model performance evaluation framework (checklist), informed by a review of best-practice guidelines. This framework provides a basis for more accurate and consistent documentation of model performance evaluation. This will improve the peer review process and the comparability of modelling studies. Recognising the fundamental role of decision analytic models in informing public funding decisions, the proposed

  20. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Scale for Evaluation of Psychiatric Integrative and Continuous Care—Patient’s Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Ignatyev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to evaluate and examine an instrument that integrates relevant aspects of cross-sectoral (in- and outpatients mental health care, is simply to use and shows satisfactory psychometric properties. The development of the scale comprised literature research, held 14 focus groups and 12 interviews with patients and health care providers, item-pool generation, content validation by a scientific expert panel, and face validation by 90 patients. The preliminary scale was tested on 385 patients across seven German hospitals with cross-sectoral mental health care (CSMHC as part of their treatment program. Psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated using genuine and transformed data scoring. To check reliability and postdictive validity of the scale, Cronbach’s α coefficient and multivariable linear regression were used. This development process led to the development of an 18-item scale called the “Scale for Evaluation of Psychiatric Integrative and Continuous Care (SEPICC” with a two-point and five-point response options. The scale consists of two sections. The first section assesses the presence or absence of patients’ experiences with various CSMHC’ relevant components such as home treatment, flexibility of treatments’ switching, case management, continuity of care, cross-sectoral therapeutic groups, and multidisciplinary teams. The second section evaluates the patients’ opinions about these relevant components. Using raw and transformed scoring resulted into comparable results. However, data distribution using transformed scoring showed a smaller deviation from normality. For the overall scale, the Cronbach’s α coefficient was 0.82. Self-reported experiences with relevant components of the CSMHC were positively associated with the patients approval of these components. In conclusion, the new scale provides a good starting point for further validation. It can be used as a tool to evaluate CSMHC

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the control of indoor radon daughter levels in new structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, J.E. Jr.; Guimond, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of its assessment of the radiological impact of the phosphate industry in Florida, the US Environmental Protection Agency has surveyed residences built atop uraniferous reclaimed phosphate mining land. These surveys have shown elevated radon daughter levels to exist in structures built on this land. In order to allow safer use of this land for residential construction, various state-of-the-art radon daughter control technologies were evaluated by the Agency. These included forced ventilation, polymeric sealants, excavation, crawl space construction, and improved slab quality. From a cost-effectiveness evaluation, improved slab quality and crawl space construction were determined to best satisfy the criteria for optimal radon daughter control

  2. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T. Jr.; Smith, P.K.

    1979-12-01

    An evaluation of available information on eleven alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP high-level waste has been completed. Based on the assessment of both product and process characteristics, four forms were selected for more detailed evaluation: (1) borosilicate glass made in the reference process, (2) a high-silica glass made from a porous glass matrix, (3) crystalline ceramics such as supercalcine or SYNROC, and (4) ceramics coated with an impervious barrier. The assessment includes a discussion of product and process characteristics for each of the eleven forms, a cross comparison of these characteristics for the forms, and the bases for selecting the most promising forms for further study

  3. Design and evaluation of a patient website to reduce crowding in emergency departments: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Jessica; Marcilly, Romaric; Leroy, Nicolas; Wawrzyniak, Clément; Martinot, Alain; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to identify the information useful to support a patients' EDs' choice in order to design a patient Web-based system. For that purpose, a focus group and a formative user test have been performed. The results show that five types of information can be relevant. The spontaneous favored information is the "distance" to EDs. The "Wait time", that is sanctified in literature, is only used in a second time. A larger summative evaluation should be planned to evaluate and validate the befits of this kind of tool.

  4. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f O. kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion and Recommendation: In general the antimicrobial activity of the plant observed here support the tradition therapeutic claim of the society. Further study should be conducted in further evaluating its antimicrobial effectiveness and also purification of the active chemical constituents that could be responsible for its biological activity. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, J.M.; Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators

  6. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Reference System, RESAR-414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The safety evaluation for the Westinghouse Standard Reactor includes information on general reactor characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analyses; and quality assurance

  7. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (Argentina); Nagle, C. [Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigaciones Clinicas (Argentina); Dubner, D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (Argentina); Di Rizzio, C. [Academia Nacional de Medicina (Argentina)

    1992-07-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  8. Preliminary study of dose equivalent evaluation for residents in radioactivity contaminated rebar buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.L.; Liao, C.C.; Wang, M.T.; Chen, F. D.

    1998-01-01

    It has recently been found that several resident and office buildings in Taiwan were constructed with 60 Co-contaminated reinforcing steel bar (rebar). Both governmental officials and the residents of such buildings have been concerned about this finding. In order to respond to the situation, the government has adopted a number of remedial measures, including full-scale radiation survey, dose evaluation and physical examinations of residents. This article presents three methods for evaluating the dose equivalents of the residents living in the contaminated rebar buildings by means of γ-ray survey, necklace-type thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and the human lymphocyte chromosome aberration analyses. The results reveal that the dose evaluation by γ-ray survey is rather conservative. Generally for the residents whose annual dose equivalents are greater than 5 mSv (0.5 rem) by γ-ray survey, the dose equivalents from necklace-type TLDs are only within the range of 20 to 50% of the evaluated values mentioned above. For chromosome analyses, at least 500 lymphocyte cells were scored and analyzed for each resident. Most of the chromosome analysis data show that the dose equivalents received by residents are lower than the detection limit of the method (100 mSv) and quite different from the estimated dose obtained from either γ-ray survey or necklace-type TLD measurements

  9. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.; Nagle, C.; Dubner, D.; Di Rizzio, C.

    1992-01-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  10. A preliminary economic evaluation of percutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the treatment of hemiplegic shoulder pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, Janine Astrid; Renzenbrink, Gerbert J.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of various treatment modalities for hemiplegic shoulder pain. Design. A stage II economic evaluation. Main outcome measures. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio of P-NMES, compared to slings and anti-inflammatory

  11. A Preliminary Evaluation of Instructional Effectiveness of Online Training Implemented at a Government Agency in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanakorn-Davila, Supawan; Bolliger, Doris U.

    2012-01-01

    Online training has become popular in the professional development of government employees in Thailand. One large government agency developed an online program to provide training to its employees across the country using two systems: an Internet and Intranet-based system. With the new program implemented, the evaluation of the instructional…

  12. Conceptual Designs for the Performance Improvement of APR1400 SIT and Preliminary Performance Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In-Cheol; Kwon, Tae-Soon; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Some evolutionary type PWRs such as APR1400 and APWR adopt advanced safety injection tank (SIT). The SIT of APR1400 has a fluidic device (FD) which passively controls ECC water injection flow rate into reactor coolant system during refill and reflood phases of LB-LOCA (i.e., a high injection flow rate during the refill phase and a low injection flow rate during the reflood phase). The benefit of the FD is the elimination of the function of low pressure safety injection pump from the safety injection system. The flow controlling performance of the APR1400 FD was evaluated using a prototypical full-scale test facility, called VAPER (Valve Performance Evaluation Rig). Even though the performance of the APR1400 FD satisfied major design and licensing requirements, further improvement of the performance is expected such as the extension of total injection period, the delay of nitrogen gas discharge. Several conceptual designs have been being drawn out in order to improve the performance of the APR1400 SIT. The performance of some designs was evaluated using a small scale SIT test rig. The present paper introduces some of the conceptual designs and shows the performance evaluation experimental results

  13. Preliminary evaluation of working conditions of in a module of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merayo Rodriguez, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, N.; Hernandez Perez, A.

    1998-01-01

    The assessment of radiological protection conditions is carried out in a hospital from the eastern part of Cuba. The work employed a method simulating operations carried out by technicians. Those making the largest contribution to dose are shown. Besides their main causes are also given while evaluating

  14. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the eight-item cognitive load scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatiello, Grant A; Tsivitse, Emily; Hickman, Ronald L

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report the psychometric properties of the eight-item cognitive load scale. According to cognitive load theory, the formatting and delivery of healthcare education influences the degree to which patients and/or family members can engage their working memory systems for learning. However, despite its relevance, cognitive load has not yet been evaluated among surrogate decision makers exposed to electronic decision support for healthcare decisions. To date, no psychometric analyses of instruments evaluating cognitive load have been reported within healthcare settings. A convenience sample of 62 surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients were exposed to one of two healthcare decision support interventions were recruited from four intensive care units at a tertiary medical center in Northeast Ohio. Participants were administered a battery of psychosocial instruments and the eight-item cognitive load scale (CLS). The CLS demonstrated a bidimensional factor structure with acceptable discriminant validity and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.75 and 0.89). The CLS is a psychometrically sound instrument that may be used in the evaluation of decision support among surrogate decision makers of the critically ill. The authors recommend application of the cognitive load scale in the evaluation and development of healthcare education and interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Persuasion on the Utilization of Program Evaluation Information: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Sandra H.; Thompson, Bruce

    The utilization of program evaluation may be made more effective by means of the application of contemporary persuasion theory. The Elaboration Likelihood Model--a model of cognitive processing, ability, and motivation--was used in this study to test the persuasive effects of source credibility and involvement on message acceptance of evaluation…

  16. Nondestructive methods for the structural evaluation of wood floor systems in historic buildings : preliminary results : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael O. Hunt; Robert J. Ross; Lawrence A. Soltis

    1999-01-01

    To date, there is no standard method for evaluating the structural integrity of wood floor systems using nondestructive techniques. Current methods of examination and assessment are often subjective and therefore tend to yield imprecise or variable results. For this reason, estimates of allowable wood floor loads are often conservative. The assignment of conservatively...

  17. [Preliminary study on evaluation system of mental workers strain based on primary and middle school teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen; Zhang, Chen; Yuan, Fang

    2010-09-01

    To use primary and middle schools teacher as samples to preliminarily build the mental work stress effect evaluation system, providing the methological platform for the research on the stress effect mechanism and mental workers interference measures. 851 teachers in primary and middle schools were selected with randomly stratified cluster methods. Use ISTA 6.0 and Life Events Evaluation Table to measure the stress factors, and use Work Tension Reaction Questionnaire, Symptom Self-Evaluation Table Questionnaire, and General Happiness Sensing Table to measure psychological stress reaction, blood sugar and blood fat, blood cortical, ACTH, nerve behavior function, for measuring physiological stress reaction. The Comprehensive Working Ability Index Table to measure working ability. And then use the mathematical model to build the mental workers stress effect evaluation system. And apply the simple random sampling method to select 400 environmental protection workers to perform cross effect validation. The model fits relatively well (RMSEA = 0.100, GFI = 0.93, NNFI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00) and conforms with the theory, reflecting the loads of the indice, such as, working stress reaction, psychological stress reaction, physiological stress reaction and working ability, are relatively high. At the same time, the stress reaction of those 4 dimensions can fit the 2-grade factor (stress effect) very well. The physiological stress reaction is negatively correlated (P working stress reaction, psychological stress reaction, working ability decrease, while is positively correlated (P working stress, psychological stress reaction, physiological stress reaction and working ability decrease. The social support is the protection factor for working stress, psychological stress reaction, physiological stress reaction and working ability decrease (gamma(s) are -0.55, -0.77, 0.73, -0.79, respectively, P working stress factors, social life stress factors and dangerous individual characters are

  18. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati Arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky , and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. (USGS)

  19. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Web-based oral health promotion program for older adults: Development and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo J; Marwaha, Parul; Barrow, Su-Yan

    2016-07-01

    This study reports on the impact evaluation of a Web-based oral health promotion programme aimed at improving the oral health knowledge, attitudes, practices and self-efficacy of independent-living older adults from Melbourne, Australia. With ethics approval from the University of Melbourne, a convenience sample of volunteers 55 years or older was invited to participate in a study to test a web-based oral health promotion program. Consenting volunteers were asked to undergo a structured interview as part of the pre-intervention data collection. The intervention was based on the ORHIS (Oral Health Information Seminars/Sheets) Model and involved computer interaction with six oral health presentations, with no direct oral health professional input. A one group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was chosen to evaluate the intervention. A series of paired t-tests were used to compare pre-test with post-test results. Forty-seven active, independent-living older adults participated in this evaluation. After the intervention participants responded with higher levels of achievement than before participating in this Web-based oral health program. Participants showed significant improvements in oral health attitudes (4.10 vs. 4.94; p<0.01), knowledge (18.37 vs. 23.83; p<0.0001), and self-efficacy (84.37 vs.89.23; p<0.01), as well as, self-reported oral hygiene practices (i.e., frequency of use of dental floss) (p<0.05). The e-ORHIS approach was successful in improving oral health knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy. As such, it represents a helpful approach for the design of (oral) health interventions in older adults. Further evaluation with a larger sample is required to test the long-term impact including the economic evaluation of the e-ORHIS approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Web 2.0 Social Media Platforms to Promote Community-Engaged Research Dialogs: A Preliminary Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Soto, Miguel; Bishop, Shawn G; Aase, Lee A; Timimi, Farris K; Montori, Victor M; Patten, Christi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-engaged research is defined by the Institute of Medicine as the process of working collaboratively with groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interests, or similar situations with respect to issues affecting their well-being. Traditional face-to-face community-engaged research is limited by geographic location, limited in resources, and/or uses one-way communications. Web 2.0 technologies including social media are novel communication channels for community-engaged research because these tools can reach a broader audience while promoting bidirectional dialogs. Objective This paper reports on a preliminary program evaluation of the use of social media platforms for promoting engagement of researchers and community representatives in dialogs about community-engaged research. Methods For this pilot program evaluation, the Clinical and Translational Science Office for Community Engagement in Research partnered with the Social Media Network at our institution to create a WordPress blog and Twitter account. Both social media platforms were facilitated by a social media manager. We used descriptive analytics for measuring engagement with WordPress and Twitter over an 18-month implementation period during 2014-2016. For the blog, we examined type of user (researcher, community representative, other) and used content analysis to generate the major themes from blog postings. For use of Twitter, we examined selected demographics and impressions among followers. Results There were 76 blog postings observed from researchers (48/76, 64%), community representatives (23/76, 32%) and funders (5/76, 8%). The predominant themes of the blog content were research awareness and dissemination of community-engaged research (35/76, 46%) and best practices (23/76, 30%). For Twitter, we obtained 411 followers at the end of the 18-month evaluation period, with an increase of 42% (from 280 to 411) over the final 6 months. Followers reported varied

  2. Use of Web 2.0 Social Media Platforms to Promote Community-Engaged Research Dialogs: A Preliminary Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Soto, Miguel; Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Bishop, Shawn G; Aase, Lee A; Timimi, Farris K; Montori, Victor M; Patten, Christi A

    2016-09-09

    Community-engaged research is defined by the Institute of Medicine as the process of working collaboratively with groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interests, or similar situations with respect to issues affecting their well-being. Traditional face-to-face community-engaged research is limited by geographic location, limited in resources, and/or uses one-way communications. Web 2.0 technologies including social media are novel communication channels for community-engaged research because these tools can reach a broader audience while promoting bidirectional dialogs. This paper reports on a preliminary program evaluation of the use of social media platforms for promoting engagement of researchers and community representatives in dialogs about community-engaged research. For this pilot program evaluation, the Clinical and Translational Science Office for Community Engagement in Research partnered with the Social Media Network at our institution to create a WordPress blog and Twitter account. Both social media platforms were facilitated by a social media manager. We used descriptive analytics for measuring engagement with WordPress and Twitter over an 18-month implementation period during 2014-2016. For the blog, we examined type of user (researcher, community representative, other) and used content analysis to generate the major themes from blog postings. For use of Twitter, we examined selected demographics and impressions among followers. There were 76 blog postings observed from researchers (48/76, 64%), community representatives (23/76, 32%) and funders (5/76, 8%). The predominant themes of the blog content were research awareness and dissemination of community-engaged research (35/76, 46%) and best practices (23/76, 30%). For Twitter, we obtained 411 followers at the end of the 18-month evaluation period, with an increase of 42% (from 280 to 411) over the final 6 months. Followers reported varied geographic location (321/411, 78

  3. Behavioral and brain asymmetries in primates: a preliminary evaluation of two evolutionary hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D; Misiura, Maria; Pope, Sarah M; Latash, Elitaveta M

    2015-11-01

    Contrary to many historical views, recent evidence suggests that species-level behavioral and brain asymmetries are evident in nonhuman species. Here, we briefly present evidence of behavioral, perceptual, cognitive, functional, and neuroanatomical asymmetries in nonhuman primates. In addition, we describe two historical accounts of the evolutionary origins of hemispheric specialization and present data from nonhuman primates that address these specific theories. Specifically, we first discuss the evidence that genes play specific roles in determining left-right differences in anatomical and functional asymmetries in primates. We next consider and present data on the hypothesis that hemispheric specialization evolved as a by-product of increasing brain size relative to the surface area of the corpus callosum in different primate species. Last, we discuss some of the challenges in the study of hemispheric specialization in primates and offer some suggestions on how to advance the field. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Evaluation of effectiveness of a computer system (CAD) in the identification of lung nodules with low-dose MSCT: scanning technique and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraioli, Francesco; Catalano, Carlo; Almberger, Maria; Bertoletti, Linda; Cantisani, Vito; Danti, Massimiliano; Pediconi, Federica; Passariello, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in the identification of pulmonary nodules. Materials and methods: Two observers (A1, A2) with different levels of experience independently evaluated 20 chest MSCT studies with and without the aid of a CAD system (LungCheck, R2 Technology, Inc.). The study parameters were as follows: 140 kVs, 40 mAs, collimation 4x1 mm, slice thickness 1.25 mm, reconstruction interval 1.0 mm. The observers analysed the images with and without CAD and evaluated: 1) nodule size (longer axis); 2) number and location of nodules; 3) reading time for each observer. The gold standard was represented by the evaluation of both readers in consensus with the aid of the CAD system. Results: Without CAD support the two readers identified 77 (A1) and 79 (A2) nodules and with CAD 81 (A1) and 82 (A2) nodules. Working in consensus the two observers identified 81 nodules without the aid of CAD and 84 nodules with the aid of CAD. Total number of nodules identified by CAD was 104, 25 of which were false positive and 5 false negative. The average reading time with the aid of CAD decreased by as much as 40% for both the observers. Conclusions: The preliminary results of our study suggest that the CAD technique is an accurate automatic support tool in the identification of pulmonary nodules. It reduces reading time and automatically supplies the size, volume, density and number of nodules, thus being useful both in screening programmes and in the follow-up of cancer patients, in whom comparison of the images is particularly difficult [it

  5. Shelf-life evaluation of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemuka, Nidhi; Galib, R; Patgiri, B J; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Savīryatā-avadhi (shelf life) of different Ayurvedic dosage forms is described in Śārṅgadharasaṃhitā. Though the concepts have a strong background, we seek to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms. An attempt has been made in the present study to evaluate shelf-life of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules. Raw materials were procured from Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar and utilized after proper authentication in pharmacognosy lab. The avaleha and its granules were prepared in the departmental laboratory following classical guidelines and subjected to accelerated stability studies. Both the products were found to be free from microbial contamination. Heavy metals were within the prescribed limit. Changes in physico-chemical profiles at different intervals are insignificant. On extrapolation of the observations, the shelf life of avaleha was found to be18 months and 27 months to the granules. Stability of granules was found to be comparatively higher than the avaleha. This observation may be exclusive to Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha. Studies on other avalehas and their granules need to be carried out to confirm this preliminary observation.

  6. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Spence

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone.

  7. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Isaac A.; Sell, Scott A.; McCool, Jennifer M.; Saxena, Gunjan; Spence, Andrew J.; Bowlin, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma), hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone. PMID:24709699

  8. A preliminary study of MR sickness evaluation using visual motion aftereffect for advanced driver assistance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sawako; Ino, Shuichi; Ifukube, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    Mixed Reality (MR) technologies have recently been explored in many areas of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) such as medicine, manufacturing, entertainment and education. However MR sickness, a kind of motion sickness is caused by sensory conflicts between the real world and virtual world. The purpose of this paper is to find out a new evaluation method of motion and MR sickness. This paper investigates a relationship between the whole-body vibration related to MR technologies and the motion aftereffect (MAE) phenomenon in the human visual system. This MR environment is modeled after advanced driver assistance systems in near-future vehicles. The seated subjects in the MR simulator were shaken in the pitch direction ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 Hz. Results show that MAE is useful for evaluation of MR sickness incidence. In addition, a method to reduce the MR sickness by auditory stimulation is proposed.

  9. Computer–Based Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers: Preliminary Results from Two Evaluation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna H Oxstrand

    2013-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. nuclear industry are collaborating on a research effort aimed to augment the existing guidance on computer-based procedure (CBP) design with specific guidance on how to design CBP user interfaces such that they support procedure execution in ways that exceed the capabilities of paper-based procedures (PBPs) without introducing new errors. Researchers are employing an iterative process where the human factors issues and interface design principles related to CBP usage are systematically addressed and evaluated in realistic settings. This paper describes the process of developing a CBP prototype and the two studies conducted to evaluate the prototype. The results indicate that CBPs may improve performance by reducing errors, but may increase the time it takes to complete procedural tasks.

  10. The preliminary study of quantitative evaluation of salivary gland function by dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Chunqi; Li Yaming; Li Deshun; Wang Guoli; Bai Jingming; Luo Xigui

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the function of salivary gland by quantitative dynamic imaging. Methods: In thirty normals and twenty patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), absorption rate (15 min) and excretion rate (30 min) were calculated using two quantitative software. Results: Parotid and submandibular absorption rates in normal subjects were (0.26 +- 0.09)% and (0.15 +- 0.08)%, respectively; those of SS patients were (0.07 +- 0.03)% and (0.05 +- 0.04)%, t = 5.3 and 4.1, both were P < 0.01. There were markedly relativity between the two groups (r = 0.85). Conclusions: Quantitative methods of analyzing salivary function is simple, sensitive, practical reliable for evaluating salivary function and also has important clinical significance

  11. Preliminary evaluation of licensing issues associated with U. S. -sited CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Erp, J B

    1977-12-01

    The principal safety-related characteristics of current CANDU-PHW power plants are described, and a distinction between those characteristics which are intrinsic to the CANDU-PHW system and those that are not is presented. An outline is given of the main features of the Canadian safety and licensing approach. Differences between the U.S. and Canadian approach to safety and licensing are discussed. Some of the main results of the safety analyses, routinely performed for CANDU-PHW reactors, are presented. U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria are evaluated as regards their applicability to CANDU-PHW reactors; vice-versa the CANDU-PHW reactor is evaluated with respect to its conformance to the U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria. A number of design modifications are proposed to be incorporated into the CANDU-PHW reactor in order to facilitate its introduction into the U.S.

  12. Preliminary proposed seismic design and evaluation criteria for new and existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The document provides a recommended set of deterministic seismic design and evaluation criteria for either new or existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks placed in either the high hazard or moderate hazard usage catagories of UCRL-15910. The criteria given herein are consistent with and follow the same philosophy as those given in UCRL-15910 for the US Department of Energy facilities. This document is intended to supplement and amplify upon Reference 1 for underground hazardous materials storage tanks

  13. Target Population Involvement in Urban Ciclovias: A Preliminary Evaluation of St. Louis Open Streets

    OpenAIRE

    Hipp, J. Aaron; Eyler, Amy A.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    Ciclovias are active street events when roads are open to walkers, cyclists, and families and closed to automobiles. Over 70 cities in the USA have implemented ciclovias to promote physical activity. The authors evaluated four events during 2010 to determine what activities participants perform and who is attending. For two ciclovia events in St. Louis, Missouri, observation reports of activities, gender, and age of 1,452 participants were collected, and 82 adults were interviewed via direct ...

  14. Initiation and preliminary evaluation of an oncology pharmacy training course for staff pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Matthew S; Blanchette, Lisa M; Smith, Morgan B; Cambron, Katie; Andricopulos, Katie; Brown, M Jay

    2016-08-01

    There is currently a disparity between oncology pharmacy job openings and PGY2 trained pharmacists completing residency training each year. As a result, pharmacists without specialized training in oncology are filling much needed oncology positions and may need on-the-job oncology training. To improve oncology knowledge among non-PGY2 trained pharmacists working in oncology positions, Novant Health coordinated an Oncology Pharmacy Training Course (OPTC). The primary objective was to assess efficacy of the OPTC through evaluation of post-intervention oncology knowledge. Secondary objectives included efficacy of each lecture, assessment of knowledge improvement in those with and without residency or chemotherapy training, and assessment of satisfaction with the OPTC. This was a prospective, cohort study. All pharmacists expressing interest in the OPTC were included unless PGY2 oncology residency trained or Board-Certified in Oncology Pharmacy (BCOP). Participants were invited to attend twice monthly lectures and were evaluated using questionnaires at baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. At the 3-month evaluation, 29 pharmacists completed the per-protocol evaluation. Knowledge scores increased from a mean of 29.6% to 52.2% (p trained. Baseline knowledge scores were slightly higher in the chemotherapy-trained than training naïve participants (mean 42.5% vs. 27.4%). Both groups experienced significantly improved knowledge scores at 3 months (mean 59% and 48.1% respectively, p staff pharmacists in a community hospital system. This improvement in knowledge is consistent regardless of baseline chemotherapy training. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-03-01

    This report, prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), presents a summary evaluation of various shelter options for use in the case where the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft 2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft 2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The authors find that the FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. The authors also find that, in terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of GAOFEN-3 Polarimetric and Radiometric Accuracy by Corner Reflectors in Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Ding, X.; Li, P.; Yang, J.; Zhao, L.; Yang, L.; Chang, Y.; Yan, L.

    2018-04-01

    On August 10, 2016, China launched its first C-band full polarimetric radar satellite, named Gaofen-3 (GF-3), for urban and agriculture monitoring, landslide detection, ocean applications, etc. According to the design specification, GF-3 is expected to work at -35 dB crosstalk and 0.5 dB channel imbalance, with less than 10 degree error. The absolute radiometric bias is expected to be less than 1.5 dB in a single scene and 2.0 dB when operating for a long time. To complete the calibration and evaluation, the Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy Sciences (IECAS) built a test site at Inner Mongolia, and deployed active reflectors (ARs) and trihedral corner reflectors (CRs) to solve and evaluate the hardware distortion. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the product accuracy of GF-3 has not been comprehensively evaluated in any open publication. The remote sensing community urgently requires a detailed report about the product accuracy and stability, before any subsequent application. From June to August of 2017, IECAS begun its second round ground campaign and deployed 10 CRs to evaluate product distortions. In this paper, we exploit Inner Mongolia CRs to investigate polarimetric and radiometric accuracy of QPSI I Stripmap. Although some CRs found fall into AR side lobe, the rest CRs enable us to preliminarily evaluate the accuracy of some special imaging beams. In the experimental part, the image of July 6, 2017 was checked by 5 trihedral CRs and the integration estimation method demonstrated the crosstalk varying from -42.65 to -32.74 dB, and the channel imbalance varying from -0.21 to 0.47 with phase error from -2.4 to 0.2 degree. Comparing with the theoretical radar cross-section of 1.235 m trihedral CR, i.e. 35 dB, the radiometric error varies about 0.20 ± 0.29 dB in HH channel and 0.40 ± 0.20 dB in VV channel.

  17. Low-Level Evidence Suggests that Perceived Ability to Evaluate and Trust Online Health Information is Associated with Low Health Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Alcock

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To review, based on research evidence, the correlation between low health literacy and four outcomes of interest: (1 the ability to evaluate online health information based on (2 perceived reliability and accuracy, (3 trust in the Internet as an information source, and (4 the application of established evaluation criteria. Design – Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Setting –MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete as well as articles discovered through the snowball method. Subjects – 38 studies identified through a systematic literature search. Methods – An exhaustive list of potential articles was gathered through searching five online databases and Google Scholar, and hand searching of references. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in a two-phase screening process in which two researchers participated to address reliability. Data, including study characteristics and metadata, predictors, assessment methods, and outcomes, were extracted from relevant studies, and then synthesized narratively. Main Results – Following duplication removal 13,632 records were retrieved, 254 of which were identified for full-text assessment. Thirty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria. All studies were non-experimental and therefore graded as a low level of evidence; 35 were cross-sectional designs, 1 a focus group, and 2 were observational studies. Studies varied widely in population definition and sample size and were published between 2001 and 2013, primarily in North America. Overall, a positive association was identified between health literacy and outcomes related to the ability to evaluate or trust Internet health information, while findings were inconsistent related to perceived quality of information and the application of evaluative criteria. Four studies examined the impact of health literacy levels on one or more of the outcomes of interest. The most prevalent

  18. Preliminary evidence suggests extra-pair mating in the endangered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized four microsatellite genetic markers, originally developed for the African grey parrot. Parentage testing was undertaken using genotype comparisons with the dominant pair within the breeding group as well as auxiliary males where available. Although four markers were insufficient to provide conclusive ...

  19. Preliminary Evaluation on Characteristics of Waste from Pyro-processing (FS v5.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Young; Choi, Heui-Joo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, characteristic of waste from pyro-processing which based on material balance FS v5.1 is evaluated for revising of A-KRS concept. To reduce volume and toxicity of PWR SNFs, the P and T Technology using pyro-processing and SFR is under development in KAERI. In accordance with this R and D, the A-KRS was developed by KAERI for disposal of waste from pyro-processing. After A-KRS concept development, material balance has been revised and characteristics of waste have been changed. To solve impending saturation of storage capacity of NPP sites, national policy on SNF management seems to be determined shortly. Demand on detailed analysis on impact of P and T using pyro-processing and SFR as base data is increasing. To compare direct disposal scenario to the P and T scenario using pyro-processing and SFR, updating of A-KRS reflecting amendment of material balance is required. In this study, characteristic of waste from pyro-processing which based on material balance FS v5.1 is evaluated. Every 15 types of outputs generated from pyro-processing are evaluated. Great reduction can be achieved by complete reuse of U/TRU/RE in SFR, because most of decay heat, radioactivity and radiotoxicity are generated from U/TRU/RE ingot. Within about 300 years, the fly ash filter containing Cs, Sr containing salt waste are important waste in perspective of decay heat and radioactivity. Importance of RE containing salt waste reduced. Management of hold-ups must be clarified because hold-ups take large portion of decay heat, radioactivity in the material balance FS v5.1

  20. Preliminary Evaluation on Characteristics of Waste from Pyro-processing (FS v5.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Young; Choi, Heui-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, characteristic of waste from pyro-processing which based on material balance FS v5.1 is evaluated for revising of A-KRS concept. To reduce volume and toxicity of PWR SNFs, the P and T Technology using pyro-processing and SFR is under development in KAERI. In accordance with this R and D, the A-KRS was developed by KAERI for disposal of waste from pyro-processing. After A-KRS concept development, material balance has been revised and characteristics of waste have been changed. To solve impending saturation of storage capacity of NPP sites, national policy on SNF management seems to be determined shortly. Demand on detailed analysis on impact of P and T using pyro-processing and SFR as base data is increasing. To compare direct disposal scenario to the P and T scenario using pyro-processing and SFR, updating of A-KRS reflecting amendment of material balance is required. In this study, characteristic of waste from pyro-processing which based on material balance FS v5.1 is evaluated. Every 15 types of outputs generated from pyro-processing are evaluated. Great reduction can be achieved by complete reuse of U/TRU/RE in SFR, because most of decay heat, radioactivity and radiotoxicity are generated from U/TRU/RE ingot. Within about 300 years, the fly ash filter containing Cs, Sr containing salt waste are important waste in perspective of decay heat and radioactivity. Importance of RE containing salt waste reduced. Management of hold-ups must be clarified because hold-ups take large portion of decay heat, radioactivity in the material balance FS v5.1.

  1. Partial nephrectomy online: a preliminary evaluation of the quality of health information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Angela M; Deibert, Christopher M; Boyer, Celia; Hruby, Gregory W; McKiernan, James M

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Patients are highly likely to access the Internet for health information, and studies have reported that inaccurate or low-quality information may alter patients' expectations and negatively impact informed decision-making. In a unique collaboration with the Health On the Internet (HON) Foundation, we evaluated the top 20 search results for the urology search term 'partial nephrectomy,' and identified the highest and lowest scoring criteria to increase awareness of areas of concern and improvement. To further evaluate the quality of information available on the Internet with regard to the management of localized renal cancer, we evaluated websites providing information on 'partial nephrectomy' in conjunction with the Health On the Internet (HON) Foundation. Many patients now utilize the Internet as a resource to provide further information on disease, treatments and outcomes, and health information on the Internet is largely unregulated. Inaccurate information may contribute to unrealistic expectations and dissatisfied patients. A google.com search identified the top 30 websites for the search term 'partial nephrectomy'. The HON Foundation evaluated each website according to the eight principles for Health on the Internet code of conduct (HONcode) certification and reported the overall frequency of certification, as well as individual website compliance with each of the principles. Overall, seven (23.3%) of 30 websites met the requirements of HONcode certification and an additional two (6.7%) websites were under review to maintain their certification based on updating their resources. The remaining 21 (70%) websites did not meet the standards for certification. The lowest performing criteria included proper citation of medical information and a clear distinction of advertising from editorial content. The low rate of HONcode compliance for these websites illustrates the poor quality of information that

  2. Simultaneous PET/MR head–neck cancer imaging: Preliminary clinical experience and multiparametric evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, M.; Cavaliere, C.; Aiello, M.; Cianelli, M.S.; Mesolella, M.; Iorio, B.; Rossi, A.; Nicolai, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous PET/MRI is a suitable tool for head/neck T-staging. • No significant differences have been found for PET measures get by both PET/CT and PET/MRI. • SUV 2D and 3D measures in HN lesion offer comparable estimations. • Multiparametric evaluation allows a complete characterization of HN lesions. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the role of simultaneous hybrid PET/MR imaging and to correlate metabolic PET data with morpho-functional parameters derived by MRI in patients with head–neck cancer. Methods: Forty-four patients, with histologically confirmed head and neck malignancy (22 primary tumors and 22 follow-up) were studied. Patients initially received a clinical exam and endoscopy with direct biopsy. Next patients underwent whole body PET/CT followed by PET/MR of the head/neck region. PET and MRI studies were separately evaluated by two blinded groups (both included one radiologist and one nuclear physician) in order to define the presence or absence of lesions/recurrences. Regions of interest (ROIs) analysis was conducted on the primary lesion at the level of maximum size on metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K trans , V e , k ep and iAUC) parameters. Results: PET/MR examinations were successfully performed on all 44 patients. Agreement between the two blinded groups was found in anatomic allocation of lesions by PET/MR (Primary tumors: Cohen's kappa 0.93; Follow-up: Cohen's kappa 0.89). There was a significant correlation between CT-SUV measures and MR (e.g., CT-SUV VOI vs. MR-SUV VOI: ρ = 0.97, p < 0.001 for the entire sample). There was also significant positive correlations between the ROI area, SUV measures, and the metabolic parameters (SUV and MTV) obtained during both PET/CT and PET/MR. A significant negative correlation was observed between ADC and K trans values in the primary tumors. In addition, a significant negative correlation existed between MR SUV and ADC in recurrent tumors

  3. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2014-01-01

    despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other......Background: Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale...

  4. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  5. Preliminary In-Vivo Evaluation of Convex Array Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    of STA imaging in comparison to conventional imaging. The purpose is to evaluate whether STA imaging is feasible in-vivo. and whether the image quality obtained is comparable to traditional scanned imaging in terms of penetration depth, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and artifacts. Acquisition...... was done using our RASMUS research scanner and a 5.5 MHz convex array transducer. STA imaging applies spherical wave emulation using multi-element subapertures and a 20 mus linear FM signal as excitation pulse. For conventional imaging a 64 element aperture was used in transmit and receive with a 1.5 cycle...

  6. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren Vester; Baker, Felicity A.; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Primary objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed....... Participants with medium-to-severe ABI self-rated their interpersonal communication skills using the modified ICCS. Cronbach Alpha test was performed on both scales followed by a correlation analysis. Results: Seventeen participants with medium-to-severe ABI and staff and relatives (n¼37) were involved...... of the proxy-rating revealed six meaningful sub-groups of interpersonal communication competencies....

  7. An affordable proxy of representative national survey on radon concentration in dwellings: Design, organisation and preliminary evaluation of representativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antignani, Sara; Carelli, Vinicio; Cordedda, Carlo; Zonno, Fedele; Ampollini, Marco; Carpentieri, Carmela; Venoso, Gennaro; Bochicchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Representative national surveys in dwellings are important to unbiasedly evaluate the exposure of the general population to radon. In Italy, a representative national survey was conducted from 1989 to 1996, which involved about 5600 dwellings in 232 towns. Later on, some Regions carried out more detailed surveys, but a new national survey in dwellings is necessary in order to obtain a more thorough estimate of radon concentration distribution over the Italian territory. The need to make this survey in an affordable way led to implement a new approach based on the collaboration between the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and a national company with workplaces and employees' homes throughout the country. The intent is to carry out a proxy of a population representative survey by measuring radon concentration in the homes of a random sample of the company employees. The realisation of this survey was affordable, thanks to the availability of corporate e-mail for each employee, intranet service, and company internal mail service. A dedicated web procedure and e-questionnaires allowed to automatically manage the contact with employees and to collect their data, which were both cost- and time-saving. Using this e-mail contact approach, 53% of contacted employees consented to participate in the survey. Radon concentration passive measuring devices were distributed to about 7000 dwellings, using about 14000 CR-39 detectors (two measured rooms per dwelling). In order to reduce costs, the devices were exposed for 12 months instead of two consecutive 6-month periods (as with the former national survey). A first checking of the actual representativeness of the sample was done by comparing characteristics of dwellings and occupants in the sample with corresponding data from the latest National Census. This was accomplished thanks to the fact that the questions in the survey questionnaire were tailored to the categories adopted for the Census questionnaire. A preliminary

  8. Development and preliminary evaluation of a pediatric Spanish-English speech perception task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Gomez, Bianca; Buss, Emily; Leibold, Lori J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a task to evaluate children's English and Spanish speech perception abilities in either noise or competing speech maskers. Eight bilingual Spanish-English and 8 age-matched monolingual English children (ages 4.9-16.4 years) were tested. A forced-choice, picture-pointing paradigm was selected for adaptively estimating masked speech reception thresholds. Speech stimuli were spoken by simultaneous bilingual Spanish-English talkers. The target stimuli were 30 disyllabic English and Spanish words, familiar to 5-year-olds and easily illustrated. Competing stimuli included either 2-talker English or 2-talker Spanish speech (corresponding to target language) and spectrally matched noise. For both groups of children, regardless of test language, performance was significantly worse for the 2-talker than for the noise masker condition. No difference in performance was found between bilingual and monolingual children. Bilingual children performed significantly better in English than in Spanish in competing speech. For all listening conditions, performance improved with increasing age. Results indicated that the stimuli and task were appropriate for speech recognition testing in both languages, providing a more conventional measure of speech-in-noise perception as well as a measure of complex listening. Further research is needed to determine performance for Spanish-dominant listeners and to evaluate the feasibility of implementation into routine clinical use.

  9. Spectral CT evaluation of interstitial brachytherapy in pancreatic carcinoma xenografts: preliminary animal experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shudong [Jiangsu University, Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Renmin Hospital, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Shanghai Jiao tong University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Huang, Wei; Song, Qi; Lin, Xiaozhu; Wang, Zhongmin; Chen, Kemin [Shanghai Jiao tong University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yerong [Jiangsu University, Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Renmin Hospital, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-09-15

    We sought to evaluate the capability of spectral CT to detect the therapeutic response to {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy in a pancreatic carcinoma xenograft nude mouse model. Twenty mice bearing SWl990 human pancreatic cancer cell xenografts were randomly separated into two groups: experimental (n = 10; 1.0 mCi) and control (n = 10; 0 mCi). After a two-week treatment, spectral CT was performed. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and iodine concentration (IC) in the lesions were measured and normalized to the muscle tissue, and nIC CD31 immunohistochemistry was used to measure microvessel density (MVD). The relationships between the nIC and MVD of the tumours were analysed. The nIC of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group during the multiphase examination. A significant difference in the MVD was observed between the two groups (P <0.001). The nIC values of the three-phase scans have a certain positive correlation with MVD (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001; r = 0.48, p = 0.002; r = 0.63, p = 0.0017 in the 10, 25, and 60 s phase, respectively). Spectral CT can be a useful non-invasive imaging modality in evaluating the therapeutic effect of {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy to a pancreatic carcinoma. (orig.)

  10. Risk assessments for energy systems and role of preliminary degree-of-hazard evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habegger, L.J.; Fingleton, D.J.

    1985-11-01

    The appropriate approach to risk or hazard assessment can vary considerably, depending on various factors, including the intended application of the results and the time other resources available to conduct the assessment. This paper illustrates three types of interrelated assessments. Although they can be mutually supportive, they have fundamentally different objectives, which require major differences in approach. The example of the overall risk assessment of alternative major energy technologies illustrates the compilation of a wide range of available risk data applicable to these systems. However, major uncertainties exist in the assessments, and public perception of their importance could play an important role in final system evaluations. A more narrowly defined risk assessment, often focusing on an individual component of a larger system, is the most commonly used approach in regulatory applications. The narrow scope allows in-depth analysis of risks and associated uncertainties, but it may also contribute to a loss of perspective on the magnitude of the assessed risk relative to that of the unassessed risks. In some applications, it is useful to conduct semiquantitative degree-of-hazard evaluations as a means of setting priorities for detailed risk assessment. The MAHAS procedure described in this paper provides a means of rapidly ranking relative hazards from various sources using easily accessible data. However, these rankings should not be used as definitive input for selecting technology alternatives or developing regulations. 25 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Preliminary evaluation of cryogenic two-phase flow imaging using electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huangjun; Yu, Liu; Zhou, Rui; Qiu, Limin; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2017-09-01

    The potential application of the 2-D eight-electrode electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) to the inversion imaging of the liquid nitrogen-vaporous nitrogen (LN2-VN2) flow in the tube is theoretically evaluated. The phase distribution of the computational domain is obtained using the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique with variable iterative step size. The detailed mathematical derivations for the calculations are presented. The calculated phase distribution for the two detached LN2 column case shows the comparable results with the water-air case, regardless of the much reduced dielectric permittivity of LN2 compared with water. The inversion images of total eight different LN2-VN2 flow patterns are presented and quantitatively evaluated by calculating the relative void fraction error and the correlation coefficient. The results demonstrate that the developed reconstruction technique for ECT has the capacity to reconstruct the phase distribution of the complex LN2-VN2 flow, while the accuracy of the inversion images is significantly influenced by the size of the discrete phase. The influence of the measurement noise on the image quality is also considered in the calculations.

  12. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette; Orrell, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings. The Quality of Life Scale (QoL-AD) was completed at three time-points. A total of 629 (staff = 306, therapist = 323) MiDAS forms were completed. The statistical analysis revealed that MiDAS has high therapist inter-rater reliability, low staff inter-rater reliability, adequate staff test-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement, and Enjoyment, were found. This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other outcomes such as quality of life or reduction in psychiatric symptoms.

  13. Target population involvement in urban ciclovias: a preliminary evaluation of St. Louis open streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kuhlberg, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Ciclovias are active street events when roads are open to walkers, cyclists, and families and closed to automobiles. Over 70 cities in the USA have implemented ciclovias to promote physical activity. The authors evaluated four events during 2010 to determine what activities participants perform and who is attending. For two ciclovia events in St. Louis, Missouri, observation reports of activities, gender, and age of 1,452 participants were collected, and 82 adults were interviewed via direct approach. The survey covered six domains: physical activity, travel to event, sense of community, marketing, economic impact, and demographics. Each event occurred within the city, along multiple streets. Domains were selected from Ciclovia Recreativa developed by Ciclovia Bogota, Pan American Health Organization, and CDC. Additional questions addressed city-specific goals and matched similar evaluations in other cities. Over 50 % of participants met CDC-defined weekly minute thresholds for physical activity. Participants, primarily (>80 %) middle class, college educated, and white, were not representative of the majority minority city population, which has high rates of poverty, and low percentage of college graduates. Cities must work with residents to increase low-income minority population participation in ciclovia-based physical activity.

  14. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms.

  15. A Preliminary Evaluation of a School-Based Media Education and Reduction Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, David S; Hswen, Yulin; Slaby, Ronald G; Rich, Michael

    2018-06-01

    While media education and reduction programs have been proposed to prevent adverse health and academic outcomes related to heavy electronic media use among school-aged children, few have been formally piloted and evaluated. We used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of Take the Challenge (TtC), a school-based media education/reduction program for the primary prevention of sleep deprivation, dysfunctional social-emotional behaviors, and poor academic performance. Sixth- to eighth-grade students at a rural Midwestern U.S. middle school received the TtC program, while a similar school in the same district served as the comparison group. Health-related and academic measures were collected from students and teachers at both schools before and after the intervention. The primary outcome measure was student-reported electronic media use (television, video games, Internet). Secondary measures included student health behaviors (student-reported sleep, exercise, and outdoor play) and academic activities (teacher-reported homework and classroom performance). Compared to the comparison group, students receiving TtC slept more and reduced television viewing, background television time, after-school video gaming, and weekend Internet use. Teachers reported increases in the extent to which TtC students completed homework assignments and stayed on task in the classroom. Well-designed school-based programs such as TtC can reduce electronic media use among middle-school children and improve related health and academic outcomes.

  16. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy to evaluate patients with chest pain (preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahfouz, M.; Elhaddad, S.; Elghoneimy, I.; Elmesidy, S.; Haggag, F.; Sbdou, S.; Dayem, K.A.; Ezzeldiy, H.

    1985-01-01

    201 Tl perfusion scintigraphy for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was carried out in 25 patients of mean age years, presenting with chest pain. Scintiscan were obtained at rest and after exercise and were compared with ECG studies at rest and after exercise. In all patients with previous myocardial infarctions, perfusion defects were present at rest, two of these patients showed abnormal stress scintigraphy consistent with a new ischemic response which was not detected by the stress ECG. In 3 out of the 8 patients with normal ECG, in 2 out of the 4 patients with response suggesting ischemia and in 4 out of the 7 patients with definite ECG proof of ischemia infarction was detected by 201 Tl. In all the previous, resting and exercise ECG failed to show evidence of infarction.1 fig.,2 tab

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a microbial fuel cell treating artificial dialysis wastewater using graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuko; Yoshida, Naoko

    2016-02-01

    Artificial dialysis wastewater (ADWW) generally contains 800-2,200 mg L-1 of organic matter. Prior to its discharge to the sewage system, ADWW must be treated in order to reduce organic matter to less than 600 mg L-1. This study assesses the applicability of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to the reduction of organic matter in ADWW as an alternative pre-treatment system to aeration. In the MFC, conductive floccular aggregates microbially produced from graphene oxide (GO-flocs) were applied as an anode material in the MFC. The GO-flocs were obtained by anaerobic incubation of graphene oxide (GO) with microorganisms in ADWW at 28 °C for a minimum of 10 days. During incubation, GO in the mixture was transformed into black conductive floccular aggregates having 0.12 mS cm-1, suggesting the microbial reduction of GO to the reduced form. The produced GO-flocs were then used as the anode material in a cylindrical MFC, which was filled with ADWW and covered with a floating, platinum (Pt)-coated carbon cathode. The MFC was polarized via an external resistance of 10 Ω and applied for 120 days by replacing half of the supernatant of the MFC with fresh ADWW, every 6-9 days. As a result, the MFC achieved a 128 mg L-1 d-1 chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) removal rate. For example, the MFC contained 1,500 mg-CODCr L-1 just after replacement, with this concentration being reduced to 1,000 mg-CODCr L-1 after 6-9 days of incubation. At the same time, the MFC showed an average power density of 28 mW m-2 and a maximum power density of 291 mW m-2. These results suggest that a MFC packed with GO-flocs can be used as an alternative biotreatment system, replacing the energy-intensive aeration process.

  18. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smigovec, Igor; Dapic, Tomislav [University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zagreb (Croatia); Trkulja, Vladimir [Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  19. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smigovec, Igor; Dapic, Tomislav; Trkulja, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  20. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Italian food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Mancini, Simone; Fratini, Filippo; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Cerri, Domenico

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some probiotic properties of 42 wild Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from different Italian foods of animal origin. The strains were first screened for their antibiotic resistance profile (chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline), subsequently they were tested for their in vitro resistance to lysozyme (100 mg L⁻¹), low pH (3.0, 2.5 and 2.0) and bile salts (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %). Moreover, agglutination property was studied (adhesion to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells), as well as the presence of bsh and msa genes. The strains with the best characteristics were subjected to a further trial in order to evaluate their ability to survive to multiple stresses over time (lysozyme, low pH and bile salts) and the effect of these treatments on adhesion to yeast cells. All the strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, while 6 strains were excluded from further evaluation because of their resistant phenotype against tetracycline. All the strains were able to grow in presence of lysozyme, as well as in MRS broth at pH 3.0. Only 4 strains showed a growth rate lower than 80 % when grown in MRS broth at pH 2.5, while a relevant growth rate decrease was observed after exposure to pH 2.0. Bile salts didn't affect the viability of the L. plantarum cells. Twenty-one strains out of 33 tested strains were able to adhere to S. cerevisiae cells. Presence of both bsh and msa genes was detected in 6 strains. The strains resistant to all the stresses, positive to agglutination with S. cerevisiae and showing bsh and msa genes were selected for further evaluation and subjected to different stress treatments over time. The assessment of growth rates showed that exposure to lysozyme significantly increased low pH resistance in L. plantarum. This increase ranged from 2.35 to 15.57 %. The consequential lysozyme and low pH exposures didn't affect the growth rate values after bile salts treatment

  1. Preliminary measurement performance evaluation of a new white light interferometer for cylindrical surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertazzi, Armando Jr; Pont, Alex Dal

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new design of a white light interferometer, suitable for measurement of cylindrical or quasi-cylindrical parts. A high precision 45 deg. conical mirror is used to direct collimated light radially, making it possible to measure in true cylindrical coordinates. The image of the measurand, distorted by the conical mirror, is projected in a high resolution digital camera. A mapping algorithm is used to reconstruct the cylindrical geometry from the distorted image. The rest of the interferometer is quite similar to a conventional white light interferometer: A flat reference mirror is scanned through the measurement range while an algorithm is searching for the maximum contrast position of the interference pattern. The performance evaluation of a configuration suitable for measurement of external cylindrical surfaces is also presented in this paper. A master cylinder was used as reference. Uncertainties of about 1.0 μm were found at the present stage of development

  2. THE COMPANY ACCOUNTING EVALUATIONPRELIMINARY PHASE OF THE PROPER ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Pacurari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem that the accounting information do not always reflect the economic reality may affect the analysis and forecast based on financial statements. This is due both to the accrual accounting limitations and to the fact that this type of accounting allows the result management. In spite of some disadvantages, the accrual accounting is considered superior to cash accounting in measuring the performances and determining financial position as well as in the predicting of future cash flow. In order to limit the negative effects on the results of analysis and forecast based on financial statements, the analists should evaluate the enterprise accounting and if necessary adjust the financial statements so they reflect the economic reality.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the Kaiparowits Plateau Region, Garfield and Kane Counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubyk, W.S.; Young, P.

    1978-05-01

    The basal sandstone of the Chinle Formation (Upper Triassic) and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) in the Kaiparowits Plateau, southcentral Utah, were evaluated in terms of uranium potential. Both surface and subsurface data were utilized. Favorability of the basal Chinle sandstone was based on (1) presence of intermediate-size sandstone-filled channels cut into the Moenkopi; (2) presence of carbonaceous material; (3) an adequate source of uranium; and (4) gamma-ray anomalies from test-hole logs. Favorability of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation was based on (1) sandstone-mudstone ratios that approach equality, and (2) presence of thick sandstone lenses, carbonaceous material, and halos of light-tan to brown limonite staining. Although the basal Chinle sandstone and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison contain sizable uranium deposits throughout much of the Colorado Plateau, both units lack characteristics that are favorable for significant uranium deposits in the Kaiparowits Plateau

  4. Materials Characterization of Feraheme/Ferumoxytol and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Potential for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feraheme, is a recently FDA-cleared superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION-based MRI contrast agent that is also employed in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Feraheme nanoparticles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 30 nm and consist of iron oxide crystallites complexed with a low molecular weight, semi-synthetic carbohydrate. These features are attractive for other potential biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH, since the carboxylated polymer coating affords functionalization of the particle surface and the size allows for accumulation in highly vascularized tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. This work presents morphological and magnetic characterization of Feraheme by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. Additionally, the results of an initial evaluation of the suitability of Feraheme for MFH applications are described, and the data indicate the particles possess promising properties for this application.

  5. The Preliminary Evaluation of Liquid Lubricants for Space Applications by Vacuum Tribometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Pepper, S. V.; Herrera-Fierro, P.; Feuchter, D.; Toddy, T. J.; Jayne, D. T.; Wheeler, D. R.; Abel, P. B.; Kingsbury, E.; Morales, W.

    1994-01-01

    Four different vacuum tribometers for the evaluation of liquid lubricants for space applications are described. These range from simple ball-on-flat sliders with maximum in-situ control and surface characterization to an instrument bearing apparatus having no in-situ characterization. Thus, the former provides an abundance of surface chemical information but is not particularly simulative of most triboelements. On the other hand, the instrument bearing apparatus is completely simulative, but only allows post-mortem surface chemical information. Two other devices, a four-ball apparatus and a ball-on-plate tribometer, provide varying degrees of surface chemical information and tribo-simulation. Examples of data from each device are presented.

  6. Evaluation of NORM concentration in water treatment of Pocos de Caldas municipality, MG, Brazil: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Adriano Mota; Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji

    2014-01-01

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive 238 U and 232 Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  7. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Karbasi Kheir, Mitra; Hekmatian, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most common shape was oval, opening direction was posterior-superior, horizontal position was in line with second premolar, and vertical position was apical to the adjacent dental root. The mean of foremen diameter was 3.59 mm. Conclusion. In addition to the most common types of mental foramen, other variations exist, too. Hence, it reflects the significance of preoperative radiographic examinations, especially 3-dimensional images to prevent nerve damage

  8. Preliminary evaluation of PSCM and BIPP melter design and operating conditions using physical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarda, R.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Fort, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    The Glass Melter Physical Modeling investigation was initiated to support Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Hanford Waste Vitrification Program. Specifically, results discussed herein are those of the modeled B-Plant Immobilization Pilot Plant (BIPP) and Pilot Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) designs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various melter design features using laboratory scale models. Hydrodynamic, thermal, and electrical similarity between the modeling fluid and the molten glass were primary objectives. Stroboscopic velocity measurements (flow visualization), temperature measurements, and electrical potential measurements were used to investigate the molten glass behavior. Results from this effort are to provide input to melter design and proposed operation in addition to providing a data base for verifying numerical models. 13 refs., 48 figs., 24 tabs

  9. Preliminary evaluation of 222Rn levels in homes and offices in two different regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.A.; Raja, G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of Rn levels was carried out in homes and offices in Damascus and phosphate mining areas near Palmyra city in Syria. The AEOI radon diffusion dosimeters were used in this study. Electrochemical etching of polycarbonate detectors was used to develop the tracks. A standard source of radon was used for calibration. Radon levels were measured in 98 homes of workers in the phosphate mining areas and 29 homes in the Damascus region. The radon diffusion chambers were placed in offices and laboratories of AEC for about four months in average. The results gave an indication of Rn level in Damascus dwellings in spite of the necessity for further comprehensive studies for the city. The radon levels were high in some offices and laboratories where phosphate analyses are carried out or buildings near phosphate storage areas or near surface phosphate rocks occurrence, in comparison with homes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the MLAA algorithm with the Philips Ingenuity PET/MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lougovski, Alexandr; Schramm, Georg; Maus, Jens; Hofheinz, Frank; Ho, Jörg van den

    2014-01-01

    Combined PET/MR is a promising tool for simultaneous investigation of soft tissue morphology and function. However, contrary to CT, MR images do not provide information on photon attenuation in tissue. In the currently available systems issue is solved by synthesizing attenuation maps from MR images using segmentation algorithms. This approach has been shown to provide reason-able results in most cases. However, sporadically occurring segmentation errors can cause serious problems. Recently, algorithms for simultaneous estimation of attenuation and tracer distribution (MLAA) have been introduced. So far, validity of MLAA has mainly been demonstrated in simulated data. We have integrated the MLAA algorithm [2] into the THOR reconstruction []. An evaluation of MLAA was performed using both phantom and patient data acquired with the Ingenuity PET/MR.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the radiological quality of the water on Bikini and Eneu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brown, G.

    1975-01-01

    In June of 1975 a survey was conducted to determine the residual radioactivity in the terrestrial environment on the two main islands (Eneu and Bikini) of Bikini Atoll. The objective was to evaluate the potential radiation doses that could be received by the Bikinians scheduled to return to their atoll. This report describes the radiological quality of the groundwater during June 1975 (from data obtained from water samples collected at old and new well sites on both islets) and the cistern water on Bikini island. Based on the analyses of these samples, the cistern water from Bikini Island is both chemically and radiologically acceptable as drinking water in accordance with standard limits established by the U. S. Public Health Service. On both islands the quality of the ground water varies from one site to another. At some wells both chemical and radiological quality are acceptable; at others one or both is unacceptable according to U. S. Public Health Standards

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the apparent diffusion coefficient of the kidney with a spiral IVIM sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Kyo; Murakami, Takamichi; Sakurai, Kousuke

    1997-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of the spiral intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) sequence in measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the kidneys. Five volunteers and five patients with chronic renal failure underwent diffusion-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys with the spiral IVIM sequence. The ADC values in patients with chronic renal failure were significantly lower than those in the renal cortex of volunteers. The mean value of ADC in patients with chronic renal failure was lower than that in volunteers, although there was no statistically significant difference. In volunteers, the ADC of the renal cortex was significantly higher than that of the renal medulla. The phantom study indicated that the accuracy of ADC depended on the signal to noise ratio. A spiral IVIM sequence with a high enough signal to noise ratio may be useful in evaluating renal function, especially that of the cortex. (author)

  13. Primary progressive aphasia patients evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based volumetry-preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pascotto de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are individuals who have a progressive language deficit without presenting cognitive deficits in other areas. One of the diseases related to this presentation is primary progressive aphasia (PPA. OBJECTIVE: Identify by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and measurements of cortical volume, brain areas that lead to dysphasia when presenting signs of impaired connectivity or reduced volume. METHOD: Four patients with PPA were evaluated using DTI, and measurements of cortical volumes in temporal areas. These patients were compared with two normal volunteers. RESULTS: There is a trend to a difference in the number and volume of related fibers between control group and patients with PPA. Comparing cortical volumes in temporal areas between groups yielded a trend to a smaller volume in PPA patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with PPA have a trend to impairment in cortical and subcortical levels regarding relevant areas.

  14. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anazawa Ryoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese, which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis.

  15. Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of 5-[18F]fluoroleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Bennett B; McDougald, Darryl; Weitzel, Douglas H; Hawk, Thomas; Reiman, Robert E; Zalutsky, Michael R; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan

    2017-01-01

    Amino acid transporters, such as LAT1, are overexpressed in aggressive prostate and breast carcinomas, directly influencing pathways of growth and proliferation. The purpose of this study was to synthesize and characterize a novel 18F labeled leucine analog, 5-[18F]fluoroleucine, as a potential imaging agent for aggressive tumors which may not be amenable to imaging by FDG PET. 5-fluoroleucine was synthesized and characterized, and its 18F-labeled analog was synthesized from a mesylate precursor. First, breast cancer cell line assays were performed to evaluate uptake of 3H- or 14C-labeled L-leucine and other essential amino acids. Both L-leucine and 5- [18F]fluoroleucine were tested for uptake and accumulation over time, and for uptake via LAT1. Biodistribution studies were performed to estimate radiation dosimetry for human studies. Small animal PET / CT studies of a breast cancer were performed to evaluate in vivo 5-[18F]fluoroleucine tumor uptake. Breast cancer cell lines showed increasing high net accumulation of L-[14C]leucine. Both L-leucine and 5-[18F]fluoroleucine showed increasing uptake over time in in vitro tumor cell assays, and uptake was also shown to occur via LAT1. The biodistribution study of 5-[18F]fluoroleucine showed rapid renal excretion, no significant in vivo metabolism, and acceptable dosimetry for use in humans. In vivo small animal PET / CT imaging of a breast cancer xenograft showed uptake of 5- [18F]fluoroleucine in the tumor, which progressively increased over time. 5-[18F]fluoroleucine is a leucine analog which may be useful in identifying tumors with high or upregulated expression of amino acid transporters, providing additional information that may not be provided by FDG PET. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Preliminary checklists for applying SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation to rivers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first steps in gathering biological data to assess the conservation value of rivers in Serbia, using SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation. SERCON was developed in the UK to improve consistency in assessments of river ‘quality’ by using a scoring system to evaluate habitat features and species groups, catchment characteristics, and the potential impacts to which river systems may be subjected. This paper provides checklists for aquatic, semiaquatic and marginal plants, macroinvertebrates, fish and birds associated with rivers in Serbia, collated from a wide range of published and unpublished sources. These lists should be regarded as provisional because few wide-ranging biological surveys have been carried out specifically on Serbian rivers; further revisions are likely as more information becomes available in future. Ultimately, the work will benefit regulators and decision-makers with responsibility for river management under the new Water Law, and contribute to river protection and conservation in Serbia. [Acknowledgments. The hydromorphology dataset was prepared for the project ‘Biosensing Technologies and Global System for Long-Term Research and Integrated Management of Ecosystems’ (Biosensing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirana istraživanja i integrisano upravljanje ekosistema III 043002 grant, while the biodiversity dataset was prepared the project Plant biodiversity of Serbia and the Balkans – assessment, sustainable use and protection (Biodiverzitet biljnog sveta Srbije i Balkanskog poluostrva – procena, održivo korišćenje i zaštita 173030 Grant, supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia

  17. Preliminary evaluation of data mining on non-masslike enhancement of breast lesions on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongna; Li Ruimin; Wang Peihua; Tang Feng; Mao Jian; Shen Xigang; Qian Min; Gu Yajia; Su Yi; Chen Ying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic values of the breast imaging reporting and data system-MRI (BI-RADS-MRI)description about non-masslike enhancement by data mining. Methods: Fifty- five patients with non-masslike enhancement lesions showed on breast contrast-enhanced MRI were evaluated using two data mining algorithms (Logistic regression and decision tree) and 10-fold cross-validation methods. Results: There were 28 malignant and 27 benign lesions. The most frequent findings of the malignant lesions were clustered ring enhancement and clumped enhancement [12 and 4 lesions, respectively; 84.2% (16/19) in decision trees, partial regression coefficients in Logistic model were 2.128 and 1.723, respectively], whereas homogenous, stippled, reticular internal and linear ductal enhancement were the most frequent findings in benign lesions [4,9,1 and 7 lesions, respectively; 72.4% (21/29) in decision tree, partial regression coefficients in Logistic model were 0.357 (homogenous), 1.861 (stippled) and 18.870(reticular), respectively]. 10-fold cross-validation indicated that decision tree (C5.0) achieved an accuracy of 69.3% with a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 71.7% in comparison to the Logistic regression model with an accuracy of 57.0%, a sensitivity of 43.3% and a specificity of 71.7%. Conclusions: The diagnosis efficacy of non-masslike enhancement interpretation according to BI-RADS-MRI is not high. It is very important to find more potential features of non-masslike enhancement to improve the diagnosis accuracy. (authors)

  18. Measuring acute rehabilitation needs in trauma: preliminary evaluation of the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Karen; West, Anita; Nott, Philippa; Cole, Elaine; Playford, Diane; Liu, Clarence; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Injury severity, disability and care dependency are frequently used as surrogate measures for rehabilitation requirements following trauma. The true rehabilitation needs of patients may be different but there are no validated tools for the measurement of rehabilitation complexity in acute trauma care. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential utility of the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale (RCS) version 2 in measuring acute rehabilitation needs in trauma patients. A prospective observation study of 103 patients with traumatic injuries in a Major Trauma Centre. Rehabilitation complexity was measured using the RCS and disability was measured using the Barthel Index. Demographic information and injury characteristics were obtained from the trauma database. The RCS was closely correlated with injury severity (r=0.69, p<0.001) and the Barthel Index (r=0.91, p<0.001). However the Barthel was poor at discriminating between patients rehabilitation needs, especially for patients with higher injury severities. Of 58 patients classified as 'very dependent' by the Barthel, 21 (36%) had low or moderate rehabilitation complexity. The RCS correlated with acute hospital length of stay (r=0.64, p=<0.001) and patients with a low RCS were more likely to be discharged home. The Barthel which had a flooring effect (56% of patients classified as very dependent were discharged home) and lacked discrimination despite close statistical correlation. The RCS outperformed the ISS and the Barthel in its ability to identify rehabilitation requirements in relation to injury severity, rehabilitation complexity, length of stay and discharge destination. The RCS is potentially a feasible and useful tool for the assessment of rehabilitation complexity in acute trauma care by providing specific measurement of patients' rehabilitation requirements. A larger longitudinal study is needed to evaluate the RCS in the assessment of patient need, service provision and trauma system performance

  19. Therapeutic evaluation of sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: Preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Kazue; Watanabe, Manabu; Ikehara, Takashi; Kogame, Michio; Kikuchi, Yoshinori; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Sumino, Yasukiyo

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid in evaluating the therapeutic response to sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In total, 26 patients with advanced HCC who received sorafenib and were followed up by CEUS were enrolled in the present study. CEUS was performed prior to and within 2-4 weeks of treatment, and the images of the target lesion in the post-vascular phase with a re-injection method were analyzed. The presence (+) or absence (-) of intratumoral necrosis and the intratumoral vascular architecture on micro-flow imaging (MFI) were compared prior to and subsequent to treatment. Target lesions that exhibited non-enhancement after re-injection were considered to indicate intratumoral necrosis. The intratumoral vascular architecture was classified into three groups, as follows: Vd, the intratumoral vessels visually narrowed or decreased; Vnc, the vessels remained unchanged; and Vi, the vessels were thickened or increased. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log rank test between the intratumoral necrosis (+) and (-) groups, and among the Vd, Vnc and Vi groups. PVnc group and 5 patients in the Vi group. The MSTs in the Vd, Vnc and Vi groups were 15.6 months (95% CI, 5.0-23.3), 11.0 months (95% CI, 3.5-17.6) and 3.6 months (95% CI: 1.2-6.0), respectively. The P-value for the differences between the Vd and Vnc groups, Vd and Vi groups, and Vnc and Vi groups were 0.78, 0.016 and 0.047, respectively, which indicated that the survival time decreased significantly in the Vi group. Evaluation of intratumoral vascular architecture using MFI demonstrates promise for assessing the therapeutic response to sorafenib in patients with HCC.

  20. Isolation and preliminary evaluation of Mulva Neglecta mucilage: a novel tablet binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Rahim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate binding potential of Mulva neglecta mucilage (MNM with subsequent comparison to PVP K30. Eight batches of Diclofenac sodium tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique keeping different concentrations (4, 6, 8 & 10% w/w of Mulva neglecta mucilage (extracted from leaves of Mulva neglecta and PVP K30 as standard binder. The granules of formulated batches showed bulk density (g/mL 0.49 ± 0.00 to 0.57 ± 0.00, tapped density (g/mL 0.59 ± 0.01 to 0.70 ± 0.01, Carr's index 09.27 ± 0.95 to 19.65 ± 0.59, Hausner's ratio 1.12 ± 0.00 to 1.24 ± 0.01 and angle of repose 30.37 ± 2.90 °C to 36.86 ± 0.94 °C. Tablets were compressed to hardness 7.50 to 7.95 kg/cm2. The tablets showed 0.39 ± 0.02 to 0.39 ± 0.01% friability and 7:20 to 14:00 min disintegration time. Granules and post-compression evaluation revealed that parameters assessed were all found to be within the pharmacopoeial limits. The results (hardness, disintegration and dissolution proved that Mulva neglecta mucilage has better binding capacity for preparation of uncoated tablet dosage form as compared to PVP K30. Among all the formulations, MN-1 to MN-4 showed slow release as compared to PV-1 to PV-4 and thereby Mulva neglecta mucilage exhibited satisfactory drug release phenomenon tablets of diclofenac sodium.

  1. Preliminary experience using dynamic MRI at 3.0 Tesla for evaluation of soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Sun Ki; Lee, So-Yeon; Jung, Joon-Yong

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the use of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) at 3.0 T for differentiating the benign from malignant soft tissue tumors. Also we aimed to assess whether the shorter length of DCE-MRI protocols are adequate, and to evaluate the effect of temporal resolution. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, at 3.0 T with a 1 second temporal resolution in 13 patients with pathologically confirmed soft tissue tumors, was analyzed. Visual assessment of time-signal curves, subtraction images, maximal relative enhancement at the first (maximal peak enhancement [Emax]/1) and second (Emax/2) minutes, Emax, steepest slope calculated by using various time intervals (5, 30, 60 seconds), and the start of dynamic enhancement were analyzed. The 13 tumors were comprised of seven benign and six malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Washout on time-signal curves was seen on three (50%) malignant tumors and one (14%) benign one. The most discriminating DCE-MRI parameter was the steepest slope calculated, by using at 5-second intervals, followed by Emax/1 and Emax/2. All of the steepest slope values occurred within 2 minutes of the dynamic study. Start of dynamic enhancement did not show a significant difference, but no malignant tumor rendered a value greater than 14 seconds. The steepest slope and early relative enhancement have the potential for differentiating benign from malignant soft tissue tumors. Short-length rather than long-length DCE-MRI protocol may be adequate for our purpose. The steepest slope parameters require a short temporal resolution, while maximal peak enhancement parameter may be more optimal for a longer temporal resolution.

  2. Preliminary Comparative Evaluation Study on Reference Design of GEN-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Hong, Ser Gi (and others)

    2005-11-15

    A fast reactor has a good transmutation capability and it enables breeding of fuel and use of a closed fuel cycle. By these characteristics of a fast reactor, the limited uranium resources of the world can be much more effectively utilized and the nuclear wastes of a high level of radioactivity and toxicity from the current nuclear power reactors of LWRs and HWRs can be drastically reduced in its volume and the management of the wastes can be easily treated. Also electricity can be generated more effectively since a fast reactor has the feature of high operation temperature. These features of a fast reactor makes it inevitable on a long term basis to construct fast reactors in Korea. The domestic fast reactor technology level, however, is at the level of coming out of a beginning stage and needs utilization of international expertise. Recently an international cooperation program called GIF has been formulated and our KALIMER was selected as one of the two reference designs for the international joint R and D works with JSFR of Japan. In the current frame of the GIF program, the two selected reference designs are supposed to be evaluated against each other in future and one design is to be finally selected. To make the international cooperation program directed more useful to our fast reactor technology development, it is required to strengthen the competitiveness of KALIMER so that it can be selected. To meet the necessity, a study was made in this research for pre-evaluation of the GIF reference designs and setting up plans for development of designs and technology that will enhance the competitiveness of KALIMER.

  3. A Preliminary Evaluation of the GFS Physics in the Navy Global Environmental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Langland, R.; Martini, M.; Viner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Global extended long-range weather forecast is a goal in the near future at Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC). In an effort to improve the performance of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) operated at FNMOC, and to gain more understanding of the impact of atmospheric physics in the long-range forecast, the physics package of the Global Forecast System (GFS) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction is being evaluated in the framework of NAVGEM. That is GFS physics being transported by NAVGEM Semi-Lagrangian Semi-Implicit advection, and update-cycled by the 4D-variational data assimilation along with the assimilated land surface data of NASA's Land Information System. The output of free long runs of 10-day GFS physics forecast in a summer and a winter season are evaluated through the comparisons with the output of NAVGEM physics long forecast, and through the validations with observations and with the European Center's analyses data. It is found that the GFS physics is able to effectively reduce some of the modeling biases of NAVGEM, especially wind speed of the troposphere and land surface temperature that is an important surface boundary condition. The bias corrections increase with forecast leads, reaching maximum at 240 hours. To further understand the relative roles of physics and dynamics in extended long-range forecast, the tendencies of physics components and advection are also calculated and analyzed to compare their forces of magnitudes in the integration of winds, temperature, and moisture. The comparisons reveal the strength and limitation of GFS physics in the overall improvement of NAVGEM prediction system.

  4. A preliminary case series evaluating the safety and immediate to short-term clinical benefits of joint mobilization in hemophilic arthritis of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaddan, Emma; Rowell, John; O'Leary, Shaun

    2017-09-01

    Arthritis resulting from recurrent intra-articular bleeding in individuals with hemophilia can be severely debilitating due to joint pain and stiffness with subsequent loss of mobility and function. Very limited studies have investigated the potential benefits of joint mobilization for this condition. This case series is a preliminary investigation of safety, as well as immediate and short-term clinical benefits, associated with gentle knee and ankle joint mobilization in people with hemophilic arthropathy. A single intervention of joint mobilization was applied to the affected knees and/or ankles of 16 individuals with severe or moderate hemophilia within a public hospital setting. Adverse events, as well as immediate (pain-free passive joint range, Timed Up and Go Test with maximum pain numerical rating scale) and short-term (Lower Extremity Functional Scale) effects of the intervention were evaluated with a repeated measures ANOVA. There were no adverse events. An immediate significant increase was observed in pain-free passive ankle joint range of motion ( p  < 0.05) following the joint mobilization intervention. The findings of this case series suggest that gentle joint mobilization techniques may be safely considered as part of a multimodal management approach for hemophilic arthropathy.

  5. [Preliminary results of an open-label observational study evaluating the efficacy and safety of Prolia used in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, O B; Lesniak, O M; Belova, K Iu; Nazarova, A V; Manovitskaia, A V; Musaeva, T M; Musraev, R M; Nurlygaianov, R Z; Rozhinskaia, L Ia; Skripnikova, I A; Toroptsova, N V

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Denosumab (Prolia), a first-line osteoporosis (OP) medication that is a fully human monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor xB ligand (RANKL), within an open-label observational study. Patients aged 50 years or older with postmenopausal OP, who were treated with Prolia in clinical practice, were examined. The concentrations of the bone resorption (BR) marker of C-terminal telopeptide and other laboratory indicators (total serum calcium, total alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine) were measured following 3 months. Adverse drug reactions were recorded. Three months after initiation of the investigation, there was a significant decrease in the BR marker C-terminal telopeptide (by 89%; p<0.0001). There were rare adverse reactions: hypocalcemia in 3 (5.9%) patients, arthralgias in 2 (3.9%), and eczema in 1 (1.9%). There were neither serious adverse events nor study withdrawal cases. The preliminary results of the open-label study of Prolia in postmenopausal OP suggest that the significantly lower BR activity determines the efficacy of this drug and its high safety.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of optical glucose sensing in red cell concentrations using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Maruo, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Alice W.; Shimogaki, Kazushige; Ogawa, Hideto; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products is one of the most frequent infectious complications of transfusion. Since glucose levels in blood supplies decrease as bacteria proliferate, it should be possible to detect the presence of bacterial contamination by measuring the glucose concentrations in the blood components. Hence this study is aimed to serve as a preliminary study for the nondestructive measurement of glucose level in transfusion blood. The glucose concentrations in red blood cell (RBC) samples were predicted using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in the 1350 to 1850 nm wavelength region. Furthermore, the effects of donor, hematocrit level, and temperature variations among the RBC samples were observed. Results showed that the prediction performance of a dataset which contained samples that differed in all three parameters had a standard error of 29.3 mg/dL. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) preprocessing method was also found to be effective in minimizing the variations in scattering patterns created by various sample properties. The results suggest that the diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy may provide another avenue for the detection of bacterial contamination in red cell concentrations (RCC) products.

  7. “Getting Ready for School:” A Preliminary Evaluation of a Parent-Focused School-Readiness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly G. Noble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to start school with fewer school readiness skills than their more advantaged peers. Emergent literacy and math skills play an important role in this gap. The family is essential in helping children build these skills, and the active involvement of families is crucial to the success of any intervention for young children. The Getting Ready for School (GRS program is a parent-focused curriculum designed to help parents equip their children with the skills and enthusiasm necessary for learning when they start school. Parents meet in weekly workshops led by a trained facilitator and implement the curriculum at home with their children. The objective of this pilot study was to assess the promise of the GRS intervention in children participating in an urban Head Start program and to explore parents' responses to the intervention. We hypothesized that participation in GRS would improve school readiness in literacy and math skills, relative to participation in business-as-usual Head Start. Four Head Start classrooms (two randomly selected “intervention” and two “comparison” classrooms participated in this study. Preliminary analyses suggest that GRS improves school readiness over and above a Head Start-as-usual experience. Implications for early childhood programs and policies are discussed.

  8. Preliminary study to evaluate the validity of the mini-mental state examination in a normal population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükdeveci, Ayse A; Kutlay, Sehim; Elhan, Atilla H; Tennant, Alan

    2005-03-01

    Although the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in clinical practice, normative scores for a healthy population have not been documented in Turkey. The aim in this study was to validate the MMSE in a healthy population and to provide normal scores. Internal construct validity of the Turkish version of MMSE among a preliminary sample of 406 normal people was assessed by Rasch unidimensional measurement model. Scores of the normal sample varied according to age and education but not according to sex. The data derived from this sample showed poor fit to the Rasch model (mean item fit, -2.082, SD 3.022). Only four of 11 items met model expectations. There was also differential item functioning by education and age for most items. Thus the internal construct validity of the Turkish MMSE in a normative sample could not be demonstrated by Rasch analysis. The scale failed modern psychometric criteria for scalability. We would therefore suggest other large normative MMSE data sets to be tested in terms of internal construct validity. If these findings are replicated, the validity of MMSE norms and their consequent use in clinical practice should be reconsidered.

  9. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine: A false transmitter agent for heart neuronal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenspire, K.C.; Haka, M.S.; Van Dort, M.E.; Jewett, D.M.; Gildersleeve, D.L.; Schwaiger, M.; Wieland, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is a new radiotracer developed for mapping the sympathetic nerves of the heart. Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is synthesized by direct N-methylation of metaraminol with [ 11 C]methyl iodide in dimethyl formamide/dimethyl sulfoxide and purified by semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Total synthesis time is 45 min from end-of-bombardment. Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is produced in 40%-50% corrected radiochemical yield with a specific activity of 900 Ci/mmol. Routine radiochemical and chemical purity are 95% and 98%, respectively. Biodistribution studies in rats show high myocardial uptake. Pretreatment with desipramine, a drug known to selectively block neuronal uptake, results in a 92% decrease in tracer accumulation in the myocardium. Metabolic studies in guinea pigs show less than 5% metabolites in heart tissue 30 min after intravenous injection suggesting that [ 11 C]meta-hydroxyephedrine is suitable for kinetic modeling. These preliminary results support this new tracer as a clinical agent for neuronal imaging of the heart

  10. Evaluation of stomatognathic problems in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (osteogenesis imperfecta - oi) - preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoląg, Danuta; Kulesa-Mrowiecka, Małgorzata; Sułko, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    According to epidemiological data, muscular dysfunctions of the masticatory system occur in 15-23% of the population. Preventive examinations of functional disorders of the stomatognathic system are, therefore, of particular importance. A distinct group of patients exposed to dysfunctions in the area of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus comprises those with genetic diseases characterised by disorders in collagen formation. One of such diseases is osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and dentinogenesis imperfecta that usually goes together with the former. The objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency with which particular disorders of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus occur within the group of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. The study was performed on patients of the Orthopaedic Clinic of the Polish-American Paediatric Institute in Kraków. The mean age of the children was 7.9 years. In all the cases, a genetic diagnosis of OI has been confirmed. The research methods were based on an in-depth interview on family diseases, pregnancy, postnatal period, feeding, subjective assessment of dysfunctions in the stomatognathic system. An examination of the deformations in the stomatognathic system and the skeleton was conducted, as well as an examination of the trauma and tone of the jaw. The relationship between breastfeeding and swallowing and speech disorders was also evaluated. The impact of intubation on mandibular ranges was investigated. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis on the basis of which conclusions were drawn concerning disorders in the stomatognathic system which tend to occur in children with OI. The renunciation of breastfeeding significantly contributes to sucking and swallowing disorders, rumen disorders, as well as biomechanical disorders in the temporomandibular joint. A significant dependence between breastfeeding and swallowing problems was found, whereas there was no such dependence with respect to

  11. Evaluation of a modified two-stage inferior alveolar nerve block technique: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The two-stage technique of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB administration does not address the pain associated with “needle insertion” and “local anesthetic solution deposition” in the “first stage” of the injection. This study evaluated a “modified two stage technique” to the reaction of children during “needle insertion” and “local anesthetic solution deposition” during the “first stage” and compared it to the “first phase” of the IANB administered with the standard one-stage technique. Materials and Methods: This was a parallel, single-blinded comparative study. A total of 34 children (between 6 and 10 years of age were randomly divided into two groups to receive an IANB either through the modified two-stage technique (MTST (Group A; 15 children or the standard one-stage technique (SOST (Group B; 19 children. The evaluation was done using the Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability (FLACC; which is an objective scale based on the expressions of the child scale. The obtained data was analyzed using Fishers Exact test with the P value set at <0.05 as level of significance. Results: 73.7% of children in Group B indicated moderate pain during the “first phase” of SOST and no children indicated such in the “first stage” of group A. Group A had 33.3% children who scored “0” indicating relaxed/comfortable children compared to 0% in Group B. In Group A, 66.7% of children scored between 1–3 indicating mild discomfort compared to 26.3% in group B. The difference in the scores between the two groups in each category (relaxed/comfortable, mild discomfort, moderate pain was highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Reaction of children in Group A during “needle insertion” and “local anesthetic solution deposition” in the “first stage” of MTST was significantly lower than that of Group B during the “first phase” of the SOST.

  12. Synthesis, 99m Tc-labeling, and preliminary biological evaluation of DTPA-melphalan conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Yang, Wenjiang; Xue, Jinquan; Zhang, Yanhua; Liu, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Melphalan (MFL) is a typical nitrogen mustard for the treatment of many types of cancer. For the purpose to develop novel 99m Tc-labeled tumor imaging agents with SPECT, MFL was directly labeled by 99m Tc using diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA) as bifunctional chelating agent. The novel ligands were successfully synthesized by conjugation of DTPA to MFL to get monosubstituted DTPA-MFL and bis-substituted DTPA-2MFL. Radiolabeling was performed in high yield to get 99m Tc-DTPA-MFL and 99m Tc-DTPA-2MFL, respectively, which were hydrophilic and stable at room temperature. The high initial tumor uptake with retention, good tumor/muscle ratios, and satisfactory scintigraphic images suggested the potential of 99m Tc-DTPA-MFL and 99m Tc-DTPA-2MFL for tumor imaging. However, the slow normal tissue clearance would be a great obstacle. Further modification on the linker and/or 99m Tc-chelate to improve the tumor targeting efficacy and in vivo kinetic profiles is currently in progress. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Leishmania infantum HSP70-II null mutant as candidate vaccine against leishmaniasis: a preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresno Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and no effective vaccine exists. The use of live attenuated vaccines is emerging as a promising vaccination strategy. Results In this study, we tested the ability of a Leishmania infantum deletion mutant, lacking both HSP70-II alleles (ΔHSP70-II, to provide protection against Leishmania infection in the L. major-BALB/c infection model. Administration of the mutant line by either intraperitoneal, intravenous or subcutaneous route invariably leads to the production of high levels of NO and the development in mice of type 1 immune responses, as determined by analysis of anti-Leishmania IgG subclasses. In addition, we have shown that ΔHSP70-II would be a safe live vaccine as immunodeficient SCID mice, and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, infected with mutant parasites did not develop any sign of pathology. Conclusions The results suggest that the ΔHSP70-II mutant is a promising and safe vaccine, but further studies in more appropriate animal models (hamsters and dogs are needed to appraise whether this attenuate mutant would be useful as vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.

  14. Cyclic Dipeptide Shuttles as a Novel Skin Penetration Enhancement Approach: Preliminary Evaluation with Diclofenac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Mohammed

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a peptide shuttle in delivering diclofenac into and through human epidermis. Diclofenac was conjugated to a novel phenylalanyl-N-methyl-naphthalenylalanine-derived diketopiperazine (DKP shuttle and to TAT (a classical cell penetrating peptide, and topically applied to human epidermis in vitro. DKP and TAT effectively permeated into and through human epidermis. When conjugated to diclofenac, both DKP and TAT enhanced delivery into and through human epidermis, though DKP was significantly more effective. Penetration of diclofenac through human epidermis (to receptor was increased by conjugation to the peptide shuttle and cell penetrating peptide with enhancement of 6x by DKP-diclofenac and 3x by TAT-diclofenac. In addition, the amount of diclofenac retained within the epidermis was significantly increased by peptide conjugation. COX-2 inhibition activity of diclofenac was retained when conjugated to DKP. Our study suggests that the peptide shuttle approach may offer a new strategy for targeted delivery of small therapeutic and diagnostic molecules to the skin.

  15. Cyclic Dipeptide Shuttles as a Novel Skin Penetration Enhancement Approach: Preliminary Evaluation with Diclofenac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoshi, Sarika; Giralt, Ernest; Benson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a peptide shuttle in delivering diclofenac into and through human epidermis. Diclofenac was conjugated to a novel phenylalanyl-N-methyl-naphthalenylalanine-derived diketopiperazine (DKP) shuttle and to TAT (a classical cell penetrating peptide), and topically applied to human epidermis in vitro. DKP and TAT effectively permeated into and through human epidermis. When conjugated to diclofenac, both DKP and TAT enhanced delivery into and through human epidermis, though DKP was significantly more effective. Penetration of diclofenac through human epidermis (to receptor) was increased by conjugation to the peptide shuttle and cell penetrating peptide with enhancement of 6x by DKP-diclofenac and 3x by TAT-diclofenac. In addition, the amount of diclofenac retained within the epidermis was significantly increased by peptide conjugation. COX-2 inhibition activity of diclofenac was retained when conjugated to DKP. Our study suggests that the peptide shuttle approach may offer a new strategy for targeted delivery of small therapeutic and diagnostic molecules to the skin. PMID:27548780

  16. Preliminary baropodometric analysis of young soccer players while walking: geometric morphometrics and comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, S; Bruner, E; Colaiacomo, B; Ciccarelli, A; Redaelli, A; Ripani, M

    2012-04-01

    The plantar support and its modifications are widely studied because of their bearing on posture. In particular, past studies have focused on the support modification during specific athletic tasks to highlight the eventual correlations between foot type and the most frequent sport injuries, due to intrinsic and extrinsic components that involve the structural and functional dynamics that act on the plantar vault during static and dynamic condition. These studies have been conducted by analyzing the morphological variation of the footprint during the performance. In the present study the variation in shape of the baropodometrical footprint of young soccer players, has been analyzed using geometric morphometrics. This approach permits a quantification of the morphological variation of the subjects using Cartesian coordinates placed at specific points on the footprint outline, and to correlate them with physical variables. In the present study the young soccer players displayed a narrowing of the footprint due to a transversal variation on the isthmus, when compared to children of the same age who did not play soccer. These results suggest a physiological and biomechanical organization of the foot type in soccer due to the specific athletic tasks involved. As the foot type, in sport, is strictly associated to recurrent injuries, the result obtained in this study should be considered as indicative for future analysis. In fact, a clear and univocal knowledge of this phenomenon would be useful in the planning of a training protocol to reduce the incidence of sport related injuries.

  17. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  18. Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of Acupuncture Therapy in Patients With Postpartum Sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing-Shu; Li, Yang; Gui, Tong

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated clinical outcomes following acupuncture treatment of postpartum sciatica. One hundred eleven women with postpartum sciatica were enrolled in an acupuncture group (n = 86) or a control group (n = 25), according to their preference. Participants in the acupuncture group attended acupuncture therapy sessions 3 times a week for 4 weeks, while participants in the control group were assigned to bed rest. Outcome measures included the Roland Disability Questionnaire for sciatica, a visual analog scale for leg pain, and patient-reported perceived recovery. In addition, participants were surveyed after treatment to assess the acceptability of acupuncture therapy. The outcome scores for disability and leg pain were significantly lower in the acupuncture group compared with the control group (P acupuncture improved their well-being after treatment. At one month after treatment, 98% of participants in the treatment group reported recovery compared with 24% of the control group participants (P acupuncture group believed that acupuncture had no significant interference with breast milk production. No adverse effects of acupuncture were reported. All participants in the acupuncture group stated they would choose acupuncture in case of relapse. However, the recurrence rate of sciatica in the acupuncture group (32%) was comparable to that of the control group (35%) at the one-year follow-up interview. Compared with bed rest, acupuncture might be an effective and acceptable strategy to relieve symptoms of postpartum sciatica. © 2018 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Intelligent Intention Estimation Algorithms for an Actuated Lower-Limb Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin Chandrapal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experimental testing of an actuated lower-limb exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is designed to alleviate the loading at the knee joint by supplying assistive torque. It is hypothesized that the support provided will reduce the muscular effort required to perform activities of daily living and thus facilitate the execution of these movements by those who previously had limited mobility. The exoskeleton is actuated by four pneumatic artificial muscles, each providing 150N of pulling force to assist in the flexion and extension of the knee joint. The exoskeleton system estimates the user's intended motion using muscle activity information recorded from five thigh muscles, together with the knee angle. To experimentally evaluate the performance of the device, the exoskeleton was worn by an able-bodied user, whilst performing the sit-to-stand-to-sit movement. In addition, the three intention estimation algorithms were also tested to determine the influence of the various algorithms on the support provided. The results show a significant reduction in the user's muscle activity (≈ 20% when assisted by the exoskeleton in a predictable manner.

  20. Preliminary safety evaluation of a commercial-scale krypton-85 encapsulation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, A.B.; Tanner, J.E.; Knecht, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a commercial-scale facility for encapsulating krypton-85 in zeolite-5A or glass at a 2000 MTHM per year nuclear fuel reprocessing plant can be designed to contain fragments and the 340 to 850 kCi krypton-85 inventory from an assumed catastrophic failure of the high pressure vessel. The vessel failure was assumed as a worst case and was not based on a detailed design evaluation or operating experience. The process design is based on existing commercial hot isostatic pressing technology operated at up to 40 times the scale required for krypton encapsulation. From the calculated process gas inventory in the pressure vessel and vessel design, the maximum explosive energy of 8.4 kg TNT and resulting vessel plug and fragment velocities were calculated. The facility Containment Cell housing the high pressure vessel was designed to contain the gases, fragments, and the shock wave energy calculated for a hypothetical vessel failure. The Access Cell located directly above the Containment Cell was designed to be a tertiary confinement of krypton-85, should the access hatch be breached. 3 figures, 2 tables

  1. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  2. Evaluating Checklist Use in Companion Animal Wellness Visits in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Michael T; Corrigan, Virginia K; Bartl-Wilson, Lara E; Freeman, Mark; Werre, Stephen; Tempel, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been thoroughly evaluated as a potential strategy to improve communication with pet owners regarding preventive care. The authors explored whether the use of a checklist based on the American Animal Hospital Association/American Veterinary Medical Association canine and feline preventive care guidelines would benefit senior veterinary students in accomplishing more complete canine and feline wellness visits. A group of students using provided checklists was compared to a control group of students who did not use checklists on the basis of their medical record notes from the visits. The students using the checklists were routinely more complete in several areas of a wellness visit vs. those who did not use the checklists. However, neither group of students routinely discussed follow-up care recommendations such as frequency or timing of follow-up visits. The study authors recommend considering checklist use for teaching and implementing wellness in companion animal primary care veterinary clinical teaching settings.

  3. Evaluating Checklist Use in Companion Animal Wellness Visits in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Nappier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been thoroughly evaluated as a potential strategy to improve communication with pet owners regarding preventive care. The authors explored whether the use of a checklist based on the American Animal Hospital Association/American Veterinary Medical Association canine and feline preventive care guidelines would benefit senior veterinary students in accomplishing more complete canine and feline wellness visits. A group of students using provided checklists was compared to a control group of students who did not use checklists on the basis of their medical record notes from the visits. The students using the checklists were routinely more complete in several areas of a wellness visit vs. those who did not use the checklists. However, neither group of students routinely discussed follow-up care recommendations such as frequency or timing of follow-up visits. The study authors recommend considering checklist use for teaching and implementing wellness in companion animal primary care veterinary clinical teaching settings.

  4. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N 2 O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH) 3 . Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the α-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments

  5. Evaluating the parent-adolescent communication toolkit: Usability and preliminary content effectiveness of an online intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toombs, Elaine; Unruh, Anita; McGrath, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the Parent-Adolescent Communication Toolkit, an online intervention designed to help improve parent communication with their adolescents. Participant preferences for two module delivery systems (sequential and unrestricted module access) were identified. Usability assessment of the PACT intervention was completed using pre-test and posttest comparisons. Usability data, including participant completion and satisfaction ratings were examined. Parents ( N  =   18) of adolescents were randomized to a sequential or unrestricted chapter access group. Parent participants completed pre-test measures, the PACT intervention and posttest measures. Participants provided feedback for the intervention to improve modules and provided usability ratings. Adolescent pre- and posttest ratings were evaluated. Usability ratings were high and parent feedback was positive. The sequential module access groups rated the intervention content higher and completed more content than the unrestricted chapter access group, indicating support for the sequential access design. Parent mean posttest communication scores were significantly higher ( p  Communication Toolkit has potential to improve parent-adolescent communication but further effectiveness assessment is required.

  6. Evaluation of Muscle Performance in Patients with Vitamin D De ciency: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Tuna Öztürk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D de ciency is very common in general population and has potentially harmful effect on musculoskeletal system. We aimed to show the effect of vitamin D de ciency on the muscle performance by using isokinetic test. Meterial and Methods: This study includes 12 women with vitamin D de ciency for patient group and 12 healthy women for control group. We compared knee muscles performance of these two groups by using isokinetic test. Results: The mean age was 40.71 (26-57 years in patients and 41.43 (28-58 years in healthy group. There was no statistical difference between two groups at knee  exion and extension pick-torque values in 60°/s velocity and fatigue index in 180°/s velocity (respectively, p1=0.86, p2=0.12, p3=0.42. Conclusion: Vitamin D de ciency has no effect on muscle performance. Further invastigations that evaluating larger populations are needed. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19: 17-9

  7. Preliminary clinical evaluation of hard- and soft-copy digitized chest radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rian, Roger L.; Smerud, Michael J.; Guinn, Todd

    1994-05-01

    The digital applications in radiology are a controversial advanced which potentially will influence all areas of patient imaging. It is utilized and accepted in angiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, nuclear imaging and sonography. More recently Computed Radiography has gained credibility in mobile scenarios as well as specific applications from cervical spine radiography to digital fluoroscopy. Usually this acceptance is related to benefits of lesser radiation exposure or an improved presentation with an incorrect radiographic technique. One advantage of interpreting from digital information is the potential manipulation of the image presentation to the observer through windowing, leveling and edge enhancement pre and/or during image review. Additionally this digital data can be transmitted over distance and represented as hard and/or soft copy for primary or consultative review. The number and quality of the images to be viewed, the environment of the review station as well as the observer experience with conventional radiographic as well as digital image evaluation are important aspects of delivering the radiologist's product i.e. the final interpretation. This paper assesses that product, specifically addressing the question `Is the radiologist's report the same whether derived from the original analog image or from its digitized image.' The object of this study is to determine whether a digital system (3M PACS) designed for consultative viewing in a satellite department can also be used directly for primary diagnosis of conventional chest exams.

  8. A preliminary study of shear wave elastography for the evaluation of unilateral palpable undescended testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, Ayse Kalyoncu, E-mail: Aysekucar@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Alis, Deniz, E-mail: denizalis@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Samanci, Cesur, E-mail: cesursamanci@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Aslan, Mine, E-mail: mineus_77@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Habibi, Hatice Arioz, E-mail: arioz.hatice@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Dikici, Atilla Suleyman, E-mail: drsuleymandikici@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Namdar, Yesim, E-mail: namdaryesim@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Gultekin, Mehmet Hamza, E-mail: mhamzagultekin@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Onal, Bulent, E-mail: bulonal@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Adaletli, Ibrahim, E-mail: iadaletli@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Testicular biopsy is no longer recommended in the management of undescended testes. • SWE yields valuable quantitative information about the histological properties tissues by assessing stiffness. • Mean stiffness values of undescended testes were significantly higher than those of the contralateral descended testes. • SWE seems to be a useful sonographic technique to assess damage to the undescended testis. • SWE might replace testicular biopsy in the management of undescended testes. - Abstract: Objectives: We sought to compare unilateral palpable undescended testes and contralateral descended testes using shear wave elastography (SWE) to show potential quantitative differences in elasticity patterns, which might reflect the histologic features. Methods: Approval for this prospective study was obtained from the local ethics committee. A total of 29 patients (mean age, 7.52 years; range, 1–18 years) with unilateral palpable undescended testes and contralateral descended testes were examined by greyscale ultrasonography and SWE between February 2015 and April 2016. The volume and the elasticity of each testicle were the main factors evaluated. Results: There was no difference between undescended testes and contralateral descended testes in terms of volume. However, a significant difference was evident in SWE-derived quantitative data. Conclusions: SWE seems to be a useful sonographic technique to predict histologic features of the undescended testicle, which might replace testicular biopsy in modern management of the undescended testis.

  9. Characterisation and preliminary lipid-lowering evaluation of Lactobacillus isolated from a traditional Serbian dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavišić, G; Ristić, S; Petrièević, S; Novaković Jovanović, J; Janać Petković, B; Strahinić, I; Piperski, V

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the potential probiotic properties of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Serbian homemade cheese. Seventeen LAB strains were isolated and characterised using standard protocols. One of the strains showed several probiotic properties: survival at low pH and in bile salts solution, antimicrobial activity, susceptibility to antibiotics and adhesion to hexodecane. DNA analysis identified the isolate as Lactobacillus casei, hereafter named L. casei 5s. The lipid lowering effect of L. casei 5s was evaluated in vivo using a hyperlipidemic rat model. Orally administered L. casei 5s significantly decreased the elevated total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and attenuated macro vesicular steatosis in the liver. Moreover, L. casei 5s improved the intestinal microbial balance in favour of lactobacilli, while decreasing the number of Escherichia coli cells. The bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the surface of the intestinal mucosa and from the faecal samples of treated animals, indicating adhesiveness and colonisation ability. The results of an acute oral toxicity study in mice and the absence of translocation to other organs demonstrated the safety of the strain. In conclusion, L. casei 5s demonstrated promising probiotic potential and might be a good candidate for more detailed investigations.

  10. Calcium antagonistic effects of Chinese crude drugs: Preliminary investigation and evaluation by 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu; Liao Jiali; Jin Jiannan

    2005-01-01

    Coronary and other diseases in cardiac or brain blood vessels are considered to be due to the excessive influx of Ca 2+ into cytoplasm. If Ca 2+ channels in cell membrane are blocked by medicines or other substances with considerable calcium antagonistic effects, these diseases might be cured or controlled. The influence of some Chinese crude drugs, including Crocus sativus, Carthamus tinctorius, Ginkgo biloba and Bulbus allii macrostemi on Ca 2+ influx in isolated rat aortas was investigated by using 45 Ca as a radioactive tracer, and their calcium antagonistic effects were evaluated. It can be noted that Ca 2+ uptake in isolated rat aorta rings in normal physiological status was not markedly altered by these drugs, whereas the Ca 2+ influxes induced by norepinephrine of 1.2 μmol/L and KCl of 100 mmol/L were significantly inhibited by Crocus, Carthamus and Bulbus in a concentration-dependent manner, but not by Ginkgo. The results show that extracellular Ca 2+ influx through receptor-operated Ca 2+ channels and potential-dependent Ca 2+ channels can be blocked by Crocus, Carthamus and Bulbus. This implies that these Chinese crude drugs have obvious calcium antagonistic effects

  11. Preliminary evaluation of child self-rating using the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloes, Kelly Isaacs; Barfell, Kara S Francis; Horn, Paul S; Wu, Steve W; Jacobson, Sarah E; Hart, Kathleen J; Gilbert, Donald L

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate and compare how children with Tourette syndrome and parents rate tic and non-tic behavioral related impairment in home, school, and social domains; to compare these with clinician tic ratings; and to identify factors that may predict greater impairment. In a sample of 85 Tourette syndrome and 92 healthy control families, the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale, designed for parent-report and which includes 37 items rated for tic and non-tic impairment, was administered to parents and, with the referent modified, to children ages 9 to 17 years. Tic severity was rated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Analyses utilized descriptive and multivariate statistics. Tourette syndrome children's and parents' impairment ratings were higher than HC (ptic impairment ratings correlated with YGTSS (r=0.36 to 0.37; ptic and all 37 non-tic impairment items. For 29 items, children self-rated impairment higher for tics than non-tics. Diagnoses of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder had larger effects on parent impairment ratings. The Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale appears informative for child self-rating in Tourette syndrome. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Preliminary safety evaluation of a commercial-scale krypton-85 encapsulation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, A.B.; Tanner, J.E.; Knecht, D.A.

    1980-09-01

    This report demonstrates that a commercial-scale facility for encapsulating krypton-85 in zeolite-5A or glass at a 2000 MTHM per year nuclear fuel reprocessing plant can be designed to contain fragments and the 340 to 850 kCi krypton-85 inventory from an assumed catastrophic failure of the high pressure vessel. The vessel failure was assumed as a worst case and was not based on a detailed design evaluation or operating experience. The process design is based on existing commercial hot isostatic pressing technology operated at up to 40 times the scale required for krypton encapsulation. From the calculated process gas inventory in the pressure vessel and vessel design, the explosive energy of 8.4 kg TNT and vessel plug and fragment velocities were calculated. The facility Containment Cell housing the high pressure vessel was designed to contain the gases, fragments, and the shock wave energy calculated for vessel failure. The Access Cell located directly above the Containment Cell was designed to be a tertiary confinement of krypton-85, should the access hatch be breached

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of Platelet Rich Fibrin-Mediated Tissue Repair in Immature Canine Pulpless Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi Lin; Yang, Pan Pan; Ge, Li Hong; Liu, He

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the regenerative therapy of immature canine permanent teeth. Eight immature premolars of beagle dogs were pulp extracted and cleaned with irrigation, then divided into two groups of empty root canals and those filled with a PRF clot. All of the eight premolars were sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate and glass ionomer cement. Two premolars were left naturally grown as a positive control. The root development was assessed radiographically and histologically after 12 weeks. The radiological findings showed greater increases in the thickness of lateral dentinal wall in the PRF group than in the vacant group. Histologically, dental-associated mineral tissue, connective tissue, and bone-like mineral tissue grew into the root canals independent of PRF clot use. The PRF was able to increase the thickness of dental-associated mineral tissue. However, the vital tissue differed from the pulp dentin complex. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of using PRF-mediated regenerative therapy in pulpless immature teeth for improving tissue repair.

  14. Application of computed tomography virtual noncontrast spectral imaging in evaluation of hepatic metastases: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shi-Feng; Liu, Ai-Lian; Liu, Jing-Hong; Sun, Mei-Yu; Wang, He-Qing; Liu, Yi-Jun

    2015-03-05

    The objective was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate hepatic metastases using computed tomography (CT) virtual noncontrast (VNC) spectral imaging in a retrospective analysis. Forty hepatic metastases patients underwent CT scans including the conventional true noncontrast (TNC) and the tri-phasic contrast-enhanced dual energy spectral scans in the hepatic arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phases. The tri-phasic spectral CT images were used to obtain three groups of VNC images including in the arterial (VNCa), venous (VNCv), and equilibrium (VNCe) phase by the material decomposition process using water and iodine as a base material pair. The image quality and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of metastasis of the four groups were compared with ANOVA analysis. The metastasis detection rates with the four nonenhanced image groups were calculated and compared using the Chi-square test. There were no significant differences in image quality among TNC, VNCa and VNCv images (P > 0.05). The quality of VNCe images was significantly worse than that of other three groups (P 0.05). The metastasis detection rate of the four nonenhanced groups with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). The quality of VNCa and VNCv images is identical to that of TNC images, and the metastasis detection rate in VNC images is similar to that in TNC images. VNC images obtained from arterial phase show metastases more clearly. Thus, VNCa imaging may be a surrogate to TNC imaging in hepatic metastasis diagnosis.

  15. Application of Computed Tomography Virtual Noncontrast Spectral Imaging in Evaluation of Hepatic Metastases: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Feng Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate hepatic metastases using computed tomography (CT virtual noncontrast (VNC spectral imaging in a retrospective analysis. Methods: Forty hepatic metastases patients underwent CT scans including the conventional true noncontrast (TNC and the tri-phasic contrast-enhanced dual energy spectral scans in the hepatic arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phases. The tri-phasic spectral CT images were used to obtain three groups of VNC images including in the arterial (VNCa, venous (VNCv, and equilibrium (VNCe phase by the material decomposition process using water and iodine as a base material pair. The image quality and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR of metastasis of the four groups were compared with ANOVA analysis. The metastasis detection rates with the four nonenhanced image groups were calculated and compared using the Chi-square test. Results: There were no significant differences in image quality among TNC, VNCa and VNCv images (P > 0.05. The quality of VNCe images was significantly worse than that of other three groups (P 0.05. The metastasis detection rate of the four nonenhanced groups with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The quality of VNCa and VNCv images is identical to that of TNC images, and the metastasis detection rate in VNC images is similar to that in TNC images. VNC images obtained from arterial phase show metastases more clearly. Thus, VNCa imaging may be a surrogate to TNC imaging in hepatic metastasis diagnosis.

  16. Evaluation of photopatch test allergens for Indian patients of photodermatitis: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a strong need to develop a photopatch test tray suitable for Indian patients of photodermatitis as European/Scandinavian photopatch test trays may not be wholly relevant for them. Aim: We carried out this study using photoallergens relevant in the Indian context to determine their relevance in patients of photodermatitis. Methods: Thirty patients (M:F, 23:7 between 19 and 76 years of age of photodermatitis and 10 controls were patch- and photopatch tested with 20 common photoallergens. In addition, the patients were also (photo patch tested with articles of daily use as and when these were suspected to be the cause. Results: Forty-three positive reactions to one or more antigens were seen in 22 (74% patients. Fourteen positive photopatch tests to seven allergens were observed in 10 (33% patients, and nine (30% of them had a definite relevance. The most common contact allergen was fragrance mix (FM (30%, followed by p-phenylenediamine (20% and Parthenium hysterophorous (17%. The definite relevance of the patch- and photopatch tests could be correlated in 47% of these patients. Conclusions: FM is the most common contact and photocontact allergen among the various photopatch test antigens. Although differences in technique and evaluation make direct comparison between different centers difficult, still photopatch testing remains an integral part and gold standard for the work-up of the photosensitive patients.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of heavy metal contamination in the Zarrin-Gol River sediments, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvandi, Hassan

    2017-04-15

    The major objectives of the study were to test the hypothesis of the Zarrin-Gol River as a reference site for ecotoxicological studies and to assess the contamination degree of heavy metals and metalloids in the river using four contamination indices. For these purposes, eleven heavy metal and metalloid concentrations were analyzed. The average concentrations (mgkg -1 ) in the sediments were: 37.67 (chromium) 286.28 (manganese), 13,751.04 (iron), 8.79 (cobalt), 12.39 (nickel), 32.68 (zinc), 21.91 (arsenic), 40.59 (selenium), 2923.86 (aluminum), ND (silver) and 785.96 (magnesium). Contamination factor, enrichment factor, pollution load index, and geoaccumulation index were calculated to evaluate the contamination degree and influence of human activities on heavy metal levels. The contamination indices of the sediment samples showed that arsenic and selenium were the highest pollutants. The results indicated that the Zarrin-Gol River could not be used as a reference site at least for arsenic and selenium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anthraquinone-chalcone hybrids: synthesis, preliminary antiproliferative evaluation and DNA-interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Violeta; Debeljak, Nevena; Stanojković, Tatjana; Kolundžija, Branka; Sladić, Dušan; Vujčić, Miroslava; Janović, Barbara; Tanić, Nikola; Perović, Milka; Tešić, Vesna; Antić, Jadranka; Joksović, Milan D

    2015-01-07

    Novel anthraquinone based chalcone compounds were synthesized starting from 1-acetylanthraquinone in a Claisen-Schmidt reaction and evaluated for their anticancer potential against three human cancer cell lines. Compounds 4a, 4b and 4j showed promising activity in inhibition of HeLa cells with IC50 values ranging from 2.36 to 2.73 μM and low cytotoxicity against healthy MRC-5 cell lines. The effects that compounds produces on the cell cycle were investigated by flow cytometry. It was found that 4a, 4b and 4j cause the accumulation of cells in the S and G2/M phases in a dose-dependent manner and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis. All of three compounds exhibit calf thymus DNA-binding activity. The determined binding constants by absorption titrations (2.65 × 10(3) M(-1), 1.36 × 10(3) M(-1)and 2.51 × 10(3) M(-1) of 4a/CT-DNA, 4b/CT-DNA and 4j/CT-DNA, respectively) together with fluorescence displacement analysis designate 4a, 4b and 4j as strong minor groove binders, but no cleavage of plasmid DNA was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. An Unexpected Means of Embedding Ethics in Organizations: Preliminary Findings from Values-Based Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Burford

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles constitute a crucial area of debate and discussion in the global conversation around transitions to sustainability, and of particular relevance to the contribution of businesses and other organizations. Scholars in business ethics have recently identified several challenges in this area, such as problems of measurement, rigor, and meaningfulness to practitioners; corporate social responsibility; and institutionalization of ethics in businesses. In this paper, the impacts of a pragmatic values-based evaluation approach originally developed in another field—education for sustainable development—are shown to strongly contribute to many of these challenges. Impacts found across eight organizations include (i deep values conceptualization; (ii increased esteem (iii building capacity for assessment of values-based achievements; (iv values mainstreaming; and (v effective external values communications. It seems that the in-situ development and use of values-based indicators helped to conceptualize locally shared values that underpin decisions, thus embedding the application of (local ethics. Although this study is exploratory, it is clear that the values-based approach shows promise for meeting key challenges in business ethics and wider sustainability, and for new directions for future cross-disciplinary research.

  20. Exergame Grading Scheme: Concept Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluations in Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of using exergames to promote physical activity among cancer survivors lies in the selection of the exergames that match their fitness level. There is a need for a standardized grading scheme by which to judge an exergame’s capacity to address specific physical fitness attributes with different levels of physical engagement. The study aimed to develop an Exergame Grading Scheme and preliminarily evaluate its psychometric properties. Fourteen (14 items were created from the human movement and exergame literature. The content validity index (CVI was rated by content experts with two consecutive rounds (N=5 and N=3 independently. The interrater reliability (IRR was determined by two raters who used the Exergame Grading Scheme to determine the grading score of the five exergames performed by two cancer survivors (N=10. Each item had a score of 1 for item-level CVI and 1 for k. For IRR, 9 items had rho values of 1, 1 item had 0.93, and 4 items had between 0.80 and 0.89. This valid and reliable Exergame Grading Scheme makes it possible to develop a personalized physical activity program using any type of exergame or fitness mobile application in rehabilitation practice to meet the needs of cancer survivors.

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of a Radiological Biomarker to Characterize the Longitudinal Evolution of Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Hernando, M.; Macias, P.; Abella, M.; Desco, M.; Sharpe, S.; Vaquero, J.J.; Muñoz-Barrutia, M.

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the world's second-deadliest disease, due to a single infectious agent. The population that has developed multidrug resistance is increasingly important boosting the interest to run assays of novel multi-antibiotic combinations. Drug assays of new chemotherapies for treating TB require following subjects to assess response at several time points. Radiological examination of the subjects is a promising technique for that task. In this context, the main objective of the present work is twofold: 1) To evaluate the performance of a tool, dedicated to the automatic segmentation of TB infected lungs in chest Computed Tomography (CT) scans; 2) To present a method to automatically compute an imaging biomarker capable to characterize the disease longitudinal evolution. The selected biomarker is based on the intensity differences between the healthy and sick lung parenchyma in chest CT scans. Our results demonstrated a good similarity between the automatically segmented lungs and those delineated using a semi-automatic tool that relays on manual corrections. Furthermore, regarding the automatic extraction of the imaging biomarker, results showed a good inter-method agreement and concordance with respect to those obtained using a visually defined set of thresholds. (Author)

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of the Adequacy of Lithium Resources of the World and China for D-T Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongliang; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican; FDS-Team

    2012-07-01

    This paper studied the adequacy of the World and China lithium resources, considering the most promising uses in the future, involving nuclear fusion and electric-vehicles. The lithium recycle model for D-T fusion power plant and electric-vehicles, and the logistic growth prediction model of the primary energy for the World and China were constructed. Based on these models, preliminary evaluation of lithium resources adequacy of the World and China for D-T fusion reactors was presented under certain assumptions. Results show that: a. The world terrestrial reserves of lithium seems too limited to support a significant D-T power program, but the lithium reserves of China are relatively abundant, compared with the world case. b. The lithium resources contained in the oceans can be called the “permanent" energy. c. The change in 6Li enrichment has no obvious effect on the availability period of the lithium resources using FDS-II (Liquid Pb-17Li breeder blanket) type of reactors, but it has a stronger effect when PPCS-B (Solid Li4 SiO4 ceramics breeder blanket) is used.

  3. Development of public health program for type 1 diabetes in a university community: preliminary evaluation of behavioural change wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Digban, K A; Anyasodor, A E; Bwititi, P T; Richards, R S; Igumbor, E O

    2017-10-23

    Diabetes mellitus, including type 1 is a global public health problem among the young persons. While public health campaign and screening program is a potential strategy, but communication skills, knowledge and opinion of the healthcare personnel are indicated as variables that can impact patient's education, which will lead to better outcome of care. Thus, in designing or planning a program for public health, workforce development considers opinion and behavioural change wheel of prospective personnel. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate if a university academic department has the behavioural change wheel to function as workforce infrastructure for an envisioned program. Survey of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of a university community regarding diabetes type 1 was performed. The KAP were translated into behavioural change wheel comprising capacity, motivation and opportunity (CMO). There are baseline indications of the behavioural change wheel potential of the public health department to run a T1D screening program. The number of participants who knew someone with T1D was significantly higher than the subgroup with no such knowledge (pwheel or CMO to develop a workforce infrastructure for T1D screening program, the experience that comes with age of lecturers will be an important factor to enable such program to succeed.

  4. Development and preliminary evaluation of a music-based attention assessment for patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Lesiuk, Teresa L

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in attention are commonly seen in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). While visual attention assessment measurements have been rigorously developed and frequently used in cognitive neurorehabilitation, there is a paucity of auditory attention assessment measurements for patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to field test a researcher-developed Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA), a melodic contour identification test designed to assess three different types of attention (i.e., sustained attention, selective attention, and divided attention), for patients with TBI. Additionally, this study aimed to evaluate the readability and comprehensibility of the test items and to examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the scale and test items. Fifteen patients diagnosed with TBI completed 3 different series of tasks in which they were required to identify melodic contours. The resulting data showed that (a) test items in each of the 3 subtests were found to have an easy to moderate level of item difficulty and an acceptable to high level of item discrimination, and (b) the musical characteristics (i.e., contour, congruence, and pitch interference) were found to be associated with the level of item difficulty, and (c) the internal consistency of the MAA as computed by Cronbach's alpha was .95. Subsequent studies using a larger sample of typical participants, along with individuals with TBI, are needed to confirm construct validity and internal consistency of the MAA. In addition, the authors recommend examination of criterion validity of the MAA as correlated with current neuropsychological attention assessment measurements.

  5. Evaluations of Extended-Range tropical Cyclone Forecasts in the Western North Pacific by using the Ensemble Reforecasts: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiao-Chung; Chen, Pang-Cheng; Elsberry, Russell L.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictability of the extended-range forecasts of tropical cyclone (TC) in the western North Pacific using reforecasts from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) during 1996-2015, and from the Climate Forecast System (CFS) during 1999-2010. Tsai and Elsberry have demonstrated that an opportunity exists to support hydrological operations by using the extended-range TC formation and track forecasts in the western North Pacific from the ECMWF 32-day ensemble. To demonstrate this potential for the decision-making processes regarding water resource management and hydrological operation in Taiwan reservoir watershed areas, special attention is given to the skill of the NCEP GEFS and CFS models in predicting the TCs affecting the Taiwan area. The first objective of this study is to analyze the skill of NCEP GEFS and CFS TC forecasts and quantify the forecast uncertainties via verifications of categorical binary forecasts and probabilistic forecasts. The second objective is to investigate the relationships among the large-scale environmental factors [e.g., El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), etc.] and the model forecast errors by using the reforecasts. Preliminary results are indicating that the skill of the TC activity forecasts based on the raw forecasts can be further improved if the model biases are minimized by utilizing these reforecasts.

  6. Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Evaluation of in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP. The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I, and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  7. Preliminary biocompatible evaluation of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 composite porous membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Qu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Yili Qu1,3, Ping Wang1,3, Yi Man1, Yubao Li2, Yi Zuo2, Jidong Li21State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China; 2Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China; 3These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (nHA/PA66 composite with good bioactivity and osteoconductivity was employed to develop a novel porous membrane with asymmetric structure for guided bone regeneration (GBR. In order to test material cytotoxicity and to investigate surface-dependent responses of bone-forming cells, the morphology, proliferation, and cell cycle of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs of rats cultured on the prepared membrane were determined. The polygonal and fusiform shape of BMSCs was observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. The proliferation of BMSCs cultured on nHA/PA66 membrane tested by the MTT method (MTT: [3-{4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl}-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazoliumbromide] was higher than that of negative control groups for 1 and 4 days’ incubation and had no significant difference for 7 and 11 days’ culture. The results of cell cycle also suggested that the membrane has no negative influence on cell division. The nHA/PA66 membranes were then implanted into subcutaneous sites of nine Sprague Dawley rats. The wounds and implant sites were free from suppuration and necrosis in all periods. All nHA/PA66 membranes were surrounded by a fibrous capsule with decreasing thickness 1 to 8 weeks postoperatively. In conclusion, the results of the in vitro and in vivo studies reveal that nHA/PA66 membrane has excellent biocompatibility and indicate its use in guided tissue regeneration (GTR or GBR.Keywords: hydroxyapatite/polyamide, barrier membrane, biocompatibility, guided bone regeneration

  8. Preliminary study: Evaluation of melatonin secretion in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Yilmaz; Geyikli, Iclal; Keskin, Mehmet; Akan, Muslum

    2014-07-01

    Melatonin is an indolamine hormone, synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland primarily. Melatonin exerts both antioxidative and immunoregulatory roles but little is known about melatonin secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to measure serum melatonin levels in patients with T1DM and investigates their relationship with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Forty children and adolescents with T1DM (18 boys and 22 girls) and 30 healthy control subjects (17 boys and 13 girls) participated in the study. All patients followed in Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit of Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine and also control subjects had no hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, anemia, and infection. Blood samples were collected during routine analysis, after overnight fasting. Serum melatonin levels were analyzed with ELISA. There were no statistically significant differences related with age, sex, BMI distribution between diabetic group and control group. Mean diabetic duration was 2.89 ± 2.69 years. The variables were in the equation. Mean melatonin level in diabetic group was 6.75 ± 3.52 pg/ml and mean melatonin level in control group was 11.51 ± 4.74 pg/ml. Melatonin levels were significantly lower in diabetic group compared to controls (P 1). Melatonin was associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus significantly. Because of the varied roles of melatonin in human metabolic rhythms, these results suggest a role of melatonin in maintaining normal rhythmicity. Melatonin may play role in preventing process of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  9. Preliminary study: Evaluation of melatonin secretion in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Kor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Melatonin is an indolamine hormone, synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland primarily. Melatonin exerts both antioxidative and immunoregulatory roles but little is known about melatonin secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The aim of this study was to measure serum melatonin levels in patients with T1DM and investigates their relationship with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Forty children and adolescents with T1DM (18 boys and 22 girls and 30 healthy control subjects (17 boys and 13 girls participated in the study. All patients followed in Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit of Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine and also control subjects had no hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, anemia, and infection. Blood samples were collected during routine analysis, after overnight fasting. Serum melatonin levels were analyzed with ELISA. Results: There were no statistically significant differences related with age, sex, BMI distribution between diabetic group and control group. Mean diabetic duration was 2.89 ± 2.69 years. The variables were in the equation. Mean melatonin level in diabetic group was 6.75 ± 3.52 pg/ml and mean melatonin level in control group was 11.51 ± 4.74 pg/ml. Melatonin levels were significantly lower in diabetic group compared to controls (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Melatonin was associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus significantly. Because of the varied roles of melatonin in human metabolic rhythms, these results suggest a role of melatonin in maintaining normal rhythmicity. Melatonin may play role in preventing process of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  10. Preparation of 99mTc-PQQE and preliminary biological evaluation for the NMDA receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xingqin; Kong Yanyan; Zou Meifen; Zhang Jiankang; Cao Guoxian

    2013-01-01

    The 4, 5-dioxo-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo(2, 3-f)quinoline-2, 7, 9-tricarboxylic acid 2-ethyl ester 7, 9-dimethyl ester (PQQE) was synthesized on the basis of Pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ). 99m Tc-PQQE was prepared using stannous fluoride (SnF 2 ) as reducing agent. Biological characteristics of 99m Tc-PQQE include lipophilic and the charge properties were compared to 99m Tc-PQQ. The biodistributions of 99m Tc-PQQE in mice and brain regional distribution were performed. In vivo distribution of 99m Tc-PQQE in mice indicates that the concentration ratio of drug and blood increases steadily over time. The major radioactivity may be metabolized by the hepatic and renal system. The elimination-phase half-time (t1/2 β) results indicate that the residence time of 99m Tc-PQQE (203.92) in the body is twice as long as 99m Tc-PQQ (100.45)., The uptake of 99n Tc- P QQE in brain was improved due to the ameliorating of charge and lipophilicity. The highest total regional brain uptake of 99m Tc-PQQE was in the frontal lobe and hippocampus, where the NMDA receptor is very abundant. 99m Tc-PQQE had a good target to nontarget ratio (hippocampus/cerebellum) which preserved a higher value (peak 4.0 at 120 min) from 60 min to 180 min after injection. In vitro autoradiographic results are in close agreement with the regional brain map. The enrichment can be blocked by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) redox modulatory site antagonists-ebselen (EB). This work suggests that 99m Tc-PQQE has some specific targeting to the NMDA receptor. (authors)

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  13. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  14. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2006-04-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea which represents the third evaluation of the available Simpevarp area groundwater analytical data collected up to November, 2004. Model version 1.2 focusses on improving the methodology and tools used for evaluating the hydrochemistry combined with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the available data. The major goal has been to consolidate groundwater geochemical understanding and the models used at the site. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1,000 m depending on local topography. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is small, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked. In contrast, the Laxemar subarea is characterised by higher topography resulting in a much more dynamic groundwater circulation which appears to extend to 1,000 m depth in the vicinity of borehole KLX02. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between the Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major hydrochemical

  15. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2004-12-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Simpevarp groundwater analytical data collected up to April, 2004. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1.7 km. Model version 1.2 focusses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1000 m depth. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1000 m depending on local topography. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major hydrochemical groups of groundwaters (types A-D) have been identified: TYPE A: This type comprises dilute groundwaters ( 3 type present at shallow ( 300 m) levels at Simpevarp, and at even greater depths (approx. 1200 m) at Laxemar. At Simpevarp the groundwaters are mainly Na-Ca-Cl with increasingly enhanced Br and SO 4 with depth. At Laxemar they are mainly Ca-Na-Cl also with increasing enhancements of Br and SO 4 with depth. Main reactions involve ion exchange (Ca). At both sites a glacial component and a deep saline component are present. At Simpevarp the saline component may be potentially non marine and/or non-marine/old Littorina marine in origin; at Laxemar it is more likely to be non-marine in origin. TYPE D: This type comprises reducing highly saline groundwaters (> 20 000 mg/L Cl; to a maximum of ∼70 g/L TDS) and only has been identified at Laxemar at depths exceeding 1200 m. It is mainly Ca-Na-Cl with higher Br but lower SO 4 compared

  16. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea which represents the third evaluation of the available Simpevarp area groundwater analytical data collected up to November, 2004. Model version 1.2 focusses on improving the methodology and tools used for evaluating the hydrochemistry combined with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the available data. The major goal has been to consolidate groundwater geochemical understanding and the models used at the site. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1,000 m depending on local topography. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is small, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked. In contrast, the Laxemar subarea is characterised by higher topography resulting in a much more dynamic groundwater circulation which appears to extend to 1,000 m depth in the vicinity of borehole KLX02. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between the Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major

  17. A Performance Evaluation for IT/IS Implementation in Organisation: Preliminary New IT/IS Capability Evaluation (NICE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Salleh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the traditional IT/IS performance measures are based on productivity and process, which mainly focus on method of investment appraisal. There is a need to produce alternative holistic measurement models that enable soft and hard issues to be measured qualitatively. A New IT/IS Capability Evaluation (NICE framework has been designed to measure the capability of organisations to'successfully implement IT systems' and it is applicable across industries.The idea is to provide managers with measurement tools to enable them to identify where improvements are required within their organisations and to indicate their readiness prior to IT investment. The NICE framework investigates four organisational key elements: IT, Environment, Process and People, and is composed of six progressive stages of maturity that a company can achieve its IT/IS capabilities. For each maturity stage, the NICE framework describes a set of critical success factors that must be in place for the company to achieve each stage.

  18. TH-CD-201-12: Preliminary Evaluation of Organic Field Effect Transistors as Radiation Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syme, A [Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lin, H; Rubio-Sanchez, J; Perepichka, D [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To fabricate organic field effect transistors (OFETs) and evaluate their performance before and after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if OFETs have potential to function as radiation dosimeters. Methods: OFETs were fabricated on both Si/SiO{sub 2} wafers and flexible polymer substrates using standard processing techniques. Pentacene was used as the organic semiconductor material and the devices were fabricated in a bottom gate configuration. Devices were irradiated using an orthovoltage treatment unit (120 kVp x-rays). Threshold voltage values were measured with the devices in saturation mode and quantified as a function of cumulative dose. Current-voltage characteristics of the devices were measured using a Keithley 2614 SourceMeter SMU Instrument. The devices were connected to the reader but unpowered during irradiations. Results: Devices fabricated on Si/SiO2 wafers demonstrated excellent linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.997) with threshold voltages that ranged between 15 and 36 V. Devices fabricated on a flexible polymer substrate had substantially smaller threshold voltages (∼ 4 – 8 V) and slightly worse linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.98). The devices demonstrated excellent stability in I–V characteristics over a large number (>2000) cycles. Conclusion: OFETs have demonstrated excellent potential in radiation dosimetry applications. A key advantage of these devices is their composition, which can be substantially more tissue-equivalent at low photon energies relative to many other types of radiation detector. In addition, fabrication of organic electronics can employ techniques that are faster, simpler and cheaper than conventional silicon-based devices. These results support further development of organic electronic devices for radiation detection purposes. Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: This work was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  19. Ultrasonographic evaluation of normal extrinsic and intrinsic carpal ligaments: preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutry, Nathalie; Lapegue, Franck; Demondion, Xavier; Masi, Laetitia; Cotten, Anne; Claret, Antoine

    2005-01-01

    To determine normal anatomy of extrinsic and intrinsic carpal ligaments at ultrasonography (US). In the first part of the study, two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed in consensus the photographs of anatomic sections and dissections derived from 20 cadaveric wrists. This cadaveric study gave the two readers the opportunity to learn the anatomy and orientation of the various extrinsic and intrinsic carpal ligaments and, thus, to develop a US protocol to facilitate the recognition of each carpal ligament. In the second part of the study, these two radiologists prospectively and independently evaluated the visibility of extrinsic and intrinsic carpal ligaments in 30 wrists of volunteers, using the same US protocol. With regard to extrinsic carpal ligaments, the radioscaphocapitate ligament (partially visible, 38%; completely visible, 62%), the radiolunotriquetral ligament (partially visible, 27%; completely visible, 73%), the palmar ulnotriquetral ligament (partially visible, 12%; completely visible, 88%), and the dorsal radiotriquetral ligament (partially visible, 7%; completely visible, 93%) were visualized at US. The dorsal ulnotriquetral ligament (partially visible, 21%; completely visible, 74%), the ulnolunate ligament (partially visible, 5%; completely visible, 70%), and the radial collateral ligament (partially visible, 18%; completely visible, 12%) were more difficult to recognize. The radioscapholunate ligament was never seen. With regard to intrinsic carpal ligaments, the dorsal (partially visible, 11%; completely visible, 89%) and palmar (partially visible, 38%; completely visible, 62%) scaphotriquetral ligaments as well as the dorsal scapholunate ligament (partially visible, 3%; completely visible, 97%) were visualized at US. The dorsal lunotriquetral ligament (partially visible, 39%; completely visible, 61%) and the palmar scapholunate ligaments (partially visible, 12%; completely visible, 81%) were more difficult to recognize. US may

  20. Brain spect in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Buchpiguel

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients consists of neurological examination, intensive electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring and anatomical studies (CT and MRI. Functional methods such as PET and SPECT imaging are now used more frequently. We have studied pre-operatively 15 adult epileptic patients (8 female, 7 male using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc_HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas. In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions. Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hyperperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: (a in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; (b in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; (c in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10 SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and hete-rogenicity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of prototype footwear and insoles to optimise balance and gait in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2017-09-11

    Footwear has the potential to influence balance in either a detrimental or beneficial manner, and is therefore an important consideration in relation to falls prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve balance. Older women (n = 30) aged 65 - 83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway on a foam rubber mat, limits of stability and tandem walking, measured with the Neurocom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, step length and step width at preferred speed, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (i) flexible footwear (Dunlop Volley™), (ii) their own footwear, and (iii) prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve dynamic balance. Perceptions of the footwear were also documented using a structured questionnaire. There was no difference in postural sway, limits of stability or gait patterns between the footwear conditions. However, when performing the tandem walking test, there was a significant reduction in step width and end sway when wearing the prototype footwear compared to both the flexible footwear and participants' own footwear. Participants perceived their own footwear to be more attractive, comfortable, well-fitted and easier to put on and off compared to the prototype footwear. Despite this, most participants (n = 18, 60%) reported that they would consider wearing the prototype footwear to reduce their risk of falling. The prototype footwear and insoles used in this study improve balance when performing a tandem walk test, as evidenced by a narrower step width and decreased sway at completion of the task. However, further development of the design is required to make the footwear acceptable to older women from the perspective of aesthetics and comfort. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12617001128381 , 01

  2. Preliminary evaluation of intraoperative gamma probe detection of the sentinel node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierralta, M P; Jofre, M J [Nuclear Medicine Department, Military Hospital, Santiago (Chile); Iglesis, R; Schwartz, R; Gomez, L; Velez, R [Surgery Department, Military Hospital, Santiago (Chile); Sandoval, R [Pathology Department, Military Hospital, Santiago (Chile)

    2002-09-01

    Introduction: The resurgence of the lymphoscintigraphy with the sentinel node concept and the availability of the intraoperative gamma probe have been proposed to avoid the morbidity of an unnecessary regional node dissection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the intraoperative gamma probe use after lymphoscintigraphy for the localization of the sentinel node. Material and methods: Twenty-nine patients were studied, 18 females (62%), mean age 60 {+-} 19 y.o. (range 24-86 y.o.) at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. The reference diagnoses were 66% malignant melanoma, 21 % breast cancer, 10 % head and neck cancer and 3% vulvae cancer. Lymphoscintigraphs were performed with Tc99m-Dextran injected intradermally in four points around the primary lesion or around the biopsy site (for melanoma 500 microCi each one; for breast and head and neck 200 microCi each one). Afterwards, dynamic images were taken, followed by intraoperative gamma probe investigations in order to localize and remove the sentinel node. Additionally, isosulfan blue was injected before the surgery was made. Results: Lymphoscintigraphy was positive to detect sentinel node(s) in 20 patients (69%). During the surgery, 40 sentinel nodes were detected. In 33 cases, the intraoperative gamma probe was performed, of which 88 % were radioactives. In 35 nodes, the isosulfan blue was injected, of which 80 % were dyed. The correlation between both techniques was 75 %. The histology study of 37 samples demonstrated that 86% (n=32) were truly ganglionar nodes. Conclusion: The intraoperative gamma probe after lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the localization of the sentinel node.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of intraoperative gamma probe detection of the sentinel node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierralta, M.P.; Jofre, M.J.; Iglesis, R.; Schwartz, R.; Gomez, L.; Velez, R.; Sandoval, R.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: The resurgence of the lymphoscintigraphy with the sentinel node concept and the availability of the intraoperative gamma probe have been proposed to avoid the morbidity of an unnecessary regional node dissection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the intraoperative gamma probe use after lymphoscintigraphy for the localization of the sentinel node. Material and methods: Twenty-nine patients were studied, 18 females (62%), mean age 60 ± 19 y.o. (range 24-86 y.o.) at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. The reference diagnoses were 66% malignant melanoma, 21 % breast cancer, 10 % head and neck cancer and 3% vulvae cancer. Lymphoscintigraphs were performed with Tc99m-Dextran injected intradermally in four points around the primary lesion or around the biopsy site (for melanoma 500 microCi each one; for breast and head and neck 200 microCi each one). Afterwards, dynamic images were taken, followed by intraoperative gamma probe investigations in order to localize and remove the sentinel node. Additionally, isosulfan blue was injected before the surgery was made. Results: Lymphoscintigraphy was positive to detect sentinel node(s) in 20 patients (69%). During the surgery, 40 sentinel nodes were detected. In 33 cases, the intraoperative gamma probe was performed, of which 88 % were radioactives. In 35 nodes, the isosulfan blue was injected, of which 80 % were dyed. The correlation between both techniques was 75 %. The histology study of 37 samples demonstrated that 86% (n=32) were truly ganglionar nodes. Conclusion: The intraoperative gamma probe after lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the localization of the sentinel node

  4. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C.; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  5. Preliminary evaluation of an aqueous wax emulsion for controlled-release coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, P S; Stout, P J; Turton, R

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of an aqueous carnauba wax emulsion (Primafresh HS, Johnson Wax) in a spray-coating process. This involved assessing the effectiveness of the wax in sustaining the release of the drug, theophylline. Second, the process by which the drug was released from the wax-coated pellets was modeled. Finally, a method to determine the optimum blend of pellets with different wax thicknesses, in order to yield a zero-order release profile of the drug, was addressed. Nonpareil pellets were loaded with theophylline using a novel powder coating technique. These drug-loaded pellets were then coated with different levels of carnauba wax in a 6-in. diameter Plexiglas fluid bed with a 3.5-in. diameter Wurster partition. Drug release was measured using a spin-filter dissolution device. The study resulted in continuous carnauba wax coatings which showed sustained drug release profile characteristics typical of a barrier-type, diffusion-controlled system. The effect of varying wax thickness on the release profiles was investigated. It was observed that very high wax loadings would be required to achieve long sustained-release times. The diffusion model, developed to predict the release of the drug, showed good agreement with the experimental data. However, the data exhibited an initial lag-time for drug release which could not be predicted a priori based on the wax coating thickness. A method of mixing pellets with different wax thicknesses was proposed as a way to approximate zero-order release.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of a virtual reality-based simulator for learning spinal anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-12-27

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of a simulation-based program on the initial performance of dural puncture by medical interns, and to refine the design of simulator-based teaching and competence assessment. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: 27 medical interns inexperienced in the technique of spinal anesthesia or dural puncture and within 12 months of graduating from medical school, were randomly assigned to a conventional or a simulator-based teaching course of spinal anesthesia: 13 were recruited to the Conventional Group (CG) and 14 to the Simulator Group (SG). MEASUREMENTS: A SenseGraphic Immersive workbench and a modified Phantom desktop with shutter glasses were used to create a teaching environment. Outcomes of teaching were assessed in two phases within three weeks of the teaching course: Phase I consisted of a written examination followed by assessment on the simulator. A global rating scale and a task-specific checklist were used. Phase II (for those participants for whom a suitable opportunity arose to perform spinal anesthesia under supervision within three wks of the teaching course) consisted of structured observation of clinical performance of the procedure in the operating room. Participants were assessed by independent, study-blinded experts. Student\\'s two-tailed impaired t-tests were used to compare the parametric outcomes (P < 0.05 was considered significant). MAIN RESULTS: All participants completed the written test successfully with no difference between groups. Ten participants from CG and 13 from SG completed the simulator-based testing performing similarly in terms of the global rating scale. Five participants in CG and 6 in SG proceeded to clinical testing. On the global rating scale, interns in SG scored higher than those in CG. They performed similarly according to the task-specific checklist. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, no difference was measured between those taught with

  7. The Italian national archive of radio and TV broadcasters: Preliminary evaluations of health and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepori, V.; Polichetti, A.; Vecchia, P.

    1996-01-01

    Several health effects of exposures to radiofrequency and microwave electromagnetic fields are well known and documented by a wide scientific literature. Although doubts still exist about the possibility of long-term effects of chronic exposure to low intensity fields, a vast agreement has been reached in the scientific community about the pathologies associated to exposures to relatively intense fields. On the basis of this consensus, protection norms and guidelines have been issued, either by international organizations or by health Authorities of individual Countries. In Italy, a regulation in this area has been urged for years by health operators, by scientists, and even by the industry. At the moment, two national Commissions, set up by the Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry of Health, are developing standards for the protection of the general population and workers, respectively. In the meantime, some Regions (Pedmont, Latium, Abruzzo and Venetia) have enforced own regional laws, to face in particular the problems posed by the exposure of the public to electromagnetic fields radiated by radio and TV broadcasters. A number of surveys carried out by various agencies have shown in fact that these plants give rise, in several circumstances, to fields exceeding the limits recommended by international organizations. That is due either to the proximity of individual antennas to houses or residential areas, or to the concentration of several broadcasters at the same site. Since the space distribution of the power radiated by an antenna can be calculated theoretically, detailed information on the siting and the technical characteristics of each plant would allow an a priori evaluation of possible exposures and help to identify critical situations

  8. Mood recognition in bipolar patients through the PSYCHE platform: preliminary evaluations and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Gentili, Claudio; Lanatà, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are characterized by a series of both depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes. Although common and expensive to treat, the clinical assessment of bipolar disorder is still ill-defined. In the current literature several correlations between mood disorders and dysfunctions involving the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can be found. The objective of this work is to develop a novel mood recognition system based on a pervasive, wearable and personalized monitoring system using ANS-related biosignals. The monitoring platform used in this study is the core sensing system of the personalized monitoring systems for care in mental health (PSYCHE) European project. It is comprised of a comfortable sensorized t-shirt that can acquire the inter-beat interval time series, the heart rate, and the respiratory dynamics for long-term monitoring during the day and overnight. In this study, three bipolar patients were followed for a period of 90 days during which up to six monitoring sessions and psychophysical evaluations were performed for each patient. Specific signal processing techniques and artificial intelligence algorithms were applied to analyze more than 120 h of data. Experimental results are expressed in terms of confusion matrices and an exhaustive descriptive statistics of the most relevant features is reported as well. A classification accuracy of about 97% is achieved for the intra-subject analysis. Such an accuracy was found in distinguishing relatively good affective balance state (euthymia) from severe clinical states (severe depression and mixed state) and is lower in distinguishing euthymia from the milder states (accuracy up to 88%). The PSYCHE platform could provide a viable decision support system in order to improve mood assessment in patient care. Evidences about the correlation between mood disorders and ANS dysfunctions were found and the obtained results are promising for an effective biosignal-based mood recognition. Copyright © 2012

  9. Preliminary evaluation of an in vivo fluorometer to quantify algal periphyton biomass and community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Theodore D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The bbe-Moldaenke BenthoTorch (BT) is an in vivo fluorometer designed to quantify algal biomass and community composition in benthic environments. The BT quantifies total algal biomass via chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration and may differentiate among cyanobacteria, green algae, and diatoms based on pigment fluorescence. To evaluate how BT measurements of periphytic algal biomass (as Chl-a) compared with an ethanol extraction laboratory analysis, we collected BT- and laboratory-measured Chl-a data from 6 stream sites in the Indian Creek basin, Johnson County, Kansas, during August and September 2012. BT-measured Chl-a concentrations were positively related to laboratory-measured concentrations (R2 = 0.47); sites with abundant filamentous algae had weaker relations (R2 = 0.27). Additionally, on a single sample date, we used the BT to determine periphyton biomass and community composition upstream and downstream from 2 wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) that discharge into Indian Creek. We found that algal biomass increased immediately downstream from the WWTF discharge then slowly decreased as distance from the WWTF increased. Changes in periphyton community structure also occurred; however, there were discrepancies between BT- and laboratory-measured community composition data. Most notably, cyanobacteria were present at all sites based on BT measurements but were present at only one site based on laboratory-analyzed samples. Overall, we found that the BT compared reasonably well with laboratory methods for relative patterns in Chl-a but not as well with absolute Chl-aconcentrations. Future studies need to test the BT over a wider range of Chl-aconcentrations, in colored waters, and across various periphyton assemblages.

  10. A preliminary evaluation of volcanic rock powder for application in agriculture as soil a remineralizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Claudete G., E-mail: claudeterms@brturbo.com.br [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Querol, Xavier [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC), C/Luis Solé y Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Pires, Karen [Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral (DNPM), Washington Luiz, 815, Centro, 90010-460 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, Luis F.S., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rock residue, from a crushing plant in the Nova Prata Mining District, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, in this work named rock powder, were investigated in view of its potential application as soil ammendment in agriculture. Abaut 52,400 m{sup 3} of mining waste is generated annually in the city of Nova Prata without a proper disposal. The nutrients potentially available to plants were evaluated through leaching laboratory tests. Nutrient leaching tests were performed in Milli-Q water; citric acid solution 1% and 2% (AC); and oxalic acid solution 1% and 5% (AO). The bulk and leachable contents of 57 elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Mining waste were made up by CaO, K{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the major occurence of quartz, anorthite, cristobalite, sanidine, and augite. The water leachable concentrations of all elements studied were lower than 1.0 mg/kg, indicating their low solubility. Leaching tests in acidic media yield larger leachable fractions for all elements being studied are in the leachate of the AO 1%. These date usefulness of volcanic rock powder as potential natural fertilizer in agriculture in the mining district in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. - Highlights: • Volcanic rock powder as fertilizer in agriculture • Volcanic rock powder as a source of nutrients to plants • This technology may favor the use of volcanic rock in agriculture.

  11. Ambulatory measurement of knee motion and physical activity: preliminary evaluation of a smart activity monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchau Henrik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a paucity of devices available for continuous, long-term monitoring of human joint motion. Non-invasive, inexpensive devices capable of recording human activity and joint motion have many applications for medical research. Such a device could be used to quantify range of motion outside the gait laboratory. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the modified Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA in measuring knee flexion angles, to detect different physical activities, and to quantify how often healthy subjects use deep knee flexion in the ambulatory setting. Methods We compared Biomotion Laboratory (BML "gold standard" data to simultaneous IDEEA measures of knee motion and gait, step up/down, and stair descent in 5 healthy subjects. In addition, we used a series of choreographed physical activities outside the BML to confirm the IDEEA's ability to accurately measure 7 commonly-performed physical activities. Subjects then continued data collection during ordinary activities outside the gait laboratory. Results Pooled correlations between the BML and IDEEA knee flexion angles were .97 +/- .03 for step up/down, .98 +/- .02 for stair descent, and .98 +/- .01 for gait. In the BML protocol, the IDEEA accurately identified gait, but was less accurate in identifying step up/down and stair descent. During sampling outside the BML, the IDEEA accurately detected walking, running, stair ascent, stair descent, standing, lying, and sitting. On average, subjects flexed their knees >120° for 0.17% of their data collection periods outside the BML. Conclusion The modified IDEEA system is a useful clinical tool for evaluating knee motion and multiple physical activities in the ambulatory setting. These five healthy subjects rarely flexed their knees >120°.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident in lead cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frano, R. Lo; Forasassi, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper some contributions are provided to the development of a European Lead-cooled System, known as the ELSY project (within EU-6 Framework Project); that will constitute a possible reference system for a large lead-cooled reactor of GEN IV. Steam generator (SG) tubing of this system type might be subject to a variety of degradation processes, such as cracking, wall thinning and potential leakage or rupture, eventually leading to the failure of one or more SG tubes that constitute a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident with possible consequences for the safety of the primary systems. It is therefore of interest for the designer to know how the SG itself, as well as the vessel and internals structures, behave under impulsive loading conditions (in form of a rapid and strong increase of pressure) that can arise as consequences of the interaction between the primary and secondary coolants (lead-water interaction). The analysed initiator event, as already mentioned, is a large break (up to a double ended guillotine break) of one (or more) SG cooling tubes that may become severe enough to determine dangerous effects on the interested structures. In order to better simulate and perform the mentioned postulated SGTR accident sequence analyses, an appropriate numerical model with the available computing resources (FEM codes) was set up at the DIMNP of Pisa University. That model was used to evaluate the effects of the propagation of the blast pressure waves inside the SG structures, taking into account also the sloshing phenomenon that could be induced by the lead primary coolant motions. Therefore the SGTR effects study may be considered as a transient and non linear problem the solution of which provides the 'time histories' of hydrodynamic pressures and stresses on the reactor pressure vessel and internals walls. (author)

  13. [Preliminary evaluation on self-developed dentin porcelain color prediction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Lu, C; Li, X L; Zhu, X M; Zhang, S; Tan, J G

    2016-09-01

    To apply the self-developed dentin porcelain color prediction system in the fabrication of porcelain-fused-to-metal-crown(PFMC), and to evaluate its accuracy in color-matching. Twenty upper central incisors were recruited according to preset criteria, and three PFMC were made for each tooth using three shade-matching techniques. Group A: PFMC were made according to the result of visual color selection; Group B: an spectrophotometer-based color-matching technique was used; Group C: PFMC were fabricated with dentin porcelain powder calculated by the prediction system according to the L(*), a(*), b(*) value measured by a spectrophotometer. Color differences(ΔE) (measured by spectrophotometer) of three groups of crowns were calculated in the cervical, middle, and incisal regions. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Mean color differences in body regions were: Group A: 3.53±1.80, Group B: 2.86±1.63, Group C: 3.77±1.40(P>0.05), and those in incisal regions were: Group A: 2.70 ± 1.13, Group B: 2.80 ± 0.90, Group C: 3.04 ± 1.03(P>0.05). In cervical region, Group C had greater color difference than Group B(2.78±1.14)(P0.05). PFMC fabricated using self-developed dentin porcelain color prediction system had similar color matching compared with conventional and instrument-based methods.

  14. A preliminary evaluation of volcanic rock powder for application in agriculture as soil a remineralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Claudete G.; Querol, Xavier; Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Pires, Karen; Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Oliveira, Luis F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rock residue, from a crushing plant in the Nova Prata Mining District, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, in this work named rock powder, were investigated in view of its potential application as soil ammendment in agriculture. Abaut 52,400 m 3 of mining waste is generated annually in the city of Nova Prata without a proper disposal. The nutrients potentially available to plants were evaluated through leaching laboratory tests. Nutrient leaching tests were performed in Milli-Q water; citric acid solution 1% and 2% (AC); and oxalic acid solution 1% and 5% (AO). The bulk and leachable contents of 57 elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Mining waste were made up by CaO, K 2 O, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , and P 2 O 5 . The analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the major occurence of quartz, anorthite, cristobalite, sanidine, and augite. The water leachable concentrations of all elements studied were lower than 1.0 mg/kg, indicating their low solubility. Leaching tests in acidic media yield larger leachable fractions for all elements being studied are in the leachate of the AO 1%. These date usefulness of volcanic rock powder as potential natural fertilizer in agriculture in the mining district in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. - Highlights: • Volcanic rock powder as fertilizer in agriculture • Volcanic rock powder as a source of nutrients to plants • This technology may favor the use of volcanic rock in agriculture

  15. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to June, 2004. The Hydrochemical Analytical Group (HAG) had access to data where a total of 1,131 water samples had been collected from the surface and sub-surface environment; 252 samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1 km. Most of the waters sampled (66%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Model version 1.2 focuses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1,000 m depth. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/ transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Forsmark are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600 m depending on hydraulic conditions. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is even less, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked and such areas will tend to be characterised by groundwater

  16. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to June, 2004. The Hydrochemical Analytical Group (HAG) had access to data where a total of 1,131 water samples had been collected from the surface and sub-surface environment; 252 samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1 km. Most of the waters sampled (66%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Model version 1.2 focuses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1,000 m depth. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/ transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Forsmark are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600 m depending on hydraulic conditions. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is even less, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked and such areas will tend to be characterised by

  17. Land drainage system detection using IR and visual imagery taken from autonomous mapping airship and evaluation of physical and spatial parameters of suggested method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin; Pospíšil, Jiří; Jirka, Vladimír.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental approach to the land drainage system detection and its physical and spatial parameters evaluation by the form of pilot project is presented in this paper. The novelty of the approach is partly based on using of unique unmanned aerial vehicle - airship with some specific properties. The most important parameters are carrying capacity (15 kg) and long flight time (3 hours). A special instrumentation was installed for physical characteristic testing in the locality too. The most important is 30 meter high mast with 3 meter length bracket at the top with sensors recording absolute and comparative temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction in several heights of the mast. There were also installed several measuring units recording local condition in the area. Recorded data were compared with IR images taken from airship platform. The locality is situated around village Domanín in the Czech Republic and has size about 1.8 x 1.5 km. There was build a land drainage system during the 70-ties of the last century which is made from burnt ceramic blocks placed about 70 cm below surface. The project documentation of the land drainage system exists but real state surveying haveńt been never realized. The aim of the project was land surveying of land drainage system based on infrared, visual and its combination high resolution orthophotos (10 cm for VIS and 30 cm for IR) and spatial and physical parameters evaluation of the presented procedure. The orthophoto in VIS and IR spectrum and its combination seems to be suitable for the task.

  18. Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Tim

    2010-05-01

    In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of the Pathomechanisms of Dysphagia After Occipitospinal Fusion: Kinematic Analysis by Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneyama, Shuichi; Sumi, Masatoshi; Takabatake, Masato; Kasahara, Koichi; Kanemura, Aritetsu; Koh, Akihiro; Hirata, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    Kinematic analysis of swallowing function using videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). The aims of this study were to analyze swallowing process in the patients who underwent occipitospinal fusion (OSF) and elucidate the pathomechanism of dysphagia after OSF. Although several hypotheses about the pathomechanisms of dysphagia after OSF were suggested, there has been little tangible evidence to support these hypotheses since these hypotheses were based on the analysis of static radiogram or CT. Considering that swallowing is a compositive motion of oropharyngeal structures, the etiology of postoperative dysphagia should be investigated through kinematic approaches. Each four patients with or without postoperative dysphagia (group D and N, respectively) participated in this study. For VFSS, all patients were monitored to swallow 5-mL diluted barium solution by fluoroscopy, and then dynamic passing pattern of the barium solution was analyzed. Additionally, O-C2 angle (O-C2A) was measured for the assessment of craniocervical alignment. O-C2A in group D was -7.5 degrees, which was relatively smaller than 10.3 degrees in group N (P = 0.07). In group D, all cases presented smooth medium passing without any obstruction at the upper cervical level regardless of O-C2A, whereas the obstruction to the passage of medium was detected at the apex of mid-lower cervical ocurvature, where the anterior protrusion of mid-lower cervical spine compressed directly the pharyngeal space. In group N, all cases showed smooth passing of medium through the whole process of swallowing. This study presented that postoperative dysphagia did not occur at the upper cervical level even though there was smaller angle of O-C2A and demonstrated the narrowing of the oropharyngeal space towing to direct compression by the anterior protrusion of mid-lower cervical spine was the etiology of dysphagia after OSF. Therefore, surgeon should pay attention to the alignment of mid-cervical spine as well as

  20. A preliminary evaluation of comminution and sampling strategies for radioactive cemented waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilodeau, M.; Lastra, R.; Bouzoubaa, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Chapman, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    attrition milling was selected for fine grinding. Sieving and magnetic separation are among the foreseen technologies to be investigated for metal and plastic rejection. A comminution process flowsheet, to be evaluated and validated at the pilot scale, was designed for the waste site comminution. Water recycling remains the main issue to be addressed. A radioactive waste sampling and comminution laboratory was installed and successfully tested. A statistical material balance algorithm was customized for the lixiviation process for designing sampling protocol and improving accuracy of the contaminants inventory. (author)

  1. A preliminary evaluation of comminution and sampling strategies for radioactive cemented waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilodeau, M.; Lastra, R.; Bouzoubaa, N.; Chapman, M.

    2011-01-01

    attrition milling was selected for fine grinding. Sieving and magnetic separation are among the foreseen technologies to be investigated for metal and plastic rejection. A comminution process flowsheet, to be evaluated and validated at the pilot scale, was designed for the waste site comminution. Water recycling remains the main issue to be addressed. A radioactive waste sampling and comminution laboratory was installed and successfully tested. A statistical material balance algorithm was customized for the lixiviation process for designing sampling protocol and improving accuracy of the contaminants inventory. (author)

  2. Building a transnational biosurveillance network using semantic web technologies: requirements, design, and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Douglas; Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Emonet, Stéphane; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

    2012-05-29

    Antimicrobial resistance has reached globally alarming levels and is becoming a major public health threat. Lack of efficacious antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems was identified as one of the causes of increasing resistance, due to the lag time between new resistances and alerts to care providers. Several initiatives to track drug resistance evolution have been developed. However, no effective real-time and source-independent antimicrobial resistance monitoring system is available publicly. To design and implement an architecture that can provide real-time and source-independent antimicrobial resistance monitoring to support transnational resistance surveillance. In particular, we investigated the use of a Semantic Web-based model to foster integration and interoperability of interinstitutional and cross-border microbiology laboratory databases. Following the agile software development methodology, we derived the main requirements needed for effective antimicrobial resistance monitoring, from which we proposed a decentralized monitoring architecture based on the Semantic Web stack. The architecture uses an ontology-driven approach to promote the integration of a network of sentinel hospitals or laboratories. Local databases are wrapped into semantic data repositories that automatically expose local computing-formalized laboratory information in the Web. A central source mediator, based on local reasoning, coordinates the access to the semantic end points. On the user side, a user-friendly Web interface provides access and graphical visualization to the integrated views. We designed and implemented the online Antimicrobial Resistance Trend Monitoring System (ARTEMIS) in a pilot network of seven European health care institutions sharing 70+ million triples of information about drug resistance and consumption. Evaluation of the computing performance of the mediator demonstrated that, on average, query response time was a few seconds (mean 4.3, SD 0.1 × 10

  3. Irinotecan and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Interactions in Rat Liver: A Preliminary Evaluation Using Biochemical and Genotoxicity Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucić Vrdoljak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest regarding the use of herbal preparations based on Cannabis sativa for medicinal purposes, despite the poorly understood interactions of their main constituent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC with conventional drugs, especially cytostatics. The objective of this pilot study was to prove whether the concomitant intake of THC impaired liver function in male Wistar rats treated with the anticancer drug irinotecan (IRI, and evaluate the toxic effects associated with this exposure. IRI was administered once intraperitoneally (at 100 mg/kg of the body weight (b.w., while THC was administered per os repeatedly for 1, 3, and 7 days (at 7 mg/kg b.w.. Functional liver impairments were studied using biochemical markers of liver function (aspartate aminotransferase—AST, alanine aminotransferase—ALP, alkaline phosphatase—AP, and bilirubin in rats given a combined treatment, single IRI, single THC, and control groups. Using common oxidative stress biomarkers, along with measurement of primary DNA damage in hepatocytes, the degree of impairments caused at the cellular level was also evaluated. THC caused a time-dependent enhancement of acute toxicity in IRI-treated rats, which was confirmed by body and liver weight reduction. Although single THC affected ALP and AP levels more than single IRI, the levels of liver function markers measured after the administration of a combined treatment mostly did not significantly differ from control. Combined exposure led to increased oxidative stress responses in 3- and 7-day treatments, compared to single IRI. Single IRI caused the highest DNA damage at all timepoints. Continuous 7-day oral exposure to single THC caused an increased mean value of comet tail length compared to its shorter treatments. Concomitant intake of THC slightly affected the levels of IRI genotoxicity at all timepoints, but not in a consistent manner. Further studies are needed to prove our preliminary observations

  4. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Simpevarp groundwater analytical data collected up to April, 2004. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1.7 km. Model version 1.2 focusses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1000 m depth. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1000 m depending on local topography. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major hydrochemical groups of groundwaters (types A-D) have been identified: TYPE A: This type comprises dilute groundwaters (< 1000 mg/L Cl; 0.5-2.0 g/L TDS) of Na-HCO{sub 3} type present at shallow (<200 m) depths at Simpevarp, but at greater depths (0-900 m) at Laxemar. At both localities the groundwaters are marginally oxidising close to the surface, but otherwise reducing. Main reactions involve weathering, ion exchange (Ca, Mg), surface complexation, and dissolution of calcite. Redox reactions include precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxides and some microbially mediated reactions (SRB). Meteoric recharge water is mainly present at Laxemar whilst at Simpevarp potential mixing of recharge meteoric water and a modern sea component is observed. Localised mixing of meteoric water with deeper saline groundwaters is indicated at both Laxemar and Simpevarp. TYPE B: This type comprises brackish groundwaters (1000-6000 mg/L Cl; 5-10 g/L TDS) present at

  5. The role of combined 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring in the evaluation of children with gastrointestinal symptoms suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojsak, I; Ivković, L; Trbojević, T; Pavić, I; Jadrešin, O; Mišak, Z; Kolaček, S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (pH-MII) monitoring in the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children who presented with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in comparison with the results of pH-metry alone and endoscopy. All children who underwent pH-MII monitoring due to GI symptoms, suggestive of GERD, from October 2013 to October 2015 in Children's Hospital Zagreb, were retrospectively enrolled in the study. The cohort was divided into three groups according to age - group 1: children Gastro-esophageal reflux disease was determined in 44 of 133 patients (33.1%) by pH-MII and only in 21 of 133 patients (15.8%) by pH-metry alone. Endoscopy was performed in 77 (57.9%) children and esophagitis was found in 32/77 (41.6%). The finding of esophagitis significantly correlated with the number of total reflux episodes (coef. 0.42, p reflux episodes detected by pH-MII; but, no correlation was found to reflux episodes detected by pH-metry alone (coef. 0.21, p = 0.07). Compared with pH-metry alone, pH-MII performed significantly better in the detection of GERD in all age groups. On the basis of our data, pH-MII had a strong correlation with endoscopically confirmed esophagitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the correlation between KRAS mutated allele frequency and pathologist tumorous nuclei percentage assessment in colorectal cancer suggests a role for zygosity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Louis; Baldin, Pamela; Dekairelle, Anne-France; Jouret-Mourin, Anne

    2018-04-27

    Evaluation of molecular tumour heterogeneity relies on the tumorous nuclei percentage (TNP) assessment by a pathologist, which has been criticised for being inaccurate and suffering from interobserver variability. Based on the 'Big Bang theory' which states that KRAS mutation in colorectal cancer is mostly homogeneous, we investigated this issue by performing a critical analysis of the correlation of the KRAS mutant allele fraction with the TNP in 99 colorectal tumour samples with a positive KRAS mutation status as determined by next-generation sequencing. Our results yield indirect evidence that the KRAS zygosity status influences the correlation between these parameters and we show that a well-trained pathologist is indeed capable of accurately assessing TNP. Our findings indicate that tumour zygosity, a feature which has largely been neglected until now, should be taken into account in future studies on (colorectal) molecular tumour heterogeneity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    design and construction included: cost, ease of performance, portability, use of local equipment, the planter’s capacity as well as the style of picking single seeds (In Fig.1, the original scheme of the device is presented. The planter consists of several parts operating harmoniously to yield the desired results. These parts include a chassis and conveyor belt mechanism, primary and secondary fertilizer tanks, squashing unit, seed metering device and vibrating reservoir of the seed (The main text of modeling the device with SolidWorks software is shown in Fig.2. This device is designed in such a way that the position of the nozzle, the suction pressure, the height of removing seeds and the vibration frequency of the seeding tray are adjustable. Evaluation of the device was carried out by single seeding of tomato seeds in trays with 105 cells (7 × 15. Suction pressure and nozzle size were calculated for tomato seeds. Scaling distances were considered equal, based on the 30.5-mm intervals of the cells. Single seed picking efficiency of seeds was calculated by the system, as the single percentage of seeding and the total percentage of seeded cells. Seed consumption efficiency is the ratio of the total seeded cells to the total number of existing seeds in the cells. Seeding efficiency also refers to single, dual, and multiple harvested seeds. Furthermore, the device capacity is defined as the number of seeded tray cells per hour. In order to design and build a precise robot planter, an experiment including the designed planter and planting speed of workers in 10 repetitions was designed and implemented to estimate the seeding time and compare with automated and manual planting methods. Seedling trays with four replications were cultivated by the designed robot and the number of cultivated seeds per tray at each stage were correctly counted. After that, the spent planting time by a worker was determined with four replications. Results and Discussion: The planting rate of

  8. A preliminary evaluation of optometric management and referral protocols for pa-tients with diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate  the  assessment,  management  and referral practices of South African optometrists in  the  care  of  patients  with  diabetic  retinop-athy  (DR  and  to  recommend  strategies  to improve  and  standardize  patient  management as required.  Methods:  The  study  design  incorporated quantitative,  qualitative  and  clinical  measures that were administered to fourteen experienced optometrists from the Durban area. The quan-titative measure, the questionnaire in appendix I, evaluated the optometrists’ management pro-tocols of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM.  These  included  the  optometrists’  referral  and co-management practices, their awareness and usage  of  appropriate  guidelines  in  the  man-agement  and  referral  of  these  patients,  their perceived levels of competence and confidence in their education, levels of service offered to the patients and finally the role of Continuous Professional  Development  (CPD.  This  self-report information was supplemented by a set of clinical measures where the study sample grad-ed levels of DR, chose appropriate management options  and  indicated  prognosis  for  disease progression based on a set of slides presented to  them.  Finally  the  fourteen  optometrists,  as well as two ophthalmologists, were interviewed using tailored, semi-structured interview sched-ules. These interviews were used to elaborate and corroborate information obtained from the other two research approaches.  Results:  Descriptive  analysis  was  used  to analyse  the  data  from  the  quantitative  and clinical  measures,  whilst  the  interviews  were analysed  thematically.  Although  86%  of  the sample routinely screened for ocular manifesta-tions of DM, there was no standardization in the criteria used by the fourteen optometrists

  9. Impact of an educational program on the quality of life of patients with lymphedema: A preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Sophie; Satger, Bernadette; Pernod, Gilles; Richaud, Cécile; Villemur, Béatrice; Carpentier, Patrick H

    2017-09-01

    We report on the preliminary evaluation of a well-designed program, Living with Lymphedema. This longitudinal cohort study assessed patients' quality of life using questionnaires. Our main objective was to evaluate the satisfaction of the patients and their adherence to the program. This was done using a specific questionnaire of satisfaction as well as by noting patients' adherence to the program (number of patients attending all three consultations). The secondary objective was to assess the effect of the program on the patient's quality of life. The assessment criteria were the evolution of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and EuroQol questionnaire scores between the first (C1) and third (C3) consultations. The Living with Lymphedema program targeted all patients with lymphedema in the Grenoble (France) conurbation and within the GRANTED health care network that includes vascular medicine specialists, primary care physicians, physical therapists, and dietitians in the Alpine region of France. All studied patients were ambulatory patients. The GRANTED network took care only of the educational aspect of the disease. All patients with primary or secondary lymphedema were offered the Living with Lymphedema program, whatever their age and the location of the lymphedema (upper or lower limbs). The collection of patient data conformed to the ethical and administrative regulations of the regional health authority. Grenoble Institutional Review Board (CPP Sud-Est V; No. 5891) approval for the study was specifically obtained for this evaluation on December 24, 2012. The program was built around one-to-one consultations, group workshops, and more specialized appointments. It was complementary to the routine medical care received by the patient (not evaluated in this study). It proposed three individual "educational" consultations, seven group workshops, and two specialized consultations with a dietitian. All the consultations or workshops were

  10. Papain wound dressings obtained from poly(vinyl alcohol)/calcium alginate blends as new pharmaceutical dosage form: Preparation and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, J A P; Carvalho, S G; Zampirolli, A C D; Daltoé, R D; Teixeira, R M; Careta, F P; Cotrim, M A P; Oréfice, R L; Villanova, J C O

    2017-04-01

    Transparent, soft, flexible, mechanically resistant films, which are ideal for use as wound dressings were prepared in the presence of 2% papain, a proteolytic enzyme that can play a role in the chemical debridement of the skin and can accelerate the healing process. The films, based on poly(vinyl alcohol):calcium alginate blends with increasing concentrations of polysaccharide (10, 20, and 30% v/v), were obtained by casting method. FTIR and DSC analyses were performed to assess the composition and miscibility of blends. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elasticity modulus, and elongation at breakpoint were evaluated. The influence of different concentrations of calcium alginate on physical attributes of films like wettability, swelling capacity and mechanical properties was determined. The stability of papain in the films was assessed indirectly by hemolytic activity assay employing direct contact method and confirmed by technique based on blood agar diffusion. Preliminary cytotoxicity was evaluated with the XTT method. The results showed that at the polymer concentrations tested, the blends were miscible. The increase in the content of the calcium alginate increased the wettability and swelling capacity of the films, which is desirable in wound dressings. On the other hand, mechanical resistance decreased without causing breakage of the films during the swelling tests. The hemolytic activity of the films was maintained during the studied period, suggesting the stability of papain in the proposed formulations. Cellular viability indicated that the films were non-toxic. The analysis of the results showed that it is possible to prepare interactive and bioactive wound dressing containing papain from blends of PVA and calcium alginate polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the use of the greater confinement disposal concept for the disposal of Fernald 11e(2) byproduct material at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; Brown, T.J.; Stockman, H.W.; Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Price, L.L.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents a preliminary evaluation of the ability of the greater confinement disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site to provide long-term isolation of radionuclides from the disposal of vitrified byproduct material. The byproduct material is essentially concentrated residue from processing uranium ore that contains a complex mixture of radionuclides, many of which are long-lived and present in concentrations greater than 100,000 picoCuries per gram. This material has been stored in three silos at the fernald Environmental Management Project since the early 1950s and will be vitrified into 6,000 yd 3 (4,580 m 3 ) of glass gems prior to disposal. This report documents Sandia National Laboratories' preliminary evaluation for disposal of the byproduct material and includes: the selection of quantitative performance objectives; a conceptual model of the disposal system and the waste; results of the modeling; identified issues, and activities necessary to complete a full performance assessment

  12. Evaluating the potential of multi-purpose nature based solutions in peri-urban landscapes - a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Josie; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Guenther, Daniel; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality protection and improvement with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). Current mitigation solutions are typically based on isolated design strategies used at specific small scale sites and for storm water only. More holistic catchment scale approaches are urgently required to effectively manage the amount of water flows and protect the raw water quality in peri-urban landscapes. This project aims to provide a better understanding of the connectivity between natural and managed flow pathways, storage, and biogeochemical processes in the peri-urban landscape to eventually aid a more integrated water quantity and quality control design. For an actively urbanising catchment in NE Scotland we seek to understand the spatio-temporal character of the natural flow pathways and associated water quality, and how these may be used to support the design of nature based solutions during urbanisation. We present preliminary findings from a dense and multiscale monitoring network that includes hydrometric, tracer (stable water isotopes) and water quality (turbidity (sediment), nitrate, phosphate) data during a range of contrasting hydroclimatological conditions and at different stages of the development of urban infrastructure. These demonstrate a highly variable nature, both temporally and spatially, with water quality dynamics out of sync with storm responses and depending on management practices. This highlights potential difficulties for managing water quantity and quality simultaneously at the catchment scale, and suggests that a treatment train approach may be required. Well-designed nature based solutions that tackle both water quantity and quality issues will require adaptability and a

  13. Design and Development of a Linked Open Data-Based Health Information Representation and Visualization System: Potentials and Preliminary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tomi; Keßler, Carsten; Fritz, Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare organizations around the world are challenged by pressures to reduce cost, improve coordination and outcome, and provide more with less. This requires effective planning and evidence-based practice by generating important information from available data. Thus, flexible and user-friendly ways to represent, query, and visualize health data becomes increasingly important. International organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly publish vital data on priority health topics that can be utilized for public health policy and health service development. However, the data in most portals is displayed in either Excel or PDF formats, which makes information discovery and reuse difficult. Linked Open Data (LOD)—a new Semantic Web set of best practice of standards to publish and link heterogeneous data—can be applied to the representation and management of public level health data to alleviate such challenges. However, the technologies behind building LOD systems and their effectiveness for health data are yet to be assessed. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate whether Linked Data technologies are potential options for health information representation, visualization, and retrieval systems development and to identify the available tools and methodologies to build Linked Data-based health information systems. Methods We used the Resource Description Framework (RDF) for data representation, Fuseki triple store for data storage, and Sgvizler for information visualization. Additionally, we integrated SPARQL query interface for interacting with the data. We primarily use the WHO health observatory dataset to test the system. All the data were represented using RDF and interlinked with other related datasets on the Web of Data using Silk—a link discovery framework for Web of Data. A preliminary usability assessment was conducted following the System Usability Scale (SUS) method. Results We developed an LOD

  14. Design and development of a linked open data-based health information representation and visualization system: potentials and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Kauppinen, Tomi; Keßler, Carsten; Fritz, Fleur

    2014-10-25

    Healthcare organizations around the world are challenged by pressures to reduce cost, improve coordination and outcome, and provide more with less. This requires effective planning and evidence-based practice by generating important information from available data. Thus, flexible and user-friendly ways to represent, query, and visualize health data becomes increasingly important. International organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly publish vital data on priority health topics that can be utilized for public health policy and health service development. However, the data in most portals is displayed in either Excel or PDF formats, which makes information discovery and reuse difficult. Linked Open Data (LOD)-a new Semantic Web set of best practice of standards to publish and link heterogeneous data-can be applied to the representation and management of public level health data to alleviate such challenges. However, the technologies behind building LOD systems and their effectiveness for health data are yet to be assessed. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether Linked Data technologies are potential options for health information representation, visualization, and retrieval systems development and to identify the available tools and methodologies to build Linked Data-based health information systems. We used the Resource Description Framework (RDF) for data representation, Fuseki triple store for data storage, and Sgvizler for information visualization. Additionally, we integrated SPARQL query interface for interacting with the data. We primarily use the WHO health observatory dataset to test the system. All the data were represented using RDF and interlinked with other related datasets on the Web of Data using Silk-a link discovery framework for Web of Data. A preliminary usability assessment was conducted following the System Usability Scale (SUS) method. We developed an LOD-based health information representation, querying

  15. Hyperpolarized {sup 3}He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Lindsay, E-mail: lmathew@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Kirby, Miranda, E-mail: mkirby@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Etemad-Rezai, Roya, E-mail: Roya.EtemadRezai@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Wheatley, Andrew, E-mail: awheat@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); McCormack, David G., E-mail: David.McCormack@lhsc.on.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada); Parraga, Grace, E-mail: gep@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 ({sup 3}He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for {sup 3}He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, {sup 1}H MRI and hyperpolarized {sup 3}He MRI at 3.0 T. {sup 3}He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from {sup 3}He static ventilation images and {sup 1}H thoracic images and the {sup 3}He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant {sup 3}He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for {sup 3}He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  16. Design and preliminary evaluation of the FINGER rehabilitation robot: controlling challenge and quantifying finger individuation during musical computer game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Hossein; Rowe, Justin B; Gardner, David; Chan, Vicki; Gray, Kyle; Bower, Curtis; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Wolbrecht, Eric T

    2014-02-04

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of FINGER (Finger Individuating Grasp Exercise Robot), a device for assisting in finger rehabilitation after neurologic injury. We developed FINGER to assist stroke patients in moving their fingers individually in a naturalistic curling motion while playing a game similar to Guitar Hero. The goal was to make FINGER capable of assisting with motions where precise timing is important. FINGER consists of a pair of stacked single degree-of-freedom 8-bar mechanisms, one for the index and one for the middle finger. Each 8-bar mechanism was designed to control the angle and position of the proximal phalanx and the position of the middle phalanx. Target positions for the mechanism optimization were determined from trajectory data collected from 7 healthy subjects using color-based motion capture. The resulting robotic device was built to accommodate multiple finger sizes and finger-to-finger widths. For initial evaluation, we asked individuals with a stroke (n = 16) and without impairment (n = 4) to play a game similar to Guitar Hero while connected to FINGER. Precision design, low friction bearings, and separate high speed linear actuators allowed FINGER to individually actuate the fingers with a high bandwidth of control (-3 dB at approximately 8 Hz). During the tests, we were able to modulate the subject's success rate at the game by automatically adjusting the controller gains of FINGER. We also used FINGER to measure subjects' effort and finger individuation while playing the game. Test results demonstrate the ability of FINGER to motivate subjects with an engaging game environment that challenges individuated control of the fingers, automatically control assistance levels, and quantify finger individuation after stroke.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a constructed wetland for treating extremely alkaline (pH 12) steel slag drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W M; Aumônier, J; Jarvis, A P

    2009-01-01

    High pH (> 12) leachates are an environmental problem associated with drainage from lime (CaO)-rich industrial residues such as steel slags, lime spoil and coal combustion residues. Recent research has highlighted the potential for natural ('volunteer') wetlands to buffer extremely alkaline influent waters. This appears ascribable to high CO(2) partial pressures in the wetland waters from microbial respiration, which accelerates precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)), and the high specific surface area for mineral precipitation offered by macrophytes. The research presented here builds on this and provides preliminary evaluation of a constructed wetland built in March 2008 to buffer drainage from steel slag heaps in north-east England. The drainage water from the slag mounds is characterised by a mean pH of 11.9, high concentrations of Ca (up to 700 mg/L), total alkalinity (up to 800 mg/L as CaCO(3)) and are slightly brackish (Na = 300 mg/L; Cl = 400 mg/L) reflecting native groundwaters at this coastal setting. Documented calcite precipitation rates (mean of 5 g CaCO(3)/m(2)/day) from nearby volunteer sites receiving steel slag drainage were used to scale the constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis; a species found to spontaneously grow in the vicinity of the discharge. Improved performance of the wetland during summer months may at least in part be due to biological activity which enhances rates of calcite precipitation and thus lowering of pH. Secondary Ca-rich precipitates also serve as a sink for some trace elements present at low concentrations in the slag leachate such as Ni and V. The implications for scaling and applying constructed wetlands for highly alkaline drainage are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of a xenogeneic acellular collagen matrix as a small-diameter vascular graft in dogs--preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcova, S; Noel, A A; Jost, C J; Gloviczki, P; Miller, V M; Brockbank, K G

    2001-01-01

    Autogenous veins are the materials of choice for arterial reconstruction. In the absence of autogenous material, prosthetic materials are used. However, vascular prostheses of less than 0.4 cm in diameter have low long-term patency. This study was designed to determine if cells would infiltrate an engineered xenogeneic biomaterial used as a small diameter arterial graft in dogs and, if so, to determine the phenotype of the infiltrating cells. Nine acellular xenogeneic grafts (0.4 cm in diameter, 5 cm long), composed of porcine collagen derived from the submucosa of the small intestine and type I bovine collagen, were implanted as end to-end interposition grafts in femoral arteries of five male mongrel dogs (total of nine grafts). All dogs received daily aspirin (325 mg). Patency of implanted grafts was monitored weekly by Duplex ultrasonography. After 9 weeks, or earlier in case of blood flow reduction by at least 75%, grafts were explanted and prepared for light or electron microscopy to evaluate cellularization. Eight of nine grafts remained patent up to 9 weeks. At explant, diameters were 0.31 +/- 0.02 cm at the midgraft, and 0.14 +/- 0.01 and 0.19 +/- 0.01 cm at the proximal and distal anastomoses. At explant, cells of mesenchymal origin (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, myofibroblasts) were embedded in the extracellular matrix of the graft scaffold. Minimal evidence of cellular inflammatory reaction and no aneurysmal dilatation or thrombus formation was detected. Variable degrees of hyperplasia were present at proximal and distal anastomoses. This preliminary study demonstrates that a collagen-based xenogeneic biomaterial provides a scaffold for cellularization when used for arterial reconstruction in dogs.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of different green payments in the handling of the nitrogen nutrition of the tomato by means of the Isotope 15 n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monederos, Milagros; Duennas, Graciela; Alfonso, C.A.; Hernandez, Marcela; Almeida, Grisel

    1999-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating in a preliminary way the effect of some leguminous ones (Leucaena, Canavalia, Crotalaria and Mucuna) used as green payments in the handling of the tomato nutrition its later validation under field conditions was carried out a rehearsal under controlled conditions and on a red ferralitic soils compact. I it determined the derived nitrogen of each source by means of the isotope 15N

  20. Preliminary results of the evaluation of biomass use as energy sources; Resultados preliminares da avaliacao do uso de biomassas como fontes de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha Ferreira, Leo da; Tourinho, Octavio A.F. [Instituto de Planejamento Economico e Social (IPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas

    1985-12-31

    This article discusses the preliminary results of the BIOMASSA model of IPEA with emphasis on three aspects: temporal and spatial crop mix patterns along the analysis horizon; evaluation of the social cost of alcohol fuel ; and the impact of alcohol production on the balance of payments. It concludes that the PROALCOOL increases domestic costs, but the impact on the balance of payments is positive and substantial. (author). 8 tabs

  1. Screening for Malnutrition in Community Dwelling Older Japanese: Preliminary Development and Evaluation of the Japanese Nutritional Risk Screening Tool (NRST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, N C; Ishikawa-Takata, K; Kuroda, A; Tanaka, T; Kikutani, T; Obuchi, S P; Hirano, H; Iijima, K

    2016-02-01

    Early and effective screening for age-related malnutrition is an essential part of providing optimal nutritional care to older populations. This study was performed to evaluate the adaptation of the original SCREEN II questionnaire (Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition, version II) for use in Japan by examining its measurement properties and ability to predict nutritional risk and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older Japanese people. The ultimate objective of this preliminary validation study is to develop a license granted full Japanese version of the SCREEN II. The measurement properties and predictive validity of the NRST were examined in this cross-sectional study of 1921 community-dwelling older Japanese people. Assessments included medical history, and anthropometric and serum albumin measurements. Questions on dietary habits that corresponded to the original SCREEN II were applied to Nutritional Risk Screening Tool (NRST) scoring system. Nutritional risk was assessed by the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) and the short form of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. The nutritional risk prevalences determined by the GNRI and MNA-SF were 5.6% and 34.7%, respectively. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.3%. Mean NRST scores were significantly lower in the nutritionally at-risk than in the well-nourished groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed significant correlations between NRST scores and both nutritional risk parameters (GNRI or MNA-SF) and sarcopenia. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of NRST for the prediction of nutritional risk were 0.635 and 0.584 as assessed by GNRI and MNA-SF, respectively. AUCs for the prediction of sarcopenia were 0.602 (NRST), 0.655 (age-integrated NRST), and 0.676 (age and BMI-integrated NRST). These results indicate that the NRST is a

  2. Rock mass evaluation for predicting tunnel constructability in the preliminary investigation stage. Phenomena causing difficult tunneling and rockburst prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Koichi; Sawada, Masataka; Inohara, Yoshiki; Shidahara, Takumi; Hatano, Teruyoshi

    2011-01-01

    For the selection of the Detailed Investigation Areas for HLW disposal, predicting the tunnel constructability is one of the requirements together with assessing long-term safety. This report is the 1st of the three papers dealing with the evaluation of tunnel constructability. This paper deals with the geological factors relating to difficult tunneling such as squeezing, rockburst, and others. Also it deals with the prediction of rockburst. The 2nd paper will deal with the prediction of squeezing. The 3rd paper deals with the engineering characteristics of rock mass through rock mass classification. This paper about difficult tunneling has been based upon analysis of more than 500 tunneling reports about 280 tunnel constructions. The causes of difficult tunneling are related to (1) underground water, (2) mechanical properties of the rock, or (3) others such as gas. The geological factors for excessive water inflow are porous volcanic product of Quarternary, fault crush zone and hydrothermally altered zone of Green Tuff area, and degenerated mixed rock in accretionary complex. The geological factors for squeezing are solfataric clay at Quarternary volcanic zone, fault crush zone and hydrothermally altered zone of Green Tuff area, mudstone and fault crush zone of sedimentary rock of Neogene and later. Information useful for predicting rockburst has been gathered from previous reports. In the preliminary investigation stage, geological survey, geophysical survey and borehole survey from the surface are the source of information. Therefore rock type, P-wave velocity from seismic exploration and in-situ rock stress from hydrofracturing have been considered. Majority of rockburst events occurred at granitic rock, excluding coal mine where different kind of rockburst occurred at pillars. And P-wave velocity was around 5 km/s at the rock of rockburst events. Horizontal maximum and minimum stresses SH and Sh have been tested as a criterion for rockburst. It has been

  3. SU-F-J-38: Dose Rates and Preliminary Evaluation of Contouring Similarity Metrics Using 4D Cone Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoso, A [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Song, K; Qin, Y; Gardner, S; Liu, C; Cattaneo, R; Chetty, I; Movsas, B; Aljouni, M; Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: 4D imaging modalities require detailed characterization for clinical optimization. The On-Board Imager mounted on the linear accelerator was used to investigate dose rates in a tissue mimicking phantom using 4D-CBCT and assess variability of contouring similarity metrics between 4D-CT and 4D-CBCT retrospective reconstructions. Methods: A 125 kVp thoracic protocol was used. A phantom placed on a motion platform simulated a patient’s breathing cycle. An ion chamber was affixed inside the phantom’s tissue mimicking cavities (i.e. bone, lung, and soft tissue). A sinusoidal motion waveform was executed with a five second period and superior-inferior motion. Dose rates were measured at six ion chamber positions. A preliminary workflow for contouring similarity between 4D-CT and 4D-CBCT was established using a single lung SBRT patient’s historical data. Average intensity projection (Ave-IP) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstructions generated offline were compared between the 4D modalities. Similarity metrics included Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), Hausdorff distance, and center of mass (COM) deviation. Two isolated lesions were evaluated in the patient’s scans: one located in the right lower lobe (ITVRLL) and one located in the left lower lobe (ITVLLL). Results: Dose rates ranged from 2.30 (lung) to 5.18 (bone) E-3 cGy/mAs. For fixed acquisition parameters, cumulative dose is inversely proportional to gantry speed. For ITVRLL, DSC were 0.70 and 0.68, Hausdorff distances were 6.11 and 5.69 mm, and COM deviations were 1.24 and 4.77 mm, for Ave-IP and MIP respectively. For ITVLLL, DSC were 0.64 and 0.75, Hausdorff distances were 10.74 and 8.00 mm, and COM deviations were 7.55 and 4.3 mm, for Ave-IP and MIP respectively. Conclusion: While the dosimetric output of 4D-CBCT is low, characterization is necessary to assure clinical optimization. A basic workflow for comparison of simulation and treatment 4D image-based contours was established

  4. Could combined sleep and pain evaluation be useful in the diagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DOC)? Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Irene; Naro, Antonino; Pisani, Laura Rosa; Leo, Antonino; Muscarà, Nunzio; De Salvo, Simona; Silvestri, Rosalia; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of Disorders of Consciousness (DOC) is still challenging. Indeed, ~ 40% of patients in vegetative state (VS) are misdiagnosed, suggesting the need of more appropriate diagnostic tools. Emerging data are showing that EEG, including sleep structure evaluation and multimodal evoked potential recording could be helpful in DOC diagnosis. Moreover, pain perception evaluation could further increase diagnosis accuracy in such individuals. Fourteen individuals with DOC, due to severe brain injury, were enrolled and admitted to the Intensive Neurorehabilitation Unit of the Research Institute. All patients were evaluated by means of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, a 24(hh)-polysomnography and a Laser Evoked Potential (LEP) paradigm. Clinically-defined patients in Minimally Consciousness State showed a more preserved sleep structure, physiologic hypnic figures and preserved REM/NREM sleep distribution than subjects in VS. LEP showed increased latencies and reduced amplitudes and were also detectable in patients with more structured sleep. The data support previous findings concerning the importance of sleep study in DOC diagnosis, with more specific neurophysiological paradigms. Interestingly, the findings shed some light on the possible correlations among global brain connectivity, sleep structure and pain perception, which are related to the activity of the wide thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical networks underlying consciousness.

  5. Radiochemical studies, pre-clinical investigation and preliminary clinical evaluation of "1"7"0Tm-EDTMP prepared using in-house freeze-dried EDTMP kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tapas; Shinto, Ajit; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai K.; Sarma, Haladhar D.; Mohammed, Sahiralam Khan; Mitra, Arpit; Lad, Sangita; Rajan, M.G.R.; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to formulate "1"7"0Tm-EDTMP using an in-house freeze-dried EDTMP kit and evaluate its potential as a bone pain palliation agent. Patient dose of "1"7"0Tm-EDTMP was prepared with high radiochemical purity using the lyophilized kit at room temperature within 15 min. Pre-clinical evaluation in normal Wistar rats revealed selective skeletal accumulation with extended retention. Preliminary clinical investigation in 8 patients with disseminated skeletal metastases exhibited selective uptake in the bone and retention therein for a long duration. - Highlights: • Formulation of patient dose of "1"7"0Tm-EDTMP using freeze-dried EDTMP kit. • Radiochemical studies and pre-clinical evaluation of the agent in animal model. • Clinical evaluation in eight cancer patients with disseminated skeletal metastases.

  6. [99m Tc (CNCH2COO-)6]-5: preliminary evaluation as tracer for studies of renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.; Lopes L, J.J.; Balter, H.; Leon, E.; Oliver, P.; Tagle, R.

    1992-01-01

    The preliminary results for obtaining [ 99m Tc (CNCH 2 COO - )6] -5 are described. This complex is prepared by chemical hydrolysis of resultant molecule from carboethoxi methyl isonitrile labelling with Na 99m Tc O 4 and the yield of these reactions is determined by RP-HPLC. The radiopharmaceutical behaviour in dogs are made, confirming the attributes of [ 99m Tc (CNCH 2 COO - )6] 5 as radiodiagnosis for renal function studies. (C.G.C.)

  7. Synthesis and Preliminary Biological Evaluation of 1,3,5-Triazine Amino Acid Derivatives to Study Their MAO Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine N. Khattab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three series of 4,6-dimethoxy-, 4,6-dipiperidino- and 4,6-dimorpholino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl amino acid derivatives were synthesized and characterized. A preliminary study for their monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity showed that compounds 7, 18, and 25 had MAO-A inhibition activity comparable to that of the standard clorgyline, with apparently more selective inhibitory activity toward MAO-A than MAO-B and no significant acute toxicity.

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Commercial Portable Air Purifier in Homes with Wood Burning Stoves: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie F. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM2.5 within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1 in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2 in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61–85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

  9. Using Audience Response Technology to provide formative feedback on pharmacology performance for non-medical prescribing students - a preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of anonymous audience response technology (ART) to actively engage students in classroom learning has been evaluated positively across multiple settings. To date, however, there has been no empirical evaluation of the use of individualised ART handsets and formative feedback of ART scores. The present study investigates student perceptions of such a system and the relationship between formative feedback results and exam performance. Methods Four successive cohorts of Non-Medical Prescribing students (n=107) had access to the individualised ART system and three of these groups (n=72) completed a questionnaire about their perceptions of using ART. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of seven students who achieved a range of scores on the formative feedback. Using data from all four cohorts of students, the relationship between mean ART scores and summative pharmacology exam score was examined using a non-parametric correlation. Results Questionnaire and interview data suggested that the use of ART enhanced the classroom environment, motivated students and promoted learning. Questionnaire data demonstrated that students found the formative feedback helpful for identifying their learning needs (95.6%), guiding their independent study (86.8%), and as a revision tool (88.3%). Interviewees particularly valued the objectivity of the individualised feedback which helped them to self-manage their learning. Interviewees’ initial anxiety about revealing their level of pharmacology knowledge to the lecturer and to themselves reduced over time as students focused on the learning benefits associated with the feedback. A significant positive correlation was found between students’ formative feedback scores and their summative pharmacology exam scores (Spearman’s rho = 0.71, N=107, pstudents rated the helpfulness of the individualised handsets and personalised formative feedback highly. The significant correlation between ART

  10. A preliminary evaluation of immune stimulation following exposure to metal particles and ions using the mouse popliteal lymph node assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvermoes, Brooke E., E-mail: brooke.tvermoes@cardno.com [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 4940 Pearl East Circle Suite 100, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Unice, Kenneth M. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 20 Stanwix St. Suite 505, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (United States); Winans, Bethany [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Kovochich, Michael [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 130 Vantis Suite 170, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656 (United States); Christian, Whitney V. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 20 Stanwix St. Suite 505, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (United States); Donovan, Ellen [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Fung, Ernest S. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 130 Vantis Suite 170, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656 (United States); Finley, Brent L. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Kimber, Ian [University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Paustenbach, Dennis J. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the threshold for immune stimulation in mice following local exposure to metal particles and ions representative of normal-functioning cobalt-chromium (CoCr) metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants. The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) was used in this study to assess immune responses in BALB/c mice following treatment with chromium-oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles, metal salts (CoCl{sub 2}, CrCl{sub 3} and NiCl{sub 2}), or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles together with metal salts using single-dose exposures representing approximately 10 days (0.000114 mg), 19 years (0.0800 mg), and 40 years (0.171 mg) of normal implant wear. The immune response elicited following treatment with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles together with metal salts was also assessed at four additional doses equivalent to approximately 1.5 months (0.0005 mg), 0.6 years (0.0025 mg), 2.3 years (0.01 mg), and 9.3 years (0.04 mg) of normal implant wear. Mice were injected subcutaneously (50 μL) into the right hind foot with the test article, or with the relevant vehicle control. The proliferative response of the draining lymph node cells (LNC) was measured four days after treatment, and stimulation indices (SI) were derived relative to vehicle controls. The PLNA was negative (SI < 3) for all Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle doses, and was also negative at the lowest dose of the metal salt mixture, and the lowest four doses of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with metal salt mixture. The PLNA was positive (SI > 3) at the highest two doses of the metal salt mixture and the highest three doses of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with the metal salt mixture. The provisional NOAEL and LOAEL values identified in this study for immune activation corresponds to Co and Cr concentrations in the synovial fluid approximately 500 and 2000 times higher than that reported for normal-functioning MoM hip implants, respectively. Overall, these results indicate that normal wear

  11. Phorbin steryl esters in Black Sea sediment traps and sediments: A preliminary evaluation of their paleooceanographic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Linda L.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    1994-10-01

    The distributions of pyropheophorbide- a steryl esters in one-year deployments of sediment traps at two locations in the Black Sea are described. In nearly all our trap samples, phorbin steryl esters (PSEs) contribute a significant portion of the total phorbin flux. The relative abundances of sterols esterified to pyropheophorbide- a varied throughout the year, and we suggest these changes result from the observed seasonal variation of phytoplankton species in the overlying water column. The distribution of free sterols in a one-year composite sediment trap sample closely approximates the distribution of sterols derived from the hydrolysis of sedimentary PSEs collected at an adjacent site. From these results, we suggest that the distribution of sedimentary PSE sterols provides a record of sterol deposition to the sediment-water interface. Esterification of sterols to pyropheophorbide- a apparently prevents the preferential removal of 4-desmethyl sterols relative to 4-methyl sterols, and the reduction of stenols to stanols during degradation. Analysis of PSEs in a gravity core covering the last 8-10 Kyr shows that the abundance and distribution of PSEs change with downcore variations in sedimentology. Detailed analysis of PSEs in sediments may, therefore, provide a means to evaluate paleooceanographic changes in phytoplankton community structure and sterol early diagenesis. The synthesis, NMR, CI-MS, and visible spectroscopic properties of four abundant PSEs found in the Black Sea are also described.

  12. Development of a Preliminary Model for Evaluating Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Maturity in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Kaassis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of occupational health and safety (OHS risks is a crucial component of any business. Numerous investigations have shown that work-related injuries and deaths occur disproportionately in small-to-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and that this is clearly due to deficient management of OHS risks. The main goal of this work is to develop a base of indicators suitable for evaluating OHS risk management maturity in industrial SMEs. A preliminary model is then proposed for this evaluation, based on a small number of relevant indicators selected from a careful bibliographic review. The work begins with a critical review of the literature and analysis of known concepts, methods, tools and models of measurement of risk analysis maturity in order to extract relevant indicators. The most suitable indicators are then grouped to form the basis of a preliminary model for evaluating OHS risk management maturity in the SME setting. Our findings will help managers of SMEs make sound decisions in their quest to improve the OHS performance of their businesses.

  13. The microcirculation image quality score: development and preliminary evaluation of a proposed approach to grading quality of image acquisition for bedside videomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Michael J; Larochelle, Ethan; Najarro, Gabriel; Karmacharla, Adarsh; Arnold, Ryan; Trzeciak, Stephen; Angus, Derek C; Shapiro, Nathan I

    2013-12-01

    Side-stream dark-field microscopy is currently used to directly visualize sublingual microcirculation at the bedside. Our experience has found inherent technical challenges in the image acquisition process. This article presents and assesses a quality assurance method to rate image acquisition quality before analysis. We identified 6 common image capture and analysis problem areas in sublingual side-stream dark-field videos: illumination, duration, focus, content, stability, and pressure. We created the "Microcirculation Image Quality Score" by assigning a score of optimal (0 points), suboptimal but acceptable (1 point), or unacceptable (10 points) to each category (for further details, go to http://www.MicroscanAnalysis.blogspot.com). We evaluated 59 videos from a convenience sample of 34 unselected, noncritically ill emergency department patients to create a test set. Two raters, blinded to each other, implemented the score. Any video with a cumulative score of 10 or higher (range, 0-60) was considered unacceptable for further analysis. We created the Microcirculation Image Quality Score and applied it to 59 videos. For this particular set of 59 videos, the mean (SD) passing quality score was 1.68 (0.90), and the mean (SD) failing quality score was 15.74 (6.19), with 27 of 59 passing the quality score less than 10. Highest failure occurred from pressure artifact. The interrater agreement for acceptability was assessed using Cohen κ for each category: illumination (κ = 1.0), duration (κ = 1.0), focus (κ = 0.91), content (κ = 0.76), stability (κ = 0.71), and pressure (κ = 0.82) and overall pass-fail rates (score >10) (κ = 0.66). Our Microcirculation Image Quality Score addresses many of the common areas where video quality can degrade. The criteria introduced are an objective way to assess the quality of image acquisition, with the goal of selecting videos of adequate quality for analysis. The interrater reliability results in our preliminary study suggest

  14. Using Audience Response Technology to provide formative feedback on pharmacology performance for non-medical prescribing students - a preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostyn Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of anonymous audience response technology (ART to actively engage students in classroom learning has been evaluated positively across multiple settings. To date, however, there has been no empirical evaluation of the use of individualised ART handsets and formative feedback of ART scores. The present study investigates student perceptions of such a system and the relationship between formative feedback results and exam performance. Methods Four successive cohorts of Non-Medical Prescribing students (n=107 had access to the individualised ART system and three of these groups (n=72 completed a questionnaire about their perceptions of using ART. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of seven students who achieved a range of scores on the formative feedback. Using data from all four cohorts of students, the relationship between mean ART scores and summative pharmacology exam score was examined using a non-parametric correlation. Results Questionnaire and interview data suggested that the use of ART enhanced the classroom environment, motivated students and promoted learning. Questionnaire data demonstrated that students found the formative feedback helpful for identifying their learning needs (95.6%, guiding their independent study (86.8%, and as a revision tool (88.3%. Interviewees particularly valued the objectivity of the individualised feedback which helped them to self-manage their learning. Interviewees’ initial anxiety about revealing their level of pharmacology knowledge to the lecturer and to themselves reduced over time as students focused on the learning benefits associated with the feedback. A significant positive correlation was found between students’ formative feedback scores and their summative pharmacology exam scores (Spearman’s rho = 0.71, N=107, p Conclusions Despite initial anxiety about the use of individualised ART units, students rated the helpfulness of the

  15. Accounting for CO2 variability over East Asia with a regional joint inversion system and its preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xingxia; Tian, Xiangjun; Zhang, Meigen; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2017-10-01

    A regional surface carbon dioxide (CO2) flux inversion system, the Tan-Tracker-Region, was developed by incorporating an assimilation scheme into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional chemical transport model to resolve fine-scale CO2 variability over East Asia. The proper orthogonal decomposition-based ensemble four-dimensional variational data assimilation approach (POD-4DVar) is the core algorithm for the joint assimilation framework, and simultaneous assimilations of CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 fluxes are applied to help reduce the uncertainty in initial CO2 concentrations. A persistence dynamical model was developed to describe the evolution of the surface CO2 fluxes and help avoid the "signal-to-noise" problem; thus, CO2 fluxes could be estimated as a whole at the model grid scale, with better use of observation information. The performance of the regional inversion system was evaluated through a group of single-observation-based observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). The results of the experiments suggest that a reliable performance of Tan-Tracker-Region is dependent on certain assimilation parameter choices, for example, an optimized window length of approximately 3 h, an ensemble size of approximately 100, and a covariance localization radius of approximately 320 km. This is probably due to the strong diurnal variation and spatial heterogeneity in the fine-scale CMAQ simulation, which could affect the performance of the regional inversion system. In addition, because all observations can be artificially obtained in OSSEs, the performance of Tan-Tracker-Region was further evaluated through different densities of the artificial observation network in different CO2 flux situations. The results indicate that more observation sites would be useful to systematically improve the estimation of CO2 concentration and flux in large areas over the model domain. The work presented here forms a foundation for future research in which a

  16. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of a novel fractional unipolar radiofrequency device on facial tightening: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hye; Byun, Eun Jung; Lee, Sang Jun; Song, Kye Yong; Kim, Hei Sung

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that radiofrequency (RF) energy is safe and effective for improving skin laxity. Unlike monopolar and bipolar devices, little has been studied with the unipolar hand piece. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel fractional unipolar RF device on facial tightening. This was a retrospective, single-center study of 14 subjects with age-related facial laxity who underwent five sessions of fractional unipolar RF at an interval of 2 weeks, and then followed-up for 3 months. Standardized photos were taken at baseline and at 3-months follow-up, and were assessed by two independent dermatologists using a 4-point scale (0=no improvement, 1=mild improvement, 2=moderate improvement, 3=significant improvement). Punch biopsies (2 mm) were performed and a questionnaire was used to evaluate the patient's satisfaction and the incidence of adverse reactions. Fourteen subjects with mild to moderate age-related facial laxity were included in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 49.7 years (range 32-80). 35.7% of the subjects showed significant improvement, 50% moderate improvement, and 14.3% slight improvement of facial laxity in their follow-up photos. About 85.7% of the patients replied that they were either greatly satisfied or satisfied with the results at 3-months follow-up. Skin biopsies revealed an increase in collagen in the dermis. None of the subjects experienced any serious adverse events during or after the procedure. Our findings suggest that fractional Unipolar RF can be safely performed on the face and is effective in skin tightening. It has a great advantage over other forms of RF by being entirely painless. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A two-step approach for the preliminary evaluation of the thermal-hydraulics and safety of the ELSY open square core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, Paride; Bandini, Giacomino; Polidori, Massimiliano; Cervone, Antonio; Manservisi, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Several innovative solutions for a liquid metal fast reactor design have been investigated in the EURATOM Sixth Framework Programme and an open-assembly core design for the ELSY (European Lead-cooled System) reactor has been proposed by ENEA. The development of this new reactor, based on innovative neutronic and safety considerations, requires a new approach to the thermal-hydraulic (T/H) core design. In this paper a new two-step approach of the T/H analysis for this open-assembly core is presented and, in particular is used for the evaluation of the preliminary core design of a 1500 MW lead fast reactor with open square lattice and three fuel radial zones with different levels of enrichment. In the first step a preliminary thermal-hydraulic and safety evaluation of the core neutronic design is investigated by using a one-dimensional RELAP5 model for independent channel analysis. Then two and three-dimensional effects are taken into account by using a dedicated tool for the evaluation of assembly mixing effects. The RELAP5 model, based on pressure loss and heat transfer correlations available for heavy liquid metal flows in rod bundle, consists of completely independent assemblies and therefore it can be used for a conservative evaluation of the thermal-hydraulics of the core reactor. Due to the open-lattice configuration, the two and three-dimensional effects are important and they are taken into account by using a simplified three-dimensional numerical model of an open square lattice reactor core, developed with the purpose of analyzing the whole core behavior. The numerical simulation is performed at assembly length level taking into account the local fluctuations of turbulent viscosity and energy exchange coefficients at sub-channel level through transfer operators based on parametric coefficients. A preliminary evaluation of the mixing effects between assembly flows on the temperature field has been performed by using an average assembly turbulent viscosity

  18. A preliminary evaluation of myoelectrical energy distribution of the front neck muscles in pharyngeal phase during normal swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingxing Zhu; Wanzhang Yang; Samuel, Oluwarotimi Williams; Yun Xiang; Jianping Huang; Haiqing Zou; Guanglin Li

    2016-08-01

    Pharyngeal phase is a central hub of swallowing in which food bolus pass through from the oral cavity to the esophageal. Proper understanding of the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase is useful for assessing swallowing function and the occurrence of dysphagia in humans. In this study, high-density (HD) surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to study the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase during swallowing tasks involving three healthy male subjects. The root mean square (RMS) of the HD sEMG data was computed by using a series of segmented windows as myoelectrical energy. And the RMS of each window covering all channels (16×5) formed a matrix. During the pharyngeal phase of swallowing, three of the matrixes were chosen and normalized to obtain the HD energy maps and the statistical parameter. The maps across different viscosity levels offered the energy distribution which showed the muscular activities of the left and right sides of the front neck muscles. In addition, the normalized average RMS (NARE) across different viscosity levels revealed a left-right significant correlation (r=0.868±0.629, pstronger correlation when swallowing water. This pilot study suggests that HD sEMG would be a potential tool to evaluate muscular activities in pharyngeal phase during normal swallowing. Also, it might provide useful information for dysphagia diagnosis.

  19. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  20. A preliminary evaluation of influence of body mass index on in vitro fertilization outcome in non-obese endometriosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garalejic, Eliana; Arsic, Biljana; Radakovic, Jovana; Bojovic Jovic, Dragana; Lekic, Dragana; Macanovic, Biljana; Soldatovic, Ivan; Perovic, Milan

    2017-11-16

    Obese and overweight women experience a lower probability for pregnancy after IVF. However, despite the increasing prevalence of obesity, the large majority of infertile women are non-obese. One of the most common indications for IVF is endometriosis. Thought-provoking inverse correlation has been established between BMI and endometriosis. Lower BMI is a risk factor for development of endometriosis and a predictive factor for severe endometriosis. Since severe endometriosis carries lower reproductive chances, even after IVF, we preliminary tested a hypothesis that higher BMI among non-obese endometriosis patients improves IVF outcomes. Preliminary retrospective observational cross-sectional study was performed in women with endometriosis as a sole infertility cause who underwent IVF. During analyzed period we performed 2782 IVF procedures. In order to achieve highly homogenous study sample and to eliminate almost all confound factors that could lead to bias, we implemented strict study criteria. The number of eligible subjects was 156 and they were divided into underweight, normal weight and overweight groups. Primary outcomes were number of retrieved oocytes, good quality oocytes, embryos, and the rates of biochemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancies. For group comparisons, we used parametric test, analysis of variance, and non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test). Logistic regression and General linear model was used to assess correlation between BMI and dependent variables (outcome and stimulation duration) when adjusted for age. Endometriosis as a single infertility factor among IVF couples had prevalence of 5.61%. Underweight women accounted for 10.26%, normal weight 71.15% and overweight 18.59% of study population. Significant differences were not found in number of retrieved oocytes (p = 0.880), good quality oocytes (p = 0.476), obtained embryos (p = 0.706), and biochemical (p = 0.298), clinical (p = 0.770) and ongoing (p = 0

  1. Reliability of early radiographic evaluations for canine hip dysplasia obtained from the standard ventrodorsal radiographic projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, E.A.; Keller, G.G.; Lattimer, J.C.; Ellersieck, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    To determine reliability of preliminary evaluations for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) performed by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals on dogs between 3 and 18 months of age. Retrospective analysis of data from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals database. 2,332 Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Rottweilers for which preliminary evaluation had been performed between 3 and 18 months of age and for which results of a definitive evaluation performed after 24 months of age were available. Each radiograph was evaluated, and hip joint status was graded as excellent, good, fair, or borderline phenotype or mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia. Preliminary evaluations were performed by 1 radiologist; definitive evaluations were the consensus of 3 radiologists. Reliability of preliminary evaluations was calculated as the percentage of definitive evaluations (normal vs dysplastic) that were unchanged from preliminary evaluations. Reliability of a preliminary evaluation of normal hip joint phenotype decreased significantly as the preliminary evaluation changed from excellent (100%) to good (97.9%) to fair (76.9%) phenotype. Reliability of a preliminary evaluation of CHD increased significantly as the preliminary evaluation changed from mild (84.4%) to moderate (97.4%) CHD. Reliability of preliminary evaluations increased significantly as age at the time of preliminary evaluation increased, regardless of whether dogs received a preliminary evaluation of normal phenotype or CHD. Results suggest that preliminary evaluations of hip joint status in dogs are generally reliable. However, dogs that receive a preliminary evaluation of fair phenotype of mild CHD should be reevaluated after 24 months of age

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the encapsulation of new antidiabetic sulphonylhydrazone and antitumor N-acylhydrazone derivatives using PLGA nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, F N; Ibiapino, A L; De Figueiredo, L P; De Castro, C E; Giacomelli, F C; Ferreira, F F; Barreiro, E J; Lima, L M; Do Amaral, D N

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated the feasibly of using PLGA nanoparticles to promote the encapsulation of novel anti-diabetic sulphonylhydrazone and antitumor N-acylhydrazone derivatives. The motivation is to further demonstrate the possibility of long-term release of anti-diabetic as well as higher accumulation of the antitumor derivative by using the nanotechnology-based production. The produced nanoparticles were obtained by the nanoprecipitation method, which revealed to be effective in the encapsulation of the bioactive compounds. The determined sizes were in the range of ∼100 nm, which are supposed to be suitable for both potential applications. The preliminary experimental data demonstrated the formation of stable nanosystems and further experiments are underway in order to determine the loading content, encapsulation efficiency and release profile of the hydrophobic bioactive compounds. (paper)

  3. Preliminary evaluation of second harmonic direct detection scheme for low-dose range in alanine/EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Felipe; Graeff, Carlos F.O.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of a direct detection scheme of the second harmonic (2h) overmodulated signal from irradiated alanine in EPR dosimetry was studied. For this purpose, a group of DL-alanine/paraffin cylindrical pellets was produced. The dosimeters were irradiated with a 60 Co radiotherapy gamma source with doses of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 Gy. The EPR measurements were carried out in a VARIAN-E4 spectrometer operating in X-band with optimized parameters to obtain highest amplitude signals of both harmonics. The 2h signal was detected directly at twice the modulation frequency. In preliminary results, the 2h showed some advantages over the 1h such as better resolution for doses below 1 Gy, better repeatability results and better linear behaviour in the dose range indicated. (author)

  4. Pickering safeguards: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L.; Hodgkinson, J.G.

    1977-05-01

    A summary is presented of thoughts relative to a systems approach for implementing international safeguards. Included is a preliminary analysis of the Pickering Generating Station followed by a suggested safeguards system for the facility

  5. Improving the outcome of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing using a probiotic skin cream: Preliminary clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Giovanni; Cinque, Benedetta; La Torre, Cristina; Lombardi, Francesca; Palumbo, Paola; Romano, Lucia; Mattei, Antonella; Orsini, Gino; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Giuliani, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    As known, fractional CO 2 resurfacing treatments are more effective than non-ablative ones against aging signs, but post-operative redness and swelling prolong the overall downtime requiring up to steroid administration in order to reduce these local systems. In the last years, an increasing interest has been focused on the possible use of probiotics for treating inflammatory and allergic conditions suggesting that they can exert profound beneficial effects on skin homeostasis. In this work, the Authors report their experience on fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing and provide the results of a new post-operative topical treatment with an experimental cream containing probiotic-derived active principles potentially able to modulate the inflammatory reaction associated to laser-treatment. The cream containing DermaACB (CERABEST™) was administered post-operatively to 42 consecutive patients who were treated with fractional CO 2 laser. All patients adopted the cream twice a day for 2 weeks. Grades were given according to outcome scale. The efficacy of the cream containing DermaACB was evaluated comparing the rate of post-operative signs vanishing with a control group of 20 patients topically treated with an antibiotic cream and a hyaluronic acid based cream. Results registered with the experimental treatment were good in 22 patients, moderate in 17, and poor in 3 cases. Patients using the study cream took an average time of 14.3 days for erythema resolution and 9.3 days for swelling vanishing. The post-operative administration of the cream containing DermaACB induces a quicker reduction of post-operative erythema and swelling when compared to a standard treatment.

  6. Weight management in a cohort of Irish inpatients with serious mental illness (SMI) using a modular behavioural programme. A preliminary service evaluation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bushe, Chris J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gain is commonly observed during psychotropic treatments for chronic forms of severe mental illness and is most rapid during the early treatment phases. All formats of behavioural weight intervention programmes have suggested that weight gain can be prevented or reversed in some patients. There is no data on these programmes in acutely unwell inpatients whom may be the major beneficiaries. METHODS: A modular behavioural intervention programme (Solutions for Wellness) used in SMI outpatients since 2002 in Ireland has been adapted for inpatient use. Preliminary data is reported from 5 centres in Ireland. RESULTS: In 47 inpatients the mean weight change was +0.26 kg (SD 2.02) with a median change of 0 kg. Mean follow-up was 23.7 (SD 21.6) days, and median 14 days (range 6-98 days). There was no difference in mean weight change in those patients involved for > 35 days compared with < 35 days (+0.26 kg; 0.25 kg; p = 0.5). Weight loss or maintenance was seen in 70% of patients. CONCLUSION: These preliminary data are supportive of the concept that acutely unwell inpatients with SMI may engage with a behavioural weight programme. Weight change observed contrasts with the significant weight gain often seen in most subjects. Further clinical trials are warranted.

  7. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell emulation and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report details preliminary results of the testing plan implemented by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV battery cells ar...

  9. Preliminary Content Evaluation of the North Anna High Burn-Up Sister Fuel Rod Segments for Transportation in the 10-160B and NAC-LWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) Program has transported high-burnup nuclear sister fuel rods from a commercial nuclear power plant for purposes of evaluation and testing. The evaluation and testing of high-burnup used nuclear fuel is integral to DOE initiatives to collect information useful in determining the integrity of fuel cladding for future safe transportation of the fuel, and for determining the effects of aging, on the integrity of UNF subjected to extended storage and subsequent transportation. The UFDC Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the commercial nuclear industry, has obtained individual used nuclear fuel rods for testing. The rods have been received at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for both separate effects testing (SET) and small-scale testing (SST). To meet the research objectives, testing on multiple 6 inch fuel rod pins cut from the rods at ORNL will be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Up to 10 rod equivalents will be shipped. Options were evaluated for multiple shipments using the 10-160B (based on 4.5 rod equivalents) and a single shipment using the NAC-LWT. Based on the original INL/Virginia Power transfer agreement, the rods are assumed to 152 inches in length with a 0.374-inch diameter. This report provides a preliminary content evaluation for use of the 10-160B and NAC-LWT for transporting those fuel rod pins from ORNL to PNNL. This report documents the acceptability of using these packagings to transport the fuel segments from ORNL to PNNL based on the following evaluations: enrichment, A2 evaluation, Pu-239 FGE evaluation, heat load, shielding (both gamma and neutron), and content weight/structural evaluation.

  10. Production of extracts from preserved olives using supercritical CO2 and preliminary evaluation of its polyphenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Cebola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE technique was used to obtain extracts from a sample simulating an olive pomace, obtained from preserved olives. The objective was to achieve the extraction of polyphenolic components from this matrix which is considered a hazardous waste from the production of olive oil. The supercritical fluid used was carbon dioxide and the SFE studies were conducted in two stages, the first at a pressure of 200 bar and 40 ºC and the second stage at 300 bar, 45 ºC and using ethanol as co-solvent. In both cases the SFE was performed for 3 hours. The first stage was carried out to obtain a cleaner matrix and the second step was aimed at the components of interest. The overall mass yield obtained was 5.5 %. Preliminary HPLC screening of the samples obtained and also of the water in which the olives were preserved showed that the polyphenol compounds were mostly in the latter.

  11. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine. Preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.Y. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zhu, Wenyuan [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Lab Pulp and Paper Engineering; OBryan, Patricia; Dien, Bruce S. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Peoria, IL (United States). National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research; Tian, Shen [Capital Normal Univ., Beijing (China). College of Life Science; Gleisner, Rolland [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Pan, X.J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    2010-05-15

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-milled; the recovered cellulose substrate was quasi-simultaneously saccharified enzymatically and fermented to ethanol using commercial cellulases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. The liquor stream from the pretreatment containing hydrolyzed sugars mainly from hemicelluloses was fermented by the same yeast strain after detoxification using an XAD resin column. The SPORL pretreatment was conducted at 180 C for a period of 25 min with a liquor-to-wood ratio of 3:1 (v/w) in a laboratory digester. Three levels of sulfuric acid charge (0.0%, 1.4%, and 2.2% on an oven dried wood basis in w/w) and three levels of sodium bisulfite charge (0.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% in w/w) were applied. Mechanical and thermal energy consumption for milling and pretreatment were determined. These data were used to determine the efficiency of sugar recoveries and net ethanol energy production values and to formulate a preliminary mass and energy balance. (orig.)

  12. A preliminary evaluation of the ability of from-reactor casks to geometrically accommodate commercial LWR spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.; McLeod, N.B.; Rahimi, M.; Joy, D.S.; Peterson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The DOE has sponsored a number of cask design efforts to define several transportation casks to accommodate the various assemblies expected to be accepted by the Federal Waste Management System. At this time, three preliminary cask designs have been selected for the final design - the GA-4 and GA-9 truck casks and the BR-100 rail cask. The GA-4 cask is designed for PWR fuel only; the GA-9 cask is a longer cask with less shielding designed for BWR fuel only; and the BR-100 cask is designed to accommodate both PWR and BWR fuels. In total, this assessment indicates that the current Initiative I cask designs can be expected to dimensionally accommodate 100% of the PWR fuel assemblies (other than the extra-long South Texas Fuel) with control elements removed, and >90% of the assemblies having the control elements as an integral part of the fuel assembly. For BWR assemblies, >99% of the assemblies can be accommodated with fuel channels removed. Because of the button and spring interference, the basket openings in these casks will not accommodate assemblies in the BWR/2,3 and BWR/4-6 fuel classes with the fuel channels in place

  13. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine: preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Zhu, Wenyuan; Obryan, Patricia; Dien, Bruce S; Tian, Shen; Gleisner, Rolland; Pan, X J

    2010-05-01

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-milled; the recovered cellulose substrate was quais-simultaneously saccharified enzymatically and fermented to ethanol using commercial cellulases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. The liquor stream from the pretreatment containing hydrolyzed sugars mainly from hemicelluloses was fermented by the same yeast strain after detoxification using an XAD resin column. The SPORL pretreatment was conducted at 180 degrees C for a period of 25 min with a liquor-to-wood ratio of 3:1 (v/w) in a laboratory digester. Three levels of sulfuric acid charge (0.0%, 1.4%, and 2.2% on an oven dried wood basis in w/w) and three levels of sodium bisulfite charge (0.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% in w/w) were applied. Mechanical and thermal energy consumption for milling and pretreatment were determined. These data were used to determine the efficiency of sugar recoveries and net ethanol energy production values and to formulate a preliminary mass and energy balance.

  14. Use of brackish ground water resources for regional energy center development, Tularosa Basin, New Mexico: preliminary evaluation. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an impact and suitability profile for the use of the Tularosa Basin in south-central New Mexico as the potential location of an energy center. Underyling the Tularosa Basin is an aquifer system containing perhaps 40 million acre-feet of fresh and slightly saline (1-3 g/l) water that is theoretically recoverable and could be used for cooling and other energy-related or industrial purposes, particularly if energy development projects in other areas of the state and region are delayed, impeded, or cancelled because of uncertain availability or accessibility of water. This preliminary investigation of the Tularosa Basin reveals no outstanding features that would discourage further detailed analysis and planning for an energy complex. A major program of exploratory drilling, well logging, and testing is needed to determine aquifer characteristics and factors affecting well design. Since industrial development in the basin will necessarily involve Federal, state, and private lands, any serious plan will require collaboration of Federal, state, and local authorities

  15. Preliminary report on the statistical evaluation of sorption data: Sorption as a function of mineralogy, temperature, time, and particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, R.; Thomas, K.; Crowe, B.

    1988-05-01

    This report studies the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the environment by dissolution of the stored solid-waste form and subsequent transport in water. The sorption process may retard this movement of radionuclides from the repository to the accessible environment. A measure of this retardation process is the sorption ratio, R/sub D/, where R/sub D/ = (activity in solid phase per unit mass of solid)(activity in solution per unit volume of solution). In this study, predictions of the R/sub D/ values for the elements barium, cerium, cesium, europium, and strontium are developed from linear regression techniques. An R/sub D/ value was obtained for numerous drill core samples. Additional data include the particle size of the rock, temperature condition during the experiment, concentration of the sorbing element, and length of the sorption experiment. Preliminary regression results based on these data show that the temperature and length of the experiment are the most significant factors influencing the R/sub D/ values. Particle size has a slight effect, and based on a small amount of data, it appears that concentration had no effect. The x-ray diffraction data are used to classify the samples by mineralogy, and regression techniques are used to develop estimates of the R/sub D/ values. Zeolite abundance of 10% or more with some addition of clay increases the sorption values significantly. 12 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  16. MR-guided data framing for PET motion correction in simultaneous MR–PET: A preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullisch, M.G., E-mail: m.ullisch@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Scheins, J.; Weirich, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Celik, A.; Tellmann, L.; Stöcker, T.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N.J. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    Head motion can significantly degrade image quality of static and dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of the human brain. One method to regain acceptable image quality in the presence of motion is to include the correction for motion in the reconstruction process. When applying motion correction, the PET data can be segmented into discrete parts of similar head position, referred to as frames. This framing of the data can reduce the computational overhead necessary for motion correction during the reconstruction process by reducing the number of discrete head positions which have to be accounted for. Here a framing algorithm is presented which minimises residual motion in the framed data, while taking full advantage of the additional information provided by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a simultaneous MR–PET acquisition. In the work presented here information on motion is derived from EPI sequences acquired simultaneously with the PET data. A comparison to images reconstructed with regular framing show a more clearly delineated cortex due to increased contrast between grey matter and white matter. This improvement in image quality is achieved as well as a reduction in the number of frames, thereby reducing the reconstruction time. Preliminary data indicates an efficient reduction of residual intra-frame motion compared to regular framing.

  17. Geometric Evaluation of the Effect of Prosthetic Rehabilitation on the Facial Appearance of Mandibulectomy Patients: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswehlee, Amel M; Elbashti, Mahmoud E; Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    The purpose of this study was to geometrically evaluate the effect of prosthetic rehabilitation on the facial appearance of mandibulectomy patients. Facial scans (with and without prostheses) were performed for 16 mandibulectomy patients using a noncontact three-dimensional (3D) digitizer, and 3D images were reconstructed with the corresponding software. The 3D datasets were geometrically evaluated and compared using 3D evaluation software. The mean difference in absolute 3D deviations for full face scans was 382.2 μm. This method may be useful in evaluating the effect of conventional prostheses on the facial appearance of individuals with mandibulectomy defects.

  18. The Influence of Teacher Emotion on Grading Practices: A Preliminary Look at the Evaluation of Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Marc A.; Floman, James L.; Ashton-James, Claire; Cherkasskiy, Lillia; Salovey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of student work is a central aspect of the teaching profession that can affect students in significant ways. Although teachers use multiple criteria for assessing student work, it is not yet known if emotions are a factor in their grading decisions as has been found in other instances of professional evaluations. Reason to believe…

  19. Partnerships Enhancing Practice: A Preliminary Model of Technology-Based Peer-to-Peer Evaluations of