WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary engineering studies

  1. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  2. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  3. Preliminary conceptual study of engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong-In; Chong, Won-Myung; You, Gil-Sung; Ku, Jeong-Hoe; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The conceptual design of a pyroprocess demonstration facility was performed. ► The design requirements for the pyroprocess hot cell and equipment were determined. ► The maintenance concept for the pyroprocess hot cell was presented. -- Abstract: The development of an effective management technology of spent fuel is important to enhance environmental friendliness, cost viability and proliferation resistance. In Korea, pyroprocess technology has been considered as a fuel cycle option to solve the spent fuel accumulation problems. PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility) has been developed from 2007 to 2012 in Korea as a cold test facility to support integrated pyroprocessing and an equipment demonstration, which is essential to verify the pyroprocess technology. As the next stage of PRIDE, the design requirements of an engineering-scale demonstration facility are being developed, and the preliminary conceptual design of the facility is being performed for the future. In this paper, the main design requirements for the engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility were studied in the throughput of 10tHM a year. For the preliminary conceptual design of the facility, the design basis of the pyroprocess hot cell was suggested, and the main equipment, main process area, operation area, maintenance area, and so on were arranged in consideration of the effective operation of the hot cells. Also, the argon system was designed to provide and maintain a proper inert environment for the pyroprocess. The preliminary conceptual design data will be used to review the validity of the engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility that enhances both safety and nonproliferation

  4. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HUMOUR IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIOW C. LIM

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that humour has an implication on the process of teaching and learning. However, there is still limited study done on the implication of humour in teaching and learning engineering courses. This paper studies the perception and experience of engineering lecturers and students towards the incorporation of sense of humour in the teaching and learning of engineering courses. Online and offline surveys were conducted on the students and lecturers from the school of engineering, Taylors’ University respectively. Several interesting insights were drawn from the responses with the general consensus from both students and lecturers that humour helps in enhancing the teaching and learning process. Real case examples of how the lecturers deliver their lectures with humour were also presented.

  5. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  6. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, T.H.; Gehner, P.D.; Stegen, Gary; Hymas, Jay; Pajunen, A.L.; Sexton, Rich; Ramsey, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  7. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials (1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF 4 or ThF 4 or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF 3 or PuF 4 as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. Preliminary design studies

  8. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J

    2008-10-23

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials [1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF{sub 4} or ThF{sub 4} or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF{sub 3} or PuF{sub 4} as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory

  9. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  10. Preliminary study of used cooking oil methyl ester as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseli, A.; El-Awad, M.M.; Yusoff, M.Z.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental work has been carried out to compare the power performance and exhaust emissions of UCOME with OD on unmodified direct injection, four stroke single cylinder and stationary Robin diesel engine. Used cooking oil was transesterified by using methanol that yields immiscible fraction of glycerol and methyl ester (biodiesel). UCOME was separated by gravity before conducting further testing on its physical, chemical and thermal properties in the laboratory. For fuel power performance analysis, fuel consumption, gross energy input, torque, brake power, BMEP and SFC of the engine were measured and calculated. The analysis showed that at high engine speeds, the engine performances with UCOME are comparable to that of OD. However, UCOME increases specific fuel consumption due to its high specific density. In term of exhaust emissions UCOME showed a net reduction in exhaust emissions of NO x as compared with those of OD. This study has given optimistic information to pave the direction for further research on diesel engine

  11. Preliminary results from a numerical study on the appendix gap losses in a Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2005-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the losses in the displacer clearance gap, a.k.a. the appendix gap, have been refined during the last decades. But most real life Stirling engines violate the assumptions behind these expressions and hence the expressions may not be applicable. In this study the gap has...... been included directly into a one dimensional Stirling engine model. Practical aspects of the method, such as handling the moving wall in the gap while achieving an energy conserving model formulation and handling discontinuous derivatives in the equations, are discussed. A study on the convergence...... output of the engine....

  12. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  13. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  14. Preliminary study on the control of direct injection diesel engine for better fuel flexibility and emissions control. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egnell, R.; Kassem, N.; Bohlin, T.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a preliminary study on turbocharged direct injection diesel engines. The objectives and scope of this study are: 1. To explore the potential of using electronic control systems based on dynamic models of the engine in order to reduce fuel consumption, while maintaining good driveability. 2. To analyze the transient response of a turbocharged diesel engine based on experimental data collected from one of SAAB-SCANIA's test cells. 3. To survey the hardware components that would satisfy the requirements of the electronic control systems mentioned above. Part III discusses the transient response measurements obtained from two sets of experiments conducted on a six-cylinder motor working under varying conditions of load and speed. The objective of the first set of experiments was to quantify the difference in ignition delay between the transient and steady state operating conditions. The second set of experiments were aimed to provide a basis on which the engine efficiency obtained under transient conditions can be compared to that obtained from a single-cylinder motor working under steady state conditions.

  15. A preliminary study for an engineering assessment of a shallow land burial facility in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Murray, N.

    1987-02-01

    This study characterises a notional low-level waste repository site within the Oxford clay belt, provides a conceptual design for a shallow, engineered repository at the site, and presents a rationale of the multiple-barrier design basis in sufficient detail to enable BRE to rehearse an engineering assessment. Parameters are identified which describe the repository's structural integrity, permeability and effectiveness in physical and chemical containment of nuclides by resistance to diffusive and advective transport. Such parameters may be used by the DoE as input for the mathematical modelling of the repository's post-closure performance under various release scenarios, as part of a full radiological assessment. Limitations in the analytical methods and experience base available for such assessments are identified and suggestions are made for future research activities. (author)

  16. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariwite, Roderick [Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, NV (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  17. Preliminary study on the combustion and emission in a direct injection LPG spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seungmook; Lee, Seokhwan [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    In the energy sector, with the implementation of stringent regulations on combustion emissions and the depletion of conventional fuels, there is an important need for low carbon fuel and advanced engine technology. Korea is the country with the most LPG vehicles in the world and the aim of this study, performed by the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, is to compare the performance of LPG direct injection spark ignition (DISI) with gasoline DISI. Heat release analyses were conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of both systems and experiments were performed to determine gaseous and nanoparticle emissions. Results showed that LPG provides a better thermal efficiency than gasoline and that THC, NOx, and particulate emissions were lower for LPG than for gasoline. This study demonstrated that LPG DISI can provide better combustion efficiency and lower emissions than gasoline DISI.

  18. Preliminary study of optimum ductburning turbofan engine cycle design parameters for supersonic cruising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of turbofan engine overall pressure ratio, fan pressure ratio, and ductburner temperature rise on the engine weight and cruise fuel consumption for a mach 2.4 supersonic transport was investigated. Design point engines, optimized purely for the supersonic cruising portion of the flight where the bulk of the fuel is consumed, are considered. Based on constant thrust requirements at cruise, fuel consumption considerations would favor medium by pass ratio engines (1.5 to 1.8) of overall pressure ratio of about 16. Engine weight considerations favor low bypass ratio (0.6 or less) and low wverall pressure ratio (8). Combination of both effects results in bypass ratios of 0.6 to 0.8 and overall pressure ratio of 12 being the overall optimum.

  19. Preliminary report of biological intrusion studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Arthur, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a larger study on the effects of biological intrusion of plants and animals into the soil cover placed over low-level radioactive wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), research was initiated in the summer of 1982 to determine the burrow characteristics and movement patterns of several small mammal species, and the rooting depths of various plants. The depth, length, and volume of burrows were determined for four small mammal species: deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), montane vole (Microtus montanus), and Townsend's ground squirrel (Spermophilis townsendii). The latter species excavated the greatest mean burrow depth (39 cm), length (404 cm), and volume (14.8 1). Movement patterns of three species were determined by radiotelemetry. The mean area of use for P. maniculatus, D. ordii, and M. montanus was 2.3, 1.5, and 1.2 ha respectively. Limited data on rooting depths of various native and introduced plant species at the SDA were obtained by literature review and excavation. During FY-83, experiments will be conducted, using the information obtained from the first year of this study, to evaluate the impact of burrowing mammals and root intrusion on the integrity of the soil cover currently existing at the SDA. Details of these experimental studies are presented

  20. Preliminary Study on Acoustic Detection of Faults Experienced by a High-Bypass Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Devin K.

    2014-01-01

    The vehicle integrated propulsion research (VIPR) effort conducted by NASA and several partners provided an unparalleled opportunity to test a relatively low TRL concept regarding the use of far field acoustics to identify faults occurring in a high bypass turbofan engine. Though VIPR Phase II ground based aircraft installed engine testing wherein a multitude of research sensors and methods were evaluated, an array of acoustic microphones was used to determine the viability of such an array to detect failures occurring in a commercially representative high bypass turbofan engine. The failures introduced during VIPR testing included commanding the engine's low pressure compressor (LPC) exit and high pressure compressor (HPC) 14th stage bleed values abruptly to their failsafe positions during steady state

  1. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation

  2. Evaluating Method Engineer Performance: an error classification and preliminary empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kelly

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to empirically test the use of metaCASE environments to model methods. Both diagrams and matrices have been proposed as a means for presenting the methods. These different paradigms may have their own effects on how easily and well users can model methods. We extend Batra's classification of errors in data modelling to cover metamodelling, and use it to measure the performance of a group of metamodellers using either diagrams or matrices. The tentative results from this pilot study confirm the usefulness of the classification, and show some interesting differences between the paradigms.

  3. A preliminary study on the integral relationship between critical thinking and mathematical thinking among practicing civil engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Sharifah; Mohammad, Shahrin; Abu, Mohd Salleh

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics and engineering are inexorably and significantly linked and essentially required in analyzing and accessing thought to make good judgment when dealing in complex and varied engineering problems. A study in the current engineering education curriculum to explore how the critical thinking and mathematical thinking relates to one another, is therefore timely crucial. Unfortunately, there is not much information available explicating about the link. This paper aims to report findings of a critical review as well as to provide brief description of an on-going research aimed to investigate the dispositions of critical thinking and the relationship and integration between critical thinking and mathematical thinking during the execution of civil engineering tasks. The first part of the paper reports an in-depth review on these matters based on rather limited resources. The review showed a considerable form of congruency between these two perspectives of thinking, with some prevalent trends of engineering workplace tasks, problems and challenges. The second part describes an on-going research to be conducted by the researcher to investigate rigorously the relationship and integration between these two types of thinking within the perspective of civil engineering tasks. A reasonably close non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews will be executed for the pilot and main stages of the study. The data will be analyzed using constant comparative analysis in which the grounded theory methodology will be adopted. The findings will serve as a useful grounding for constructing a substantive theory revealing the integral relationship between critical thinking and mathematical thinking in the real civil engineering practice context. The substantive theory, from an angle of view, is expected to contribute some additional useful information to the engineering program outcomes and engineering education instructions, aligns with the expectations of

  4. Comparative analysis of a DI diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends during the European MVEG-A cycle: Preliminary study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lujan, J.M.; Tormos, B.; Salvador, F.J.; Gargar, K. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The present work consists of introducing the tests and facilities used to perform a comparative analysis of a diesel engine working with different blends of biodiesel fuel during the New European Driving Cycle. Furthermore, as a preliminary study, it was interesting to know the effects of biodiesel fuel on a common-rail high pressure injection system, those more useful in modern light duty diesel engines, as a consequence of its different physicochemical properties compared with conventional diesel fuel. As the real goal of the study is to compare fairly performance and emissions from the engine, it was essential to know any injection effects owed to fuel's own characteristics that finally would affect those parameters that will be evaluated. A complete fuel characterization for diesel and biodiesel fuels, as the EN 590 and the EN 14214 standard specifications, was performed in order to quantify the differences between both fuels. A priori, it could be thought that viscosity and density values will be the most significant parameters capable of altering the injection rate. As positive results, it was obtained that the common-rail high pressure injection system was totally blind in the injection rate measurements, even the significant differences between both fuels, taking into account the counterbalancing effects generated by two parameters mentioned before. The second part of the study deals with engine performance and pollutant emissions on an unmodified common-rail turbocharged diesel engine running with biodiesel fuel blends during the New European Driving Cycle. (author)

  5. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  6. Involving construction in the preliminary engineering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, D.T. Jr.; Boccieri, S.V. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    With today's high cost associated with modifications in nuclear power plants, it is imperative that the authors continue to investigate ways to cut costs but at the same time improve efficiency and reduce radiation exposure to those directly associated with the implementation of modifications. The success associated with involving construction in the preliminary engineering process will not only cut costs and improve efficiency but will establish a Team Building concept to provide accountability to all those associated with the implementation of the task. This form of partnering focuses on the solutions rather than highlighting the difficulties. This paper will demonstrate techniques to implement such ideas and provide examples to corroborate actual successes already achieved

  7. Engineering a thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuit on SpiNNaker: a preliminary study towards modelling sleep and wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a thalamo-cortico-thalamic (TCT implementation on SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network architecture, a brain inspired hardware platform designed to incorporate the inherent biological properties of parallelism, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. These attributes make SpiNNaker an ideal platform for simulating biologically plausible computational models. Our focus in this work is to design a TCT framework that can be simulated on SpiNNaker to mimic dynamical behaviour similar to Electroencephalogram (EEG time and power-spectra signatures in sleep-wake transition. The scale of the model is minimised for simplicity in this proof-of-concept study; thus the total number of spiking neurons is approximately 1000 and represents a `mini-column' of the thalamocortical tissue. All data on model structure, synaptic layout and parameters is inspired from previous studies and abstracted at a level that is appropriate to the aims of the current study as well as computationally suitable for model simulation on a small 4-chip SpiNNaker system. The initial results from selective deletion of synaptic connectivity parameters in the model show similarity with EEG time series characteristics of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide a positive perspective and a basis for future implementation of a very large scale biologically plausible model of thalamo-cortico-thalamic interactivity---the essential brain circuit that regulates the biological sleep-wake cycle and associated EEG rhythms.

  8. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S; Manjunath, S; Senthilkumar, R; Rajendiran, S; Yoshioka, H; Mori, Y; Abraham, S

    2011-01-01

    The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP) is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury. Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain) and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining). The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any adverse reactions and upon confirmation of safety following completion of the

  9. Preliminary study on the control of direct injection diesel engine for better fuel flexibility and emissions control. Pt. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egnell, R.; Kassem, N.; Bohlin, T.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a preliminary study on turbocharged direct injection diesel engines. Part I reviews the qualitative dynamic aspects of turbocharged diesel engine and the factors that affect its transient behaviour. It gives a brief account of the model structure and the interrelationships between the different components of the model as well as the different types of engine models and the methods of simulation. The transient response of a turbocharged engine under changing load, speed, and ambient conditions are discussed. Methods to improve the transient response, thus reducing fuel consumption and smoke emissions are briefly reviewed. Finally, both conventional and advanced control strategies are discussed with emphasis on the control of fuel injection (Delta-control), injection time (Alfa-control), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR-control). Part II (in Swedish) consists of a literature survey on hardware components such as sensors, actuators, and injection systems that are, or expect to be, available with reasonable commercial costs. The objective of this survey is to provide the grounds on which to decide if these components satisfy the requirements of electronic control systems. Part III (in Swedish) discusses the transient response measurements obtained from two sets of experiments conducted on a six-cylinder motor working under varying conditions of load and speed. The objective of the first set of experiments was to quantify the difference in ignition delay between the transient and steady state operating conditions. The second set of experiments were aimed to provide a basis on which the engine efficiency obtained under transient conditions can be compared to that obtained from a single-cylinder motor working under steady state conditions.

  10. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury Materials & Methods: Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining.Results: The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any

  11. Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-06-01

    compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and meas- urable thermometrically . Contents I. Influence of Preliminary...thoroughly insulated be- tween the carburettor and the engine, by aluminium foil and asbestos. -I -I " I" I ’I il i~ " !, I I 1𔃻I I’ ) To enable the

  12. The preliminary research for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the solution to the production of bioactive substance using biotransformation process from core technology of biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology. And, this strategy will provide core technology for development of drugs as new concept and category. Research scopes and contents of project include 1) The development of mutant for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 2) The development of host for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 3) The preliminary study for biosynthetic engineering of isoflavone by radiation fusion technology. The results are as follows. Isoflavone compounds(daidzein, hydroxylated isoflavone) were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of radiation doses and p-NCA high-throughput screening for mutant development were elucidated. And, it was carried out the study of radiation doses for host development. Furthermore, the study of redox partner and construction of recombinant strain for region-specific hydroxylation(P450, redox partner). In addition, the biological effect of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone as an anti-obesity agent was elucidated in this study.

  13. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 1: Engineering studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H. R.; Smith, K. E.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Dixon, P. G.; Mcmanus, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Composite structures technology is applied in a preliminary design study of advanced technology blades and hubs for the XV-15 tilt rotor research demonstrator aircraft. Significant improvements in XV-15 hover and cruise performance are available using blades designed for compatibility with the existing aircraft, i.e., blade installation would not require modification of the airframe, hub or upper controls. Provision of a low risk nonmechanical control system was also studied, and a development specification is given.

  14. [Preliminary study of constructing tissue-engineered cartilage with the endoskeletal scaffold of HDPE by bone marrow stromal cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lie; Jiang, Hua; Zhou, Guang-Dong; Wu, Yu-Jia; Luo, Xu-Song

    2008-09-01

    To explore the feasibility of using a nonreactive, permanent endoskeletal scaffold to create the prothesis in special shape which is covered with tissue-engineered cartilage. Porcine BMSCs and articular chondrocytes were isolated and expanded respectively in vitro. Porcine BMSC of passage 1 in the concentration of 10 x 10(7)/ml were seeded onto a cylinder-shaped PGA (1 mm in thickness)/Medpor (3mm in diameter and 5mm in highness) scaffold as the experimental group. After the cell-scaffold constructs were cultured for 5 days, the primary medium, high-glucose DMEM medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), was replaced by chondrogenically inductive medium for 4 weeks. BMSCs and chondrocytes of the same concentration were seeded respectively onto the scaffold as the negative control group and the positive control group. After cultured in vitro for 4 weeks, the cell-scaffolds construct were implanted into subcutaneous pockets on the back of nude mice. Four and eight weeks later, the formed cartilage prosthesis were harvested and then evaluated by gross view, histology, immunohistochemistry and glycosamino-glycan (GAG) content. Cells in all groups had fine adhesion to the scaffold and could secrete extracellular matrix. All specimens in experimental group and positive control group formed mature cartilage with collagen II expression.The mature catrtilage wraped HDPE compactly and grown into the gap of HDPE. Mature lacuna structures and metachromatic matrices were also observed in these specimens. GAG contents in experimental group were (5.13 +/- 0.32) mg/g (4 weeks), (5.37 +/- 0.12) mg/g (8 weeks). In contrast, specimens in BMSC group showed mainly fibrous tissue. It indicates that it is feasible to create special shaped tissue-engineering cartilage with the permanent internal support using BMSCs as seed cell.

  15. Preliminary summary of the ETF conceptual studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikel, G. R.; Bercaw, R. W.; Pearson, C. V.; Owens, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Power plant studies have shown the attractiveness of MHD topped steam power plants for baseload utility applications. To realize these advantages, a three-phase development program was initiated. In the first phase, the engineering data and experience were developed for the design and construction of a pilot plant, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Results of the ETF studies are reviewed. These three parallel independent studies were conducted by industrial teams led by the AVCO Everett Research Laboratory, the General Electric Corporation, and the Westinghouse Corporation. A preliminary analysis and the status of the critical evaluation of these results are presented.

  16. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Preliminary engineering analysis for clothes washers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    1996-10-01

    The Engineering Analysis provides information on efficiencies, manufacturer costs, and other characteristics of the appliance class being analyzed. For clothes washers, there are two classes: standard and compact. Since data were not available to analyze the compact class, only clothes washers were analyzed in this report. For this analysis, individual design options were combined and ordered in a manner that resulted in the lowest cumulative cost/savings ratio. The cost/savings ratio is the increase in manufacturer cost for a design option divided by the reduction in operating costs due to fuel and water savings.

  18. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Preliminary mining; data on soils, meteorology, water resources, and biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume contains five appendixes: Chattanooga Shale preliminary mining study, soils data, meteorologic data, water resources data, and biological resource data. The area around DeKalb County in Tennessee is the most likely site for commercial development for recovery of uranium. (DLC)

  19. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional standards...

  20. Studying Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study of engineering practices has been the focus of Engineering Studies over the last three decades. Theses studies have used ethnographic and grounded methods in order to investigate engineering practices as they unfold in natural settings - in workplaces and engineering education. However......, engineering studies have not given much attention to conceptually clarifying what should be understood by 'engineering practices' and more precisely account for the composition and organization of the entities and phenomena that make up the practices. This chapter investigates and discusses how a 'practice...... will draw out some methodological consequences and discuss the ramifications of a practice theoretical approach for Engineering Studies....

  1. Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part One. Preliminary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-30

    the cost of prime interest being life-cycle cost, climate that is hot or cold, in atmosphere that is humid Chapter 3 discusses helicopter performance...required to satisfy 8-3.2 ENGINE INSTALLATION LOSSES varying climatic and environmental factors. For in- stance, maintenance of the helicopter should be...thammable h aulic , asytem l at mhtproidtem a considering the overall flight mission in segments, dur- source of flammable fluids, as well as electrical

  2. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  3. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  4. Culture of equine fibroblast-like synoviocytes on synthetic tissue scaffolds towards meniscal tissue engineering: a preliminary cell-seeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Warnock

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissue engineering is a new methodology for addressing meniscal injury or loss. Synovium may be an ideal source of cells for in vitro meniscal fibrocartilage formation, however, favorable in vitro culture conditions for synovium must be established in order to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to determine cellularity, cell distribution, and extracellular matrix (ECM formation of equine fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS cultured on synthetic scaffolds, for potential application in synovium-based meniscal tissue engineering. Scaffolds included open-cell poly-L-lactic acid (OPLA sponges and polyglycolic acid (PGA scaffolds cultured in static and dynamic culture conditions, and PGA scaffolds coated in poly-L-lactic (PLLA in dynamic culture conditions.Materials and Methods. Equine FLS were seeded on OPLA and PGA scaffolds, and cultured in a static environment or in a rotating bioreactor for 12 days. Equine FLS were also seeded on PGA scaffolds coated in 2% or 4% PLLA and cultured in a rotating bioreactor for 14 and 21 days. Three scaffolds from each group were fixed, sectioned and stained with Masson’s Trichrome, Safranin-O, and Hematoxylin and Eosin, and cell numbers and distribution were analyzed using computer image analysis. Three PGA and OPLA scaffolds from each culture condition were also analyzed for extracellular matrix (ECM production via dimethylmethylene blue (sulfated glycosaminoglycan assay and hydroxyproline (collagen assay. PLLA coated PGA scaffolds were analyzed using double stranded DNA quantification as areflection of cellularity and confocal laser microscopy in a fluorescent cell viability assay.Results. The highest cellularity occurred in PGA constructs cultured in a rotating bioreactor, which also had a mean sulfated glycosaminoglycan content of 22.3 µg per scaffold. PGA constructs cultured in static conditions had the lowest cellularity. Cells had difficulty adhering to OPLA and the PLLA

  5. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  6. Preliminary Slope Stability Study Using Slope/ W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazran Harun; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Muzamil Mohd Hashim; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the stability of earth structures is the oldest type of numerical analysis in geotechnical engineering. Limit equilibrium types of analyses for assessing the stability of earth slopes have been in use in geotechnical engineering for many decades. Modern limit equilibrium software is making it possible to handle ever-increasing complexity within an analysis. It is being considered as the potential method in dealing with complex stratigraphy, highly irregular pore-water pressure conditions, various linear and nonlinear shear strength models and almost any kind of slip surface shape. It allows rapid decision making by providing an early indication of the potential suitability of sites based on slope stability analysis. Hence, a preliminary slope stability study has been developed to improve the capacity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in assessing potential sites for Borehole Disposal for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. The results showed that geometry of cross section A-A ' , B-B ' , C-C ' and D-D ' achieved the factor of safety not less than 1.4 and these are deemed acceptable. (author)

  7. Preliminary site design for the SP-100 ground engineering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Miller, W.C.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1986-04-01

    In November, 1985, Hanford was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the preferred site for a full-scale test of the integrated nuclear subsystem for SP-100. The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company, was assigned as the lead contractor for the Test Site. The nuclear subsystem, which includes the reactor and its primary heat transport system, will be provided by the System Developer, another contractor to be selected by DOE in late FY-1986. In addition to reactor operations, test site responsibilities include preparation of the facility plus design, procurement and installation of a vacuum chamber to house the reactor, a secondary heat transport system to dispose of the reactor heat, a facility control system, and postirradiation examination. At the conclusion of the test program, waste disposal and facility decommissioning are required. The test site must also prepare appropriate environmental and safety evaluations. This paper summarizes the preliminary design requirements, the status of design, and plans to achieve full power operation of the test reactor in September, 1990

  8. CTR plasma engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The main focus of the work by the Fusion Plasma Engineering Group at the University during the prior contract year involved a study of fusion ash (helium) effects on burn efficiency and on potential ways to control ash buildup. This work has wide application to a variety of fusion reactor concepts, but the immediate application for the present work is in the ARIES tokamak reactor design study now being undertaken by a national design team headed by the UCLA. The examples presented here largely deal with the ARIES-I design which is a D-T device operating in the first instability regime

  9. Fabrication and preliminary study of a biomimetic tri-layer tubular graft based on fibers and fiber yarns for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Zhang, Jialing; Wang, Yuanfei; Li, Dandan; Sun, Binbin; El-Hamshary, Hany; Yin, Meng; Mo, Xiumei

    2018-01-01

    Designing a biomimetic and functional tissue-engineered vascular graft has been urgently needed for repairing and regenerating defected vascular tissues. Utilizing a multi-layered vascular scaffold is commonly considered an effective way, because multi-layered scaffolds can easily simulate the structure and function of natural blood vessels. Herein, we developed a novel tri-layer tubular graft consisted of Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone)/collagen (PLCL/COL) fibers and Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/silk fibroin (PLGA/SF) yarns via a three-step electrospinning method. The tri-layer vascular graft consisted of PLCL/COL aligned fibers in inner layer, PLGA/SF yarns in middle layer, and PLCL/COL random fibers in outer layer. Each layer possessed tensile mechanical strength and elongation, and the entire tubular structure provided tensile and compressive supports. Furthermore, the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) proliferated well on the materials. Fluorescence staining images demonstrated that the axially aligned PLCL/COL fibers prearranged endothelium morphology in lumen and the circumferential oriented PLGA/SF yarns regulated SMCs organization along the single yarns. The outside PLCL/COL random fibers performed as the fixed layer to hold the entire tubular structure. The in vivo results showed that the tri-layer vascular graft supported cell infiltration, scaffold biodegradation and abundant collagen production after subcutaneous implantation for 10weeks, revealing the optimal biocompatibility and tissue regenerative capability of the tri-layer graft. Therefore, the specially designed tri-layer vascular graft will be beneficial to vascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Stirling engine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  11. A preliminary study of clinical assessment of left unilateral spatial neglect using a head mounted display system (HMD in rehabilitation engineering technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Shuichi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Unilateral spatial neglect (USN is a common syndrome in which a patient fails to report or respond to stimulation from the side of space opposite a brain lesion, where these symptoms are not due to primary sensory or motor deficits. The purpose of this study was to analyze an evaluation process system of USN in various visual fields using HMD in order to understand more accurately any faults of USN operating in the object-centred co-ordinates. Method Eight stroke patients participated in this study and they had Left USN in clinical test, and right hemisphere damage was checked by CT scan. Assessments of USN were performed the BIT common clinical test (the line and the stars cancellation tests and special tests the zoom-in condition (ZI condition and the zoom-out condition (ZO condition. The subjects were first evaluated by the common clinical test without HMD and then two spatial tests with HMD. Moreover, we used a video-recording for all tests to analyze each subject's movements. Results For the line cancellation test under the common condition, the mean percentage of the correct answers at the left side in the test paper was 94.4%. In the ZI condition, the left side was 61.8.% and the right side was 92.4.%. In the ZO condition, the left side was 79.9% and the right side was 91.7.%. There were significant differences among the three conditions. The results of the stars cancellation test also showed the same tendency as the line bisection test. Conclusion The results showed that the assessment of USN using a technique of HMD system may indicate the disability of USN more than the common clinical tests. Moreover, it might be hypothesized that the three dimensional for USN test may be more related to various damage and occurrence of USN than only the two dimensional test.

  12. SEARCHING FOR SUB-KILOMETER TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECTS USING PAN-STARRS VIDEO MODE LIGHT CURVES: PRELIMINARY STUDY AND EVALUATION USING ENGINEERING DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-H.; Protopapas, P.; Alcock, C. R.; Chen, W.-P.; Burgett, W. S.; Morgan, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Dombeck, T.; Grav, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present a pre-survey study of using the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) high sampling rate video mode guide star images to search for trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Guide stars are primarily used by Pan-STARRS to compensate for image motion and hence improve the point-spread function. With suitable selection of the guide stars within the Pan-STARRS 7 deg 2 field of view, the light curves of these guide stars can also be used to search for occultations by TNOs. The best target stars for this purpose are stars with high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and small angular size. In order to do this, we compiled a catalog using the S/N calculated from stars with m V 0 ), we are able to set an upper limit of N(>0.5 km) ∼ 2.47 x 10 10 deg -2 at 95% confidence limit.

  13. Advanced rotary engine studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1980-01-01

    A review of rotary engine developments relevant to a stratified charge rotary aircraft engine is presented. Advantages in module size and weight, fuel efficiency, reliability, and multi-fuel capability are discussed along with developments in turbocharging, increased mean effective pressure, improved apex seal/trochoid wear surfacing materials, and high strength and temperature aluminum casting alloys. A carbureted prototype aircraft engine is also described.

  14. Fiscal 1998 engineer interchange project on the engineer interchange project (coal mine technology field), international interchange project. Preliminary study in Russia; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the engineer interchange project (coal mine technology field), field survey for collecting information was made on the level and trend of production technology through visits to some coal industry organizations by specialists in Russia which is one candidate for the engineer training project by sending and receiving. Although coal is positioned as an important energy resource in Russia, poor business performance and a decrease in production are reported because of privatization and cur off of subsidies during a transfer period to a market economy. In addition, severe environment surrounding the Russian coal industry such as a delay of facility renewal due to poor funds, overage facilities, and moral reduction of workers due to a rationing delay has a potential for further reduction of production. The research group thus surveyed the current state of the Russian coal industry such as actual production structures, actual coal mines, technical levels, and various problem points in Moscow and Baykal districts. (NEDO)

  15. Study of Scramjet Engine System

    OpenAIRE

    苅田, 丈士; KANDA, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    1. Introduction The scramjet engine for the single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) aerospace plane has been studied in the ramjet propulsion research division. The problems of the scramjet are (1) combustion, (2) light structure, (3) startability of the inlet, (4) integration of engines, and (5) cooling. The construction of the cooling system is important for the scramjet engine, because of high heat flux during operation. Cooling is not only a problem for the engine itself, but also for the airframe. ...

  16. Preliminary conceptual engineering design considerations for the MX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, R.H.; Calderon, M.U.; Hibbs, S.M.; Kozman, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    The mirror experiment was designed to develop the technologies necessary to make the transition from the presently small-scale physics experiments (2XIIB and BBII) to large-scale steady-state DT burning systems, such as the Fusion Engineering Research Facility (FERF) and Controlled Thermonuclear Reactors (CTR) based on plasma confinement in open magnetic geometry. The confinement parameters in the design of the present machine include a 20-kG central field with a mirror ratio of 2 to 1 and an overall BL product approximately 5 times greater than that currently available with the 2XIIB compression coils (or a mirror-to-mirror length of 3.4 m). Several types of Yin-Yang minimum parallel B parallel geometries were studied, and a ''displaced'' Yin-Yang was chosen because the center of the machine is easily accessable between the coils and between the magnet lobes. Other important design considerations include the target plasma system, the vacuum system, and the injectors. The target plasma system includes a pellet generating system used to produce a 400-μm deuterium pellet and a two-arm laser system where the laser energy is produced from a 1-kJ, 10-GW CO 2 laser at 100 ns

  17. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10 13 fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10 6 euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10 6 euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10 6 euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron

  18. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-15

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10{sup 6} euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10{sup 6} euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10{sup 6} euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron.

  19. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  20. Preliminary study Malaa. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Factors of importance for a possible localization of a deep nuclear waste repository at Malaa in northern Sweden are mapped in this study. The geologic structures in the area have been reviewed, mostly from already existing knowledge. Existing infrastructure and necessary improvements are discussed, as well as land use and environment, employment and other social effects. 47 refs, 41 figs, 8 tabs

  1. Doses in mammography. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez P, F.; Acosta R, N.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Benavente, T.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Poma, M.

    2002-01-01

    Mammography is the most important method to detect lesions in the breast with this technique one can detect small tumours before clear clinical symptoms appear. Mammographic image of require high quality standards due that the extremely low contrast between the normal and pathological areas in the breast, eg.g., they have similar attenuation and absorption coefficient. The x-ray mammographic systems, used in this study are Senographe 500t and Senographe DMR, a detector with a RadCal ionization chambers calibrated to the qualities of mammographic x-ray beams, and a breast simulator that is a phantoms of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) of several thicknesses with the equivalence of 50% of the glandular tissue. The results obtained indicate that the values of doses at the entrance surface of a breast (DES) are greater the reference value 20 mGy to 5,0 cm of PMMA and the values of the mean glandular dose (MGD) exceed the reference value of 2,1 mGy for 5,1 cm of compressed thick breast. We consider that the values high of the EDS and MGD are due that the x-ray systems no meeting in good condition or for used of x-ray spectra no suitable, so is recommendable be carried out test of quality control to the x-ray systems and also realize studies, or characterize the of x-ray mammographic spectra

  2. River Wyre preliminary feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A study undertaken in 1987 for the Department of Energy, of small estuaries and embayments around the coast of the United Kingdom, identified the Wyre as one of the most promising sites for the construction of a small tidal power barrage. Enquiries showed that Organisations with interests in and around the Wyre had carried out extensive surveys and investigations into the physical and environmental aspects of the estuary, many of which would be relevant to the development of a tidal power scheme. It was identified that a barrage constructed on the Wyre, in addition to generating clean renewable energy may also act as a road crossing between Fleetwood and Over Wyre, thereby avoiding the present diversion via the Shard Toll Bridge located some 8km upstream of the town of Fleetwood. (Author)

  3. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-01-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  4. Preliminary investigation of airgap electrospun silk-fibroin-based structures for ligament analogue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, S A; McClure, M J; Ayres, C E; Simpson, D G; Bowlin, G L

    2011-01-01

    The process of electrospinning has proven to be highly beneficial for use in a number of tissue-engineering applications due to its ease of use, flexibility and tailorable properties. There have been many publications on the creation of aligned fibrous structures created through various forms of electrospinning, most involving the use of a metal target rotating at high speeds. This work focuses on the use of a variation known as airgap electrospinning, which does not use a metal collecting target but rather a pair of grounded electrodes equidistant from the charged polymer solution to create highly aligned 3D structures. This study involved a preliminary investigation and comparison of traditionally and airgap electrospun silk-fibroin-based ligament constructs. Structures were characterized with SEM and alignment FFT, and underwent porosity, permeability, and mechanical anisotropy evaluation. Preliminary cell culture with human dermal fibroblasts was performed to determine the degree of cellular orientation and penetration. Results showed airgap electrospun structures to be anisotropic with significantly increased porosity and cellular penetration compared to their traditionally electrospun counterparts.

  5. Preliminary engineering specifications for a test demonstration multilayer protective barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.; Adams, M.R.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents preliminary engineering specifications for a test protective barrier cover system and support radiohydrology facility to be constructed at the Hanford Protective Barrier Test Facility (PBTF). Construction of this test barrier and related radiohydrology facility is part of a continuing effort to provide construction experience and performance evaluation of alternative barrier designs used for long-term isolation of disposed radioactive waste materials. Design specifications given in this report are tentative, based on interim engineering and computer simulation design efforts. Final definitive design specifications and engineering prints will be produced in FY 1986. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  6. Preliminary study of mercury target structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Uchida, Shoji; Nakagawa, Toshi; Mori, Seiji; Nishikawa, Akira

    1997-11-01

    Development of a proton accelerator based neutron source (1.5 GeV, 5.3 mA (for neutron source 3.3 mA), thermal power 8 MW) is currently conducted by the Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative, JAERI. Preliminary design studies and related R and D of a solid metal target for the first stage (1.5 GeV, 1 mA) and a liquid metal target for both the first and second stages (1.5 GeV, 3.3 mA) are conducted by the Target Group to develop both solid and liquid metal target systems. A few kinds of target structures have been investigated in FY 1996 and the preliminary results for the target structures are described in this paper. Investigation results of alternative materials for the target container are also described in this paper. (author)

  7. Preliminary simulation study of doppler reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yuta; Hojo, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Masashi; Ichimura, Makoto; Haraguchi, Yusuke; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Mase, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary simulation study of Doppler reflectometry is performed. The simulations solve Maxwell's equations by a finite difference time domain (FDTD) code method in two dimensions. A moving corrugated metal target is used as a plasma cutoff layer to study the basic features of Doppler reflectometry. We examined the effects of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the electromagnetic waves and the corrugation depth of the metal target. Furthermore, the effect of a nonuniform plasma is studied using this FDTD analysis. The Doppler shift and velocity are compared with those obtained from FDTD analysis of a uniform plasma. (author)

  8. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  9. A preliminary conceptual design study for Korean fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keeman, E-mail: kkeeman@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan; Oh, Sangjun; Lee, Young Seok; Yeom, Jun Ho; Im, Kihak; Lee, Gyung-Su [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neilson, George; Kessel, Charles; Brown, Thomas; Titus, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Perform a preliminary conceptual study for a steady-state Korean DEMO reactor. ► Present design guidelines and requirements of Korean DEMO reactor. ► Present a preliminary design of TF (toroidal field) and CS (central solenoid) magnet. ► Present a preliminary result of the radial build scheme of Korean DEMO reactor. -- Abstract: As the ITER is being constructed, there is a growing anticipation for an earlier realization of fusion energy, so called fast-track approach. Korean strategy for fusion energy can be regarded as a fast-track approach and one special concept discussed in this paper is a two-stage development plan. At first, a steady-state Korean DEMO Reactor (K-DEMO) is designed not only to demonstrate a net electricity generation and a self-sustained tritium cycle, but also to be used as a component test facility. Then, at its second stage, a major upgrade is carried out by replacing in-vessel components in order to show a net electric generation on the order of 300 MWe and the competitiveness in cost of electricity (COE). The major radius is designed to be just below 6.5 m, considering practical engineering feasibilities. By using high performance Nb{sub 3}Sn-based superconducting cable currently available, high magnetic field at the plasma center above 8 T can be achieved. A design concept for TF magnets and radial builds for the K-DEMO considering a vertical maintenance scheme, are presented together with preliminary design parameters.

  10. Prediction of the Main Engine Power of a New Container Ship at the Preliminary Design Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepowski, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents mathematical relationships that allow us to forecast the estimated main engine power of new container ships, based on data concerning vessels built in 2005-2015. The presented approximations allow us to estimate the engine power based on the length between perpendiculars and the number of containers the ship will carry. The approximations were developed using simple linear regression and multivariate linear regression analysis. The presented relations have practical application for estimation of container ship engine power needed in preliminary parametric design of the ship. It follows from the above that the use of multiple linear regression to predict the main engine power of a container ship brings more accurate solutions than simple linear regression.

  11. Definition study for variable cycle engine testbed engine and associated test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdoviak, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The product/study double bypass variable cycle engine (VCE) was updated to incorporate recent improvements. The effect of these improvements on mission range and noise levels was determined. This engine design was then compared with current existing high-technology core engines in order to define a subscale testbed configuration that simulated many of the critical technology features of the product/study VCE. Detailed preliminary program plans were then developed for the design, fabrication, and static test of the selected testbed engine configuration. These plans included estimated costs and schedules for the detail design, fabrication and test of the testbed engine and the definition of a test program, test plan, schedule, instrumentation, and test stand requirements.

  12. Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval And Transfer System Preliminary Design Hazard Analysis Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.R.; Meichle, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  13. Feasibility study of a pressure fed engine for a water recoverable space shuttle booster Volume 2: Technical, phase A effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Design and systems considerations are presented on an engine concept selection for further preliminary design and program evaluation. These data have been prepared from a feasibility study of a pressure-fed engine for the water recoverable space shuttle booster.

  14. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Susana C. M. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Blakeley, Matthew P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Leal, Ricardo M. F. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Mitchell, Edward P. [EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Forsyth, V. Trevor, E-mail: tforsyth@ill.fr [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  15. Preliminary Results from Simulations of Temperature Oscillations in Stirling Engine Regenerator Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to create a Stirling engine model for studying the effects of regenerator matrix temperature oscillations on Stirling engine performance. A one-dimensional model with axial discretisation of engine components has been formulated using the control volume method...

  16. CTR plasma engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Ash (e.g. thermalized helium from D-T) buildup in a tokamak can potentially prevent ignition and seriously degrade the fusion energy gain from driven system. This problem is most pronounced as the ratio of particle/energy confinement time increases towards the neoclassical limit. Yet much improved confinement of the fuel ions is desirable for a fusion reactor. The goals of the work described here were two fold: to study the effect of helium buildup on the energy balance for a tokamak, and consider methods of active control that might be employed to alleviate the problem. We examine ash buildup effect for both D-T and D- 3 He systems. Most examples used apply to the ARIES 1 D-T reactor design and to the ARIES 3 D- 3 He design since part of this was in support of these two designs. Then we report on brief studies of two potentially attractive control methods, namely controlled sawtooth and fishbone instabilities. The concept is that sawteeth or fishbones would be used on purpose periodically in order to ''flush'' out excess ash from the fusion core. Both methods are shown to feasible and attractive. More study is needed, however, since the phenomenona in which are physically complex. Still the pay off, namely, reduced ash buildup, is exceedingly important so that such studies desires strong attention

  17. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas.

  18. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  19. Preliminary conceptual studies of REX 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, F.; Baas, C.; Ballagny, A.; Chagrot, M.; Farny, G.; Barnier, M.; Pattou, A.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear R and D programs are, to some extent, completely dependent on research reactors availability. In France and others european countries, the major materials testings reactors were built in the sixties and are consequently ageing and reaching the end of their life, some of them having already been shut down. A situation with not a single large research reactor available in first half of next century cannot be imagined, given all the benefits drawn from the use of research reactors. The CEA has therefore started to evaluate the needs for neutron sources in the next four or five decades so as to design the most suitable new facilities to take over from the existing ones. REX 2000 is a new dedicated reactor project intended to meet the needs for fuels and materials testings after the year 2000. The preliminary conceptual studies which have been carried out along the last 18 months are presented and commented. (author)

  20. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of 210 Pb and 210 Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas

  1. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used

  2. Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Ian

    2001-01-01

    The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accomodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part I-Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2-Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25.800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3-Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine, two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and BPR

  3. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept

  4. Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, W; Hopper, M; Corriere, R; Hart, J; Switzer, A

    1977-09-01

    Two preliminary studies were conducted to assess the effects of an intensive outpatient psychotherapy, Feeling Therapy, on sleep. This therapy was chosen because of its demonstrated ability to affect its patients' dreams. In the first study a newly entering female patient was recorded across the first three weeks of intensive daily therapy. In contrast to two control subjects recorded across a similar time period, she demonstrated low REM times and short REM latencies on the average, and considerably greater variability in nearly every parameter. In the second study, two patients were recorded across three days (the middle of which was the day of a therapy session) first when new in therapy and then again after two and one-half years of therapy. It was found that when new in therapy both subjects spent nights of significantly altered sleep the day of the therapy session. One subject showed no REM sleep whatsoever while the other showed a 10 min REM latency and low REM time. The significance of these findings and the direction of future research is discussed.

  5. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M ampersand O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use)

  6. Aquarius study - engineering and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Roger F.

    1970-01-01

    The two previous papers described the scope of the Aquarius Study and the various applications considered in evaluating the use of nuclear explosives for the development of water resources in Arizona. Surface storage behind a dam created with the use of nuclear explosives was selected for the major effort, primarily because it could afford the most valid direct comparison between nuclear and conventional methods. In this paper I will focus on the engineering and economic considerations involved in developing and evaluating three concepts for constructing a rockfill dam using nuclear explosives. Engineering development and economic evaluation of the concepts was the principal responsibility of Bechtel Corporation as a consultant in the study to the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission. We depended heavily on information supplied by the Federal participants, notably the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for site data and the U.S. AEC*s Lawrence Radiation Laboratory for information on nuclear explosives effects. Since the study report has not yet been published and additional material is still forthcoming, some of the information I will present, such as the cost estimates, may be subject to change and should be considered preliminary. (author)

  7. Aquarius study - engineering and economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Roger F [Bechtel Corporation (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The two previous papers described the scope of the Aquarius Study and the various applications considered in evaluating the use of nuclear explosives for the development of water resources in Arizona. Surface storage behind a dam created with the use of nuclear explosives was selected for the major effort, primarily because it could afford the most valid direct comparison between nuclear and conventional methods. In this paper I will focus on the engineering and economic considerations involved in developing and evaluating three concepts for constructing a rockfill dam using nuclear explosives. Engineering development and economic evaluation of the concepts was the principal responsibility of Bechtel Corporation as a consultant in the study to the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission. We depended heavily on information supplied by the Federal participants, notably the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for site data and the U.S. AEC*s Lawrence Radiation Laboratory for information on nuclear explosives effects. Since the study report has not yet been published and additional material is still forthcoming, some of the information I will present, such as the cost estimates, may be subject to change and should be considered preliminary. (author)

  8. Preliminary studies of the biosynthesis of Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicnienski, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Aspergillus ustus is one of the most prevalent fungi in the soil. There are now two reports of the occurrence of toxin-producing strains of this fungus on stored foodstuffs. In addition, strains of A. ustus have been isolated along with Penicillium species from samples of South African cheeses. All A. ustus isolates tested were judged to be highly toxic to ducklings when grown on maize meal, however, the toxins involved were not isolated. Austin is the trivial name of one of the toxins made by the fungus found on stored food. Preliminary work to studying the biosynthesis of this compound using 13 C-labeled sodium acetate is reported here. The feasibility of the biosynthetic study was determined by feeding [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate to A. ustus cultures. The assignments made in the 13 C-nmr spectrum of Austin are shown. The lowest dilution factor obtained in [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate feeding experiments was 14. This dilution factor is sufficiently low to allow a successful feeding of [1,2- 13 C 2 ]-sodium acetate. A new metabolite of A. ustus, deacetylaustin, was isolated and identified. An alkaloid of unknown structure was also isolated from the fungus

  9. Studies of a Combined-Cycle Engine

    OpenAIRE

    苅田, 丈士; KANDA, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    For a Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) aerospace plane (Fig.1), several engines will be necessary to reach orbit. The combined-cycle engine incorporates several operational modes in a single engine. Study of the combined cycle engine has a long history, and several kinds of such engines have been proposed and studied. When several engines are mounted on a vehicle, each engine of the system will show a performance higher than that of the combined cycle engine. However, during the operation of one ...

  10. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  11. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem

  12. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's (RWMC's) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendices. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  14. Preliminary Results on the Influence of Engineered Artificial Mucus Layer on Phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döllinger, Michael; Gröhn, Franziska; Berry, David A.; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Luegmair, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have confirmed the influence of dehydration and an altered mucus (e.g., due to pathologies) on phonation. However, the underlying reasons for these influences are not fully understood. This study was a preliminary inquiry into the influences of mucus architecture and concentration on vocal fold oscillation. Method: Two…

  15. MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

  16. Protein Engineering: Case Studies of Commercialized Engineered Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Programs in biochemistry invariably encompass the principles of protein engineering. Students often display increased understanding and enthusiasm when theoretical concepts are underpinned by practical example. Herein are presented five case studies, each focusing upon a commercial protein product engineered to enhance its application-relevant…

  17. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarick, Heather L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Kelly, John C.; Crumbley, Robert T.; Wifl, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    To identify best practices for the improvement of software engineering on projects, NASA's Offices of Chief Engineer (OCE) and Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) formed a team led by Heather Rarick and Sally Godfrey to conduct this benchmarking study. The primary goals of the study are to identify best practices that: Improve the management and technical development of software intensive systems; Have a track record of successful deployment by aerospace industries, universities [including research and development (R&D) laboratories], and defense services, as well as NASA's own component Centers; and Identify candidate solutions for NASA's software issues. Beginning in the late fall of 2010, focus topics were chosen and interview questions were developed, based on the NASA top software challenges. Between February 2011 and November 2011, the Benchmark Team interviewed a total of 18 organizations, consisting of five NASA Centers, five industry organizations, four defense services organizations, and four university or university R and D laboratory organizations. A software assurance representative also participated in each of the interviews to focus on assurance and software safety best practices. Interviewees provided a wealth of information on each topic area that included: software policy, software acquisition, software assurance, testing, training, maintaining rigor in small projects, metrics, and use of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) framework, as well as a number of special topics that came up in the discussions. NASA's software engineering practices compared favorably with the external organizations in most benchmark areas, but in every topic, there were ways in which NASA could improve its practices. Compared to defense services organizations and some of the industry organizations, one of NASA's notable weaknesses involved communication with contractors regarding its policies and requirements for acquired software. One of NASA's strengths

  18. Characteristics, finite element analysis, test description, and preliminary test results of the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, K. L.; Rawlinson, K. S.; Smith, G.

    1991-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Program has, as one of its program elements, the development and evaluation of conversion device technologies applicable to dish-electric systems. The primary research and development combines a conversion device (heat engine), solar receiver, and generator mounted at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator. The Stirling-cycle heat engine was identified as the conversion device for dish-electric with the most potential for meeting the program's goals for efficiency, reliability, and installed cost. To advance the technology toward commercialization, Sandia National Laboratories has acquired a Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. kinematic Stirling engine, STM4-120, for evaluation. The engine is being bench-tested at Sandia's Engine Test Facility and will be combined later with a solar receiver for on-sun evaluation. This report presents the engine characteristics, finite element analyses of critical engine components, test system layout, instrumentation, and preliminary performance results from the bench test.

  19. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ''WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4)

  20. Preliminary engineering assessment of treatment alternatives for groundwater from the Hanford 200 Area 200-BP-5 plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of the Preliminary Engineering Assessment of Treatment Alternatives (PEATA), an engineering evaluation of potential treatment alternatives for groundwater extracted from the 200-BP-5 Area's 216-BY Cribs and 216-B-5 Reverse Well plumes. The primary objective of the PEATA was to identify treatment technologies that are worth further consideration (i.e., treatability testing or a more refined engineering evaluation). It will also provide a basis for evaluating the results of the treatability testing that is currently being conducted on the presumptive remedy of ion exchange with disposal of spent resin and will serve as a guide for selection of other technologies for additional testing. Because there are little data or past experience with groundwater similar to the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well Plumes, treatment efficiencies cannot be predicted with certainty and rigorous treatment system designs and costs cannot be developed. This applies to all alternatives, including the presumptive remedy of ion exchange. The approach for this study was to develop conceptual designs and approximate costs for the treatment technologies that were most likely to be effective on the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well groundwater

  1. Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine and freshwater microalgal beads from textile wastewater. SD Kumar, P Santhanam, R Nandakumar, S Anath, B Balaji Prasath, A Shenbaga Devi, S Jeyanthi, T Jayalakshima, P Ananthi ...

  2. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, W.J.; Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Moore, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.; Ottewitte, E.H.; Motloch, C.G.; Lacy, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented

  3. LASL experimental engineered waste burial facility: design considerations and preliminary plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The LASL Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program on Shallow-Land Burial Technology. It is a test facility where basic information can be obtained on the processes that occur in shallow-land burial operations and where new concepts for shallow-land burial can be tested on an accelerated basis on an appropriate scale. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the factors considered in the design of the facility and to present a preliminary description of the experiments that are initially planned. This will be done by discussing waste management philosophies, the purposes of the facility in the context of the waste management philosophy for the facility, and the design considerations, and by describing the experiments initially planned for inclusion in the facility, and the facility site

  4. A preliminary survey of the National Wetlands Inventory as mapped for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, N.L.; Rope, R.C.; Glennon, J.M.; Moor, K.S.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately 135 areas within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been mapped as wetland habitat as part of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). A preliminary survey of these wetlands was conducted to examine their general characteristics and status, to provide an estimation of relative ecological importance, to identify additional information needed to complete ecological characterization of important INEL wetlands, and to identify high priority wetland areas on the INEL. The purpose of the survey was to provide information to support the preparation of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Information characterizing general vegetation, hydrology, wildlife use, and archaeology was collected at 105 sample sites on the INEL. Sites representing NWI palustrine, lacustrine, and riverine wetlands (including manmade), and areas unmapped or unclassified by the NWI were included in the sample. The field information was used to develop a preliminary ranking of relative ecological importance for each wetland visited during this survey. Survey limitations are identified

  5. Preliminary Results from Simulations of Temperature Fluctuations in Stirling Engine Regenerator Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to create a model for studying effects of temperature fluctuations in regenerator matrices on Stirling engine performance. A one-dimensional model with axial discretisation of engine components has been formulated using a fixed Eulerian grid. The model contains...... that adjusts solutions so that they satisfy the necessary cyclic boundary conditions as well as integral conditions for cyclic heat transfer for walls in the engine and for the mean cycle pressure. It has been found that it is possible to accurately solve the stiff ODE system that describes the coupled...

  6. Preliminary study on AC superconducting machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Ishigohka, T.; Shimohka, T.; Mizukami, N.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the issues involved in developing AC superconducting machines. In the first phase, as a preliminary experiment, a 4kVa AC superconducting coil which employs 100A class 50/60Hz superconductors is made and tested. And, in the second phase, as an extension of the 4kVa coil, a model superconducting transformer is made and examined. The transformer has a novel quench protection system with an auxiliary coil only in the low voltage side. The behavior of the overcurrent protection system is confirmed

  7. Isotope angiocardiography. Method and preliminary own studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinska, J; Ruzyllo, W; Konieczny, W [Centrum Medyczne Ksztalcenia Podyplomowego, Warsaw (Poland)

    1979-01-01

    Method of technetium isotope 99 m pass through the heart recording with the aid of radioisotope scanner connected with seriograph and computer is being presented. Preliminary tests were carried out in 26 patients with coronary disease without or with previous myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, ventricular septal defect and in patients with artificial mitral and aortic valves. The obtained scans were evaluated qualitatively and compared with performed later contrast X-rays of the heart. Size of the right ventricle, volume and rate of left atrial evacuation, size and contractability of left ventricle were evaluated. Similarity of direct and isotope angiocardiographs, non-invasional character and repeatability of isotope angiocardiography advocate its usefulness.

  8. Repository design sensitivity study: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary sensitivity study of the salt repository design has been performed to identify critical site and design parameters to help guide future site characterization and design optimization activities. The study considered the SCP-conceptual design at the Deaf Smith County site in Texas with the horizontal waste package emplacement mode as the base case. Relative to this base case, parameter variations were compared. Limited studies were performed which considered the vertical emplacement mode geometry. The report presents the reference data base and design parameters on which the study was based (including the range of parameters that might be expected). Detailed descriptions of the numerical modeling methods and assumptions are included for the thermal, thermomechanical and hydrogeological analyses. The impacts of parameter variations on the sensitivity of the rock mass response are discussed. Recommendations are provided to help guide site characterization activities and advanced conceptual design optimization activities. 47 refs., 119 refs., 22 tabs

  9. preliminary multidomain modelling and simulation study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    rad/s at a height of 10m. At this angular ... exerted on the rotor, the power train and the nacelle into the ground. .... Thesis, Department of Electrical and Computer. Engineering ... studies”, International Conference on Power Systems. Transients ...

  10. Fish-Friendly Hydropower Turbine Development & Deployment: Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, J. [Voith Hydro, Inc., York, PA (USA); Hecker, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Li, S. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Allen, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA)

    2011-10-01

    The Alden turbine was developed through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) former Advanced Hydro Turbine Systems Program (1994-2006) and, more recently, through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the DOE's Wind & Water Power Program. The primary goal of the engineering study described here was to provide a commercially competitive turbine design that would yield fish passage survival rates comparable to or better than the survival rates of bypassing or spilling flow. Although the turbine design was performed for site conditions corresponding to 92 ft (28 m) net head and a discharge of 1500 cfs (42.5 cms), the design can be modified for additional sites with differing operating conditions. During the turbine development, design modifications were identified for the spiral case, distributor (stay vanes and wicket gates), runner, and draft tube to improve turbine performance while maintaining features for high fish passage survival. Computational results for pressure change rates and shear within the runner passage were similar in the original and final turbine geometries, while predicted minimum pressures were higher for the final turbine. The final turbine geometry and resulting flow environments are expected to further enhance the fish passage characteristics of the turbine. Computational results for the final design were shown to improve turbine efficiencies by over 6% at the selected operating condition when compared to the original concept. Prior to the release of the hydraulic components for model fabrication, finite element analysis calculations were conducted for the stay vanes, wicket gates, and runner to verify that structural design criteria for stress and deflections were met. A physical model of the turbine was manufactured and tested with data collected for power and efficiency, cavitation limits, runaway speed, axial and radial thrust, pressure pulsations, and wicket gate torque. All parameters were observed to fall

  11. Tsunami engineering study in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    ronmental Laboratory at NOAA, USA has the tsunami - research program ( http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami/). Th e t sunami research group is part of the Civi l Engineering Department at the Universit y of Southern California where undergra - duate... the engineering point of view. The Tsunami Engineering Labor a tory at the graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Unive r sit y (http://www.tsunami.civil.tohoku.a c.jp/ hokusai2/main/eng/index.html) offers r e- se arch programmes on tsunami. The Uni - versity...

  12. Preliminary analysis of engineered barrieer performances in geological disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Maki, Yasuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Motoi.

    1988-01-01

    This report represents preliminary results of safety analysis of a engineered barrier system in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three well-known computer codes; ORIGEN 2, TRUMP, and SWIFT were used in the simulation. Main conceptual design of the repository was almost identical to that of SKB in Sweden and NAGRA in Switzerland; the engineered barrier conasists glass solidified waste, steel overpack, and compacted bentonite. Two different underground formations are considered; granite and neogene sedimentary rock, which are typically found in Japan. We first determined the repository configuration, particularly the space between disposal pitts. The ORIGEN 2 was used to estimate heat generation in the waste glass reprocessed at 4 years after removal from PWR. Then, temperature distribution was calculated by the TRUMP. The results of two or three dimensional calculation indicated that the pit interval should be kept more than 5 m in the case of granite formation at 500 m depth, according to the temperature criteria in the bentonite layer ( 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239 Pu, and 237 Np were chosen in one or two dimensional calculations. For both cases of steady release and instanteneous release, the maximum concentration in the pore water at the boundary between bentonite and surrounding rock had the following order; 237 Np> 239 Pu> 90 Sr> 241 Am. Sensitivity analysis showed that the order mainly due to the different adsorption characteristics of the nuclides in bentonite layer. (author)

  13. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Ligament: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dedicated Multi-Chamber Tension-Torsion Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric P. Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering may constitute a promising alternative to current strategies in ligament repair, providing that suitable scaffolds and culture conditions are proposed. The objective of the present contribution is to present the design and instrumentation of a novel multi-chamber tension-torsion bioreactor dedicated to ligament tissue engineering. A preliminary biological evaluation of a new braided scaffold within this bioreactor under dynamic loading is reported, starting with the development of a dedicated seeding protocol validated from static cultures. The results of these preliminary biological characterizations confirm that the present combination of scaffold, seeding protocol and bioreactor may enable us to head towards a suitable ligament tissue-engineered construct.

  14. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phases 3 and 4. [variable cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.; Joy, W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various advanced propulsion concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft resulted in the identification of the double-bypass variable cycle engine as the most promising concept. This engine design utilizes special variable geometry components and an annular exhaust nozzle to provide high take-off thrust and low jet noise. The engine also provides good performance at both supersonic cruise and subsonic cruise. Emission characteristics are excellent. The advanced technology double-bypass variable cycle engine offers an improvement in aircraft range performance relative to earlier supersonic jet engine designs and yet at a lower level of engine noise. Research and technology programs required in certain design areas for this engine concept to realize its potential benefits include refined parametric analysis of selected variable cycle engines, screening of additional unconventional concepts, and engine preliminary design studies. Required critical technology programs are summarized.

  15. Tritium oxidation and exchange: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1978-05-01

    The radiological hazard resulting from an exposure to either tritium oxide or tritium gas is discussed and the factors contributing to the hazard are presented. From the discussion it appears that an exposure to tritium oxide vapor is 10 4 to 10 5 times more hazardous than exposure to tritium gas. Present and future sources of tritium are briefly considered and indicate that most of the tritium has been and is being released as tritium oxide. The likelihood of gaseous releases, however, is expected to increase in the future, calling to task the present general release assumption that 100% of all tritium released is as oxide. Accurate evaluation of the hazards from a gaseous release will require a knowledge of the conversion rate of tritium gas to tritium oxide. An experiment for determining the conversion rate of tritium gas to tritium oxide is presented along with some preliminary data. The conversion rates obtained for low initial concentrations (10 -4 to 10 -1 mCi/ml) indicate the conversion may proceed more rapidly than would be expected from an extrapolation of previous data taken at higher concentrations

  16. Endobronchial Occlusion Stent: A Preliminary Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yo Won; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Heo, Jeong Nam; Jeon, Seok Chol [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Gi Young; Song, Ho Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the safety and the technical feasibility of the use of an endobronchial occlusion stent and to get preliminary data for the development of the optimal material required for endobronchial occlusions. A commercialized, self-expandable tracheobronchial stent was modified; one half had a polyurethane cover with an occluded end and the other half was uncovered with a flaring configuration. The occluded end was placed such that it would face the distal lung. Under fluoroscopic guidance, seven stents were placed at the lower lobar bronchus in 6 mini-pigs. The bronchial obstruction was examined immediately after stent placement. Chest radiographs were taken at days 1, 7, 14, and 28 after stent placement and the removed airways from two, two, one, and one mini-pigs sacrificed on corresponding days were examined for the maintenance of bronchial obstruction. Stents were successfully placed and induced the immediate bronchial obstruction in all mini-pigs. Five of seven airways with occlusion stents maintained an obstruction until the mini-pigs were sacrificed. Proximal stent migration occurred in two mini-pigs (29%), and pulmonary consolidations were observed distal to four of the stents (57%). The placement of an endobronchial occlusion stent and the obstruction of targeted bronchi seem to be feasible, but an add-on check valve should be considered to prevent stent migration and obstructive pneumonia

  17. A preliminary investigation on the effects of characteristics and contractual behaviour on civil engineering project performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, W. N. W.; Adnan, H.; Yusuwan, N.; Maisham, M.; Hassan, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The significant role of civil engineering project is not only to make the lives of people easier and secure but also to trigger the economic growth by providing infrastructure facilities as well as job opportunities. As it is dominantly initiated by government sectors, performance of the civil engineering projects is always observed. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of civil engineering project and the contractual behavior of the key participants and how do these two factors affect civil engineering projects performance. Literature reviews, content analysis and questionnaires survey were conducted to undertake the research. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed and 10 questionnaires were returned, resulting in a 20% response rate. The research unveiled that performance of civil engineering projects are influenced greatly by the ability to handle the unpredictable character of the civil engineering projects and adequate behavioral management. Apart from that, balancing the factors with high quality of workmanship, avoidance or well managed conflicts and high satisfaction level will ensure performance in projects.

  18. Study Abroad | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  19. Systems engineering implementation in the preliminary design phase of the Giant Magellan Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiten, J.; Johns, M.; Trancho, G.; Sawyer, D.; Mady, P.

    2012-09-01

    Like many telescope projects today, the 24.5-meter Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is truly a complex system. The primary and secondary mirrors of the GMT are segmented and actuated to support two operating modes: natural seeing and adaptive optics. GMT is a general-purpose telescope supporting multiple science instruments operated in those modes. GMT is a large, diverse collaboration and development includes geographically distributed teams. The need to implement good systems engineering processes for managing the development of systems like GMT becomes imperative. The management of the requirements flow down from the science requirements to the component level requirements is an inherently difficult task in itself. The interfaces must also be negotiated so that the interactions between subsystems and assemblies are well defined and controlled. This paper will provide an overview of the systems engineering processes and tools implemented for the GMT project during the preliminary design phase. This will include requirements management, documentation and configuration control, interface development and technical risk management. Because of the complexity of the GMT system and the distributed team, using web-accessible tools for collaboration is vital. To accomplish this GMTO has selected three tools: Cognition Cockpit, Xerox Docushare, and Solidworks Enterprise Product Data Management (EPDM). Key to this is the use of Cockpit for managing and documenting the product tree, architecture, error budget, requirements, interfaces, and risks. Additionally, drawing management is accomplished using an EPDM vault. Docushare, a documentation and configuration management tool is used to manage workflow of documents and drawings for the GMT project. These tools electronically facilitate collaboration in real time, enabling the GMT team to track, trace and report on key project metrics and design parameters.

  20. Preliminary engineering assessment of the HCLL and HCPB Neutron Activation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, Pattrick; Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona, (Spain); Angelone, Maurizio [ENEA, Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati, (Italy); Klix, Axel [KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Neutron Activation System (NAS) is one of the four types of neutronics sensors considered for the testing of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER. It measures the absolute neutron flux intensity with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the TBM. The working principle of the NAS is as follows: the system moves small activation probes (capsules) into selected positions in the TBM (irradiation ends) by means of pneumatic transport with pressurized helium gas; the capsules are irradiated for a selected period, depending on their materials composition (several tens of seconds up to the full plasma pulse length); immediately after the irradiation they are extracted and transported to a gamma spectrometer by means of the same pneumatic transport system; the gamma spectrometer determines the induced gamma activity; the neutron flux and neutron fluence is calculated from the measured gamma activity and the known activation cross section of the materials in the activation probe; after the measurement the capsule is sent either to a disposal or storage (for later measurement). This paper summarizes the results of the feasibility assessment of the TBM NAS in the conceptual design phase, including design justification, identification of requirements based on the expected operating conditions in ITER and preliminary engineering assessment of the activation materials, irradiation ends integration in the modules design and the counting station. (authors)

  1. Spirituality and the Events of September 11: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Apple, Kevin J.; Aydlett, Ann E.

    2004-01-01

    Personal crises have been associated with spiritual growth. Sparked by the global response to the crisis of September 11, 2001, this study examined the relationship of spirituality and the September 11 tragedy using a sample of convenience from a college student population. This preliminary study used an experimental design to examine various…

  2. Engineering study on the rotary-vee engine concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Edward A.; Bartland, Timothy A.; Beard, John E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the applicable thermodynamic cycle and performance considerations when the rotary-vee mechanism is used as an internal combustion (IC) heat engine. Included is a simplified kinematic analysis and studies of the effects of design parameters on the critical pressures, torques and parasitic losses. A discussion of the principal findings is presented.

  3. Engineering study of the rotary-vee engine concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Edward A.; Bartrand, Timothy A.; Beard, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The applicable thermodynamic cycle and performance considerations when the rotary-vee mechanism is used as an internal combustion (I.C.) heat engine are reviewed. Included is a simplified kinematic analysis and studies of the effects of design parameters on the critical pressures, torques and parasitic losses. A discussion of the principal findings is presented.

  4. Preliminary results on performance testing of a turbocharged rotary combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, P. R.; Rice, W. J.; Schock, H. J.; Pringle, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a turbocharged rotary engine at power levels above 75 kW (100 hp) was studied. A twin rotor turbocharged Mazda engine was tested at speeds of 3000 to 6000 rpm and boost pressures to 7 psi. The NASA developed combustion diagnostic instrumentation was used to quantify indicated and pumping mean effect pressures, peak pressure, and face to face variability on a cycle by cycle basis. Results of this testing showed that a 5900 rpm a 36 percent increase in power was obtained by operating the engine in the turbocharged configuration. When operating with lean carburetor jets at 105 hp (78.3 kW) and 4000 rpm, a brake specific fuel consumption of 0.45 lbm/lb-hr was measured.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of the Emporium Model in a Redesigned Engineering Mechanics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Walters, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A lecture-based engineering mechanics course (Statics) is redesigned using the Emporium model. Whereas students study the material outside of class via asynchronous online delivery of the content and instructional videos, they do all the other activities (e.g., assignments, tests) either individually or in groups inside the classroom. Computer-…

  6. Study of hydrogeological and engineering-geological conditions of deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Methods for hydrogeological and engineering-geological studies are considered as a part of the complex works dUring eXploration of hydrogenic uranium deposits to develop them by Underground ieaching (UL). Problems are enumerated and peculiarities Of hydrogeologic and engipeering-geological works at different stages are outlined (prospeccing - evaluating works, preliminary and detailed survey). Attention is paid to boring and equipment for hydrogeological and engineering - geological boreholes. Testing-filtering works are described, the latter includes: evacuations, fulnesses ( forcings), and tests of fulness-evacuation. The problem on steady-state observations in boreholes and laboratory studies of rocks and underground waters is discussed. Geological and geophysical methods for evaluation of rock and ore filtering properties are presented. Necessity of hydrogeological zonation of deposits as applied to UL is marked

  7. Preliminary Performance Data on Westinghouse Electronic Power Regulator Operating on J34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, James R.; Blivas, Darnold; Pack, George J.

    1950-01-01

    The behavior of the Westinghouse electronic power regulator operating on a J34-WE-32 turbojet engine was investigated in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy. The object of the program was to determine the, steady-state stability and transient characteristics of the engine under control at various altitudes and ram pressure ratios, without afterburning. Recordings of the response of the following parameters to step changes in power lever position throughout the available operating range of the engine were obtained; ram pressure ratio, compressor-discharge pressure, exhaust-nozzle area, engine speed, turbine-outlet temperature, fuel-valve position, jet thrust, air flow, turbine-discharge pressure, fuel flow, throttle position, and boost-pump pressure. Representative preliminary data showing the actual time response of these variables are presented. These data are presented in the form of reproductions of oscillographic traces.

  8. Engineering study of riser equipment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Study was to evaluate the current equipment and operating procedures to determine if changes could be made to improve ALARA and evaluate the feasibility of implementing the proposed solutions. As part of this study input from the cognizant characterization engineers and operating sampling crews was obtained and evaluated for ALARA improvements

  9. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 2; Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary studies on two turbine engine applications relevant to the tilt-rotor rotary wing aircraft are performed. The first case-study is the application of variable pitch turbine for the turbine performance improvement when operating at a substantially lower shaft speed. The calculations are made on the 75 percent speed and the 50 percent speed of operations. Our results indicate that with the use of the variable pitch turbines, a nominal (3 percent (probable) to 5 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 75 percent speed, and a notable (6 percent (probable) to 12 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 50 percent speed, without sacrificing the turbine power productions, are achievable if the technical difficulty of turning the turbine vanes and blades can be circumvented. The second casestudy is the contingency turbine power generation for the tilt-rotor aircraft in the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) scenario. For this study, calculations are performed on two promising methods: throttle push and steam injection. By isolating the power turbine and limiting its air mass flow rate to be no more than the air flow intake of the take-off operation, while increasing the turbine inlet total temperature (simulating the throttle push) or increasing the air-steam mixture flow rate (simulating the steam injection condition), our results show that an amount of 30 to 45 percent extra power, to the nominal take-off power, can be generated by either of the two methods. The methods of approach, the results, and discussions of these studies are presented in this paper.

  10. A New Silver Complex with Ofloxacin – Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Aura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Silver complexes of antibacterial quinolones have the potential advantage of combining the antibacterial activity of silver and fluoroquinolones. The objective of our study was the preparation and the preliminary physico-chemical characterization of a silver complex with ofloxacin.

  11. Oxygenates in automotive fuels. Consequence analysis - preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, Aa.; Saevbark, B.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygenates is used in gasoline due to several reasons. They are added as high-octane components in unleaded gasoline and as agents to reduce the emission of harmful substances. Oxygenates produced from biomass might constitute a coming market for alternative fuels. This preliminary study describes the prerequisites and consequences of such an oxygenate utilization. 39 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  12. A preliminary study on the relevancy of sustainable building design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study aims to explore the relationship between sustainable building design paradigms and commercial property depreciation, to assist in the understanding of sustainable building design impact towards commercial building value and rental de employs the qualitative method and analyses valuers' current ...

  13. A Preliminary Study toward Consistent Soil Moisture from AMSR2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parinussa, R.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.; Wanders, N.; Dorigo, W.A.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study toward consistent soil moisture products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is presented. Its predecessor, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), has providedEarth scientists with a consistent and continuous global

  14. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  15. Preliminary study and Identification of insects' species of forensic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proper identification of the insect and arthropod species of forensic importance is the most crucial element in the field of forensic entomology. The main objective in this study was the identification of insects' species of forensic importance in Urmia (37°, 33 N. and 45°, 4, 45 E.) and establishment of a preliminary ...

  16. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  17. A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed processed mottle Mucuna beans ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ) ... They were fed diets (20% CP, 13 MJME/kg) incorporating 0%, 5% and 10% processed mottle “Mucuna” beans. A completely randomized design was used. Feed and water were supplied and ...

  18. Preliminary study of pur-revetment's application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, D.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van de Ven, M.

    2008-01-01

    PUR-revetment is a newly developed method for hydraulic application. Its structure is similar to that of open stone asphalt revetment, but the crushed stones are glued by polyurethane (PUR) instead of bitumen. To study the feasibility of applying PUR-revetment, a research based on the comparisons

  19. Preliminary study of some problems in deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilly, Louis; Garderet, Philippe; Lecomte, Alain; Max, Jacques

    1975-07-01

    After defining convolution operator, its physical meaning and principal properties are given. Several deconvolution methods are analysed: method of Fourier Transform and iterative numerical methods. Positivity of measured magnitude has been object of a new Yvon Biraud's method. Analytic prolongation of Fourier transform applied to unknow fonction, has been studied by M. Jean-Paul Sheidecker. An important bibliography is given [fr

  20. Combustion synthesis and preliminary luminescence studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polycrystalline sample of LiBaPO4 : Tb3+ (LBPT) was successfully synthesized by solution combustion synthesis and studied for its luminescence characteristics. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve of LBPT material consists of two peaks at 204.54 and 251.21°C. The optimum concentration was 0.005 mol to ...

  1. Preliminary simulation studies of accelerator cavity loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.

    1980-06-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of loading effects in a 350 MHz accelerator cavity have been performed. Electron currents of 1-10 kA have been accelerated in 5 MV/m fields. Higher order cavity modes induced by the beam may lead to emittance growth. Operation in an autoaccelerator mode has been studied

  2. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  3. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria

  4. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation

  5. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bontha, Jagannadha R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, Lenna A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rassat, Scot D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boeringa, Gregory K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buchmiller, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Karri, Naveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tran, Diana N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  6. Preliminary study of possible ORELA replacement options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Martin, J.A.; Horen, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Based on two conceptual design studies performed by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division, the possibilities in terms of accelerator systems for replacing ORELA with a more intense Maxwellian-type continuous-energy neutron source are summarized and discussed. The neutron intensities from ORELA are compared with those from existing or potential accelerator systems used for cross-section and condensed-matter studies. The best replacement options seem to involve a spallation source from 200- to 400-MeV protons on an ORELA-like target. Pulsing and intensity desiderata with such a source are discussed which correspond to a spectrum-averaged 100-fold improved figure of merit over ORELA for TOF measurements with only a tenfold increased source strength. Existing accelerator designs seem to be inadequate for such a source. Consequently, two conceptual designs were developed for this study by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division. The first conceptual design is for a 200-MeV large linac capable of accelerating 1.3 A during a macropulse; this linac standing alone could serve as an ORELA replacement source. The second conceptual design is for a much smaller 250-MeV PIGMI linac with a 28-mA macropulse current which feeds a proton accumulator ring and bunch-compressor transport line. This linac-ring-compressor (LIRIC) option would give a more cost-effective neutron source for cross-section measurements, whereas the large linac, or a modified version of it, would give a much simpler system more suitable for expansion. In particular, both conceptual designs would incorporate the present ORELA building and would provide approximately 100-fold improved neutron sources over ORELA for cross-section measurements. The total estimated cost of the LIRIC system would be $43M (1984), whereas the cost of the large linac would be about a factor of two more. 55 references, 11 figures, 19 tables

  7. Epidemiological studies of radiation workers: preliminary communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited has embarked on a study of the mortality data among those of its workforce who were employed prior to 1 January 1976. The study covers a total population of about 41000 current and ex-employees, but is initially concerned with a radiation worker cohort of 7500 at the Sellafield establishment where the highest radiation doses are received. Tracing of the health status of ex-employees has been undertaken using the services provided by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) and the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) and it is expected that ultimately the level of trace will be better than 97%. Mortality data not specifically related to radiation workers are included and relate to male deaths among serving staff and pensioners during the years 1962-1978. Those observed deaths (O) are compared on an age standardized basis with those expected (E) from the general population, the ratio O/E being about 1 for all cancers and less than 1 for non-cancer deaths. This pattern is consistent with the well known 'healthy worker' effect seen in industry. (author)

  8. Jaundice: a preliminary study with the ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Sun Jian; Liu Haiping; Luo Weiquan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ultrasound in imaging diagnosis of jaundice. Methods: The changes of ultrasonography of 116 patients with jaundice were correlatively studied with the final diagnosis. Results: Hepatocellular jaundice was found in 27 cases out of 116; and obstructive jaundice was revealed in other 89 cases. The level of obstruction was correctly assessed by ultrasound in 94.2% of the patients. The primary lesion was successfully identified by ultrasound in 87.6% cases of obstructive jaundice. Misdiagnosis was made in 8 cases. Conclusion: Ultrasonography can confirm the obstructive jaundice. The level of obstruction can be precisely located and the primary lesions can be correctly identified in most cases. Better understanding the sonographic characteristics of benign disorder such as inflam-matory mass of caput of pancreas and inflammatory stricture of common bile duct results in a higher diagnostic accuracy. (authors)

  9. Preliminary geothermal study of Mt. Etna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongelli, F; Morelli, C

    1964-01-01

    The geothermal status of Italy's Mt. Etna region was studied via borehole thermometry at eight experimental sites. The mathematical principles and other criteria used in borehole site and well depth selection are discussed. The soil temperature is regulated by external temperature variations to a certain depth. The minimum drilling distance which would provide accurate temperature determinations was calculated to be 30 m. The geothermal gradient was determined by the application of a Fourier series to three measurements made at different depths using resistance thermometers. The results are presented in tables and the gradients are plotted on graphs. Geothermal gradient determinations were corrected for topographic effects. Two major groups of gradients were discovered, those having linear gradients were interpreted as being due to the effect of meteoric waters. Other possible disturbances are those caused by surface temperature effects and the influence of nearby bodies of water.

  10. Preliminary studies of cobalt complexation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, P.; Shaw, P.; Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively non-invasive method has been used to separate complexed from free cobalt-60 in groundwater, using the weak cationic adsorption properties of Sephadex gels, and a mobile phase of natural groundwater. Results show the kinetics of Co complex formation in groundwater to be slow, and that the equilibrium position is affected by temperature, cobalt concentration and the ionic/organic strength of the groundwater. The addition of DAEA cellulose to the groundwater to remove humic material, also removed the majority of organic species which absorb UV at 254 nm, but 45% of the original total organic carbon remained, and the amount of complexed cobalt left in solution was only reduced to 76% of its former concentration. This suggests that the completed Co species separated by the method described in this paper are a mixture of inorganic and organic compounds, and studies are therefore continuing to establish their exact nature. (author)

  11. Preliminary studies of cobalt complexation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, P.; Shaw, P.; Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively non-invasive method has been used to separate complexed from free cobalt-60 in groundwater, using the weak cationic adsorption properties of Sephadex gels, and a mobile phase of natural groundwater. Results show the kinetics of Co complex formation in groundwater to be slow, and that the equilibrium position is affected by temperature, cobalt concentration and the ionic/organic strength of the groundwater. The addition of DEAE cellulose to the groundwater to remove humic material, also removed the majority of organic species with absorb UV at 254 nm, but 45% of the original total organic carbon remained, and the amount of complexed cobalt left in solution was only reduced to 76% of its former concentration. This suggests that the complexed Co species separated by the method described in this paper are a mixture of inorganic and organic compounds, and studies are therefore continuing to establish their exact nature. (orig.)

  12. Impact of an Engineering Case Study in a High School Pre-Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Eugene; Shafer, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Students at an all-girls high school who were enrolled in an introduction to engineering course were presented an engineering case study to determine if the case study affected their attitudes toward engineering and their abilities to solve engineering problems. A case study on power plants was implemented during a unit on electrical engineering.…

  13. Preliminary study of tin slag concrete mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd Jamil; Mansor, Ishak; Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad; Sani, Suhairy; Azmi, Azhar; Sayuti, Shaharudin; Zaidi Ibrahim, Mohd; Adli Anuar, Abul; Rahim, Abdul Adha Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The study focuses on practices to facilitate tin smelting industry to reduce radioactive waste product (Tin Slag) by diluting its radioactivity to a safe level and turning it to a safer infrastructural building product. In the process the concrete mix which include Portland cement, sand, tin slag, water and plasticizer are used to produce interlocking brick pavements, piles and other infrastructural products. The mixing method follows DOE (UK) standard method of mixing targeted at in selected compressive strength suitable for its function and durability. A batching machine is used in the mixing and six test cubes are produced for the test. The testing equipment used are a compressional machine, ultrasonic measurement and a Geiger Muller counter to evaluate of the concrete mix to find the lowest emission of radiation surface dose without compromising the strength of concrete mix. The result obtained indicated the radioactivity of tin slag in the mixing process has reduced to background level that is 0.5μSv/h while the strength and workability of the concrete has not been severely affected. In conclusion, the concrete mix with tin slag has shown the potential it can be turned into a safe beneficial infrastructural product with good strength.

  14. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students.

  15. Preliminary feasibility study of modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    In the future, electric utilities will be required to make a switch-over to a more flexible and dynamic form of power supply due to the slowing growth of power demand, increasing uncertainty, the stagnating economy of increasing scale, the bottleneck of transmission and so on. Nuclear technology would also be required to adapt to this changing environment surrounding its development. The long term prospect of energy demand and nuclear power growth, and the evolution of commercial reactors in Japan are shown. The design of 1,300 MWe advanced LWRs has been completed, and as the reactors of next generation, the ultralarge LWRs of 1,500 - 1,800 MWe are suggested. However, there can be an alternative future for nuclear power development, and in this paper, the possibility for altering the image of conventional nuclear power technology by developing modular reactors which are economical even at small capacity, and can be sited in urban areas just like conventional thermal power plants is examined. The factors for the economical evaluation of modular reactors, learning effect and scale effect on the economy, the case study on a modular high temperature reactor designed by Interatom-GHT, and the possibility of siting in urban areas due to the system of inherent safety are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Zr-Sn-Nb alloys. Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danon, C.A.; Arias, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the Zr-Sn-Nb diagram have been started, focussing on the Zr-rich corner, near the composition of Zirlo commercial alloy, Zr-1Sn-1Nb, and with Fe and O contents usual in nuclear grade materials. Three alloys were melted, namely Zr-4Sn-2.4Nb (A), Zr-1Sn-3Nb (B) and Zr-2.1Sn-1Nb (C). α/β transformation temperatures were measured through the variation of electrical resistivity(p) vs temperature (T). Values of 560 deg C, 670 deg C and 750 deg C were measured for the α→α+β reaction and 980 deg C, 910 deg C and 1000 deg C for the α+β→β reaction, for the A, B and C alloys, respectively in that order. Some samples were submitted to heat treatments (62 and 216 hours at 825 deg C, 120 hours at 875 deg C). Optical and scanning electronic microscopy of those samples confirmed our resistivity results. (Author)

  17. Preliminary design study for a corkscrew gantry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    For two years or more a group including the author has been working together to study some problems related to the design of a gentry system for flexible direction of a proton beam for clinical treatments. Some consideration was given to the classic gantry geometry. Attempting to reduce the radius of the gantry arm by reducing the drift space after the scattering foils led to an analysis of the significance of inverse square intensity effects. The conclusion reached is that a drift space of about 3 meters is required to preserve some skin sparing for larger targets. To circumvent this problem the scattering foils ere put somewhere inside or even before the gantry system, accepting the fact that magnet apertures would have to be increased. This gantry system has the interesting ability to produce oblong fields of excellent uniformity with reasonable efficiency, preferentially with the long axis of the field parallel to the axis of rotation. It was disappointing, however, to find that the overall size of the gantry with its counterweights remained very large. Another change in geometry was proposed therefore in order to reduce the space taken up by the gantry and its counterweight. The beam is bent 45 0 in the horizontal plane and then again by 45 0 so that it is pointing away from isocenter, but in the plan of rotation of the gantry. The beam is now bent in that plane of rotation until it is pointed at isocenter. This is accomplished by two bends of 135 0 each with a suitable drift space between them so that the beam is pointed vertically downward at isocenter. The three dimensional complexity of the beam trajectory led to the name Corkscrew Gantry

  18. Market based consumer adaptation. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saele, Hanne

    2005-04-01

    This report is a foundation for further research in the project ''Market based consumer adaptation'', project period 2005-2008. The report describes characteristics of shortage periods for both energy and effects, low priority consumption, power products and network tariffs that may contribute to increased flexibility in consumption and limitations in the IT-systems of today and discusses what problems would be of interest for further studies. The reduction of low priority consumption and the activation of price elasticity would be challenges both for effect and energy shortages. Private consumption would however, partly be different due to the time perspective. It is expected that periods of effect shortages would be of only a few hours and the challenge would be to obtain sufficient response at an hourly basis at load disconnection. The energy shortage is expected to last longer which results in problems in obtaining sufficient and real consumer reduction over time in order to reduce the danger of critical shortage. Important elements in order to supply new power products and network tariffs which contributes to increased flexibility in the consumption, are technology for current registration and remote control of consumption, contracts between the involved parties and the framework conditions that gives incentives for establishing new network/power products. When several parties shall use the same measurements for accounting it would be necessary for all the figures to arrive in time and that corrections are avoided as much as possible. It would also be challenging for the parties whether new products satisfy the regulations. Pricing in network tariffs is subject to more legal public regulations than developing a power product. This may make it difficult to produce ''correct'' network tariffs due to regulation and at the same time interest more customers to making deals with such tariffs. Even if the power suppliers to a certain extent, are more free to develop

  19. Variable Cycle Engine Technology Program Planning and Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, J. S.; Stern, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    The variable stream control engine, VSCE-502B, was selected as the base engine, with the inverted flow engine concept selected as a backup. Critical component technologies were identified, and technology programs were formulated. Several engine configurations were defined on a preliminary basis to serve as demonstration vehicles for the various technologies. The different configurations present compromises in cost, technical risk, and technology return. Plans for possible variably cycle engine technology programs were formulated by synthesizing the technology requirements with the different demonstrator configurations.

  20. Preliminary design study of a steady state tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, Naoyuki; Nakajima, Shinji; Ushigusa, Kenkichi; and athors)

    1992-09-01

    Preliminary design study has been made for a steady tokamak with the plasma current of 10MA, as the next to the JT-60U experimental programs. The goal of the research program is the integrated study of steady state, high-power physics and technology. Present candidate design is to use superconducting TF and PF magnet systems and long pulse operation of 100's-1000's of sec with non inductive current drive mainly by 500keV negative ion beam injection of 60MW. Low activation material such as titanium alloy is chosen for the water tank type vacuum vessel, which is also the nuclear shield for the superconducting coils. The present preliminary design study shows that the device can meet the existing JT-60U facility capability. (author)

  1. Preliminary 2D design study for A ampersand PCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, E.; Azevedo, S.; Roberson, P.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently designing and constructing a tomographic scanner to obtain the most accurate possible assays of radioactivity in barrels of nuclear waste in a limited amount of time. This study demonstrates a method to explore different designs using laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. In particular, we examine the trade-off between spatial resolution and signal-to-noise. The simulations are conducted in two dimensions as a preliminary study for three dimensional imaging. We find that the optimal design is entirely dependent on the expected source sizes and activities. For nuclear waste barrels, preliminary results indicate that collimators with widths of 1 to 3 inch and aspect ratios of 5:1 to 10:1 should perform well. This type of study will be repeated in 3D in more detail to optimize the final design

  2. Preliminary study of soil permeability properties using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, M.; Sudriani, Y.; Rustini, H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Soil permeability measurement is undoubtedly important in carrying out soil-water research such as rainfall-runoff modelling, irrigation water distribution systems, etc. It is also known that acquiring reliable soil permeability data is rather laborious, time-consuming, and costly. Therefore, it is desirable to develop the prediction model. Several studies of empirical equations for predicting permeability have been undertaken by many researchers. These studies derived the models from areas which soil characteristics are different from Indonesian soil, which suggest a possibility that these permeability models are site-specific. The purpose of this study is to identify which soil parameters correspond strongly to soil permeability and propose a preliminary model for permeability prediction. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to 16 parameters analysed from 37 sites consist of 91 samples obtained from Batanghari Watershed. Findings indicated five variables that have strong correlation with soil permeability, and we recommend a preliminary permeability model, which is potential for further development.

  3. Performances Study of a Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Nicolae BUTURACHE

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study which analyses the functioning and performances optimization of a hybrid rocket engine based on gaseous oxygen and polybutadiene polymer (HTPB. Calculations were performed with NASA CEA software in order to obtain the parameters resulted following the combustion process. Using these parameters, the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine were optimized. Using the calculus previously stated, an experimental rocket engine producing 100 N of thrust was pre-dimensioned, followed by an optimization of the rocket engine as a function of several parameters. Having the geometry and the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine combustion process, numerical simulations were performed in the CFX – ANSYS commercial software, which allowed visualizing the flow field and the jet expansion. Finally, the analytical calculus was validated through numerical simulations.

  4. Preliminary study of the nuclear power option in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusha, N.M.; Kazazyan, V.T.; Malykhin, A.P.; Mikhalevich, A.A.; Yakushau, A.P.; Yaroshevich, O.I.

    1999-01-01

    The Republic of Belarus possesses an economy with many energy intensive branches. At the same time the share of domestic energy resources is about 15% of total energy demand. The share of the payment for primary energy resources reaches 60% or USD 2 billion of the total energy import. That is comparable with the annual state budget. In addition to that, about half of the installed capacities have reached their operation life and 90% of the units have to be retrofitted or replaced until 2010. Thus, the problem of energy supply is one of the most important ones for Belarus' economy. The nuclear power appears to be one of the possible ways for solving the energy demand problem in Belarus which has, as in case of many countries of Central and South-Eastern Europe, limited energy resources. In 1992 - 1994 the works for studying the possibility of NPP siting were recommenced and six relatively competitive sites have been chosen out from 54 possible locations for NPP siting. Parallely, works on assessment of environmental NPP effect in these sites were carried out. As concerning the reactors to be purchased and installed in the sites selected, the following options were taken into consideration: PWR of American Company WESTINGHOUSE; PWR N4 of France Company FRAMATOME; PWR KONVOI of German Company SIEMENS. Also promising are the new generation of Russian Reactor NPP, namely NPP - 91, NPP - 92 and NPP with NGWWER - 640 reactors. Preliminary assessment having in view the feasibility characteristics, safety, reliability as well as the degree of completion shows the Russian projects NPP - 92 and NGWWER - 640 as more preferably at present. Concerning the radioactive waste management, sites for storing low and medium active waste have been determined as well as regions for high active waste disposal. At present Belarus Republic disposes of a definite production, engineering and scientific potential, which can be used when the nuclear power program will be launched. Construction

  5. Engineering management at feasibility study stage of nuclear power plant under EPC mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    After the investment reform by the State Council in 2004, NDRC carries out approval system for enterprises to invest in nuclear power plants. Feasibility study stage is a critical stage on the mainline of nuclear power project approval, which intersects with the license application, and engineering design. The owners of nuclear power plants are required stringently in engineering management. From the owners' management point of view under EPC mode, this paper sorts the preliminary project process for nuclear power plants, focusing on the management in the feasibility study stage. License application and engineering design management in the feasibility study stage are also discussed. (author)

  6. Preliminary results from a four-working space, double-acting piston, Stirling engine controls model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    A four working space, double acting piston, Stirling engine simulation is being developed for controls studies. The development method is to construct two simulations, one for detailed fluid behavior, and a second model with simple fluid behaviour but containing the four working space aspects and engine inertias, validate these models separately, then upgrade the four working space model by incorporating the detailed fluid behaviour model for all four working spaces. The single working space (SWS) model contains the detailed fluid dynamics. It has seven control volumes in which continuity, energy, and pressure loss effects are simulated. Comparison of the SWS model with experimental data shows reasonable agreement in net power versus speed characteristics for various mean pressure levels in the working space. The four working space (FWS) model was built to observe the behaviour of the whole engine. The drive dynamics and vehicle inertia effects are simulated. To reduce calculation time, only three volumes are used in each working space and the gas temperature are fixed (no energy equation). Comparison of the FWS model predicted power with experimental data shows reasonable agreement. Since all four working spaces are simulated, the unique capabilities of the model are exercised to look at working fluid supply transients, short circuit transients, and piston ring leakage effects.

  7. Preliminary closed Brayton cycle study for a space reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Carvalho, Ricardo Pinto de; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and to develop a demonstrative simulator of CBCL in nominal operation conditions. The ENU/IEAv preliminary design study is developing the CBCL around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO2 and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. At this moment the simulator is running with Helium as the working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer are being developed to simulate thermal components. Future efforts will focus on keeping track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL. (author)

  8. Preliminary closed Brayton cycle study for a space reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Carvalho, Ricardo Pinto de [Institute for Advanced Studies, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: gianninocamillo@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and to develop a demonstrative simulator of CBCL in nominal operation conditions. The ENU/IEAv preliminary design study is developing the CBCL around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO2 and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. At this moment the simulator is running with Helium as the working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer are being developed to simulate thermal components. Future efforts will focus on keeping track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL. (author)

  9. Studying Design Engineers Use Of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Studying information usage by design engineers involves considering technical, social, cognitive and volitional factors. This makes it challenging, especially for researchers without a cognitive psychology background. This paper presents a summary of key findings in researching information use...

  10. Identifying Relevant Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, He; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Tell, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Context: Systematic literature review (SLR) has become an important research methodology in software engineering since the introduction of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) in 2004. One critical step in applying this methodology is to design and execute appropriate and effective search....... Objective: The main objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the search step of undertaking SLRs in software engineering (SE) by devising and evaluating systematic and practical approaches to identifying relevant studies in SE. Method: We have systematically selected and analytically...

  11. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 1; Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    For the preliminary design and the off-design performance analysis of axial flow turbines, a pair of intermediate level-of-fidelity computer codes, TD2-2 (design; reference 1) and AXOD (off-design; reference 2), are being evaluated for use in turbine design and performance prediction of the modern high performance aircraft engines. TD2-2 employs a streamline curvature method for design, while AXOD approaches the flow analysis with an equal radius-height domain decomposition strategy. Both methods resolve only the flows in the annulus region while modeling the impact introduced by the blade rows. The mathematical formulations and derivations involved in both methods are documented in references 3, 4 for TD2-2) and in reference 5 (for AXOD). The focus of this paper is to discuss the fundamental issues of applicability and compatibility of the two codes as a pair of companion pieces, to perform preliminary design and off-design analysis for modern aircraft engine turbines. Two validation cases for the design and the off-design prediction using TD2-2 and AXOD conducted on two existing high efficiency turbines, developed and tested in the NASA/GE Energy Efficient Engine (GE-E3) Program, the High Pressure Turbine (HPT; two stages, air cooled) and the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT; five stages, un-cooled), are provided in support of the analysis and discussion presented in this paper.

  12. Development of a tissue-engineered human oral mucosa equivalent based on an acellular allogeneic dermal matrix: a preliminary report of clinical application to burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takuya; Takami, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Shimazaki, Shuji; Harii, Kiyonori

    2005-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skin equivalents composed of epidermal and dermal components have been widely investigated for coverage of full-thickness skin defects. We developed a tissue-engineered oral mucosa equivalent based on an acellular allogeneic dermal matrix and investigated its characteristics. We also tried and assessed its preliminary clinical application. Human oral mucosal keratinocytes were separated from a piece of oral mucosa and cultured in a chemically-defined medium. The keratinocytes were seeded on to the acellular allogeneic dermal matrix and cultured. Histologically, the mucosa equivalent had a well-stratified epithelial layer. Immunohistochemical study showed that it was similar to normal oral mucosa. We applied this equivalent in one case with an extensive burn wound. The equivalent was transplanted three weeks after the harvest of the patient's oral mucosa and about 30% of the graft finally survived. We conclude that this new oral mucosa equivalent could become a therapeutic option for the treatment of extensive burns.

  13. Development and preliminary experimental study on micro-stacked insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Chengyan; Yuan Weiqun; Zhang Dongdong; Yan Ping; Wang Jue

    2009-01-01

    High gradient insulating technology is one of the key technologies in new type dielectric wall accelerator(DWA). High gradient insulator, namely micro-stacked insulator, was developed and preliminary experimental study was done. Based on the finite element and particle simulating method, surface electric field distribution and electron movement track of micro-stacked insulator were numerated, and then the optimized design proposal was put forward. Using high temperature laminated method, we developed micro-stacked insulator samples which uses exhaustive fluorinated ethylene propylene(FEP) as dielectric layer and stainless steel as metal layer. Preliminary experiment of vacuum surface flashover in nanosecond pulse voltage was done and micro-stacked insulator exhibited favorable vacuum surface flashover performance with flashover field strength of near 180 kV/cm. (authors)

  14. Preliminary Study of a Piston Pump for Cryogenic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Arnold E.; Kohl, Robert C.

    1959-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented covering the performance of a low-speed, five-cylinder piston pump designed for handling boiling hydrogen. This pump was designed for a flow of 55 gallons per minute at 240 rpm with a discharge pressure of 135 pounds per square inch. Tests were made using JP-4 fuel, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Pump delivery and endurance characteristics were satisfactory for the range of operation covered. In connection with the foregoing pump development, the cavitation characteristics of a preliminary visual model, glass-cylinder pump and of a simple reciprocating disk were studied. Subcooling of approximately 0.60 F was obtained from the cavitation produced by reciprocating a disk in boiling nitrogen and in boiling water. The subcooling obtained in a similar manner with liquid hydrogen was somewhat less.

  15. TREE STEM RECONSTRUCTION USING VERTICAL FISHEYE IMAGES: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berveglieri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  16. A preliminary study in zero anaphora coreference resolution for Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jan Kaczmarek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study in zero anaphora coreference resolution for Polish Zero anaphora is an element of the coreference resolution task that has not yet been directly addressed in Polish and, in most studies, it has been left as the most challenging aspect for further investigation. This article presents an initial study of this problem. The preparation of a machine learning approach, alongside engineering features based on linguistic study of the KPWr corpus, is discussed. This study utilizes existing tools for Polish coreference resolution as sources of partial coreferential clusters containing pronoun, noun and named entity mentions. They are also used as baseline zero coreference resolution systems for comparison with our system. The evaluation process is focused not only on clustering correctness, without taking into account types of mentions, using standard CoNLL-2012 measures, but also on the informativeness of the resulting relations. According to the annotation approach used for coreference to the KPWr corpus, only named entities are treated as mentions that are informative enough to constitute a link to real world objects. Consequently, we provide an evaluation of informativeness based on found links between zero anaphoras and named entities. For the same reason, we restrict coreference resolution in this study to mention clusters built around named entities.   Wstępne studium rozwiązywania problemu koreferencji anafory zerowej w języku polskim Koreferencja zerowa, w języku polskim, jest jednym z zagadnień rozpoznawania koreferencji. Dotychczas nie była ona bezpośrednim przedmiotem badań, gdyż ze względu na jej złożoność była pomijana i odsuwana na dalsze etapy badań. Artykuł prezentuje wstępne studium problemu, jakim jest rozpoznawanie koreferencji zerowej. Przedstawiamy podejście wykorzystujące techniki uczenia maszynowego oraz proces tworzenia cech w oparciu o analizę lingwistyczną korpusu KPWr. W przedstawionej

  17. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) represents the next evolutionary step in cryogenic liquid rocket engines. Deriving its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core, the NTR can generate high thrust at a specific impulse of approx. 900 seconds or more - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. In FY'11, as part of the AISP project, NASA proposed a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) effort that envisioned two key activities - "Foundational Technology Development" followed by system-level "Technology Demonstrations". Five near-term NTP activities identified for Foundational Technology Development became the basis for the NCPS project started in FY'12 and funded by NASA's AES program. During Phase 1 (FY'12-14), the NCPS project was focused on (1) Recapturing fuel processing techniques and fabricating partial length "heritage" fuel elements for the two candidate fuel forms identified by NASA and the DOE - NERVA graphite "composite" and the uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten "cermet". The Phase 1 effort also included: (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Mission Analysis and Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable and Sustainable NTP Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary plan for DDT&E was outlined by GRC, the DOE and industry for NASA HQ that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce development costs, the GTD and FTD tests use a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 or 16.5 klbf) engine. Both engines use graphite composite fuel and a "common" fuel element design that is scalable to higher thrust (approx. 25 klbf) engines by increasing the number of elements in a larger diameter core that can produce greater thermal power output. To keep the FTD mission cost down, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered along with

  18. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming.

  19. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  20. Stratified charge rotary engine combustion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, H.; Hamady, F.; Somerton, C.; Stuecken, T.; Chouinard, E.; Rachal, T.; Kosterman, J.; Lambeth, M.; Olbrich, C.

    1989-07-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the combustion process in a stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) continue to be the subject of active research in recent years. Specifically to meet the demand for more sophisticated products, a detailed understanding of the engine system of interest is warranted. With this in mind the objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the controlling factors that affect the SCRE combustion process so that an efficient power dense rotary engine can be designed. The influence of the induction-exhaust systems and the rotor geometry are believed to have a significant effect on combustion chamber flow characteristics. In this report, emphasis is centered on Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements and on qualitative flow visualizations in the combustion chamber of the motored rotary engine assembly. This will provide a basic understanding of the flow process in the RCE and serve as a data base for verification of numerical simulations. Understanding fuel injection provisions is also important to the successful operation of the stratified charge rotary engine. Toward this end, flow visualizations depicting the development of high speed, high pressure fuel jets are described. Friction is an important consideration in an engine from the standpoint of lost work, durability and reliability. MSU Engine Research Laboratory efforts in accessing the frictional losses associated with the rotary engine are described. This includes work which describes losses in bearing, seal and auxillary components. Finally, a computer controlled mapping system under development is described. This system can be used to map shapes such as combustion chamber, intake manifolds or turbine blades accurately.

  1. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  2. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  3. TNS engineering trade study analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapin, D.L.; Gibson, G.

    1977-01-01

    The computer code, ground rules, and plasma scalings used in the trade studies are briefly discussed. The results of these analyses are presented in detail. The results are summarized and pertinent conclusions and recommendations regarding the TNS design options are discussed

  4. Parallel local search for solving Constraint Problems on the Cell Broadband Engine (Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvator Abreu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell/BE for short for combinatorial optimization applications: we present a parallel version of a constraint-based local search algorithm that has been implemented on a multiprocessor BladeCenter machine with twin Cell/BE processors (total of 16 SPUs per blade. This algorithm was chosen because it fits very well the Cell/BE architecture and requires neither shared memory nor communication between processors, while retaining a compact memory footprint. We study the performance on several large optimization benchmarks and show that this achieves mostly linear time speedups, even sometimes super-linear. This is possible because the parallel implementation might explore simultaneously different parts of the search space and therefore converge faster towards the best sub-space and thus towards a solution. Besides getting speedups, the resulting times exhibit a much smaller variance, which benefits applications where a timely reply is critical.

  5. Biocontamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard A.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Korona, F. Adam; Poritz, Darwin; Smith, Jelanie; Wong, Wing

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study that was conducted to review, test, and improve on current space suit biocontamination control. Biocontamination from crew members can cause space suit damage and objectionable odors and lead to crew member health hazards. An understanding of the level of biocontamination is necessary to mitigate its effects. A series of tests were conducted with the intent of evaluating current suit materials, ground and on-orbit disinfectants, and potential commercial off-the-shelf antimicrobial materials. Included in this paper is a discussion of the test methodology, results, and analysis method.

  6. Study on afterburner of aircraft engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-07-01

    Study on the afterburner for aircraft engines was reported which is used as an optimum means to produce the supersonic capability of military aircrafts. The basic principle and types of the afterburner were outlined, and as the major problem concerning turbofan afterburners, a combustion capacity at low temperature in fan air flow was discussed, in particular, flame stabilization and combustion efficiency. Basic studies were conducted by fuel spray test, combustion stability test, sector model combustion test and numerical analysis of afterburner internal flow. As a result, a mixing spray fuel injection system with injection of a small amount of fuel into flameholder wake resulted in broadening of a combustible region, and an original flameholder combined with a scoop and double gutters caused a high combustion efficiency. The prototype afterburner was developed for F3 turbofan engines in association with Japan Defence Agency, and a combustion efficiency of 74% was obtained in on-engine running test. 4 refs., 14 figs.

  7. Engineering development studies for integrated evacuated CPC arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.

    1982-04-01

    An evacuated tube concentrator which achieves respectable high temperature performance (100 C to 300 C) was developed. The design concept utilizes nonimaging CPC type concentration integrated into each tube by shaping the outer glass vacuum envelope. The detailed design, prototype fabrication and preliminary test measurements are reviewed. In addition the results of this first study specifically devoted to engineering development questions related to practical applications of this collector concept are summarized. Questions having to do with the deployment of medium to large area arrays, optimizations of the manifolding of individual tube panels, selected near term applications (with an emphasis on residential cooling based on Rankine driven chillers) and long term performance projections are addressed.

  8. Design study on the helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aochi, Tetsuo; Yasuno, Takehiko; Muto, Yasushi; Suzuki, Kunihiko

    1977-11-01

    Four reference studies made on Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) are described. HENDEL is used in confirmation of the designs of VHTR components such as reactor structure, core structure, intermediate heat exchanger and piping. It consists of mother loop, adapter section and four test sections for fuel stack, reactor support and insulation structure, core structure and high temperature heat transfer component respectively. System and component designs of the mother and adapter section and preliminary designs of the four test sections are shown. And, the plans of operation, instrumentation, control, safety, utilities (electricity, cooling water and helium gas) and construction schedule of HENDEL and research and development of the test sections are also briefed. (auth.)

  9. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...

  10. Photonic engineering for biological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    My dissertation focuses on designing and developing prototypes of optical tools in the laboratory that can facilitate practical medical therapies. More specifically, this dissertation examines two novel biophotonic techniques: (1) a frequency multiplexed confocal microscope with the potential to provide rational therapy of congestive heart failure (CHF), and (2) the "optical comb" with the potential to improve results of retina reattachment surgery and accelerate post surgical recovery. Next, I will discuss the background, design and initial experimental results of each study individually. Part I: The Frequency Multiplexed Confocal Microscope. To overcome the limitations of existing confocal microscope technology, this dissertation proposes a non-scanning, real-time, high resolution technique (a multi-point frequency multiplexed confocal microscope) to measure 3-D intracellular calcium ion concentration in a living cardiac myocyte. This method can be also applied to measure the intracellular sodium ion concentration, or other ions in which high quantum-yield fluorescent probes are available. The novelty of the proposed research lies in the introduction of carrier frequency multiplexing techniques which can differentiate fluorescence emitted at different spatial locations in cardiac myocyte by their modulated frequency. It therefore opens the possibility to visualize the transient dynamics of intracellular dynamics at multiple locations in cells simultaneously, which will shine a new light on our understanding of CHF. The procedure for frequency multiplexing proposed is described below. Multiple incident laser beams are focused onto different locations in an isolated rat cardiac myocyte with each beam modulated at a different carrier frequency. The fluorescence emission at each location therefore bears the same modulated frequency as the stimulation laser beam. Each fluorescence signal is sent to the photo multiplier tube (PMT) after being spatially filtered by a

  11. Barrier analogs: Long-term performance issues, preliminary studies, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J. [Rust Geotech, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Environmental Sciences Lab.; Chatters, J.C.; Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Link, S.O. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunter, C.R. [Cascade Earth Sciences, La Grande, OR (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program is funding studies of natural analogs of the long-term performance of waste site covers. Natural-analog studies examine past environments as evidence for projecting the future performance of engineered structures. The information generated by analog studies is needed to (1) evaluate the designs and results of short term experiments and demonstrations, (2) formulate performance-modeling problems that bound expected changes in waste site environments, and (3) understand emergent system attributes that cannot be evaluated with short-term experiments or computer models. Waste site covers will be part of dynamic environmental systems with attributes that transcend the traits of engineered components. This report discusses results of the previously unreported preliminary studies conducted in 1983 and 1984. These results indicate that analogs could play an important role in predicting the long-term behavior of engineered waste covers. Layered exposures of glacial-flood-deposited gravels mantled with silt or sand that resemble contemporary barrier designs were examined. Bergmounds, another anomaly left by cataclysmic glacial floods, were also examined as analogs of surface gravel.

  12. Radiology workstation for mammography: preliminary observations, eyetracker studies, and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David V.; Johnston, Richard E.; Pisano, Etta D.; Hemminger, Bradley M.; Pizer, Stephen M.

    1991-07-01

    For the last four years, the UNC FilmPlane project has focused on constructing a radiology workstation facilitating CT interpretations equivalent to those with film and viewbox. Interpretation of multiple CT studies was originally chosen because handling such large numbers of images was considered to be one of the most difficult tasks that could be performed with a workstation. The authors extend the FilmPlane design to address mammography. The high resolution and contrast demands coupled with the number of images often cross- compared make mammography a difficult challenge for the workstation designer. This paper presents the results of preliminary work with workstation interpretation of mammography. Background material is presented to justify why the authors believe electronic mammographic workstations could improve health care delivery. The results of several observation sessions and a preliminary eyetracker study of multiple-study mammography interpretations are described. Finally, tentative conclusions of what a mammographic workstation might look like and how it would meet clinical demand to be effective are presented.

  13. Corporate Social Disclosures in Southeast Asia: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniati Gunawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of Corporate Social Disclosure (CSD has been growing remarkably both in business and academic world.  Inevitably, this topic is also exposed in Southeast Asia, a big region that plays important role in global economic issue. Applying a content analysis method, this paper aims to provide preliminary findings in CSD practices throughout the companies‟ annual reports in 2007 and 2008 for countries located in Southeast Asia.  Samples were selected for listed and unlisted various type of industries, based on the information availability internet searching. The sample collection and the subjectivity during the content analysis process are the limitations in conducting this study. In general, the results show that „human resources‟ are the main information disclosed, while in contrast, „energy‟ is the main least issue disclosed in the annual reports.  However, the findings need to be interpreted with considerations since there are limited in samples. Basically, the outcomes support the major prior studies and enhancing the discussion of CSD conducting in developing countries, while at the same time describing some countries which obtained very limited in exposures. To respond the vast increasing issues of CSD practice, this preliminary study has provided a basis to see the role of every country in CSR reporting and how they could support the sustainability development globally.

  14. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  15. Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Abdou, M.A.; Bolta, C.C.

    1976-03-01

    A scoping study for a Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility (TETF) is presented. The TETF is a tokamak with R = 3 m and I/sub p/ = 1.4 MA based on the counterstreaming-ion torus mode of operation. The primary purpose of TETF is to demonstrate fusion technologies for the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR), but it will also serve as an engineering and radiation test facility. TETF has several technological systems (e.g., superconducting toroidal-field coil, tritium fuel cycle, impurity control, first wall) that are prototypical of EPR.

  16. Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Abdou, M.A.; Bolta, C.C.

    1976-03-01

    A scoping study for a Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility (TETF) is presented. The TETF is a tokamak with R = 3 m and I/sub p/ = 1.4 MA based on the counterstreaming-ion torus mode of operation. The primary purpose of TETF is to demonstrate fusion technologies for the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR), but it will also serve as an engineering and radiation test facility. TETF has several technological systems (e.g., superconducting toroidal-field coil, tritium fuel cycle, impurity control, first wall) that are prototypical of EPR

  17. THE COMPATIBILITY STUDENT CHOICE OF UNIVERSITY MAJORING; A PRELIMINARY STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daharnis Daharnis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous improvements in order to optimize the basic education to higher education are still running. Based on that purpose, there are many factors to supporting the students' learning activities success; one of the factors is suitability with majors in university. The purpose of this study is to reveal the condition of the compatibility of students majoring with their interest, then to describe the information when the student choose their majoring. Samples in this study were 122 peoples, taken by random sampling from the Padang State University. Data obtained by distributing questionnaires. The results showed that there are students that their major do not match with their interest (22.13%, only 3.28% of students who feel compatible with their major. This result should be a major concern, particularly for counselor in schools for design counseling services to solve these problems. The result of this study used as a grand tour or a preliminary study for further research.

  18. Math, Science, and Engineering Integration in a High School Engineering Course: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Clara G.; Berland, Leema K.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering in K-12 classrooms has been receiving expanding emphasis in the United States. The integration of science, mathematics, and engineering is a benefit and goal of K-12 engineering; however, current empirical research on the efficacy of K-12 science, mathematics, and engineering integration is limited. This study adds to this growing…

  19. Optimization study and preliminary design for Latina NPP early core retrieval and reactor dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macci, E.; Zirpolo, S.; Imparato, A.; Cacace, A.; Parry, D.; Walkden, P.

    2002-01-01

    In June 2000, an agreement was established between Sogin and BNFL to enable the two companies to co-operate, using their specific experiences in the decommissioning field, for the benefit of projects in Italy, the United Kingdom and for third markets. A decommissioning strategy for the Latina NPP was initially developed in a Phase 1 Study which produced a conceptual design for the decommissioning of the reactor. This study was completed in June 2000. Since then, a second study has been completed, which has further developed the strategy and produced preliminary designs for the early dismantling of the core and reactor building at Latina. The engineering and safety data were produced in order to support Sogin in the preparation of a safety case for plant decommissioning. This safety case was submitted to the Italian Regulator, ANPA, in February 2002. (author)

  20. Preliminary Comparison of Three Search Engines for Point of Care Access to MEDLINE® Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Ford, Glenn M.; Jacobs, Joshua L.; Thoma, George

    2006-01-01

    Medical resident physicians used MD on Tap in real time to search for MEDLINE citations relevant to clinical questions using three search engines: Essie, Entrez and Google™, in order of performance. PMID:17238564

  1. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF ENGINEERED-MANUFACTURED NANOMATERIALS: RESEARCH CHALLENGES AND PRELIMINARY FINDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology continues to produce a diversity of engineered nanomaterials (NMs), displaying novel physicochemical properties with applications in commercial, consumer, electronic, biomedical, energy, and environmental sectors. Nanotechnology has been referred to as the next in...

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  3. R and D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-State Studies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary Layout Option Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI (at) Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed RandD activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac

  4. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies.......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic...

  5. Parametric study of a turbocompound diesel engine based on an analytical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rongchao; Zhuge, Weilin; Zhang, Yangjun; Yin, Yong; Zhao, Yanting; Chen, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Turbocompounding is an important technique to recover waste heat from engine exhaust and reduce CO_2 emission. This paper presents a parametric study of turbocompound diesel engine based on analytical model. An analytical model was developed to investigate the influence of system parameters on the engine fuel consumption. The model is based on thermodynamics knowledge and empirical models, which can consider the impacts of each parameter independently. The effects of turbine efficiency, back pressure, exhaust temperature, pressure ratio and engine speed on the recovery energy, pumping loss and engine fuel reductions were studied. Results show that turbine efficiency, exhaust temperature and back pressure has great influence on the fuel reduction and optimal power turbine (PT) expansion ratio. However, engine operation speed has little impact on the fuel savings obtained by turbocompounding. The interaction mechanism between the PT recovery power and engine pumping loss is presented in the paper. Due to the nonlinear characteristic of turbine power, there is an optimum value of PT expansion ratio to achieve largest power gain. At the end, the fuel saving potential of high performance turbocompound engine and the requirements for it are proposed in the paper. - Highlights: • An analytical model for turbocompound engine is developed and validated. • Parametric study is performed to obtain lowest BSFC and optimal expansion ratio. • The influences of each parameter on the fuel saving potentials are presented. • The impact mechanisms of each parameter on the energy tradeoff are disclosed. • It provides an effective tool to guide the preliminary design of turbocompounding.

  6. Preliminary study on the establishment of the radionuclide declaration methods for radionuclides in LILW radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. H.; Lee, K. J.; Jung, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The preliminary study on declaration methods has been done for each radionuclide in LILW radwaste drum in Korean NPPs. View from the preliminary establishment of radio nuclide declaration methods, The selection of assessment target nuclide through the qualitative method and preliminary criteria for routine declaration methods in each radio nuclide was derived. First of all, selection criteria and preliminary assessment method for each target radionuclide was surveyed and investigated. And, the selection criteria and selected the target radio nuclides from the basis on criteria was derived. And the preliminary suggestion about the declaration methods for each target radio nuclide was established

  7. Conceptual studies of plasma engineering test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Toru; Tazima, Teruhiko; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Kasai, Masao; Shinya, Kichiro

    1979-04-01

    Conceptual studies have been made of a Plasma Engineering Test Facility, which is to be constructed following JT-60 prior to the experimental power reactor. The physical aim of this machine is to examine self-ignition conditions. This machine possesses all essential technologies for reactor plasma, i.e. superconducting magnet, remote maintenance, shielding, blanket test modules, tritium handling. Emphasis in the conceptual studies was on structural consistency of the machine and whether the machine would be constructed practically. (author)

  8. Preliminary design study of a large scale graphite oxidation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epel, L.G.; Majeski, S.J.; Schweitzer, D.G.; Sheehan, T.V.

    1979-08-01

    A preliminary design study of a large scale graphite oxidation loop was performed in order to assess feasibility and to estimate capital costs. The nominal design operates at 50 atmospheres helium and 1800 F with a graphite specimen 30 inches long and 10 inches in diameter. It was determined that a simple single walled design was not practical at this time because of a lack of commercially available thick walled high temperature alloys. Two alternative concepts, at reduced operating pressure, were investigated. Both were found to be readily fabricable to operate at 1800 F and capital cost estimates for these are included. A design concept, which is outside the scope of this study, was briefly considered

  9. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  10. Microangiographic study of the canine dental tissues: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A microangiographic study of the dental tissues was performed on one adult mongrel dog to examine the usefulness of the technique. This preliminary study used 30% wt/vol Micropaque suspension which was perfused into the common carotid arteries. After the complete perfusion, the specimen was fixed into a mixture of 10% buffered neutral formalin solution and 95% ethyl alcohol. The mandibular bone with teeth in situ was decalcified. The specimen was embedded in methyl methacrylate. One mm slab sections were made, and then the microangiographs were made. Adequate filling of arterioles was evident on the microangiographs. This technique is shown to be useful in characterizing the nature of the blood supply to the bone and teeth that might be involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury in the canine dental and periodontal tissues

  11. Radiological follow-up of uncemented knee prostheses. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Hervas, C.; Gomez Barrena, E.; Marquez Moreno, I.; Calle Yuste, F.; Ordonez Parra, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The preliminary results of a prospective study of 40 uncemented total knee prostheses (TKP) are presented following a radiological protocol with fluoroscopic control and follow-up of over 2 years. The prosthesis-bone interface and the components alignment were assessed. Several radiological signs were studied to assess this interface with respect to the fixing of the component, but they showed little clinical correlation. Statistical significance (p<0.05, chisquare) was found only in the observation of sclerosis in areas of support for the tibital tray as a reaction of the bone. This radiological follow-up is of interest to determine the evolution of the interface and position of the implant to prevent complications (especially loosening) in patients, particularly those under 60 years old, who represent the group that can most benefit from prosthetic systems with uncemented anchorage because of their life expectation and level of activity. Author

  12. Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP (Medical Isotopes Producer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, G. H.; O, S. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP (Medical Isotopes Producer), which is used liquid nuclear fuel to produce medical isotopes of Mo-99 and Sr-89, was performed. To do this, this study was estimated the IRR(Internal Rate of Return) and PBP(Pay-back Period) about optimistic and pessimistic cases for market penetration of Asia and U.S.A. isotope markets. And sensitivity analysis is also performed about capital cost and price of Mo-99 and Sr-89. According to the results, IRR was between 14.9% and 24.3%, and PBP was between 4.8 years and 7.8 years. These suggest that MIP has economic merits. MIP can produce other medical isotopes such as Sr-90, I-131, Xe-133, Cs-137. So, it is necessary to do cost-benefit analysis considering production of these other isotopes

  13. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's)

  14. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). .

  15. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...... system - high content of heavy metals - high emissions of particulate matter and PAH This investigation deals with the problem of separation due to high shear stress in the injection system. It is shown that the viscosity of the injected fuel can be used to estimate whether the emulsion has separated...

  16. Feasibility study of a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Metzger, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The result of a feasibility analysis of a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion (CPNP) engine concept utilizing the enormously dense energy generated by small nuclear detonations is presented in this article. This concept was initially proposed and studied in the 1950s and 1960s under the program name HELIOS. The current feasibility of the concept is based upon materials technology that has advanced to a state that allows the design of pressure vessels required to contain the blast associated with small nuclear detonations. The impulsive nature of the energy source provides the means for circumventing the materials thermal barriers that are inherent in steady-state nuclear propulsion concepts. The rapid energy transfer to the propellant results in high thrust levels for times less than 1 s following the detonation. The preliminary feasibility analysis using off-the-shelf materials technology appears to indicate that the CPNP concept can have thrust-to-weight ratios on the order of 1 or greater. Though the specific impulse is not a good indicator for impulsive engines, an operating-cycle averaged specific impulse of approximately 1000 or greater seconds was calculated. 16 refs

  17. Cross Functional Working and Concurrent Engineering – a UK Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Williams

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preliminary results of an investigative study into the implementation of concurrent engineering applied to new product development. Concurrent (or Simultaneous engineering is the term commonly given to creating new products using multi-disciplined teams of marketing, design, manufacturing and support functions together with supplier and customers. Such techniques have produced robust, low cost quality products in short concept to market times compared to traditional ones. The research investigated design management practice and performance in a number of organisations across a range of industrial sectors in the UK by means of a questionnaire survey. The results identify the current use of a variety of design practices and methodologies such as different organisational structures, the extent of cross-functional working, the use of design and phase reviews and the use of different technologies. They indicate that companies implementing CE are more successful in time to market performance than those who don’t implement CE. Factors most influencing the successful adoption of CE are design and phase reviews, and, to a lesser extent, the use of multifunctional teams and supplier partnerships.

  18. Preliminary study on metallic inclusion in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Imoto, Shosuke

    1984-01-01

    In recent postirradiation tests, metallic fission products such as Mo, Ru, Rh and Pd are known to precipitate as metallic inclusions in the fuel. These inclusions remain as insoluble residues and provide various problems in different fields of the reprocessing. In this report are presented preliminary results of the study on the ternary phase diagram of Mo-Ru-Pd system and on their properties in nitric acid or various oxidative environments. It is concluded that (1) most of metallic inclusions which are insoluble in nitric acid show epsilon phase, Ru base hcp alloy, in which a large amount of Mo and Pd are soluble, (2) Pd, however, seems to deposit separately in the fuel pin because of its high vapor pressure, (3) Mo fraction in the inclusion would be highly dependent on oxygen potential in the fuel pin. (author)

  19. Preliminary Study of RFID System for the LILW Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Unjang; Choi, Kyusup

    2008-01-01

    Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. In Korea, Low-to-Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes (LILW) are planed to be disposed at Kyeonju disposal repository, and 100,000 LILW drums will be disposed for the first 10 years of disposal. Tracking of these LILW drums is one of the important parts for safe transportation. To track the LILW drums during the transport as well as storage and disposal, RFID can be the prospective method for tracking the LILW drums. In this report, RFID system is introduced to the LILW transport from the generation site to disposal site, and one possible RFID system is suggested as a preliminary study

  20. Preliminary study of magnet design for an SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.E.; Meuser, R.B.

    1983-08-01

    The overriding design consideration for the SSC magnets is that cost of the facility be minimized; at 8 T, approximately 40 km of bending magnets is required for each ring of a 20 TeV collider. We present some results of a parametric study of two-in-one, iron-core magnets for an SSC. These results are necessarily preliminary in nature, and are intended only to show some of the trade-offs for a wide range of the variables. We show also some results for a reference design that produces 6.5 T in the aperture at 4.4 K for a coil inside diameter of 40 mm. It is not to be inferred that we have established this to be an optimum in any sense

  1. Preliminary study on improving safety culture in Malaysian nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Sabariah Kader; Lee, Y. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary study on safety culture and its implementation in Malaysian nuclear industries by realizing the importance of safety culture; identification of important safety culture attributes; safety culture assessment and the practices to incorporate the identified safety culture attributes in organization. The first section of this paper explains the terms and definitions related to safety culture. Second, for the realization of importance of safety culture in organization, the international operational experiences emphasizing the importance of safety culture are described. Third, important safety culture attributes which are frequently cited in literature are provided. Fourth, methods to assess safety culture in operating organization are described. Finally, the practices to enhance the safety culture in an organization are discussed

  2. Preliminary study on improving safety culture in Malaysian nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Sabariah Kader [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. E. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This paper presents preliminary study on safety culture and its implementation in Malaysian nuclear industries by realizing the importance of safety culture; identification of important safety culture attributes; safety culture assessment and the practices to incorporate the identified safety culture attributes in organization. The first section of this paper explains the terms and definitions related to safety culture. Second, for the realization of importance of safety culture in organization, the international operational experiences emphasizing the importance of safety culture are described. Third, important safety culture attributes which are frequently cited in literature are provided. Fourth, methods to assess safety culture in operating organization are described. Finally, the practices to enhance the safety culture in an organization are discussed.

  3. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Lavin - Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  4. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  5. Preliminary Studies Of A Phase Modulation Technique For Measuring Chromaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The classical method for measuring chromaticity is to slowly modulate the RF frequency and then measure the betatron tune excursion. The technique that is discussed in this paper instead modulates the phase of the RF and then the chromaticity is obtained by phase demodulating the betatron tune. This technique requires knowledge of the betatron frequency in real time in order for the phase to be demodulated. Fortunately, the Tevatron has a tune tracker based on the phase locked loop principle which fits this requirement. A preliminary study with this technique has showed that it is a promising method for doing continuous chromaticity measurement and raises the possibility of doing successful chromaticity feedback with it

  6. Preliminary analysis of start up characteristics on SPWR with NESSY (Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kyouya, Masahiko; Sako, Kiyoshi

    1993-09-01

    NESSY (Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem) has been developed to design advanced marine reactors. SPWR (System integrated PWR) has been designed by JAERI. It doesn't have control rod, and starts up by dilution of boron. we analyzed start up behavior of SPWR by NESSY, and evaluated the safety characteristics on start up and appropriate range of start up rate. (author)

  7. "Fish Friendly" Hydropower Turbine Development and Deployment. Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of a collaborative research project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and hydropower industry partners with the objective of completing the remaining developmental engineering required for a “fish-friendly” hydropower turbine called the Alden turbine.

  8. Preliminary physics-engine model of dolosse interacting with one another

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of armour units are used to protect breakwaters, piers and other harbour infrastructure, serving both to absorb the impact of violent seas and to reduce overtopping. A common type of armour unit is the dolos. Coastal engineers use three...

  9. Production of electricity from the wind: a preliminary feasibility study for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanis, N

    1977-01-01

    Wind statistics for Greece show that the conditions prevailing on the Aegean islands--i.e. considerable amounts of wind energy, small electrical loads and high generation costs--are especially favorable for the installation of wind turbine generators (WTGs). This study gives preliminary design parameters for WTGs at six locations and evaluates their performance. The duration of operation varies from 5000 to 7400 hours annually and the specific production is between 2300 and 3600 kwh/kw. The installation of the WTGs would result in diesel fuel savings corresponding to a month's consumption. Finally, the cost of wind generated electricity will be lower than that from diesel engines one to three years after the installation of the WTGs.

  10. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  11. A preliminary feasibility study on natural analogue in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Preliminary study on the assessment of natural analogue study in Korea for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out. The project on natural analogue study in other countries are introduced. The uranium-bearing deposit in Okcheon belt are summarized, which reported to be uranium-bearing minerals in order to assess to feasibility for natural analogue study in Korea. Among the uranium-bearing deposits, the Deokpyeong area, reported to be the highest reservoir and grade, are selected as the study site, and the elementary investigation, including survey of radioactivity and geochemistry are carried out. According to the investigation of surface environment, the radioactivity and uranium content in the surface water and shallow groundwater does not show any anormal values. However, the radioactivity is expected to be increased in depth and the groundwater reacted with uranium-bearing graphite formation shows high unanium content, indicating the potential possibility for natural analogue study in Korea. In future, if more detail study are performed, the assessment of natural analogue study in Korea are expected.

  12. Preliminary comparison of the Essie and PubMed search engines for answering clinical questions using MD on Tap, a PDA-based program for accessing biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Victoria R; Hauser, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    MD on Tap, a PDA application that searches and retrieves biomedical literature, is specifically designed for use by mobile healthcare professionals. With the goal of improving the usability of the application, a preliminary comparison was made of two search engines (PubMed and Essie) to determine which provided most efficient path to the desired clinically-relevant information.

  13. Study Strategies for Engineering Students at DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    2002-01-01

    The study strategies of first year Master students are investigated at DTU fall 1999 - spring 2002. The results show that the students study less than their teachers expect. And they spend most time on activities not leading to deep understanding and engineering competencies. The students spend...... almost half of their study time on theoretical calculations and only little on authentic problems. They attend many lectures but read very little. This may be a reasonable response to the teaching and examination they encounter; but not with respect to learning. Changing the teaching structure at DTU has...

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of thermoacoustic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Bass, Henry E.; Arnott, W. P.

    1992-12-01

    A three year study of thermoacoustic engines operating as prime movers and refrigerators was completed. The major thrust of this effort was the use and theoretical description of ceramic honeycomb structures as the active element in thermoacoustic engines. An air-filled demonstration prime mover was constructed and demonstrated at Acoustical Society of America and IEE meetings. A helium-filled test prime mover was designed and built an is being employed in studies of the threshold of oscillation as a function of temperature difference and pressure. In addition, acoustically based theories of the thermoacoustic engine have been developed and tested for a parallel plate stack at the Naval Postgraduate School and for a honeycomb stack at the University of Mississippi. Most of this work is described in detail in the attached publications. In this report we will give an overview of the research completed to date and its relationship to work performed at the Naval Postgraduate School and to future work at the University of Mississippi.

  15. B-2 Systems Engineering Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    of four small circles on the top view in front of the cockpit and on the bottom view engine bay doors. This air data system has no standard pitot ...Skantze, General, Air Force, Source Selection Advisory Board Chairman Erich Smith, Vought, Test Engineer, Systems Engineer, Chief engineer Henry

  16. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 3: Engine data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The engine operating characteristics were examined. Inlet pressure effects, tank pressurization effects, steady-state specific impulse, and the steady-state cycle were studied. The propellant flow schematic and operating sequence are presented. Engine hardware drawings are included.

  17. [Stress at work among military doctors: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezević, Bojana; Belosević, Ljiljana

    2006-09-01

    This preliminary study examined the sources of work stress in military physicians. Forty-eight medical doctors (24 military and 24 civilian) completed a questionnaire on stressors at the work place. The participation in the study was anonymous and voluntary. Out of 24 military physicians, 14 were military general practitioners (mean age 40.5, 14 female), and 10 were consultants of different specialties (mean age 43.5, 7 male and 3 female). Civilian physicians included 13 general practitioners working at primary health care system (mean age 37, 3 male and 10 female), and 11 consultants of different specialties working at out of hospital practice (average age 37, 6 male and 5 female). The questionnaire included items aiming to obtain demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, children, academic degree, clinical specialty, work place, average time in practice, average time at current position) and 37 items to determine occupational stressors. The stressors were related to work management, professional demands, interpersonal and patient-doctor relationship. Differences in recognizing work stressors between the groups of civilian and military physicians were statistically analyzed by using chi-squared-test. The leading work stressors identified by military physicians were inadequate salary, being bypassed for promotion, inadequate continuous education, poor resources, poor communication with superiors, poor management, trouble with superiors, excessive paperwork, unpredictable situations, and 24-hour standby. Civilian physicians reported inadequate salary, poor resources, poor management, misinformed patients, lack of co-workers, lack of time, unpredictable situations, exposure to indictment, dealing with incurable patients and exposure to public criticism and judgment. In comparison with civilian physicians, military physicians significantly more frequently reported inadequate salary (pcommunication with superiors (pcommunication with superiors (12

  18. Guest editorial: Industrial Engineering in Namibia - A personal and preliminary view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Snaddon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While Namibia is a Republic with just over two thirds the geographical area of South Africa, its population is only 2.3 million (under 5 percent of that in South Africa. Its estimated production (measured by GDP is $ 9.4billion (US as compared with $ 287billion (US for South Africa (just over 3 percent making it less wealthy per person than South Africa. As a small economy in Southern Africa many people may say that Industrial Engineering in Namibia does not exist. They are incorrect as Industrial Engineers do “the integration of resources and processes into cohesive strategies, structures and systems for the effective and efficient production of quality goods and services” (Sperotto 19941. That includes all who start and run the wealth creating organisations including those in Namibia.

  19. Los Alamos Experimental Engineering Waste Burial Facility: design considerations and preliminary experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a field test site where generic experiments can be performed on several scales to get the basic information necessary to understand the processes occurring in low-level waste disposal facilities. The experiments include hydrological, chemical, mechanical, and biological factors. In order to separate these various factors in the experiments and to extrapolate the experimental results to actual facilities, experiments will be performed on several different scales

  20. Experimental Study on Revetec Engine Cam Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasim, Maisara Mohyeldin; Chui, Lee Giok; Anwar, Khirul Azhar bin

    2012-01-01

    In Revetec engine (three-lobed) cam replaces the crankshaft to convert the reciprocating motion of the engine piston, to a rotating motion in the drive line. Since the cam controls the piston movement, the cam profile has a great effect on engine performance. In this paper an experimental study was done to a (three- lobed) cam with Cycloidal motion profile but with different ratios between the base circle radius of the cam and the radius of the roller follower. DEWESoft was used to find the displacement and the vibration of the piston, and compare the actual results from the test with the theoretical results from the cam profile equation. The results showed that there is a periods of miss contact between the follower and the cam when the ratio between the base circle radius of the cam and the radius of the roller follower is less than a certain value, and also increasing of vibration. The suggested ratio between the cam and follower radius is to be more than 2:1.

  1. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp>870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified

  2. BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Zamansky; David Moyeda; Mark Sheldon

    2000-01-01

    This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO(sub x) control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. During the tenth reporting period (January 1-March 31, 2000), EER and NETL R and D group continued to work on Tasks 2, 3, 4, and 5. Information regarding these tasks will be included in the next Quarterly Report. This report includes (Appendix 1) a conceptual design study for the introduction of biomass reburning in a working coal-fired utility boiler. This study was conducted under the coordinated SBIR program funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture

  3. Naphtha interaction with bitumen and clays : a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afara, M.; Munoz, V.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a preliminary study conducted to characterize naphtha interactions with bitumen and clays. Coarse tailings, fluid-fine tailings, and froth treatment tailings are produced as a result of surface mine oil sands operations. Solvents are used to produce the bitumens, but the actual fraction of the solvent that evaporates and contributes to VOCs from tailing ponds is poorly understood. This study examined the interactions between the solvent, bitumen and mineral components in froth treatment tails. The study was conducted with aim of quantifying the VOC or solvent escaping from the froth treatment tailings. Samples containing bitumen, clay, a bitumen-clay mixture, or MFT were spiked with 3000 ppm of solvent. The amount of naphtha released was monitored by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flame ionization detection of the evolved gases. The results were expressed as a percentage of the total hydrocarbon peak area of the sample versus a control. Results of the study showed that the naphtha interacted more strongly with the bitumen than with kaolinite and the clay minerals from the oil sands. Although initial solvent evaporation was reduced in the presence of bitumens and clays, long-term solvent releases will need to be quantified. tabs., figs.

  4. Subseabed radionuclide migration studies and preliminary repository design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    Geochemical research carried out by the US Subseabed Disposal Program is described. Data from studies of high-temperature interactions between sediments and pore water (seawater) and from studies of sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in oxidized, deep-sea sediments are used, along with results from heat transfer studies, to predict migration rates of raionuclides in a subseabed repository. Preliminary results for most radionuclides in oxidized sediments are very encouraging. Fission products with moderate K/sub D/ values (10 2 to 10 5 ml/g) and actinides with high K/sub D/ values (10 3 to 10 6 ml/g) would not migrate significant distances before decaying to innocuous concentrations. Among this group are 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 239 Pu. The results for anionic species in oxidized sediments are less encouraging. Planning for field verification of these laboratory and modeling studies is currently under way. Conceptual repository designs and emplacement options are also described. 33 references, 15 figures, 1 table

  5. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E.; Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  6. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  7. Preliminary study on lithium-salt aqueous solution blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Naruse, Yuji; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Ohara, Atsushi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shigetada.

    1992-06-01

    Aqueous solution blanket using lithium salts such as LiNO 3 and LiOH have been studied in the US-TIBER program and ITER conceptual design activity. In the JAERI/LANL collaboration program for the joint operation of TSTA (Tritium Systems Test Assembly), preliminary design work of blanket tritium system for lithium ceramic blanket, aqueous solution blanket and liquid metal blanket, have been performed to investigate technical feasibility of tritium demonstration tests using the TSTA. Detail study of the aqueous solution blanket concept have not been performed in the Japanese fusion program, so that this study was carried out to investigate features of its concept and to evaluated its technical problems. The following are the major items studied in the present work: (i) Neutronics of tritium breeding ratio and shielding performance Lithium concentration, Li-60 enrichment, beryllium or lead, composition of structural material/beryllium/solution, heavy water, different lithium-salts (ii) Physicochemical properties of salts Solubility, corrosion characteristics and compatibility with structural materials, radiolysis (iii) Estimation of radiolysis in ITER aqueous solution blanket. (author)

  8. A preliminary study on radiation damage effect in ceramics composite materials as innovative basic research using the HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Baba, Shinichi; Aihara, Jun; Arai, T.; Hayashi, K.; Ishino, S.

    1999-01-01

    An innovative basic research concerning with the basic science and applied technology is planned using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), which provides the advantage of not only a high temperature irradiation field above 400degC but also a large irradiation space. The first irradiation experiment is to be performed in 2001. Many research themes with a wide variety of scientific and technological interests are proposed as the innovative basic research. For the purpose of demonstration of scientific feasibility and advantages in the HTTR irradiation, several research themes have been being conducted as the preliminary studies. In this paper the outline of the innovative basic research is described, and the preliminary study on the radiation damage mechanism of ceramic composite materials is presented. (author)

  9. Pharmacognostic standardization and preliminary phytochemical studies of Gaultheria trichophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fiaz; Najum us Saqib, Qazi

    2015-01-01

    Gaultheria trichophylla Royle (Ericaceae) has long been used for various ailments in traditional systems of medicines; most importantly it is used against pain and inflammation. This study determines various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of medicinal plant G. trichophylla. Intact aerial parts, powdered materials, and extracts were examined macro- and microscopically and pharmacognostic standardization parameters were determined in accordance with the guidelines given by the World Health Organization (WHO). Parameters including extractive values, ash values, and loss on drying were determined. Preliminary phytochemical tests, fluorescence analysis, and chromatographic profiling were performed for the identification and standardization of G. trichophylla. The shape, size, color, odor, and surface characteristics were noted for intact drug and powdered drug material of G. trichophylla. Light and scanning electron microscope images of cross section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical, and fluorescence analysis proved useful tools to differentiate the powdered drug material. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin. The data generated from the present study help to authenticate the medicinally important plant G. trichophylla. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic features may be helpful for establishing the pharmacopeia standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and described along with phytochemical and physicochemical parameters, which could be helpful in further isolation and purification of medicinally important compounds.

  10. Adult health study. Hiroshima preliminary report, 1958-1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Anderson, Jr, P S

    1961-06-28

    The first 4151 clinical examinations of radiation exposed and nonexposed persons in the Hiroshima Adult Health Study have been tabulated and reviewed. No evident differences in past history, medical symptoms, physical examination, laboratory findings, nor disease incidence could be related to the atomic radiation in 1945. The sample is small and represents only a portion of the first cycle of an examination procedure that is planned to continue indefinitely at approximately two year intervals. This report, consisting of a review of the program and the findings in this preliminary sample, includes extensive tabular data (Tables 28-65) from the coded medical information. It was not expected that radiation induced changes would be evident from this sample unless they were of unexpected prominence. The report was prepared primarily to describe the problems inherent in an epidemiologic medical study of this sort, and to review the type of data that can be obtained for future analyses. This analysis was conducted to pinpoint some of the problems; to assist others contemplating this type of medical study; to illuminate for ABCC the data that are being collected; and to suggest ways to use these data most effectively. 16 references, 1 figure, 65 tables.

  11. Caligula-Christ: Preliminary Study of a Parallel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorene M. Birden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caligula, at the very beginning of the Albert Camus play, conceives a very ambitious project; to surpass the gods and take their place in his empire, in order to decree impossibility. Camus has, however, gone a step further in developing the god-image of his main character through the incorporation of much Christian imagery into the scenes. This aspect of the play seems not to have been noticed by Camus scholars; there is no in-depth study of the use of this imagery. However, Camus scholar Patricia Johnson and the members of the Société des études camusiennes have noted the usefulness of the analysis presented here and the absence of it in previous research. This study, designated as “preliminary,” attempts to prompt further analyses of the question and offers different approaches. It proceeds by intertextual study of Caligula and the gospels (here referred to in Revised Standard Version and brings out aspects of the emperor’s intentions that expose a combination of perversion and similarity in relation to deity. It briefly outlines the sources of this parallel and the reasons for creating it, then details the parallels that show first the reversal of the image of Jesus, then the striking consonance. It ends with interpretations of the parallels and concludes with commentaries on the use of irony to create them.

  12. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  13. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  14. WSSRAP [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project] quarry preliminary engineering report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The removal, transport, and temporary storage of radiologically and chemically contaminated bulk waste from the Weldon Spring Quarry will be accomplished by dividing the work into three subcontract packages. The major portion of the work will come under the bulk waste excavation package; construction of a temporary storage area (TSA) at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and of a haul road between the quarry and the TSA comprise the other two packages. Cost estimates to complete the removal range from $5 million to $9.4 million due to a high degree of uncertainty regarding both the productivity of the excavating equipment and the effectiveness of planned dewatering efforts. Quarry wastes will be substantially dewatered and the water treated before discharge. Waste will be excavated in three phases, using conventional construction equipment, with preliminary sorting of waste at the quarry before transport to the TSA. Special attention will be given to controlling the spread of contamination by careful monitoring and control of surface and groundwater drainage and of particulate and radiological contamination of the air. 6 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Makerspaces in Engineering Education: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mougaard, Krestine

    2016-01-01

    it by opening makerspaces and adopting elements of the Maker Movement in their offerings. This paper investigates how university driven makerspaces can affect engineering design and product development education trough a case study. We provide our findings based on interviews and data collected from educators......, students the administrative and workshop staff of the makerspace. The findings are used to outline the challenges in incorporating the offerings of makerspaces. By discussing these challenges we identify opportunities for turning university makerspaces into innovation hubs and platforms that can support...

  16. Thulium-170-labeled microparticles for local radiotherapy: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Andras; Das, Tapas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kiraly, Reka; Dabasi, Gabriella; Joba, Robert Peter; Jakab, Csaba; Thuroczy, Julianna; Postenyi, Zita; Haasz, Veronika; Janoki, Gergely; Janoki, Gyozo A; Pillai, Maroor R A; Balogh, Lajos

    2014-10-01

    The present article describes the preparation, characterization, and biological evaluation of Thulium-170 ((170)Tm) [T1/2 = 128.4 days; Eβmax = 968 keV; Eγ = 84 keV (3.26%)] labeled tin oxide microparticles for its possible use in radiation synovectomy (RSV) of medium-sized joints. (170)Tm was produced by irradiation of natural thulium oxide target. 170Tm-labeled microparticles were synthesized with high yield and radionuclidic purity (> 99%) along with excellent in vitro stability by following a simple process. Particle sizes and morphology of the radiolabeled particles were examined by light microscope, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscope and found to be of stable spherical morphology within the range of 1.4-3.2 μm. The preparation was injected into the knee joints of healthy Beagle dogs intraarticularly for biological studies. Serial whole-body and regional images were taken by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT-CT cameras up to 9 months postadministration, which showed very low leakage (compound did not show any possible radiotoxicological effect. These preliminary studies showed that 170Tm-labeled microparticles could be a promising nontoxic and effective radiopharmaceutical for RSV applications or later local antitumor therapy.

  17. Emergent Literacy in Thai Preschoolers: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampratoom, Ramorn; Aroonyadech, Nawarat; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Kositprapa, Jariya

    To investigate emergent literacy skills, including phonological awareness when presented with an initial phoneme-matching task and letter knowledge when presented with a letter-naming task in Thai preschoolers, and to identify key factors associated with those skills. Four hundred twelve typically developing children in their final kindergarten year were enrolled in this study. Their emergent reading skills were measured by initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming tasks. Determinant variables, such as parents' education and teachers' perception, were collected by self-report questionnaires. The mean score of the initial phoneme-matching task was 4.5 (45% of a total of 10 scores). The mean score of the letter-naming task without a picture representing the target letter name was 30.2 (68.6% of a total of 44 scores), which increased to 38.8 (88.2% of a total of 44 scores) in the letter-naming task when a picture representing the target letter name was provided. Both initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming abilities were associated with the mother's education and household income. Letter-naming ability was also influenced by home reading activities and gender. This was a preliminary study into emergent literacy skills of Thai preschoolers. The findings supported the importance of focusing on phonological awareness and phonics, especially in the socioeconomic disadvantaged group.

  18. MR evaluation of renal function. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beomonte Zobel, B; Giammarile, F; Matarese, A; Gallucci, M; Mascicchi, C; Passariello, R; Di Renzi, P; Splendiani, G; Casciani, C U

    1988-01-01

    The amount of functioning renal parenchyma can be estimated by MRI by considering the ratio between the mean intensities of cortical and medullar zones of the kidney. Fifty-six patients and 5 healthy volunteers were studied by MRI in our department. Scanning was performed with a superconductive magnet system operating at 0.5 Tesla. Pulse sequence was Spin-Echo with TR 300/TE 30 ms. The cortimedullary ratio (CMR) and differentiation (CMD) were standardized and related with creatine blood levels. CMR data ranged from 1.05 to 3.00, while CMD data ranged from 0.04 to 0.50. High values (good cortico-medullary contrast) were observed in subjects with normal renal function. Patients with renal diseases had low CMR and CMD, proportionally to the degree of renal failure, as proved by laboratory findings. Our preliminary study seems to demonstrate that MRI is an useful technique in the follow-up of patients with chronic renal disease. 19 refs.

  19. Effects of gamma radiation on bee venom: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, H.; Boni-Mitake, M.; Souza, C.F.; Rogero, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. several works utilizing ionizing radiation showed that it is able to modify protein structures, and successfully detoxify snake venoms toxins, although maintaining its immunological properties. The main objective of this paper was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding some biochemical and toxicological aspects. Africanized Apis melllifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M Na Cl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a 60 Co source. Preliminary studies has been carried out in order to identify some biochemical changes after irradiation. Concerning this, irradiated and native venom were submitted to a molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-100), UV absorption spectrum and protein concentration analysis. It could be seen that irradiated bee venom spectrum presented differences when compared to native bee venom, suggesting that some structural alterations has occurred. Protein concentration and chromatography profiles were not changes after irradiation. In order to evaluate the toxicity a lethality assay (L D 50 ) has been performed with both venoms, and irradiated venom showed to be less toxic than native one. (author)

  20. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on bee venom: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, H.; Boni-Mitake, M.; Souza, C.F.; Rogero, J.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia

    1999-11-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. several works utilizing ionizing radiation showed that it is able to modify protein structures, and successfully detoxify snake venoms toxins, although maintaining its immunological properties. The main objective of this paper was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding some biochemical and toxicological aspects. Africanized Apis melllifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M Na Cl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a {sup 60} Co source. Preliminary studies has been carried out in order to identify some biochemical changes after irradiation. Concerning this, irradiated and native venom were submitted to a molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-100), UV absorption spectrum and protein concentration analysis. It could be seen that irradiated bee venom spectrum presented differences when compared to native bee venom, suggesting that some structural alterations has occurred. Protein concentration and chromatography profiles were not changes after irradiation. In order to evaluate the toxicity a lethality assay (L D{sub 50}) has been performed with both venoms, and irradiated venom showed to be less toxic than native one. (author) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Pathology of gastric lesions in donkeys: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mokaddem, A K; Ahmed, K A; Doghaim, R E

    2015-11-01

    Donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) are important working animals, particularly in countries where the majority of the population lives below the poverty line. Gastric ulceration has been shown to be common in British donkeys but donkeys from other parts of the world have not been as extensively researched. This study was performed as a preliminary overview of the severity and distribution of gastric lesions in mature donkeys and to document which parasites were present. Descriptive study of pathological findings. Stomachs of 35 mature draught donkeys were examined grossly and histopathology samples taken from 5 regions of the gastric mucosa. Gross examination revealed hyperaemia, oedema, erosions and ulcers in addition to parasitic lesions. Histopathological examination revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, vacuolar degeneration of stratified squamous cells, gastritis, erosions, ulcerations, scarring, hyperactivity of mucus glands, periglandular fibroplasia and parasitic granulomes with infestation by Gasterophilus spp. larvae, Habronema spp. and Draschia megastoma. In donkeys, ulceration of the nonglandular regions of the stomach is more prominent than the glandular regions and parasitic infestations were frequent. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Hypoallergenic properties of donkey's milk: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA is an abnormal immunological response to cow milk proteins, which results in IgE-mediated reactions. The therapeutic strategy to respond to CMPA envisages the total elimination of milk or the administration of cow's milk substitutes. For this reason the use of milk from other mammalian species was tested. Among them, donkey's milk proved to be the best alternative in feeding infants affected by CMPA, since its chemical composition is comparable to human milk. In this work an in vitro study was performed in order to analyze the IgE reactivity to milk protein allergens from cow, donkey and goat. In particular, immunoblotting experiments using sera from milk-allergic and non-allergic adult volunteers were conducted with the aim of verifying the hypoallergenic property of donkey's milk. This study provided a preliminary evidence of the hypoallergenicity of donkey's milk when compared to bovine and goat milk. Considering the obtained results, it would be possible to develop a sensitive diagnostic method for CMPA detection, based on chromatographic and immunoblotting analysis.

  4. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2011-01-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  5. Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

    2008-03-05

    The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin.

  6. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology in Ghana. PKA Dartey, RK Bam, J Ofori. Abstract. Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was ...

  7. The IAHR project CCHE-Climate Change impact on the Hydrological cycle, water management and Engineering: an overview and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzi, Roberto; Kojiri, T.; Mynett, A.; Barontini, S.; van de Giesen, N.; Kolokytha, E.; Ngo, L. A.; Oreamuno, R.; Renard, B.; Sighomnou, D.; Vizina, A.

    2010-05-01

    IAHR, the International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research launched a research Project called Climate Change impact on the Hydrological cycle, water management and Engineering (IAHR CCHE Project). It was motivated by the fact that, although it is now well accepted that, in the light of the recent IPCC reports the vast majority of members of the scientific community are convinced that the climate is changing or at least will experience a significant fluctuation already during the current century, it is perceived that some hydrologists, water experts and hydraulic engineers are not yet ready to incorporate climate change scenarios in their designs for such projects as: - flood protection and river training, - dam rehabilitation, - water resources management under water scarcity and changes in the hydrological regimes. The objective of the project is to encourage a close co-operation between the scientific and engineering communities in taking appropriate and timely action in response to the impact of climate change on the hydrological regime and on water resource projects. The project aims at reporting on (a) the current state of knowledge as regards the impact of projected climate change on the hydrological regime in different regions of the world, where these regions are defined not just in geographic terms but also on the basis of their level of economic and water resources development; (b) the extent to which these impacts are recognized and taken into account by national water authorities, engineering organizations and other regulating bodies in setting their standard practices and procedures for the planning, design and operation of water works. These adaptation measures will include both "hard" responses, such as the construction or enlargement of engineering structures, and "soft" responses, such as changes in legislation or the operating rules of existing structures. An overview of the project and preliminary results extracted from of

  8. A Preliminary Study of Sex Differences in Emotional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Aguilar, Azalea; Barrios, Fernando A

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary approaches have proposed that women possess an advantage over men in emotional functioning to promote attachment for child-rearing. Likewise, sex differences have been reported in traits such as personality and empathy, traits that likely modulate emotional processing. In this preliminary study, sex differences in emotional processing were analyzed, including empathy as a social emotion and personality traits, as well as whether there exist relationships between those measures. Young volunteers (N = 105) indicated the emotional valence, activation, and dominance that they experience in situations categorized as emotionally positive, negative, or neutral. The results of comparison between sexes supported the approach that women showed more sensitivity to high activation and dominance for positive emotions and empathy, and men were more sensitive to negative situations. Correlation analysis showed only one positive relationship between scores of Self-transcendence, a subscale of Temperament and Character Inventory, with activation scores of neutral situations, but not with emotionally charged situations, perhaps because emotions are context-dependent processes while personality traits are considered context-independent descriptions of habits. These findings should be replicated to enrich knowledge about problems in emotional processing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Preliminary Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perini, Diego; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field generated by a set of superconducting solenoids. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic fields that drive the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB® tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters are analysed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the preliminary design of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar ...

  10. Primary contraction of skin grafts: a porcine preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bogdanov Berezovsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Skin grafting is a common clinical practice for plastic surgeons, yet primary contraction of these grafts is a neglected topic. This study was designed to investigate primary contraction and introduce the shape of skin graft as a possible factor that modifies primary contraction behavior, using porcine models. Methods: In the first series, full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs and split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs were compared. In a second series, how the shape of the skin graft affected the degree of contraction was examined. Results: The mean percentage of FTSG shrinkage was 12.04%, and the median was 12.18%. The mean percentage of STSG shrinkage was 6.87%, and the median was 5%. Circle-shaped and square-shaped FTSGs showed mean/median graft shrinkage of 5.83%/6.93% and 4.15%/3.75%, respectively. In STSGs, the circle-shaped and square-shaped grafts had mean/median graft shrinkage of 1.07%/0% and 0.31%/0%, respectively. Conclusion: Our preliminary report revealed an expected greater shrinkage of FTSGs compared with STSGs. Furthermore, in a limited number of specimens, the shape of the skin graft seemed to affect the primary contraction of the STSGs.

  11. Real-time trichromatic holographic interferometry: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Felix; Bastide, Myriam; Desse, Jean-Michel; Tribillon, Jean-Louis H.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper we relate our preliminary experiments on real- time trichromatic holographic interferometry. For this purpose a CW `white' laser (argon and krypton of Coherent- Radiation, Spectrum model 70) is used. This laser produces about 10 wavelengths. A system consisting of birefringent plates and polarizers allows to select a trichromatic TEM00 triplet: blue line ((lambda) equals 476 nm, 100 mW), green line ((lambda) equals 514 nm, 100 mW) and red line ((lambda) equals 647 nm, 100 mW). In a first stage we recorded a trichromatic reflection hologram with a separate reference beam on a single-layer silver-halide panchromatic plate (PFG 03C). After processing, the hologram is put back into the original recording set-up, as in classical experiments on real-time monochromatic holographic interferometry. So we observe interference fringes between the 3 reconstructed waves and the 3 actual waves. The interference fringes of the phenomenon are observed on a screen and recorded by a video camera at 25 frames per second. A color video film of about 3 minutes of duration is presented. Some examples related to phase objects are presented (hot airflow from a candle, airflow from a hand). The actual results show the possibility of using this technique to study, in real time, aerodynamic wakes and mechanical deformation.

  12. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ropert-Coudert

    Full Text Available Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists.

  13. [Resilience in caregivers of patients with dementia: A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lansac, Violeta; Crespo López, María; Cáceres, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Poyo, María

    2012-01-01

    Caring for a relative with dementia often has negative effects on the caregiver's physical and psychological health. However, many caregivers successfully cope with the stress factors arising from care, and even have uplifts during their experience, showing high resilience levels. This study presents a preliminary analysis of resilience in caregivers of patients with dementia, exploring its relationship with different variables. Resilience was assessed (by CD-RISC) in 53 family caregivers of patients with dementia. Resilience was correlated to the following variables: caregiving context, stressors (e.g., cognitive impairment), appraisals (e.g., burden), moderators (e.g., personality traits and resources), and caregiving consequences (physical and psychological health). The participants showed moderate scores on resilience. Resilience was associated with poor emotional and physical status (significant inverse correlations with anxiety, depression, psycho-active drug use, health habits…). High resilience scores were significantly correlated to burden, neuroticism and extraversion, self-efficacy, self-esteem and less use of emotion focused coping strategies. Higher resilience relates to a good emotional and physical status in caregivers. Moreover, resilience is more associated with caregiver variables (e.g., appraisal and coping with care, personality features), than to situational variables. The data highlight the strengthening of these types of appraisal and coping as a way to improve caregivers' resilience and, consequently, their health. Copyright © 2011 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. A Preliminary Study of Biodegradable Waste as Sorbent Material for Oil-Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, J.; Eyu, G. D.; Mansor, A. M.; Ahmad, Z.; Chukwuekezie, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, and underwater pipes. Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized. The present work focuses on the preliminary study of empty palm fruit bunch fibre as a promising sorbent material. The morphology of the unmodified empty palm fruit bunch, EPFB fibre, was examined using an optical microcopy, scanning electron microcopy coupled with EDX and X-ray diffraction. The effects of oil volume, fibre weight, and time on oil absorption of EPFB fibre were evaluated with new engine oil from the model oil. The results show that EPFB fibre consists of numerous micro pores, hydrophobic, and partially crystalline and amorphous with approximately 13.5% carbon. The oil absorbency of the fibre increased with the increase in oil volume, immersion time, and fibre weight. However, sorption capacity decreased beyond 3 g in 100 mL. Additionally unmodified EPFB fibre showed optimum oil sorption efficiency of approximately 2.8 g/g within three days of immersion time. PMID:24693241

  15. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  16. Study of combined cycle engine for aerospace plane

    OpenAIRE

    苅田, 丈士; KANDA, Takeshi; 工藤, 賢司; KUDO, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    At the Ramjet Propulsion Research Center, the scramjet engine for an aerospace plane has been studied. Other engines are required for the plane to go into orbit. Recently, a combined cycle engine including scramjet mode has been also studied to complete the engine system for the plane. The scramjet and the combined cycle engine are most effective with application to the Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) aerospace plane, as shown in Figure 1. Recent activity on the combined cycle engine and the SST...

  17. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  18. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  19. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  20. Definition study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and associated test program and test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The Definition Study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and Associated Test Program and Test Plan, was initiated to identify the most cost effective program for a follow-on to the AST Test Bed Program. The VCEE Study defined various subscale VCE's based on different available core engine components, and a full scale VCEE utilizing current technology. The cycles were selected, preliminary design accomplished and program plans and engineering costs developed for several program options. In addition to the VCEE program plans and options, a limited effort was applied to identifying programs that could logically be accomplished on the AST Test Bed Program VCE to extend the usefulness of this test hardware. Component programs were provided that could be accomplished prior to the start of a VCEE program.

  1. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated

  2. Preliminary study of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on an ambulatory basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tabey, Magdy Ahmed; Abd-Allah, Osama Abdel-Wahab; Ahmed, Ahmed Sebaey; El-Barky, Ehab Mohammed; Noureldin, Yasser Abdel-Sattar

    2013-02-01

    Preliminary study to assess the feasibility and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as an ambulatory procedure. Between February 2011 and September 2012, 84 patients with renal calculi fulfilling the inclusion criteria were admitted to the Urology Department of Benha University Hospitals for PCNL. All patients were subjected to a full medical history, clinical, laboratory and radiological examinations. Tubeless PCNLs were done in the supine position, and an antegrade double-J stent was inserted. Operative time and intraoperative complications were recorded. Postoperatively, the hematocrit value, postoperative pain and analgesics, need of blood transfusion, stone-free rate, and length of hospital stay were recorded. Stable patients that could be safely discharged within 24 hours after surgery were considered ambulatory. All cases of tubeless PCNL were successfully done and no cases converted to open surgery. The overall stone-free rate was 91.7%, the mean postoperative pain score measured by the visual analog scale was 4.4 ± 1.2, the mean overall hematocrit deficit was 4.8 ± 2.2% and the mean hospital stay was 33.4 ± 17.5 hours. Ambulatory PCNL was accomplished in 60 out of 84 patients (71.4%) and double-J stents were removed 7-10 days postoperatively. In the non-ambulatory cases, double-J stents were removed after auxillary procedures were done according to each case. PCNL can be safely done on an ambulatory basis under strict criteria, but further studies are needed to confirm and expand these findings.

  3. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  4. In vivo radioprotection by alpha-TMG: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyamitra, M; Devi, P U; Murase, H; Kagiya, V T

    2001-08-08

    alpha-TMG is a novel water-soluble derivative of Vitamin E that has shown excellent antioxidant activity. The parent compound has demonstrated protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in vivo. Hence, the preliminary experiments to determine the radioprotective activity of alpha-TMG were carried out in adult Swiss albino mice. Acute toxicity of the drug was studied taking 24h, 72 h and 30 day mortality after a single intraperitoneal injection of 500-2000 mg/kg body weight of the drug. The drug LD(50) for 24h and 72 h/30 day survival were found to be 1120 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The optimum time of drug administration and drug dose-dependent effect on in vivo radiation protection of bone marrow chromosomes was studied in mice. Injection of 600 mg/kg of the drug 15 min before or within 5, 15 or 30min after 3Gy whole body gamma radiation resulted in a significant decrease in the aberrant metaphases percent at 24h post-irradiation; the maximum effect was seen when the drug was given immediately after irradiation. Injection of 200-800 mg/kg TMG within 5 min of irradiation with 3 Gy produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes at 24h after exposure, with a corresponding decrease in the different types of aberrations. The optimum dose for protection without drug toxicity was 600 mg/kg body weight. At this dose, TMG produced 70 and >60% reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and micronucleated erythrocytes, respectively. The high water solubility and effectiveness when administered post-irradiation favor TMG as a likely candidate for protection in case of accidental exposures.

  5. Bioactivities in the tamarind seed extracts: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sukant; Muangman, Thanchanok; Huifu, He; Ling, Li; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2018-01-01

    Stress is a state that triggers change in normal physiology and recognized by human body and brain as an unfavorable event causing concern, worry or anxiety. It may vary from physical, metabolic, physiological or emotional often culminating into wide range of ailments that may range from common cold, decline in functional efficacy of body systems or even cancer. Skin is the largest tissue of the body and makes the first interface with the environment. Skin color and characteristics are highly influenced by environment stress. A variety of natural compounds have been used for anti-stress and disease preventive potentials in worldwide traditional home medicine systems. They have recently attracted attention in research laboratories to dissect their mode of action to promote safe and economic drug development. We have earlier identified anti-stress and anti-aging activities in Withania somnifera, Helicteres angustifolia and honeybee propolis using human cultured normal and cancer cells. In the present study, we explored the effect of tamarind seed extracts prepared in water or 95% ethanol. In cell-based assays, we found that the extracts were safe to use in viable cells (in the range of 0.01-1.0%, for at least 4 weeks). Consistently, molecular studies revealed no effect on the expression/activity of cancer promoting proteins. We recruited oxidative stress models, such as, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ultraviolet radiation (UV) and diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Investigation on anti-stress potential of the extracts revealed that they do not offer remarkable protection against stress caused by either H2O2 or UV, however, significantly compromised OAG-induced melanogenesis. The preliminary data warrant further investigations on the active components and mechanism of action to develop useful natural compounds/extracts for manipulation of melanogenesis that plays important role in response of cells to UV and its consequences including DNA damage

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S ampersand A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S ampersand A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S ampersand A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs

  7. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs.

  8. Preliminary draft: environmental impact statement for Hot Engineering Test Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.W.; Baxter, B.J.; Carpenter, J.A.

    1978-08-01

    The project considered is the Hot Engineering Test Project (HETP), which is to be located in largely existing facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The project is a part of the National High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel Recycle Program, which seeks to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the recycle processes. The HETP will attempt to confirm the operability of the processes (proven feasible in cold or nonradioactive, benchtop experimentation) under the more realistic radioactive condition. As such, the operation will involve the reprocessing and refabrication of spent HTGR fuel rods obtained from the Fort St. Vrain reactor. The reference fuel is highly enriched uranium. No significant radiological impacts are expected from routine operation of the facility to any biota or ecosystem. Concentrations of one or more radionuclides in Whiteoak Lake will increase as a result of the combination of HETP wastes with other ORNL wastes. Nonradiological effects from construction activities and routine operation should be insignificant on land and water use and on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. No significant socioeconomic impacts should occur from either construction or operation of the facility. Some conservative accident scenarios depict significant releases of radioactivity. Effects should be localized and would not be severe for all but the most unlikely of such incidents. No significant long-term commitment of resources is expected to be required for the project. Nor are any large quantities of scarce or critical resources likely to be irreversibly or irretrievably committed to the project. Principal alternatives considered were: relocation of the project site, postponement of the project schedule, project cancellation, and chemical process variations

  9. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rista, P. E. C.; Shull, J.; Sargent, S.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen & helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper.

  10. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C Rista, P E; Shull, J; Sargent, S

    2015-01-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen and helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper. (paper)

  11. Preliminary studies on the behavioural effects of the methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behavioural tests employed were diazepam-induced sleep onset and duration, hole board assay for exploratory activity, mouse beam walk assay for motor coordination, and the staircase test for the detection of anxiolytic compounds. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also carried out on the extract. Results: The ...

  12. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in granitic underground caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de; Carajilescov, P.

    1984-01-01

    To date, the disposal of radioactive wastes is one of the major problems faced by the nuclear industry. The utilization of granitic underground caves surrounded by a clay envelope is suggested as a safe alternative for such disposal. A preliminary analysis of the dimensions of those deposits is done. (Author) [pt

  13. A Preliminary Study on Cathodic Prevention in Reinforced Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.; Mol, J.M.C.; De Wit, J.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary tests on the performance of cathodic prevention (CPre) in reinforced mortar, subjected to aggressive (10% NaCl environment). Cathodic prevention is an electrochemical technique for minimizing, actually "preventing" any eventual corrosion of the steel bars in

  14. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, G. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Pisciotta, P., E-mail: pietro.pisciotta@ibfm.cnr.it [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Romano, F. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G.I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Acquaviva, R. [University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Gilardi, M.C. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Cuttone, G. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy)

    2017-02-21

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  15. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G. I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M. C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  16. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G.I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M.C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  17. Perspectives and Plans for Graduate Studies. 11, Engineering 1974-75; F. Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Council on Graduate Studies, Toronto. Advisory Committee on Academic Planning.

    A series of studies carried out by the Advisory Committee on Academic Planning (ACAP) published by the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) dealt with a planning study of doctoral work in engineering that was conducted in several parts corresponding to the various disciplines within engineering. This document, which is one part of that study,…

  18. A preliminary study on titanium-clay interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, P.; Grolimund, D.; Kumpulainen, S.; Brendle, J.; Snellman, M.

    2010-01-01

    bentonite, Opalinus Clay, Illite du Puy) were characterized by XAS. Preliminary results can be summarized as: (1) Natural clay materials contain significant but variable amounts of Ti. The standard purification procedure for bentonites to remove accessories does not or only barely removes Ti. (2) The Ti in the natural clays materials Rokle bentonite, Opalinus Clay, Illite du Puy occurs as microcrystalline TiO 2 (presumably as anatase). On the other hand, the Ti spectra in MX-80 suggest the presence of structural Ti in the smectite, but the evidence is not conclusive so far. (3) The exposure of purified MX-80 to titanium powder at room temperature within a period of five months did not lead to measurable additional Ti in the clay. This was even true for samples exposed to acidic or alkaline conditions where corrosion rates and solubility of Ti are known to be higher. Thereof, the following preliminary conclusions can be drawn: - The Ti content in natural bentonites is concentrated mainly in the so-called clay fraction. Ti occurs therein either as separate small TiO 2 particles (Rokle, Opalinus Clay, Illite du Puy) or as structural Ti. As indicated by the study of Karnland et al. (2006), the properties of natural bentonites are not affected by the presence of Ti. In that study, the bulk properties (swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity) were very similar for the different bentonites containing variable Ti content, ranging from 0.1 to 4.8 weight % TiO 2 in the purified clay fractions. The transfer rates of Ti from the metallic source, even in reactive powder form, to the clay are very low and no enrichment above background concentrations after several months could be observed. In order to obtain measurable effects, both the corrosion process must be increased and the background concentration must be reduced. Tests with Ti-free clay material at increased temperature are still ongoing and will hopefully enable identification of reacted Ti species. (authors)

  19. Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sulistiono

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro had been done since June - November 2004 and December - 2005 February 2006.  Study was carried out in two locations namely Laboratory of Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu to study adult crab, and Laboratory of Ecobiology of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University to study crab in clomang stage.  Adult crabs were collected by using some fishing gears namely trap, net and directly using bamboo stick.  Domestication was done in rearing batch sized 1x1x1 m3 with artificial nests (30x15x15 cm3, and small batch for water (7x10x10 cm3.  While for clomang stage, crabs were reared in aquarium (80x40x40 cm3 with debris and small water batch.  Result showed that adult crab had a survival rate around 12.5-0%, and mortality around 50-87.5%.  A similar result was also in clomang stage, which was 12.5% for survival rate and 87.5% for mortality.  Adult coconut crab was preferred to feed coconut than other food likely vegetable and chick. Keywords: domestication, coconut crab, Birgus latro, food habit   ABSTRAK Penelitian awal mengenai kajian awal penangkaran kepiting kelapa (Birgus latro dilakukan pada bulan Juni - November 2004 dan Desember 2005 Februari 2006.  Pelaksanaan penelitian di lakukan di dua tempat, yaitu Laboratorium Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu untuk percobaan kepiting dewasa, dan Laboratorium Ekobiologi Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan IPB Bogor,  untuk percobaan kepiting tahap klomang.  Kepiting dewasa ditangkap dengan menggunakan beberapa peralatan a.l. perangkap, jaring dan secara langsung dengan tongkat.  Penangkaran dilakukan di bak-bak peliharaan berukuran 1x1x1 m3 yang dilengkapi dengan tempat persembunyian (30x15x15 cm3, dan bak kecil tempat air (7x10x10 cm3.  Sedangkan kepiting tahap klomang dipelihara di akuarium (80x40x40 cm3 yang diberi daun/serasah dan tempat air.  Hasil uji coba penangkaran

  20. A prediction study of a spark ignition supercharged hydrogen engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. Sadiq.; Al-Janabi, Haroun A.K. Shahad

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen is found to be a suitable alternative fuel for spark ignition engines with certain drawbacks, such as high NO x emission and small power output. However, supercharging may solve such problems. In this study, the effects of equivalence ratio, compression ratio and inlet pressure on the performance and NO x emission of a four stroke supercharged hydrogen engine have been analyzed using a specially developed computer program. The results are verified and compared with experimental data obtained from tests on a Ricardo E6/US engine. A chart specifying the safe operation zone of the hydrogen engine has been produced. The safe operation zone means no pre-ignition, acceptable NO x emission, high engine efficiency and lower specific fuel consumption in comparison with the gasoline engine. The study also shows that supercharging is a more effective method to increase the output of a hydrogen engine rather than increasing the compression ratio of the engine at the knock limited equivalence ratio

  1. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  2. A performance study of grid workflow engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratan, C.; Iosup, A.; Epema, D.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    To benefit from grids, scientists require grid workflow engines that automatically manage the execution of inter-related jobs on the grid infrastructure. So far, the workflows community has focused on scheduling algorithms and on interface tools. Thus, while several grid workflow engines have been

  3. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  4. Preliminary Investigations of Some Engineering Properties for the Use of Different Soils in Waste Disposal Cover System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    Near surface disposal facilities are designed to provide long term isolation for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes from the human environment by means of multi-barriers system, which consists of a combination of natural and engineering barriers that act passively to isolate the waste. Adequate and reliable multi-layer engineered cover system is required by the long-term safety concept for waste disposal to control moisture and percolation, promote surface water runoff, minimize erosion, and prevent direct exposure to the waste. In this work, investigations of some engineering properties that are utilized in hydrological and geotechnical design of capillary barrier have been estimated for different local soil textures. Measurements of the physical properties of the studied soil textures have been conducted to determine their suitability for the utilization in engineered cover system for near surface disposal facility. The soil water characteristics have been estimated from the measured physical properties using Vereeckens pedotransfer functions. The critical pressure head for different combinations of soils have been evaluated and the thickness of the finer layer has been calculated. Also some mechanical properties, angle of internal friction and the cohesion, have been estimated using pedotransfer function. The pre-compression stresses have been evaluated and the slope stability of the designed barriers has been quantified by comparing the factor of safety for each studied case for different slope values

  5. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, S. K.; Sefcik, R. J.; Fittje, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B. G; Werner, J.; Weitzberg, A.; Joyner, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In FY'11, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was identified as a key propulsion option under the Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP) component of NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program A strategy was outlined by GRC and NASA HQ that included 2 key elements -"Foundational Technology Development" followed by specific "Technology Demonstration" projects. The "Technology Demonstration "element proposed ground technology demonstration (GTD) testing in the early 2020's, followed by a flight technology demonstration (FTD) mission by approx. 2025. In order to reduce development costs, the demonstration projects would focus on developing a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 -16.5 klb(f)) engine that utilizes a "common" fuel element design scalable to the higher thrust (approx. 25 klb(f)) engines used in NASA's Mars DRA 5.0 study(NASA-SP-2009-566). Besides reducing development costs and allowing utilization of existing, flight proven engine hard-ware (e.g., hydrogen pumps and nozzles), small, lower thrust ground and flight demonstration engines can validate the technology and offer improved capability -increased payloads and decreased transit times -valued for robotic science missions identified in NASA's Decadal Study.

  6. Experimental studies in a single-phase parallel channel natural circulation system. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodkha, Kapil; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Jana, S.S.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    Natural circulation systems find extensive applications in industrial engineering systems. One of the applications is in nuclear reactor where the decay heat is removed by natural circulation of the fluid under off-normal conditions. The upcoming reactor designs make use of natural circulation in order to remove the heat from core under normal operating conditions also. These reactors employ multiple vertical fuel channels with provision of on-power refueling/defueling. Natural circulation systems are relatively simple, safe and reliable when compared to forced circulation systems. However, natural circulation systems are prone to encounter flow instabilities which are highly undesirable for various reasons. Presence of parallel channels under natural circulation makes the system more complicated. To examine the behavior of parallel channel system, studies were carried out for single-phase natural circulation flow in a multiple vertical channel system. The objective of the present work is to study the flow behavior of the parallel heated channel system under natural circulation for different operating conditions. Steady state and transient studies have been carried out in a parallel channel natural circulation system with three heated channels. The paper brings out the details of the system considered, different cases analyzed and preliminary results of studies carried out on a single-phase parallel channel system.

  7. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement

  8. Moisture monitoring and control system engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, K.E.; Fadeff, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 50 years, a wide variety of chemical compounds have been placed in the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) on the Hanford Site. A concern relating to chemical stability, chemical control, and safe storage of the waste is the potential for propagating reactions as a result of ferrocyanide-oxidizer and organic-oxidizer concentrations in the SSTS. Propagating reactions in fuel-nitrate mixtures are precluded if the amounts of fuel and moisture present in the waste are within specified limits. Because most credible ignition sources occur near the waste surface, the main emphasis of this study is toward monitoring and controlling moisture in the top 14 cm (5.5 in.) of waste. The purpose of this engineering study is to recommend a moisture monitoring and control system for use in SSTs containing sludge and saltcake. This study includes recommendations for: (1) monitoring and controlling moisture in SSTs; (2) the fundamental design criteria for a moisture monitoring and control system; and (3) criteria for the deployment of a moisture monitoring and control system in hanford Site SSTs. To support system recommendations, technical bases for selecting and using a moisture monitoring and control system are presented. Key functional requirements and a conceptual design are included to enhance system development and establish design criteria

  9. Towards collaboration between professional caregivers and robots - A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Malaisé , Adrien; Nertomb , Sophie; Charpillet , François; Ivaldi , Serena

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we address the question of which potential use of a robot in a health-care environment is imagined by people that are not experts in robotics, and how these people imagine to teach new movements to a robot. We report on the preliminary results of our investigation , in which we conducted 40 interviews with non-experts in robotics and a focus group with professional caregivers.

  10. The FERMI (at) Elettra Technical Optimization Study: Preliminary Parameter Set and Initial Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox, Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the FERMI (at) Elettra Technical Optimization Study is to produce a machine design and layout consistent with user needs for radiation in the approximate ranges 100 nm to 40 nm, and 40 nm to 10 nm, using seeded FEL's. The Study will involve collaboration between Italian and US physicists and engineers, and will form the basis for the engineering design and the cost estimation

  11. Preliminary degradation process study of infectious biological waste in a 5 k W thermal plasma equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xochihua S M, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of infectious biological waste degradation process by thermal plasma and was made in Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory of Environmental Studies Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). Infectious biological waste degradation process is realized by using samples such polyethylene, cotton, glass, etc., but the present study scope is to analyze polyethylene degradation process with mass and energy balances involved. Degradation method is realized as follow: a polyethylene sample is put in an appropriated crucible localized inside a pyrolysis reactor chamber, the plasma jet is projected to the sample, by the pyrolysis phenomena the sample is degraded into its constitutive particles: carbon and hydrogen. Air was utilized as a recombination gas in order to obtain the higher percent of CO 2 if amount of O 2 is greater in the recombination gas, the CO generation is reduced. The effluent gases of exhaust pyrolysis reactor through are passed through a heat exchanger to get cooled gases, the temperature water used is 15 Centigrade degrees. Finally the gases was tried into absorption tower with water as an absorbent fluid. Thermal plasma degradation process is a very promising technology, but is necessary to develop engineering process area to avail all advantages of thermal plasma. (Author)

  12. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones: preliminary results of human feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael; Cunitz, Bryan; Dunmire, Barbrina; Paun, Marla; Lee, Franklin; Ross, Susan; Lingeman, James; Coburn, Michael; Wessells, Hunter; Sorensen, Mathew; Harper, Jonathan

    2014-09-03

    One in 11 Americans has experienced kidney stones, with a 50% average recurrence rate within 5-10 years. Ultrasonic propulsion (UP) offers a potential method to expel small stones or residual fragments before they become a recurrent problem. Reported here are preliminary findings from the first investigational use of UP in humans. The device uses a Verasonics ultrasound engine and Philips HDI C5-2 probe to generate real-time B-mode imaging and targeted "push" pulses on demand. There are three arms of the study: de novo stones, post-lithotripsy fragments, and the preoperative setting. A pain questionnaire is completed prior to and following the study. Movement is classified based on extent. Patients are followed for 90 days. Ten subjects have been treated to date: three de novo , five post-lithotripsy, and two preoperative. None of the subjects reported pain associated with the treatment or a treatment related adverse event, beyond the normal discomfort of passing a stone. At least one stone was moved in all subjects. Three of five post-lithotripsy subjects passed a single or multiple stones within 1-2 weeks following treatment; one subject passed two (1-2 mm) fragments before leaving clinic. In the pre-operative studies we successfully moved 7 - 8 mm stones. In four subjects, UP revealed multiple stone fragments where the clinical image and initial ultrasound examination indicated a single large stone.

  13. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  14. Experimental study of dual fuel engine performance using variable LPG composition and engine parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnajjar, Emad; Selim, Mohamed Y.E.; Hamdan, Mohammad O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of using variable LPG is studied. • Five fuels with propane to butane % volume ratio are: 100-70-55-25-0. • 100% Propane composition shows the highest noise levels with similar performance. • At 45° BTDC injection timing 55% Propane LPG the only fuel experience knocking. • LPG fuels gave similar engine performance, with differences in levels of noise. - Abstract: The present work investigates experimentally the effect of LPG fuel with different composition and engine parameters on the performance of a dual compression engine. Five different blends of LPG fuels are used with Propane to Butane volume ratio of 100:0, 70:30, 55:45, 25:75, and 0:100. A single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four strokes, indirectly injected, water cooled modified Ricardo E6 engine, is used in this study. The study is carried out by measuring the cylinder pressure, engine load, engine speed, crank angle, and the fuel’s flow rate. The engine performance under variable LPG fuel composition, engine load, pilot fuel injection timing, compression ratio, pilot fuel mass and engine speed, are estimated by comparing the following engine parameters: the cylinder maximum pressure, the indicated mean effective pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, and the thermal efficiency. The experimental data indicates that the engine parameters are playing a major role on the engine’s performance. Different LPG fuel composition did not show a major effect on the engine efficiency but directly impacted the levels of generated combustion noise

  15. Pulmonary functions in plastic factory workers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Farah; Singh, Pawan; Chandra, Prakash; Gupta, Keshav; Vaney, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to long term air pollution in the work environment may result in decreased lung functions and various other health problems. A significant occupational hazard to lung functions is experienced by plastic factory workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of workers in the plastic factory where recycling of pastic material was done. These workers were constantly exposed to fumes of various chemicals throughout the day. Thirty one workers of plastic factory were assessed for their pulmonary functions. Parameters were compared with 31 age and sex matched controls not exposed to the same environment. The pulmonary function tests were done using Sibelmed Datospir 120 B portable spirometer. A significant decrease in most of the flow rates (MEF 25%, MEF 50%, MEF 75% and FEF 25-75%) and most of the lung volumes and capacities (FVC, FEV1, VC, TV, ERV, MVV) were observed in the workers. Smoking and duration of exposure were not affecting the lung functions as the non smokers also showed a similar decrement in pulmonary functions. Similarly the workers working for less than 5 years also had decrement in pulmonary functions indicating that their lungs are being affected even if they have worked for one year. Exposure to the organic dust in the work environment should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection.

  16. Study on the evolution of nuclear engineering professions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Based on interviews of experts belonging to different companies and institutions (EDF, AREVA, CEA, ASN, IRSN, INSTN), subcontractors, engineers and technicians of the nuclear sector, persons in charge of education, pupils and students, this study gives a synthetic vision of the general context of the needs for nuclear engineering professionals, at the world scale, in the French context, the perceived difficulties faced by this sector, the use of subcontracting, the recruitment needs, the educational profile of engineers and technicians, their revenues, their opinion about their work, the adequacy between education and employment in this sector. It gives estimated figures for engineer and technician recruitment needs for different abilities in the French nuclear engineering

  17. Researching primary engineering education: UK perspectives, an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of primary level engineering initiatives were interviewed. Three main concepts were identified during the analysis of findings, each relevant to primary engineering education. These were pedagogic issues, exposure to engineering within the curriculum and children's interest. The paper concludes that the opportunity to make a real difference to children's education by stimulating their engineering imagination suggests this subject area is of particular value.

  18. Preliminary study on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in Horonobe groundwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Kogawa, Noritaka; Maeda, Kazuto

    2006-08-01

    It is necessary to understand the corrosion behavior of candidate overpack materials to plan the in-situ engineered barrier test at underground laboratory constructing at Horonobe and to design the overpacks suitable to Horonobe environment. The preliminary corrosion tests of carbon steel which is a candidate material for overpacks were carried out using artificial groundwater and actual groundwater sampled at Horonobe. As the results of anodic polarization experiments, the anodic polarization curves of carbon steel in buffer material were active dissolution type, and the corrosion type of carbon steel in Horonobe groundwater environment was expected to be general corrosion. The results of immersion test under air equilibrium condition showed that the degrees of corrosion localization were not exceeded the data obtained in previous studies. The trend of corrosion rates in buffer material under anaerobic condition were similar to the data obtained in previous studies. Based on the experimental results, it was confirmed that the corrosion assessment model and assumed corrosion rate in second progress report (H12 report) can be applied to the assessment for Horonobe groundwater condition. (author)

  19. Preliminary engineering and economic analysis of the fixation of high-level radioactive wastes in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1979-07-01

    This feasibility study was based on a waste fixation facility that would serve a reprocessing plant with a capacity of 5 metric tons of uranium per day (MTU/day). Postirradiation cooling times of 3 to 10 years prior to waste solidification were assumed. The waste solution would be concentrated, denitrated, mixed with cement, and cast under pressure in cylindrical canisters similar to those envisioned for a glass facility. The solidified waste grout would be vented, to allow the free water to escape, and then sealed. The filled canisters would be shipped to a geologic repository for permanent storage. Recent work with concretes formed under elevated temperatures and pressures (FUETAP) indicates that they are highly leach resistant. The operating costs were estimated for a waste fixation facility under several conditions. Operating costs for a glass fixation facility were also estimated and compared with the operating costs for a concrete fixation facility. The principal conclusion is that concrete could be an alternative to glass as a matrix for fixation of wastes with high heat-generation rates. The operating costs of an optimized concrete fixation process would probably not be greatly higher than the operating costs of a glass plant, and the capital costs would almost surely be lower. In addition, the concrete process is not a high-temperature process and would not have the consequent operating problems

  20. In Vitro Studies and Preliminary Mathematical Model for Jet Fuel and Noise Induced Auditory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of JP-8 and a Fischer- Tropsch synthetic jet fuel following subacute inhalation exposure in rats. Toxicol Sci 116(1): 239-248. Gallinat, J...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0084 IN VITRO STUDIES AND PRELIMINARY MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR JET FUEL AND NOISE INDUCED AUDITORY IMPAIRMENT...April 2014 – September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In Vitro Studies and Preliminary Mathematical Model for Jet Fuel and Noise Induced Auditory

  1. Traffics and wildlife: A preliminary study on road-kill

    OpenAIRE

    Rustiati, Elly Lestari

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary finding on road kill survey by direct observations onthe high ways. The road-kills recorded of small wildlife, including medium size-mammal (2.50%, n =1), birds (5.00%, n = 2) and small mammals (92.50%, n = 37). The small mammals include the mostcommon mammals in the areas, squirrels, raccoons, skunks and woodchuck. Of mammals, squirrels(35.00%) were the highest recorded, followed by woodchucks (25.00%), mice/shrew (17.50%),raccoons (10.00%), skunk (5.00%) ...

  2. Preliminary study of a flux converter for experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malouch, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to define the characteristics of a flux converter dedicated to increase the fast neutron flux in irradiation devices placed in the core of Osiris experimental reactor. This preliminary work has dealt with the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic aspects of this problem. The synthesis of the results produced by the codes APOLLO2, DAIXY, MERCURE5.3 and FLICA-3M shows that a cylindrical converter equipped with 5 fissile rings can enhance the fast flux by a 35% factor in an experimental device set in its center. (A.C.)

  3. Preliminary feasibility study of the heat - pipe ENHS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratoni, M.; Kim, L.; Mattafirri, S.; Petroski, R.; Greenspan, E.

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study assesses the feasibility of designing an Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactor [1] to have a solid core from which heat is removed by liquid-metal heat pipes (HP). Like the SAFE space nuclear reactor core [2], the HP-ENHS core is comprised of fuel rods and HPs embedded in a solid structure arranged in a hexagonal lattice in a 3:1 ratio. The HPs extend beyond the core length and transfer heat to a secondary coolant that flows by natural circulation. The HP-ENHS reactor is designed to preserve many features of the ENHS reactor including 20-year operation without refueling, very small excess reactivity throughout life, natural circulation cooling, walk-away passive safety, and robust proliferation resistance. The target power level and specific power of the HP-ENHS reactor are those of the reference ENHS reactor [1]. Compared to previous ENHS reactor designs utilizing a lead or lead-bismuth alloy natural circulation cooling system, the HP-ENHS reactor offers a number of possible advantageous features including: (1) significantly enhanced decay heat removal capability; (2) no positive void reactivity coefficients; (3) no direct contact between the fuel clad and coolant, hence, relatively lower wet corrosion of the clad; (4) a core that is more robust for transportation; (5) higher temperature potentially offering higher efficiency and hydrogen production capability. The study focuses on four areas: material compatibility analysis, HP performance analysis, neutronic analysis and thermal-hydraulic analysis. Of four high-temperature structural materials evaluated, Mo TZM alloy is the preferred choice; its upper estimated feasible operating temperature is 1350 K. HP performance is evaluated as a function of working fluid type, operating temperature, wick design and HP diameter and length. Sodium is the preferred working fluid and the HP working temperature is 1300 K. The neutronic analysis found that it is possible to achieve criticality

  4. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, M.A.; Cammann, J.W.; McBeath, R.S.; Rode, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    A new Hanford waste management facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility (planned to be operational by FY 1994) will receive, inspect, process, and repackage contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) contaminated solid wastes. The wastes will be certified according to the waste acceptance criteria for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) geologic repository in southeast New Mexico. Three alternatives which could cost effectively be applied to certify Hanford CH-TRU waste to the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC) have been examined in this updated engineering study. The alternatives differed primarily in the reference processing systems used to transform nonconforming waste into an acceptable, certified waste form. It is recommended to include the alternative of shredding and immobilizing nonconforming wastes in cement (shred/grout processing) in the WRAP facility. Preliminary capital costs for WRAP in mid-point-of-construction (FY 1991) dollars were estimated at $45 million for new construction and $37 million for modification and installation in an existing Hanford surplus facility (231-Z Building). Operating, shipping, and decommissioning costs in FY 1986 dollars were estimated at $126 million, based on a 23-y WRAP life cycle (1994 to 2017). During this period, the WRAP facility will receive an estimated 38,000 m 3 (1.3 million ft 3 ) of solid CH-TRU waste. The study recommends pilot-scale testing and evaluation of the processing systems planned for WRAP and advises further investigation of the 231-Z Building as an alternative to new facility construction

  5. U.S. Coast Guard Pollution Abatement Program : A Preliminary Report on the Emissions Testing of Boat Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    The exhaust emission concentrations from three GM6-71's and a Cummins VT-350 diesel engines were measured on a dynamometer as a function of engine load. The GM6-71 engines were newly rebuilt by the Coast Guard; the Cummins Engine was in used conditio...

  6. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1: Volume 5, Engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The WRAP facility at Hanford will retrieve, process, certify transuranic, mixed, and low level radioactive wastes for disposal/either on-site or at the WIPP. The Conceptual Design Report for the Waste Receiving And Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP 1), established the technical benchmark. The UE ampersand C Engineering Proposal/Work Plan proposed twenty Evaluation/Optimization Engineering Studies to evaluate design alternatives and critically examine functional performance requirements prior to commencement of Preliminary Design. Of these twenty studies, one has been eliminated as unnecessary (The Use of Scintered Metal Filters) due mainly to the lack of National Standards and to the fact that standard HEPA type filters are totally adequate for WRAP application. This report presents an executive summary of the remaining nineteen studies

  7. Academic Use of Internet among Undergraduate Students: A Preliminary Case Study in a Malaysian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Muniandy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The year 1995 was considered the beginning of the Internet age in Malaysia. The growth in the number of Internet hosts in Malaysia began around 1996. Since then, the use of Internet has grown tremendously and, the use of Internet by students at universities now is common in Malaysia. Students use the Internet for social, entertainment, and educational purposes. This paper presents the findings from a preliminary study on how undergraduate students at a local university in Malaysia use the Internet for academic purposes. The research questions answered in this paper are: (i what is the level of Internet usage skill? (ii How is the Internet used for academic purposes? (iii To what extent are Internet facilities used for academic purposes? (iv What are the pathways and search engines used to find information? and (v What is the perception of students toward the quality of learning by using the Internet for academic purposes? The answers to these questions are obtained through the use of a questionnaire completed by 92 undergraduate students at a local university. The data collected were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The results obtained provide some information about the extent of Internet use for academic purposes by graduate students.

  8. Preliminary study on detection technology of the cladding weld of spent fuel storage pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pan; Cui, Hongyan; Feng, Meiming; Shao, Wenbin; Liao, Shusheng; Li, Wei

    2018-04-01

    As the first barrier of the Spent fuel storage pool, the steel cladding using different sizes (length×width) of 304L stainless steel with 3˜6mm thickness plate argon arc welded together which is direct contacted with boric acid water. Environmental humidity between the back of steel cladding and concrete, makes phosphate, chloride ion overflowed from the concrete that corroded on the weld zone with different mechanism. Part of the corrosion defects can penetrate leaded to leakage of boric acid water in penetration position accelerated crack propagation. In view of the above situation and combined with the actual needs of the power plant, the development of effective underwater nondestructive testing means of the weld area for periodic inspection and monitoring is necessary. A single method may lead to the missing of defects detection due to weld reinforcement unpolished. In this paper, eddy current array (ARRAY) and Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM) are adapted to test the limit sensitivity and resolution through by the specimens with artificial defects which make their detection abilities close to satisfy engineering requirements. The preliminary study found that Φ0.5mm through-wall hole and with 2mm length and 0.3mm width through-wall crack in the weld can be good inspected.

  9. Preliminary Study on Kano Model in the Conceptual Design Activities for Product Lifecycle Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Rahman, M. R. A.; Arifin, A. M. T.; Ismail, A. E.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Fauzi Ahmad, Md

    2017-08-01

    Product manufactured with short life cycle had only one major issue, it can lead to increasing volume of waste. Day by day, this untreated waste had consumed many landfill spaces, waiting for any possible alternatives. Lack of product recovery knowledge and recyclability features imprinted into product design are one of the main reason behind all this. Sustainable awareness aspect should not just be implied into people’s mind, but also onto product design. This paper presents a preliminary study on Kano model method in the conceptual design activities to improve product lifecycle. Kano model is a survey-type method, used to analyze and distinguished product qualities or features, also how the customers may have perceived them. Three important attributes of Kano model are performance, attractive and must-be. The proposed approach enables better understanding of customer requirements while providing a way for Kano model to be integrated into engineering design to improve product’s end-of-life. Further works will be continued to provide a better lifecycle option (increase percentage of reuse, remanufacture or recycle, whereby decrease percentage of waste) of a product using Kano model approach.

  10. Case Study Research in Software Engineering Guidelines and Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Runeson, Per; Rainer, Austen; Regnell, Bjorn

    2012-01-01

    Based on their own experiences of in-depth case studies of software projects in international corporations, in this book the authors present detailed practical guidelines on the preparation, conduct, design and reporting of case studies of software engineering.  This is the first software engineering specific book on the case study research method.

  11. Preliminary study on the inducement effect of colchicine during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and ... tree. It is a native single section species and being ... France, Germany, Japan, the United States and several ..... Therefore, we cannot determine the state of colchicine in ... Northwest Pharm.

  12. Sodium Tetraphenylborate Catalyst Identification: Preliminary Studies Set 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1997-05-01

    This document details the results of these tests and represents the second report of the task designed to identify soluble NaTPB decomposition catalysts. This task, performed as part of the DNFSB Recommendation 96-1 Implementation Plan, partially fulfills the request by High Level Waste Engineering and the ITP Flow Sheet Team in task Technical Request HLW-TTR-97008

  13. Preliminary collection 891 of lectures/papers in symposium by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan. Jidosha gijutsukai gakujutsu koenkai maezurishu 891

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-29

    This preliminary collection collected lectures given and papers presented in the symposium by the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan to be held in May, 1989. Totally 86 papers, together with two basic lectures, were presented therein. The categories comprise two basic lectures titled Future problems on CVT and automatic transmission and Advances of gasoline engine and measuring techniques, ten papers for the gasoline engine, covering the supercharger, air/fuel mixture, noise, bore deformation, etc., ten papers for the diesel engine, covering the exhaust gas, supercharger, methanol engine, etc., ten papers for the car body, covering the aerodynamical characteristics and movement of car body, movement analysis of motor bicycle, head lamp, painting, etc., ten papers for the car parts, ten papers for the fuel injection, ten papers for the engine parts, covering the piston, oil ring, cylinder, connecting rod, plug, rotary, car heater, etc., three papers for the car production, covering the line control, welding, production method, etc., seven papers for the car steering and stability, eight papers for the vibration and noise attenuation and three papers for the others. 370 refs., 857 figs., 100 tabs.

  14. New shipyard layout design for the preliminary phase & case study for the green field project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Joo; Woo, Jong Hun

    2013-03-01

    For several decades, Asian nations such as Korea, Japan and China have been leading the shipbuilding industry since the decline in Europe and America. However, several developing countries such as India, Brazil, etc. are going to make an entrance into the shipbuilding industry. These developing countries are finding technical partners or information providers because they are in situation of little experiences and technologies. Now, the shipbuilding engineering companies of shipbuilding advanced countries are getting a chance of engineering business against those developing countries. The starting point of this business model is green field project for the construction of new shipyard. This business model is started with a design of the shipyard layout. For the conducting of the shipyard layout design, four kinds of engineering parts are required. Those are civil engineering, building engineering, utility engineering and production layout engineering. Among these parts, production layout engineering is most important because its result is the foundation of the other engineering parts and it determines the shipyard capacity during the shipyard operation lifecycle. Previous researches about the shipyard layout design are out of the range from the business requirements because most research cases are in the tower of ivory, which means that there are little consideration of real ship and shipbuilding operation. In this paper, a shipyard layout design for preliminary phase is conducted for the target of newly planned shipyard at Venezuela of South America with an integrated method that is capable of dealing with actual master data from the shipyard. The layout design method of this paper is differentiated from the previous researches in that the actual product data from the target ship and the actual shipbuilding operation data are used for the required area estimation.

  15. New shipyard layout design for the preliminary phase & case study for the green field project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Joo Song

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, Asian nations such as Korea, Japan and China have been leading the shipbuilding industry since the decline in Europe and America. However, several developing countries such as India, Brazil, etc. are going to make an entrance into the shipbuilding industry. These developing countries are finding technical partners or information providers because they are in situation of little experiences and technologies. Now, the shipbuilding engineering companies of shipbuilding advanced countries are getting a chance of engineering business against those developing countries. The starting point of this business model is green field project for the construction of new shipyard. This business model is started with a design of the shipyard layout. For the conducting of the shipyard layout design, four kinds of engineering parts are required. Those are civil engineering, building engineering, utility engineering and production layout engineering. Among these parts, production layout engineering is most important because its result is the foundation of the other engineering parts and it determines the shipyard capacity during the shipyard operation lifecycle. Previous researches about the shipyard layout design are out of the range from the business requirements because most research cases are in the tower of ivory, which means that there are little consideration of real ship and shipbuilding operation. In this paper, a shipyard layout design for preliminary phase is conducted for the target of newly planned shipyard at Venezuela of South America with an integrated method that is capable of dealing with actual master data from the shipyard. The layout design method of this paper is differentiated from the previous researches in that the actual product data from the target ship and the actual shipbuilding operation data are used for the required area estimation.

  16. A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

  17. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  18. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  19. Quality engineering as a discipline of study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Rachel R.; Hoover, Marcey L.

    2012-12-01

    The current framework for quality scholarship in the United States ranges from the training and education of future quality engineers, managers, and professionals to focused and sustained research initiatives that, through academic institutions and other organizations, aim to improve the knowledge and application of quality across a variety of sectors. Numerous quality journals also provide a forum for professional dissemination of information.

  20. Cadmium Telluride and Grain Boundaries: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Michael Evan

    The efficacy of the CdCl2 treatment on polycrystalline CdTe-based solar cells was discovered over a quarter of a century ago; and yet, the exact mechanism of this treatment is still not fully understood to this day. In fact, the lack of understanding stems from a debate on the exact role of grain boundaries in CdCl2-treated CdTe solar cells. Some hypothesize that the CdCl2-treatment causes grain boundaries to become beneficial to solar cell performance while others disagree and claim that the treatment simply mitigates the harmful effects of grain boundaries via passivation. A future goal of this project is to determine which, if either, hypothesis is correct by direct wafer bonding single crystalline CdTe. Direct wafer bonding of single crystalline materials would create only one grain boundary at the bonded interface. This approach allows the orientation and surface chemistry of interfaces to be controlled in order to study the chemistry of grain boundaries methodically. However, before any direct wafer bonding can be done, a preliminary study of single crystalline CdTe is necessary. High-quality direct wafer bonding can only be achieved if the surfaces of each wafer satisfy certain requirements. Additionally, analyzing single crystalline CdTe materials prior to bonding is crucial in order to make any insightful connections between results found from direct bonding of single crystalline CdTe and what is observed in polycrystalline CdTe. First, the surface of an (001) CdTe layer epitaxially grown on an (001) InSb substrate is studied using atomic force microscopy. Stacking faults on the CdTe surface are observed and the thickness of the grown CdTe epilayer is calculated by considering the interplanar angles between the (001) and (111) crystallographic planes as well as the dimensions of the stacking faults. While the stacking faults will inhibit successful wafer bonding, the roughness of the regions outside the stacking faults is 0.9 nm, which is an acceptable

  1. Preliminary study of varietal susceptibility to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Xerikos, P.B.

    1976-01-01

    The injury response of plants to air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, is known to vary in severity and type for different varieties or cultivars of a species. Differences in the susceptibility of soybean varieties to sulfur dioxide have previously been noted, but sufficient information is not available concerning the sulfur dioxide resistance of varieties commonly grown in the Midwest. Results are reported from preliminary experiments concerning acute sulfur dioxide effects on 12 soybean varieties. The injury symptoms ranged from cream colored necrotic lesions (generally on younger leaves) to a reddish brown necrotic stipling (on older leaves). Differences in the severity of symptom development for the varieties was evident on both the younger and older leaves. No injury was apparent with three of the varieties

  2. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  3. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  4. Preliminary study of advanced turbofans for low energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knip, G.

    1975-01-01

    This analysis determines the effect of higher overall engine pressure ratios (OPR's), bypass ratios (BPR's), and turbine rotor-inlet temperature on a Mach-0.85 transport having a range of 5556 km (3000 nmi) and carrying a payload of 18144 kg (40,000 lbs-200 passengers). Sideline noises (jet plus fan) of between 91 and 106 EPNdB (FAR36) are considered. Takeoff gross weight (TOGW), fuel consumption (kg/pass. km) and direct operating cost (DOC) are used at the figures of merit. Based on predicted 1985 levels of engine technology and a noise goal of 96 EPNdB, the higher-OPR engine results in an airplane that is 18 percent lighter in terms of TOGW, uses 22.3 percent less fuel, and has a 14.7 percent lower DOC than a comparable airplane powered by a current turbofan. Cooling the compressor bleed air and lowering the cruise Mach number appear attractive in terms of further improving the figures of merit.

  5. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  6. Engineering Ethics Education: A Comparative Study of Japan and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Balamuralithara; Tochinai, Fumihiko; Kanemitsu, Hidekazu

    2018-03-22

    This paper reports the findings of a comparative study in which students' perceived attainment of the objectives of an engineering ethics education and their attitude towards engineering ethics were investigated and compared. The investigation was carried out in Japan and Malaysia, involving 163 and 108 engineering undergraduates respectively. The research method used was based on a survey in which respondents were sent a questionnaire to elicit relevant data. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed on the data. The results of the analyses showed that the attainment of the objectives of engineering ethics education and students' attitude towards socio-ethical issues in engineering were significantly higher and positive among Japanese engineering students compared to Malaysian engineering students. Such findings suggest that a well-structured, integrated, and innovative pedagogy for teaching ethics will have an impact on the students' attainment of ethics education objectives and their attitude towards engineering ethics. As such, the research findings serve as a cornerstone to which the current practice of teaching and learning of engineering ethics education can be examined more critically, such that further improvements can be made to the existing curriculum that can help produce engineers that have strong moral and ethical characters.

  7. Study of an advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J. C.; Short, F. R.; Staton, D. V.; Zolezzi, B. A.; Curry, C. E.; Orelup, M. J.; Vaught, J. M.; Humphrey, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The best technology program for a small, economically viable gas turbine engine applicable to the general aviation helicopter and aircraft market for 1985-1990 was studied. Turboshaft and turboprop engines in the 112 to 746 kW (150 to 1000 hp) range and turbofan engines up to 6672 N (1500 lbf) thrust were considered. A good market for new turbine engines was predicted for 1988 providing aircraft are designed to capitalize on the advantages of the turbine engine. Parametric engine families were defined in terms of design and off-design performance, mass, and cost. These were evaluated in aircraft design missions selected to represent important market segments for fixed and rotary-wing applications. Payoff parameters influenced by engine cycle and configuration changes were aircraft gross mass, acquisition cost, total cost of ownership, and cash flow. Significant advantage over a current technology, small gas turbine engines was found especially in cost of ownership and fuel economy for airframes incorporating an air-cooled high-pressure ratio engine. A power class of 373 kW (500 hp) was recommended as the next frontier for technology advance where large improvements in fuel economy and engine mass appear possible through component research and development.

  8. Basic Study on Engine with Scroll Compressor and Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Nishida, Mitsuhiro

    Scroll compressors are becoming popular in air conditioning and refrigeration. This is primarily due to their higher efficiency and low noise/vibration characteristics. The scroll principle can be applied also to the steam expander and the Brayton cycle engine,as shown in the past literature. The Otto cycle spark-ignition engine with a scroll compressor and expander is studied in this report. The principle and basic structure of the scroll engine are explained,and the engine characteristic are calculated based on the idealized cycles and processes. A prototype model has been proposed and constructed. The rotary type engine has always had a problem with sealing. The scroll engine might overcome this shortcoming with its much lower rubbing speed compared to its previous counterparts,and is therefore worth investigating.

  9. Notion Of Artificial Labs Slow Global Warming And Advancing Engine Studies Perspectives On A Computational Experiment On Dual-Fuel Compression-Ignition Engine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonye K. Jack

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate clean energy applications of the dual-fuel internal combustion engine D-FICE with pilot Diesel fuel to aid public policy formulation in terms of present and future benefits to the modern transportation stationary power and promotion of oil and gas green- drilling the brief to an engine research team was to investigate the feasible advantages of dual-fuel compression-ignition engines guided by the following concerns i Sustainable fuel and engine power delivery ii The requirements for fuel flexibility iii Low exhausts emissions and environmental pollution iv Achieving low specific fuel consumption and economy for maximum power v The comparative advantages over the conventional Diesel engines vi Thermo-economic modeling and analysis for the optimal blend as basis for a benefitcost evaluation Planned in two stages for reduced cost and fast turnaround of results - initial preliminary stage with basic simple models and advanced stage with more detailed complex modeling. The paper describes a simplified MATLAB based computational experiment predictive model for the thermodynamic combustion and engine performance analysis of dual-fuel compression-ignition engine studies operating on the theoretical limited-pressure cycle with several alternative fuel-blends. Environmental implications for extreme temperature moderation are considered by finite-time thermodynamic modeling for maximum power with predictions for pollutants formation and control by reaction rates kinetics analysis of systematic reduced plausible coupled chemistry models through the NCN reaction pathway for the gas-phase reactions classes of interest. Controllable variables for engine-out pollutants emissions reduction and in particular NOx elimination are identified. Verifications and Validations VampV through Performance Comparisons were made using a clinical approach in selection of StrokeBore ratios greater-than and equal-to one amp88051 low-to-high engine speeds and medium

  10. Computational studies of an intake manifold for restricted engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Bagus Dwi; Ubaidillah, Maharani, Elliza Tri; Setyohandoko, Gabriel; Idris, Muhammad Idzdihar

    2018-02-01

    The Formula Society of Automotive Engineer (FSAE) student competition is an international contest for a vehicle that entirely designed and built by students from various universities. The engine design in the Formula SAE competition has to comply a tight regulation. Concerning the engine intake line, an air restrictor of circular cross-section less than 20 mm must be fitted between the throttle valve and the engine inlet. The throat is aimed to limit the engine air flow rate as it strongly influences the volumetric efficiency and then the maximum power. This article focuses on the design of the engine intake system of the Bengawan FSAE team vehicle to optimize the engine power output and its stability. The performance of engine intake system is studied through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The objective of CFD is to know the pressure, velocity, and airflow of the air intake manifold for the best performance of the engine. The three-dimensional drawing of the intake manifold was made, and CFD simulation was conducted using ANSYS FLUENT. Two models were studied. The result shows that the different design produces a different value of the velocity of airflow and the kind of flow type.

  11. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  12. Double Compression Expansion Engine: A Parametric Study on a High-Efficiency Engine Concept

    KAUST Repository

    Bhavani Shankar, Vijai Shankar

    2018-04-03

    The Double compression expansion engine (DCEE) concept has exhibited a potential for achieving high brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). The effect of different engine components on system efficiency was evaluated in this work using GT Power simulations. A parametric study on piston insulation, convection heat transfer multiplier, expander head insulation, insulation of connecting pipes, ports and tanks, and the expander intake valve lift profiles was conducted to understand the critical parameters that affected engine efficiency. The simulations were constrained to a constant peak cylinder pressure of 300 bar, and a fixed combustion phasing. The results from this study would be useful in making technology choices that will help realise the potential of this engine concept.

  13. Engineering Students' Views of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study from Petroleum Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica M; McClelland, Carrie J; Smith, Nicole M

    2017-12-01

    The mining and energy industries present unique challenges to engineers, who must navigate sometimes competing responsibilities and codes of conduct, such as personal senses of right and wrong, professional ethics codes, and their employers' corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the current dominant framework used by industry to conceptualize firms' responsibilities to their stakeholders, yet has it plays a relatively minor role in engineering ethics education. In this article, we report on an interdisciplinary pedagogical intervention in a petroleum engineering seminar that sought to better prepare engineering undergraduate students to critically appraise the strengths and limitations of CSR as an approach to reconciling the interests of industry and communities. We find that as a result of the curricular interventions, engineering students were able to expand their knowledge of the social, rather than simply environmental and economic dimensions of CSR. They remained hesitant, however, in identifying the links between those social aspects of CSR and their actual engineering work. The study suggests that CSR may be a fruitful arena from which to illustrate the profoundly sociotechnical dimensions of the engineering challenges relevant to students' future careers.

  14. Factors that facilitate or inhibit interest of domestic students in the engineering PhD: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell Smith, Michelle C.

    Given the increasing complexity of technology in our society, the United States has a growing demand for a more highly educated technical workforce. Unfortunately, the proportion of United States citizens earning a PhD in engineering has been declining and there is concern about meeting the economic, national security and quality of life needs of our country. This mixed methods sequential exploratory instrument design study identified factors that facilitate or inhibit interest in engineering PhD programs among domestic engineering undergraduate students in the United States. This study developed a testable theory for how domestic students become interested in engineering PhD programs and a measure of that process, the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII). The study was conducted in four phases. The first phase of the study was a qualitative grounded theory exploration of interest in the engineering PhD. Qualitative data were collected from domestic engineering students, engineering faculty and industry professional who had earned a PhD in engineering. The second phase, instrument development, developed the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII), a measurement instrument designed with good psychometric properties to test a series of preliminary hypotheses related to the theory generated in the qualitative phase. In the third phase of the study, the EEII was used to collect data from a larger sample of junior and senior engineering majors. The fourth phase integrated the findings from the qualitative and quantitative phases. Four factors were identified as being significant influences of interest in the engineering PhD: Personal characteristics, educational environment, misperceptions of the economic and personal costs, and misperceptions of engineering work. Recommendations include increasing faculty encouragement of students to pursue an engineering PhD and programming to correct the misperceptions of the costs of the engineering PhD and the

  15. Preliminary studies of monoclonal antibody lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelp, W.B.; Eary, J.F.; Jones, R.F.; Hellstrom, K.E.; Hellstrom, I.; Beaumier, P.L.; Krohn, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy was performed at 3 and 20 hr following subcutaneous injection of 131 I anti-melanoma antibody (Fab) in 11 patients who had surgical resection of lymph nodes (neck, axilla, groin) at 24 hr for suspected metastatic melanoma. Comparable amounts of 125 I nonspecific control antibody (Fab) were co-administered. Six patients had nodal metastases and three showed positive images at both time periods. Five patients had no metastases though one was image positive. Four other nondiseased inguinal node groups were image negative. A total of 28 tumored nodes and 110 normal nodes were removed, counted and histologically examined. All metastatic tumors expressed antigen against which the specific Fab was directed. The concentrations of both specific and nonspecific Fab were similar in tumored nodes and both were significantly greater than in normal nodes showed essentially identical intranodal spatial distribution of the specific and control Fab in areas containing tumor. These preliminary results suggest the increased concentration of murine immunoglobulin (Fab) retained in diseased nodes was a nonspecific phenomenon

  16. Preliminary studies on a plasma focus opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C S; Moo, S P; Singh, J P [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Physics Dept., Plasma Research Laboratory; Choi, P [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    The small plasma focus device UNU/ICTP PFF has been modified to assess the operation of a plasma focus based long conduction (> 2 {mu}s) opening switch, with a plasma filled diode as the load. The UNU/ICTP PFF is a Mather type plasma focus device powered by a single 15 kV, 30 {mu}F capacitor delivering a peak current of 150 kA when discharged at 15 kV. The device has been optimized for reproducible focusing in various gases including deuterium, argon, carbon dioxide, helium as well as in air. In particular, the optimum operating pressure for air is between 0.5 to 1.1 mbar, whereas for argon it is between 0.3 to 3 mbar. For the operation of the UNU/ICTP PFF as an opening switch, the electrode geometry is modified to redirect the plasma motion at the end of the axial rundown phase to avoid the normal plasma focus action, and the operating regime is shifted to low pressure to favour plasma opening switch action. With air as the working gas, pressure as low as 10{sup -3} mbar was tested. At such a low pressure, a set of 12 plasma injection cable guns is used to initiate breakdown of the discharge. The design and operating principle is presented and some preliminary results obtained on the operational characteristics of this device are discussed. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  17. Preliminary Clinical Study On Ms Treatment With Hyperbaric Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulewicz Kazimierz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted the preliminary clinical investigation on 16 multiple sclerosis (Sclerosis multiplex patients of median disease duration 9.33 years and symptoms evaluated on Kurtzke’s scale. The patients underwent between 25 and 30 hyperbaric oxygen exposures at a pressure of 2 ata in intervals spread over a few days. The patients were qualified and classified to the treatment symptomatologically according to Fisher but the obtained results were evaluated according to the standardised Disability Status Scale by Kurtzke. During the investigations the authors carried out additional quantitative immunoglobulin and complement activity determination, lymphocyte T and B determinations as well as the usually applied clinical and laboratory investigations. Evident clinical improvement was observed in 14 patients, but in the case of one patient a deterioration was observed after 15 hyperbaric expositions (resulting in the hyperbaric oxygen treatment being stopped, whilst in another case no curative effect could be observed. By utilising the 50% haemolysis method, within the examined immunological parameters the authors observed an increase of complement fractions and its activity, white lymphocytes T and B examined qualitatively did not maintain the characteristic shift. The authors are still discussing the obtained results.

  18. Preliminary studies of the plasma focus as an opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Gerdin, G.

    1983-01-01

    Sharp current interruption at pinch time suggests the possible application of the plasma focus as an opening switch. Switch impedances on the order of 0.5 ohms or greater would be of interest to pulsed power applications if the rise time for the impedance is sufficiently short. The experimental determination of the magnitude of the plasma focus impedance at pinch time and its nature (R or L) are obviously important in assessing the feasibility of this application. An experimental estimate of the Spitzer resistance of the plasma focus based on soft-X-ray measurements indicates a Spitzer resistance of 9 mΩ. Estimates of resistance based on the maximum particle energy observed 4 (V about E /sub MAX/ /e) and the current at pinch time (R about E /sub MAX/ /eI /sub p/ ) would indicate an effective resistance of about one ohm. Estimates of resistance based on circuit parameters (L, I, q/C) yield about one third of an ohm. To resolve these discrepancies a exclamationBexclamation probe 5 is being developed to get a better estimate of L(t), L(t) and I(t) through spatially resolved measurements. Preliminary results are reported

  19. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clive, P J M; Chindurza, I [SgurrEnergy Ltd, 79 Coplaw Street, Glasgow G42 7JG, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ravey, I; Bass, J [RES Group Ltd, James Blyth House, 7000 Academy Park, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Boyle, R J; Jones, P [TUV NEL Ltd, East Kilbride, Glasgow G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Lang, S J [Sustainable Energy Research Group, University College Cork (Ireland); Bradley, S [Mighty River Power, Level 14, 23-29 Albert Street, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, L [Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd, 2064 Maryhill Road, Glasgow G20 0AB, Scotland (United Kingdom); Oldroyd, A [Oldbaum Services Ltd, Schoolhouse, Brig o' Turk, Callander, Scotland (United Kingdom); Stickland, M [University of Strathclyde, 16 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: peter.clive@sgurrenergy.com

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  20. Cost risk analysis of radioactive waste management Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, J.

    2006-12-01

    This work begins with exposition of the basics of risk analysis. These basics are then applied to the Finnish radioactive waste disposal environment in which the nuclear power companies are responsible for all costs of radioactive waste management including longterm disposal of spent fuel. Nuclear power companies prepare cost estimates of the waste disposal on a yearly basis to support the decision making on accumulation of resources to the nuclear waste disposal fund. These cost estimates are based on the cost level of the ongoing year. A Monte Carlo simulation model of the costs of the waste disposal system was defined and it was used to produce preliminary results of its cost risk characteristics. Input data was synthesised by modifying the original coefficients of cost uncertainty to define a cost range for each cost item. This is a suitable method for demonstrating results obtainable by the model but it is not accurate enough for supporting decision making. Two key areas of further development were identified: the input data preparation and identifying and handling of (i.e. eliminating or merging) interacting cost elements in the simulation model. Further development in both of the mentioned areas can be carried out by co-operating with the power companies as they are the sources of the original data. (orig.)

  1. A Study of Technical Engineering Peer Reviews at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lawrence P.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Bell, David G.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the state of practices of design reviews at NASA and research into what can be done to improve peer review practices. There are many types of reviews at NASA: required and not, formalized and informal, programmatic and technical. Standing project formal reviews such as the Preliminary Design Review and Critical Design Review are a required part of every project and mission development. However, the technical, engineering peer reviews that support teams' work on such projects are informal, some times ad hoc, and inconsistent across the organization. The goal of this work is to identify best practices and lessons learned from NASA's experience, supported by academic research and methodologies to ultimately improve the process. This research has determined that the organization, composition, scope, and approach of the reviews impact their success. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) can identify key areas of concern before or in the reviews. Product definition tools like the Project Priority Matrix, engineering-focused Customer Value Chain Analysis (CVCA), and project or system-based Quality Function Deployment (QFD) help prioritize resources in reviews. The use of information technology and structured design methodologies can strengthen the engineering peer review process to help NASA work towards error-proofing the design process.

  2. A Preliminary Study Application Clustering System in Acoustic Emission Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Bahari Nur Amira Afiza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic Emission (AE is a non-destructive testing known as assessment on damage detection in structural engineering. It also can be used to discriminate the different types of damage occurring in a composite materials. The main problem associated with the data analysis is the discrimination between the different AE sources and analysis of the AE signal in order to identify the most critical damage mechanism. Clustering analysis is a technique in which the set of object are assigned to a group called cluster. The objective of the cluster analysis is to separate a set of data into several classes that reflect the internal structure of data. In this paper was used k-means algorithm for partitioned clustering method, numerous effort have been made to improve the performance of application k-means clustering algorithm. This paper presents a current review on application clustering system in Acoustic Emission.

  3. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space - Criteria, survey study and preliminary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztejnberg, M.; Xiao, S.; Satvat, N.; Limon, F.; Hopkins, J.; Jevremovic, T.; T. Jevremovic)

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of manned space missions out side Earth's or bit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is there fore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On the other hand, recent considerations to send a man to the Moon for a long stay would require a stable, secured, and safe source of energy (there is hardly anything beyond nuclear power that would provide a useful and reliably safe sustainable supply of energy). National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) anticipates that the mass of a shielding material required for long travel to Mars is the next major design driver. In 2006 NASA identified a need to assess and evaluate potential gaps in existing knowledge and understanding of the level and types of radiation critical to astronauts' health during the long travel to Mars and to start a comprehensive study related to the shielding design of a spacecraft finding the conditions for the mitigation of radiation components contributing to the doses beyond accepted limits. In order to reduce the overall space craft mass, NASA is looking for the novel, multi-purpose and multi-functional materials that will provide effective shielding of the crew and electronics on board. The Laboratory for Neutronics and Geometry Computation in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University led by Prof. Tatjana Jevremovic began in 2004 the analytical evaluations of different lightweight materials. The preliminary results of the design survey study are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space: Criteria, survey study, and preliminary model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztejnberg Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of manned space missions outside Earth's orbit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is therefore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On the other hand, recent considerations to send a man to the Moon for a long stay would require a stable, secured and safe source of energy (there is hardly anything beyond nuclear power that would provide a useful and reliably safe sustainable supply of energy. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA anticipates that the mass of a shielding material required for long travel to Mars is the next major design driver. In 2006 NASA identified a need to assess and evaluate potential gaps in existing knowledge and understanding of the level and types of radiation critical to astronauts' health during the long travel to Mars and to start a comprehensive study related to the shielding design of a spacecraft finding the conditions for the mitigation of radiation components contributing to the doses beyond accepted limits. In order to reduce the overall space craft mass, NASA is looking for the novel, multi-purpose and multi-functional materials that will provide effective shielding of the crew and electronics on board. The Laboratory for Neutronics and Geometry Computation in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University led by Prof. Tatjana Jevremović began in 2004 the analytical evaluations of different lightweight materials. The preliminary results of the design survey study are presented in this paper.

  5. Enhancing Systems Engineering Education Through Case Study Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer Stenger

    2016-01-01

    Developing and refining methods for teaching systems engineering is part of Systems Engineering grand challenges and agenda for research in the SE research community. Retention of systems engineering knowledge is a growing concern in the United States as the baby boom generation continues to retire and the faster pace of technology development does not allow for younger generations to gain experiential knowledge through years of practice. Government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), develop their own curricula and SE leadership development programs to "grow their own" systems engineers. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducts its own Center-focused Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program (MSELDP), a competitive program consisting of coursework, a guest lecture series, and a rotational assignment into an unfamiliar organization engaged in systems engineering. Independently, MSFC developed two courses to address knowledge retention and sharing concerns: Real World Marshall Mission Success course and its Case Study Writers Workshop and Writers Experience. Teaching case study writing and leading students through a hands-on experience at writing a case study on an SE topic can enhance SE training and has the potential to accelerate the transfer of experiential knowledge. This paper is an overview of the pilot experiences with teaching case study writing, its application in case study-based learning, and identifies potential areas of research and application for case study writing in systems engineering education.

  6. Experimental Study of the Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump with Engine Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas engine driven heat pumps (GEHPs represent one of practical solutions to effectively utilize fossil fuel energy and reduce environmental pollution. In this paper, the performance characteristics of the GEHP were investigated experimentally with engine heat recovery. A GEHP test facility was set up for this purpose. The effects of several important factors including engine speed, ambient temperature, condenser water flow rate, and condenser water inlet temperature on the system performance were studied over a wide range of operating conditions. The results showed that the engine waste heat accounted for about 40–50% of the total heat capacity over the studied operating conditions. It also showed that engine speed and ambient temperature had significant effects on the GEHP performance. The coefficient of performance (COP and the primary energy ratio (PER decreased by 14% and 12%, respectively, as engine speed increased from 1400 rpm to 2000 rpm. On the other hand, the COP and PER of the system increased by 22% and 16%, respectively, with the ambient temperature increasing from 3 to 12°C. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the condenser water flow rate and condenser water inlet temperature had little influence on the COP of the heat pump and the PER of the GEHP system.

  7. A prediction study of a spark ignition supercharged hydrogen engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, M.A.R.S.; Al-Janabi, H.A.K.S. [University of Babylon (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen is found to be a suitable alternative fuel for spark ignition engines with certain drawbacks, such as high NO{sub x} emission and small power output. However, supercharging may solve such problems. In this study, the effects of equivalence ratio, compression ratio and inlet pressure on the performance and NO{sub x} emission of a four stroke supercharged hydrogen engine have been analyzed using a specially developed computer program. The results are verified and compared with experimental data obtained from tests on a Ricardo E6/US engine. A chart specifying the safe operation zone of the hydrogen engine has been produced. The safe operation zone means no pre-ignition, acceptable NO{sub x} emission, high engine efficiency and lower specific fuel consumption in comparison with the gasoline engine. The study also shows that supercharging is a more effective method to increase the output of a hydrogen engine rather than increasing the compression ratio of the engine at the knock limited equivalence ratio. (author)

  8. Systems engineering aspects of a preliminary conceptual design of the space station environmental control and life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. H.; Meyer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering aspects of developing a conceptual design of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) are discussed. Topics covered include defining system requirements and groundrules for approach, formulating possible cycle closure options, and establishing a system-level mass balance on the essential materials processed in oxygen and water cycles. Consideration is also given to the performance of a system trade-off study to determine the best degree of cycle closure for the ECLSS, and the construction of a conceptual design of the ECLSS with subsystem performance specifications and candidate concepts. For the optimum balance between development costs, technological risks, and resupply penalties, a partially closed cycle ECLSS option is suggested.

  9. CDIO Projects in Civil Engineering Study Program at DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Simonsen, Claus; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2011-01-01

    or a design build project on each of the first four semesters. In this paper the four projects in the civil engineering study program are described along with a brief description of the entire study program. The aim is to provide additional information and documentation to accompany an exposition where......In 2008 all Bachelor of engineering study programs at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) have been adopted to the “Conceive – Design – Implement – Operate” approach. As part of the necessary changes it was decided that all seven study programs should have a cross disciplinary project...... students present their projects. Learning outcomes, training and assessment of personal, professional and social engineering skills are described from a project point of view. Progression of engineering skills is discussed from a study program perspective. The interrelation between the various elements...

  10. A preliminary study of variation of Trapa in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadono, Yasuro; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Lai, Vincent

    2018-05-31

    SummaryFrequent occurrence of intermediate forms and poor knowledge on the variability of characters have caused some difficulties in the taxonomy of Trapa in Japan. Thus I made a preliminary analysis on the variation of nuts collected from 21 populations in Southwestern Japan. Attention was paid to some morphometrical characters of the nut and development of lower spines or “pseudohorns.” Each population usually contained different forms of nuts. Among them, however, several entities could be recognized based on the shape of nut as follows. 1) Two-spined form: This included nuts of middle size (width 30–50 mm) and ones of big size (width over 45 mm). In case of the former ones, the nuts with pseudohorns of varying degree of development usually occurred together within one population and even on a single plant. I propose to treat them as one taxon, Trapa japonica, sensu OHWI (1965), without inventing varieties. But at the same time, it was remarkable that the tendency of development of pseudohorns was apparently different from population to population. The bigger ones included two types, that is, one without pseudohorns and the other with pseudohorns. The former one may be identified as T. bispinosa ROXB., but the latter one has not been described in literature. 2) Four-spined form: The nuts of small size (width of about 20 mm) were well definable and thought to be T. incisa SIEB. et ZUCC. The nuts of bigger size showed some variations with respect to their size and/or stoutness of lower spines. The big ones (width over 45 mm) may be treated as one taxon, T. natans or its variety. The nuts of middle size have been named T. natans var. pumila NAKANO. But so far as present materials were concerned, its entity seemed dubious. They might be immature nuts of bigger ones. The different patterns of variation among populations were ascribed to genetic differentiation. Predominance of self-pollination and isolation of habitats were thought to promote genetic isolation

  11. A preliminary study on the application of Friction Welding in structural repairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, D.; Santos, J.F. dos [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung; Blakemore, G.R. [Pressure Products Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Gibson, D. [National Hyperbaric Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    Friction Welding is characterised by the absence of a fusion zone associated with comparatively low temperatures in the weld. These features allow the application of this welding process in joining and repair of most engineering structures, especially in hazardous environments. This work presents a preliminary study on different friction welding processes, including the recently developed Friction Hydro-Pillar Processing (FHPP) and Friction Stitch Welding, as joining technologies for thick-walled structures. The use of these welding processes in different industrial applications, compared with the commonly used arc welding counterparts, as well as the influence of welding parameters on the weldment integrity are discussed. A brief description of a portable friction welding equipment and its possible implementation for FHPP are presented. Stud welds produced in the commissioning phase of this equipment have been analysed and tested to assess their quality. (orig.) [Deutsch] Da die Schweisszonentemperatur waehrend des Reibschweissvorganges vergleichsweise niedrig ist, bildet sich kein Schmelzbad aus. Anwendbar ist dieses Schweissverfahren zur Verbindung oder Reparatur der meisten Metallkonstruktionen, speziell in risikobehafteter Umgebung. Diese Arbeit enthaelt eine Vorstudie zu verschiedenen Reibschweissprozessen, einschliesslich der neu entwickelten Friction Hydro-Pillar Processing (FHPP)- und Friction Stitch Welding-Verfahren, als Fuegetechniken fuer dickwandige Strukturen. Die Anwendbarkeit dieser Schweissprozesse in verschiedenen Industrien, verglichen mit herkoemmlich verwendeten Lichtbogenschweissverfahren, sowie der Einfluss von Schweissparametern auf die Guete der Verbindung werden diskutiert. Praesentiert wird ausserdem eine tragbare Reibschweissmaschine und ihre moegliche Verwendung zum FHPP-Schweissen. Bolzenschweissungen, die waehrend der Inbetriebnahmephase dieser Maschine hergestellt wurden, sind zur Charakterisierung ihrer Qualitaet analysiert und

  12. Environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials: Review of modeling and analytical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Fadri; Sun, TianYin; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Scientific consensus predicts that the worldwide use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) leads to their release into the environment. We reviewed the available literature concerning environmental concentrations of six ENMs (TiO 2 , ZnO, Ag, fullerenes, CNT and CeO 2 ) in surface waters, wastewater treatment plant effluents, biosolids, sediments, soils and air. Presently, a dozen modeling studies provide environmental concentrations for ENM and a handful of analytical works can be used as basis for a preliminary validation. There are still major knowledge gaps (e.g. on ENM production, application and release) that affect the modeled values, but over all an agreement on the order of magnitude of the environmental concentrations can be reached. True validation of the modeled values is difficult because trace analytical methods that are specific for ENM detection and quantification are not available. The modeled and measured results are not always comparable due to the different forms and sizes of particles that these two approaches target. -- Highlights: •Modeled environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials are reviewed. •Measured environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials are reviewed. •Possible validation of modeled data by measurements is critically evaluated. •Different approaches in modeling and measurement methods complicate validation. -- Modeled and measured environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials are reviewed and critically discussed

  13. Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain: A preliminary study on a Gaussian hill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    this problem for WFs in flat terrain or offshore has been investigated in many studies, it is still a challenging problem for WFs in complex terrain. In this preliminary study, the wind flow conditions of complex terrain without WTs are first obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation...

  14. Thermal treatment of recycled concrete aggegate for general use in concrete. A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.; Brouwer, J.P.; Mulder, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the results of a preliminary laboratory study to assess the effectiveness of thermally treating recycled concrete aggregate for genera) use in concrete are presented. The samples used for the study consisted of sieved fractions of crushed concrete that were subjected to various

  15. A Multidisciplinary Study of Pulse Detonation Engine Propulsion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santoro, Robert

    2003-01-01

    ... chemistry, injector and flow field mixing, and advanced diagnostics to study the fundamental phenomena of importance under both static and dynamic conditions representative of actual pulse detonation engine operation...

  16. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was completed as required by DOE Order 5480.23. The purpose of this document is to construct a safety basis that supports the design and permits construction of the facility. The facility has been designed to the requirements of a Radioactive Solid Waste Facility presented in DOE Order 6430.1A

  17. Study of temperature distribution in a Stirling engine regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheith, R.; Aloui, F.; Ben Nasrallah, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A Gamma-Stirling engine is experimented to determine the optimal operation parameters. • A set of experiment reveals a difference of temperature between regenerator sides. • A phenomenon which consumes a part of the produced energy by the engine is highlighted. • A multi-objectif study based on experimental design methodology is developed. • The optimal set of operation parameters maximizing the engine power is proposed. - Abstract: A gamma Stirling engine is studied in this paper. A special care was accorded to the instrumentation of this engine and especially the instrumentation of the regenerator. A preliminarily set of experimental measurement reveals a difference of temperature between both regenerator sides. A second set of experiments was proposed to detect the influence of this phenomenon on Stirling engine performances. The asymmetry of heat transfer inside the Stirling engine regenerator’s is one of the important phenomenons which consume a part of the produced energy. Two experiments are made to find out the causes of this asymmetry. In order to know the influence of the different operation parameters on this new phenomenon the experimental design method is adopted. The experimental design is an alternative to identify the parameters sets allowing optimal Stirling engine performances. A central composite rotatable design was adopted for minimizing the asymmetry of temperature between both regenerator sides and maximizes the engine brake power. The selected four independent parameters are: heating temperature (300 °C–500 °C), initial filling pressure (3 bar–8 bar), cooling water flow rate (0.2 l/m–3 l/min) and operation time (4–20 min after study regime). The four adopted factors are experimentally varied. The results show that the heating temperature is the most significant factor for the studied phenomenon. The major damages caused by this phenomenon will be presented too

  18. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  19. Personal Study Planning in Doctoral Education in Industrial Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahenius, K.; Martinsuo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The duration of doctoral studies has increased in Europe. Personal study planning has been considered as one possible solution to help students in achieving shorter study times. This study investigates how doctoral students experience and use personal study plans in one university department of industrial engineering. The research material…

  20. Can electronic search engines optimize screening of search results in systematic reviews: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Margaret; Barrowman, Nicholas J; Moher, David; Clifford, Tammy J; Platt, Robert W; Morrison, Andra; Klassen, Terry P; Zhang, Li

    2006-02-24

    Most electronic search efforts directed at identifying primary studies for inclusion in systematic reviews rely on the optimal Boolean search features of search interfaces such as DIALOG and Ovid. Our objective is to test the ability of an Ultraseek search engine to rank MEDLINE records of the included studies of Cochrane reviews within the top half of all the records retrieved by the Boolean MEDLINE search used by the reviewers. Collections were created using the MEDLINE bibliographic records of included and excluded studies listed in the review and all records retrieved by the MEDLINE search. Records were converted to individual HTML files. Collections of records were indexed and searched through a statistical search engine, Ultraseek, using review-specific search terms. Our data sources, systematic reviews published in the Cochrane library, were included if they reported using at least one phase of the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy (HSSS), provided citations for both included and excluded studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a binary outcome measure. Reviews were selected if they yielded between 1000-6000 records when the MEDLINE search strategy was replicated. Nine Cochrane reviews were included. Included studies within the Cochrane reviews were found within the first 500 retrieved studies more often than would be expected by chance. Across all reviews, recall of included studies into the top 500 was 0.70. There was no statistically significant difference in ranking when comparing included studies with just the subset of excluded studies listed as excluded in the published review. The relevance ranking provided by the search engine was better than expected by chance and shows promise for the preliminary evaluation of large results from Boolean searches. A statistical search engine does not appear to be able to make fine discriminations concerning the relevance of bibliographic records that have been pre-screened by systematic reviewers.

  1. Initial trade and design studies for the fusion engineering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), initiated a program of trade and design studies in October 1980 to support the selection of the FED concept. This document presents the results of these initial trade and design studies. Based on these results, a baseline configuration has been identified and the Design Center effort for the remainder of the fiscal year will be devoted to the development of a self-consistent FED design description

  2. Space engineering modeling and optimization with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a selection of advanced case studies that cover a substantial range of issues and real-world challenges and applications in space engineering. Vital mathematical modeling, optimization methodologies and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in detail, with discussions of a range of advanced model development and solution techniques and tools. Space engineering challenges are discussed in the following contexts: •Advanced Space Vehicle Design •Computation of Optimal Low Thrust Transfers •Indirect Optimization of Spacecraft Trajectories •Resource-Constrained Scheduling, •Packing Problems in Space •Design of Complex Interplanetary Trajectories •Satellite Constellation Image Acquisition •Re-entry Test Vehicle Configuration Selection •Collision Risk Assessment on Perturbed Orbits •Optimal Robust Design of Hybrid Rocket Engines •Nonlinear Regression Analysis in Space Engineering< •Regression-Based Sensitivity Analysis and Robust Design ...

  3. Study of heat insulated turbo compound engine. Shanetsugata tabo konpaundo engine to tomoni ayumu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, K [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Ceramics Research Lab.

    1994-02-01

    For a main purpose of development of the heat insulated turbo compound engine using the ceramics, the Isuzu Ceramics Inst. Co., Ltd. was established by the Isuzu Motors Ltd. in 1988. The main study subjects take up various topics such as a development of the new engine system for actualizing a low fuel consumption and low emission, an improvement of deteriorated combustion caused by the insulation, a development of energy recovery facility for utilizing effectively the exhaust energy from the engines, a development of power electronics technology for controlling the recovery facility, a study and development of ceramics as the insulation material and so forth. The outstanding characteristics of this institute are that a development of the heat insulated turbo compound engine is set as the main study subject, but at the same time that a commercialization of the various derivation technology derived from this study. Even just the main study subjects currently under way are counted up to a number close to 10 items, and consequently the efforts are being continued in each field assigned for solving the subjects. 6 figs.

  4. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  5. Occupational Therapy in the Context of Head Start: A Preliminary Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…

  6. Preliminary studies of soil erosion in a valley bottom in Ibadan under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies of soil erosion in a valley bottom in Ibadan under some tillage practices. EA Aiyelari, SO Oshunsanya. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.221-228. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  7. Preliminary results of a feasibility study for a hard x-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Wood, James L.

    1994-01-01

    the preliminary results of a feasibility study of a multifocus Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope. We conclude that high quality multilayers can be performed on relevant thin large flat substrate with adequate uniformity, and that existing deposition chambers can produce the multilayers at a rate of 0.42 m2 per day, so...

  8. A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing Racial Diversity in Environmental Education: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathy James; Leo H. McAvoy

    1992-01-01

    This study presents preliminary result interviews with people of color working in environmental education and interpretation throughout the United States. The three primary questions asked were these? (1) What path led each individual to a career in environmental education; (2) How does each individual define environmentalism? and (3) What are the primary issues this...

  9. The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2011-01-01

    Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....

  10. ICT and UD: Preliminary Study for Recommendations to Design Accessible University Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliara, Silvio Marcello; Sánchez Utgé, Marta; De Anna, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Starting from the Universal Design in the educational context principles, the experiences gained during the FIRB project "Net@ccessibility" and the high-education courses for teachers' specialization on special education, this research will focus on preliminary studies in order to define the recommendations for designing accessible university courses.

  11. Good Feedback for bad Players? A preliminary Study of ‘juicy’ Interface feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper; Jason, Begy

    2016-01-01

    The theories of game feel and juiciness claim that players will feel more competent, and that a game will be perceived as being of higher quality, when players are given large amounts of redundant audiovisual feedback in response to their actions. This poster describes a preliminary empirical study...

  12. A preliminary study to find out maximum occlusal bite force in Indian individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Veena; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Pillai, Rajath

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This preliminary hospital based study was designed to measure the mean maximum bite force (MMBF) in healthy Indian individuals. An attempt was made to correlate MMBF with body mass index (BMI) and some of the anthropometric features. METHODOLOGY: A total of 358 healthy subjects in the ag...

  13. LM-OSL from single grains of quartz: A preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.; Duller, G.A.T.; Solongo, S.

    2002-01-01

    the easy-to-bleach component, those with only the hard-to-bleach component, and those exhibiting all components. The results of this preliminary study show that LM-OSL experiments carried out at the single grain level may give important insights into the luminescence properties observed when viewing...

  14. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  15. Fire behaviour - A preliminary study. | W.S.W. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fire behaviour - A preliminary study. ... be taken cognisance of in any future research on fire in relation to vegetation. Keywords: behaviour; botany; environmental conditions; fire; fire behaviour; fire ecology; fires; grass; grasses; management; rate of spread; recovery; south africa; vegetation; veld; veld management; yield ...

  16. A preliminary study on electromyographic analysis of the paraspinal musculature in idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, J.; Halbertsma, J.P.; Veldhuizen, A.G.; Sluiter, W.J.; Maurits, N.M.; Cool, J.C.; van Horn, J.R.

    The paraspinal muscles have been implicated as a major causative factor in the progression of idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore, the objectives of this preliminary study were to measure the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the paraspinal muscles to determine its relationship to progression of the

  17. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was successfully cultured in a rainfed lowland rice farm, although no additional care was provided for fishes. The highest ...

  18. Robot assisted navigated drilling for percutaneous pedicle screw placement: A preliminary animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The preliminary study supports the view that computer assisted pedicle screw fixation using spinal robot is feasible and the robot can decrease the intraoperative fluoroscopy time during the minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation surgery. As spine robotic surgery is still in its infancy, further research in this field is worthwhile especially the accuracy of spine robot system should be improved.

  19. Preliminary delineation of natural geochemical reactions, Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a study to determine the natural geochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer system at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. As part of this study, a group of geochemical reactions that partially control the natural chemistry of ground water at the INEL were identified. Mineralogy of the aquifer matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thin-section analysis and theoretical stabilities of the minerals were used to identify potential solid-phase reactants and products of the reactions. The reactants and products that have an important contribution to the natural geochemistry include labradorite, olivine, pyroxene, smectite, calcite, ferric oxyhydroxide, and several silica phases. To further identify the reactions, analyses of 22 representative water samples from sites tapping the Snake River Plain aquifer system were used to determine the thermodynamic condition of the ground water relative to the minerals in the framework of the aquifer system. Principal reactions modifying the natural geochemical system include congruent dissolution of olivine, diopside, amorphous silica, and anhydrite; incongruent dissolution of labradorite with calcium montmorillonite as a residual product; precipitation of calcite and ferric oxyhydroxide; and oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Cation exchange reactions retard the downward movement of heavy, multivalent waste constituents where infiltration ponds are used for waste disposal

  20. Elements of Motivational Structure for Studying Mechanical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nikša Dubreta; Damir Miloš

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the findings on students' reasons for studying mechanical engineering. These reasons were covered in terms of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation additionally related to selected independent variables of the sample – students' secondary school Grade Point Average, their gender and the socio-economic status. The research was conducted with the first year students of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Zagreb, Croatia. The sample consisted of 282 stude...

  1. National Plutonium Workers' Study: considerations and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquavella, J.F.; Wilkinson, G.S.

    1983-03-01

    The National Plutonium Workers' Study developed from the clinical follow-up of workers with body burdens in excess of 10 nCi. The importance of plutonium to energy and weapons development and the uncertainty about its biological effects motivated the formation of an epidemiologic study of more than 125,000 workers at six Department of Energy facilities. This report reviews recent results from The National Plutonium Workers' Study, including an analysis of cancer mortality among workers at the Rocky Flats Plant and a study of malignant melanoma among employees at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The problems inherent in large-scale epidemiologic studies, as well as the future directions for the study, are discussed

  2. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yosita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  3. Preliminary studies on pathogenic Leptospira spp . In slaughtered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. and the associated renal morphological changes in pigs slaughtered in slaughter slabs within Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 42 pigs' kidney samples were randomly collected for the study. The samples were examined using ...

  4. Preliminary studies on some aspects of Kikuyu food habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Description of a research project. The studies cover general aspects of Kikuyu food habits such as foods presently in use, the classification of foods and food preferences for children. The emphasises is on the methods employed in these studies which can also be used elsewhere to obtain information

  5. PRELIMINARY CLINICAL STUDY OF KALANCHOE SPATHULATA DC. ON INFLAMMATORY WOUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, C. L.; Yadav, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Here, an attempt is made to study the clinical aspect of Kalanchoe spathulata Dc. It has been observed that would heals rapidly leaving no scar. The study clearly validates the ancient concept of Ayurveda, that without taking the help of surgery, there are several medicinal plants which may cure diseases very well. PMID:22557495

  6. A case study of technology transfer: Rehabilitative engineering at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital. [prosthetic devices engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildred, W.

    1973-01-01

    The transfer of NASA technolgy to rehabilitative applications of artificial limbs is studied. Human factors engineering activities range from orthotic manipulators to tiny dc motors and transducers to detect and transmit voluntary control signals. It is found that bicarbon implant devices are suitable for medical equipment and artificial limbs because of their biological compatibility with human body fluids and tissues.

  7. Design and preliminary test of heat isulated pistons for a diesel engine. Dieselmoottorin laempoeeristetyn maennaen suunnittelu ja esikokeet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojonen, M.; Pitkaenen, J.; Kleimola, M.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the ceramic heat insulation of the combustion chamber of high speed diesel engines and results of tests carried out in one cylinder of a four-cylinder engine with two different heat insulated experimental pistons. The work is part of the research programme called 'Ceramic applications in mechanical engineering'. The research work is being done at Helsinki University of Technology in the Internal Combustion Engine Laboratory and is financed mainly by the Technology Development Centre TEKES. Valmet Oy Linnavuori Works has contributed to the work by supplying the test engine for the research. In the short literature review presented first. advantages of the combustion chamber insulation and design solutions for heat flow prevention are described. In the experimental part of the research two different experimental pistons with ceramic combustion chamber were designed for the Valmet 411 DSJ diesel engine with direct injection. One of the pistons was furnished with a steel piston head, which was fastened to the aluminium piston body. The ceramic combustion chamber bowl was inserted into the steel head. The other piston was developed from Kymenite cast iron, which made it possible to insert the piston bowl direct into the piston body. The aim of the experiments was to clarify the function ability and the necessary clearances of the piston constructions and to indicate the insulation ability of the combustion chamber by means of the temperature measurements of the cylinder liner, cylinder head and exhaust gas temperature.

  8. Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.; Aceves, S.

    1995-04-01

    We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO(x) emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO(x) concentrations must be less than 180 ppM to meet the 0.2 g/mile ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. LLNL has designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing Onan engine. This head features 15:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses. Initial testing shows promise of achieving an indicated efficiency of nearly 50% and emissions of less than 100 ppM NO(x). Hydrocarbons and CO are to be measured, but are expected to be very low since their only source is engine lubricating oil. A successful friction reduction program on the Onan engine should result in a brake thermal efficiency of about 42% compared to today's gasoline engines of 32%. Based on system studies requirements, the next generation engine will be about 2 liter displacement and is projected to achieve 46% brake thermal efficiency with outputs of 15 kW for cruise and 40 kW for hill climb.

  9. Adenosine-deaminase (ADA activity in Psoriasis (A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Chaudhry

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of adenosine-deaminase activity ′in 23 patients hav-mg psoriasis compared with an equal number of healthy controls revealed significantly high ADA-activity in the psotiatic patients.

  10. Radioiodination of melagenine-II with I-125 (preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso, R.; Ruiz, M.

    1996-01-01

    Radioiodination of Melagenine-II with I-125 farmacokinetic studies was made, using Chloramine-T method. Radiochemical purity and stability of the labelled product were determined by radiochromatography. The labelled Melagenine-II showed two radioactive fractions

  11. Preliminary study of the efficacy of the combination of tamsulosin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S. Abdelaziz

    2016-12-13

    day) and combinations of it with trospium .... Hence, we left with a total of. 126 patients: ..... symptoms on quality of life, work productivity, sexuality and emotional well-being in men and women: results from the EPIC study. BJU Int.

  12. Are thiazides effective on hypertensive vertigo? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryaman, Esra; Gökcan, Gökçen; Parmaksız, Ergün; Acar, Nurhan Ozdemir; Ozlüoğlu, Levent Naci

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the symptoms of vertigo related to hypertension resulted from endolymphatic hydrops and the efficacy of the thiazides in the treatment. A total of 24 vertigo patients without peripheric or central vestibular pathologies or hyperlipidemia were included. The study group comprised 15 patients with hypertension, including nine with regulated non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM). The control group comprised nine patients without hypertension or DM. The patients in the study group received hydrochlorothiazide treatment. The European Evaluation of Vertigo Scale (EEVS) and Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ), puretone audiometry, tympanometry, electronystagmography (ENG) for nystagmus tests, oculomotor tests, and caloric test were carried out initially and at three weeks for both groups. The results of the study group were compared to those of the control group. There was a statistically significant decrease in the scores of EEVS and VHQ at three weeks in the study group, compared to the baseline scores (for both groups p≤0.01). Our study results showed that thiazides alleviated vertigo symptoms in hypertensive patients, as measured by qualitative methods (i.e. EEVS, VHQ), but not with quantitative measurements (i.e. ENG).

  13. An Industrial Case Study: Identification of Competencies of Design Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    identified and the importance of these for design engineers in industry was investigated. In addition, the number of years of relevant experience required to become an expert in these types of knowledge was investigated. Knowledge related to the process was perceived as more important to those related......This paper describes the findings from an empirical study carried out with engineers in senior roles within a large company manufacturing complex products. This research aimed to identify the types of knowledge that are important for design engineers. Twenty-four knowledge categories were...... to the product. However, the number of years to become an expert in process knowledge was found to be lower than for product knowledge, despite process knowledge being perceived as more important. The findings of this research contribute to the education and training of design engineers....

  14. Anaerobic culture by Total Air Barrier: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Sarkar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor study with obligate anaerobes, inoculated platescontaining suitable reduced media need handling andincubation under strict anaerobic condition. Instead ofensuring a confined oxygen free chamber for placing seededplates, same purpose may be achieved by creating total airbarrier to the surface.MethodUpper moist surface of freshly prepared anaerobic media inPetri plates were intimately covered with very thintransparent bacteriological inert sterile polyester sheets.Stock culture of Bacteroides fragilis, ATCC 23745 andClostridium sporogenes, ATCC 11437 were grown in cookedmeat broth and then sub-cultured on respective plates, afterlifting the cover sheets. Sheets were again covered andincubated at 37oC ordinary incubator. To performantimicrobial susceptibility test, similarly covered seededplates with well inoculums were inverted en-block afterstripping sides with the help of a spatula. Now antibiotic diskswere placed on upper bare surfaces. After short pre-diffusion,plates were incubated keeping inoculated surface below.Same study was performed by conventional method usingGaspak.ResultsGood growths were noted in both sets of the study;however discrete colonies appeared more flat in nature intest set. Almost identical zones of inhibition were noted inboth sets of sensitivity study. Seven days old growths incovered blood agar plates were found viable when subculturedin cooked meat broths.ConclusionIsolation, identification and susceptibility study for mostclinically important obligate anaerobes may be performedby simple barrier method after appropriatestandardization.

  15. Preliminary cutting and drilling studies using new generation lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautz, D.D.; Sze, J.S.; Dragon, E.P.; Hargrove, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    High power and radiance dye lasers developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory show promise for material processing tanks. Evaluation using welding heat flow models suggest significant increases in precision and speed are expected. We developed tooling and instrumentation to diagnose important parameters including spot geometry and optical train quality. We started processing studies to determine the viability of these lasers of cutting and drilling. We used titanium alloys first in the studies due to the availability of comparable parametric studies in the technical literature. Results show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye lasers. The high radiance beam produces low distortion and small heat-affected zones. We have accomplished very high aspect ratios and micron scale kerfs and holes. Through continued system improvement and process optimization, we believe that submicron levels will be achieved

  16. Overeruption of teeth opposing removable partial dentures: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Miyashita, Yuji; Ikebe, Kazunori; Enoki, Kaori; Kurushima, Yuko; Mihara, Yusuke; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    One of the purposes of prosthodontic treatment is to prevent overeruption of opposing teeth, but there is currently minimal literature describing the efficacy of removable partial dentures (RPDs) in performing this function. This study investigated overeruption following RPD treatment. The study participants were 33 patients treated with RPDs, and overeruption was evaluated by comparing the surface computeraided design data of dental casts made at two different time points-before and after RPD treatment. Overeruption was observed in 38.1% of teeth opposed by the RPD, which was much less than the proportion of teeth that overerupted when not opposed by the RPD.

  17. Preliminary studies for the LHCb vertex detector vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Doets, M; Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; van den Brand, Jo

    2000-01-01

    We lay down some general considerations which will serve as a starting point for design studies of a realistic LHCb vertex detector vacuum system. Based on these considerations, we propose a design strategy and identify issues to be further studied. In particular we try to outline some boundary conditions imposed by LHC and LHCb on the vacuum system. We discuss two possibilities for the LHCb vertex detector vacuum system. The preferred strategy uses a differentially pumped vacuum system with the silicon detectors separated from the beam line vacuum. Some estimations on static vacuum pressures and gas flows are presented.

  18. Theoretical provisions for the discharge at TJ-1 (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1981-01-01

    Using the transport code PLASMATOR a numerical study about the TJ-1 discharge (a Tokamak close to be installed at JEN) has been made, observing the behaviour under huge variations on the transport coefficients as well as on density and current. Noteworthy a scaling law of the kind τ E ∼n θ has been contested at not too high density, The model insensibility upon the initial values has been confirmed and the effects of variations on the recycling coefficient and the rate rise of current studied too. Finally comparisons with alternative models have been accomplished. (Author) 29 refs

  19. Preliminary study on the effect of castration and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently healthy adult male rabbits were used. The animals were divided into four groups with each group having four rabbits. The first group served as the control group. The rabbits in the second group ...

  20. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  1. Psychiatric morbidity in oral lichen planus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ranjan Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical types and association of psychological factors in patients with Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. Materials and Methods: An analytical age- and sex-matched study involved 30 patients with oral lichen planus (group 1 and 30 control subjects (group 2. We applied the following psychometric tests to both groups: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: The patients with OLP were found to exhibit statistically significant higher anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction with the tests that were used (GHQ 24 and HADS than the control group (P > 0.05. The study group likewise exhibited greater depression and somatic symptoms. The mean total of the GHQ and HAD scores were found to be higher in the study group than in the controls (P > 0.05. Among the various types of OLP, patients with the erosive type had higher mean scores for anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depression. Conclusion: In most patients psychiatric morbidity was strongly associated with OLP, which could support its role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The higher scores of the General Health Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale gave an insight into the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with the causation of OLP.

  2. Stability notions in synthetic graph generation: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, W.; Fletcher, G.H.L.; Yakovets, N.; Bonifati, A.; Markl, Volker; Orlando, Salvatore; Mitschang, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    With the rise in adoption of massive graph data, it be- comes increasingly important to design graph processing algorithms which have predictable behavior as the graph scales. This work presents an initial study of stability in the context of a schema-driven synthetic graph generation. Specifically,

  3. Market for small waste gasification projects - preliminary scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a market analysis for small waste gasification/pyrolysis plant in the UK. The overall objectives of the study are to assess the potential merits in establishing a demonstration plant in the UK, and to identify the size, profile and characteristics of the potential market based on municipal solid waste (MSW) feedstock. (author)

  4. Preliminary study on sterilization effect of irradiation on dry vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Jianqing; Bao Jianzhong; Cao Hong; Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan

    2004-01-01

    The number of surviving germs relationship to irradiation dose for several species dry vegetable was studied, and the original value D 10 of the dry vegetable was given. The value will provide a theoretical reference to ascertain the appropriate irradiation dose in the irradiation process of the dry vegetable

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea in epilepsy: a preliminary Egyptian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Hala A; Abd El-Kader, Ann A; El Gohary, Amira M; El-Fayoumy, Neveen M; Afifi, Lamia M

    2012-09-01

    The extent and clinical relevance of the association between epilepsy and sleep apnea are not previously studied in Egypt. What we wanted to know was the frequency of sleep apnea in Egyptian children with epilepsy and its influence on seizure frequency, other seizure characteristics, sleep complaint, and architecture. All patients with epilepsy, aged up to 18 years, who underwent polysomnography were studied. Patients with any neurological disease apart from epilepsy, with psychiatric illness, had hypnotics, or sedatives or those with liver or kidney failure were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to apnea/hypopnea index: group (1) patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and group (2) patients with OSA. For control group, we choose 12 healthy individuals, with age and sex matched to that of our patients. We studied the clinical characteristics of epilepsy, sleep history, and polysomnographic recording of the patients with epilepsy and the control. EEG digital and video monitoring was done for all patients. Eleven patients (42.3%) were found to have obstructive sleep apnea. Seizure frequency was significantly higher in the patients with OSA. Apart from apnea and hypopnea indices, all other sleep parameters did not differ between patients' subgroups. Hypopnea index in REM positively correlates with number of awaking. Apnea index in REM positively correlates with latency to deep sleep and to periodic leg movement. Sleep apnea is frequent in patients with epilepsy. OSA may contribute to increase seizure frequency. We recommend investigating sleep apnea in all patients with epilepsy.

  6. A Preliminary Study on Bucket Foundations under Transient Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behaviour of monopod bucket foundations through a physical model. The foundation is installed in dense water-saturated sand and is subjected to lateral load applied at different rates. The different loading rates allow for exploring the patterns of response of...

  7. A Preliminary Trypanocidal Study of Natural and Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty healthy Wistar albino rats were used to investigate the trypanocidal effect of natural and synthetic supplements of zinc and magnesium in combination with diminazene aceturate in Trypanosoma congolense-inoculated rats. The rats were randomly divided into eight groups in study '1' (involving the natural ...

  8. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  9. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  10. Preliminary Studies on the Development of Meat Balls | Igene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UUFB sample was rated highest in terms of overall likeness and may economically complement some of the existing popular meat-based snacks in Nigeria. The significance of the study is discussed. @JASEM Keyterms: Meat, Meat ball, Quality, Product development. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. June, 2012, Vol.

  11. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  12. Preliminary study Malaa. Final report; Foerstudie Malaa. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Factors of importance for a possible localization of a deep nuclear waste repository at Malaa in northern Sweden are mapped in this study. The geologic structures in the area have been reviewed, mostly from already existing knowledge. Existing infrastructure and necessary improvements are discussed, as well as land use and environment, employment and other social effects. 47 refs, 41 figs, 8 tabs.

  13. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  14. Preliminary studies on ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    A study on yeast fermentation of bitter kola pod( agricultural waste) was ... optimization of the ethanol production were investigated. ... components of biomass to produce a liquid .... Mani, S., Tabil, L. G. and Opoku, A. (2002). Ethanol from Agricultural crop residues-An. Overview. ... Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola.

  15. Preliminary study on irradiation breeding of ornamental lotus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Bao Jianzhong; Liu Chungui; Cao Hong; Zhai Jianqing

    2004-01-01

    The effects of γ-ray irradiation on seeds and stems of ornamental lotus were studied. The results show that the mutation rate of seeds is higher than that of stems, and 30-60 Gy is the appropriate irradiation dose. The varieties with red or multi-color flower are more mutable than those with white flower. Two varieties were selected

  16. Preliminary Study on the Use of Urea Activated Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption studies were carried out using urea activated melon (Citrullus colocynthis) husks as a low-cost potential adsorbent to remove cadmium from industrial effluents. Bioabsorption parameters considered were as contact time, adsorbent dosage and adsorbate concentration. Cadmium removal was found to be ...

  17. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  18. preliminary geological and radiometric studies of granitoids of zing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    laboratory of Geology Department, Federal University of. Technology, Yola where they were thin sectioned and petrographically studied using a high magnification polarising microscope. Canada balsam was used as the mounting medium. Radiometric survey was carried out using a McPhar model TC-33A portable gamma ...

  19. Advanced analysis of finger-tapping performance: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cağatay; Kızıltan, Erhan; Gelir, Ethem; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-06-01

    The finger-tapping test is a commonly employed quantitative assessment tool used to measure motor performance in the upper extremities. This task is a complex motion that is affected by external stimuli, mood and health status. The complexity of this task is difficult to explain with a single average intertap-interval value (time difference between successive tappings) which only provides general information and neglects the temporal effects of the aforementioned factors. This study evaluated the time course of average intertap-interval values and the patterns of variation in both the right and left hands of right-handed subjects using a computer-based finger-tapping system. Cross sectional study. Thirty eight male individuals aged between 20 and 28 years (Mean±SD = 22.24±1.65) participated in the study. Participants were asked to perform single-finger-tapping test for 10 seconds of test period. Only the results of right-handed (RH) 35 participants were considered in this study. The test records the time of tapping and saves data as the time difference between successive tappings for further analysis. The average number of tappings and the temporal fluctuation patterns of the intertap-intervals were calculated and compared. The variations in the intertap-interval were evaluated with the best curve fit method. An average tapping speed or tapping rate can reliably be defined for a single-finger tapping test by analysing the graphically presented data of the number of tappings within the test period. However, a different presentation of the same data, namely the intertap-interval values, shows temporal variation as the number of tapping increases. Curve fitting applications indicate that the variation has a biphasic nature. The measures obtained in this study reflect the complex nature of the finger-tapping task and are suggested to provide reliable information regarding hand performance. Moreover, the equation reflects both the variations in and the general

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with diabetes: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Mariko; Miwa, Takashi; Kawai, Takashi; Odawara, Masato

    2015-03-01

    Some studies report that complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occur more frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than in non-diabetic patients. This study used transnasal endoscopy to elucidate the current status of concurrent GERD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to examine the associations between intraesophageal pressure and GERD, as well as other neuropathic conditions. The study included 57 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean age was 67 years and the duration of DM was 13 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c was 6.8%. Transnasal endoscopic evaluation items were (i) the presence or absence of esophagitis and its severity; (ii) intraesophageal pressure; and (iii) Helicobacter pylori status, which was evaluated by endoscopic findings, such as the presence or absence of gastritis and peptic ulcer, and by urea breath test. Of 57 patients, 24 (42.1%) were given a diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy. Patients with concurrent GERD were younger, had shorter duration of DM, and were taller and heavier. Interestingly, no difference in body mass index was observed. There was no significant association between the presence of concurrent GERD and diabetic complications, including peripheral neuropathy, and infection or non-infection with H. pylori. Although there was no significant association between the presence of concurrent GERD and intraesophageal pressure values, we found aging, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the presence of autonomic nerve symptoms to correlate with reduced intraesophageal pressure. The results of this study could be used to answer the question of whether or not endoscopic GERD is a diabetic complication; however, further study is required. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Preliminary modulation transfer function study on amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Ab Razak Hamzah; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2006-01-01

    Modulation Transfer Function, (MTF) is the scientific means of evaluating the fundamental spatial resolution performance of an imaging system. In the study, the modulation transfer function of an amorphous silicon (aSi) sensor array is measured by using Edge Spread Function (ESF) Technique which is extracting a profile from the linearised image of the sharp edge. The Platinum foil is used to determine the ESF. The detector under study was a 2,304 (h) x 3,200 (v) total pixel matrix, 127 μm2 pixel pitch, 57% fill factor and using Gd2O2S:Tb Kodak Lanex Regular as the conversion screen. The ESF measurement is done by using 75 - 100 kV range of x-ray with constant mA. (Author)

  2. Preliminary questions before studying mild traumatic brain injury outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, P; Carrière, H; Habonimana, D; Dumond, J-J

    2009-07-01

    To point out from the literature the issues in mild traumatic brain injury outcome. METHODOLOGY-RESULTS: The literature review allows to point out several different factors involved in the difficulty to study mild traumatic brain injury: mild traumatic brain injury definition, postconcussional syndrome definition, diagnosis threshold, severity and functional symptoms outcome, neuropsychological tests, unspecific syndrome feature, individual factors, confounding factors and treatment interventions. The mild traumatic brain injury outcome study is complicated by the definitions issues and especially their practical use and by the multiplicity and the intricate interrelationships among involved factors. The individual outcome and social cost weight is widely emphasized for an event still considered as medically trivial. The well-ordered preventive interventions necessity and the targeted treatment programs need for the persisting postconcussive symptoms complete our critical review.

  3. Sleep habits and patterns of college students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B

    2001-11-01

    The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance.

  4. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment

  5. Mathematical preliminaries for a study of waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocheris, M.

    1965-01-01

    This report contains the detailed proofs of mathematical results which are used in a study of the linear and 'quasi-linear' approximation for 'electrostatic' waves in a uniform plasma. Certain classes of functions of a complex variable, which are analytic in a strip parallel to the real axis, are defined and studied. In particular, properties of convergence of a sequence and of continuity with respect to a parameter are established for functions remaining inside one such class. The results are used to prove an existence theorem for the simplest equation in the quasi-linear theory of plasma waves. A number of elementary lemmas are used in the text and proved in an appendix. (author) [fr

  6. Primary prevention research: a preliminary review of program outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaps, E; Churgin, S; Palley, C S; Takata, B; Cohen, A Y

    1980-07-01

    This article reviews 35 drug abuse prevention program evaluations employing drug-specific outcome measures. Many of these evaluations assessed the effects of "new generation" prevention strategies: affective, peer-oriented, and multidimensional approaches. Only 14 studies evaluated purely informational programs. Evaluations were analyzed to ascertain (1) characteristics of the programs under study, (2) characteristics of the research designs, and (3) patterns among findings. This review provides some evidence that the newer prevention strategies may produce more positive and fewer negative outcomes than did older drug information approaches. Over 70% of the programs using the newer strategies produced some positive effects; only 29% showed negative effects. In contrast, 46% of informational programs showed positive effects; 46% showed negative effects. These findings must be approached with great caution, since the research was frequently scientifically inadequate, and since rigor of research was negatively correlated with intensity and duration of program services.

  7. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment.

  8. V. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ISOZYMES OF SHOREA JAVANICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. JUNIARTI and M. I. J. UMBOH

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of genetic variability in natural or man-made populations/ plantations is useful in both basic and applied biology. In addition to the various facets of studies on Shorea javanica already initiated by Torquebiau (1984 and alongside with his recommendations on focus for future research, a study on the genetic aspects of the species should be given important considerations. As the trees are tapped for resin, an important forest product, the genetic basis of the production as well as the range of variation in amount of resin production among t he trees must be known. Coupled with this is a thorough investigation on the differences in pest resistance/susceptability among the trees and their genetic basis. While the assumption (Torquebiau 1984 that trees in natural forest areas are-rarely attacked by diseases because of mycorrhizal fungi is interesting, its confirmation is necessary. If this is true, problems would arise when plants are introduced into a new plantation site as experienced by the Forest Research Institute (Ardikoesuma 1954. Thus, we need to look for pest resistant plants i.e. those that can remain healthy even in the absence of mycorrhizae. The above studies on possible genetic variation could give vital information for development of forest plantations of the species and for breeding and tree improvement strategies. By knowing the extent of genetic variation in natural population or in plantations one could be guided to maintain or increase the genetic base in these areas. Biochemical characters such as isozyme banding patterns have been useful in several areas of plant biology, population genetics, evolution and breeding. Isozymes are detected by starch gel electrophoresis and when their genetic control is established, they could be genetic markers in analyzing variation in morphological or physiological characters. The present study is an attempt to detect the isozymes in leaves, seeds and cotyledons of Shorea

  9. Preliminary manual of the wind farms impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This document aims to present and propose tools and methods allowing the improve the environmental quality of the future wind farms projects. After a presentation of general notions on the wind farms and the economy of the wind energy, it presents the regulation and the procedures concerning the environmental impact. It proposes then the main possible effects and the impacts study themes. (A.L.B.)

  10. Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Stem Borers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out to study the occurrence of stem-borers and the incidence of stalk rot under varying population densities (64,000, 32,000, and 21,333 plants/ha) of two common cultivars (TZSR-Y and DMRZ-Y) of maize. Whereas the percentage of plants with stem borers infestation and those with stem ...

  11. Preliminary study of coach verbal behaviour according to game actions

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Luján, José Francisco; Calpe Gómez, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction between game actions in high-level handball and verbal behaviour performed by the coach. For this purpose, a match of the 1st National Division of male Spanish handball was analysed. The type of behaviour and the content of the message reported by the coach were recorded using a modified version of Coaching Behaviour Assessment System (CBAS) and Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS). About game actions, they were grouped into positi...

  12. Preliminary study of the heating market in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The successive deregulation of the market for electric power, in Sweden as well as abroad, results in an increased competition in generation and trade of electricity. This market that previously was known for its oligopoly in the production sector and its monopoly in the distribution sector has now been opened for competition. This study is focused on the district heating sector, because it is still comparatively unregulated, and because it partly comprises what is called natural monopolies

  13. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN HERZEGOVINIAN DONKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Rukavina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herzegovinian donkey is a very important animal resource of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There have been no works attempted at determining the normal values of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to investigate some hematological parameters in Herzegovinian donkey. The research was performed on 30 apparently healthy donkeys (18 female and 12 male of ages from 1 to 20 years. Blood samples (3 ml were obtained by jugular vein puncture (vena jugularis externa in vacuum tubes with EDTA. The mean value of hematocrit was 29.19 %, hemoglobin concentration 10.6 g/dl, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 36.33 g/dl, white blood cells 9.33 x109/L, granulocytes (109/L 5.45 x109/L, granulocytes (% 59.47%, lymphocyte/monocyte (109/L 3.89 x109/L, lymphocyte/monocyte (% 40.53% and platelet cells 148.97 x109/L. Parameters were determined using an automated analyzer IDEXX QBC VET AutoRead. Data were analyzed by SPSS V 15. All hematological parameters (except platelet cells were consistent with the recommended reference ranges for donkeys, and the values found in literature so far. Platelet cells values were much lower than in the literature for the other donkey breeds and the recommended reference ranges for donkeys. The slight differences found between our results and those reported in the previous works confirm the need for further studies to investigate the reference values of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey. This work is a contribution to the study of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey, and we expect these data to be applied to the further studies.

  14. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Thorium-230, Radium-226, Lead- 210 and Polonium - 210 by Plants," Radiat. Bot., 10(3), 293-295. Ernst, W. (1968), "Ecological Studies on Plants Grown on...dechlorane in the environment and its bioconcentration and biomagnifica- tion through the food chain. In mammals, dechlorane has been shown to be tei-atogenic...08 5. Phytotoxicity .o......................208 *6. Environmental Fate ....................... 210 7. Availability of Literature for

  15. High-repetition-rate hydrogen chamber: Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    This report is a conclusion to the tests realised with an experimental bubbles chamber in view to study the possibilities to increase the repetition rate. The more important parameters (the evolution of the bubbles, the expansion system) are considered in a theoretical way. Then the hardware is described. To end, experimental results are compared with the first evaluations. The calculations and the experimentation are against an oscillation system for the expansion. A system with a locking is to he considered. (authors) [fr

  16. Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lei; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan; Han Jiancheng; Xi Zhinong; Shen Hao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods: Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years) underwent brain MRE studies. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. A dedicated external force actuator for brain MRE study was developed. The actuator was fixed to the head coil. During scan, one side of the actuator was attached to the patients' head. Low frequency oscillation was produced by the actuator and caused shear waves propagating into brain tissue. The pulse sequence used in the study was phase-contrast gradient-echo sequence. Phase images of the brain were obtained and the shear waves within the brain were directly imaged. Phase images were processed with local frequency estimation (LFE) technique to obtain the elasticity image. Consistency of brain tumors was evaluated at surgery and was classified as soft, intermediate, or hard with comparison to the white matter of the brain. Correspondence of MRE evaluation with operative results was studied. Results: The elastic modulus of the tumor was lower than that of white matter in 1 patient, higher in 11 patients, and similar in 2 patients. At surgery, the tumor manifested a soft consistency in 1 patient, hard consistency in 11 patients, intermediate consistency in 2 patients. The elasticity of tumors in 14 patients evaluated by MRE was correlated with the tumor consistency on the operation. Conclusion: MRE can noninvasively display the elasticity of brain tumors in vivo, and evaluate the brain tumor consistency before operation. (authors)

  17. Perspectives and Plans for Graduate Studies. 11. Engineering 1974. E. Industrial Engineering and Systems Design. Report No. 74-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Council on Graduate Studies, Toronto. Advisory Committee on Academic Planning.

    On the instruction of the Council of Ontario Universities, the Advisory Committee on Academic Planning in cooperation with the Committee of Ontario Deans of Engineering has conducted a planning assessment for doctoral work in industrial engineering and systems design. Recommendations for doctoral work in engineering studies are presented.…

  18. Potential of ricehull communal power generation in the Philippines - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, J.Y.; Navarro, L.B.; Abito, G.F.; Lim, B.P.

    1992-01-01

    The preliminary feasibility study of utilizing ricehulls as fuel for power generation in a communal set-up involving ricemills was completed by PNOC-ERDC for the EC-AIT COGEN Programme. The study assessed the market, evaluated the patterns and level of ricehull availability, and their implications on plant operation characteristics and financial viability. Ten potential areas were studied more closely for their suitability as pilot demonstration sites. (auth.). 8 tabs.; 4 figs.; 1 ref

  19. Infrastructure Joint Venture Projects in Malaysia: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeli, Norsyakilah; Muhamad Halil, Faridah; Ismail, Faridah; Sufian Hasim, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    As many developed country practise, the function of the infrastructure is to connect the each region of Malaysia holistically and infrastructure is an investment network projects such as transportation water and sewerage, power, communication and irrigations system. Hence, a billions allocations of government income reserved for the sake of the infrastructure development. Towards a successful infrastructure development, a joint venture approach has been promotes by 2016 in one of the government thrust in Construction Industry Transformation Plan which encourage the internationalisation among contractors. However, there is depletion in information on the actual practise of the infrastructure joint venture projects in Malaysia. Therefore, this study attempt to explore the real application of the joint venture in Malaysian infrastructure projects. Using the questionnaire survey, a set of survey question distributed to the targeted respondents. The survey contained three section which the sections are respondent details, organizations background and project capital in infrastructure joint venture project. The results recorded and analyse using SPSS software. The contractors stated that they have implemented the joint venture practice with mostly the client with the usual construction period of the infrastructure project are more than 5 years. Other than that, the study indicates that there are problems in the joint venture project in the perspective of the project capital and the railway infrastructure should be given a highlights in future study due to its high significant in term of cost and technical issues.

  20. Infrastructure Joint Venture Projects in Malaysia: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeli Norsyakilah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As many developed country practise, the function of the infrastructure is to connect the each region of Malaysia holistically and infrastructure is an investment network projects such as transportation water and sewerage, power, communication and irrigations system. Hence, a billions allocations of government income reserved for the sake of the infrastructure development. Towards a successful infrastructure development, a joint venture approach has been promotes by 2016 in one of the government thrust in Construction Industry Transformation Plan which encourage the internationalisation among contractors. However, there is depletion in information on the actual practise of the infrastructure joint venture projects in Malaysia. Therefore, this study attempt to explore the real application of the joint venture in Malaysian infrastructure projects. Using the questionnaire survey, a set of survey question distributed to the targeted respondents. The survey contained three section which the sections are respondent details, organizations background and project capital in infrastructure joint venture project. The results recorded and analyse using SPSS software. The contractors stated that they have implemented the joint venture practice with mostly the client with the usual construction period of the infrastructure project are more than 5 years. Other than that, the study indicates that there are problems in the joint venture project in the perspective of the project capital and the railway infrastructure should be given a highlights in future study due to its high significant in term of cost and technical issues.

  1. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Maryam Kazemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  2. Preliminary study for pixel identification on a modular gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soluri, A., E-mail: soluri@isib.cnr.it; Atzeni, G.; Ucci, A.; Cusanno, F.; Massari, R.

    2014-02-01

    Our group has recently investigated and produced new scintigraphic prototypes based on advanced scintillation structure. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the use of scintillation matrices with size equal to the overall area of the Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube (PSPMT), to design a modular gamma camera and study the solution of the dead area problems optimizing the overall pixel identification. In this paper we investigate the response of different combinations with crystals integrated within tungsten structure, coupled with H8500, R8900-C12 and R11265-M64 Hamamatsu PSPMTs. Several scintillation matrices, whose dimensions match to the physical area of the PSPMT, have been analysed so that we have also studied limits of detection for the elements of the matrix in the critical zones of the PSPMT, i.e. corners and borders. In order to enhance the detectability of scintillation elements we improved the light collection by depositing metallic layers or treating the tungsten structure with different coating materials, and shaping the external elements of the scintillation matrices. The results have shown good energy resolution and the proposed method can be applied in medical imaging for obtaining high efficiency scintillation devices.

  3. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kazemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan.  Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  4. FAIR imaging of the liver. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiryu, Shigeru; Machida, Toru; Noda, Masanobu

    1998-01-01

    Flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique has recently been introduced for perfusion or functional MR studies of the brain. In the imaging of liver neoplasms, the evaluation of tumor vascularity is important for diagnosis, and therefore the FAIR technique may potentially complement liver MR imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a FAIR sequence in MR imaging of the liver and to compare it with arterial-phase images of dynamic MR imaging. One volunteer and six patients with focal hepatic lesions (one with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), three with metastasis, and two with cavernous hemangioma) underwent FAIR. Short TI (600 ms) and long TI (1200 ms) images were obtained during breath-hold. In normal volunteers, the vessels generated remarkably bright signal in both short and long TI. Signal intensity of liver parenchyma was low in short TI, and became stronger in long TI. Two HCC (in one patient) (100%), one hemangioma (50%), and three metastases (100%) were well delineated as bright lesions. One HCC produced peripheral high intensity in short-TI FAIR image, and this finding was consistent with the result of dynamic MR study. Another HCC, which showed no clear enhancement in the arterial-phase dynamic MRI, was visualized only in long-TI FAIR. One hemangioma, which was clearly seen in FAIR image, showed rapid and strong enhancement on dynamic MRI. It is concluded that FAIR is a promising technique for evaluation of vascularity of hepatic tumors without using contrast materials. (author)

  5. Effects of Omeprazole on Iron Absorption: Preliminary Study

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    Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increasing numbers of pediatric and adult patients are being treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs. PPIs are known to inhibit gastric acid secretion. Nonheme iron requires gastric acid for conversion to the ferrous form for absorption. Ninety percent of dietary and 100% of oral iron therapy is in the nonheme form. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of PPIs on iron absorption has not been studied in humans. Our study assessed the relationship between omeprazole therapy and iron absorption in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: We recruited 9 healthy volunteers between June 2010 and March 2011. Subjects with chronic illness, anemia, or use of PPI therapy were excluded. Serum iron concentrations were measured 1, 2, and 3 h after the ingestion of iron (control group. The measurements were repeated on a subsequent visit after 4 daily oral administrations of omeprazole at a dose of 40 mg (treatment group. Results: One female and 8 male volunteers were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 33 years. There was no statistical difference detected between baseline, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h iron levels between control and treatment groups. Conclusion: Administration of omeprazole for a short duration does not affect absorption of orally administered iron in healthy individuals.

  6. Determination of PCDDs in spider webs: preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Justyna; Rutkowski, Radosław

    2018-01-01

    The application of spider webs for determination of polichlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs) has been studied for the first time. The aim of the studies was to find out if spider webs are suitable for such examinations as it was proved in the previous research they are excellent indicators of air pollutants. Spiders are ubiquitous, thus collection of samples is easy and non-invasive. Studies were conducted within the city of Wrocław and surroundings, one of the biggest and at the same time heaviest polluted city in Poland. Five research sites have been chosen, where spider webs were collected after 60 days of continuous exposure time. Webs belonging to two genera Tegenaria sylvestris and Tegenaria ferruginea (family Agelenidae) have been chosen as they are large and very dense, thus they are very suitable for such examinations. Webs were found to retain dioxins probably mainly by external exposure. These promising results should be continued and expanded in the future research.

  7. Preliminary Study of Mental Retardation in Rovira (Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Celis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available limitationsin performance, significant deficiencyin intelligence and adaptative behavior, causingclinical and social disability. Most patients withmental retardation in Colombia do not receiveclinical genetics evaluation. The aims of thepresent study are to evaluate and characterizea group of patients with mental retardationfrom the population of Rovira. The presentstudy included twenty five patients with mentalretardation from Rovira (Tolima whichwere studied by clinical examination, metabolicscreening (ferric chloride, nitrosonaphtol,silver nitroprusiate, dinitrophenylhydrazineand benedict and cytogenetics (G-Bandingkariotype. Pesticide detection was perfomedby random sampling of water and tomatoes intwenty different places of water distribution,the center of the town and crop fields. A familywith three affected sibs (two females, onemale with mental retardation was identified,suggesting a genetic component. Metabolicscreening was negative and karyotypes werenormal. The analyses performed for organophosphateswere positive in 100% of the samples.Carbamates were positive in 60% of thewater source and 100% of tomato samples. Allthe samples tested were negative for organochlorides.Further studies as molecular fragile-X test, will be performed.

  8. Guidelines for using empirical studies in software engineering education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Fagerholm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software engineering education is under constant pressure to provide students with industry-relevant knowledge and skills. Educators must address issues beyond exercises and theories that can be directly rehearsed in small settings. Industry training has similar requirements of relevance as companies seek to keep their workforce up to date with technological advances. Real-life software development often deals with large, software-intensive systems and is influenced by the complex effects of teamwork and distributed software development, which are hard to demonstrate in an educational environment. A way to experience such effects and to increase the relevance of software engineering education is to apply empirical studies in teaching. In this paper, we show how different types of empirical studies can be used for educational purposes in software engineering. We give examples illustrating how to utilize empirical studies, discuss challenges, and derive an initial guideline that supports teachers to include empirical studies in software engineering courses. Furthermore, we give examples that show how empirical studies contribute to high-quality learning outcomes, to student motivation, and to the awareness of the advantages of applying software engineering principles. Having awareness, experience, and understanding of the actions required, students are more likely to apply such principles under real-life constraints in their working life.

  9. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Preliminary report on the performance of the HRE/AIM at Mach 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y. H.; Sainio, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Test results of the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model are presented. A program was initiated to develop a hydrogen-fueled research-oriented scramjet for operation between Mach 3 and 8. The primary objectives were to investigate the internal aerothermodynamic characteristics of the engine, to provide realistic design parameters for future hypersonic engine development as well as to evaluate the ground test facility and testing techniques. The engine was tested at the NASA hypersonic tunnel facility with synthetic air at Mach 5, 6, and 7. The hydrogen fuel was heated up to 1500 R prior to injection to simulate a regeneratively cooled system. The engine and component performance at Mach 6 is reported. Inlet performance compared very well both with theory and with subscale model tests. Combustor efficiencies up to 95 percent were attained at an equivalence ratio of unity. Nozzle performance was lower than expected. The overall engine performance was computed using two different methods. The performance was also compared with test data from other sources.

  10. Metabolomics diagnostic approach to mustard airway diseases: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BiBi Fatemeh Nobakht Mothlagh Ghoochani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aims to evaluate combined proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolic profiling approaches, for discriminating between mustard airway diseases (MADs and healthy controls and for providing biochemical information on this disease. Materials and Methods: In the present study, analysis of serum samples collected from 17 MAD subjects and 12 healthy controls was performed using NMR. Of these subjects, 14 (8 patients and 6 controls were analyzed by GC-MS. Then, their spectral profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Results: A panel of twenty eight metabolite biomarkers was generated for MADs, sixteen  NMR-derived metabolites (3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, lactic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, proline, hydroxyproline, dimethylamine, creatine, citrulline, choline, acetic acid, acetoacetate, cholesterol, alanine, and lipid (mainly VLDL and twelve GC-MS-derived metabolites (threonine, phenylalanine, citric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, tyrosine, arachidonic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. This composite biomarker panel could effectively discriminate MAD subjects from healthy controls, achieving an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values of 1 and 0.79 for NMR and GC-MS, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, a robust panel of twenty-eight biomarkers for detecting MADs was established. This panel is involved in three metabolic pathways including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, arginine, and proline metabolism, and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and could differentiate MAD subjects from healthy controls with a higher accuracy.

  11. Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Broeckx

    Full Text Available Degenerative joint disease (DJD is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1 PRP; 2 MSCs; 3 MSCs and PRP; or 4 chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1, 12 weeks (T2, 6 months (T3 and 12 months (T4 post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment.

  12. Protocol Development and Preliminary Toxicity Study of CBRN Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    FBS) were purchased from ATCC and used for growing cells. 5.2.3 Positive Control The positive control, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), (Cat. # 71736 for 10...Inc.; New Castle, DE). Toxicology Study No. 87-XE-0EJ5-11 (FY12 Continuation) 5 5.1.2 Positive Control Zinc sulfate is recommended as a standard or...Inc.(Austin, TX). • Nano Sodium Bicarbonate is a component in the formulation being investigated as a replacement fire extinguishing agent for the Halon

  13. Preliminary studies on the closed cycle magneto aerodynamic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.

    1964-01-01

    Besides the open cycle MHD converters which convert the thermal energy contained in combustion gases, a closed cycle converter which can work with any high temperature heat source and specially with nuclear sources is being very carefully studied. Before proceeding to a practical study of the power station as a whole the performances of the converter itself must be fully investigated. These performances are largely a function of the conductivity of the gas, but this conductivity must not be repaid by a temperature technically unacceptable for the heat exchanger. In the conversion fluid an ionizable seeding vapour such as caesium or potassium is mixed with a carrier gas, helium or argon. Purely thermal ionization is only efficient above 2 500 deg. K, whereas the electric field obtained by Induction in the converter can, under given conditions, increase the electron temperature and produce an ionization rate well above the equilibrium value. This allows the gas to be ionized at moderate temperature. Studies are under way in order to clarify the conditions required to produce extra-thermal ionization in seeded rare gases. Measurements have been performed with a 3-phase 500 kVA plasmatron with potassium-seeded argon. The outgoing gas is fed into a channel where the tensor components of conductivity are measured in the presence of a magnetic field. The values found under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions confirm the simple theory. This is not the case when the electrons are heated. Measurements of the same kind have been made by another method in caesium-seeded helium contained in an isothermal vessel at 1 900 deg. K. There also the equilibrium values are in good agreement, but non-equilibrium ionization seems to be lower than expected. The effect of electron heating inside the converter in the case of argon-. potassium mixture has been considered in a theoretical study. It is shown that the electrode set must be carefully subdivided along the channel, and that

  14. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  15. Preliminary study of post mortem identification using lip prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kanoh, Takashi; Tadokoro, Osamu; Inoue, Katsuhiro

    2005-05-10

    Identification using lip prints was first performed in the 1950s and was the subject of much research in the 1960s and 70s, leading to the acceptance of this technique as evidence in the criminal justice system. Previous research has focused on identifying lip print types or on methods of obtaining hidden lip prints left at the crime scene. The present study aimed to clarify characteristics of lip prints from cadavers with various causes of death (including drowning and hanging) and to determine the effects of fixation on post mortem changes in lip impressions.

  16. Health Anxiety in Young Indonesian Adults: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venie Viktoria Rondang Maulina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In young adulthood most people begin to realize the meaning of health. The amount of costs to be incurred for the treatment of a person when they are suffering from a disease also affects a person's health concern. According to Taylor and Asmundson (2004, most people feel anxious about their health. Anxiety about health can differ from one person to another. Through this study a general overview of health anxiety for young adults in Indonesia, especially in Jakarta, can be seen. Participants in this study consisted of 263 people, aged 20-40 years (M = 27.23 , SD = 5.50. Sociodemographic variables include ages, gender, and marital status, level of education, employment status, and ethnicity. Researcher used Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI; Salkovskis, Rimes, & Warwick, 2002, Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic Symptom Severity Scale (PHQ-15; Kroenke, Spitzer, & William, 2002. For data analysis, researcher used The Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The results showed significant correlation between health anxiety and somatic symptoms.

  17. Zero emission city. Preliminary study; Null-Emissions-Stadt. Sondierungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, N; Enseling, A; Werner, P; Flade, A; Greiff, R; Hennings, D; Muehlich, E; Wullkopf, U; Sturm, P; Kieslich, W; Born, R; Grossklos, M; Hatteh, R; Mueller, K; Ratschow, A; Valouch-Fornoff, C

    2002-10-01

    The idea of a 'zero emission city' is investigated by the Institut Wohnen und Umwelt on behalf of the Federal Minister of Education and Research. After describing the current situation and defining the key parameters of a 'zero emission city', settlement structures, power supply, production processes and transportation are analyzed and linked with the communal action level to obtain a framework for research, activities and actions. The study ends with recommendations for a research programme 'zero emission city'. (orig.) [German] Die von den Staedten der Industrielaender ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen wie z.B. Treibhauseffekt, Ozonabbau und Versauerung das Hauptproblem dar. Aus diesem Grunde bietet es sich an, den Gedanken der 'Null-Emissions-Stadt', der Vision einer moeglichst emissionsfreien Stadt, aufzugreifen und auf seine Tragfaehigkeit fuer innovative Handlungsmodelle forschungsstrategisch zu ueberpruefen. Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung hat das Institut Wohnen und Umwelt beauftragt, in einer Sondierungsstudie dieser Fragestellung nachzugehen. Nach der Festlegung der Ausgangsbedingungen und Eckpunkte der Vision 'Null-Emissions-Stadt' und der Analyse der vier Handlungsfelder Siedlungsstrukturen, Energieversorgung, Produktionsprozesse (Kreislaufwirtschaft) und Verkehr werden diese aufgegriffen und mit der kommunalen Handlungsebene verknuepft und zu einem Forschungs-, Handlungs- und moeglichen Aktionsrahmen zusammengefuegt. Die Studie schliesst mit Hinweisen fuer die Gestaltung eines Forschungsprogramms 'Null-Emissions-Stadt'. (orig.)

  18. Cardiac pathology in chronic alcoholics: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vaideeswar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethyl alcohol exerts both positive and negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, produced by direct or indirect mechanisms, is well-documented. An important, but seldom appreciated effect is an increase in iron deposition in the myocardium, which can add to the cardiac dysfunction. The present study was planned to document the pathological features and iron levels in the cardiac tissue of patients who were chronic alcoholics and correlate these characteristics with the liver pathology and iron content. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based prospective study of 40 consecutive patients compared with ten age matched controls (no history of alcohol intake. Histopathological changes like the morphology of the cardiac myocytes, degree of fibrosis (interstitial, interfiber, perivascular, and replacement, presence of inflammatory cells, increased capillary network, and adipose tissue deposition were noted and graded. These were also correlated with the liver pathology. The iron content in the heart and liver were measured by using calorimetry. Results: All cases had increased epicardial adipose tissue with epicardial and endocardial fibrosis, prominence of interstitial and interfiber fibrosis, myofiber degeneration, and increased capillary network; this was particularly prominent in patients with cirrhosis. Elemental iron level in heart tissue was raised in the cases relative to controls. Conclusions: Alcohol produces subclinical changes in the myocardium, with an increased iron content, which may be the forerunner for subsequent clinical cardiac dysfunction.

  19. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks

  20. Zero emission city. Preliminary study; Null-Emissions-Stadt. Sondierungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, N.; Enseling, A.; Werner, P.; Flade, A.; Greiff, R.; Hennings, D.; Muehlich, E.; Wullkopf, U.; Sturm, P.; Kieslich, W.; Born, R.; Grossklos, M.; Hatteh, R.; Mueller, K.; Ratschow, A.; Valouch-Fornoff, C.

    2002-10-01

    The idea of a 'zero emission city' is investigated by the Institut Wohnen und Umwelt on behalf of the Federal Minister of Education and Research. After describing the current situation and defining the key parameters of a 'zero emission city', settlement structures, power supply, production processes and transportation are analyzed and linked with the communal action level to obtain a framework for research, activities and actions. The study ends with recommendations for a research programme 'zero emission city'. (orig.) [German] Die von den Staedten der Industrielaender ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen wie z.B. Treibhauseffekt, Ozonabbau und Versauerung das Hauptproblem dar. Aus diesem Grunde bietet es sich an, den Gedanken der 'Null-Emissions-Stadt', der Vision einer moeglichst emissionsfreien Stadt, aufzugreifen und auf seine Tragfaehigkeit fuer innovative Handlungsmodelle forschungsstrategisch zu ueberpruefen. Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung hat das Institut Wohnen und Umwelt beauftragt, in einer Sondierungsstudie dieser Fragestellung nachzugehen. Nach der Festlegung der Ausgangsbedingungen und Eckpunkte der Vision 'Null-Emissions-Stadt' und der Analyse der vier Handlungsfelder Siedlungsstrukturen, Energieversorgung, Produktionsprozesse (Kreislaufwirtschaft) und Verkehr werden diese aufgegriffen und mit der kommunalen Handlungsebene verknuepft und zu einem Forschungs-, Handlungs- und moeglichen Aktionsrahmen zusammengefuegt. Die Studie schliesst mit Hinweisen fuer die Gestaltung eines Forschungsprogramms 'Null-Emissions-Stadt'. (orig.)

  1. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Brugnera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard(tm biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. METHODS: This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG, which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard(tm for ten days, and a control group (CG, which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, were used. RESULTS: After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p = 0.007 and C6 (p = 0.01. On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p= 0.04. The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard(tm system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance.

  2. Network connection of distributed electricity production - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Mogstad, Olve

    2002-01-01

    It will be necessary to lower the barriers for utilisation of distributed energy sources in order to increase the use of such sources in Norway. A relatively extensive R and D activity would be required for reaching this goal. Available Norwegian and international guidelines and technical requirements with respect to network connection of the distributed energy sources are studied with the aim of exposing needs for further R and D initiatives. A limited monitor is also carried out among the Norwegian network businesses with distributed units in their networks. The results show that the main focus in the R and D activities has drifted away from establishing guidelines for technical requirements for network coupling. Some verification work remains in investigating the usefulness of the existing international and the specific commercial network guidelines. For the network industry the main focus must be on the two following areas: 1) How will large concentrations of distributed production units connected to the same network influence the voltage quality and the delivery reliability in the networks. 2) How can the network businesses employ the distributed production units in their networks. A Nordic project (Finland, Sweden, Norway) which will study these problems is being established. Large national scientific institutions will be involved. The executive committee will consist of representatives from Finenergy, Elforsk and EBL Kompetanse and other financing institutions and industries. A Finnish business Merinova, is to be appointed to the project leadership

  3. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  4. Preliminary study on solar-assisted tobacco curing in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamrungwong, S [Chiang Mai Univ.; Suchinda, B; Malila, D

    1982-04-01

    A solar heating system for assisting flue curing of Virginia tobacco leaf was studied. The equipment consisted of a brick and mortar tobacco curing barn of 3.6 m/sup 3/ volume. The solar air heater of 2.8 m/sup 2/ was a non-focus type, made from corrugated galvanized stel sheet coated with flat-black paint. The collector had a single glass cover on top and a 25 mm layer of styrofoam at the bottom. Electrical heating was utilized inside the bar to simulate the main heat source. The system under study had no thermal storage, therefore it was extremely difficult to regulate the temperature inside the barn precisely. Consequently, the solar assisting mode is not recommended during the yellowing stage of curing where very precise temperature control is required. Utilization of solar energy during other stages of curing showed a saving of the main conventional energy up to 33 to 15 percent. The average thermal efficiencies of the collector varied from 70 percent at high flow rate to 67 percent at low flow rate. 6 references.

  5. Biogas production from pineapple core - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehan, O. S.; Sanusi, S. N. A.; Sukor, M. Z.; Noraini, M.; Buddin, M. M. H. S.; Hamid, K. H. K.

    2017-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pineapple waste was investigated by using pineapple core as the sole substrate. Pineapple core was chosen due to its high total sugar content thus, indicating high amount of fermentable sugar. As digestion process requires the involvement of microorganisms, wastewater from the same industry was added in the current study at ratio of 1:1 by weight. Two different sources of wastewater (Point 1 and Point 2) were used in this study to distinguish the performance of microorganism consortia in both samples. The experiment was conducted by using a lab scale batch anaerobic digester made up from 5L container with separate gas collecting system. The biogas produced was collected by using water displacement method. The experiment was conducted for 30 days and the biogas produced was collected and its volume was recorded at 3 days interval. Based on the data available, wastewater from the first point recorded higher volume of biogas with the total accumulated biogas volume is 216.1 mL. Meanwhile, wastewater sample from Point 2 produced a total of 140.5 mL of biogas, by volume. The data shows that the origin and type of microorganism undeniably play significant role in biogas production. In fact, other factors; pH of wastewater and temperature were also known to affect biogas production. The anaerobic digestion is seen as the promising and sustainable alternatives to current disposal method.

  6. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e

    2013-01-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  7. Preliminary study of interventional treatment for tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yukuan; Chen Hanwei; Li Kaifang; Jiang Zaibo; Ma Zhuang; Liu Huanling

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value and methods of interventional treatment for tubal pregnancy. Methods: Two different methods were used in the interventional treatment of 18 patients with tubal pregnancy, which were transvaginal tubal intra-gestational methotrexate (MTX) injection and intra-utero-arterial MTX infusion. The former was selected for the treatment of 8 patients and the latter for 10 patients. Cook-fallopian tube catheterization set and the general angiographic catheters of 4.1 Fr Cobra were used. After the treatment, conditions of the patients, β-HCG level and ultrasound changes of the pregnant bladder were the main indexes for monitoring the therapeutic effect in this study. Results: The successful rate, cure rate, embryo killing rate reached 100%, 88.9%(16/18) and 94.4% (17/18) respectively. Two cases of intra-utero-arterial MTX infusion treatment failed, β-HCG was reduced to normal level with an average of 11.2 +- 11.6 d (3-28 d). In 10 cases, the ultrasound showed that the pregnancy bladder disappeared in 2-3 weeks, accounting for 76.9% (10/13). The longest time was 60 days. The range of menstruation recovery was 37 +- 9 d (21-50 d). Conclusions: Interventional treatment of tubal pregnancy is effective, reliable and easy for operation. It will be especially effective by arterial procedure. Interventional treatment will be a important method for terminating tubal pregnancy

  8. Septin 7 immunoexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Erkilic, Suna; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-07-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type among thyroid cancers. The diagnosis of PTC may be challenging when follicular variant (FVPTC) of this disease is present due to the resemblance of nuclear properties of the classical type (CVPTC). However, making use of ancillary molecular markers in the diagnosis of PTC may help. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the SEPT7 protein expression in PTC. A total of 55 paraffin block tissue samples comprising encapsulated FVPTC (FVPTC(e), n=25), and CVPTC (n=15), and benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HypN, n=15) were used in this study. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and overall (total) SEPT7 protein expression levels were determined by using immunohistochemistry. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and overall SEPT7 expressions (p=0.02, p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively) were significantly lower in FVPTC(e) tissues when compared to HypN. In CVPTC group, nuclear expression was significantly lower (p=0.004) while overall and cytoplasmic expressions were not changed (p>0.05). In HypN group, highest nuclear (mean=2.73), cytoplasmic (mean=2.86), and overall (mean=2.86) expression scores were detected. Significantly lower SEPT7 expression in all expressional categories in FVPTC(e) group may be a sign of different molecular signature in this type of tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. [Psychopathology in online pathological gamblers: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrault, S; Varescon, I

    2012-04-01

    The rapidly expanding gambling offline and online have resulted in an increasing number of gamblers and the problem is likely to get worse in the future. However, online pathological gambling is a not well known. This rapidly developing modality of gambling, which requires to be studied, notably in its links with regular pathological gambling and Internet addiction. Depression and personality disorders are known to be often associated with pathological gambling. Personality disorders have an influence on pathological gambling, increasing its severity. Online gamblers seem to have a particular personality profile, compared to offline gamblers, and could present different personality disorders. Depression is a common comorbidity among online gamblers, as well as offline gamblers. Both types of gamblers have personality disorders, but the nature of these disorders differs: prevalency of personality disorders of cluster B (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders) is more important in offline gamblers, whereas cluster C (anxious or fearful disorders) is more present in online pathological gamblers. In France, few studies have specifically examined this subject. The objective of the study is to evaluate scores on depression, personality disorders and internet addiction in online pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) is used to assess pathological gambling, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) to measure depression, the Personality Disorders Questionnaire (PDQ 4) to assess personality disorders and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) to assess internet addiction. Participants completed the self-report scales. Questionnaires were strictly confidential. The participants were recruited in gambling places (cafés) and Internet forums. Two groups of pathological gamblers were formed: online gamblers (N=15) and offline gamblers (N=15). Participants gave their informed consent. Participation was voluntary and anonymous and no payment was made. ANALYSIS OF THE

  10. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  11. Adoption of value engineering: an attribute study for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, P.

    2015-01-01

    For economic reasons, engineers are compelled to explore low cost methods in construction industry to reduce the overall cost of a project. Research studies have been conducted in this regard throughout the world and value engineering is one of such approaches. Its effective use and applications reduces the project cost without compromising the project quality. Project cost, and efficient design alternatives can be identified using this technique, which will ultimately reduce the overall project cost. Client satisfaction, project reliability and quality can also be improved by the application of value engineering. It is also used for improving managerial performance, project schedule and reduced risks in a project. It is a powerful tool used to identify problems and recommend solutions. This paper highlights the importance of value engineering in general and with specific perspective of Construction Industry in Pakistan. Questionnaire based survey has been conducted by construction managers (i.e. project engineers, construction engineers, project managers, architects, etc.) through online web based system, as a result, random data sampling is achieved. The attributes are mapped to obtain goals for the project. The data has been analyzed through reliability and linear regression using SPSS while Z-Score and Average Index are conducted using MS Excel. The results showed that there is ample need to apply such techniques in initial phases of any project to get project benefits. (author)

  12. Cognitive processes in criminal profile construction: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Middledorp, Jenny; Try, Andrew C

    2005-12-01

    This study undertook an empirically based examination of the cognitive processes associated with the accurate construction of a criminal psychological profile. This was accomplished by comparing the abilities of profilers and nonprofilers in two simulated profiling exercises that measured both profile accuracy and an individual's performance on various tests of memory and comprehension related to the case materials presented in each exercise. The results of these experiments suggest that an incremental relationship exists between comprehension of the case materials and accuracy of the profiles generated. In addition, the findings provide some tentative indications that the comprehension of case material in a narrative (i.e., written) format is an integral cognitive function to proficient profiling.

  13. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zongju; Chen Zongdao; Xu Denyi

    1992-01-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R f =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck

  14. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongju, Li; Zongdao, Chen; Denyi, Xu [Southwest Agricultural Univ., Chongqing, SC (China)

    1992-11-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R[sub f] =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck.

  15. Radial electrical field effects in TJ-II. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the radial electric field upon the neoclassical transport coefficients of TJ-II helical axis Stellarator has been calculated as well on the microwave heating stage (ECRH) as on the neutral injection one (NBI). The influence of the solutions for the self-consistent ambipolar field on confinement times and temperatures has been studied by means of a zero-dimensional energy balance. The simultaneous presence of two roots, the electronic and the ionic one, is observed for the ECRH phase, while for NBI only the ionic root appears, although with a strong field intensity that could produce a favourable effect on confinement. The interest and need of the extension of these calculations to include radial profile effects by using spatial dependent transport codes in stressed

  16. Portuguese Version of Teacher Feedback Scale: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Laranjeira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Teacher feedback in the classroom has a powerful influence on pupils’ performance and motivation. The study aims to analyze psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Teacher Feedback Scale (TFS in a sample of 228 children in the 4th grade of schooling. Exploratory factor analysis shows similarities with the original version, and the differences observed were based on the children’s cognitive development characteristics and cultural specificities of the two samples. The relationship between teacher feedback and students’ motivational variables was confirmed, such as the preference that the children expressed for the school subjects. The possibility to make some changes in the items is contemplated, in order to increase validity and reliability of the measure. The data highlight the potential of using the TFS in schools, which could contribute towards clarifying the teachers’ role in the formation of pupils’ self-concept.

  17. Low density lipoprotein receptors: preliminary results on 'in vivo' study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupattelli, G.; Virgolini, I.; Li, S.R.; Sinzinger, H.

    1991-01-01

    Plasmatic levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) are regulated by the receptor pathway and most LDL receptor are located in the liver. A receptor defect due to genetic mutations of the LDL receptor gene is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (F.H.), a disease characterized by high cholesterol levels and premature atherosclerosis. Injections of autologous radiolabelled LDL, followed by hepatic scintiscanning, can be used to obtain 'in vivo' quantification of hepatic receptor activity, both in normal and hypercholesterolemic patients. In this study we observe no hepatic increase of radioactivity in patients affected by F.H., confirming the liver receptor defect. Scintigraphy is a non-invasive technique which can be used to diagnose this disease and to monitor the efficiacy of hypolipidemic therapy. (Authors)

  18. Sleep, sleepiness and school start times: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Donn; Bijwadia, Jagdeep; Schilling, Dana; Applebaugh, Gwendolyn

    2003-01-01

    High school students are reported to be excessively sleepy, resulting in decreased academic performance, increased psycho-social problems and increased risk of morbidity and mortality from accidents. Early school start times have been noted to contribute to this problem. This report attempts to confirm the relationship of early school start times with decreased sleep and increased sleepiness. We examined sophomore and junior students in 2 local high schools with different start times and measured the amount of time slept and sleepiness. We found that students at the early start school reported reduced sleep time and more sleepiness than their counterparts at the later starting school. Early school start times are associated with student reports of less sleep and increased sleepiness. Further studies in larger groups are recommended in view of the potential significant impact of sleep deprivation in this age group.

  19. Clinical and imaging characteristics of the vascular dementia. Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Viera, Nelson; Rivero Arias, Edmundo; Perez Nellar, Jesus; Begueria Santos, Ramon; Arias Sifontes, William; Raiteris Flores, Juan

    1997-01-01

    A descriptive prospective study was carried out in 41 patients presenting with vascular dementia from Habana Vieja municipality, Havana City, in order to know some of the clinical and imaging characteristics of this disease. The main risk factors observed were the history of cerebrovascular disease and arterial hypertension. Depression, sleeping disorders and focal and pseudo bulbar neurologic signs were the most frequent clinical findings. Folstein neuropsychological test evidenced an important disorder of attention, calculation, the evocation memory and orientation. According to this test, 29 % of the patients had a severe dementia and nearly 50 % showed a severe handicap. The most frequent imaging findings observed in the computerized axial tomography of the cranium were cerebral atrophy, and single or multiple infarctions. Multiple cerebral infarctions, the lacunar status, subcortical encephalopathy of Binswanger, and single infarction located in cerebral areas related to cognition were considered as possible psychopathological mechanisms associated with the disease

  20. A preliminary study of landslide gouge dating by TL technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fengju, Ji; Jianping, Li [Inst. of Geology, National Seismological Bereau, Beijing (China); Mingda, Liu [Inst. of Crustal Dynamics, SSB, Beijing (China)

    1993-04-01

    The key to date slipping of landslide by TL method is whether the temperature and pressure caused by slipping can lead the original TL to 'zero'for some minerals within the slipping band. For this purpose, the simulated experiments under different temperature-pressure were made and the TL annealing effect of landslide gouge was studied. The results show that the frictional heating caused during slipping is a main factor leading the mineral's TL to decrease on the slip plane and that increment of temperature is in close relation with strength of shear stress, thickness of landslide gouge and amount of displacement. As an example, the slipping age of a paleo-landslide at Huangtupo, Hubei Province, has been dated to be about 140 ka.