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Sample records for preliminary action levels

  1. [Preliminary study on the pharmacological action spicatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, H; Shou, Y; Wang, J; Li, L

    1997-01-01

    In this report the pharmacological action of Spicatus was studied. The results insicated that it had diureric, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory effects, yet had Iittle toxic side-effect. It had significant inhibitory effect on crofon oil-caused mice ear swell. It also had marked diuretic effect in orcinary rats, but had Iittie effect on uric pH the rats. It exhibited certain inhibition of Staphycoloccus aureus, Eschrichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. The maximum tolerable dose test in mice showed no marked toxic effect, LD50 > 80 g/kg.

  2. Effective action theory of Andreev level spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionov, Artem V.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of the Keldysh effective action technique we develop a microscopic theory describing Andreev level spectroscopy experiments in nontunnel superconducting contacts. We derive an effective impedance of such contacts which accounts for the presence of Andreev levels in the system. At subgap bias voltages and low temperatures, inelastic Cooper pair tunneling is accompanied by transitions between these levels resulting in a set of sharp current peaks. We evaluate the intensities of such peaks, establish their dependence on the external magnetic flux piercing the structure and estimate the thermal broadening of these peaks. We also specifically address the effect of capacitance renormalization in a nontunnel superconducting contact and its impact on both the positions and heights of the current peaks. At overgap bias voltages, the I -V curve is determined by quasiparticle tunneling and contains current steps related to the presence of discrete Andreev states in our system.

  3. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 1-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 1-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  4. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  5. Preliminaries to a Social-Semiotic Model of Communicative Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to bring contributions to the elaboration of a social-semiotic model of social constructionism, which will make a synthesis between the theory of communicative action and the theories of social-constructionist semiotic model?, based on the postulation of a social universe in a network of communicative interdependencies developed on levels of reality. The interpretative model we propose comes to conceptualize the particularities of the sociological analysis of the transmodern society, seen as a knowledge-based society, placed at the interference with the postmodern society; that of generalized permissiveness. The model proposed aims at a constructionist-fractalic (al? analysis (of deconstruction-reconstruction type of the interpretative drift of social constructs, under the empire of different constructive instances.

  6. Preliminary reference levels in interventional cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neofotistou, V. [Department of Medical Physics, Regional Athens General Hospital, 154 Mesogion Avenue, 11527, Athens (Greece); Vano, E. [Department of Medical Physics, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Padovani, R. [Servizio di Fisica Medica, Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Kotre, J.; Willis, S. [Department of Regional Medical Physics, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle (United Kingdom); Dowling, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St. James' s Hospital and Haughton Institute, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Toivonen, M. [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinski (Finland); Kottou, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Athens University, Athens (Greece); Tsapaki, V. [Department of Bioengineering, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens (Greece); Bernardi, G. [Unita Operativa de Cardiologia, Ospedale S. Maria d. Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Faulkner, K. [Quality Assurance Reference Center, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    This article describes the European DIMOND approach to defining reference levels (RLs) for radiation doses delivered to patients during two types of invasive cardiology procedures, namely coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Representative centres of six European countries recorded patients' doses in terms of dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time and number of radiographic exposures, using X-ray equipment that has been subject to constancy testing. In addition, a DAP trigger level for cardiac procedures which should alert the operator to possible skin injury, was set to 300 Gy x cm{sup 2}. The estimation of maximum skin dose was recommended in the event that a DAP trigger level was likely to be exceeded. The proposed RLs for CA and PTCA were for DAP 45 Gy x cm{sup 2} and 75 Gy x cm{sup 2}, for fluoroscopy time 7.5 min and 17 min and for number of frames 1250 and 1300, respectively. The proposed RLs should be considered as a first approach to help in the optimisation of these procedures. More studies are required to establish certain ''tolerances'' from the proposed levels taking into account the complexity of the procedure and the patient's size. (orig.)

  7. Action Research: Improving Graduate-Level Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nari

    2012-01-01

    I am a doctoral student enrolled in an educational research program. While completing an action research course, I conducted research to improve my academic writing and to develop skills for formulating arguments about educational issues. From this research I developed an appreciation for and an understanding of good writing habits and elements of…

  8. Preliminary studies on affirmative action in a brazilian university1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de São Paulo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a signatory to Durban III World Conference against Racism, Discrimination, Xenophobia and other forms of Intolerance, Brazil has committed itself to the enforcement of mechanisms to promote social equity. As a consequence, governmental programs have been implemented, aiming at the inclusion of Afrodescendents h students in the academy is minimal and does not relate to what can be observed in the general population. As an example of such endeavor, Universidade de Brasília (UnB has started an Affirmative Action program in order to include a contingent of 20% of its freshman students as representatives of racial underprivileged groups. This policy started in August 2004. The present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of students and general public to this policy. An instrument, based partially on McConahay´s (1986 Modern Racism scale, was administered to a sample of 316 students. A factor analysis (AF extracted five factors, corresponding to 48% of the total variance explained. An Analysis of Variance (Anova was performed to better understand the results, concerning both age and gender of the subjects. Results show that, although students demonstrated interest in the implementing of Affirmative Action programs, and are aware of the relevance of such procedures to the cultural and social structure of the community, they do not agree with their reasons or measures taken, or to the existence of the problem itself.

  9. Preliminary low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.

    1996-02-05

    A Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan was prepared. The plan supports the Phase I privatization effort by providing recommendations that may influence the technical content of the final request for proposal, and the interface control documents for the turnover of two double-shell tanks (DST) to the private contractors for use as feed tanks and the transfer of supernate to these tanks. Additionally, the preliminary schedule of feed staging activities will be useful to both RL and the private bidders during the contract negotiation period. A revised feed staging plan will be issued in August 1996 reflecting anticipated changes in the request for proposal, resolution of issues identified in this report, and completion of additional work scope.

  10. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  11. Action recognition depends on observer's level of action control and social personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Ondobaka

    Full Text Available Humans recognize both the movement (physical goals and action (conceptual goals of individuals with whom they are interacting. Here, we assessed whether spontaneous recognition of others' goals depends on whether the observers control their own behavior at the movement or action level. We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual's movement and action goals that are known to be encoded in the "mirroring" and "mentalizing" brain networks. In order to address these questions, we used a computer-based card paradigm that made it possible to independently manipulate movement and action congruency of observed and executed actions. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to select either the right or left card (movement-control condition or the higher or lower card (action-control condition, while we manipulated action- and movement-congruency of both actors' goals. An action-congruency effect was present in all conditions and the size of this effect was significantly correlated with self-reported empathy and ASD-like traits. In contrast, movement-congruency effects were only present in the movement-control block and were strongly dependent on action-congruency. These results illustrate that spontaneous recognition of others' behavior depends on the control scheme that is currently adopted by the observer. The findings suggest that deficits in action recognition are related to abnormal synthesis of perceived movements and prior conceptual knowledge that are associated with activations in the "mirroring" and "mentalizing" cortical networks.

  12. Fundamental theorem on gauge fixing at the action level

    CERN Document Server

    Motohashi, Hayato; Takahashi, Kazufumi

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of the long history of gauge theories, it is not well-recognized under which condition gauge fixing at the action level is legitimate. We address this issue from the Lagrangian point of view, and prove the following theorem on the relation between gauge fixing and Euler-Lagrange equations: In any gauge theory, if a gauge fixing is complete, i.e., the gauge functions are determined uniquely by the gauge conditions, the Euler-Lagrange equations derived from the gauge-fixed action are equivalent to those derived from the original action supplemented with the gauge conditions. Otherwise, it is not appropriate to impose the gauge conditions before deriving Euler-Lagrange equations as it may in general lead to inconsistent results. The criterion to check whether a gauge fixing is complete or not is further investigated. We also provide applications of the theorem to scalar-tensor theories and make comments on recent relevant papers on theories of modified gravity, in which there are confusions on gauge f...

  13. Fundamental theorem on gauge fixing at the action level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Suyama, Teruaki; Takahashi, Kazufumi

    2016-12-01

    Regardless of the long history of gauge theories, it is not well recognized under which condition gauge fixing at the action level is legitimate. We address this issue from the Lagrangian point of view, and prove the following theorem on the relation between gauge fixing and Euler-Lagrange equations: In any gauge theory, if a gauge fixing is complete, i.e., the gauge functions are determined uniquely by the gauge conditions, the Euler-Lagrange equations derived from the gauge-fixed action are equivalent to those derived from the original action supplemented with the gauge conditions. Otherwise, it is not appropriate to impose the gauge conditions before deriving Euler-Lagrange equations as it may in general lead to inconsistent results. The criterion to check whether a gauge fixing is complete or not is further investigated. We also provide applications of the theorem to scalar-tensor theories and make comments on recent relevant papers on theories of modified gravity, in which there are confusions on gauge fixing and counting physical degrees of freedom.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of diabatic heating distribution from FGGE level 3b analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, A.; Mizzi, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the global distribution of diabatic heating rate. Preliminary results of global heating rate evaluated from the European center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Level IIIb analysis data is also presented.

  15. Investigation of the low-level modulated light action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Sergei N.; Sotnikov, V. N.; Koreneva, L. G.

    1994-07-01

    Now there exists no clear complete knowledge about mechanisms and pathways by which low level laser bioactivation works. Modulated laser light action has been investigated two new ways: dynamical infrared thermography and computing image of living brain. These ways permit observation in real time laser action on peripheral blood flow, reflex reactions to functional probes, thermoregulation mechanisms as well as brain electrical activity changes of humans. We have designed a universal apparatus which produced all regimes of the output laser light. It has a built-in He-Ne laser with an acousto-optic modulator and an infrared GaAs laser. The device provided spatial combination of both the light beams and permitted us to irradiate an object both separately and simultaneously. This research shows that the most effective frequencies range from several to dozens of hertz. The duty factor and frequency scanning are also important. On the basis of these results in Russian clinics new treatment methods using modulated light are applied in practical neurology, gynecology, etc.

  16. Dynamic simulation of hydrodynamic model of drum level wave action and sloshing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to build the model of the drum level wave action and sloshing, based on the method of modularization modeling,the hydrodynamic model of drum level wave action and sloshing was developed, and dynamic simulation researches were carried out based on the model. The results indicate that both drum level and drum length have functional relations with period of drum level wave action and sloshing. When the drum level decreases or drum length increases, the period of drum level wave action and sloshing increases, density of liquid and number of sub-module division have little influence on the period of drum level wave action and sloshing. The model was validated by the analytical solution theory of liquid's wave action and sloshing in cuboid container, and the 3D graphics of drum level wave action and sloshing was also obtained. The model can dynamically reflect the rules of wave action and sloshing of water in the container exactly.

  17. The geomorphic action of wind-blown snow in the Maritime Antarctic. Preliminary results from Livingston Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gonçalo; Trindade, Alexandre; Mora, Carla; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Wind-blown snow may cause a significant geomorphic action on exposed rock surfaces in polar and mountain environments, a process known as niveo-aeolian corrasion. Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic Peninsula region) shows a polar maritime climate with mean annual air temperatures at sea-level of ca. -2°C. 90% of the island is covered by glaciers, but several peninsulas area glacier-free with large areas of exposed bedrock terrain. Observations from Hurd Peninsula, a metasedimentary area with quartzites and shales (flysch facies) and frequent dolerite dykes, show that wind erosion is an active process on present-day geomorphological dynamics. Effects of corrasion have been observed on boulder surfaces and rock outcrops, as well as on moss covers. Painted poles have been installed at several sites in order to detect the direction of erosive winds. For obtaining snow and wind data a meteorological station has been installed in the vicinity of the Bulgarian Antarctic Station St. Kliment Ohridski, as well as air/snow temperature loggers and time-lapse cameras close to the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. ASAR satellitte imagery provides a regional scale overview of snow cover. In this poster we present a first overview of the observations, preliminary results and discuss the methodology for the future systematical assessment of niveo-aeolian corrasion in Livingston Island.

  18. A Preliminary Investigation into the Behavioral Dimensions of Affirmative Action Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Kenneth E.

    1980-01-01

    Identifies specific actions firms might undertake in an effort to meet their compliance obligations and empirically organizes those actions into the principal behavioral dimensions that constitute an affirmative action compliance effort. (Author/IRT)

  19. Fluctuations of Lake Orta water levels: preliminary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Saidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While the effects of past industrial pollution on the chemistry and biology of Lake Orta have been well documented, annual and seasonal fluctuations of lake levels have not yet been studied. Considering their potential impacts on both the ecosystem and on human safety, fluctuations in lake levels are an important aspect of limnological research. In the enormous catchment of Lake Maggiore, there are many rivers and lakes, and the amount of annual precipitation is both high and concentrated in spring and autumn. This has produced major flood events, most recently in November 2014. Flood events are also frequent on Lake Orta, occurring roughly triennially since 1917. The 1926, 1951, 1976 and 2014 floods were severe, with lake levels raised from 2.30 m to 3.46 m above the hydrometric zero. The most important event occurred in 1976, with a maximum level equal to 292.31 m asl and a return period of 147 years. In 2014 the lake level reached 291.89 m asl and its return period was 54 years. In this study, we defined trends and temporal fluctuations in Lake Orta water levels from 1917 to 2014, focusing on extremes. We report both annual maximum and seasonal variations of the lake water levels over this period. Both Mann-Kendall trend tests and simple linear regression were utilized to detect monotonic trends in annual and seasonal extremes, and logistic regression was used to detect trends in the number of flood events. Lake level decreased during winter and summer seasons, and a small but statistically non-significant positive trend was found in the number of flood events over the period. We provide estimations of return period for lake levels, a metric which could be used in planning lake flood protection measures.

  20. Sexual hormone serum levels and temporomandibular disorders. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicola; Lombardi, Ilaria; Manfredini, Daniele; Casarosa, Elena; Biondi, Katya; Gabbanini, Massimo; Bosco, Mario

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sexual hormones in a young adult population affected by articular forms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), measuring 17beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels. In the study, we included 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I group II diagnosis of disk displacement and/or group III diagnosis of arthralgia, osteoarthritis or osteoarhrosis, and 32 healthy controls. In female patients, blood samples were collected in follicular and luteal phases of the same menstrual cycle, while only one blood sample was drawn in male patients. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were determined using a radioimmunoassay and the comparison between the two groups was performed using a t test. Regarding estradiol, our results showed significantly higher serum levels in patients affected by TMD than in healthy controls, both in males (p hormones, these data suggest that high serum estrogen levels might be implicated in the physiopathology of TMD.

  1. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Physiological Mechanisms of Action for Sleep Restriction Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Vallières

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the physiological mechanisms involved in the sleep restriction treatment of insomnia. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used. Sleep of five participants suffering from insomnia was assessed throughout the experimentation by sleep diaries and actigraphy. Ten nights of polysomnography were conducted over five occasions. The first two-night assessment served to screen for sleep disorders and to establish a baseline for dependent measures. Three assessments were undertaken across the treatment interval, with the fifth and last one coming at follow-up. Daily cortisol assays were obtained. Sleep restriction therapy was applied in-lab for the first two nights of treatment and was subsequently supervised weekly. Interrupted time series analyses were computed on sleep diary data and showed a significantly decreased wake time, increased sleep efficiency, and decreased total sleep time. Sleepiness at night seems positively related to sleep variables, polysomnography data suggest objective changes mainly for stage 2, and power spectral analysis shows a decrease in beta-1 and -2 powers for the second night of treatment. Cortisol levels seem to be lower during treatment. These preliminary results confirm part of the proposed physiological mechanisms and suggest that sleep restriction contributes to a rapid decrease in hyperarousal insomnia.

  2. Action recognition depends on observer's level of action control and social personality traits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ondobaka, Sasha; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; de Lange, Floris P; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-01-01

    .... We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual's movement and action goals that are known to be encoded...

  3. Action Recognition Depends on Observers Level of Action Control and Social Personality Traits: e81392

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasha Ondobaka; Roger D Newman-Norlund; Floris P de Lange; Harold Bekkering

    2013-01-01

    .... We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual's movement and action goals that are known to be encoded...

  4. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, “why” an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific “how” details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety. PMID:20579789

  5. New level-0 action of U$_{q}$($\\widehat{s}\\widehat{l}_{2}$) on level-1 modules

    CERN Document Server

    Jimbo, M; Konno, H; Miwa, T; Petersen, J U H; Petersen, J U H

    1995-01-01

    A level-0 action of U_q(\\widehat{sl}_2) is defined on the sum of level-1 irreducible highest weight modules. With the aid of the affine Hecke algebras, this action is realized on the basis created by the vertex operators. This is a q-analogue of the Yangian symmetry in conformal field theory.

  6. Sustained action tetracycline preparation--tetrabid-organon blood level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C R; Mugglestone, C J; Thomas, D R

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the plasma levels of tetracycline obtained whilst taking standard therapeutic doses of Tetrabid-Organon was made in twelve healthy volunteers. Two standard production batches were used in the study which was conducted under double-blind conditions. Sampling 12 hours and 8 hours after dosing showed no significant differences in plasma levels, with each batch. Even at these lowest levels satisfactory concentrations were rapidly obtained following initial administration, and were maintained when the drug was given at 12-hourly intervals. No side-effects of the drug were noted.

  7. Fetal movements and placental lactogen levels for fetal-placental evaluation. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellacy, W N; Cruz, A C; Gelman, S R; Buhi, W C

    1977-01-01

    Fetal movements were measured by 37 pregnant women during a 10-minute period while they were lying on their left side at various times during the day with the highest rates in the evening. Preliminary assessments of fetal movement and serum hPL levels in pregnant women suggest that the two tests might complement each other in providing more information about the status of the placenta and fetus.

  8. Comprehensive actions of PSF on different health care levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Corrêa Vogel Koury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This case report is referring to the summary care of a patient with history. Lower limb pain. that had initially made the diagnosis of osteoarthritis in a service of Attendance. The post was evaluated at the Family Health Unit and together with the local Health Department and Reference Center in another municipality, where he established a conclusive diagnosis of acute arterial insufficiency and abdominal aortic aneurysm. The trajectory of the patient until the diagnosis and enca-spect to timely and appropriate interventions demonstrates the importance of customer service based on the principles of bonding, continuity, comprehensiveness, with the rear of a reference system and cross-reference structured. Health services need to be organized into levels of increasing complexity, with appropriate technology for each level, increasing the resolution. The Primary Health Care-guard mutually complementary relationship of authority with other levels of health care, and therefore not independent. When seeking to guide the organization of health services by the principles of completeness, what is sought is to increase awareness of the needs of groups and wonder about the best ways to respond to these needs. Thus, the Family Health should work closely with other levels of health care that can address the problems adequately.

  9. Antispasmodic action of 5-methyl benzoxazoline-2-one: A preliminary study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, R.D.; Bhandare, P.N.; Fernandes, N.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    In the present study, compound (1) depressed both phases of the dose-response curve. The marked effect on 5-HT response cannot be attributed solely to an antimuscarinic action of the compound which was much less (66%) as compared to (88...

  10. Preliminary consideration on the seismic actions recorded during the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Nigro, Antonella; Nigro, Domenico S.; Iacovino, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    After the Mw 6.0 mainshock of August 24, 2016 at 03.36 a.m. (local time), with the epicenter located between the towns of Accumoli (province of Rieti), Amatrice (province of Rieti) and Arquata del Tronto (province of Ascoli Piceno), several activities were started in order to perform some preliminary evaluations on the characteristics of the recent seismic sequence in the areas affected by the earthquake. Ambient vibration acquisitions have been performed using two three-directional velocimetric synchronized stations, with a natural frequency equal to 0.5Hz and a digitizer resolution of equal to 24bit. The activities are continuing after the events of the seismic sequence of October 26 and October 30, 2016. In this paper, in order to compare recorded and code provision values in terms of peak (PGA, PGV and PGD), spectral and integral (Housner Intensity) seismic parameters, several preliminary analyses have been performed on accelerometric time-histories acquired by three near fault station of the RAN (Italian Accelerometric Network): Amatrice station (station code AMT), Norcia station (station code NRC) and Castelsantangelo sul Nera station (station code CNE). Several comparisons between the elastic response spectra derived from accelerometric recordings and the elastic demand spectra provided by the Italian seismic code (NTC 2008) have been performed. Preliminary results retrieved from these analyses highlight several apparent difference between experimental data and conventional code provision. Then, the ongoing seismic sequence appears compatible with the historical seismicity in terms of integral parameters, but not in terms of peak and spectral values. It seems appropriate to reconsider the necessity to revise the simplified design approach based on the conventional spectral values. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and

  11. A preliminary operational classification system for nonmutagenic modes of action for carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, D; Chu, M; Rahmioglu, N; Goble, R; Verma, P; Hartman, K; Kozlak, M

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a system of categories for nonmutagenic modes of action for carcinogenesis. The classification is of modes of action rather than individual carcinogens, because the same compound can affect carcinogenesis in more than one way. Basically, we categorize modes of action as: (1) co-initiation (facilitating the original mutagenic changes in stem and progenitor cells that start the cancer process) (e.g. induction of activating enzymes for other carcinogens); (2) promotion (enhancing the relative growth vs differentiation/death of initiated clones (e.g. inhibition of growth-suppressing cell-cell communication); (3) progression (enhancing the growth, malignancy, or spread of already developed tumors) (e.g. suppression of immune surveillance, hormonally mediated growth stimulation for tumors with appropriate receptors by estrogens); and (4) multiphase (e.g., "epigenetic" silencing of tumor suppressor genes). A priori, agents that act at relatively early stages in the process are expected to manifest greater relative susceptibility in early life, whereas agents that act via later stage modes will tend to show greater susceptibility for exposures later in life.

  12. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  13. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  14. Smokeless tobacco use by middle school males: a preliminary test of the reasoned action theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, R G; Loftin, T L

    1987-02-01

    This study identified psychosocial variables associated with smokeless tobacco use within the context of the reasoned action theory. One hundred twelve male students, ages ten-14, completed a questionnaire that operationalized components of the theoretical model. Multiple regression analyses revealed intention to use smokeless tobacco correlated significantly with attitude toward the behavior and perceived social pressure. As predicted by the theory, significant differences between those who intended to use smokeless tobacco and those who did not were found on several outcome and normative beliefs. The data support the utility of the theory as a means of explaining smokeless tobacco use. Future research recommendations are offered.

  15. Does Education Plus Action Lead to Leadership on Climate? Preliminary Results from the ACE Leadership Development Longitudinal Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. K.; Qusba, L.; Lappe, M.; Flora, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Through education and leadership development, Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) is building a generation of confident and capable youth driving climate solutions now throughout their lives. In 2011-12, a random sample of 2,800 high school students across the country was surveyed before and after seeing the ACE Assembly on climate science and solutions. The survey showed that the ACE Assembly resulted in a 27% increase in climate science knowledge scores, with 59% of students increasing their intentions to take action on climate and a doubling of the number of students talking to parents and peers about climate change. Students were also compared to the Global Warming's Six Americas classification of Americans' views on climate. Following the ACE Assembly, 60% of students were alarmed or concerned about climate change. Building off these results, in 2014 ACE began to assess the results of its leadership development program that follows the ACE Assembly. The goal of this survey project is to measure ACE's long-term impact on students' college and career pathways, civic engagement and climate action. Preliminary results show that a majority of students in ACE's leadership development program are alarmed about global warming and are having conversations about global warming. A majority of these students also feel confident in their ability to lead a climate-related campaign in their school and community. These students will continue to be surveyed through 2015.

  16. Preliminary investigation of the effects of sea-level rise on groundwater levels in New Haven, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerklie, David M.; Mullaney, John R.; Stone, Janet R.; Skinner, Brian J.; Ramlow, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Global sea level rose about 0.56 feet (ft) (170 millimeters (mm)) during the 20th century. Since the 1960s, sea level has risen at Bridgeport, Connecticut, about 0.38 ft (115 mm), at a rate of 0.008 ft (2.56 mm + or - 0.58 mm) per year. With regional subsidence, and with predicted global climate change, sea level is expected to continue to rise along the northeast coast of the United States through the 21st century. Increasing sea levels will cause groundwater levels in coastal areas to rise in order to adjust to the new conditions. Some regional climate models predict wetter climate in the northeastern United States under some scenarios. Scenarios for the resulting higher groundwater levels have the potential to inundate underground infrastructure in lowlying coastal cities. New Haven is a coastal city in Connecticut surrounded and bisected by tidally affected waters. Monitoring of water levels in wells in New Haven from August 2009 to July 2010 indicates the complex effects of urban influence on groundwater levels. The response of groundwater levels to recharge and season varied considerably from well to well. Groundwater temperatures varied seasonally, but were warmer than what was typical for Connecticut, and they seem to reflect the influence of the urban setting, including the effects of conduits for underground utilities. Specific conductance was elevated in many of the wells, indicating the influence of urban activities or seawater in Long Island Sound. A preliminary steady-state model of groundwater flow for part of New Haven was constructed using MODFLOW to simulate current groundwater levels (2009-2010) and future groundwater levels based on scenarios with a rise of 3 ft (0.91 meters (m)) in sea level, which is predicted for the end of the 21st century. An additional simulation was run assuming a 3-ft rise in sea level combined with a 12-percent increase in groundwater recharge. The model was constructed from existing hydrogeologic information for the

  17. ATLANTIC - Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: A Preliminary Database for the U.S. Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project is to provide a preliminary overview, at a National scale, the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise through the...

  18. ATLANTIC - Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: A Preliminary Database for the U.S. Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project is to provide a preliminary overview, at a National scale, the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise through the...

  19. PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE OF LANDSCAPE-LEVEL STRUCTURE IN A POPULATION OF A PERENNIAL HERB, Cypella herbertii (IRIDACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Devoto, Mariano; Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina).; Medan, Diego; Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary evidence for the existence of a genetic landscape-level structuring that might be a consequence of depressed pollen flow across heavily grazed populations of Cypella herbertii

  20. Representation and Integration: Combining Robot Control, High-Level Planning, and Action Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrick, Ronald; Kraft, Dirk; Mourao, Kira;

    We describe an approach to integrated robot control, high-level planning, and action effect learning that attempts to overcome the representational difficulties that exist between these diverse areas. Our approach combines ideas from robot vision, knowledgelevel planning, and connectionist machine......-level action specifications, suitable for planning, from a robot’s interactions with the world. We present a detailed overview of our approach and show how it supports the learning of certain aspects of a high-level lepresentation from low-level world state information....

  1. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michele L; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Appleton, Allison A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2017-04-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiṣ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5-20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. From Action Representation to Action Execution: Exploring the Links Between Cognitive and Biomechanical Levels of Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eLand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with superior performance, research indicates that expertise is associated with a number of mediating cognitive adaptations. To this extent, extensive practice is associated with the development of general and task-specific mental representations, which play an important role in the organization and control of action. Recently, new experimental methods have been developed, which allow for investigating the organization and structure of these representations, along with the functional structure of the movement kinematics. In the current article, we present a new approach for examining the overlap between skill representations and motor output. In doing so, we first present an architecture model, which addresses links between biomechanical and cognitive levels of motor control. Next, we review the state of the art in assessing memory structures underlying complex action. Following we present a new spatio-temporal decomposition method for illuminating the functional structure of movement kinematics, and finally, we apply these methods to investigate the overlap between the structure of motor representations in memory and their corresponding kinematic structures. Our aim is to understand the extent to which the output at a kinematic level is governed by representations at a cognitive level of motor control.

  3. Toroidal actions on level 1 modules of $U_q(\\overline{sl_n})$

    CERN Document Server

    Saitô, Y; Uglov, D B

    1997-01-01

    We propose a proof of the recent observation due to Varagnolo and Vasserot that the q-deformed Fock spaces are modules of the quantum toroidal algebra U(sl_n,tor) (n > 2) with the level (0,1).The quantum toroidal action on the Fock space depends on a certain parameter. We find that with a specific choice of this parameter the action on the Fock spaces gives rise to the toroidal action on irreducible level-1 highest weight modules of the affine quantum algebra U_q(\\hat{sl_n}). Similarly, by a specific choice of the parameter, the level (1,0) vertex representation of the quantum toroidal algebra gives rise to a U(sl_n,tor)-module structure on irreducible level-1 highest weight U_q(\\hat{sl_n})-modules.

  4. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  5. The relationship between levels of PCBs and pesticides in human hair and blood: preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshul, Larisa; Covaci, Adrian; Hauser, Russ

    2004-08-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organic contaminants in hair and other body compartments. To explore levels of POPs in blood and hair, samples from 10 volunteers were collected and analyzed for select organochlorine pesticides and 57 individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. We demonstrated that the method for analyzing organic contaminants in human hair was reliable and reproducible. Washing hair with shampoo decreased levels of PCBs, pesticides, and lipids by 25-33% on average and up to 62% for low-chlorinated congeners. The percentage of lipids and the levels of organochlorines in hair were higher than in serum. We found strong correlation (r = 0.8) between p,p -DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels in hair and blood and moderate correlations for the more persistent PCB congeners, but no correlations or weak correlations for other organochlorines. The present study provides preliminary evidence on the utility of hair analysis for POPs; however, further larger studies are recommended before hair analysis can be successfully applied in epidemiologic studies on POPs.

  6. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  7. An action research proposal to enhance the ideation practices among shopfloor level employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paalanen, Anne; Bergenholtz, Carsten

    proposes an inter-unit solution to activate the shopfloor level employees to give innovation ideas and to share the ideas between different units. The methodology used in this paper is action research. The results suggest that the bottom-up approach to create new active roles to harvest innovation ideas...

  8. An Action Science Research Approach to Reducing Student Tardiness at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gile, Curtis S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to reduce student tardiness at the high school level. Another purpose of the study was to determine the underlying values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with student tardiness from a faculty and staff perspective. The study…

  9. Health risk assessment and applied action level of toluene. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.A.; Weir, K.; Encomienda, I.; Beltran, L.M.

    1989-05-16

    The purpose of the document is to provide information on the toxicity of toluene and to estimate Applied Action Levels (AALs) for toluene in water, air, and soil. The information provided will aid the California Dept. of Health Services manage hazardous waste sites and protect the health of California residents.

  10. Preliminary Technology Maturation Plan for Immobilization of High-Level Waste in Glass Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, G L.

    2012-09-30

    A technology maturation plan (TMP) was developed for immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) raffinate in a glass ceramics waste form using a cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM). The TMP was prepared by the following process: 1) define the reference process and boundaries of the technology being matured, 2) evaluate the technology elements and identify the critical technology elements (CTE), 3) identify the technology readiness level (TRL) of each of the CTE’s using the DOE G 413.3-4, 4) describe the development and demonstration activities required to advance the TRLs to 4 and 6 in order, and 5) prepare a preliminary plan to conduct the development and demonstration. Results of the technology readiness assessment identified five CTE’s and found relatively low TRL’s for each of them: • Mixing, sampling, and analysis of waste slurry and melter feed: TRL-1 • Feeding, melting, and pouring: TRL-1 • Glass ceramic formulation: TRL-1 • Canister cooling and crystallization: TRL-1 • Canister decontamination: TRL-4 Although the TRL’s are low for most of these CTE’s (TRL-1), the effort required to advance them to higher values. The activities required to advance the TRL’s are listed below: • Complete this TMP • Perform a preliminary engineering study • Characterize, estimate, and simulate waste to be treated • Laboratory scale glass ceramic testing • Melter and off-gas testing with simulants • Test the mixing, sampling, and analyses • Canister testing • Decontamination system testing • Issue a requirements document • Issue a risk management document • Complete preliminary design • Integrated pilot testing • Issue a waste compliance plan A preliminary schedule and budget were developed to complete these activities as summarized in the following table (assuming 2012 dollars). TRL Budget Year MSA FMP GCF CCC CD Overall $M 2012 1 1 1 1 4 1 0.3 2013 2 2 1 1 4 1 1.3 2014 2 3 1 1 4 1 1.8 2015 2 3 2 2 4 2 2.6 2016 2 3 2 2 4 2 4

  11. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Repeated Massage on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal and Immune Function in Healthy Individuals: A Study of Mechanisms of Action and Dosage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettler, Pamela; Bresee, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study gathers preliminary data about the biologic effects of repeated Swedish massage therapy compared to a light-touch control condition. Design The study design was a 5-week comparison of repeated Swedish massage and light touch on oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), adrenal corticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT), circulating phenotypic lymphocyte markers, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine function. Setting The setting was an outpatient research unit in an academic medical center. Participants The study subjects were medically and psychiatrically healthy young adults. Intervention The study comprised 45 minutes of Swedish massage or light touch, using highly specified and identical protocols, either weekly or twice weekly for 5 weeks. Outcome measures The outcome measures were mean differences between massage and light touch on OT, AVP, ACTH, CORT, lymphocyte markers, and cytokine levels. Results Compared to the touch control condition, weekly Swedish massage stimulated a sustained pattern of increased circulating phenotypic lymphocyte markers and decreased mitogen-stimulated cytokine production, similar to what was previously reported for a single massage session, while having minimal effect on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function. Twice-weekly massage produced a different response pattern with increased OT levels, decreased AVP, and decreased CORT but little effect on circulating lymphocyte phenotypic markers and a slight increase in mitogen-stimulated interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1b and IL-2 levels, suggesting increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions There are sustained cumulative biologic actions for the massage and touch interventions that persist for several days or a week, and these differ profoundly depending on the dosage (frequency) of sessions. Confirmatory studies in larger samples are needed. PMID:22775448

  12. Preliminary study on radio-chemo-induced oral mucositis and low level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo; Clini, Fabio; Cella, Luigi; Vescovi, Paolo; Oppici, Aldo

    2012-09-01

    Background: Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of antineoplastic radiation and drug therapy: its incidence in onco-hematological radio-chemotreated patients is variable between 50 and 100% and its impact on this populations is directly linked with the experience of intense pain causing reduction and modification of therapy regimens, decreased survival rates and increased cost of care. Purpose: Aim of this study is the preliminary evaluation of a Low Level Laser therapy (LLLT) protocol on healing process of oral mucositis and on pain and quality of life of patients experiencing this dramatic side-effect. Materials and methods: Patients were evaluated and treated at the Unita` Operativa Semplice Dipartimentale di Odontostomatologia e Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale of the Hospital of Piacenza were they were treated for primary disease with protocols of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. LLLT protocol was performed with a diode laser (808 nm -XD Smile - Fotona -Slovenia) on a two weeks-6 treatments schedule with power of 0.5 W and application of 30 seconds. Mucositis grading was scored on the basis of WHO classification by two blind operators at each treatment and at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. Pain and capability of deglutition were described by patients by means questionnaires based on Visual Analogue Scale, Numerical Rating Scale and Quality of Life. Results: A relevant improvement of healing of oral mucositis, in terms of reduction of grading score, and of pain, swallowing discomfort and quality of life was recorded. Discussion and conclusion: Results of this preliminary study are encouraging for the realization of larger studies focused on the application of LLLT protocols in management of radio-chemotreated patients with oral mucositis.

  13. Effect of training level and blood flow restriction on thermal parameters: Preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Lucas; Bezerra, Ewertton; Paladino, Kayo; dos Santos, João Otacílio Libardoni; Priego Quesada, Jose I.; Rossato, Mateus

    2016-11-01

    Training with blood flow restriction could lead to an effect on skin temperature. Additionally, this effect could be higher in people with lower physical fitness level due to their lower capacity of heat loss. The aim of this preliminary study was therefore to evaluate the effects of training experience on the acute and chronic thermal skin responses after performing exercise with and without blood flow restriction. The study included ten men, of these, five were trained. All subjects performed tests and re-tests for maximum strength (1 repetition maximum) through unilateral leg extensions (right thigh at 45 ± 6.7 kg and left thigh at 45.5 ± 8.1 kg, p > 0.05). The protocol consisted of four sets to concentric failure, with one-minute rest intervals between sets at an intensity corresponding to 40% of 1 RM. There were 7-day intervals between experimental sessions (150 mmHg versus unrestricted flow restriction). The thermal images were made before the protocol (pre), immediately after the end of the series (post), and 24 h afterward (post 24 h). When comparing temperature variation (Δ exercise and Δ 24 h) between groups, it was observed that the trained participants showed a greater drop in temperature 24 h after exercise with 150 mmHg restriction (confidence interval: 95% of Δ 24 h [-0.2 to -0.9 °C]) compared to untrained subjects (p = 0.006 and ES > 1.5, confidence interval: 95% Δ 24 h [-0.1 to 0.6 °C].) In conclusion, this preliminary study showed that training experience interferes with the chronic cutaneous thermal temperature of the anterior thigh when strength training associated with blood flow restriction 150 mmHg was performed.

  14. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  15. Will environmental interventions affect the level of mastery motivation among children with disabilities? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim

    2015-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities tend to demonstrate lower levels of mastery motivation in comparison with typically developing children. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of physical and social environmental interventions on the mastery motivation of children with disabilities. Participants included 19 children (from two classes) with disabilities between the ages of 2-4 years from an educational rehabilitation centre. The Individualized Assessment of Mastery Motivation was used to assess the level of mastery motivation; the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised and the Teacher-Child Interaction Observation were used to assess the physical and social environments. A counterbalance study design was used such that the children from the two classes received two phases of intervention, social and physical environmental interventions. The study's results point to the advantage of the social intervention, over the physical one, in improving the child's mastery motivation. However, the results lend support for the efficacy of using both aspects of environmental changes to the overall persistent score. The study findings, although preliminary, demonstrate the efficacy of providing both social and physical environmental interventions to improve mastery motivation.

  16. Genetic variations in FSH action affect sex hormone levels and breast tissue size in infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Louise Scheutz; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2016-01-01

    , especially FSHR -29G>A and FSHR 2039A>G, affect female hormone profile and glandular breast tissue development already during minipuberty. Thus, genetic variations of FSH signaling appear to determine the individual set point of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis already early in life.......Context: Single nucleotide polymorphisms altering FSH action (FSHB -211G>T, FSHR -29G>A, and FSHR 2039A>G) are associated with peripubertal and adult levels of reproductive hormones and age at pubertal onset in girls. Objective: To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...... present in homozygotes. FSHB -211T carriers had smaller breast tissue size than girls who without a minor allele; GT+TT 10.5 (confidence interval 9.4 -11.5) mm vs GG 12.1 (confidence interval 11.4-12.8) mm, P = .014. Conclusions: Our study indicates that 3 genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...

  17. Level-0 action of $U_{q}(\\widehat{sl}_{n})$ on the q-deformed Fock spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Takemura, K; Takemura, Kouichi; Uglov, Denis

    1996-01-01

    On the level-1 Fock space modules of the algebra $U_q(\\hat{sl_n})$ we define a level-0 action $U_0$ of the $U_q(\\hat{sl_n})$, and an action of an abelian algebra of conserved Hamiltonians commuting with the $U_0$. An irreducible decomposition of the Fock space with respect to the level-0 action is derived by constructing a base of the Fock space in terms of the Non-symmetric Macdonald Polynomials.

  18. Preliminary scenarios and nuclide transport models for low-and intermediate-level repository system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Kyong Won; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-02-01

    Through the study 11 scenarios with which nuclide release from the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste could be simulated and assessed are selected, based upon FEPs identified. For each scenario, some practical methodologies as well as mathematical models involved in modling of nuclide transport in various media are also proposed. It is considered that such methodologies can play a great role when real repository system is constructed and operated in very near future. Real repository system is anticipated not to be quite different with the repository system postulated through this study. Even though there shows very complicated features for relevant parameters associated with various phisical-, geohydrological-, and geochemical situation and even human society as well, it is very necessary to propose the methodologies for a quantitative assessment of the performance of the repository in order to use them as a template on the practical point of view of preliminary safety assessment. Mathematical models proposed could be easily adopted by such common computer codes as, for example, MIMOSA and MASCOT-K.

  19. Effect of Probiotic Supplement on Cytokine Levels in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Falasca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation persists in patients infected with HIV. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines and microbial translocation might be one way that this could be managed. Purpose: The anti-inflammatory properties of certain probiotic strains prompted us to investigate whether a probiotic could reduce the inflammatory index of HIV-infected patients. Methods: The study involved 30 HIV+ males on antiretroviral therapy, who were given one bottle of fermented milk Yakult Light® containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS twice a day for four weeks. Results: The probiotic LcS was associated with an increase of T lymphocytes and a significant increase of CD56+ cells (p = 0.04. There was also a significant decrease of mRNA levels of TGFβ, IL-10 and IL-12 (p < 0.001 and IL-1β expression (p < 0.001 and an increase of serum IL-23 (p = 0.03. In addition, decreased inflammation and cardiovascular risk were observed, as shown by a reduction of cystatin C (p < 0.001. Conclusions: These data provide preliminary evidence that probiotic supplementation may modulate certain immunological parameters and some of the cytokines that were analyzed. Thus, we propose that LcS may be an inexpensive and practical strategy to support the immune function of HIV+ patients.

  20. Noise levels in Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) data; Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.; Heflin, M. B.; Hurst, K.; Kedar, S.; Herring, T.; King, N. E.; Prawirodirdjo, L.

    2002-12-01

    Quantifying the noise levels in GPS data is a necessary for estimating station velocities and their uncertainties. The estimate of velocity uncertainty is particularly sensitive to the noise model used to characterize the time-series at its lowest frequencies. Previous published analysis (Zhang et. al, 1997 and Mao et. al, 1999) of noise levels in GPS data indicated that the flicker noise (1/f where f is frequency) best represent the temporal correlations at low frequencies in GPS station position time-series. On the other hand, analysis of high precision EDM data (Langbein and Johnson, 1995) show temporal correlations at low frequencies that is consistent with a random-walk (1/{f2}). It is believed that localized monument wobble is the cause for the random-walk. With the more recent GPS solutions that use data from a regional network and, as a consequence of resolving the ambiguity in GPS phase data, these solutions have better precision than those used in the published results. To test whether random-walk could be a component of the GPS data, time series of GPS data processed by JPL using GIPSY-OASIS II are examined. These data are from a subset of SCIGN for which the ambiguities have been resolved and a local reference frame has been defined. Preliminary analysis indicates that either flicker or a wide-band, seasonal noise is present. In addition, it is possible to place an upper bound on the amount of random-walk noise in the SCIGN data since these data span enough time and the recent data have less flicker noise than the published solutions.

  1. Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation for the Proposed Bio Safety Level 3 (BSl-3) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenbach, T J; Nguyen, S N

    2003-09-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct a biosafety level (BSL-3) facility at Site 200 in Livermore, California. Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) is a designation assigned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institutes Health (NIH) for handling infectious organisms based on the specific microorganisms and associated operations. Biosafety levels range from BSL-1 (lowest hazard) to BSL-4 (highest hazard). Details about the BSL-3 criteria are described in the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s publication ''Biosafety Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories'' (BMBL), 4th edition (CDC 1999): The BSL-3 facility will be built in accordance with the required BMBL guidelines. This Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation (PABD) for the proposed BSL-3 facility has been prepared in accordance with the current contractual requirements at LLNL. This includes the LLNL Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (ES&H Manual) and applicable Work Smart Standards, including the biosafety standards, such as the aforementioned BMBL and the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules: The proposed BSL-3 facility is a 1,100 ft{sup 2}, one-story permanent prefabricated facility, which will have three individual BSL-3 laboratory rooms (one of which is an animal biosafety level-3 [ABSL-3] laboratory to handle rodents), a mechanical room, clothes-change and shower rooms, and small storage space (Figure 3.1). The BSL-3 facility will be designed and operated accordance with guidelines for BSL-3 laboratories established by the CDC and the NIH. No radiological, high explosives, fissile, or propellant material will be used or stored in the proposed BSL-3 facility. The BSL-3 facility will be used to develop scientific tools to identify and understand the pathogens of medical, environmental, and forensic importance. Microorganisms that are to

  2. Uranium in vitro bioassay action level used to screen workers for chronic inhalation intakes of uranium mill tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, R H; Turner, J B; Carlson, D S

    1992-10-01

    A uranium in vitro bioassay (urinalysis) action level was derived for use at the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites to identify chronic inhalation intakes of uranium mill tailings causing 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) annual effective dose equivalent. All radionuclides in the 238U decay chain that contribute 1% or more to the annual effective dose equivalent from an inhalation intake of uranium mill tailings were included in the derivation of the urinalysis action level. Using a chronic inhalation intake model, the uranium urinalysis action level for a 24-h urine sample, collected on a quarterly schedule, was calculated to be 1.5 micrograms.

  3. Preliminary notes on brain weight variation across labrid fish species with different levels of cooperative behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta C.SOARES; Gon(c)alo I.ANDR(E); José R.PAULA

    2015-01-01

    Brain size and weight vary tremendously in the animal kingdom.It has been suggested that brain structural development must evolve balanced between the advantages of dealing with greater social challenges and the energetic costs of maintaining and developing larger brains.Here we ask if interspecific differences in cooperative behaviour (i.e.cleaning behaviour) are related to brain weight variations in four close-related species of Labrid fish:two are obligatory cleanerfish throughout their entire life (Labroides dimidiatus and L.bicolor),one facultative cleaner fish Labropsis australis and one last species that never engage in cleaning Labrichthys unilineatus.We first search for the link between the rate of species' cooperation and its relative brain weight,and finally,if the degree of social complexity and cooperation are reflected in the weight of its major brain substructures.Overall,no differences were found in relative brain weight (in relation to body weight) across species.Fine-scale differences were solely demonstrated for the facultative cleaner L.australis,at the brainstem level.Furthermore,data visual examination indicates that the average cerebellum and brainstem weights appear to be larger for L.dimidiatus.Because variation was solely found at specific brain areas (such as cerebellum and brainstem) and not for the whole brain weight values,it suggests that species social-ecological and cognitive demands may be directly contributing to a selective investment in relevant brain areas.This study provides first preliminary evidence that links potential differences in cognitive ability in cooperative behaviour to how these may mediate the evolution of brain structural development in non-mammal vertebrate groups [Current Zoology 61 (2):274-280,2015].

  4. Preliminary Requirement of Hot Pool Free Surface Level from PGSFR Reactor Head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeonghoi; Joo, Hyeongkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The sensitivity study on structural integrity evaluations are carried out to make a decision of a hot pool free surface location from the reactor head for a preliminary designed reactor enclosure system. To do this, the thermal stress evaluations for a reactor vessel are carried out for a steady state normal operating condition with detailed heat transfer analyses through the reactor enclosure system. From these results, the preliminary design requirement of a hot pool free surface location from the reactor head is established to be 2.0m. From the sensitivity studies on the structural integrity evaluations for a steady state condition, the preliminary distance from the hot pool free surface to the reactor head is determined to be 2.0m same as a conceptual design. More detailed structural analyses for a reactor enclosure system will be carried out as a PGSFR structural design goes forward in detail.

  5. Characteristics of action of nitrosoalkylureas on cell level in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nazarenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the cytogenetic characteristics of variability of mutation induction in new wheat varieties and some relationships between the means of the cytogenetic characteristics and different doses and types of mutagens. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations caused by mutagenic action of any kind of mutagen by the meto-anaphase method is one of the best known and most precise methods which we can use for determining the fact of mutagenic action on plants, and identifying the nature of the mutagenic factor. The strategy of investigation combined the identification of genotypes with a specific low-sensitivity to mutagenic factors using cytological analysis screening of mutagen treated wheat populations with the approach of comparing different varieties by breeding methods to reveal their connections and differences, specific sensitivity to mutagenic effects on the cell level. Dry seeds of 8 varieties of winter wheat were treated by nitrosomethilurea at concentrations 0.0125%, 0.0250%, and nitrosoethilurea 0.010%, 0.025%, which are normal levels for mutagenic selection of winter wheat mutation. The frequency and spectra of chromosomal aberrations were investigated. The overall correlations between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the value of a concentration were at the level 0.7–0.8. It was established that the fragments-bridges ratio is a reliable parameter for identifyingthe nature of mutagen. We identified genotypes and groups of genotypes which have a resistance to different types of mutagenic action. The resistance of a group is dependant on the breeding method of the variety initially obtained. It expressed as a decrease in the frequency of aberrations. Varieties obtained through chemical mutagenesis were less sensitive to the same chemical mutagens. Higher rates of chromosomal aberrations were typical for varieties obtained through field hybridization without any mutagen treatment or when the initial material was changed by

  6. Vital analysis: annotating sensed physiological signals with the stress levels of first responders in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Kaiseler, M; Queirós, C; Oliveira, M; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders such as firefighters are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue situations during their work routines. It is thus desirable to monitor their health using wearable sensing but this is a complex and still unsolved research challenge that requires large amounts of properly annotated physiological signals data. In this paper we show that the information gathered by our Vital Analysis Framework can support the annotation of these vital signals with the stress levels perceived by the target user, confirmed by the analysis of more than 4600 hours of data collected from real firefighters in action, including 717 answers to event questionnaires from a total of 454 different events.

  7. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  8. Purposeful collective action in ambiguous and contested situations: exploring ‘enabling capacities’ and cross-level interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Patterson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purposeful collective action is important for sustainably managing many kinds of natural resource issues in social-ecological systems. However, cultivating purposeful collective action is challenging in ambiguous and contested situations involving multiple issues, actors, levels, and drivers, and weak or missing feedback. A particular example is the problem of managing waterway health in large and diverse landscapes. This paper analyses the emergence of purposeful collective action for managing waterway health, focusing on a case study of a large and diverse region in Australia. It applies a heuristic developed to guide inquiry into 'enabling capacities' underpinning purposeful collective action, to analyse three local cases embedded within a broader regional landscape. A diverse range of enabling capacities at both local and regional levels, and cross-level interplay between these levels, are shown to be important. Findings imply that efforts to generate purposeful collective action require building enabling capacities across multiple levels of organisation, from which contextually-appropriate and adaptive action can emerge. Moreover, findings indicate the need for a practice-focused ‘knowledge-action perspective’ that recognises the importance of intersubjectivity and agency. The paper demonstrates a promising approach for investigating purposeful collective action in ambiguous and contested water and environmental governance situations.

  9. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Remedial Action Selection Report. Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This proposed remedial action plan incorporates the results of detailed investigation of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the proposed disposal site. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/waterborne materials to a permanent repository at the proposed Burro Canyon disposal cell. The proposed disposal site will be geomorphically stable. Seismic design parameters were developed for the geotechnical analyses of the proposed cell. Cell stability was analyzed to ensure long-term performance of the disposal cell in meeting design standards, including slope stability, settlement, and liquefaction potential. The proposed cell cover and erosion protection features were also analyzed and designed to protect the RRM (residual radioactive materials) against surface water and wind erosion. The location of the proposed cell precludes the need for permanent drainage or interceptor ditches. Rock to be used on the cell top-, side-, and toeslopes was sized to withstand probable maximum precipitation events.

  10. Preliminary criteria for shallow-land storage/disposal of low-level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shord, A. L.

    1979-09-01

    Preliminary criteria for shallow land storage/disposal of low level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment were developed. Criteria which address the establishment and operation of a storage/disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid wastes are discussed. These were developed from the following sources: (1) a literature review of solid waste burial; (2) a review of the regulations, standards, and codes pertinent to the burial of radioactive wastes; (3) on site experience; and (4) evaluation of existing burial grounds and practices. (DMC)

  11. Organisational support for the EU platform level action to support innovative efforts for a new scholarly communication framework

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeyser, Raf

    2001-01-01

    Conclusions of the report of the panel discussion about the future of the scholarly communication "Organisational support for the EU platform level action to support innovative efforts for a new scholarly communication framework"

  12. Zinc-related actions of sublethal levels of benzalkonium chloride: Potentiation of benzalkonium cytotoxicity by zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Tsuyoshi; Elmarhomy, Ahmed Ibrahim Elhossany; Dulamjav, Luvsandorj; Anu, Enkhtumur; Saitoh, Shohei; Ishida, Shiro; Oyama, Yasuo

    2017-04-25

    Benzalkonium chloride (BZK) is a common preservative used in pharmaceutical and personal care products. ZnCl2 was recently reported to significantly potentiate the cytotoxicity of some biocidal compounds. In the present study, therefore, we compared the cytotoxic potency of BZK and then further studied the Zn(2+)-related actions of the most cytotoxic agent among BZK, using flow cytometric techniques with appropriate fluorescent probes in rat thymocytes. Cytotoxicity of benzylcetyldimethylammonium (BZK-C16) was more potent that those of benzyldodecyldimethylammonium and benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium. ZnCl2 (1-10 μM) significantly potentiated the cytotoxicity of BZK-C16 at a sublethal concentration (1 μM). The co-treatment of cells with 3 μM ZnCl2 and 1 μM BZK-C16 increased the population of both living cells with phosphatidylserine exposed on membrane surfaces and dead cells. BZK-C16 at 0.3-1.0 μM elevated intracellular Zn(2+) levels by increasing Zn(2+) influx, and augmented the cytotoxicity of 100 μM H2O2. Zn(2+) is concluded to facilitate the toxicity of BZK. We suggest that the toxicity of BZK is determined after taking extracellular (plasma) and/or environmental Zn(2+) levels into account.

  13. Intrinsically motivated action-outcome learning and goal-based action recall: a system-level bio-constrained computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mannella, Francesco; Fiore, Vincenzo G; Redgrave, Peter; Gurney, Kevin; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of 'extrinsic motivations' (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of 'intrinsic motivations' (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivations have been studied in Psychology for many decades and their biological substrates are now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of IMs. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant neurobiological constraints. This paper proposes a bio-constrained system-level model that contributes a major step towards this integration. The model focusses on three processes related to IMs and on the neural mechanisms underlying them: (a) the acquisition of action-outcome associations (internal models of the agent-environment interaction) driven by phasic dopamine signals caused by sudden, unexpected changes in the environment; (b) the transient focussing of visual gaze and actions on salient portions of the environment; (c) the subsequent recall of actions to pursue extrinsic rewards based on goal-directed reactivation of the representations of their outcomes. The tests of the model, including a series of selective lesions, show how the focussing processes lead to a faster learning of action-outcome associations, and how these associations can be recruited for accomplishing goal-directed behaviours. The model, together with the background knowledge reviewed in the paper

  14. Institutional Diversity in Collective Action: Investigating Successful Village Level Maintenance of Hand Pumps in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Brian Anthony

    Providing clean water to rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. Unsanitary and distant water sources cause a host of health and humanitarian problems. A common means of remedying this situation has been the donation of improved water sources, fitted with low-cost hand pumps. Due donor capacity and/ or policy most hand pumps are donated under the guise of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM). This premises the notion that recipient communities will take ownership of the new pump and as such will ensure its maintenance. To assist with this many donors carry out programs of technical repair training and the structuring of in-village leadership and management groups. The reality is that a high proportion of these pumps break down after donation and cease to work thereafter. Measures to redress technical elements of these failures through increased training or adequate distribution of spares has seen some success but failure rates remains high. This has led to a call for more attention to demand side issues, focusing on the communal aspects that may influence a village to act collectively in the maintenance of its hand pump. This thesis researched five Malawian villages where the community had maintained their hand pumps for a period of 10 or more years. These hand pumps were treated as shared resources and the literature on common-pool resources and social institutions was used as a theoretical framework. Applying these theories proved to be appropriate for analyzing the norms, conventions and forms of cooperative conduct. This allowed the research to gain insights into institutional diversity and the relationship between 'formal institutions', most often exogenous in nature, and informal' or customary collective action institutions embedded within the communities. Findings showed the emergence of three predominant themes within these successful case studies: 1) the role of leadership at varying levels and how it is embodied

  15. Open label smoking cessation with varenicline is associated with decreased glutamate levels and functional changes in anterior cingulate cortex: preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriah Dawn Wheelock

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Varenicline, the most effective single agent for smoking cessation, is a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence implicates glutamate in the pathophysiology of addiction and one of the benefits of treatment for smoking cessation is the ability to regain cognitive control. Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 week varenicline administration on glutamate levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and functional changes within the cognitive control network.Methods: We used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in the dACC and functional MRI (fMRI during performance of a Stroop color-naming task before and after smoking cessation with varenicline in 11 healthy smokers (open label design. Using the dACC as a seed region, we evaluated functional connectivity changes using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis. Results: We observed a significant decrease in dACC glutamate + glutamine (Glx/Cr levels as well as significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLD decreases in the rostral ACC/medial orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These BOLD changes are suggestive of alterations in default mode network (DMN function and are further supported by the results of the PPI analysis that revealed changes in connectivity between the dACC and regions of the DMN. Baseline measures of nicotine dependence and craving positively correlated with baseline Glx/Cr levels.Conclusions: These results suggest possible mechanisms of action for varenicline such as reduction in Glx levels in dACC and shifts in BOLD activities between large scale brain networks. They also suggest a role for ACC Glx in the modulation of behavior. Due to the preliminary nature of this study (lack of control group and small sample size, future studies are needed to replicate these findings.

  16. Preliminary Results on Simulations of Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) detected by The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez Rivera, O.; Lara, A.

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently under construction at the Sierra Negra Volcano, Puebla in Mexico. Located 4100 m above sea level, this large array is mainly designed to observe high energy gamma rays (TeV). However, by recording scaler data that correspond to the rates of individual photomultiplier tubes, the detection and study of solar energetic particles (known as Ground Level Enhancements) as well as the decrease of the cosmic ray flux due to solar transients (known as Forbush decreases) will also be possible. In order to determine the response of the array to solar transients, we have performed simulations of the scaler output using different sub-array configurations. We present here our preliminary results of such simulations and their comparison with observed Forbush decreases.

  17. Paving the Way for Change: Visionary Leadership in Action at the Middle Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen M.; Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Case study explores visionary leadership in action by focusing on the strategies that some middle-school principals use before implementing schoolwide reforms. Finds that visionary leadership in action involves an initial exploration of possible change areas; discussions and education regarding the issues involved; and support, commitment, and…

  18. Training habits and injuries of masters' level football players: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham-West, R; Button, C; Milburn, P D; Mündermann, A; Sole, G; Schneiders, A G; Sullivan, S J

    2009-05-01

    To profile training habits and injuries in football players participating in a national Masters tournament. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used to survey male football players attending the 2008 New Zealand Masters Games. Information regarding player demographics, football injuries, football related training, and risk factors for injury were collected. 199 Players were recruited, with a median age of 44 yrs (range 35-73) and a median football playing history of 15 yrs (range 0-66). Irrespective of age, 112 (84%) players included a warm-up and 104 (78%) included a stretching regime in their regular training programme. In the 12 months prior to the tournament, 128 football related injuries were reported by 93 players (64 injuries/100 players or 46 injured players/100 players). The most frequently injured region was the lower limb; specifically the lower leg (n=23), ankle (n=18), hamstring (n=17), knee (n=15), and Achilles tendon (n=15). This study provides a preliminary insight into the training habits and injury profiles of Masters football players. Despite all players including some form of injury prevention strategy in their training, a significant number of players experienced an injury in the 12 months prior to the tournament.

  19. Vaccination rules for a true-mass action SEIR epidemic model based on an observer synthesis. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simple continuous-time linear vaccination-based control strategy for a SEIR (susceptible plus infected plus infectious plus removed populations) propagation disease model. The model takes into account the total population amounts as a refrain for the illness transmission since its increase makes more difficult contacts among susceptible and infected. The control objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-byimmunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically converge to zero. A state observer is used to estimate the true various partial populations of susceptible, infected, infectious and immune which are assumed to be unknown. The model parameters are also assumed to be, in general, unknown. In this case, the parameters are replaced by available estimates to implement the vaccination action.

  20. Preliminary Examination of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Levels in Women with Purging Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossat, Amanda M.; Bodell, Lindsay P.; Williams, Diana L.; Eckel, Lisa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined pre- and post-prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels in women with bulimia nervosa (BN), purging disorder (PD), and non-eating disorder control women to better understand whether alterations in satiation-related hormones in BN may be linked to binge-eating episodes or other altered ingestive behaviors. Method Participants included women with BN (n = 19), PD (n = 14), or controls (n = 14). Participants provided subjective ratings for hunger and fullness and plasma samples before and after consumption of a standardized test meal. Results As expected, GLP-1 levels increased significantly following test meal consumption; however, participants with BN displayed significantly lower GLP-1 levels compared to PD and control participants both before and after consumption of the test meal. There were no significant differences between PD and control participants in GLP-1 levels, but individuals with PD displayed significantly higher levels of fullness throughout the test meal as compared to both control and BN participants. Discussion Our findings provide preliminary evidence that reduced GLP-1 levels in individuals with BN may be associated with binge-eating episodes. Additionally, increased fullness in individuals with PD does not appear to be accounted for by exaggerated post-prandial GLP-1 release. PMID:24590464

  1. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…

  2. Preliminary Assessment of Water Levels in Bedrock Wells in New Hampshire, 1984 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Kernen, Brandon M.; Wunsch, David R.; Argue, Denise M.; Bennett, Derek S.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of nearly 60,000 reported values of static water level (SWL, as depth below land surface) in bedrock wells in New Hampshire, aggregated on a yearly basis, showed an apparent deepening of SWL of about 13 ft (4 m) over the period 1984–2007. Water-level data were one-time measurements at each well and were analyzed, in part, to determine if they were suitable for analysis of trends in groundwater levels across the state. Other well characteristics, however, also have been changing over time, such as total well depth, casing length, the length of casing in bedrock, and to some extent, well yield. Analyses indicated that many of the well construction variables are significantly correlated; the apparent declines in water levels may have been caused by some of these factors. Information on changes in water use for the period was not available, although water use may be an important factor affecting water levels.

  3. Stratum corneum hydration : mode of action of moisturizers on a molecular level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caussin, Julia

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the mode of action of stratum corneum moisturizers is studied using a variety of techniques: cryo-scanning electron microscopy, freeze fracture transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  4. Stratum corneum hydration : mode of action of moisturizers on a molecular level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caussin, Julia

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the mode of action of stratum corneum moisturizers is studied using a variety of techniques: cryo-scanning electron microscopy, freeze fracture transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  5. Health system performance assessment landscape at the EU level: a structured synthesis of actors and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Nataša; Hofmarcher-Holzhacker, Maria M; Simon, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Many policy makers and other stakeholders in the EU have expressed interest in better understanding the performance of their own health systems to identify opportunities for improvement in effectiveness, efficiency and equity. Health system performance assessment (HSPA) has received considerable attention at EU level as an instrument to improve transparency and accountability. This is equally important for population health and sustainable health spending. The goal of this paper is to synthesise and map the current state and developments in the field of HSPA relevant in the EU context and by this aid the navigation in the growing HSPA system, understand the available tools and identify opportunities for improvement. Structured synthesis of the literature on initiatives in the field of HSPA at EU level was carried out. Key literature was identified by a focused review performed between October 2015 and June 2016 on websites of key institutions including the EU, OECD and WHO and Google engine. We used six predefined criteria for identifying key literature. Identified initiatives were classified according to analytical and conceptual output or whether a guiding or advisory role was resumed. A visual map of the relationships between the different actions and actors involved in HSPA was developed. In addition, expert opinion was sought to refine the map. We identified a total of 64 relevant initiatives and their relationships in the field of HSPA. These include institutions such as the European Commission (73%), European Council (8%), OECD (9%) and WHO-EUR (9%). 24 initiatives produced analytical outputs, four developed conceptual outputs and six had a guiding role. The role of the EU in HSPA and collaboration with other key actors have intensified considerably since the adoption of the EU Health Strategy in 2013. The EU HSPA landscape is complex with seemingly few streamlining activities. Knowledge transfer and exchange of expertise are key to HSPA. While cooperation

  6. Prolactin and macroprolactin levels in psychiatric patients receiving atypical antipsychotics: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, Kyu Young; Lee, Kye-Seong; Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Won

    2016-05-30

    The aims of this study were to clarify whether atypical antipsychotics can elevate serum levels of both macroprolactin and prolactin, and whether the macroprolactin levels differ according to the type of atypical antipsychotic being taken. In total, 245 subjects were enrolled consecutively in 6 hospitals. Serum prolactin and macroprolactin levels were measured at a single time point during maintenance antipsychotic monotherapy. The mean total serum prolactin levels including macroprolactin were 11.91, 20.73, 16.41, 50.83, 12.84, and 59.1ng/mL for patients taking aripiprazole, blonanserin, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, and risperidone, respectively, while those for macroprolactin were 1.71, 3.86, 3.73, 7.28, 2.77, and 8.0ng/mL. The total prolactin and macroprolactin levels were significantly higher among those taking paliperidone and risperidone than among those taking any of the other antipsychotics (pprolactin and macroprolactin. Sexual dysfunction was reported in 35.5% (87/245) of the total subjects. However, the total prolactin level did not differ significantly between subjects with and without sexual dysfunction except gynecomastia. These findings suggest that treatment with risperidone and paliperidone can induce hyperprolactinemia and macroprolactinemia in psychiatric patients.

  7. Preliminary analyses of the deep geoenvironmental characteristics for the deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Spent fuels from nuclear power plants, as well as high-level radioactive waste from the recycling of spent fuels, should be safely isolated from human environment for an extremely long time. Recently, meaningful studies on the development of deep borehole radioactive waste disposal system in 3-5 km depth have been carried out in USA and some countries in Europe, due to great advance in deep borehole drilling technology. In this paper, domestic deep geoenvironmental characteristics are preliminarily investigated to analyze the applicability of deep borehole disposal technology in Korea. To do this, state-of-the art technologies in USA and some countries in Europe are reviewed, and geological and geothermal data from the deep boreholes for geothermal usage are analyzed. Based on the results on the crystalline rock depth, the geothermal gradient and the spent fuel types generated in Korea, a preliminary deep borehole concept including disposal canister and sealing system, is suggested.

  8. Serum zinc levels in 368 patients with oral mucosal diseases: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhe-Xuan; Yang, Xiao-Wen; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels in patients with common oral mucosal diseases by comparing these to healthy controls. Material and Methods A total of 368 patients, which consisted of 156 recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) patients, 57 oral lichen planus (OLP) patients, 55 burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients, 54 atrophic glossitis (AG) patients, 46 xerostomia patients, and 115 sex-and age-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum zinc levels were measured in all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA, t-test, and Chi-square test. Results The mean serum zinc level in the healthy control group was significantly higher than the levels of all other groups (p < 0.001). No individual in the healthy control group had a serum zinc level less than the minimum normal value. However, up to 24.7% (13/54) of patients with AG presented with zinc deficiency, while 21.2% (33/156) of patients with RAS, 16.4% (9/55) of patients with BMS, 15.2% (7/46) of patients with xerostomia, and 14.0% (8/57) of patients with OLP were zinc deficient. Altogether, the zinc deficiency rate was 19.02% (70/368) in the oral mucosal diseases (OMD) group (all patients with OMD). The difference between the OMD and healthy control group was significant (p <0.001). Gender differences in serum zinc levels were also present, although not statistically significant. Conclusions Zinc deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of common oral mucosal diseases. Zinc supplementation may be a useful treatment for oral mucosal diseases, but this requires further investigation; the optimal serum level of zinc, for the prevention and treatment of oral mucosal diseases, remains to be determined. Key words:Oral mucosal diseases, Zinc deficiency, pathogenesis. PMID:27031065

  9. Preliminary Classification of Army and Navy Entry-Level Occupations by the Holland Coding System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    96) Realistic =55% Realistic z56% RIS 3 RIS 3 RIE 22 RIE 21 RSE 5 RIC I RSC I RSE 4 RSI I REI I I REI 15 RES 10 RES 15 REC1 REC 2 RCE 3 RCI 1 54 RCS...HOLLAND-CODED ARMY ENTRY-LEVEL OCCUPATIONS PdB-0 dM.Mill UI Holland-Coded Army Entry-Level Occupations 1. Still Photographer RSE 2. Motion Picture...9. Practical Nurse SAI 10. Medical Lab Technician ISA 11. Orthotist RSE 12. Electrocardiograph Technician RCI 13. Optometric Assistant SCI 14

  10. The foci of in-action professional judgement and decision-making in high-level adventure sports coaching practice

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L; Collins, D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper continues a theme of previous investigations by the authors and examined the focus of in-action reflection as a component of professional judgement and decision making (PJDM) processes in high level adventure sports coaching. We utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of high level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. It was discovered that adventure sports coaches utilise a combination of questioning and observa...

  11. Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscail Camille

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM + image (60 m resolution acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001 was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence. Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2 = 0.87 and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000 yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave

  12. Saliva cortisol levels and depression in individuals with temporomandibular disorder: preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Claudyane de; Paludo,Alexsandro; Stechman-Neto,José; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Temporomandibular disorders are common in general population and their etiology is also linked to psychological factors. Cortisol is a hormone the secretion of which may be increased during emotional changes. This study aimed at evaluating the presence of depression and saliva cortisol levels in patients with temporomandibular disorders.METHODS:Participated in the research 48 students, being 36 females and 12 males, aged between 19 and 32 years. Participants were pre...

  13. The Relationship between Levels of PCBs and Pesticides in Human Hair and Blood: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Covaci, Adrian; Altshul, Larisa M.; Hauser, Russ B.

    2004-01-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organ...

  14. "PRELIMINARY SCREENING FOR THE LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE HORMONE IN THE MARKET MEAT IN TEHRAN "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Oveisi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many xenobiotic and natural compounds such as testosterone have been used and sometime misused to improve the growth of cattle and other livestock animals. In order to control the testosterone hormone residues in meat and to ensure the safety of Iranian consumers, a monitoring system must be put in place to address the concerns. The present study was undertaken to detect and quantify the levels of testosterone residue in the market meat. Cattle meat samples were collected randomly from the market in Tehran. A total of 120 samples of cattle meat were analyzed for the level of testosterone by Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA method. The average experimental value of testosterone in cattle meat was 810.9 ng/kg. The average value of cattle meat testosterone was significantly upper than FDA (Food and Drug Administration allowable level but was in agreement with the values proposed by JESFA (Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. So it seems that the present status of this anabolic hormone in market meat is not at risk but there is need to routinely monitor this chemical as a food quality control measure.

  15. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in wild and farmed Chilean salmon and preliminary flow data for commercial transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monica Montory; Evelyn Habit; Pilar Fernandez; Joan O. Grimalt; Ricardo Barra

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study documented the occurrence and levels of brominated flame retardants in the tissues of fanned and wild salmon in southern Chile.Samples of Coho salmon and rainbow trout were obtained from fish farms,rivers and lakes in the Patagonia in Aysen Region,Chile.The samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Negative Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the different polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners.Contaminants were observed in all the samples,and the congeners BDE 17,28,47and 66 were observed in all both farmed and wild samples.The concentrations were higher in the farmed Coho salmon,presenting significant differences with wild salmon.The levels reached 182 pg/g wet weight (ww) vs.120 ww.In the case of the rainbow trout,the concentrations were lower,although the congener profile was quite similar.The levels reached an average of 100 pg/g ww in the farmed fish versus 110 pg/g ww in wild fish,and no significant difference was observed between the species.In both species,the congener with the highest concentration was BDE 47.Based on this information,the BDE flow was estimated for commerce,which is a form of pollutant transport not usually considered in POP pollution studies.A preliminary estimation indicated that the quantity of PBDEs mobilized by commerce was in the order of kg,and in the case of Chile might reach almost 1 kg.

  17. Salivary total sialic acid levels increase in breast cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Leyla Koç; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Kaşikci, Emel; Demir, Gokhan; Yarat, Aysen

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women living in the Western world, even though it occurs worldwide. Cancer and cancer therapy induce multiple oral complications including dental and periodontal disease. Saliva is a complex and dynamic biologic fluid, which reflects both oral and systemic changes. While saliva is easily accessible body fluid, there has been little effort to study its value in cancer diagnosis. Sialic acids (SA), the end moieties of the carbohydrate chains, are biologically important and essential for functions of glycoconjugates that are reported to be altered in both blood and saliva of various cancer patients. Increased sialylation has been shown to be a characteristic feature in cancer tissue and blood in breast cancer patients. However, there is no data about salivary SA in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary total sialic acid (TSA) levels in breast cancer patients who were under chemotheraphy. The study included 15 breast cancer patients in different stages and 10 healthy individuals as age-matched controls. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected. Salivary total protein and SA levels were determined. Flow rate was calculated from salivary volume by the time of secretion. Salivary SA was significantly higher and total protein was lower in breast cancer patients compared to controls. It is concluded that sialylation may be increased in saliva of patients with breast cancer as the same way for cancer tissue and for blood . Increased salivary SA may therefore be useful as a non-invasive predictive marker for breast cancer patients and for the prevention and management of oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy to improve oral function and quality-of-life. The effects of different types of chemotherapies and different stages of the disease on salivary SA levels and salivary sialo-glycomic are worthy of being further investigated in breast cancer patients.

  18. Levels of Metals in Hair in Childhood: Preliminary Associations with Neuropsychological Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Torrente

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than 100 years, an electrochemical plant has been operating in Flix (Catalonia, Spain by the Ebro River. Its activities have originated a severe accumulation of environmental contaminants (metals, organochlorinated pesticides and radionuclides in sediments of the Flix reservoir, while mercury (Hg has been also frequently released to the air. Environmental exposure to industrial pollutants has been associated with decreased intelligence and behavioral problems. In the present study, we assessed, in 53 children living in the village of Flix and the surroundings, the relationships between the concentrations of a number of trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cs, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, U and V in hair and the levels of testosterone in blood, with respect to potential neuropsychological alterations. Lead (Pb and Hg showed the highest mean concentrations in hair samples. However, the current Hg levels were lower than those previously found in children living in the same zone, while the concentration of the remaining elements was similar to those reported in the scientific literature. The outcomes of certain neuropsychological indicators showed a significant correlation with metals, such as Pb and uranium (U. More specifically, these elements were negatively correlated with working memory and hit reaction time, suggesting impulsivity. In summary, although Pb and U concentrations in hair were within standard levels, both metals could be correlated with certain, but minor, neuropsychological alterations in the childhood population of Flix. These findings should be confirmed by future birth cohort studies, with bigger study populations and using more complex statistical analyses, focused on human exposure to these specific elements.

  19. Plasma corticosterone levels in laying hens from three different housing systems: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Asdrubali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical and thyroidal hormones are physiological indicators of various forms of stress in the fowl. In order to establish possible variations in corticosterone levels, blood samples were collected from ISA Brown hens reared in three different housing systems (cage, floor and organic way. Results showed that corticosterone concentrations were highest in caged hens, intermediate in organic reared hens and lowest in floor reared hens. It could be assumed that in the last one system birds have an adequate space in controlled environment that permits them to satisfy, though partially, their behavioural needs without the presence of different chronic stress factors acting in the other systems.

  20. Lethal copper concentration levels for Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 @ a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Van der Merwe

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Lethal copper concentrations were determined for both adult and juvenile Clarias gariepinus at representative mean summer and winter temperatures. Fish were exposed to copper for 96 hours in an experimental system and mortalities monitored. Toxicity curves of percentage mortality versus actual copper concentration were drawn, and the LC50 calculated for winter and summer temperatures. The lethal copper concentrations, expressed as LC50, found in laboratory exposures, ranged for adults from 1,29 mg/1 during summer to 1,38 mg/1 in winter. These values are considerably higher than the levels of copper in the water of the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park during summer (0,055 @ 0,016 mg/1 and winter (0,085 @ 0,032 mg/1. The derived LC50 values predict the level of copper which should be prevented at all cost. The fish in the Olifants River are already exposed to sublethal concentrations (40 of LC50 of copper. The results can be used as an indication of what the safe concentrations of copper should be.

  1. Determination of furan levels in commercial samples of baby food from Brazil and preliminary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi Arisseto, A; Vicente, E; De Figueiredo Toledo, M C

    2010-08-01

    Commercial baby food samples available on the Brazilian market (n = 31) were analysed for furan content using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method preceded by solid-phase microextraction. A limit of detection of 0.7 microg kg(-1), a limit of quantitation of 2.4 microg kg(-1), mean recoveries varying from 80% to 107%, and coefficients of variation ranging from 5.6% to 9.4% for repeatability and from 7.4% to 12.4% for within-laboratory reproducibility were obtained during an in-house validation. The levels of furan found in the samples were from not detected to 95.5 microg kg(-1). Samples containing vegetables and meat showed higher furan levels as compared with those containing only fruits. An exposure assessment showed furan intakes up to 2.4 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) (99th percentile) for babies fed exclusively with commercial baby foods. Margins of exposure obtained from intakes estimated in this work indicated a potential public health concern.

  2. Predictive models applied to groundwater level forecasting: a preliminary experience on the alluvial aquifer of the Magra River (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozzo, Gianpiero; Doveri, Marco; Lelli, Matteo; Scozzari, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Computer-based decision support systems are getting a growing interest for water managing authorities and water distribution companies. This work discusses a preliminary experience in the application of computational intelligence in a hydrological modeling framework, regarding the study area of the alluvial aquifer of the Magra River (Italy). Two sites in the studied area, corresponding to two distinct groups of wells (Battifollo and Fornola) are managed by the local drinkable water distribution company (ACAM Acque), which serves the area of La Spezia, on the Ligurian coast. Battifollo has 9 wells with a total extraction rate of about 240 liters per second, while Fornola has 44 wells with an extraction rate of about 900 liters per second. Objective of this work is to make use of time series coming from long-term monitoring activities in order to assess the trend of the groundwater level with respect to a set of environmental and exploitation parameters; this is accomplished by the experimentation of a suitable model, eligible to be used as a predictor. This activity moves on from the modeling of the system behavior, based on a set of Input/Output data, in order to characterize it without necessarily a prior knowledge of any deterministic mechanism (system identification). In this context, data series collected by continuous hydrological monitoring instrumentation installed in the studied sites, together with meteorological and water extraction data, have been analyzed in order to assess the applicability and performance of a predictive model of the groundwater level. A mixed approach (both data driven and process-based) has been experimented on the whole dataset relating to the last ten years of continuous monitoring activity. The system identification approach presented here is based on the integration of an adaptive technique based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a blind deterministic identification approach. According to this concept, the behavior of

  3. Preliminary analysis of the ORNL Liquid Low-Level Waste system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, T.J.; DePaoli, S.M.; Robinson, S.M.; Walker, A.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the status of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) Systems Analysis project. The focus of this project has been to collect and tabulate data concerning the LLLW system, analyze the current LLLW system operation, and develop the information necessary for the development of long-term treatment options for the LLLW generated at ORNL. The data used in this report were collected through a survey of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) literature, various letter reports, and a survey of all current LLLW generators. These data are also being compiled in a user friendly database for ORNL-wide distribution. The database will allow the quick retrieval of all information collected on the ORNL LLLW system and will greatly benefit any LLLW analysis effort. This report summarizes the results for the analyses performed to date on the LLLW system.

  4. Assessing browse trend at the landscape level Part 1: Preliminary steps and field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Fager, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    Woody plants are an important component of rangeland habitat, providing food and shelter for animals that range in size from moose to warblers to insects. Because of this importance, land managers are paying increased attention to browse trends. In this two-part article, we describe how browse trend is assessed at the Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area in southwestern Montana. Willows are currently heavily browsed, but there is evidence that browsing pressure was lower in the past. Heavily-browsed 14-inch-tall plants grow in close proximity to 16-foot-tall plants, the tallest stems of which are unbrowsed. The 16-foot-tall stems are older than the 14-inch-tall stems, and apparently grew through the browse zone when browsing pressure was lower than its current level. An increase in browsing pressure would be consistent with the increase in the moose population that occurred over the past 3 decades.

  5. Thermophysical properties of Hanford high-level tank wastes: A preliminary survey of recent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willingham, C.E.

    1994-03-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) involving thermophysical properties of Hanford high-level tank wastes. PNL has gathered and summarized the available information on density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, particle size, shear strength, and heat generation. The information was compiled from documented characterization reports of Hanford single-shell and double-shell tanks. The report summarizes the thermophysical properties of the various waste materials, the anticipated range for the various waste forms, and estimates of the variability of the measured data. The thermophysical information compiled in this study is useful as input to sensitivity and parametric studies for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Project. Information from only 33 of the 177 high-level waste storage tanks was compiled. Density data are well characterized for the tanks selected in this study. It was found that the reported viscosity of the wastes varies widely and that a single value should not be used to represent viscosity for all waste. Significant variations in reported shear strength and heat generation values were also found. Very few of the tank characterization reports described information on waste heat capacity. In addition, there was no supernatant vapor pressure information reported in the waste characterization reports examined in this study. Although thermal conductivity measurements were made for a number of tanks, most of the measurements were made in 1975. Finally, particle size distribution measurements of waste in 20 tanks were compiled. The analyst must be cognizant of differences between the number and volume distributions reported for particle size.

  6. Research of Current Issues and Preliminary Sensitivity Analysis of Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, So Eun; Lee, Yong Suk [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Thus, in this study, key current issues came from research on previous studies related to L3 PSA. L3 PSA has been carried out by using MACCS code in Korea on a trial basis. The technique of assessing an off-site radiation effect quantitatively is required because the interest in off-site consequence analysis has been increased after the Fukushima accident. Therefore, in order to use Level 3 PSA(L3 PSA) in Korea, methods of calculating MACCS(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) code to be adequate for domestic circumstances in Korea were investigated. If L3 PSA is performed in Korea, it will be possible to raise many issues. Since MACCS code is based on the U.S., input parameters and the scope of analysis were set by considering circumstances of the U.S. For this reason, by focusing on solutions to current issues, the method for reflecting circumstances of Korea in L3 PSA was investigated. It is also required to find out methods for decreasing uncertainty of L3 PSA in Korea.

  7. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-02-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  8. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-10-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  9. Treating metabolic syndrome's metaflammation with low level light therapy: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tania M.; Kato, Ilka T.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of morbidities such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and obesity (especially abdominal). Metabolic alterations are observed in major insulin target organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and therefore mortality. Tissue alterations are characterized by immune cells infiltrates (especially activated macrophages). Released inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce chronic inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome, since inflammatory pathways are activated in the neighboring cells. The intra-abdominal adipose tissue appears to be of particular importance in the onset of the inflammatory state, and strategies contributing to modulate the inflammatory process within this adipose tissue can mitigate the metabolic syndrome consequences. Considering the low level light therapy (LLLT) recognized benefits in inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized this therapeutic approach could promote positive effects in modulating the inflammatory state of metabolic syndrome. That being the scope of this study, male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a high-fat/high-fructose diet among 8 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome. Animals were then irradiated on the abdominal region during 21 days using an 850 nm LED (6 sessions, 300 seconds per session, 60 mW output power, ~6 J/cm2 fluence, ~19 mW/cm2 fluence rate). Before and during treatment, blood was sampled either from the retroorbital plexus or from tail puncture for glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides analysis. So far our results indicate no alterations on these metabolic parameters after LLLT. For further investigations, blood was collected for plasma inflammatory cytokine quantification and fresh ex vivo samples of liver and intra-abdominal adipose tissue were harvested for immunohistochemistry purposes.

  10. Reduction in sperm aneuploidy levels in severe oligoasthenoteratospermic patients after medical therapy: a preliminary report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giorgio Cavallini; Maria Cristina Magli; Andor Crippa; Anna Pia Ferraretti; Luca Gianaroli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether medical therapy can reduce sperm aneuploidy levels and improve the results of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in patients with severe idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia (OAT).Thirty-three infertile couples requiring ICSI because of severe idiopathic OAT after at least one unsuccessful ICSI cycle were considered.Semen parameters (concentration,motility and morphology),the percentage of aneuploid sperm and the results of ICSI (the number of oocytes fertilized,embryos transferred,biochemical pregnancies,clinical pregnancies and live births) were compared before and after a 3-month course of treatment with L-carnitine 1 g given twice per day+acetyl-L-carnitine 500 mg given twice per day+one 30-mg cinnoxicam tablet every 4 days.Aneuploidy was assessed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) performed on chromosomes X,Y,13,15,16,17,18,21 and 22.The results showed that 22 of the 33 patients had a reduced frequency of aneuploid sperm and improved sperm morphology after treatment (group 1),and 11 showed no change (group 2).The numbers of biochemical pregnancies,clinical pregnancies and live births were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2.No significant difference was found between the groups regarding the numbers of oocytes fertilized and embryos transferred.The side effects were negligible.The numbers of ICSI pregnancies and live births in severe idiopathic OAT patients improved with a course of L-carnitine,acetyI-L-carnitine and cinnoxicam.

  11. Complementary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  12. Preliminary analysis of levels of arsenic and other metalic elements in PM10 sampled near Copper Smelter Bor (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kovačević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the levels of twenty one elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Sr and Zn in PM10 are presented, as well as SO2 concentration, measured at the sampling site in an urban area of the town of Bor (40,000 inhabitants in eastern Serbia. The sampling site was located in a densely populated city center about 0.65 km away from one of the largest copper mines and copper smelters in Europe. For the first time PM10 was collected using the European standard sampler, during a preliminary campaign in duration of 7 days in early spring 2009. PM10 were sampled on PTFE membrane filters and element concentrations were quantified by GF AAS and ICP AES. Concentration levels and correlations within trace elements, PM10 and SO2 indicated that industrial activities underpinned with meteorological conditions of low wind speed (calm are the main factors that influence air pollution in a densely populated area. It was evident that both PM10 mass concentration and SO2 concentration once exceeded the daily limit values during a measuring period of seven days. Strong relationship was found between PM10 and Mn, Mg, Ca and B daily average concentrations. On the other hand, SO2 correlated strongly with As, Pb, Cd, Cu and S daily average concentrations. These results confirm the relationship between emissions of SO2 from the Copper Smelter Bor and calm meteorological conditions (wind speed less than 0.5 m/sec with the concentration levels of carcinogenic substances of arsenic, lead and cadmium in ambient air.

  13. Preliminary report on the levels of elements in four fish species from the Arabian Gulf of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune

    2002-08-01

    This manuscript presents preliminary information on the concentrations of heavy metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic in 66 fish samples of four different species collected from three different sites on the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia where there are agricultural, municipality and petroleum industrial activities. Fish species; highly consumed by the local population were selected: Emperors, Rabbitfish, Doublebar-bream and Greasy-grouper to ascertain the fish quality for human consumption. The concentration of metals was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). The average mean concentrations (ng/g wet wt.) of cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic in fish tissues were as follows: 4.6 +/- 7.2, 20.0 +/- 20.8, 60.6 +/- 63.2, 73.6 +/- 27.1 and 42.7 +/- 17.4 ng/g wet wt. respectively. The concentration of metals was significantly affected by the sampling site and fish species. In Maniefa site, the concentrations of all tested metals were higher than in Al-Dammam and Dareen sites with the exception of nickel where no significant differences were found. Levels of cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic varied depending on the fish species. The concentration of metals was below the maximum allowed limit by the Saudi and international legislations for fish human consumption permissible limit.

  14. Action Tweets Linked to Reduced County-Level HIV Prevalence in the United States: Online Messages and Structural Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Molly E; Chen, Qijia; Schwartz, H Andrew; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-06-01

    HIV is uncommon in most US counties but travels quickly through vulnerable communities when it strikes. Tracking behavior through social media may provide an unobtrusive, naturalistic means of predicting HIV outbreaks and understanding the behavioral and psychological factors that increase communities' risk. General action goals, or the motivation to engage in cognitive and motor activity, may support protective health behavior (e.g., using condoms) or encourage activity indiscriminately (e.g., risky sex), resulting in mixed health effects. We explored these opposing hypotheses by regressing county-level HIV prevalence on action language (e.g., work, plan) in over 150 million tweets mapped to US counties. Controlling for demographic and structural predictors of HIV, more active language was associated with lower HIV rates. By leveraging language used on social media to improve existing predictive models of geographic variation in HIV, future targeted HIV-prevention interventions may have a better chance of reaching high-risk communities before outbreaks occur.

  15. The New Space Weather Action Center; the Next Level on Space Weather Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Lewis, E. M.; Cline, T. D.; MacDonald, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) provides access for students to near real-time space weather data, and a set of easy instructions and well-defined protocols that allow them to correctly interpret such data. It is a student centered approach to teaching science and technology in classrooms, as students are encouraged to act like real scientists by accessing, collecting, analyzing, recording, and communicating space weather forecasts. Integration and implementation of several programs will enhance and provide a rich education experience for students' grades 5-16. We will enhance the existing data and tutorials available using the Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) tool created by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA GSFC. iSWA is a flexible, turn-key, customer-configurable, Web-based dissemination system for NASA-relevant space weather information that combines data based on the most advanced space weather models available through the CCMC with concurrent space environment information. This tool provides an additional component by the use of videos and still imagery from different sources as a tool for educators to effectively show what happens during an eruption from the surface of the Sun. We will also update content on the net result of space weather forecasting that the public can experience by including Aurorasaurus, a well established, growing, modern, innovative, interdisciplinary citizen science project centered around the public's visibility of the northern lights with mobile applications via the use of social media connections.

  16. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Bisson

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity.In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2 at the anaerobic threshold, nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA.A total of fifty (50 women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064, but the exercise group's levels were higher than controls' at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014. A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023; similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3 x 10(4 counts/day the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5 x 10(4 counts/day, p = 0.020 and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5 x 10(4 counts/day, p = 0.034. Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016 and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041.Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323.

  17. Higher-level goals in the processing of human action events

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, M.L.; Zacks, J.M.; Flores, S.; Howard, L.H.; Woodward, A.L.; Loucks, J.; Meltzoff, A N; Cooper, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a goal critically separates dynamic events involving humans from other events. Human behaviours are motivated by goals, which are known to the actor but typically inferred on the part of the observer. Goals can be hierarchical in nature, such that a collection of sub-goals (e.g., getting a mug, boiling water) can be nested under a higher-level goal (e.g., making tea), which can be further nested under an even higher-level goal (e.g., making breakfast).\\ud The diverse set of tal...

  18. Levels and actions of progesterone and its metabolites in the nervous system during physiological and pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Giatti, Silvia; Calabrese, Donato; Pesaresi, Marzia; Cermenati, Gaia; Mitro, Nico; Viviani, Barbara; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Caruso, Donatella

    2014-02-01

    Progesterone is synthesized and actively metabolized in the central and peripheral nervous system, into neuroactive steroid metabolites, such as dihydroprogesterone, allopregnanolone and isopregnanolone. Progesterone and/or its metabolites exert a variety of effects acting as physiological regulators of neuronal and glial development and plasticity, controlling reproduction, neuroendocrine events, mood and affection. In addition, these neuroactive steroids maintain neural homeostasis and exert neuroprotective actions. In agreement, metabolic pathways of progesterone are affected by modifications in the level of gonadal hormones and by pathology or injury with a regional specificity and in a sex-dimorphic way. Therefore, observations here summarized may provide a background to design sex-specific therapies based on progesterone metabolites. On this point of view, considering that one of the major limits of a therapy based on neuroactive steroids could be modifications in their plasma levels and their consequent peripheral effects, pharmacological treatments aimed to increase their levels in the nervous system could provide an interesting therapeutic option.

  19. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  20. Systemic High School Reform in Two States: The Serendipity of State-Level Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Edmund T.

    2005-01-01

    Maine and Vermont have been national leaders in state-level coordination of high school reform. Both recently developed almost interchangeable, new, voluntary, statewide frameworks that describe multiple ways high schools should change. Both frameworks--Promising Futures (Maine Commission on Secondary Education 1998) and High Schools on the Move…

  1. Taking Action With Data: Improving Environmental Public Health at the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponeschi, Jenny; Vogt, Christy M; Creswell, Paul D; Mueller, Meridith; Christenson, Megan; Werner, Mark A

    The Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Wisconsin Tracking) compiles and provides data on health endpoints and related environmental exposures as a resource to local health departments, tribes, academia, and other stakeholders. The goal of providing these data is that stakeholders use them to develop projects that improve environmental health in their communities-that is, moving from "data to action." To encourage use of Wisconsin Tracking data, we developed a minigrants program and issued a funding opportunity to local health departments and tribes. The opportunity requested proposals for small projects using our data, with the goal of making public health improvements in those communities. Wisconsin Tracking evaluated the minigrants program after its completion. Eight local health departments in Wisconsin were awarded up to $10 500 to develop and implement projects over a 9-month period. Wisconsin Tracking created a funding opportunity announcement requiring utilization of our data to develop projects by local health departments in Wisconsin. We reviewed and scored applications, evaluating proposals on a range of criteria. During the 9-month project period, Wisconsin Tracking staff members provided a variety of technical assistance to grantees. An evaluation of the overall program followed. Funded communities used Wisconsin Tracking data to improve public health infrastructure, leverage partnerships, establish new initiatives, respond to emergencies, improve communication with stakeholders and residents, and make a variety of public health improvements in their communities. Efforts to increase use of our data catalyzed development of small-scale environmental health projects. This minigrants program was successful at building relationships between local health departments and Wisconsin Tracking, increasing awareness of Wisconsin Tracking data and resources, and contributing to numerous documented public health improvements throughout Wisconsin.

  2. Mental efficacy and physical efficacy at the team level: inputs and outcomes among newly formed action teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Robert R; Bernerth, Jeremy B

    2008-11-01

    The authors demarcated mental efficacy and physical efficacy at the team level, and they explored these 2 factors as outcomes of 4 potential inputs and as predictors of 3 outcomes among 110 newly formed action teams in a military setting. Both types of team efficacy benefited from greater team size and an initial experience of enactive mastery, but they were not influenced by teams' female representation or knowledge pool. In terms of predictive contributions, both mental and physical efficacy facilitated internal social cohesion, yet only mental efficacy promoted problem solving and observed teamwork effectiveness.

  3. Air Force Working Capital Fund: Actions Needed to Manage Cash Balances to Required Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    may transfer budget authority only as authorized by law. “ cash levels should be maintained at 7 to 10 days of operational cost and six months of...USTRANSCOM documentation to ascertain the reasons.6 To address the second objective, we obtained and analyzed AFWCF budget documents and cash ...requirement, we analyzed DOD budget and accounting reports to determine the dollar amount of transfers made for the period. We analyzed cash transfers

  4. Coastal Hazards Maps: Actionable Information for Communities Facing Sea-Level Rise (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, J. C.; Barraza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Barrier islands along the U.S. Gulf coast remain under increasing pressure from development. This development and redevelopment is occurring despite recent hurricanes, ongoing erosion, and sea-level rise. To lessen the impacts of these hazards, local governments need information in a form that is useful for informing the public, making policy, and enforcing development rules. We recently completed the Galveston Island Geohazards Map for the city of Galveston, Texas and are currently developing maps for the Mustang and South Padre Island communities. The maps show areas that vary in their susceptibility to, and function for, mitigating the effects of geological processes, including sea-level rise, land subsidence, erosion and storm-surge flooding and washover. The current wetlands, beaches and dunes are mapped as having the highest geohazard potential both in terms of their exposure to hazardous conditions and their mitigating effects of those hazards for the rest of the island. These existing “critical environments” are generally protected under existing regulations. Importantly, however, the mapping recognizes that sea-level rise and shoreline retreat are changing the island; therefore, 60-year model projections of the effects of these changes are incorporated into the map. The areas that we project will become wetlands, beaches and dunes in the next 60 years are not protected. These areas are the most difficult to deal with from a policy point of view, yet we must address what happens there if real progress is to be made in how we live with sea-level rise. The geohazards maps draw on decades of geological knowledge of how barrier islands behave and put it in a form that is intuitive to the public and directly useful to planners. Some of the “messages” in the map include: leave salt marshes alone and give them room to migrate inland as sea level rises; set back and move development away from the shoreline to provide space for beaches and protective dunes

  5. New productive systems at the local level: from concept to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Courlet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the concept of local productive systems in the context of the new emerging economic patterns at the global level. From a development planning perspective, the author shows why the concept of space should not be seen as a neutral support, passively submitted to exogenous constraints that underestimate the importance of the territorial dimension. Instead, the author believes that it can be redefined to foster an economic reconstruction based upon technological innovation and a new kind of industrial development.

  6. Permissive and Non-permissive Hypercapnia: Mechanisms of Action and Consequences of High Carbon Dioxide Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briva, Arturo; Lecuona, Emilia; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury is a disease with high mortality, which affects a large numbers of patients whose treatment continues to be debated. It has recently been postulated that hypercapnia can attenuate the inflammatory response during lung injury, which would assign it a specific role within lung protection strategies during mechanical ventilation. In this paper, we review current evidence on the role that high levels of CO2 in the blood play in lung injury. We conclude that, although there are reports that show benefits, the most recent evidence suggests that hypercapnia can be harmful and can contribute to worsening lung damage. PMID:20303638

  7. A preliminary vulnerability assessment for Ísafjörður, Iceland : coastal management options to reduce impacts of sea-level rise and storm surges

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Meidinger

    2011-01-01

    Climate change science argues that by the end of the 21st century, the global mean sea-level rise may easily exceed 1 metre, possibly accompanied by an increase in storm intensity. Although climate change is a global phenomenon, its impacts vary greatly according to scale and geographic region. This study took into account the United Nations’ recommendations and the research objectives stated by the Icelandic Ministry of the Environment, and conducted a preliminary coastal vulnerability asses...

  8. Knowledge into action? understanding ideological barriers to addressing health inequalities at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patricia A; Abelson, Julia; Eyles, John D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the presence of ideological barriers to addressing local health inequalities in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey of active citizens revealed low levels of awareness of the social determinants of health (SDOH) framework, and some incongruence between understanding and attitudes towards the SDOH. Support for addressing health inequalities was associated with awareness of the SDOH framework, liberal value-systems, and a cluster of socio-demographic characteristics. Liberal leaning participants were also more politically active than their conservative counterparts. Ideological barriers included lack of SDOH awareness, narrow understandings of the relative influences of the SDOH, resistance to de-prioritizing healthcare, and conservative values. Advancement of a SDOH policy agenda should incorporate wider dissemination efforts to citizens and local service providers to increase support for this framework, and utilization of existing support and political engagement from liberal-leaning demographics.

  9. Evaluation of zinc effect on cadmium action in lipid peroxidation and metallothionein levels in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos M. Braga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a known hepato- and nephrotoxic pollutant and zinc (Zn metalloproteins are important targets of Cd. Hence, the administration of Zn may mitigate Cd toxic effects. However, the interaction of Cd and Zn has been little investigated in the brain. Previously, we reported a protective effect of Zn on mortality caused by Cd in rats. Here, we tested whether the protective effect of Zn could be related to changes in brain Zn-proteins, metallothionein (MT and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratse (δ-ALA-D. Male adult rats were daily administered for 10 days with Zn (2 mg kg−1, Cd (0.25 and 1 mg kg−1 and 0.25 mg kg−1 of Cd plus Zn and 1 mg kg−1 of Cd plus Zn. The body weight loss, food intake deprivation, and mortality occurred in 1 mg kg−1 of Cd, but Zn co-administration did mitigate these effects. The brain Zn content was not modified by treatment with Cd, whereas cerebral Cd levels increased in animals exposed to Cd. The administration of 0.25 mg kg−1 of Cd (with or without Zn induced lipid peroxidation and decreased MT concentration, but 2 mg kg−1 of Zn and 1 mg kg−1 of Cd did not change these parameters. Brain δ-ALA-D was not modified by Cd and/or Zn treatments. Since the co-administration of Zn did not attenuate the changes induced by Cd in the brain, our results suggest that the protective effect of Zn on impairments caused by Cd in animal status is weakly related to a cerebral interaction of these metals.

  10. Low-Level Laser Action on Orthodontically Induced Root Resorption: Histological and Histomorphometric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Eliziane Cossetin; Henriques, Jose Fernando Castanha; Sousa, Marinês Vieira Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Consolaro, Alberto; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Henriques, Fernanda Pinelli; Bronfman, aroline Nemetz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have been conducted to develop a means of preventing, controlling or reducing orthodontically induced root resorption. Phototherapy has demonstrated effectiveness as an anti-inflammatory and, considering the inflammatory origin of this pathology, this study evaluated the effects of laser on root resorption. Methods: The research was conducted among 54 80-day-old male Wistar rats, with weights of 280 ± 40 g. Phototherapy consisted of a diode laser (Ga-Al-As), calibrated with a wavelength of 808 nm, an output power of 100 mW, 2.1 J or 96 J of energy and area of 0.0028 cm2. The application was continuous, punctual and with contact. The left first maxillary molar was moved by a super-elastic closed spring with a pre-calibrated and constant force of 25 g. The specimens were irradiated every 48 hours, totaling three or six times, depending on the group to which they belonged. Euthanasia was made in the 7th or 10th day after the onset of movement. The histological and histomorphometric examination was performed with sections of 6 μm stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Results: Considering the dosimetry studied, when compared the subgroups with the same time of movement, 7 or 10 days, the low-level laser (LLL) has no statistically significant effect on the root resorption. As expected, differences were found between groups with different time of movement. Conclusion: Based on the result, this dosimetry does not seem to be clinically recommended to avoid or reduce inflammatory root resorption, but it also does not induce any root surface alteration. PMID:28144433

  11. Relative impact of sea level rise, wave climate and anthropogenic actions on the recent shoreline changes of the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, M.; Baills, A.; Yates, M.; Le Cozannet, G.; Bulteau, T.; Salai, E.; Sauter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise is nowadays one of a major concern for many low-lying and highly populated areas in the world. However, it is difficult to forecast the consequences of sea levels rise in terms of erosion, due to the interactions with many forcing factors of the evolution of coastline mobility. Indeed, climatic factors such as sea level rise are combined with internal and external geodynamic processes, biological factors, wave forcing and anthropogenic actions which can also play an important role in coastline mobility. Understanding the whole system and its past evolutions is necessary to anticipate future changes. Within the on-going CECILE project, our goal is to evaluate the impact of future sea level change on some emblematic coasts located in different part of the world in order to assess their sensitivity and the variability of their response to different change rise rates. This work presents the study conducted on coastlines of two regions of the Pacific: French Polynesia (SW Pacific) and New Caledonia. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the coastlines to sea level rise, we firstly analysed the response of each coastline during the sea level rise of the past 50 years, using a diachronic analysis of ancient and recent remote sensing images. Then we also took into account the evolution of anthropogenic actions contributing to modifications of the sedimentary budget at the coast, and finally, sea level variations, using the sea level reconstruction of Becker et al. (2012) of the 2nd half of the XXth century. Two atolls of French Polynesia (Manihi and Scilly) and six coastal stretches of New Caledonia have been studied. Although Manihi and Scilly experienced a sea level rise rate twice as important as the global mean according to Becker et al. (2012), wave forcing was, during the last 50 years, the dominant factor controlling the shoreline evolution and aggradation/erosion processes on the atolls. On the contrary, on the main island of New Caledonia, the

  12. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 xzp. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  13. Metabolic cost of level-ground walking with a robotic transtibial prosthesis combining push-off power and nonlinear damping behaviors: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanggang Feng; Jinying Zhu; Qining Wang

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in robotic technology are facilitating the development of robotic prostheses. Our previous studies proposed a lightweight robotic transtibial prosthesis with a damping control strategy. To improve the performance of power assistance, in this paper, we redesign the prosthesis and improve the control strategy by supplying extra push-off power. A male transtibial amputee subject volunteered to participate in the study. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed prosthesis with push-off control improves energy expenditure by a percentage ranged from 9.72 % to 14.99 % for level-ground walking compared with the one using non-push-off control.

  14. Characterization of Final Action Official Method(SM) 2011.19 and First Action Official Method 2015.06 Performance at Analyte Levels Corresponding to CODEX STAN 72 (1981) Minimum Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph J; Pacquette, Lawrence H

    2017-03-01

    A limited single-laboratory validation (SLV) was conducted in the authors' laboratory to investigate the performance of AOAC Official MethodsSM 2011.19 Determination of Chromium (Cr), Selenium (Se), and Molybdenum (Mo) in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritional Products by Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry and 2015.06 Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry at analyte levels below the practical LOQs (PLOQs) already published for these Final Action Official Methods. This work was needed to verify that the actual LOQs were below the minimum requirements for minerals in infant formula as given in CODEX STAN 72 (1981). Linearity studies at low levels were conducted as well as the analysis of blanks over multiple days to establish the LOQs (as opposed to PLOQs) for these nutrients. Several placebo matrixes from the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) program were tested over multiple days at two different sample sizes to quantitate the effect of doubling the sample size given in the original publications. The SLV results indicate that both methods can meet the Codex minimum requirements as-is, without modification of the methods, albeit with a relaxation of the stringent precision criteria originally established for these methods by SPIFAN. Precision can be improved by doubling the sample size, but this step is not necessary to use the method for its intended purpose. A concurrent collaborative study of Method 2015.06 showed that the RSDR obtained across eight laboratories for several infant formula placebos containing mineral concentrations between the PLOQ and LOQ were indeed worse than SPIFAN expectations, but reasonable Horwitz ratios (HorRat) were nonetheless obtained for these analytes.

  15. Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jagger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ social safeguards have gained increasing attention in numerous forums. This paper reviews the evolution of multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions related to REDD+ social safeguards (e.g., Cancun Safeguards 1–5 among policy makers, civil society organizations, and within the media in Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania, three countries with well advanced REDD+ programs. We find that progress on core aspects of social safeguards is uneven across the three countries. Brazil is by far the most advanced having drafted a REDD+ social safeguards policy. Both Brazil and Indonesia have benefited from progress made by strong sub-national entities in the operationalization of REDD+ safeguards including free prior and informed consent (FPIC, participation, and benefit sharing. Tanzania has weakly articulated how social safeguards will be operationalized and has a more top-down approach. We conclude that in all three countries, measuring, reporting and verifying progress on social safeguards is likely to be a complex issue. Stakeholders with vested interests in REDD+ social safeguards operate in polycentric rather than nested systems, suggesting that aggregation of information from local to national-scale will be a challenge. However, polycentric systems are also likely to support more transparent and comprehensive safeguards systems. Clear direction from the international community and financing for REDD+ safeguard MRV is essential if REDD+ social safeguards are to be meaningfully integrated into forest-based climate mitigation strategies.

  16. Mechanisms and manifestations of toxic actions at the bone tissue level; Mecanismes et manifestations de l'action des toxiques au niveau du tissu osseux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The principal abnormalities determined by toxic at the bone level are: osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis or osteopetrosis. The principal toxics having a noxiousness at the bone level are: the fluorine, the phosphorus, the lead, the bismuth, the cadmium and the strontium. The strontium 90 has an important radioactivity that gives at the bone level osteosarcomas or at low doses, leukemoid reactions and marrow angiosarcoma. (N.C.)

  17. Optimisation of transgene action at the post-transcriptional level: high quality parthenocarpic fruits in industrial tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defez Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic engineering of parthenocarpy confers to horticultural plants the ability to produce fruits under environmental conditions that curtail fruit productivity and quality. The DefH9-iaaM transgene, whose predicted action is to confer auxin synthesis specifically in the placenta, ovules and derived tissues, has been shown to confer parthenocarpy to several plant species (tobacco, eggplant, tomato and varieties. Results UC82 tomato plants, a typical cultivar used by the processing industry, transgenic for the DefH9-iaaM gene produce parthenocarpic fruits that are malformed. UC82 plants transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM, a DefH9-iaaM derivative gene modified in its 5'ULR by replacing 53 nucleotides immediately upstream of the AUG initiation codon with an 87 nucleotides-long sequence derived from the rolA intron sequence, produce parthenocarpic fruits of high quality. In an in vitro translation system, the iaaM mRNA, modified in its 5'ULR is translated 3–4 times less efficiently than the original transcript. An optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy correlates with a reduced transgene mRNA steady state level in DefH9-RI-iaaM flower buds in comparison to DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Consistent with the known function of the iaaM gene, flower buds transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene contain ten times more IAA than control untransformed flower buds, but five times less than DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Conclusions By using an auxin biosynthesis transgene downregulated at the post-transcriptional level, an optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy has been achieved in a genetic background not suitable for the original transgene. Thus, the method allows the generation of a wider range of expressivity of the desired trait in transgenic plants.

  18. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  19. Evaluation of the level of difficulty of patient cases for veterinary problem-solving examination: a preliminary comparison of three taxonomies of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Heli

    2007-01-01

    An important issue that has received insufficient attention in the use of problem-based learning in the medical curriculum is the mode of assessing the level of difficulty of patient cases. In the present study, the level of difficulty of case-based questions in a veterinary degree final examination in reproduction was evaluated. First, cognitive taxonomies were evaluated to clarify whether qualitative methods such as Bloom's taxonomy, the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy, and the Amsterdam Clinical Challenge Scale (ACCS) differed from each other as evaluation tools for problem-based cases. Using these taxonomies, 30 case-based questions from the final examination in reproduction in the Helsinki veterinary program were initially evaluated to determine which one was best suited to the evaluation of the difficulty of cases. In follow-up, the same cases were also evaluated by an experienced veterinary instructor in reproduction, with the aim of gaining insight into using these approaches to evaluating difficulty. It would appear, from this preliminary assessment, that the SOLO taxonomy may be the most suitable for evaluating the difficulty of patient cases, since the instructor's quality rating resembled more closely the SOLO than the Bloom taxonomy or the ACCS. It is to be emphasized that the purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of possible approaches that might be used to assess patient-case difficulty. Resolving all issues will require a greater number of evaluations of all components.

  20. Indigenous Men Taking Their Rightful Place in Society? A Preliminary Analysis of a Participatory Action Research Process with Yarrabah Men's Health Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsey, Komla; Patterson, David; Whiteside, Mary; Baird, Leslie; Baird, Bradley

    2002-01-01

    A participatory action research process was used to support an Aboriginal men's group in Queensland (Australia). Using a reflective approach, the men's group defined principles and values to which they aspired, then identified four strategies to enable them to become constructive members of the community: personal development, employment,…

  1. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix A to Attachment 3, tables; Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This appendix contains the supporting tables for the remedial action plan for uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, CO. The tables contain monitoring well information, background groundwater quality data, regulated constituent summaries, tailings pore fluid sample analyses, and other data for each of the sites studied.

  2. [Activity of cytochromes P-450p and P-450h in liver microsomes and blood corticosteroid levels in experimental animals under the action of physical factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotareva, T A; Gorchakova, G A; Konovalenko, V L; Konovalenko, L N; Grishanova, A Iu; Guliaeva, L F; Liakhovich, V V

    1992-05-01

    In experiments on male Wistar rats it has been found that physical factors applied in medicine (laser radiation of low intensity with wave length 0.89 microns, microwaves of centimeter range of 2450 MHz, and ultrasound of low intensity 880 KHz) changed catalytic activity of liver microsomal and rostenedione 16 alpha- and 6 beta-hydroxylating cytochromes P-450h and P-450p and blood corticosteroids level. Activities of these two steroid-metabolizing cytochromes decreased under ultrasonic skin application on liver region and increased under microwave and laser action. Contents of physiologically inactive form of corticosterone were not changed by the physical factors action while level of active hormone was increased under ultrasonic and microwave action. These findings suggest association of the activity of liver steroid-metabolizing cytochromes P-450 and level of physiologically active form of corticosterone in blood under physical factors skin application on liver region.

  3. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  4. Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (≈2 m−2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m−2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m−2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

  5. Levels of airborne man-made mineral fibres in dwellings in the UK: results of a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrey, S A; Rood, A P; Llewellyn, J W; Wilson, A J

    1989-01-01

    Levels of airborne man-made mineral fibres (MMMF) were measured during the insulation of lofts and after the disturbance of the insulation wools. Transmission electron microscopy was used for the analysis. Generally, the personal samples showed fibre levels of up to 0.7 f/ml, whereas static samples showed fibre levels of 0.05 f/ml in the lofts. Little contamination of living space occurred during these operations.

  6. EFFECTS OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC MUSCLE ACTIONS ON SERUM MYOSTATIN AND FOLLISTATIN-LIKE RELATED GENE LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel Taylor

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of concentric and eccentric muscle actions on the contents of serum myostatin and follistatin-like related gene (FLRG. Eight untrained males performed one exercise bout with each leg, separated by three weeks. One bout consisted of 7 sets of 10 repetitions of eccentric muscle actions of the knee extensors at 150% of the concentric 1-RM while the other bout consisted of 7 sets of 10 repetitions of concentric muscle actions at 75% 1-RM. The legs used and the bouts performed were randomized. Five days prior to each exercise bout, baseline measurements were taken for muscle strength. For both bouts, a venous blood sample was obtained immediately prior to exercise and again at 6, 24, and 48 hr post-exercise. Data were analyzed with 2 X 4 (bout x test ANOVA (p < 0.05. Increases in serum myostatin and FLRG occurred with each exercise bout and, excluding 48 hr post-exercise, were significantly correlated to one another (p < 0.05. After eccentric exercise, peak increases of 68% and 50% (p < 0.05 were observed for myostatin and FLRG, respectively. Similar increases of 54% and 44% (p < 0.05 were observed after concentric muscle actions. There was no significant difference in expression of myostatin or FLRG as a function of muscle action type. Our results suggest that a single bout of exercise with either eccentric or concentric muscle actions appear to elicit a similar increase in serum myostatin and FLRG. Therefore, the type of muscle action may not be as much a mitigating factor for increasing serum myostatin and FLRG rather than the muscle action per se.

  7. The Levels of Cortisol, Oxidative Stress, and DNA Damage in the Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeref; Kaplan, İbrahim; Uysal, Cem; Yüksel, Tuğba; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate serum cortisol, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in children who are sexual abuse victims. The study included 38 children who sustained child sexual abuse and 38 age- and gender-matched children who did not have a history of trauma. Cortisol levels reflecting the status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, anti-oxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, natural anti-oxidant coenzyme Q, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as the indicator of DNA damage were analyzed in serum samples using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the child sexual abuse group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels decreased as the time elapsed since the sexual abuse increased. Coenzyme Q level was lower in victims who sustained multiple assaults than in the victims of a single assault. Cortisol and superoxide dismutase levels were lower in the victims of familial sexual abuse. Decreases in cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as time elapsed may be an adaptation to the toxic effects of high cortisol levels over a prolonged period of time. Child sexual abuse did not result in oxidative stress and DNA damage; however, some features of sexual abuse raised the level of oxidative stress.

  8. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  10. 76 FR 80847 - Enforcement Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... into compliance before an enforcement action is taken by the Chair. Voluntary compliance is the goal of... existing compliance issues. The amendment retains the Chair's authority to issue an enforcement action at... compliance. In the Preliminary draft, the second action was called a ``non-compliance notice.''...

  11. Preliminary study on coseismic step-like changes of water-level in the Dazhai well, Simao city, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhu-zhuan; DENG Zhi-hui; ZHAO Yun-xu; ZHU Pei-yao

    2005-01-01

    @@ The study on coseismic step-like changes of water-level is of theoretical and practical significance to the mitigation of secondary hazards, identification of earthquake precursors, tracking of the subsequent shocks, and the research of crustal activity (Nur and Booker, 1972; WANG et al, 1988). A lot of researches have been done by previous geoscientists. Among them, ZHANG et al (1994) inverted stress variation in the aquifers through the analysis of coseismic step-like changes of well water level. LI (1995), WANG (2000), and FU et al (2002) studied the relationship between coseismic step-like changes of water level and future seismic activity. HUANG et al (2000) investigated the water-level changes in many wells after the occurrence of one great earthquake. However,the analysis of the quantitative relation between the coseismic step-like changes of water level and earthquakes in China has not been reported so far. This paper describes the coseismic step-like changes of water level in the Dazhai well, Simao city, Yunnan Province, and tries to discuss the possible mechanism of these changes.

  12. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.

  13. Elevated levels of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Junichi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Kato, So; Hayakawa, Kentaro; Oka, Hiroyuki; Takeshita, Katsushi; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2015-07-01

    The phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNfH) is an axon fiber structural protein that is released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after nerve damage. Although the previous studies have reported elevated CSF levels of pNfH in various neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, these levels have not been examined in patients with spinal stenosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the CSF levels of pNfH in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and to examine the relationship between CSF levels of pNfH and the severity of LSS. This is a prospective observational study. We included consecutive patients with LSS who were undergoing myelography for preoperative evaluation. The CSF samples from patients with idiopathic scoliosis were used as the controls. Physiological measures: CSF levels of pNfH were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) and the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for sciatic pain were used to assess the clinical severity of LSS, and patients were grouped into tertiles according to their symptom severity and pain grading. Axial magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the morphological severity of LSS, and patients were classified into three groups based on their morphological grading (using the CSF/rootlet ratio). Analysis of variance was used to examine the relationship between the CSF levels of pNfH and the severity of LSS. Thirty-three patients with LSS were included (13 men and 20 women and mean age 73.2 [range 58-88] years). Most patients (n=32) were positive for pNfH in their CSF (mean 1,344 [149-9,250] pg/mL), whereas all control subjects were negative for pNfH in their CSF. Regarding the association with clinical severity, patients in the third tertiles of ZCQ and NRS tended to have higher levels of pNfH compared with the other groups. There was no association between the CSF level of pNfH and the morphological severity of LSS. This study

  14. Preliminary assessment of clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Broxton, D.E.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    At Yucca Mountain, evidence for at least three distinct temporal groups of clinoptilolites can be delineated from the preliminary K/Ar dates (2 - 3 Ma; 4 - 5 Ma; 7 - 11 Ma). The older K/Ar dates that are similar to published illite/smectite ages (9-12 Ma) may be crystallization ages, whereas the younger dates probably represent continued diagenetic reactions of older clinoptilolites with percolating fluids. The K/Ar dates increase with depth, suggesting minimal argon loss in the deeper samples. internal consistency of the clinoptilolite K/Ar results at different levels within the drill holes suggest that dating of K-rich zeolites may provide useful information for assessing the zeolitization at Yucca Mountain. Variations in the K/Ar dates are probably related to Ar loss during dissolution of older clinoptilolites and to contamination by finely crystalline feldspars. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Preliminary assessment of clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Bish, D.L.; Broxton, D.E.; Chipera, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    At Yucca Mountain, evidence for at least three distinct temporal groups of clinoptilolites can be delineated from the preliminary K/Ar dates (2--3 Ma; 4--5 Ma; 7--11 Ma). The older K/Ar dates that are similar to published illite/smectite ages (9--12 Ma) may be crystallization ages, whereas the younger dates probably represent continued diagenetic reactions of older clinoptilolites with percolating fluids. The K/Ar dates increase with depth, suggesting minimal argon loss in the deeper samples. Internal consistency of the clinoptilolite K/Ar results at different levels within the drill holes suggest that dating of K-rich zeolites may provide useful information for assessing the zeolitization at Yucca Mountain. Variations in the K/Ar dates are probably related to Ar loss during dissolution of older clinoptilolites and to contamination by finely crystalline feldspars.

  16. Are plasma oxytocin and vasopressin levels reflective of amygdala activation during the processing of negative emotions? A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eMotoki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with plasma OT (anxiolytic effects and AVP (anxiogenic effects levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men.

  17. Sound level intensity severely disrupts sleep in ventilated ICU patients throughout a 24-h period: a preliminary 24-h study of sleep stages and associated sound levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Maxime; Léger, Damien; Sauvet, Fabien; Champigneulle, Benoit; Rio, Stéphane; Strauss, Mélanie; Chennaoui, Mounir; Guilleminault, Christian; Mira, Jean Paul

    2017-12-01

    It is well recognized that sleep is severely disturbed in patients in intensive care units (ICU) and that this can compromise their rehabilitation potential. However, it is still difficult to objectively assess sleep quantity and quality and the determinants of sleep disturbance remain unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate carefully the impact of ICU sound intensity levels and their sources on ICU patients' sleep over a 24-h period. Sleep and sound levels were recorded in 11 ICU intubated patients who met the criteria. Sleep was recorded using a miniaturized multi-channel ambulatory recording device. Sound intensity levels and their sources were recorded with the Nox-T3 monitor. A 30-s epoch-by-epoch analysis of sleep stages and sound data was carried out. Multinomial and binomial logistic regressions were used to associate sleep stages, wakefulness and sleep-wake transitions with sound levels and their sources. The subjects slept a median of 502.2 [283.2-718.9] min per 24 h; 356.9 [188.6-590.9] min at night (22.00-08.00) and 168.5 [142.5-243.3] during daytime (8 am-10 pm). Median sound intensity level reached 70.2 [65.1-80.3] dBC at night. Sound thresholds leading to disturbed sleep were 63 dBC during the day and 59 dBC during the night. With levels above 77 dBC, the incidence of arousals (OR 3.9, 95% CI 3.0-5.0) and sleep-to-wake transitions (OR 7.6, 95% CI 4.1-14) increased. The most disturbing noises sources were monitor alarms (OR 4.5, 95% CI 3.5-5.6) and ventilator alarms (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.9-6.1). We have shown, in a small group of 11 non-severe ICU patients, that sound level intensity, a major disturbance factor of sleep continuity, should be strictly controlled on a 24-h profile.

  18. Voluntary alcohol consumption and plasma beta-endorphin levels in alcohol preferring rats chronically treated with levetiracetam: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Bajer, Bartosz; Czarnecka, Elżbieta; Dyr, Wanda; Gorska, Dorota

    2011-03-28

    Many recent researches have confirmed the effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in preventing alcohol dependency, whereas our previous study showed that repeated treatment with topiramate, a new antiepileptic drug, was effective in increasing the plasma levels of beta-endorphin (an endogenous opioid peptide) in rats. It is well documented that in humans a genetic deficit of beta-endorphin is often associated with alcohol addiction as alcohol consumption elevates the level of this peptide. The aim of the present study is multifaceted: to investigate the effect of repeated treatment of levetiracetam (50 or 100mg/kg b.w., twice daily) on voluntary alcohol intake in alcohol preferring rats (Warsaw High Preferring; WHP) and to assess changes in plasma beta-endorphin levels while alcohol is available and when it is not available for an extended period of time. We observed a noticeable increase in the levels of beta-endorphin in rats with free access to alcohol whether in a prolonged levetiracetam-treated or vehicle-treated group. However, in the levetiracetam group, a voluntary intake of alcohol diminished in comparison with both the pretreatment period and in comparison with the vehicle-treated rats. A similar increase in the plasma beta-endorphin levels was observed in levetiracetam-treated rats that did not have access to ethanol. This finding lets us to believe that levetiracetam may be a promising medication in treatment of alcohol dependency as its application leads to the increase in the beta-endorphin concentration and ultimately results in reducing deficiency of this peptide.

  19. Comparison of facial expression in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia using the Facial Action Coding System: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersani G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Bersani,1 Francesco Saverio Bersani,1,2 Giuseppe Valeriani,1 Maddalena Robiony,1 Annalisa Anastasia,1 Chiara Colletti,1,3 Damien Liberati,1 Enrico Capra,2 Adele Quartini,1 Elisa Polli11Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 3Department of Neuroscience and Behaviour, Section of Psychiatry, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, ItalyBackground: Research shows that impairment in the expression and recognition of emotion exists in multiple psychiatric disorders. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the way that patients with schizophrenia and those with obsessive-compulsive disorder experience and display emotions in relation to specific emotional stimuli using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS.Methods: Thirty individuals participated in the study, comprising 10 patients with schizophrenia, 10 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 10 healthy controls. All participants underwent clinical sessions to evaluate their symptoms and watched emotion-eliciting video clips while facial activity was videotaped. Congruent/incongruent feeling of emotions and facial expression in reaction to emotions were evaluated.Results: Patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder presented similarly incongruent emotive feelings and facial expressions (significantly worse than healthy participants. Correlations between the severity of psychopathological condition (in particular the severity of affective flattening and impairment in recognition and expression of emotions were found.Discussion: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia seem to present a similarly relevant impairment in both experiencing and displaying of emotions; this impairment may be seen as a chronic consequence of the same neurodevelopmental origin of the two diseases. Mimic expression could be seen as a behavioral indicator of affective

  20. Top-Level Players' Visual Control of Interceptive Actions: Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) 20 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootsma, Reinoud J.; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H. P.; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of…

  1. Changes in Levels of Affirmative Action in College Admissions in Response to Statewide Bans and Judicial Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Grant H.; Long, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Affirmative action in college admissions was effectively banned in Texas by the Hopwood ruling in 1997, by voter referenda in California and Washington in 1996 and 1998, and by administrative decisions in Florida in 1999. The "Hopwood" and "Johnson" rulings also had possible applicability to public colleges throughout Alabama,…

  2. EFFECT OF BENZOIN RESIN ON THE SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVELS IN TEMPORARY JAUNDICE INDUCED BY PHENYLHYDRAZINE: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJU.S, UMA MAHESHWARA RAO.V SREERAMULU REDDY.K, RAMYA.G, VASANTH KUMAR. G

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilirubin is the degradation product of heme, thebulk of which is derived from hemoglobin of senescenterythrocytes and hepatic hemoproteins. Bilirubin ispotentially toxic, but is normally rendered harmless bybinding to plasma albumin, and efficient hepatic clearance.Jaundice, (also known as icterus is a yellowishpigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes overthe sclerae (whites of the eyes, and other mucousmembranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levelsof bilirubin in the blood. Complications of jaundiceinclude sepsis especially cholangitis, biliary cirrhosis,pancreatitis, coagulopathy, renal and liver failure.Treatment of rats with Phenylhydrazine 5 mg/ kg bodyweight for five days resulted in the development ofjaundice as BR level was found to be higher than 2 mg/dL.Bilirubin lowering potential of Benzoin ethyl alcoholextract was evaluated in temporarily jaundiced adultwistar rats. Treatment of these rats with Benzoin extractfor seven days reduced the BR level significantly to thenormal value. Whereas smaller dose (10mg/kg bodyweight resulted in the reduction in BR level from 2.51 ±0.02 to 0.90 ± 0.01 mg/dL, higher doses of 20 and 40mg/kg body weight were found to be more effective inreducing the bilirubin level from 2.54 ± 0.01 to 0.82 ±0.01 mg/dL and from 2.49±0.02 to 0.66±0.01 mg/dL,respectively. Therefore, Benzoin ethyl alcohol extract canbe used to reduce bilirubin concentration to a normal levelin jaundiced subjects.

  3. The Level of Self-Esteem and Sexual Functioning in Women with Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmała, Jacek; Blicharska, Irmina; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-08-12

    A person's image, which is determined through physical appearance, considerably affects self-esteem developed from early childhood. Scoliosis causes multiple trunk deformations that can affect a person's perception of the body. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of scoliosis dimension and the degree of trunk deformation on the level of self-esteem and sexual functioning in women with idiopathic scoliosis. Thirty-six women diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis were recruited to a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on the value of the Cobb angle. The level of self-esteem was determined by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), whereas the sexual functioning was assessed via the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The trunk deformations were specified with the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI). A statistically significant correlation was proved between the amount of points received in the Rosenberg scale evaluation and the POTSI index in Group A (R = -0.56, p = 0.04). Subjects with smaller deformations within the coronal plane had a higher level of self-confidence. The trunk asymmetries in the coronal plane may have a negative effect on women with scoliosis and their self-appraisal.

  4. Efficacy of Brain Gym Training on the Cognitive Performance and Fitness Level of Active Older Adults: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, José M; Vila Suárez, Ma Helena; Vasconcelos, Jamine; Lima, Ana; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the impact of Brain Gym (BG) training in active older adults. Eighty-five participants were assigned to four training groups: BG (n = 18), BG plus water-based exercise (n = 18), land-based exercise (n = 30), and land plus water-based exercise (n = 19). The effects of the programs on the attention and memory functions were assessed by means of the symbol digit modality test. The two-min step and the eight-foot up-and-go tests were used to evaluate their impact on fitness level. No program had a significant influence on the participant's cognitive performance, while different effects on the sample' fitness levels were observed. These findings suggest that the effects of BG on the cognitive performance and fitness level of active older adults are similar to those obtained after the practice of a traditional exercise program. Whether BG is performed in isolation or combined with other exercise programs seems to have no influence on such effects.

  5. The Level of Self-Esteem and Sexual Functioning in Women with Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Durmała

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A person’s image, which is determined through physical appearance, considerably affects self-esteem developed from early childhood. Scoliosis causes multiple trunk deformations that can affect a person’s perception of the body. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of scoliosis dimension and the degree of trunk deformation on the level of self-esteem and sexual functioning in women with idiopathic scoliosis. Thirty-six women diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis were recruited to a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on the value of the Cobb angle. The level of self-esteem was determined by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES, whereas the sexual functioning was assessed via the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. The trunk deformations were specified with the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI. A statistically significant correlation was proved between the amount of points received in the Rosenberg scale evaluation and the POTSI index in Group A (R = −0.56, p = 0.04. Subjects with smaller deformations within the coronal plane had a higher level of self-confidence. The trunk asymmetries in the coronal plane may have a negative effect on women with scoliosis and their self-appraisal.

  6. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training - a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Dziubek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD patients, on the depression and anxiety. Methods: Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used in the study. Results: A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1 and final examination (t2 indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2 in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1. The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2. Conclusions: Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction.

  7. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  9. Effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, and nicotine levels in smokers with and without schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Weinberger, Andrea H; Harrison, Emily L R; Coppola, Sabrina; George, Tony P

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have higher plasma nicotine levels in comparison to non-psychiatric smokers, even when differences in smoking are equated. This difference may be related to how intensely cigarettes are smoked but this has not been well studied. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, which has been shown to increase ad-lib smoking and to affect smoking topography, was used in the current study as a pharmacological probe to increase our understanding of smoking behavior, smoking topography, and resulting nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia. This preliminary study used a within-subject, placebo-controlled design in smokers with schizophrenia (n=6) and healthy control smokers (n=8) to examine the effects of MEC (10mg/day) on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, nicotine levels, and tobacco craving across two smoking deprivation conditions (no deprivation and 12-h deprivation). MEC, compared to placebo, increased the number of cigarettes smoked and plasma nicotine levels. MEC increased smoking intensity and resulted in greater plasma nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia compared to controls, although these results were not consistent across deprivation conditions. MEC also increased tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia but not in control smokers. Our results suggest that antagonism of high-affinity nAChRs in smokers with schizophrenia may prompt compensatory smoking, increasing the intensity of smoking and nicotine exposure without alleviating craving. Further work is needed to assess whether nicotine levels are directly mediated by how intensely the cigarettes are smoked, and to confirm whether this effect is more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia.

  10. Telomere length is inversely correlated with urinary stress hormone levels in healthy controls but not in un-medicated depressed individuals-preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Brittany; Mellon, Synthia H; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Révész, Dóra; Verhoeven, Josine E; Penninx, Brenda W; Reus, Victor I; Rosser, Rebecca; Hough, Christina M; Mahan, Laura; Burke, Heather M; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Wolkowitz, Owen M

    2017-08-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of cellular aging affected by chronic stress. The relationship of LTL to the stress hormones, cortisol and catecholamines, is unclear, as are possible differences between healthy controls (HC) and individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). This small pilot study is the first to examine the relationship between cortisol, catecholamines and LTL specifically in un-medicated MDD in comparison with HC. Participants included 16 un-medicated MDD subjects and 15 HC for assay of LTL, 12-hour overnight urinary free cortisol and catecholamine levels. LTL, cortisol and catecholamine levels did not significantly differ between groups. In HC, a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that higher levels of cortisol were correlated with shorter LTL (p=0.003) above and beyond age and sex. Higher catecholamine levels were nearly-significant with shorter LTL (p=0.055). Neither hormone was correlated with shorter LTL in MDD (p's>0.28). To assess a possible cumulative effect of stress hormone activation, a summary score was calculated for each subject based on the number of stress hormone levels above the median for that group (HC or MDD). A significant inverse graded relationship was observed between LTL and the number of activated systems in HC (p=0.001), but not in MDD (p=0.96). This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that stress hormone levels, especially cortisol, are inversely related to LTL in HC, but not in un-medicated MDD. Clarification of these relationships in larger samples could aid in understanding differential mechanisms underlying stress-related cellular aging in healthy and depressed populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of taxa, trophic level, and location on bioaccumulation of toxic metals in bird's feathers: a preliminary biomonitoring study using multiple bird species from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Ali, Sakhawat; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-02-01

    Increasing concentrations of heavy metals in the environment and their effects on ecosystems and biota is still an imminent threat, particularly in developing parts of the globe. The aim of the present study was to screen the heavy metal concentrations in multiple bird species across Pakistan and to preliminary evaluate the influence of taxa, trophic level, and geographical location on heavy metal accumulation in various bird species. For this purpose, we measured the concentration of 9 heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn) in feathers of 48 bird species from different localities in Pakistan. Species exhibited heterogeneous levels of heavy metals in feathers with marked inter and intra specific variations. Mean concentrations of studied metals in feathers followed the trend Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mn>Cr>Ni>Co>Cd. Species belonging to closely related taxa (families) showed comparable metal concentrations in their feathers, inferring potential phylogenetic similarities in metal exposure or accumulation. In general, concentrations of metals were greatest in carnivorous species followed by omnivorous and insectivorous birds, and granivores showing minimal levels (pmetals varied significantly between locations (ptoxic metal accumulation was also statistically corroborated through principal component analysis (PCA). This study highlights that despite restricted emissions, heavy metals persist in the local environment and may pose elevated risks for the studied bird species in Pakistan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. DEPENDENCE OF YKL-40 mRNA TISSUE LEVELS ON KRAS MUTATION STATUS IN COLORECTAL CANCER - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Feodorova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most deadly cancers worldwide. Despite the introduction of targeted molecular therapies in the last 10 years, overall survival has not increased substantially. CRC progression is accompanied by numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations and dysregulation of several signaling pathways, among which activation of Wnt and inactivation of TGF-β signaling. The molecular heterogeneity of CRC, however, hinders the molecular subtyping of CRC and thus the identification of common biomarkers for this pathology. The only three well established biomarkers for advanced-colorectal-cancer drug treatment are negative biomarkers. These are mutations in the genes KRAS, NRAS and BRAF which determine resistance to therapy with anti-EGFR antibodies. YKL-40 is a chitin-binding glycoprotein that has been shown to play a role in extracellular tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, cell migration and inflammation. Increased serum levels of this protein have been detected in patients with CRC but the role of YKL-40 in this neoplastic disease has not been studied extensively and the precise function of YKL-40 in CRC progression is not known. In the present study we determined the KRAS mutation status and measured the mRNA levels of YKL-40 of 24 patients with sporadic CRC. In addition, we assessed the association between these two parameters by statistical analysis. We are the first to show that in CRC YKL-40 mRNA levels are dependent on the presence of KRAS mutations, being prominently elevated in the wild type background. Our results indicate the potential role of YKL-40 as a target molecule for CRC therapy.

  13. Preliminary parametric performance assessment of potential final waste forms for alpha low-level waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Sussman, M.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Myers, J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; DeBiase, T.A.; Goodrich, M.T.; DeWitt, D. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents a preliminary parametric performance assessment (PA) of potential waste disposal systems for alpha-contaminated, mixed, low-level waste (ALLW) currently stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of INEL. The ALLW, which contains from 10 to 100 nCi/g of transuranic (TRU) radionuclides, is awaiting treatment and disposal. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of several parameters on the radiological-confinement performance of potential disposal systems for the ALLW. The principal emphasis was on the performance of final waste forms (FWFs). Three categories of FWF (cement, glass, and ceramic) were addressed by evaluating the performance of two limiting FWFs for each category. Performance at five conceptual disposal sites was evaluated to illustrate the effects of site characteristics on the performance of the total disposal system. Other parameters investigated for effects on receptor dose included inventory assumptions, TRU radionuclide concentration, FWF fracture, disposal depth, water infiltration rates, subsurface-transport modeling assumptions, receptor well location, intrusion scenario assumptions, and the absence of waste immobilization. These and other factors were varied singly and in some combinations. The results indicate that compliance of the treated and disposed ALLW with the performance objectives depends on the assumptions made, as well as on the FWF and the disposal site. Some combinations result in compliance, while others do not. The implications of these results for decision making relative to treatment and disposal of the INEL ALLW are discussed. The report compares the degree of conservatism in this preliminary parametric PA against that in four other PAs and one risk assessment. All of the assessments addressed the same disposal site, but different wastes. The report also presents a qualitative evaluation of the uncertainties in the PA and makes recommendations for further study.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Savannah River Plant high-level waste. [Eleven alternative solid forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T. Jr.; Smith, P.K.

    1979-12-01

    An evaluation of available information on eleven alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP high-level waste has been completed. Based on the assessment of both product and process characteristics, four forms were selected for more detailed evaluation: (1) borosilicate glass made in the reference process, (2) a high-silica glass made from a porous glass matrix, (3) crystalline ceramics such as supercalcine or SYNROC, and (4) ceramics coated with an impervious barrier. The assessment includes a discussion of product and process characteristics for each of the eleven forms, a cross comparison of these characteristics for the forms, and the bases for selecting the most promising forms for further study.

  15. Preliminary Waste Form Compliance Plan for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. A. Staples; T. P. O' Holleran

    1999-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has specific technical and documentation requirements for high-level waste (HLW) that is to be placed in a federal repository. This document describes in general terms the strategy to be used at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that vitrified HLW, if produced at the INEEL, meets these requirements. Waste form, canister, quality assurance, and documentation specifications are discussed. Compliance strategy is given, followed by an overview of how this strategy would be implemented for each specification.

  16. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The full-scale, room-temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  17. A Preliminary Assessment of Dispersion Level of SO2 in Fars Industrial Region, South of Iran, by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Zarghan is located 25 km northeast of Shiraz, southern Iran. Zarghan is affected by numerous pollution sources such as oil refinery, an industrial park, and Shiraz-Tehran highway. The numerous contaminating sources around Zarghan can cause serious local air pollution. Sulfur dioxide gas is an important index of air pollution in cities. Therefore, in order to control and manage Zarghan air quality, it is important to monitor sulfur dioxide concentration in the surrounding area. It is also essential to know about the contribution level of other sources of pollution as well as dispersion radius of pollutants in the area. In this study, the concentration of sulfur dioxide was measured by passive sampling at 10 different stations. These values were interpolated in other parts of the city using ArcGIS software. The results of sampling showed that the concentration of the gas was 60 µgm−3 around oil refinery. The level was 19 µgm−3 in region located about 3 km from the oil refinery. It was also demonstrated that the gas concentration was not higher than the standard limit within residential area. On the other hand, the role of the local highway and industrial park was not significant in contaminating air in urban areas.

  18. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The full scale, room temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  19. Interpolation study on ambient gamma levels in parts of Khasi Hills, Meghalaya (India): Preliminary findings for U exploration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M Kukreti; G K Sharma; Pramod Kumar; Sandeep Hamilton

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses an experimental approach to examine uranium exploration avenue over the geologicallyextended parts of Mahadek basin in Meghalaya, amid some of the environmental constraints. Studycomprises periodic measurements of prevailing ambient gamma levels across 320 georeference points, inrelation to the major litho units of Mahadek basin, covering 673 line km of Khasi Hills. Acquired sampledata points were then analysed in geostatistical software (Surfer^{TM}) to develop analytical model of samplevariogram having bearing on the uranium exploration in the area. Study findings have given encouragingsurface indicators with mostly elevated gamma levels over the parts of West Khasi Hills. Delineatedgamma anomalous zones are lithologically well correlated including to that of existing uranium occurrencesin the basin. Identified anomalous zones over the parts of West Khasi Hills by this study work, aremainly associated with the Mahadek sandstone (Upper and Lower Mahadek) and Precambrian basementgranites. Lower Mahadek sandstone is host rock for uranium mineralisation in the basin. Initial findingssuggest with the closer spatial resolution (∼1 km) of sample data points, the approach adopted by thestudy work holds promising application in locating potential uranium exploration targets especially tothe extended and inaccessible parts of the basin.

  20. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE ANTI-CANCER EFFECT OF TANSHINONE ON HEPATIC CANCER AND ITS MECHANISM OF ACTION IN MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiujie; Yuan Shulan; Wang Chaojun; Huang Renmin; Li Yuqiong

    1998-01-01

    Objective: There were some experimental researches in vitro, which showed that tanshinonoe (Tan)had cytotoxic activities against some cancer cell lines. But there was no report of anti-cancer activity of Tan in vivo.This experimental study was performed to confirm the anti-cancer activity of Tan in vivo. Methods: Hepatic carcinoma H22 bearing mice were treated with DMSO, 5-Fu, and Tan, at the end of experiment, the mice were sacrificed, tumor tissues were separated and weighed, and the tumor inhibitory rate was calculated, 3 times of the same experiments were performed. The proliferating kinetics of hepatic carcinoma H22 cells in mice was measured by bromodeoxyuridine labeling in vivo and immunohistochemical staining of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in tumor tissues. Results: The tumor inhibitory rates of Tan were 50.0%, 38.5%, and 40.6% in 3 experiments, respectively, compared with those of the DMSO-treated control groups, the differences were significant statistically (P<0.01). The Brdu labeling and PCNA positive cells were 51.8± 7.9 and 451.1± 26.1, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of controls (84.4± 24.3, 694.8±117.1) (P<0.01). Conclusion:Tan had anti-cancer effect on hepatic carcinoma in vivo;The mechanisms of action might be associated with inhibition of DNA synthesis, PCNA expression and DNA polymerase δ activity of tumor cells.

  1. Empirical Projection of Long-Term Coastal Erosion Hazards in Hawaii Under Rising Sea Levels: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. R.; Barbee, M.; Fletcher, C. H., II; Romine, B. M.; Lemmo, S.

    2014-12-01

    Chronic erosion dominates sandy beaches of Hawaii causing loss and beach narrowing; and damaging homes, infrastructure, and critical habitat. Increased rates of sea level rise (SLR) will likely exacerbate these problems. Shoreline managers and other stakeholders need guidance to support long-range planning and adaptation efforts. Despite recent advances in sophisticated numerical models, there remains a need for simple approaches to estimating land areas that are threatened by erosion on decadal-to-century time scales due to SLR. While not as detailed as numerical models, empirical approaches can provide a first-order approximation to shoreline change that may be useful for coastal management and planning. Shoreline managers in Hawaii commonly work with historical data to provide information on coastal erosion. Simple linear regression methods have been especially attractive in Hawaii, where complex reef topography can cause high spatial variability in sediment transport patterns. Yet, facing projected future increases in the rate of SLR, extrapolating historical trends is insufficient. Predictions of shoreline change with SLR commonly employ controversial geometric models (e.g., the Bruun Model) that do not account for sediment availability and alongshore variability captured in historical data. Furthermore, these two projections often produce conflicting results. We report here on the early results of mapping probability-based erosion hazard areas, determined by combining the extrapolated historical shoreline change model with a geometric model of shoreline response (Davidson-Arnott, 2005) to strictly accelerated SLR. A geographic information system is used to explore the intersection between potential erosion hazards, coastal geology, and development patterns. This approach is attractive because it is simple and utilizes existing datasets. Yet, its simplicity implies broad assumptions of the coastal system and leads to large uncertainty in projections. To

  2. Decisive Action Training Environment at the Joint Readiness Training Center, Vol.14: Company-Level Combined Arms Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Decisive Action Training Environment CPT Victoria C. Maynard and SFC Michael L. Sellers 33 Chapter 7. The Principles of Patrolling CPT Kyle West...confusion and much doubt on how best to utilize the DRT within the brigade combat team (BCT) fight. Indeed, current force structure conversations appear...highlighting areas for further improvement and building a network of DRT commanders to capture and highlight best practices. The most common and

  3. The decomposition of level-1 irreducible highest weight modules with respect to the level-0 actions of the quantum affine algebra $U'_q(\\overline{sl}_n)$

    CERN Document Server

    Takemura, K

    1997-01-01

    We decompose the level-1 irreducible highest weight modules of the quantum affine algebra $U_q(\\hat{sl}_n)$ with respect to the level-0 $U'_q parameterized by the skew Young diagrams of the border strip type.

  4. Clinical efficacy of low level laser therapy in reducing pain and swelling after periapical surgery. A preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Escalante-Macías

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the low level laser therapy (LLLT in postoperative pain and swelling associated with periapical surgery. A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 2 groups of 10 patients each, undergoing periapical surgery. The experimental group was treated with an intraoral application of an 810 nm-GaAsAl-laser, having an output power of 100 mW, with overlapping movements over the wound. In the control group, the same procedure was carried out, without therapeutic laser activation. Postoperative pain, swelling, and rescue medication were registered. The experimental group exhibited a decrease in pain intensity after periapical surgery compared with control group (p

  5. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 15}N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  6. A preliminary area survey of neutron radiation levels associated with the NASA variable energy cyclotron horizontal neutron delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. K.; Leonard, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    The 25 MeV deuteron beam from the NASA variable energy cyclotron incident on a thick beryllium target will deliver a tissue neutron dose rate of 2.14 rad micron A-min at a source to skin distance of 125 cm. A neutron survey of the existing hallways with various shielding configurations made during operating of the horizontal neutron delivery system indicates that minimal amounts of additional neutron shielding material are required to provide a low level radiation environment within a self-contained neutron therapy control station. Measurements also indicate that the primary neutron distribution delivered by a planned vertical delivery system will be minimally perturbed by neutrons backscattered from the floor.

  7. Development of Bengali Audio-Visual Test Battery for Assessment of Pragmatic Skills: Preliminary Normative Data Based on Educational Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Biswas, Atanu; Pal, Sandip; Chatterjee, Amita

    2016-05-31

    Pragmatic competence may be disrupted due to psychological and neurological causes. For appropriate remedy and rehabilitation, a precise assessment of pragmatic skills is important. However, there is no test battery in the Bengali language, and consequently, there is no published data on pragmatic ability of Bengali speakers. Due to the vast diversity of the population, it becomes increasingly difficult to assess pragmatic ability of an individual without a proper knowledge of the normal variations. To address this problem we have developed a test battery in Bengali, and to begin with, we have administered it to one hundred and five (105) normal healthy persons having different levels of education. The four groups having 17 years and above, 15 to normative score of 193, 189, 171 and 150, respectively. These normative scores will allow clinicians to make a proper assessment of patients suffering from pragmatic deficits and help avoid interpreting social differences as neurological deficits.

  8. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Doremus, L.A.; Engel, D.W.; Miley, T.B.; Murphy, M.T.; Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Langford, D.W.; Ouderkirk, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in mined repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models.

  9. ANTENATAL THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN RAYALASEEMA REGION: A PRELIMINARY CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY BASED ON CIRCULATING SERUM THYROTROPIN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Vinodh Bandela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foetal brain development can be influenced by thyroid gland functioning. Sub normal function of thyroid gland in first trimester of pregnancy leads to miscarriages, stillborn and anomalies of central nervous system in foetus. The environmental factors that will effect thyroid gland functioning are deficit soil iodine, high fluoridation of water and low dietary iodine intake. Rayalaseema is endemic for iodine and most of the communities are suffering from high fluoride levels of water. Therefore study was designed to estimate prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women of Rayalaseema region. Materials and Methods: 139 first trimester pregnant women randomly selected from Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Santhiram medical college and General Hospital, Nandyal during the period from April 2013 to June 2013 in respect of inclusion and exclusion criteria. And fasting blood samples of the participants were analyzed for T3, T4 and TSH. Based on the TSH levels subjects were categorised in to euthyroid, hypothyroid, subclinical hypothyroid and hyper thyroid. Results: The prevalence of antenatal thyroid dysfunction is 18.70% [10.0% - subclinical hypothyroid, 2.87% - overt hypothyroid, 5.75% - hyperthyroid and 81.29% - euthyroid]. 37.5%- tribal, 10.81% - rural and 21.21% urban antenatal are suffering from thyroid dysfunction. Median maternal age was 25 years and gestational age was 8.5 weeks. Prevalence of pregnancy related risk factors include 26.92% - personnel thyroid history, 11.53% - hypertension, 15.38% - elevated fasting blood glucose, 30.76 % - family thyroid history. Conclusion: Subclinical hypothyroidism was highly prevalent among Rayalaseema region antenatal women at first trimester of pr

  10. High-level expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli; Qin, Lin; Buchko, Garry W.; Robinson, Howard; Varnum, Susan M.

    2010-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly toxic proteins for humans and can cause neuroparalytic disease botulism. Due to the limitations of production and manipulation of holoenzymes, expressing non-toxic heavy chain receptor binding domains (HCR) has become a common strategy for vaccine and antibody development. Meanwhile, large quantities and highly purified soluble proteins are required for research areas such as antibody maturation and structural biology. We present high level expression and purification of the BoNT serotype D HCR in E. coli using a codon-optimized cDNA. By varying expression conditions, especially at low temperature, the protein was expressed at a high level with high solubility. About 150-200 mg protein was purified to >90% purity from 1 L cell culture. The recombinant D_HCR was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P212121 with unit cell dimensions a = 60.8 Å, b = 89.7 Å, c = 93.9 Å. Preliminary crystallographic data analysis revealed one molecule in asymmetric unit.

  11. Potential anti-inflammatory effect of low-level laser therapy on the experimental reflux laryngitis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Renata R; Matos, Renata M; Santos, Jandson S; Ribeiro, Maria A G; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Lima, Roberto C P; Albuquerque, Ricardo L C; Thomazzi, Sara M

    2014-01-01

    The most common cause of laryngitis is the laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The symptoms of laryngitis can be hoarseness, globus, chronic cough, voice fatigue, throat pain, and dysphagia. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is beneficial to reduce the pain and inflammatory response without side effects. Therefore, LLLT may be a useful tool for the treatment of laryngitis. This study proposes to analyze the effect of laser therapy in a model of reflux-induced laryngitis. The animals were randomly put into three groups: control--non-intubated; nasogastric intubation--intubated; and nasogastric intubation with laser therapy-intubated treated with 105-J/cm(2) laser irradiation. For the induction of laryngitis, the animals were anesthetized and a nasogastric tube was inserted through the nasopharynx until it reached the stomach, for 1 week. Thereafter, measurement of myeloperoxidase activity and the histopathological procedures were performed. In conclusion, we observed in this study that 105-J/cm(2) infrared laser reduced the influx of neutrophils in rats, and it improved the reparative collagenization of the laryngeal tissues.

  12. A Preliminary Analysis of Lake Level and Water Storage Changes over Lakes Baikal and Balkhash from Satellite Altimetry and Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lakes Baikal and Balkhash are two of the world¡¦s major lakes affecting fresh water supplies in their catchments. Measurements from satellite altimetry (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and -2, satellite gravimetry (GRACE and a hydrological model (LDAS are used to see the relationship between lake level change (LLC and water storage change in these two lakes. At Lake Baikal, the average rate of LLC is negative for 1992 - 1998 and positive for 1998 - 2007, and the reversal of the LLC trend concurs with that of the temperature trend during the 1997 - 1998 El Nino. The rate of gravity change ranges from -0.5 to 0.5 ugal yr-1 with a low over the Tian Shan and a high over western Lake Baikal. Due to the climates over the two lakes, the phases of the annual gravity changes differ by up to 100 days. Using the rates of LLC and gravity changes, the ratios between the mass changes of the lake and its catchment over Lakes Baikal and Balkhash are estimated to 0.6 and 0.3, respectively. The result may help to establish water balance models over these two lakes.

  13. Effect of low level laser therapy and high intensity laser therapy on endothelial cell proliferation in vitro: preliminary communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowicz, Malgorzata; Szymanska, Justyna; Goralczyk, Krzysztof; Zajac, Andrzej; Rość, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of power intensity and wavelength of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and HILT (High Intensity Laser Therapy) on endothelial cell proliferation. Material and methods: The tests were done on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cultures were exposed to laser irradiation of 660 nm and 670 nm at different dosages, power output was 10 - 40 mW as well as 820 nm with power 100 mW and 808 nm with power 1500 mW. Energy density was from 0.28 to 11,43 J/cm2. Cell proliferation of a control and tested culture was evaluated with a colorimetric device to detect live cells. The tests were repeated 8 times. Results: We observed good effects of LLLT on live isolated ECs and no effects in experiments on previous deep-frozen cultures. Also HILT stimulated the proliferation of HUVEC. Conclusion: Endothelial cells play a key role in vascular homeostasis in humans. We observed the stimulatory effect of LLLT and HILT on proliferation of HUVEC. Many factors influence the proliferation of EC, so is it necessary to continue the experiment with different doses, intensity and cell concentration.

  14. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) study of blood flow changes during low level laser therapy (LLLT): a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sagar; Wang, Xinlong; Liu, Hanli; Tian, Fenghua

    2017-02-01

    Photobiomodulation with low-power, high-fluence light in the near-infrared range (600-1100nm), also known as low level laser therapy (LLLT), has been used for promoting healing of wounds, reducing pain, and so on. Understanding its physiological effect is essential for treatment optimization and evaluation. In this study, we used diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to investigate the changes of regional blood flow in skeletal muscle induced by a single session of LLLT. DCS is an emerging optical modality to probe microvascular blood flow in human tissues in vivo. We have developed a software-based autocorrelator system with the benefits such as flexibility in raw photon count data processing, portability and low cost. LLLT was administered at the human forearm with a 1064-nm, continuous-wave laser. The emitting power was 3.4 W in an area of 13.6 cm2, corresponding to 0.25W/cm2 irradiance. The emitting duration was 10 minutes. Eight healthy adults of any ethnic background, in an age range of 18-40 years old were included. The results indicate that LLLT causes reliable changes in regional blood flow. However, it remains unclear whether these changes are physiological or attributed to the heating effect of the stimulation laser.

  15. Effects of methylprednisolone on exercise-induced increases of plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase and myeloperoxidase in man. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify whether a single oral dose of methylprednisolone could modulate the exercise-induced release of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN elastase and myeloperoxidase. Four healthy, male subjects were submitted to a 20 min downhill run (−20% at 60% VO2 max, 3 h after oral absorption of a placebo or a single dose of 32 mg methylprednisolone. A marked neutrophilia (+103% of basal PMN count; p < 0.02 was observed 3 h after methylprednisolone ingestion. During both exercise trials, placebo and methylprednisolone, PMN counts were increased by 46% and 19% (p < 0.05, respectively. The running test caused marked and significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma myeloperoxidase concentration (MPO. The magnitude of MPO changes was the same in the two trials (+110%. Exercise also resulted in significant changes in plasma elastase concentration (EL in both experimental conditions (placebo: +104%, p < 0.05; methylprednisolone: +338%, p < 0.005. Plasma elastase levels reached at the end of exercise on methylprednisolone were significantly higher than after placebo (p < 0.05. A significant relationship was found between EL and PMN in methylprednisolone trial only (r = 0.72; l0 < 0.005. These results showed that the transient exercise-induced release of elastase and myeloperoxidase were not decreased by methylprednisolone.

  16. The relationship between the levels of salivary cortisol and the presence of xerostomia in menopausal women. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Gómez, Begoña; Hernández Vallejo, Gonzalo; Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo; López Cantor, Margarita; Díaz, Milagros; López Pintor, Rosa Maria

    2006-08-01

    Xerostomia is a particularly frequent occurrence among menopausal women, and is often associated with depression. To evaluate the relationship between unstimulated salivary flow rate and the presence of xerostomia, and to determine the levels of salivary cortisol and its relationship with xerostomia. Thirty women were selected from patients attending the Department of Medicine and Buccofacial surgery, and formed into two groups, study and control. Samples of unstimulated salivary flow were collected, and the amounts of salivary cortisol determined using the ELISA technique (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The mean unstimulated salivary flow rates for the control and study group were 0.37 +/- 0.28 ml/min and 0.24 +/- 0.18 ml/min, respectively. The concentration of salivary cortisol was 3.47 +/- 1.64 ng/ml for the control group and 2.29 +/- 2.60 ng/ml for the study group. The statistical tests applied showed no significant differences for either variable between the two groups in the study. The results of the present study indicate that there is no relationship between variations in the rates of unstimulated salivary flow and the corresponding concentration of cortisol.

  17. Mechanism of action of nitrogen pressure in controlling striatal dopamine level of freely moving rats is changed by recurrent exposures to nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoute, Cécile; Weiss, Michel; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Rostain, Jean-Claude

    2012-03-01

    In rats, a single exposure to 3 MPa nitrogen induces change in motor processes, a sedative action and a decrease in dopamine release in the striatum. These changes due to a narcotic effect of nitrogen have been attributed to a decrease in glutamatergic control and the facilitation of GABAergic neurotransmission involving NMDA and GABA(A) receptors, respectively. After repeated exposure to nitrogen narcosis, a second exposure to 3 MPa increased dopamine levels suggesting a change in the control of the dopaminergic pathway. We investigated the role of the nigral NMDA and GABA(A) receptors in changes in the striatal dopamine levels. Dopamine-sensitive electrodes were implanted into the striatum under general anesthesia, together with a guide-cannula for drug injections into the SNc. Dopamine level was monitored by in vivo voltammetry. The effects of NMDA/GABA(A) receptor agonists (NMDA/muscimol) and antagonists (AP7/gabazine) on dopamine levels were investigated. Rats were exposed to 3 MPa nitrogen before and after five daily exposures to 1 MPa. After these exposures to nitrogen narcosis, gabazine, NMDA and AP7 had no effect on the nitrogen-induced increase in dopamine levels. By contrast, muscimol strongly enhanced the increase in dopamine level induced by nitrogen. Our findings suggest that repeated nitrogen exposure disrupted NMDA receptor function and decreased GABAergic input by modifying GABA(A) receptor sensitivity. These findings demonstrated a change in the mechanism of action of nitrogen at pressure.

  18. Influence of Lipid Heterogeneity and Phase Behavior on Phospholipase A(2) Action at the Single Molecule Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmand, Martin Jesper; Rocha, Susana; Hatzakis, Nikos;

    2010-01-01

    We monitored the action of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) on L- and D-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayers by mounting a Langmuir-trough on a wide-field fluorescence microscope with single molecule sensitivity. This made it possible to directly visualize the activity and diffus......We monitored the action of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) on L- and D-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayers by mounting a Langmuir-trough on a wide-field fluorescence microscope with single molecule sensitivity. This made it possible to directly visualize the activity...... and diffusion behavior of single PLA(2) molecules in a heterogeneous lipid environment during active hydrolysis. The experiments showed that enzyme molecules adsorbed and interacted almost exclusively with the fluid region of the DPPC monolayers. Domains of gel state L-DPPC were degraded exclusively from...... interface were between 3.2 microm(2)/s on the L-DPPC and 4.9 microm(2)/s on the D-DPPC monolayers. In regions enriched with hydrolysis products, the diffusion dropped to approximately 0.2 microm(2)/s. In addition, slower normal and anomalous diffusion modes were seen at the L-DPPC gel domain boundaries...

  19. NX-PVKA levels before and after hepatectomy of hepatocellular carcinoma as predictors of patient survival: a preliminary evaluation of an improved assay for PIVKA-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Abo, Takafumi; Taura, Naota; Shibata, Hideki; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Takagi, Katsunori; Arai, Junichi; Oyama, Shousaburou; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    Although the protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) is used as a prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a newly-improved assay, NX-PVKA (PIVKA-II measured using P-11 and P-16 antibodies) and NX-PVKA-R (ratio of PIVKA-II and NX-PVKA), are more accurate markers of PIVKA-II. We conducted a prospectively preliminary analysis of the relationship between NX-PVKA-R and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in 22 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy and measured changes of this marker's levels after treatment. Median value of PIVKA-II (80 mAU/ml), NX-PVKA (60 mAU/ml), NX-PVKA-R (1.5) and NX-PVKA-D (difference of markers, 15 mAU/ml) were determined. Tumor relapse was observed in six patients, and the one year relapse-free survival rate was 88%. Correlation between PIVKA-II or alpha-fetoprotein levels and NX-PVKA, NX-PVKA-R or -D levels was significant (pPIVKA-II, NX-PVKA and NX-PVKA-R tended to be higher than in patients without pre-treatment, but this difference was not significant (p>0.10). For macroscopic findings, NX-PVKA-R for the confluent-nodular type was significantly higher than that for the simple-nodular type (p<0.05). The tumor-free survival rate in the group with a high NX-PVKA-R was significantly lower than that in the group with a low NX-PVKA-R group (p<0.05). In patients with tumor recurrence, postoperative NX-PVKA-R increased again. We conclude that a high value of NX-PVKA-R after hepatectomy for HCC reflects malignant potential and predicts early recurrence in patients with HCC.

  20. Non-perturbative renormalization of quark bilinear operators with N{sub f}=2 (tmQCD) Wilson fermions and the tree-level improved gauge action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinou, M. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (Italy); Frezzotti, R. [Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (IT)] (and others)

    2010-06-15

    We present results for the renormalization constants of bilinear quark operators obtained b4>UNL<426>UNL using the tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and the N{sub f}=2 twisted mass fermion action at maximal twist, which guarantees automatic O(a)- improvement. Our results are also relevant for the corresponding standard (untwisted) Wilson fermionic action since the two actions only differ, in the massless limit, by a chiral rotation of the quark fields. The scale-independent renormalization constants Z{sub V}, Z{sub A} and the ratio Z{sub P}/Z{sub S} have been computed using the RI-MOM approach, as well as other alternative methods. For Z{sub A} and Z{sub P}/Z{sub S}, the latter are based on both standard twisted mass and Osterwalder-Seiler fermions, while for Z{sub V} a Ward Identity has been used. The quark field renormalization constant Z{sub q} and the scale dependent renormalization constants Z{sub S}, Z{sub P} and Z{sub T} are determined in the RI-MOM scheme. Leading discretization effects of O(g{sup 2}a{sup 2}), evaluated in one-loop perturbation theory, are explicitly subtracted from the RI-MOM estimates. (orig.)

  1. Increase in IL-6 levels among major depressive disorder patients after a 6-week treatment with duloxetine 60 mg/day: a preliminary observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Michele Fornaro1, Matteo Martino1, Florinda Battaglia2, Salvatore Colicchio3, Giulio Perugi41Department of Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, University of Genova, Genoa, Italy; 2Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research (CEBR, Genoa, Italy; 3Department of Neurosciences, Catholic University, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyBackground: Immune modifications, including changes in interleukin (IL-6 levels, have often been observed in major depressive disorder (MDD during treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs or the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI venlafaxine. Nevertheless, no equivalent observation for the SNRI duloxetine has been made to date.Method: Sixteen patients diagnosed with MDD and an actual major depressive episode according to DSM-IV criteria and 16 healthy controls entered a 6-week trial with duloxetine 60 mg/day. All subjects (n = 32 were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS, and were monitored for IL-6 levels both at baseline and at week 6. Blood samples for IL-6 levels were evaluated by ELISA.Results: After 6 weeks of treatment, the mean total scores for HAM-D declined both in the depressed and control groups, while IL-6 modification showed an opposite trend both in depressed (12.38 ± 19.80 to 19.73 ± 18.94 pg/mL and control subjects (12.25 ± 21.12 to 17.63 ± 20.44 pg/mL, as did YMRS (ns, although none of the subjects switched to (hypomania. Of note, IL-6 levels increased significantly only in the responders subgroup (n = 9; P = 0.012.Conclusion: The small sample size and weak design of this study limit the validity of our results, which should be regarded as preliminary only. Nonetheless, the trend of increasing IL-6 levels observed in responder patients treated with duloxetine should prompt further controlled, extended studies with larger samples, with

  2. The effectiveness of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 to increase the level of organic public procurement in Danish public kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Nina N; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne; Lassen, Anne D

    2016-12-01

    To measure the effect of organic food conversion projects on the percentage of organic food used in Danish public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. The current longitudinal study was based on measurements of organic food percentages in Danish public kitchens before and after kitchen employees participated in conversion projects. Public kitchens participating in the nine organic food conversion projects under the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, initiated during autumn 2012 and spring 2013 and completed in summer 2015. A total of 622 public kitchens. The average (median) increase in organic food percentage from baseline to follow-up was 24 percentage points (POrganic Cuisine Label in either silver (60-90 % organic food procurement) or gold (90-100 % organic food procurement) level doubled from 31 % to 62 %, respectively, during the conversion period. Conversion project curriculum mostly included elements of 'theory', 'menu planning', 'network' and 'Organic Cuisine Label method' to ensure successful implementation. The study reports significant increases in the level of organic food procurement among public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Recommendations for future organic conversion projects include adding key curriculum components to the project's educational content and measuring changes in organic food percentage to increase the chances of successful implementation.

  3. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine...... plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA....... actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from...

  4. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements:The Concerted Action's input to the Framework Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike; Erhorn, Hans; Poel, Bart; Hitchin, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements. In addition to the summary report released in August 2011, the full detailed report on this study is now also made available, just as the EC is about to publ...

  5. Plasma cytokine levels in young and elderly twins: genes versus environment and relation to in vivo insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, L; Poulsen, P; Klarlund Pedersen, B;

    2006-01-01

    We studied the impact of genetic versus pre- and postnatal environmental factors on the plasma levels of IL6, TNF and the soluble TNF receptor superfamily, member 1A (TNFRSF1A, previously known as TNF receptor type1 [TNFR1]).......We studied the impact of genetic versus pre- and postnatal environmental factors on the plasma levels of IL6, TNF and the soluble TNF receptor superfamily, member 1A (TNFRSF1A, previously known as TNF receptor type1 [TNFR1])....

  6. Influence of Lipid Heterogeneity and Phase Behavior on Phospholipase A2 Action at the Single Molecule Level

    CERN Document Server

    Gudmand, M; Hatzakis, N S; Peneva, K; Muellen, K; Stamou, D; Uji-I, H; Hofkens, J; Bjornholm, T; Heimburg, T

    2009-01-01

    We monitored the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on L- and D-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayers by mounting a Langmuir-trough on a wide-field fluorescence microscope with single molecule sensitivity. This made it possible to directly visualize the activity and diffusion behavior of single PLA2 molecules in a heterogeneous lipid environment during active hydrolysis. The experiments showed that enzyme molecules adsorbed and interacted almost exclusively with the fluid region of the DPPC monolayers. Domains of gel state L-DPPC were degraded exclusively from the gel-fluid interface where the build-up of negatively charged hydrolysis products, fatty acid salts, led to changes in the mobility of PLA2. The mobility of individual enzymes on the monolayers was characterized by single particle tracking (SPT). Diffusion coefficients of enzymes adsorbed to the fluid interface were between 3 mu m^2/s on the L-DPPC and 4.6 mu m^/s on the D-DPPC monolayers. In regions enriched with hydrolysis produc...

  7. Determination of $c_\\mathrm A$ in three-flavour lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and tree-level improved gauge action

    CERN Document Server

    Bulava, John; Heitger, Jochen; Wittemeier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We report on an ongoing non-perturbative determination of the improvement coefficient of the axial current, $c_\\mathrm A$, with three flavours of dynamical $\\mathrm O(a)$ improved Wilson quarks and tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action. Our computations are based on simulations with the openQCD code. The improvement condition for a range of couplings is formulated with Schr\\"odinger functional boundary conditions and imposed along a line of constant physics in parameter space. Our analysis involves correlation functions with boundary wave functions such that a large sensitivity to $c_\\mathrm A$ can be reached by exploiting the PCAC relation with two different pseudoscalar states.

  8. Genetic variations altering FSH action affect circulating hormone levels as well as follicle growth in healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S.; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    or their combination, distinct effects on reproductive hormone levels as well as ovarian follicle maturation in healthy peripubertal girls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FSHB and FSHR genetic variants impact reproductive hormone levels as well as associated pathologies in women. While FSHR c. 2039A>G is known to alter...... concerning the influence of FSHB c.-211G>T in adult women. Furthermore, we have no information about the exact day of the menstrual cycle in the subgroup of girls with menarche. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The sex-specific interaction of FSHB and FSHR genetic variants and physiological as well...... of the Environment, CeHoS (MST-621-00065), Capital Region of Denmark (December 2011), Ministry of Higher Education and Science (DFF-1331-00113) and EDMaRC (Danish Ministry of Health). A.S.B. was funded from December 2015 by ReproUnion (EU Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak). The authors declare no conflict...

  9. PERCHLORATE: Occurrence is Widespread but at Varying Levels; Federal Agencies Have Taken Some Actions to Respond to and Lessen Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    tomatoes and spinach, having higher perchlorate levels than others. According to researchers, concentrations of perchlorate at or above 100 parts per...These food items represent the major components of the American diet, such as dairy, meat, fruits, and vegetables. Certain foods, such as tomatoes ...Administration’s Total Diet Study: Dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine ,” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, vol. 18 (2008

  10. Interpreting short and medium exposure etched-track radon measurements to determine whether an action level could be exceeded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, A R; Crockett, R G M; Groves-Kirkby, C J; Phillips, P S

    2016-10-01

    Radon gas is naturally occurring, and can concentrate in the built environment. It is radioactive and high concentration levels within buildings, including homes, have been shown to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. As a result, several methods have been developed to measure radon. The long-term average radon level determines the risk to occupants, but there is always pressure to complete measurements more quickly, particularly when buying and selling the home. For many years, the three-month exposure using etched-track detectors has been the de facto standard, but a decade ago, Phillips et al. (2003), in a DEFRA funded project, evaluated the use of 1-week and 1-month measurements. They found that the measurement methods were accurate, but the challenge lay in the wide variation in radon levels - with diurnal, seasonal, and other patterns due to climatic factors and room use. In the report on this work, and in subsequent papers, the group proposed methodologies for 1-week, 1-month and 3-month measurements and their interpretation. Other work, however, has suggested that 2-week exposures were preferable to 1-week ones. In practice, the radon remediation industry uses a range of exposure times, and further guidance is required to help interpret these results. This paper reviews the data from this study and a subsequent 4-year study of 4 houses, re-analysing the results and extending them to other exposures, particularly for 2-week and 2-month exposures, and provides comprehensive guidance for the use of etched-track detectors, the value and use of Seasonal Correction Factors (SCFs), the uncertainties in short and medium term exposures and the interpretation of results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Joint action of chemicals in algal toxicity tests: Influence of response level and dose-response regression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E.R.; Chen, D.; Nyholm, Niels

    2001-01-01

    The joint toxicity of nonylamine and decylamine and of atrazine and decylamine was evaluated in assays with the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum based on an isobologram method. In this method, curves of constant response, isoboles, are plotted versus concentrations of two toxicants. The respo......The joint toxicity of nonylamine and decylamine and of atrazine and decylamine was evaluated in assays with the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum based on an isobologram method. In this method, curves of constant response, isoboles, are plotted versus concentrations of two toxicants...... concentration additive at EC50 and EC10 (similarity parameter l 5 0.70–0.76) and to a lesser extent at EC0. By contrast, the mixtures of atrazine and decylamine show antagonism in that atrazine acts as an antidote to decylamine. The shapes of these isoboles are independent of response level. The EC50 values (mg....../L) for chemicals acting singly were 0.090 (nonylamine), 0.039 to 0.044 (decylamine), and 0.225 (atrazine). In order to determine NEC effectively, the level of inhibition must be fairly low, with observed growth rates between 0.6 and 1.0 times the average growth rate of the controls....

  12. Effect of low-level laser therapy on inflammatory mediator release during chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Geisa Badauy Lauria; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; Othon-Leite, Angélica Ferreira; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Arantes, Adriano Moraes; Bariani, César; Duarte, Luciana Garcia Lobo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira; Queiroz-Júnior, Celso Martins; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are submitted to a conditioning regimen of high-dose chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, which usually results in oral ulcerations and mucosal barrier breakdown. Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and debilitating toxicity side effect of autologous and allogeneic HSCT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the severity of OM and inflammatory mediator (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β, metalloproteinases, and growth factors) levels in saliva and blood of HSCT patients. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to two groups: control (n = 15) and laser (n = 15). LLLT was applied from the first day of the conditioning regimen until day 7 post-HSCT (D + 7). Saliva and blood were collected from patients on admission (AD), D-1, D + 3, D + 7, and on marrow engraftment day (ME). Clinical results showed less severe OM in the laser group (p < 0.05). The LLLT group showed increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels in saliva on D + 7 (p = 0.04). Significant differences were also observed for IL-10 on D + 7 and on ME in blood plasma, when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). No significant differences were seen in saliva or blood for the other inflammatory mediators investigated. LLLT was clinically effective in reducing the severity of chemotherapy-induced OM in HSCT patients, and its mechanism of action does not seem to be completely linked to the modulation of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors or matrix metalloproteinases.

  13. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report (2014 has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example, more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation and policy-making. A comparison between three cases suggests that local developments that are not supported in particular by binding regulation are unlikely to achieve the same general level of implementation as issues for which such regulative demands (and thereby also requirements for prioritization exist. This constitutes an important consideration for the development of adaptation and mitigation as policy areas, including on the local level.

  14. Switch from excitatory to inhibitory actions of ethanol on dopamine levels after chronic exposure: Role of kappa opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Huggins, Kimberly N; Rose, Jamie H; Jones, Sara R

    2016-11-01

    Acute ethanol exposure is known to stimulate the dopamine system; however, chronic exposure has been shown to downregulate the dopamine system. In rodents, chronic intermittent exposure (CIE) to ethanol also increases negative affect during withdrawal, such as, increases in anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. Moreover, CIE exposure results in increased ethanol drinking and preference during withdrawal. Previous literature documents reductions in CIE-induced anxiety-, depressive-like behaviors and ethanol intake in response to kappa opioid receptor (KOR) blockade. KORs are located on presynaptic dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and inhibit release, an effect which has been linked to negative affective behaviors. Previous reports show an upregulation in KOR function following extended CIE exposure; however it is not clear whether there is a direct link between KOR upregulation and dopamine downregulation during withdrawal from CIE. This study aimed to examine the effects of KOR modulation on dopamine responses to ethanol of behaving mice exposed to air or ethanol vapor in a repeated intermittent pattern. First, we showed that KORs have a greater response to an agonist after moderate CIE compared to air exposed mice using ex vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry. Second, using in vivo microdialysis, we showed that, in contrast to the expected increase in extracellular levels of dopamine following an acute ethanol challenge in air exposed mice, CIE exposed mice exhibited a robust decrease in dopamine levels. Third, we showed that blockade of KORs reversed the aberrant inhibitory dopamine response to ethanol in CIE exposed mice while not affecting the air exposed mice demonstrating that inhibition of KORs "rescued" dopamine responses in CIE exposed mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that augmentation of dynorphin/KOR system activity drives the reduction in stimulated (electrical and ethanol) dopamine release in the NAc. Thus, blockade of

  15. Increased Cellular NAD+ Level through NQO1 Enzymatic Action Has Protective Effects on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gi-Su; Lee, Su-Bin; Karna, Anjani; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Shen, AiHua; Pandit, Arpana; Lee, SeungHoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a common interstitial lung disease; it is a chronic, progressive, and fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. Over the last two decades, knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis has improved markedly and facilitated the identification of potential targets for novel therapies. However, despite the large number of antifibrotic drugs being described in experimental pre-clinical studies, the translation of these findings into clinical practices has not been accomplished yet. NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by various quinones and thereby elevates the intracellular NAD+ levels. In this study, we examined the effect of increase in cellular NAD+ levels on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were treated with intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. The mice were orally administered with β-lapachone from 3 days before exposure to bleomycin to 1-3 weeks after exposure to bleomycin. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for analyzing the infiltration of immune cells. In vitro, A549 cells were treated with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and β-lapachone to analyze the extracellular matrix (ECM) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Results β-Lapachone strongly attenuated bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, characterized by histological staining, infiltrated immune cells in BALF, inflammatory cytokines, fibrotic score, and TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin accumulation. In addition, β-lapachone showed a protective role in TGF-β1–induced ECM expression and EMT in A549 cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that β-lapachone can protect against bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice and TGF-β1–induced EMT in vitro, by elevating the NAD+/NADH ratio through NQO1 activation.

  16. Reversing the reduced level of endometrial GLUT4 expression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a mechanistic study of metformin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Jiang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Yan-Rong; Pishdari, Bano; Hu, Min; Feng, Yi; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether or not insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in human and rodent endometria. There is an inverse relationship between androgen levels and insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in women. Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are believed to contribute to endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, it has been unclear in previous studies if endometrial GLUT4 expression is regulated by androgen-dependent androgen receptors (ARs) and/or the insulin receptor/Akt/mTOR signaling network. In this study, we demonstrate that GLUT4 is expressed in normal endometrial cells (mainly in the epithelial cells) and is down-regulated under conditions of hyperandrogenemia in tissues from PCOS patients and in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like rat model. Western blot analysis revealed reduced endometrial GLUT4 expression and increased AR expression in PCOS patients. However, the reduced GLUT4 level was not always associated with an increase in AR in PCOS patients when comparing non-hyperplasia with hyperplasia. Using a human tissue culture system, we investigated the molecular basis by which GLUT4 regulation in endometrial hyperplasia tissues is affected by metformin in PCOS patients. We show that specific endogenous organic cation transporter isoforms are regulated by metformin, and this suggests a direct effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, we demonstrate that metformin induces GLUT4 expression and inhibits AR expression and blocks insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the same hyperplasia human tissues. These findings indicate that changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients involve the androgen-dependent alteration of AR expression and changes in the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network.

  17. Improving Diversity and Educational Outreach at the K-14 level: A Call to Action for the AGU Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F. R.; Johnson, R.

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, the Subcommittee on Diversity (SD) of the Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) submitted a Diversity Plan to the leadership of AGU. This plan outlines specific programs and goals that AGU can follow to help improve diversity in the Earth and space sciences. Diversity issues are key components to improve the human resource potential in the geosciences. As women are the majority population, and racial and ethnic minorities are experiencing the largest growing segment of the United States population, it is within our best interest to actively recruit and retain these populations into our dynamic fields of study. The SD recognizes that the strength of the AGU lies within its membership. Composed of some of the brightest and talented scientists in the world, the AGU members are leaders and pioneers in our understanding of the Earth System. Yet, many, if not most, people within underrepresented communities are not aware of the relevance that the Earth and space sciences play in their lives. In this discussion, we will discuss the importance of the AGU membership in the Diversity Plan. In addition, we will outline specific things that AGU members can do to improve access of US students and citizenry to Earth and space science education. These steps require that AGU members become active advocates in the public, especially at the K-14 level.

  18. 32 CFR 644.30 - Preliminary real estate work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary real estate work. 644.30 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.30 Preliminary real estate work. (a) Preliminary real estate work is defined as that action taken...

  19. Comparative actions of clomazone on beta-carotene levels and growth in rice (Oryza sativa) and watergrasses (Echinochloa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenBrook, Patti L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2005-06-01

    Seedlings of rice, early watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively), and late watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively) were hydroponically exposed to clomazone at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 7.9 microM. Whole-plant growth (mg fresh wt) and beta-carotene concentrations (microg g(-1) fresh wt) were measured after a 7-day exposure period. For growth, the no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 7.9, 0.21, 0.21, 0.46 and 0.46 microM clomazone for rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), respectively, while the concentrations causing 25% inhibition in response (IC25) were 5.6 (+/-1.6), 0.46 (+/-0.06), 0.42 (+/-0.08), 0.92 (+/-0.45) and 0.79 (+/-0.08) microM clomazone, respectively. Clomazone inhibits beta-carotene synthesis via inhibition of the non-mevalonate isoprenoid synthetic pathway. For assessment of clomazone effects, beta-carotene levels proved to be a more sensitive toxicological endpoint than growth. For rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), the beta-carotene NOECs were 0.21, clomazone respectively, while IC25 values were 0.42 (+/-0.26), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.33 (+/-0.09) and 0.54 (+/-0.15) microM, respectively. No evidence was found that the thiobencarb-resistance mechanisms present in early and late watergrasses impart resistance to clomazone. Due to similar sensitivity between rice and late watergrass, use of clomazone in rice culture will require the use of a safening technique.

  20. Deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. A preliminary safety assessment; Djupfoervar for laanglivat laag- och medelaktivt avfall. Preliminaer saekerhetsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo, are important to be taken into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  1. Joint SKI and SSI review of SKB preliminary safety assessment of repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    SKI and SSI find that SKB's first proper safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repositories provides a valuable springboard for continued efforts in this field. Even though the safety assessment is relatively limited in scope, it has numerous merits. The specific problems associated with the chosen repository concept for SFL 3-5 are discussed in a generally transparent manner. On the other hand, the authorities consider that SKB have only partly achieved the expressed goal of studying the significance of the current repository design and the choice of site. The greatest deficiency consists in that neither internal disturbances (such as considerable cracking or degradation of concrete structures) nor external disturbances (such as the effects of climate changes and glaciation) have been addressed in a thorough manner. A coherent report justifying the design choice from a long-term safety perspective is, in large part, not found here. SKI and SSI recommend that SKB provide a comparison with other possible SFL 3-5 repository designs. Depending upon, among other factors, what geospheric and biospheric conditions are assumed, SKB have shown that the calculated dose values could be relatively high for certain cases. More realistic assessments would be needed to draw reasonable comparisons between different sites, and to evaluate the importance of different nuclides in different contexts. Our review of SKBs preliminary safety assessment indicates that a great deal of research and development work remains to be done before the level of knowledge in this field is comparable with that associated with the final repository for spent fuel. This is reflected with unanimity in the international expert committee's review, and in the consultants' reviews. SKI and SSI wish to point out in particular the fact that comparison with SFR is of limited value, since the safety associated with SFL 3- 5 must be assessed on a much longer time scale. SKI and SSI find it remarkable

  2. Non-perturbative improvement of the axial current in N_f=3 lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and tree-level improved gauge action

    CERN Document Server

    Bulava, John; Heitger, Jochen; Wittemeier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient c_A required for O(a) improvement of the axial current in lattice QCD with N_f=3 flavors of Wilson fermions and the tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action is determined non-perturbatively. The standard improvement condition using Schroedinger functional boundary conditions is employed at constant physics for a range of couplings relevant for simulations at lattice spacings of ~ 0.09 fm and below. We define the improvement condition projected onto the zero topological charge sector of the theory, in order to avoid the problem of possibly insufficient tunneling between topological sectors in our simulations at the smallest bare coupling. An interpolation formula for c_A(g_0^2) is provided together with our final results.

  3. Inclusivity and dementia: health services planning with individuals with dementia: effective inclusion requires action at multiple levels by individuals with dementia, care partners, service providers and funding organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyle; Wismer, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Historically, Alzheimer societies have identified the care partners of persons with dementia as their central clients. This focus is broadening to include the person with the disease, as well. This paper presents the results of a Canadian research study addressing organizational considerations related to effective inclusion of persons with dementia in planning and decision-making about health services and programs. Our findings suggest that effective inclusion requires action at multiple levels by individuals with dementia, care partners and friends; service organizations and providers; and funding organizations. Additional research is needed to explore the applicability of these findings to other organizations in different localities and to examine emergent themes further. Of these, one that has received little attention to date concerns the potential risks associated with effective inclusion.

  4. Non-perturbative renormalization of the axial current in $N_f = 3$ lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and tree-level improved gauge action

    CERN Document Server

    Bulava, John; Heitger, Jochen; Wittemeier, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We non-perturbatively determine the renormalization factor of the axial vector current in lattice QCD with $N_f=3$ flavors of Wilson-clover fermions and the tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action. The (by now standard) renormalization condition is derived from the massive axial Ward identity and it is imposed among Schr\\"{o}dinger functional states with large overlap on the lowest lying hadronic state in the pseudoscalar channel, in order to reduce kinematically enhanced cutoff effects. We explore a range of couplings relevant for simulations at lattice spacings of $\\approx 0.09$ fm and below. An interpolation formula for $Z_A(g_0^2)$, smoothly connecting the non-perturbative values to the 1-loop expression, is provided together with our final results.

  5. The Factor Structure of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS): An Item-Level Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) Bifactor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Vincent; Cao, Mengyang; Marsh, Herbert W; Tay, Louis; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-10-13

    The factor structure of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson & Seligman, 2004) has not been well established as a result of methodological challenges primarily attributable to a global positivity factor, item cross-loading across character strengths, and questions concerning the unidimensionality of the scales assessing character strengths. We sought to overcome these methodological challenges by applying exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) at the item level using a bifactor analytic approach to a large sample of 447,573 participants who completed the VIA-IS with all 240 character strengths items and a reduced set of 107 unidimensional character strength items. It was found that a 6-factor bifactor structure generally held for the reduced set of unidimensional character strength items; these dimensions were justice, temperance, courage, wisdom, transcendence, humanity, and an overarching general factor that is best described as dispositional positivity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Non-perturbative renormalization in coordinate space for N{sub f}=2 maximally twisted mass fermions with tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Korcyl, Piotr [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). M. Smoluchowski Inst. of Physics

    2012-07-15

    We present results of a lattice QCD application of a coordinate space renormalization scheme for the extraction of renormalization constants for flavour non-singlet bilinear quark operators. The method consists in the analysis of the small-distance behaviour of correlation functions in Euclidean space and has several theoretical and practical advantages, in particular: it is gauge invariant, easy to implement and has relatively low computational cost. The values of renormalization constants in the X-space scheme can be converted to the MS scheme via 4-loop continuum perturbative formulae. Our results for N{sub f}=2 maximally twisted mass fermions with tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action are compared to the ones from the RI-MOM scheme and show full agreement with this method. (orig.)

  7. Cisplatin inhibits testosterone synthesis by a mechanism that includes the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the level of P450scc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mercedes Mori Sequeiros; Acquier, Andrea; Suarez, Guadalupe; Gomez, Natalia V; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Mendez, Carlos F; Paz, Cristina

    2012-09-30

    Cisplatin (Cs) is a chemotherapeutic agent able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are linked to several side effects of the drug. Even when it is known that Cs produces Leydig cell dysfunction, it is unknown whether this particular side effect is mediated by ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of Cs on testosterone production and the participation of ROS in this effect. We demonstrate that Cs promotes the generation of ROS in a time-, and concentration-dependent fashion, not only in mouse testicular interstitial cells but also in MA-10 Leydig cells. Also, Cs inhibits testosterone synthesis in a concentration-dependent fashion (5-50 μM for 4 h) and to a similar extent, in cells exposed to human chorionic gondadotropin hormone (hCG), to an analog of the second messenger cAMP (8Br-cAMP) or to a freely diffusible cholesterol analog (22R-hydroxycholesterol). However, this treatment does not inhibit the conversion of pregnenolone to testosterone. These data suggest that Cs exerts its inhibitory action on testosterone synthesis by an action at the level of P450scc. We also demonstrated that an antioxidant impairs the inhibitory effect of Cs on the conversion of the cholesterol analog into pregnenolone and that Cs does not change the expression level of P450scc mRNA. Therefore, it is concluded that Cs inhibits testosterone synthesis by a mechanism that includes the inhibition of P450scc by ROS.

  8. Preliminary Experimental Results of Deep Levels for Dielectronic Recombination in He-Like High-Z Ions at Heidelberg Electron Beam Ion Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-Mei(张雪梅); GUO Pan-Lin(郭盘林); A.Gonzalez; J.CRESPO

    2003-01-01

    An experimental system for dielectronic recombination was set-up on H-EBIT in order to carry out dielectronic recombination study. Some preliminary results of He-like Ge32+ and Cu27+ are obtained. Space charge shift on determination of the resonance position for Ge32+ at 100mA is around 18% and that for Cu27+ is around 38%.Further analysis of experimental data is in progress.

  9. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  10. An fMRI study of joint action – varying levels of cooperation correlates with activity in sensorimotor control, but not mentalization, networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eChaminade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As social agents, humans continuously interact with with the people around them. Here, motor cooperation was investigated by designing a situation in which pairs of participants, one being scanned with fMRI, controlled jointly a visually presented object with joystick movements. The object oscillated dynamically along two dimensions, shades of pink and width of gratings, corresponding to the two cardinal directions of joystick movements. While the overall control of each participant on the object was kept constant, the amount of cooperation along the two dimensions varied along four levels, from no (each participant controlled exclusively one dimension to full (each participant controlled half of each dimension cooperation. Increasing cooperation correlated with BOLD signal in the left parietal operculum and anterior cingulate cortex, while decreasing cooperation correlated with activity in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, in the intraparietal sulci and inferior temporal gyrii bilaterally, and in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. As joint control improved with the level of cooperation, we assessed the brain responses correlating with joint performance, and found that activity in most of the areas associated with levels of cooperation also correlated with the joint performance. The only brain area found exclusively in the negative correlation with cooperation was within the posterior region of the rostral medial frontal cortex, involved in the monitoring of action outcome. We therefore propose that this region responds to the predictability of visual feedback given the motor commands, which is maximal when participants do not cooperate as they fully control one dimension. Our results therefore indicate that, in the current experimental paradigm, the level of cooperation affects sensorimotor processing, but not mentalizing. Altogether, humans do not need to have access to others’ intentional states to cooperate on a joint

  11. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  12. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 1: Regulatory updates, performance assessment, understanding remedial action efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Eighteen papers are presented in this volume. The section on regulatory updates present papers on EPA, NRC, and DOE regulations. The performance assessment section presents studies on disposal facilities at ORNL, Hanford, and the Feed Materials Production Center. The remedial action section papers discuss programs and remedial action activities. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Where There Is a (Collective) Will, There Are (Effective) Ways: Integrating Individual- and Group-Level Factors in Explaining Humanitarian Collective Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emma F; McGarty, Craig; Reese, Gerhard; Berndsen, Mariette; Bliuc, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The 21st century has borne witness to catastrophic natural and human-induced tragedies. These disasters necessitate humanitarian responses; however, the individual and collective bases of support are not well understood. Drawing on Duncan's motivational model of collective action, we focus on how individual differences position a person to adopt group memberships and develop a "group consciousness" that provides the basis for humanitarian action. Longitudinal mediation analyses involving supporters of international humanitarian action (N = 384) sampled annually for 3 years provided support for the hypothesized model, with some twists. The results revealed that within time point, a set of individual differences (together, the "pro-social orientation") promoted a humanitarian group consciousness that, in turn, facilitated collective action. However, longitudinally, there was evidence that a more general pro-social orientation undermined subsequent identification with, and engagement in, the humanitarian cause. Results are discussed in terms of understanding the interplay between individual and group in collective actions.

  14. Action spectra again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    of effect. Preliminary estimates suggest that ozone layer depletion may seriously impact such important biological end-points as skin cancer, cataracts, the immune system, crop yields, and oceanic phytoplankton. So action spectra continue to play a central role in important photobiological research.

  15. Action physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  16. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-02-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential.

  17. Evaluating IMRT and VMAT dose accuracy: Practical examples of failure to detect systematic errors when applying a commonly used metric and action levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Chan, Maria F. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Basking Ridge, New Jersey 07920 (United States); Jarry, Geneviève; Lemire, Matthieu [Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montréal, QC H1T 2M4 (Canada); Lowden, John [Indiana University Health - Goshen Hospital, Goshen, Indiana 46526 (United States); Hampton, Carnell [Levine Cancer Institute/Carolinas Medical Center, Concord, North Carolina 28025 (United States); Feygelman, Vladimir [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This study (1) examines a variety of real-world cases where systematic errors were not detected by widely accepted methods for IMRT/VMAT dosimetric accuracy evaluation, and (2) drills-down to identify failure modes and their corresponding means for detection, diagnosis, and mitigation. The primary goal of detailing these case studies is to explore different, more sensitive methods and metrics that could be used more effectively for evaluating accuracy of dose algorithms, delivery systems, and QA devices.Methods: The authors present seven real-world case studies representing a variety of combinations of the treatment planning system (TPS), linac, delivery modality, and systematic error type. These case studies are typical to what might be used as part of an IMRT or VMAT commissioning test suite, varying in complexity. Each case study is analyzed according to TG-119 instructions for gamma passing rates and action levels for per-beam and/or composite plan dosimetric QA. Then, each case study is analyzed in-depth with advanced diagnostic methods (dose profile examination, EPID-based measurements, dose difference pattern analysis, 3D measurement-guided dose reconstruction, and dose grid inspection) and more sensitive metrics (2% local normalization/2 mm DTA and estimated DVH comparisons).Results: For these case studies, the conventional 3%/3 mm gamma passing rates exceeded 99% for IMRT per-beam analyses and ranged from 93.9% to 100% for composite plan dose analysis, well above the TG-119 action levels of 90% and 88%, respectively. However, all cases had systematic errors that were detected only by using advanced diagnostic techniques and more sensitive metrics. The systematic errors caused variable but noteworthy impact, including estimated target dose coverage loss of up to 5.5% and local dose deviations up to 31.5%. Types of errors included TPS model settings, algorithm limitations, and modeling and alignment of QA phantoms in the TPS. Most of the errors were

  18. Development of linear and threshold no significant risk levels for inhalation exposure to titanium dioxide using systematic review and mode of action considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chad M; Suh, Mina; Mittal, Liz; Wikoff, Daniele S; Welsh, Brian; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been characterized as a poorly soluble particulate (PSP) with low toxicity. It is well accepted that low toxicity PSPs such as TiO2 induce lung tumors in rats when deposition overwhelms particle clearance mechanisms. Despite the sensitivity of rats to PSPs and questionable relevance of PSP-induced tumors to humans, TiO2 is listed as a possible human carcinogen by some agencies and regulators. Thus, environmental toxicity criteria for TiO2 are needed for stakeholders to evaluate potential risks from environmental exposure and regulatory compliance. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to characterize the available data and identify candidate datasets upon which toxicity values could be derived. Key to this assessment, a survey of mechanistic data relevant for lung cancer was used to support quantitative inhalation risk assessment approaches. A total of 473 human studies were identified, 7 of which were epidemiological studies that met inclusion criteria to quantitatively characterize carcinogenic endpoints in humans. None of these studies supported derivation of toxicity criteria; therefore, animal data were used to derived safety values for TiO2 using different dose-metrics (regional deposited dose ratios, TiO2 particle surface area lung burden, and volumetric overload of alveolar macrophages), benchmark dose modeling, and different low-dose extrapolation approaches. Based on empirical evidence and mechanistic support for nonlinear mode of action involving particle overload, chronic inflammation and cell proliferation, a no significant risk level (NSRL) of 300 μg/day was derived. By comparison, low-dose linear extrapolation from tumor incidence in the rat lung resulted in an NSRL value of 44 μg/day. These toxicity values should be useful for stakeholders interested in assessing risks from environmental exposure to respirable TiO2.

  19. Expression profiling in vivo demonstrates rapid changes in lung microRNA levels following lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation but not in the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belvisi Maria G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, nothing is known of the role of miRNAs in the immune response in vivo despite the fact that inflammation is thought to underlie multiple acute and chronic diseases. In these circumstances, patients are commonly treated with corticosteroids such as dexamethasone. Results To address this question, we have examined the differential expression of 104 miRNAs using real-time PCR during the innate immune response in mouse lung following exposure to aerosilised lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Following challenge, we observed rapid and transient increase in both the mean (4.3-fold and individual levels of miRNA expression (46 miRNAs which peaked at 3 hrs. Crucially, this increase was correlated with a reduction in the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2, suggesting a potential role for miRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine production. Examination of the individual miRNA expression profiles showed time dependent increases in miR-21, -25, -27b, -100, 140, -142-3p, -181c, 187, -194, -214, -223 and -224. Corticosteroid studies showed that pre-treatment with dexamethasone at concentrations that inhibited TNF-α production, had no effect either alone or upon the LPS-induced miRNA expression profile. Conclusion We have shown that the LPS-induced innate immune response is associated with widespread, rapid and transient increases in miRNA expression in the mouse lung and we speculate that these changes might be involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In contrast, the lack of effect of dexamethasone in either control or challenged animals implies that the actions of glucocorticoids per se are not mediated through changes in miRNAs expression and that LPS-induced increases in miRNA expression are not mediated via classical inflammatory transcription factors.

  20. Preliminary observations indicate variable patterns of plasma 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) levels during dose optimization of infusional 5-FU in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christina Leah; Sheikh, Hassan S; Scicchitano, Angelique; Gingrich, Rebecca; Beachler, Cheryl; Finnberg, Niklas K; Liao, Jason; Sivik, Jeffrey; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2011-10-01

    Efforts to improve efficacy and minimize toxicity have led to pharmacokinetic monitoring of plasma 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) levels in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. We observed variation in basal 5-FU levels in 21 patients and significant variation during subsequent dose optimization. Tumor KRAS, BRAF mutations and TS mRNA levels were determined. Regimens included FOLFOX6 + Avastin (N = 8), FOLFOX6 (N = 11), FOLFIRI (N = 1) and FOLFOX4 (N = 1). Mutations identified in tumors included G12V KRAS (N = 2), G12A KRAS (N = 1), and V600E BRAF (N = 3). Six-of-eleven patients with normalized tumor TS mRNA levels 5-FU AUC of 20 mg.h/L or greater, and 80% of patients (4 of 5) with TS levels > 4.0 had a plasma 5-FU AUC of less than or equal to 20 mg.h/L. Approximately 2/3 of patients achieved therapeutic 5-FU AUC levels with 0-2 dose adjustments while a sub-group of ~1/3 of patients slowly achieved therapeutic levels (> 3-4 dose increases leading to supra-therapeutic 5-FU and subsequent reductions to lesser than original doses). Liver metastases and tumor TS levels did not fully account for variable 5-FU AUC optimization patterns. The 5-FU level during continuous infusion was half-therapeutic in one patient who received FOLFOX4. The observed heterogeneous patterns at baseline and during dose optimization of 5-FU levels suggest variations in 5-FU metabolism among treated patients. Physiological and/or genetic differences underlying heterogeneity in 5-FU levels during dose optimization require further study of patient demographics, single nucleotide polymorphisms in Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPD), TS, or other genes that impact 5-FU metabolism and gene expression changes in liver after 5-FU therapy.

  1. Numerical Tests of the Improved Fermilab Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detar, C.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Oktay, M.B.

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the Fermilab heavy-quark action was extended to include dimension-six and -seven operators in order to reduce the discretization errors. In this talk, we present results of the first numerical simulations with this action (the OK action), where we study the masses of the quarkonium and heavy-light systems. We calculate combinations of masses designed to test improvement and compare results obtained with the OK action to their counterparts obtained with the clover action. Our preliminary results show a clear improvement.

  2. The Preliminary Remarks on the Evaluation of Provincial Social Development Level%刍议省级社会发展水平评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海建

    2003-01-01

    The evaluate of provincial social development has its own characteristics. According to the indicatorsystem of social development level of national "23 project", the paper put forwards the provincial "40project". With example, a brief analysis for the projects is made.

  3. The effectiveness of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 to increase the level of organic public procurement in Danish public kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Nørgaard; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To measure the effect of organic food conversion projects on the percentage of organic food used in Danish public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Design: The current longitudinal study was based on measurements of organic food percentages in Danish public...... kitchens before and after kitchen employees participated in conversion projects. Setting: Public kitchens participating in the nine organic food conversion projects under the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, initiated during autumn 2012 and spring 2013 and completed in summer 2015. Subjects: A total of 622...... public kitchens. Results: The average (median) increase in organic food percentage from baseline to follow-up was 24 percentage points (P...

  4. Influence of multi-level anaesthesia care and patient profile on perioperative patient satisfaction in short-stay surgical inpatients: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and goals of study: Patient satisfaction in relation to perioperative anesthesia care represents essential aspect of quality health-care management. We analyzed the influence of multi-level anesthesia care exposure and patient profile on perioperative patient satisfaction in short-stay surgical inpatients. Methods : 120 short-stay surgical inpatients who underwent laparoscopic surgery have been included in this prospective study. Pertaining to demographic parameters (age, gender, education, profession, duration of stay (preoperative room, recovery room, various patient problems and patient satisfaction (various levels, overall were recorded by an independent observer and analyzed. Overall, adults, male and uneducated patients experienced more problems. Conversely, elderly, females and educated patients were more dissatisfied. Female patients suffered more during immediate postoperative recovery room stay and were more dissatisfied than their male counterparts (p< 0.05. However, patient′s professional status had no bearing on the problems encountered and dissatisfaction levels. Preoperative and early postoperative period accounted for majority of the problems encountered among the study population. There was a positive correlation between problems faced and dissatisfaction experienced at respective levels of anesthesia care (p< 0.05. Conclusion(s : Patient′s demographic profile and problems faced during respective level of anesthesia care has a correlation with dissatisfaction. Interestingly, none of the above stated factors had any effect on overall satisfaction level.

  5. The presence of biofilm-producing bacteria on tonsils is associated with increased exhaled nitric oxide levels: preliminary data in children who experience recurrent exacerbations of chronic tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Drago, L; Capaccio, P; Baggi, E; Pignataro, L

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that bacterial biofilms may be a causative factor in the aetiopathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis. Involvement of exhaled nitric oxide has been previously considered, with conflicting findings. A pilot study was performed to investigate the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide levels and the presence of tonsillar biofilm-producing bacteria in children with chronic tonsillitis. Tonsillar biofilm-producing bacteria on bioptic specimens taken during tonsillectomy were assessed by means of spectrophotometry. Analysis was based on 24 children aged 5-10 years (median, 7.5 years). Biofilm-producing bacteria were found in 40.9 per cent of specimens. The median exhaled nitric oxide level was 11.6 ppb (range, 3.2-22.3 ppb). There was a significant relationship between the presence of biofilm-producing bacteria and increased exhaled nitric oxide levels (p = 0.03). Children with exhaled nitric oxide levels of more than 8 ppb were at three times greater risk of developing tonsillar biofilm-producing bacteria than those with lower levels. Our findings suggest the possibility of discriminating children with chronic biofilm-sustained tonsillar infections on the basis of exhaled nitric oxide levels.

  6. Item-Level Psychometrics and Predictors of Performance for Spanish/English Bilingual Speakers on "An Object and Action Naming Battery"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Donovan, Neila J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a pressing need for psychometrically sound naming materials for Spanish/English bilingual adults. To address this need, in this study the authors examined the psychometric properties of An Object and Action Naming Battery (An O&A Battery; Druks & Masterson, 2000) in bilingual speakers. Method: Ninety-one Spanish/English…

  7. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of past sea-level variations based on different methods and techniques have been presented in a range of studies, including interpretation of beach ridge characteristics. In Denmark, Holocene beach ridge plains have been formed during the last c. 7700 years, a period characterised by both...... (i.e. sea-level) at the time of deposition. Combining the variations in height of the downlaps (in meters above present mean sea-level) with optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques provides estimates of relative sealevel at specific times....... been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...

  8. Coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise: a preliminary database for the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2001-01-01

    The prediction of coastal evolution is not straightforward. There is no standard methodology, and even the kind of data required to make such predictions are the subject of much scientific debate. Since a viable, quantitative predictive model for coastal evolution is not available. The relative susceptibility of the Nation's coastline to sea-level rise is quantified here at a regional to national scale using basic information on coastal geomorphology, rate of sea-level rise, past shoreline evolution and other factors. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental and conditions, and yields a relative measure of the system's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. This information has immediate application to many of the decisions our society will be making regarding coastal development in both the short- and long-term.

  9. The North Carolina State Testing Results, 2000-01. Preliminary State-Level Data Only. Multiple-Choice Grade 3 Pretest, End-of-Grade, High School Comprehensive and End-of-Course Tests. Reporting on the State and 117 Public School Systems and 87 Charter Schools. "The Green Book."

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability/Testing.

    This document contains preliminary state-level results for the 2000-2001 North Carolina state testing program. No conclusions about achievement are drawn in this report, although percentages achieving at given Achievement Levels are given for the end-of-grade tests. The Grade 3 Pretest is a multiple-choice reading and mathematics test administered…

  10. Evaluation of the impact of severity of itching symptoms on the level of depression in patients with allergic contact eczema (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Czarny-Działak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent skin disorders in the general population as well as among people who work professionally. Allergic contact allergens are simple chemical compounds. The most common are nickel and fragrance substances. Aim of the research : To estimate if and how the degree of itching in allergic contact dermatitis influences the development of depression. Material and methods: The treatment was conducted on a group of 17 people with allergic contact dermatitis. Each person was treated in order to estimate the level of depression using Becks scale and the level of itching. Next, it was estimated if the level of itching had any influence on the development of depression. Results: All skin diseases, including allergic contact eczema affect the biological and psychosocial functioning, and the quality of human. Five patients out of 17 showed features of depression: 3 mild (2 men and 1 woman, which is the most common state of transition, and 2 (women moderately-severe depressive symptoms. Both patients with moderately-severe depressive symptoms had a significant degree of severity of pruritus. Conclusions: It was stated that the level of itching has no influence on the development of depression.

  11. Biomechanical characteristics of the porcine denticulate ligament in different vertebral levels of the cervical spine-preliminary results of an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Katarzyna; Czyż, Marcin; Ścigała, Krzysztof; Jarmundowicz, Włodzimierz; Będziński, Romuald

    2014-06-01

    Few studies exist on the mechanical properties of denticulate ligaments and none report the variation in these properties at different levels of the spine. The aim of this study was to perform an experimental determination of load-extension and stress-strain characteristics of the denticulate ligament and to establish if their properties change at different vertebral levels of the cervical spine. The study was carried out on a total of 98 porcine denticulate ligament samples dissected from seven fresh porcine cervical spinal cord specimens. All of the samples were subjected to an uniaxial tensile test at a speed of 2mm/min, during which the load-extension characteristics were registered. The analysis revealed a decrease of the failure force in the caudal orientation indicated by significant differences between the C1 (1.04±0.41N) and C7 (0.55±0.12N) vertebral levels (P=0.037). The average ultimate force that broke the denticulate ligaments was 0.88N. The mean value of Young׳s modulus was 2.06MPa with a minimum of 1.31MPa for C7 and maximum of 2.46MPa for C5. The values of the denticulate ligament failure force in samples from different cervical vertebrae levels differ significantly. The presented data should be taken into consideration during numerical modelling of the human cervical spinal cord. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synovial TGF-β1 and MMP-3 levels and their correlation with the progression of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis combined with disc displacement: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Ya-Ting; Chen, Min-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Chi

    2013-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a slow progressing degenerative disease that affects the joints, including the temporomandibular joint. In the present study, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) in synovial fluid (SF) were examined in detecting cartilage synthesis and degradation in progression of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) combined with disc displacement (DD) diseases. SF was obtained from 16 patients with TMJ OA combined with DD and 10 normal volunteers. TGF-β1 and MMP-3 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, TMJ OA combined with DD was classified into three stages based on radiographic signs on the preoperative tomograms and surgical findings at operation, and different treatment options were administered according to the stages. SF from TMJs with TMJ OA combined with DD showed higher levels of TGF-β1 and MMP-3 compared with the asymptomatic control TMJs. With the progression of TMJ OA combined with DD, TGF-β1 levels in SF were lower, while MMP-3 levels in SF were significantly higher. In conclusion, these data suggest that MMP-3 is not only involved in the pathological destruction process of TMJ OA combined with DD initially, but also has a positive correlation with the degree of pathological changes. Furthermore, a significant increase of TGF-β1 levels was found in the SF that were able to counteract the deleterious effects of MMP-3 at the early stage of TMJ OA combined DD, providing the scientific basis on repositioning displaced disc as early as possible for these patients.

  13. Comparison of 2 Zero-Profile Implants in the Treatment of Single-Level Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Preliminary Clinical Study of Cervical Disc Arthroplasty versus Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Shi

    Full Text Available Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA with Discover prosthesis or anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF with Zero-P cage has been widely used in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM. However, little is known about the comparison of the 2 zero-profile implants in the treatment of single-level CSM. The aim was to compare the clinical outcomes and radiographic parameters of CDA with Discover prosthesis and ACDF with Zero-P cage for the treatment of single-level CSM.A total of 128 consecutive patients who underwent 1-level CDA with Discover prosthesis or ACDF with Zero-P cage for single-level CSM between September 2009 and December 2012 were included in this study. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score and Neck Disability Index (NDI. For radiographic assessment, the overall sagittal alignment (OSA, functional spinal unit (FSU angle, and range of motion (ROM at the index and adjacent levels were measured before and after surgery. Additionally, the complications were also recorded.Both treatments significantly improved all clinical parameters (P 0.05. Besides, no significant differences existed in dysphagia, subsidence, or adjacent disc degeneration between the 2 groups (P > 0.05. However, significant differences occurred in prosthesis migration in CDA group.The results of this study showed that clinical outcomes and radiographic parameters were satisfactory and comparable with the 2 techniques. However, more attention to prosthesis migration of artificial cervical disc should be paid in the postoperative early-term follow-up.

  14. Assessment of serum CX3CL1/fractalkine level in Han Chinese girls with anorexia nervosa and its correlation with nutritional status: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengkang; Tang, Hanfeng; Gong, Cai; Liu, Jiang; Chen, Jindong

    2017-02-01

    The chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1), also named fractalkine (FKN), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and functions as a novel adipocytokine. However, no attention has been paid to the role of FKN in anorexia nervosa (AN). The current study was performed to explore FKN levels in AN to determine its role in the involvement of AN. A total of 96 girls aged 11-18 years with AN (n=34), healthy controls (HC; n=32) and simple obesity (OB, n=30) were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Blood samples were collected during the fasting state. Serum FKN concentrations were determined using ELISA. The skinfold thickness (TSF) of the biceps and triceps as well as mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were used to determine the nutritional status. Our results showed that serum FKN levels were significantly lower in the AN group than in the control and OB groups. After adjusting for body mass index (BMI), FKN concentrations in the AN group were statistically higher than in the HC and OB groups. Significant correlations between serum FKN and body weight, BMI, Cole index and serum insulin were observed. In addition, serum FKN levels were positively related to TSF and MAMC in all subjects. Serum FKN concentrations are attenuated in girls with AN compared with healthy adolescents and are positively related to nutritional status. The lower FKN levels may be regulated by nutrition status and response to starvation. After adjusting for BMI, higher FKN levels may reflect that persistent inflammation is present in patients with AN. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  15. Primitive Based Action Representation and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in segmenting action sequences into   meaningful parts (action primitives) and to model actions on a   higher level based on these action primitives. Unlike previous works where action primitives are defined    a-priori and search is made for them later, we presen...

  16. Primitive Based Action Representation and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in segmenting action sequences into   meaningful parts (action primitives) and to model actions on a   higher level based on these action primitives. Unlike previous works where action primitives are defined    a-priori and search is made for them later, we presen...

  17. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of pain, facial swelling, and postoperative trismus after a lower third molar extraction. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ramírez, Marta; Vílchez-Pérez, Miguel Angel; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Arnabat-Domínguez, Josep; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-05-01

    Pain, swelling, and trismus are the most common complications after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a low-level laser therapy (Laser Smile™, Biolase®, San Clemente, USA) applied to the wound appeared after the surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. A prospective, randomized, and double-blind study was undertaken in 20 healthy patients with two symmetrically impacted lower third molars. The application of a low-level laser was made randomly on one of the two sides after surgery. The experimental side received 5 J/cm(2) of energy density, a wavelength of 810 nm, and an output power of 0.5 W. On the control side, a handpiece was applied intraorally, but the laser was not activated. Evaluations of postoperative pain, trismus, and swelling were made. The sample consisted of 11 women and nine men, and mean age was 23.35 years (18-37). The pain level in the first hours after surgery was lower in the experimental side than in the placebo side, although without statistically significant differences (p = 0.258). Swelling and trismus at the 2nd and 7th postoperative days were slightly higher in the control side, although not statistically significant differences were detected (p > 0.05). The application of a low-level laser with the parameters used in this study did not show beneficial affects in reducing pain, swelling, and trismus after removal of impacted lower third molars.

  18. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Diouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  19. Total antioxidant status in lung cancer is associated with levels of endogenous antioxidants and disease stage rather than lifestyle factors – preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porębska, Irena; Gołecki, Marcin; Kosacka, Monika; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pawlik-Sobecka, Lilla; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been reported in different neoplasms, including lung cancer. However, no study concerning the relationship between endogenous antioxidants, lifestyle factors, and TAC has been conducted among lung cancer patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the associations between endogenous antioxidants, severity of disease, lifestyle factors, and TAC in lung cancer patients. Material and methods The study was conducted among 59 lung cancer patients. The levels of total antioxidant status (ATBS method), endogenous antioxidants, and C-reactive protein were measured in patients’ sera automatically. Dietary habits of the subjects were evaluated based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) on the day of admission to hospital. Results We found a positive correlation between serum albumin, uric acid (UA), and TAC and a negative correlation between CRP and TAC. Moreover, TAC was significantly positively associated with disease stage. We did not find any significant relationship between the frequency of selected food consumption and TAC in lung cancer patients, except for a positive correlation between the frequency of refined cereal products consumption and TAC level. Smoking status did not correlate with TAC. Conclusions Total antioxidant status of lung cancer patients results from their disease stage and levels of endogenous antioxidants rather than from lifestyle factors. The lack of influence of diet and smoking on the TAC presumably result from disturbed homeostasis in which cancer, while developing, could determine the redox state to a greater extent than lifestyle factors. PMID:27688727

  20. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale: The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dine J; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of personality pathology irrespective of diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a newly developed brief self-report questionnaire to assess levels of personality functioning, the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form (LPFS-BF; Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Patients (N = 240) referred to a specialized setting for the assessment and treatment of PDs completed the LPFS-BF, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1975), the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Personality Disorders (SCID-I; APA, 1994; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997) and the SCID Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1996). When constrained to a 2-factor oblique solution, the LPFS-BF yielded a structure that corresponded well to an interpretation of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning scales. The instrument demonstrated fair to satisfactory internal consistency and promising construct validity. The LPFS-BF constitutes a short, user-friendly instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality pathology, specifically oriented to the DSM-5 model. Clearly, more research is needed to test its validity and clinical utility.

  1. Metal ion levels in large-diameter total hip and resurfacing hip arthroplasty-Preliminary results of a prospective five year study after two years of follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer-Ertl W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is an alternative to metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, especially for young and physically active patients. However, wear which might be detected by increased serum ion levels is a matter of concern. Methods The aims of this preliminary study were to determine the raise of metal ion levels at 2-years follow-up in a prospective setting and to evaluate differences between patients with either resurfacing or total hip arthroplasty. Furthermore we investigated if the inclination of the acetabular component and the arc of cover would influence these findings. Therefore, 36 patients were followed prospectively. Results The results showed increments for Co and Cr in both implant groups. Patients treated with large-diameter total hip arthroplasty showed fourfold and threefold, respectively, higher levels for Co and Cr compared to the resurfacing group (Co: p  Discussion In order to clarify the biologic effects of ion dissemination and to identify risks concerning long-term toxicity of metals, the exposure should be monitored carefully. Therefore, long-term studies have to be done to determine adverse effects of Co and Cr following metal-on-metal hip replacement.

  2. Antioxidant action of SMe1EC2, the low-basicity derivative of the pyridoindole stobadine, in cell free chemical models and at cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerczyk, Aneta; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Drzewinska, Joanna; Piotrowski, Łukasz; Pulaski, Łukasz; Stefek, Milan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant action of SMe1EC2, the structural analogue of the hexahydropyridoindole antioxidant stobadine. The antiradical activity of SMe1EC2 was found to be higher when compared to stobadine, as determined both in cell-free model systems of AAPH-induced oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and 2',7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein diacetate, and in the cellular system of stimulated macrophages RAW264.7. Analysis of proliferation of HUVEC and HUVEC-ST cells revealed absence of cytotoxic effect of SMe1EC2 at concentrations below 100 µM. The antioxidant activity of SMe1EC2, superior to the parent drug stobadine, is accounted for by both the higher intrinsic free radical scavenging action and by the better bioavailability of the low-basicity SMe1EC2 relative to the high-basicity stobadine.

  3. Negative Correlation between Serum S100B and Leptin Levels in Schizophrenic Patients During Treatment with Clozapine and Risperidone: Preliminary Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendouei, Narjes; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Panahi, Amin; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Barari, Fatemeh; Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extensive efforts have been made to understand the rate of energy expenditure and the weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment, including identification of markers of obesity risk. In recent years, leptin, an adipocyte hormone, has gained significant interest in psychiatric disorders. S100B has been considered as a surrogate marker for astrocyte-specific damage in neurologic disorders. Also, S100B has been detected in adipose with concentration as high as nervous tissue as a second release source. In this study we evaluated the relationship between S100B and leptin in schizophrenic patients under treatment with clozapine and risperidone.This study included 19 patients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, having body mass index (BMI) of 16- 25 kg/m(2) and suffering schizophrenia for more than 3 years and from this study. Twenty five healthy controls were group matched for age and gender whose BMI was 16-25 kg/m(2). Serum S100B and leptin levels and positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) were assessed at admission and after six weeks. During the study, S100B showed a strong and negative correlation with leptin (r = -0.5, P = 0.01). Also, there were negative correlation between serum S100B level and PANSS negative subscale after 6 weeks of treatment (r = -0.048, P = 0.8). Positive correlation between leptin level and PANSS suggested a potential role for leptin which can mediate the link between antipsychotic induced weight gain and therapeutic response in schizophrenia.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-09-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 127 consists of twelve corrective action sites (CASs). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 24, 2003, through May 2, 2003, with additional sampling conducted on June 6, 2003, June 9, 2003, and June 24, 2003. Analytes detected during these investigation activities were evaluated against preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS, resulting in the determination that only two of the CASs did not have COCs exceeding regulatory levels. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action is the preferred corrective action for the two CASs (25-02-13, 26-02-01) identified with no COCs; (2) Clean Closure is the preferred corrective action for eight of the CASs (25-01-05, 25-23-11, 25-12-01, 25-01-06, 26-01-01, 26-01-02, 26-99-01, 26-23-01); and (3) Closure in Place is the preferred corrective action for the remaining two CASs (25-01-07, 25-02-02). These three alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, these alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites at CAU 127 and will reduce potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media.

  5. A four-session acceptance and commitment therapy based intervention for depressive symptoms delivered by masters degree level psychology students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohtala, Aino; Lappalainen, Raimo; Savonen, Laura; Timo, Elina; Tolvanen, Asko

    2015-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are one of the main reasons for seeking psychological help. Shorter interventions using briefly trained therapists could offer a solution to the ever-rising need for early and easily applicable psychological treatments. The current study examines the effectiveness of a four-session Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) based treatment for self-reported depressive symptoms administered by Masters level psychology students. This paper reports the effectiveness of a brief intervention compared to a waiting list control (WLC) group. Participants were randomized into two groups: ACT (n = 28) and waiting list (n = 29). Long-term effects were examined using a 6-month follow-up. The treatment group's level of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) decreased by an average of 47%, compared to an average decrease of 4% in the WLC group. Changes in psychological well-being in the ACT group were better throughout, and treatment outcomes were maintained after 6 months. The posttreatment "between-group" and follow-up "with-in group" effect sizes (Cohen's d) were large to medium for depressive symptoms and psychological flexibility. The results support the brief ACT-based intervention for sub-clinical depressive symptoms when treatment was conducted by briefly trained psychology students. It also contributes to the growing body of evidence on brief ACT-based treatments and inexperienced therapists.

  6. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  7. Developing an Action Learning Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo; Kim, Hyung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    As the number of organizations implementing action learning increases, both successful and failed cases also increase in action learning practice in South Korea. Existing studies on action learning have listed key success factors of action learning at the program level or at the team level but have not paid sufficient attention to the program…

  8. The energetics and mechanics of level and gradient skipping: Preliminary results for a potential gait of choice in low gravity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Alberto E.; Pavei, Gaspare; Biancardi, Carlo M.

    2012-12-01

    Walking and running in low gravity cannot be used at useful speeds, while 'skipping', a gait displayed by kids and spontaneously adopted by astronauts of Apollo missions, proved to have the potential to become the gait of choice in that condition. In this paper the previous biomechanical and metabolic analysis of level skipping is extended to positive and negative gradients, in normal gravity. The results confirm at all gradients the higher (average) ground reaction force during the contact phase, with respect to running at the same speed, which would allow confidently facing the Lunar surface where the dust and regoliths affect, in addition to a lower gravity, the locomotion dynamics. Metabolic data, other gait variables related to the mechanical work done and the locomotor/respiratory coupling have also been investigated.

  9. The Two-Level Theory of Verb Meaning: An Approach to Integrating the Semantics of Action with the Mirror Neuron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, David; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the "root". The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the "event structure template". We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the…

  10. The Two-Level Theory of Verb Meaning: An Approach to Integrating the Semantics of Action with the Mirror Neuron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, David; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the "root". The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the "event structure template". We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the…

  11. 消费者自媒体中个人广告荐证行为法律构成初探%A Preliminary Study of the Legal Component of Personal Advertisement Endorsement Action in Interactive Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁凌

    2011-01-01

    Whether an action becomes a personal advertisement endorsement action in interactive media depends on the following conditions: whether the consumer considers the stated information as an independent advertisement beyond advertiser and producer;whether the information disseminator has the intention of endorsement;whether the information disseminator and the advertiser are actually related.The first two must be met while the last is complementary to the second.%在消费者自媒体下认定是否为个人广告荐证行为应该满足以下条件:消费者是否认为信息发布者的陈述是一个独立于广告商或生产商意思之外的广告信息,信息发布者是否存在主观荐证意图,信息发布者与广告商之间是否存在实质联系。前两个条件必须同时满足,而后一个条件应该作为第二个条件的补充要件。

  12. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the healthy gut microbiota composition at phyla and species level: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marco; De Grandi, Roberta; Stronati, Laura; De Vecchi, Elena; Drago, Lorenzo

    2017-04-21

    To evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 to colonize the intestinal environment of healthy subjects and modify the gut microbiota composition. Twenty healthy Italian volunteers, eight males and twelve females, participated in the study. Ten subjects took a sachet containing 4 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and 10(9) CFU of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, 30 min before breakfast (pre-prandial administration), while ten subjects took a sachet of probiotic product 30 min after breakfast (post-prandial administration). The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 to colonize human gut microbiota was assessed by means of quantitative real-time PCR, while changes in gut microbiota composition were detected by using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Immediately after 1-mo of probiotic administration, B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 load was increased in the majority of subjects in both pre-prandial and post-prandial groups. This increase was found also 1 mo after the end of probiotic oral intake in both groups, if compared to samples collected before probiotic consumption. At phyla level a significant decrease in Firmicutes abundance was detected immediately after 1-mo of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 oral intake. This reduction persisted up to 1 mo after the end of probiotic oral intake together with a significant decrease of Proteobacteria abundance if compared to samples collected before probiotic administration. Whereas, at species level, a higher abundance of Blautia producta, Blautia wexlerae and Haemophilus ducrey was observed, together with a reduction of Holdemania filiformis, Escherichia vulneris, Gemmiger formicilis and Streptococcus sinensis abundance. In addition, during follow-up period we observed a further reduction in Escherichia vulneris and Gemmiger formicilis, together with a decrease in Roseburia faecis and

  13. 云计算服务等级协议初探%A Preliminary Study on Service Level Agreement of Cloud Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓卫红; 肖卓朋; 刘伟跃

    2014-01-01

    As been using in various industries, healthy development and user’s QoS (quality of service) assurance of cloud servic⁃es has become an important problem in front of us. Service Level Agreement(SLA)is a legally binding contract between cloud service provider and user, of which study has an important influence on health development of cloud service.%云服务已经渗透到各行各业,如何保证其良性发展,如何让用户获得应有的服务质量成为摆在眼前的重要问题。服务等级协议作为一种服务提供商与用户之间协商并签订的一个具有法律约束力的合同,规定了在服务提供过程中双方所承担的商务条款,该协议的研究对云服务的健康持续发展有着重要意义。

  14. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging as a predictor of therapeutic response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in cervical cancer: a preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Sung Yoon; Park, Byung Kwan [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    To investigate the value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a predictor of therapeutic response in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Thirty consecutive patients with biopsy-proven cervical cancer were examined by BOLD MRI before (preTx) and after CCRT (postTx). The R2* value (s{sup -1}) was calculated in the tumour and normal myometrium for preTx and postTx studies. Final tumour responses, as determined by changes of tumour size or volume on MRI, were correlated with tumour R2* values at preTx. The mean R2* values of tumours at preTx (21.1) were significantly lower than those at postTx (39.4 s{sup -1}) (p < 0.001), while those of normal myometrium were similar between preTx and postTx (p = 0.363). At preTx, tumour R2* values showed significantly negative correlation with final tumour size response (p = 0.022, Spearman's coefficient = -0.415). However, tumour R2* values at preTx were not associated with final tumour volume response (p = 0.069). BOLD MRI at 3 T, as an imaging biomarker, may have the potential to evaluate therapeutic response in cervical cancers. The association between BOLD MRI findings and CCRT responses warrants further validation. (orig.)

  15. Percutaneous pelvic osteotomy and intertrochanteric varus shortening osteotomy in nonambulatory GMFCS level IV and V cerebral palsy patients: preliminary report on 30 operated hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Federico; Gomez, Horacio; Kaelin, André; Ceroni, Dimitri; de Coulon, Geraldo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the outcome of severe cerebral palsy patients (Gross Motor Function Classification System level IV and V) treated by simultaneous percutaneous pelvic osteotomy and intertrochanteric varus shortening osteotomy for hip subluxation or dislocation between 2002 and 2011. Twenty-four patients (30 hips) with an average age of 9.4 years (5-16.5) were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 35.9 months (6-96). Percutaneous pelvic osteotomy lasted on average 30 min/patient per side (25-40) and was always performed through a skin incision of 2-3 cm. The migration percentage and acetabular angle were assessed on plain radiographs. The mean Reimers' migration percentage improved from 67.1% (42-100) preoperatively to 7.7% (0-70) at the last follow-up and the mean acetabular angle improved from 31.8° (22-48) to 15.7° (5-27). Five patients presented complications: one redislocation, one bone graft dislodgement, and three with avascular necrosis of the femoral head. This study should be considered as a pilot study. These results indicate that this combined approach is an effective, reliable, and minimally invasive alternative method for the treatment of spastic dislocated hips in severe cerebral palsy patients with an outcome similar to standard techniques reported in the literature.

  16. PREFERENCES AND LEVELS OF SATISFACTION IN TECHNICAL AND TACTICAL ACTIONS AND IN TYPE OF OFFENSE AND DEFENSE UTILIZED IN COMPETITION BY YOUTH BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ortega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the present study are: a to assess which technical and tactical actions of the game youth basketball players like to do in competition at different learning stages, b to find out how much they like to play offense and defense, c to assess the type of offense and defense that they prefer to execute, and d to record the basic tactical team resources (BTTR that are most requested by the youth player at different learning stages. The sample was composed of 989 youth basketball players who participate in the Spanish Basketball Federation leagues (60.1% from mini-basketball and 39.9% from the under-14 category. The results indicate that in competition: a the action that players most like to execute is the shot, b players prefer to be on offense than defense, c the defensive game system that players most enjoy is man-on-man defense, d players prefer pre-established offensive systems as opposed to open systems, and e basic tactical team resources players most enjoy are give-and-go, clear-outs, and penetrate and dish. These data may serve as a reference when doing short-, medium-, and long-term planning. In any case, it is necessary for coaches to combine the preferences of the players with the actual needs of each learning stage.

  17. A preliminary assessment of mineralogical criteria on the utility of argillaceous rocks and minerals for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, O.C.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review available data concerning the properties reported for shales and clay-rich rocks and clay minerals to determine whether such information could be instrumental in selecting the more favorable assemblages of clays for high-level waste repository purposes. Literature searches were conducted for reports dealing with the properties of these argillaceous materials. The properties that were obtained from appropriate references were recorded in an Appleworks Database. The data are divided into five major goups: chemical properties, general physical properties, hydrologic properties, mechanical properties, and thermal properties. The Database includes such information as the type of material, formation name, geological age, location, depth, test conditions, results, and reference(s). In general, noticeable correlations were not apparent when mineralogical information was compared with various properties using plots of the data for each individual property. The best correlations were obtained for chemical and certain mechanical and hydrologic properties. Thermal properties appear to be least influenced by clay mineral composition. An important reason for the inability to correlate mineralogical compositions with most properties was the lack of uniformity of test methods, test conditions, and even the units used for reporting the final data. There was very limited information concerning the mineralogical compositions of most of the shales tested. The potential exists for identifying the more suitable formations (or specific horizons within formations) using mineralogical data; however, in order to make such selections, it will be necessary to collect future data using standardized test methods and conditions. The mineralogical compositions of the samples tested need to be determined quantitatively rather than qualitatively.

  18. A preliminary study on the long-term geologic stability for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Geology of the Korean peninsula could be grouped by 7 rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses, metasedimentary rocks, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, porous and massive volcanic rocks. The plutonic rock type is the largest rock groups occupying about 35.2% over the peninsula. Tectonic movement could be classified as four great stages as Precambrian, Songnim, Daebo and Bulkuksa even though the ambiguous of prior Songnim. It would be supposed to deep relationship between tectonic movement, orogeny and magmatism. And also, the magmatism within the peninsula could be divided into 5 stages such as 1st stage of Precambrian(>570Ma), 2nd stage of late Paleozoic(>250Ma), 3rd stage of early to mid Mesozoic(200-300Ma), 4th stage of late Mesozoic(135-60Ma) and 5th stage of post early Tertiary(50Ma>). In the seismicities, the peninsula has some characteristics that of the intra-plate seismic characteristics located at south eastern part of the Eurasian plate apart from the boundary of the Pacific and Philippine plate. Eurasian plate is under the two stress direction acting eastward stresses induced the collision of Indo- Australlian plate and westward stresses due to the subduction of due the Pacific and Philippine plate. For the purpose of the quantitative analysis for the safety assessment of HLW disposal, it would be desired to have the long range approach concept for the characterization of FEPs such as upper stated including climate, sae level change, uplift and subsidence, erosion and sedimentation. 38 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  19. The Preliminary Study on the Anti-investigation Action by Using a Fake ID%使用假身份证实施的反侦查行为初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锋

    2014-01-01

    The anti-investigation action by using a fake ID refers to the action made by perpetrators to transmit the false information, to interfere the investigation, to destroy clues, to avoid being investigated and combated in criminal investigation. There are external factors to affect someone on using a fake ID, including science and technology skills, criminal subculture, case investigation measures and methods. The forms are:the anti-investigation action in the preparation, in implementation and in escaping after crime. To such cases, investigators should collect the investigation information initiatively, grasp the information transfer rules of criminal activities; and make comprehensive judgment on suspects by the ways to combine the traditional detection measures with the modern information-based reconnaissance.%使用假身份证实施的反侦查行为,是指犯罪行为人针对侦查机关的侦查行为,使用假身份证向侦查机关传递虚假信息,干扰侦查视线、破坏侦查线索,以躲避侦查、逃避打击的行为总和。使用假身份证实施反侦查行为的外部影响因素有科技水平、犯罪亚文化、个案的侦查措施和手段。其表现形式有:犯罪预备阶段的反侦查行为、犯罪实施阶段的反侦查行为、犯罪后潜逃阶段的反侦查行为。对此类反侦查行为的利用,侦查人员应主动收集反侦查信息,把握犯罪活动中的信息转移规律;同时还应采用传统侦查措施与信息化侦查措施相结合的方式综合判断嫌疑人身份。

  20. Safety and preliminary efficacy data of a novel Casein Kinase 2 (CK2 peptide inhibitor administered intralesionally at four dose levels in patients with cervical malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Daniel F

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is now considered the second leading cause of death among women worldwide, and its incidence has reached alarming levels, especially in developing countries. Similarly, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, the precursor stage for cervical cancer, represents a growing health problem among younger women as the HSIL management regimes that have been developed are not fully effective. From the etiological point of view, the presence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV has been demonstrated to play a crucial role for developing cervical malignancies, and viral DNA has been detected in 99.7% of cervical tumors at the later stages. CIGB-300 is a novel cyclic synthetic peptide that induces apoptosis in malignant cells and elicits antitumor activity in cancer animal models. CIGB-300 impairs the Casein Kinase (CK2 phosphorylation, by targeting the substrate's phosphoaceptor domain. Based on the perspectives of CIGB-300 to treat cancer, this "first-in-human" study investigated its safety and tolerability in patients with cervical malignancies. Methods Thirty-one women with colposcopically and histologically diagnosed microinvasive or pre-invasive cervical cancer were enrolled in a dose escalating study. CIGB-300 was administered sequentially at 14, 70, 245 and 490 mg by intralesional injections during 5 consecutive days to groups of 7 – 10 patients. Toxicity was monitored daily until fifteen days after the end of treatment, when patients underwent conization. Digital colposcopy, histology, and HPV status were also evaluated. Results No maximum-tolerated dose or dose-limiting toxicity was achieved. The most frequent local events were pain, bleeding, hematoma and erythema at the injection site. The systemic adverse events were rash, facial edema, itching, hot flashes, and localized cramps. 75% of the patients experienced a significant lesion reduction at colposcopy and 19% exhibited full histological regression

  1. Action Programming Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Thielscher, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Artificial systems that think and behave intelligently are one of the most exciting and challenging goals of Artificial Intelligence. Action Programming is the art and science of devising high-level control strategies for autonomous systems which employ a mental model of their environment and which reason about their actions as a means to achieve their goals. Applications of this programming paradigm include autonomous software agents, mobile robots with high-level reasoning capabilities, and General Game Playing. These lecture notes give an in-depth introduction to the current state-of-the-ar

  2. Action Emulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); J. Ruan; T. Sadzik

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of public announcements, private communications, deceptive messages to groups, and so on, can all be captured by a general mechanism of updating multi-agent models with update action models, now in widespread use. There is a natural extension of the definition of

  3. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  4. MT1-MMP expression level status dictates the in vitro action of lupeol on inflammatory biomarkers MMP-9 and COX-2 in medulloblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Borhane; Vaillancourt-Jean, Eric; Béliveau, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Local inflammation-induced extracellular matrix structural changes are a prerequisite to neoplastic invasion by pediatric intracranial tumors. Accordingly, increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, two inflammation-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), may further aid the transformed cells either to infiltrate adjacent tissues or to enter the peripheral circulation. In the context of neuroinflammation, MMP-9 has been linked to processes such as blood-brain barrier opening and invasion of neural tissue by blood-derived immune cells. Given its reported anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, we investigated the in vitro pharmacological effects of lupeol, a diet-derived triterpenoid, on MMP-9 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions in a pediatric medulloblastoma DAOY cell line model. Lupeol was unable to inhibit the increased MMP-9 and COX-2 expression in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated cells, but was rather found to synergize with PMA to induce both biomarkers' expression. A contribution of the membrane type-1 (MT1)-MMP was also revealed, since lupeol/PMA treatments triggered proMMP-2 activation, and that MT1-MMP gene silencing reversed the combined effects of lupeol/PMA on both MMP-9 and COX-2. The mRNA stabilizing factor HuR was also found increased in the combined lupeol/PMA treatment, suggesting stabilization processes of the MMP-9 and COX-2 transcripts. We postulate that lupeol's anti-inflammatory properties may exert better pharmacological action within low MT1-MMP expressing tumors. Furthermore, these evidences add up to the new pleiotropic molecular mechanisms of action of MT1-MMP, and prompt for evaluating the future in vitro pharmacological properties of lupeol under pro-inflammatory experimental set-up.

  5. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources--findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov, Jens; Marchal, Bruno; Maluka, Stephen; Zulu, Joseph M; Bukachi, Salome A; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Blystad, Astrid; Kamuzora, Peter; Michelo, Charles; Nyandieka, Lillian N; Ndawi, Benedict; Bloch, Paul; Olsen, Oystein E

    2014-08-20

    Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This

  6. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-02

    concentrations above preliminary action levels. Based on the potential exposure pathways, several risk-based CAAs were developed and evaluated against the individual CAS requirements. It was determined that a combination of the CAAs would be recommended to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of these sites and to eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the TPH-contaminated soils.

  8. Neurolepticlike actions of l-methadone: effect on mescaline-induced altered behavior and on tissue levels of mescaline in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N S; Hudnall, S D; May, D; Eargle, D; Yates, J

    1979-08-01

    Mice were injected ip with either saline, l-methadone (2.5, 5, 20 mg/kg), perphenazine (1, 10, 15 mg/kg), or chlorprothixene (1.25, 2.5, 15 mg/kg) 30 min prior to mescaline-14C (25 mg/kg). Mescaline-induced behavioral changes such as agitation, excitement, slight increase in ventilation, and fright to sound stimuli were prevented by all doses of three drugs, and head-shaking, scratching, and locomotor-increasing effects by 5 and 20 mg/kg methadone and by all doses of both neuroleptics. Catalepticlike state and moderate to marked hypothermia induced by all doses of chlorprothixene, 10 and 15 mg/kg perphenazine, and 20 mg/kg methadone were not reversed by mescaline. Chlorprothixene (all doses), perphenazine (10, 15 mg/kg), and methadone (5, 20 mg/kg) caused marked retention of mescaline and its deaminated metabolite, 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl acetic acid in both brain and plasma. The fact that relatively higher doses of methadone than neuroleptics are needed to ensure effective antagonism to mescaline action tends to indicate a less specific interaction of the opiate with the neuroleptic/dopamine receptor proposed for central mescaline effects.

  9. Cognitive framing in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition.

  10. Mean water level setup/setdown in the inlet-lagoon system induced by tidal action-a case study of Xincun Inlet, Hainan Island in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Wenping; SHEN Jian; WANG Daoru

    2008-01-01

    With the tides propagating from the open sea to the lagoon, the mean water level (MWL) in the inlet and lagoon becomes different from that at the open sea, and a setup/setdown is generated. The change of MWL (setup/setdown) in the system imposes a great impact on regulating the development of tidal marshes, on determining the long-term water level for harbor maintenance, on the planning for the water front development with the flood control for the possible inundation, and on the interpretation of the historical sea level change when using tidal marsh peat deposits in the lagoon as the indicator for open sea' s sea level. In this ease study on the mechanisms which control the setup/setdown in Xincun Inlet, Hainan in China, the 2-D barotropic mode of Eulerian - Lagrangian CIRCulation (ELCIRC) model was utilized. After model calibration and verification, a series of numerical experiments were conducted to examine the effects of bottom friction and advection terms, wetting and drying of intertidal areas, bathymetry and boundary conditions on the setup/setdown in the system. The modeling results show that setup occurs over the inlet and lagoon areas with an order of one tenth of the tide range at the entrance. The larger the bottom friction is, a larger setup is generated.Without the advection term, the setup is reduced due to a decrease of water level gradient to compensate for the disappearance of the advection term. Even without overtides, a setup can still be developed in the system. Sea level rise and dredging in the inlet and tidal channel can cause a decrease of setup in the system, whereas shoaling of the system can increase the setup. The uniqueness of the Xincun Inlet with respect to MWL change is that there is no evident setdown in the inlet, which can be attributed to the complex geometry and bathymetry associated with the inlet system.

  11. The global dimension of water governance: why the river basin approach is no longer sufficient and why cooperative action at global level is needed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    When water problems extend beyond the borders of local communities, the river basin is generally seen as the most appropriate unit for analysis, planning, and institutional arrangements. In this paper it is argued that addressing water problems at the river basin level is not always sufficient. Many

  12. The costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of counteracting overweight on a population level. A scientific base for policy targets for the Dutch national plan for action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.; Baal, van P.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Schuit, J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ament, A.; Hoogenveen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To gain insight in realistic policy targets for overweight at a population level and the accompanying costs. Therefore, the effect on overweight prevalence was estimated of large scale implementation of a community intervention (applied to 90% of general population) and an intensive life

  13. The effectiveness of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 to increase the level of organic public procurement in Danish public kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Nørgaard; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    , the proportion of public kitchens eligible for the Organic Cuisine Label in either silver (60–90 % organic food procurement) or gold (90–100 % organic food procurement) level doubled from 31 % to 62 %, respectively, during the conversion period. Conversion project curriculum mostly included elements of ‘theory...

  14. A comparative study of antiestrogen action: temporal patterns of antagonism of estrogen stimulated uterine growth and effects on estrogen receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E R; Katzenellenbogen, B S

    1977-05-01

    Studies were undertaken to ascertain the effects of structural modification of two well-known antiestrogens (CI-628 and U-11,100A) on their estrogenic and antiestrogenic potencies and temporal patterns of effectiveness in the immature rat uterus. Changes in the chemical structures of these anti-estrogens produce compounds with markedly different affinities for the uterine estrogen receptor as measured in an in vitro cell-free cytosol system; binding affinities relative to estradiol (100%) are: CI-628, 4%; CI-680, 34%; 94X1127 (94X),222%; U-11,100A (UA), 6%; and U-23,469 (U-23), 0.1%. Although all five antiestrogens (daily injections of 50 microng over three days) appear equally effective in stimulating 72 h uterine weight when given alone, or in blocking the estradiol-stimulated weight increase when given with estradiol, marked differences in their potencies are noted when the effects of the compounds are monitored beyond 24 h following a single injection. The compounds CI-628, CI-680 and UA (50 microng sc in saline), which have a methylated hydroxyl group (at the site analogous to the steroid position 3), show a prolonged maintenance of elevated levels of nuclear receptor (beyond 48 h) and elevated uterine weight (until 72 h); this correlates with a prolonged period of depressed cytoplasmic receptor levels (beyond 48 h) and prolonged uterine insensitivity to estrogen (beyond 36 h as monitored by 3 h wet weight response). In contrast, a single injection of 50 microng of 94X (having a free hydroxyl group) or U-23 (with a side chain and central ring different from UA) maintained nuclear receptor levels elevated for only 12 h (94X) or 36 h (U-23) and uterine weights declined after 36-48 h; cytoplasmic receptor levels remained depressed for only 12 h (94X) or 24 h (U-23) and then returned to control levels or above by 36 h. These latter compounds likewise evoked the shortest period of uterine insensitivity to estrogen (ineffective as antagonists by 36 h). Comparative

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  16. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  17. Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Friedrichsen, Martin; Vaag, Allan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein (RBP) 4 is an adipokine of which plasma levels are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate...... expression was not associated with circulatory RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data indicate that RBP4 levels in plasma, skeletal muscle, and fat may be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a secondary and noncausal manner....... the association between RBP4 and in vivo measures of glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study population included 298 elderly twins (aged 62-83 years), with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to overt type 2 diabetes, and 178 young (aged 25-32 years) and elderly (aged 58-66 years) nondiabetic...

  18. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.; Juhola, Sirkku; Baron, Nina

    2016-01-01

    , more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation...... and policy-making. A comparison between three cases suggests that local developments that are not supported in particular by binding regulation are unlikely to achieve the same general level of implementation as issues for which such regulative demands (and thereby also requirements for prioritization) exist...

  19. The Global Dimension of Water Governance: Why the River Basin Approach Is No Longer Sufficient and Why Cooperative Action at Global Level Is Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When water problems extend beyond the borders of local communities, the river basin is generally seen as the most appropriate unit for analysis, planning, and institutional arrangements. In this paper it is argued that addressing water problems at the river basin level is not always sufficient. Many of today’s seemingly local water issues carry a (subcontinental or even global dimension, which urges for a governance approach that comprises institutional arrangements at a level beyond that of the river basin. This paper examines a number of arguments for the thesis that good water governance requires a global approach complementary to the river basin approach. Subsequently, it identifies four major issues to be addressed at global scale: Efficiency, equity, sustainability and security of water supply in a globalised world. Finally, the paper raises the question of what kind of institutional arrangements could be developed to cope with the global dimension of water issues. A few possible directions are explored, ranging from an international protocol on full-cost water pricing and a water label for water-intensive products to the implementation of water footprint quotas and the water-neutral concept.

  20. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  1. Multidimensional Recurrence Quantification Analysis (MdRQA) for the Analysis of Multidimensional Time-Series: A Software Implementation in MATLAB and Its Application to Group-Level Data in Joint Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; Roepstorff, Andreas; Mønster, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Multidimensional Recurrence Quantification Analysis (MdRQA) as a tool to analyze multidimensional time-series data. We show how MdRQA can be used to capture the dynamics of high-dimensional signals, and how MdRQA can be used to assess coupling between two or more variables. In particular, we describe applications of the method in research on joint and collective action, as it provides a coherent analysis framework to systematically investigate dynamics at different group levels-from individual dynamics, to dyadic dynamics, up to global group-level of arbitrary size. The Appendix in Supplementary Material contains a software implementation in MATLAB to calculate MdRQA measures.

  2. Music Therapy’s Effects on Mexican Migrant Farmworkers’ Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Social Isolation: A Mixed Methods Randomized Control Trial Utilizing Participatory Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkers’ levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used...... in song writing and lyric analysis, and group music-making. Results indicated that participants in the music therapy condition across both phases did not significantly improve their depression, anxiety, and social isolation scores compared to the control/comparison group. The farmworkers who did...... working conditions create high frequencies of mental health issues. When available, the farmworkers seek out treatment for the somatic symptoms such as high heart rate, upset stomachs, and difficult breathing often associated with depression and anxiety. Mental health counselors and facilities often...

  3. Improved actions for the two-dimensional sigma-model

    OpenAIRE

    Caracciolo, Sergio; Montanari, Andrea; Pelissetto, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    For the O(N) sigma-model we studied the improvement program for actions with two- and four-spin interactions. An interesting example is an action which is reflection-positive, on-shell improved, and has all the coupling defined on an elementary plaquette. We show the large N solution and preliminary Monte Carlo results for N=3.

  4. TINGKAT KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN DI DATARAN TINGGI DIENG SEBAGAI DATABASE GUNA UPAYA KONSERVASI (The Level of Environmental Damage in Dieng Plateau for Database to Conservation Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ngabekti

    2007-07-01

    area in Dieng Plateau has been reducing biodiversity. An assessment by Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam Jawa Tengah in 2001 found less than fifty species vegetation per hectare in the area, which means poor diversity. This research aims to know the level of environmental damage in Dieng Plateau as a database for conservation attempts. The variables to assess will be the level of environmental damages, both physically and biologically, in connection with demographic, economic, societal, and cultural aspects. Physical observation showed that plantation area was seriously damaged, which reduced the potato crops. Whereas from biological observation, it was found that the vegetational diversity index was relatively low (0.81-0.98. From behavioral view, it seemed that the inhabitants have not fully supported the conservation attempts; it can be seen that the potato cultivation area has expanded as deforestation has also spread out. As a result, waters resources have depleted significantly. From the current research, it was concluded that the level of environmental damage in Dieng Plateau was seriously damaged. It was suggested to manage the Dieng Plateau area. Due to unique geographical conditions, plantation design implemented in the area should be followed by conservation review. To prevent erosion, it is important to find substitutes to potatoes

  5. Low-Level Corruption Tolerance: An “Action-Based” Approach for Peru and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pozsgai Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the past decade, the tolerance of corruption by citizens of most Latin American countries has become a concept in its own right within the broader study of corruption. This construct, however, lacks a systematic approach and is yet to account for specific types of corruption tolerance or identify appropriate indicators to measure them. The present study addresses these voids by analyzing data provided by LAPOP’s AmericasBarometer 2006 for Peru (a typical case for the incidence of bribery in Latin America and the Global Corruption Barometer against a carefully constructed framework for the understanding of the phenomenon of corruption tolerance. The results indicate that attitudes toward specific types of low-level corruption should not be equated to citizens’ decisions to engage in such behavior. They further suggest that the study of corruption tolerance has the potential to greatly improve our understanding of the determinants of corruption in developing countries.

  6. Activity and mechanism of action of HDVD, a novel pyrimidine nucleoside derivative with high levels of selectivity and potency against gammaherpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, N; Singh, U; Vuyyuru, V; Van den Oord, J J; Balzarini, J; Duraffour, S; Snoeck, R; Cheng, Y C; Chu, C K; Andrei, G

    2013-04-01

    A novel nucleoside analogue, 1-[(2S,4S-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]5-vinylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, or HDVD, was evaluated against a wide variety of herpesviruses and was found to be a highly selective inhibitor of replication of the gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). HDVD had also a pronounced inhibitory activity against murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In contrast, replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was weakly inhibited by the compound, and no antiviral activity was determined against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV). The HDVD-resistant virus phenotype contained point mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (TK) of HSV-1, MHV-68, and HVS isolates. These mutations conferred cross-resistance to other TK-dependent drugs, with the exception of an MHV-68 mutant (E358D) that exhibited resistance only to HDVD. HSV-1 and HVS TK-mutants isolated under selective pressure with bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVDU) also showed reduced sensitivity to HDVD. Oral treatment with HDVD and BVDU was assessed in an intranasal model of MHV-68 infection in BALB/c mice. In contrast to BVDU treatment, HDVD-treated animals showed a reduction in viral DNA loads and diminished viral gene expression during acute viral replication in the lungs in comparison to levels in untreated controls. The valyl ester prodrug of HDVD (USS-02-71-44) suppressed the latent infection in the spleen to a greater extent than HDVD. In the present study, HDVD emerged as a highly potent antiviral with a unique spectrum of activity against herpesviruses, in particular, gammaherpesviruses, and may be of interest in the treatment of virus-associated diseases.

  7. Differential mechanisms associated with vascular disrupting action of electrochemotherapy: intravital microscopy on the level of single normal and tumor blood vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostjan Markelc

    Full Text Available Electropermeabilization/electroporation (EP provides a tool for the introduction of molecules into cells and tissues. In electrochemotherapy (ECT, cytotoxic drugs are introduced into cells in tumors, and nucleic acids are introduced into cells in gene electrotransfer. The normal and tumor tissue blood flow modifying effects of EP and the vascular disrupting effect of ECT in tumors have already been determined. However, differential effects between normal vs. tumor vessels, to ensure safety in the clinical application of ECT, have not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the effects of EP and ECT with bleomycin on the HT-29 human colon carcinoma tumor model and its surrounding blood vessels. The response of blood vessels to EP and ECT was monitored in real time, directly at the single blood vessel level, by in vivo optical imaging in a dorsal window chamber in SCID mice with 70 kDa fluorescently labeled dextrans. The response of tumor blood vessels to EP and ECT started to differ within the first hour. Both therapies induced a vascular lock, decreased functional vascular density (FVD and increased the diameter of functional blood vessels within the tumor. The effects were more pronounced for ECT, which destroyed the tumor blood vessels within 24 h. Although the vasculature surrounding the tumor was affected by EP and ECT, it remained functional. The study confirms the current model of tumor blood flow modifying effects of EP and provides conclusive evidence that ECT is a vascular disrupting therapy with a specific effect on the tumor blood vessels.

  8. Differential mechanisms associated with vascular disrupting action of electrochemotherapy: intravital microscopy on the level of single normal and tumor blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelc, Bostjan; Sersa, Gregor; Cemazar, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Electropermeabilization/electroporation (EP) provides a tool for the introduction of molecules into cells and tissues. In electrochemotherapy (ECT), cytotoxic drugs are introduced into cells in tumors, and nucleic acids are introduced into cells in gene electrotransfer. The normal and tumor tissue blood flow modifying effects of EP and the vascular disrupting effect of ECT in tumors have already been determined. However, differential effects between normal vs. tumor vessels, to ensure safety in the clinical application of ECT, have not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the effects of EP and ECT with bleomycin on the HT-29 human colon carcinoma tumor model and its surrounding blood vessels. The response of blood vessels to EP and ECT was monitored in real time, directly at the single blood vessel level, by in vivo optical imaging in a dorsal window chamber in SCID mice with 70 kDa fluorescently labeled dextrans. The response of tumor blood vessels to EP and ECT started to differ within the first hour. Both therapies induced a vascular lock, decreased functional vascular density (FVD) and increased the diameter of functional blood vessels within the tumor. The effects were more pronounced for ECT, which destroyed the tumor blood vessels within 24 h. Although the vasculature surrounding the tumor was affected by EP and ECT, it remained functional. The study confirms the current model of tumor blood flow modifying effects of EP and provides conclusive evidence that ECT is a vascular disrupting therapy with a specific effect on the tumor blood vessels.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  11. An Approach to Integration: The Integration of Language and Content to Promote L2 Learner Autonomy at the College Level (Un Acercamiento a la Integración: El Aprendizaje Integrado de Lengua y Contenidos para Promover la Autonomía del Estudiante de Lengua Extranjera en la Universidad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Parera, Pablo M.; Núñez Delgado, María Pilar

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the preliminary findings of an action research on the effects of autonomy on a group of university students at the post-graduate level taking their first Spanish course through the Content and Language Learning (CLIL) methodology. The participants, whose Spanish was at the low/mid intermediate level (ACTFL, 2012), were exposed…

  12. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal histamine response ( histamine metabolism on dietary ZnO oversupplementation. For the first

  13. Influence of gamma radiation on the biosynthesis of indoles and gibberellins in barley. The action of zinc on the restitution of growth substance level in irradiated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutacek, M.; Masev, N.; Oplistilova, K.; Bulgakov, R.

    1966-01-01

    Investigations were made on the effect of exposing barley seeds to gamma-radiation (5-10kR), alone and in combination with the application of zinc (soaking the seeds in solutions containing 5.10/sup -5/ - 5.10/sup -1/% Zn for 12 hours before sowing) on growth and on the content of tryptophan, indole auxins and gibberellin-like substances in seven-day plants. Radiation decreased both growth and the content of tryptophan (e.g. by about 53% at 30 kR), of indole auxins (by about 60% auxin in the zone of IAA on the chromatogram at 30 kR), and also the content of gibberellin-like substances (by about 67% gibberellin content in the zone of GA, on the chromatogram) of plants. The irradiation of standard samples of tryptophan, indolylacetic acid and gibberellic acid alone with many times greater doses (up to 1000 kR) did not lead to marked radiochemical degradation of these substances. It can be assumed that radiation damages the enzyme systems synthesizing natural growth substances in plants. The damaging effect of radiation on auxins is already displayed in the synthesis of tryptophan, which is inhibited. Zinc interacts with the damaging effect of radiation on growth. Optimum concentrations of zinc (5.10/sup -/number% Zn) counteract the effect of radiation, up to doses of about 12 kR, on the growth in height in 7-day plants so that it is equal to the controls. Normal content of tryptophan and auxin in the position of indolylacetic acid on chromatograms can only be reached by the addition of zinc when the dose of radiation was not greater than about 8 kR, which is less than the influence exerted by zinc on the restitution of growth. On the other hand, the biosynthesis of gibberellin-like substances at the position of gibberellic acid on chromatograms can be restored by zinc to their original level to doses of up to 30 kR. 18 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 274: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-09-01

    calculated based on the occasional use scenario. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected above the preliminary action level at CAS 20-05-01; however, it was not identified as a COC because the concentration was below the FAL. As a best management practice and to ensure that future site workers are not exposed to this site contaminant for more than this decision-basis exposure duration, an administrative use restriction was established around the leachfield at CAS 20-05-01. In addition, the removal of the septic tanks and septic tank contents at CASs 03-02-01, 06-02-01, and 20-05-01 was performed.

  15. The role of action control and action planning on fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangyu; Gan, Yiqun; Miao, Miao; Hamilton, Kyra; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Globally, fruit and vegetable intake is lower than recommended despite being an important component to a healthy diet. Adopting or maintaining a sufficient amount of fruit and vegetables in one's diet may require not only motivation but also self-regulatory processes. Action control and action planning are two key volitional determinants that have been identified in the literature; however, it is not fully understood how these two factors operate between intention and behavior. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore the roles of action control and action planning as mediators between intentions and dietary behavior. A longitudinal study with three points in time was conducted. Participants (N = 286) were undergraduate students and invited to participate in a health behavior survey. At baseline (Time 1), measures of intention and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed. Two weeks later (Time 2), action control and action planning were assessed as putative sequential mediators. At Time 3 (two weeks after Time 2), fruit and vegetable consumption was measured as the outcome. The results revealed action control and action planning to sequentially mediate between intention and subsequent fruit and vegetable intake, controlling for baseline behavior. Both self-regulatory constructs, action control and action planning, make a difference when moving from motivation to action. Our preliminary evidence, therefore, suggests that planning may be more proximal to fruit and vegetable intake than action control. Further research, however, needs to be undertaken to substantiate this conclusion.

  16. Action experience and action discovery in medicated individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery G. Bednark

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that markedly affects voluntary action. While regular dopamine treatment can help restore motor function, dopamine also influences cognitive portions of the action system. Previous studies have demonstrated that dopamine medication boosts action-effect associations, which are crucial for the discovery of new voluntary actions. In the present study, we investigated whether neural processes involved in the discovery of new actions are altered in PD participants on regular dopamine treatment, compared to healthy age-match controls. We recorded brain electroencephalography (EEG activity while PD patients and age-matched controls performed action discovery and action control tasks. We found that the novelty P3, a component normally present when there is uncertainty about the occurrence of the sensory effect, was enhanced in PD patients. However, action discovery was maintained in PD patients, and the novelty P3 demonstrated normal learning-related reductions. Crucially, we found that in PD patients the causal association between an action and its resulting sensory outcome did not modulate the amplitude of the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP, an EEG component sensitive to the association between an action and its resulting effect. Collectively, these preliminary results suggest that the formation of long-term action-outcome representations may be maintained in PD patients on regular dopamine treatment, but the initial experience of action-effect association may be affected.

  17. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots

  19. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  20. High-loop perturbative renormalization constants for Lattice QCD (II): three-loop quark currents for tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and n_f=2 Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory was able to get three- (and even four-) loop results for finite Lattice QCD renormalization constants. More recently, a conceptual and technical framework has been devised to tame finite size effects, which had been reported to be significant for (logarithmically) divergent renormalization constants. In this work we present three-loop results for fermion bilinears in the Lattice QCD regularization defined by tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and n_f=2 Wilson fermions. We discuss both finite and divergent renormalization constants in the RI'-MOM scheme. Since renormalization conditions are defined in the chiral limit, our results also apply to Twisted Mass QCD, for which non-perturbative computations of the same quantities are available. We emphasize the importance of carefully accounting for both finite lattice space and finite volume effects. In our opinion the latter have in general not attracted the attention they would deserve.

  1. 36 CFR 72.16 - Preliminary Action Program requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of non-governmental support (neighborhood, voluntary and business) shall also be given. (c) Adoption... and implementation strategies. Description of the priorities set by the local government as related to the deficiencies outlined above, and the strategies used to allocate available resources over time...

  2. From Numbers to Action: A Preliminary Study of Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Shelia Parker; Greenlee, Harry

    This study examined retention at Christopher Newport University (CNU) in Newport News, Virginia, focusing on the demographic characteristics of those students who left the university as well as the reasons why they left. A total of 159 students who had attended CNU during the 1994-95 academic year but who did not re-enroll in the fall of 1995 were…

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based

  4. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  5. Atenção primária em diabetes no Sul do Brasil: estrutura, processo e resultado Diabetes mellitus at the primary health care level in Southern Brazil: structure, course of action and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília F Assunção

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e avaliar a estrutura, o processo e o resultado do cuidado do paciente diabético atendido em nível primário de atenção à saúde em Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: O delineamento foi transversal. Foram estudados todos os 32 postos de saúde e 61 médicos que atendem pacientes diabéticos nesses locais. Foi identificada uma amostra de 378 pacientes que tiveram consulta médica nos postos. Os pacientes foram entrevistados em casa, e sua glicemia capilar, pressão arterial e índice de massa corporal foram avaliados e comparados a padrões. Componentes da estrutura e do processo de atendimento foram comparados a padrões recomendados ao manejo de pacientes diabéticos. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos serviços carece de aproximadamente todos os requerimentos mínimos. A aferição da pressão arterial foi o item do exame físico mais relatado na visita inicial. Como plano de tratamento na consulta inicial, cerca de 85% dos médicos relataram prescrever dieta, e 72% exercício físico. Todos os médicos relataram solicitar glicemia de jejum, e 60% hemoglobina glicosilada na monitorização laboratorial dos pacientes. O controle da doença variou de 6% a 11%, conforme os diferentes parâmetros utilizados. CONCLUSÕES: A rede pública de saúde está deficiente, mas existe potencial de melhoria dos três aspectos (estrutura, processo e resultado através de treinamento em serviço e seguimento de normas-padrão.OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate the structure, course of action, and the outcome of diabetic patient care delivered at primary health care level in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study all of 32 health centers in the region were assessed, along with the 61 doctors who were managing diabetic patients. A sample of 378 diabetic patients who attended these health centers was also included. Patients were interviewed at home and their glucose capillary blood level, blood pressure and body mass index were

  6. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 3600 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce radon concentrations found to be above the government Action Level. A study has been carried out on the durability of these remedial actions. It involved annual reassessment of the radon levels in a number of homes. The results for 26 of these homes where data over five years are available show that in general the remedial actions remained effective. The remedy with the largest variation in efficacy was natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate was found to be 4.0% per annum for all measures, but in the majority of cases the failure was discovered by the householder and rectified. The rate of failures not noticed by the householders was 0.4% per annum. (UK).

  7. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  9. Is the planned and ongoing project (POP) database a suitable tool to reduce duplication in the process of assessing new health technologies in the European Union? Preliminary experience in the context of the EUnetHTA Joint Action Project Framework (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondeling, Hindrik; Sandvei, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    The European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) Joint Action Project Framework, 2010-12, Work Package 7B (WP 7B), was aimed at facilitating collaboration between HTA agencies to avoid duplication of assessment efforts. A major task of WP 7B was to collect information on planned and ongoing (POP) projects by EUnetHTA agencies and to incorporate this information in a POP Database. We analyzed whether the Database served its intended purpose. A survey was sent to all fifty-seven EUnetHTA partners, complemented by telephone interviews with the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of HTA in Austria (lead institution). Furthermore, detailed documentation on the activities of the POP Database was provided to the research team at CAST (University of Southern Denmark) by the lead institution. Forty-two of fifty-seven agencies (74 percent) responded to the survey. Eleven collaborations initiated by agencies themselves were reported. The scope of these collaborative activities was usually limited to information exchange on for example literature search protocols. A slight reduction of duplication of effort was documented. In addition, twelve collaborations at the full report level were initiated by the lead institution. While the POP Database has the potential to reduce duplication of effort, this has not been realized during the 3-year period of the EUnetHTA Joint Action Project Framework, 2010-12. Further evidence needs to be gathered to determine whether the POP Database is effective and whether the benefits outweigh the resources required to maintain it.

  10. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...

  11. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, the work shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia, where aspects...

  12. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  13. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  14. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste in Sweden (SFL 3-5): An international peer review of SKB 's preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, N. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Apted, M. [Monitor Scientific, Denver, CO (United States); Glasser, F. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Kessler, J. [EPRI, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Voss, C. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The SKB safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repository (the planned deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate level waste) can be read in two contexts: as a preliminary evaluation of the performance and design options for a repository that will not be required for perhaps forty years; or as an evaluation of a repository that might need to be sited together with the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, and whose nature and performance might thus need to be understood to a level that can be used to make wider programmatic decisions during the next five years. These two 'assessment contexts' are quite different, and an overarching issue is the fact that it was not clear to the review team which view to take. Apparently, SKB would tend towards the first context. However, it is not at all apparent to the reviewers why the second context should not be the predominant driver in the near future. The review team notes that the SFL 3-5 repository, as modelled by SKB, gives rise to potentially perceptible radionuclide releases to the environment on a timescale of hundreds of years after closure. This is in contrast to the SR 97 assessment for the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, which base scenario predicts no releases over a million year timescale. It is clear that according to SKB's SR97 and SFL3-5 analyses, for co-located facilities, it is this repository that has the potential for real radiological impacts in the immediate future. An initial recommendation from the review, is that SKB and the regulatory authorities consider which context is appropriate to the current status of the Swedish programme. This is important, because an overall impression of the reviewers is that the analysis would not be 'fit for purpose' if it were needed to assist with decision-making by SKB or the regulatory agencies. There are too many unanswered questions, and the overall impression of the safety concept is one of some fragility. Because there is no real design basis

  15. Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ... The triglyceride level, artherogenic and coronary risk index of the mechanics was higher ... risk, mechanics, lipid profile, cardiovascular disease, liver dysfunction, benzene.

  16. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  17. Large-scale integration of small molecule-induced genome-wide transcriptional responses, Kinome-wide binding affinities and cell-growth inhibition profiles reveal global trends characterizing systems-level drug action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica eVidovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS project is a large-scale coordinated effort to build a comprehensive systems biology reference resource. The goals of the program include the generation of a very large multidimensional data matrix and informatics and computational tools to integrate, analyze, and make the data readily accessible. LINCS data include genome-wide transcriptional signatures, biochemical protein binding profiles, cellular phenotypic response profiles and various other datasets for a wide range of cell model systems and molecular and genetic perturbations. Here we present a partial survey of this data facilitated by data standards and in particular a robust compound standardization workflow; we integrated several types of LINCS signatures and analyzed the results with a focus on mechanism of action and chemical compounds. We illustrate how kinase targets can be related to disease models and relevant drugs. We identified some fundamental trends that appear to link Kinome binding profiles and transcriptional signatures to chemical information and biochemical binding profiles to transcriptional responses independent of chemical similarity. To fill gaps in the datasets we developed and applied predictive models. The results can be interpreted at the systems level as demonstrated based on a large number of signaling pathways. We can identify clear global relationships, suggesting robustness of cellular responses to chemical perturbation. Overall, the results suggest that chemical similarity is a useful measure at the systems level, which would support phenotypic drug optimization efforts. With this study we demonstrate the potential of such integrated analysis approaches and suggest prioritizing further experiments to fill the gaps in the current data.

  18. Large-scale integration of small molecule-induced genome-wide transcriptional responses, Kinome-wide binding affinities and cell-growth inhibition profiles reveal global trends characterizing systems-level drug action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Dušica; Koleti, Amar; Schürer, Stephan C

    2014-01-01

    The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project is a large-scale coordinated effort to build a comprehensive systems biology reference resource. The goals of the program include the generation of a very large multidimensional data matrix and informatics and computational tools to integrate, analyze, and make the data readily accessible. LINCS data include genome-wide transcriptional signatures, biochemical protein binding profiles, cellular phenotypic response profiles and various other datasets for a wide range of cell model systems and molecular and genetic perturbations. Here we present a partial survey of this data facilitated by data standards and in particular a robust compound standardization workflow; we integrated several types of LINCS signatures and analyzed the results with a focus on mechanism of action (MoA) and chemical compounds. We illustrate how kinase targets can be related to disease models and relevant drugs. We identified some fundamental trends that appear to link Kinome binding profiles and transcriptional signatures to chemical information and biochemical binding profiles to transcriptional responses independent of chemical similarity. To fill gaps in the datasets we developed and applied predictive models. The results can be interpreted at the systems level as demonstrated based on a large number of signaling pathways. We can identify clear global relationships, suggesting robustness of cellular responses to chemical perturbation. Overall, the results suggest that chemical similarity is a useful measure at the systems level, which would support phenotypic drug optimization efforts. With this study we demonstrate the potential of such integrated analysis approaches and suggest prioritizing further experiments to fill the gaps in the current data.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground

  20. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  2. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  3. Impulsive action and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically,

  4. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  5. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  6. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  7. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  8. Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Mesons with the Fat Clover Action

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C W; DeTar, C E; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; McNeile, C; Orginos, K; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D

    2000-01-01

    We are studying a variety of semileptonic decays of heavy-light mesons in an effort to improve the determination of the heavy-quark Standard-Model CKM matrix elements. Our fermion action is a novel, improved ``fat'' clover action that promises to reduce problems with exceptional configurations. Dynamical sea quarks are included in a mixed approach, i.e. we use staggered sea quarks and fat-clover valence quarks. Here we report preliminary results.

  9. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report.

  10. On Preliminary Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  11. Insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic action of berberine from Cortidis rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Soo Bong; Park, Seong Kyu; Jang, Jin Sun; Kim, Yeong Eun; Park, Sunmin

    2005-08-01

    Our preliminary study demonstrated that 70% ethanol Cortidis Rhizoma extracts (CR) had a hypoglycemic action in diabetic animal models. We determined whether CR fractions acted as anti-diabetic agent, and a subsequent investigation of the action mechanism of the major compound, berberine ([C(20)H(18)NO(4)](+)), was carried out in vitro. The 20, 40 and 60% methanol fractions from the XAD-4 column contained the most insulin sensitizing activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The common major peak in these fractions was berberine. Treatment with 50 microM berberine plus differentiation inducers significantly reduced triglyceride accumulation by decreased differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes and triglyceride synthesis. Significant insulin sensitizing activity was observed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes which were given 50 microM berberine plus 0.2 nM insulin to reach a glucose uptake level increased by 10 nM of insulin alone. This was associated with increased glucose transporter-4 translocation into the plasma membrane via enhancing insulin signaling pathways and the insulin receptor substrate-1-phosphoinositide 3 Kinase-Akt. Berberine also increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and proliferation in Min6 cells via an enhanced insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling cascade. Data suggested that berberine can act as an effective insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic agent. Therefore, berberine can be used as anti-diabetic agent for obese diabetic patients.

  12. Effect of a supportive-educative program in the math class for stress, anxiety, and depression in female students in the third level of junior high school: An action research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seyedeh Emamjomeh; Masoud Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    .... This in turn might lead to stress, anxiety, depression, and other health-related problems. There are a very limited number of action research studies to identify the effect of stress management techniques among students...

  13. Deriving motor primitives through action segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeren, Paul E; Thill, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment is to further understand the effect of levels of processing (top-down vs. bottom-up) on the perception of movement kinematics and primitives for grasping actions in order to gain insight into possible primitives used by the mirror system. In the present study, we investigated the potential of identifying such primitives using an action segmentation task. Specifically, we investigated whether or not segmentation was driven primarily by the kinematics of the action, as opposed to high-level top-down information about the action and the object used in the action. Participants in the experiment were shown 12 point-light movies of object-centered hand/arm actions that were either presented in their canonical orientation together with the object in question (top-down condition) or upside down (inverted) without information about the object (bottom-up condition). The results show that (1) despite impaired high-level action recognition for the inverted actions participants were able to reliably segment the actions according to lower-level kinematic variables, (2) segmentation behavior in both groups was significantly related to the kinematic variables of change in direction, velocity, and acceleration of the wrist (thumb and finger tips) for most of the included actions. This indicates that top-down activation of an action representation leads to similar segmentation behavior for hand/arm actions compared to bottom-up, or local, visual processing when performing a fairly unconstrained segmentation task. Motor primitives as parts of more complex actions may therefore be reliably derived through visual segmentation based on movement kinematics.

  14. Deriving Motor Primitives through Action Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Hemeren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present experiment is to further understand the effect of levels of processing (top-down vs. bottom-up on the perception of movement kinematics and primitives for grasping actions in order to gain insight into possible primitives used by the mirror system. In the present study, we investigated the potential of identifying such primitives using an action segmentation task. Specifically, we investigated whether or not segmentation was driven primarily by the kinematics of the action, as opposed to high-level top-down information about the action and the object used in the action. Participants in the experiment were shown twelve point-light movies of object-centered hand/arm actions that were either presented in their canonical orientation together with the object in question or upside-down (inverted without information about the object. The results show that (1 despite impaired high-level action recognition for the inverted actions participants were able to reliably segment the actions according to lower-level kinematic variables, (2 segmentation behavior in both groups was significantly related to the kinematic variables of change in direction, velocity and acceleration of the wrist (thumb and finger tips for most of the included actions. This indicates that top-down activation of an action representation leads to similar segmentation behavior for hand/arm actions compared to bottom-up, or local, visual processing when performing a fairly unconstrained segmentation task. Motor primitives as parts of more complex actions may therefore be reliably derived through visual segmentation based on movement kinematics.

  15. Six policy actions for accelerated deployment of renewable energy. READy Renewable Energy Action on Deployment. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    The READy book presents a kaleidoscope of policy options that have proven to accelerate the deployment of renewable energy technologies, based on experiences around the world at the local and national levels. Lessons learned from successful cases are distilled into six essential action points. Together these categories of policy actions compose the ACTION Star, a guide for taking action now while preparing for growth over the long term.

  16. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  17. Oral buspirone causes a shift in the dose-response curve between the elevated-plus maze and Vogel conflict tests in Long-Evans rats: relation of brain levels of buspirone and 1-PP to anxiolytic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, A H; Rosenthal, D I; Lang, W; Crooke, J J; Benjamin, D; Ilyin, S E; Reitz, A B

    2005-05-01

    Most studies concerning the effects of oral buspirone in the rat elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, spontaneous motor activity (SMA) test, and Vogel conflict (VC) test have used Sprague-Dawley or Wistar rats. Although it has been documented that the behavior of Long-Evans rats is more sensitive to detection of anxiolytics when compared to the aforementioned strains, the effects of oral buspirone have not been fully characterized in the Long-Evans strain in the EPM and VC tests. Thus, we studied the effects of orally administered buspirone (0.03-10.0 mg/kg) in the EPM, SMA, and VC (0.3-60.0 mg/kg) tests in Long-Evans rats. In a separate experiment, brain and plasma concentrations of buspirone and 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine (1-PP) were determined after oral administration of buspirone (0.3 and 10 mg/kg) to relate the behavioral effects of buspirone with brain and plasma concentrations of buspirone and 1-PP. Our results showed that buspirone exhibited an inverted-U-shaped dose-response curve in both the EPM and the VC tests. In the EPM, buspirone produced anxiolytic activity in a low, narrow dose-range (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) with maximum efficacy at 0.3 mg/kg, whereas in the VC test, significant anxiolytic activity was observed in a high, narrow dose-range (10, 30 mg/kg, p.o.) with maximum efficacy occurring at 10 mg/kg. In the SMA test, buspirone (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased horizontal activity and vertical movements suggestive of sedation. Also, one hour following oral doses of buspirone (0.3 and 10 mg/kg), both buspirone and 1-PP concentrations were higher in brain when compared with those in plasma. Additionally, the concentrations of 1-PP were always higher in brain and in plasma compared with the concentrations of buspirone. Of particular interest is our finding of the shift in the dose-response curve between the EPM and VC tests. This shift in the dose-response curve is discussed in relation to brain levels of buspirone and 1-PP levels and their

  18. All in action

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, Arto

    2010-01-01

    The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which nature in its entirety and every detail is pictured in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiples of the most elementary action which corresponds to the Planck's constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span energy landscape, the Universe which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing density differences in least time. During the step-by-step evolution densely-curled actions unfold by opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The manifold's varieties process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to their dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental force...

  19. Preliminary Survey of 133Xe Background Level for a Certain Area of China%我国某地区133Xe本底水平的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丹; 常印忠; 刘蜀疆; 张新军; 王军; 王世联; 李奇; 贾怀茂; 杨维耿; 杨斌; 樊元庆; 赵允刚; 陈占营

    2011-01-01

    It mainly introduces the process and results of 133Xe background preliminary survey for a certain area of china by using a noble gas xenon mobile sampling system (SAUNA). The survey process includes field sampling, sample transport and laboratory analysis of samples. 15 samples were obtained and analyzed during two weeks survey period. The results show that the Xe activity concentration background of survey area is lower than 0.2 mBq/m3.%介绍了利用SAUNA惰性气体氙移动取样设备在我国某地区进行的惰性气体氙放射性本底调查的过程和结果,包括现场取样、样品传输和实验室分析等环节.在历时15天的本底调查中共采集分析了15个样品.研究结果表明,该地区大气中133Xe的活度浓度低于0.2 mBq/m3.

  20. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  1. Various Actions for Pregeometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazawa, H.

    1991-08-01

    Various actions for pregeometry are presented and compared. The ``space-field identity'' which equates the n-beins to the derivatives of fundamental scalars is derived from a simple action but seems to be too restrictive to be practical.

  2. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  5. On Action Theory Change

    OpenAIRE

    Varzinczak, Ivan José

    2014-01-01

    As historically acknowledged in the Reasoning about Actions and Change community, intuitiveness of a logical domain description cannot be fully automated. Moreover, like any other logical theory, action theories may also evolve, and thus knowledge engineers need revision methods to help in accommodating new incoming information about the behavior of actions in an adequate manner. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in multimodal logic. Its contribution is threefold: ...

  6. Action Theory Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Varzinczak, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of dis...

  7. System level action required for wide-scale improvement in quality of primary healthcare: synthesis of feedback from an interactive process to promote dissemination and use of aggregated quality of care data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie eBailie

    2016-05-01

    delivery, use of information systems and community health literacy.ConclusionsThe findings identify areas of focus for development of barrier driven, tailored interventions to improve health outcomes. They reinforce the importance of system-level action to improve health centre performance and health outcomes, and of developing strategies to address system-wide challenges that can be adapted to local contexts.

  8. Action and Interactiv research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Svensson, Lennart

    The text is written as a first version of editors introduction to a book about action research/interactive research in Nordic countries. You can read abouttrends and contradictions in the history of action research.The authors question the trends and demands a more explicit critical approach...... to actual action research/interactive research....

  9. Action Research for Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , to innovation policies combining Action Research with gender science. In the second part of the book epistemological and ontological dimensions of Action Research are discussed addressing questions of validity criteria related to Action Research, the transformation of knowledge institutions and the specific...

  10. Conservation Action Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  11. Putting Action in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  12. Binding Action and Emotion in Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve

  14. Preliminary Conceptual Design for Safety Parameter display System of PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyunju; Seong, Seunghwan; Kim, Wansu; Kim, Donghoon; Son, Kwangseop; Jang, Gwisook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A PGSFR (prototype Gen-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor) is under development at KAERI. A safety parameter display system (SPDS) should be designed for licensing the PGSFR in order to cope with the TMI action plan requirements. Thus, a preliminary conceptual design for the SPDS of PGSFR including licensing requirements, intrinsic function, critical variables and alarm legs for the SPDS of the PGSFR is studied herein. At first, some documents issued by NRC related to install a SPDS include the following: - NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements - NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities - NUREG-0835, Human Factors Acceptance Criteria for the Safety Parameter display System, Draft Report for Comment. The preliminary concept design for the SPDS of the PGSFR was studied. In designing of the PGSFR, the studied design concept will be refined and implemented through further studies to acquire the approval of a safety analysis report of the PGSFR.

  15. Understanding affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior.

  16. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  17. Rowing sportswomen motor actions formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bogush

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the formation of motor action sportswomen different ages depending on the level of sportsmanship. Material and Methods: girls which are specialized in a boat-racing in age groups 13–14 years inspected, 15–16 years, 17–18 years, in every group was for 20–25 persons, in all 72 sportswomen. Motive actions were probed on the method of measuring of training effect developed by us an action, and also the functional state was determined by methods: measuring of sensorimotor reaction is on sound and light irritants, speed of current of air, exactness of implementation of the set muscular effort. Results: testing showed the dynamics of forming motive, namely technique of mastering of receptions and actions, reliability, presence of errors, efficiency of active voice of consciousness in correct implementation of motion in a biomechanics relation. Conclusions: application of this method in the process of sporting preparation will allow to define quality of mastering of technique of the proper motive actions, forming of abilities, subsequent learning and becoming of more difficult motive skills

  18. 77 FR 72997 - Low-Level Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory basis and preliminary rule language; second request for comment... would continue to be protected. The NRC is publishing a second version of preliminary rule language and... to inform interested stakeholders of the current status of the NRC's activities and to solicit public...

  19. Action Theory Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Varzinczak, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between Kripke-models. Second we give algorithms for syntactical action theory contraction and establish their correctness w.r.t. our semantics. Finally we state postulates for action theory contraction and assess the behavior of our operators w.r.t. them. Moreover, we also address the revision counterpart of action theory change, showing that it benefits from our semantics for contraction.

  20. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  1. QCD Thermodynamics with an Improved Lattice Action

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C W; DeGrand, T A; Wingate, M; DeTar, C E; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Rummukainen, K; Toussaint, D; Sugar, R L; Bernard, Claude; Hetrick, James E.; Grand, Thomas De; Wingate, Matthew; Tar, Carleton De; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Rummukainen, Kari; Toussaint, Doug; Sugar, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated QCD with two flavors of degenerate fermions using a Symanzik-improved lattice action for both the gauge and fermion actions. Our study focuses on the deconfinement transition on an $N_t=4$ lattice. Having located the thermal transition, we performed zero temperature simulations nearby in order to compute hadronic masses and the static quark potential. We find that the present action reduces lattice artifacts present in thermodynamics with the standard Wilson (gauge and fermion) actions. However, it does not bring studies with Wilson-type quarks to the same level as those using the Kogut--Susskind formulation.

  2. Home economics in development through action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2010-01-01

    This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next...... in discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings...

  3. An agenda for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Participants at the 1985 Maseru Seminar on Another Development for Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) Countries developed an agenda for action aimed at ending the exploitation of people in the region. Another Development, a concept first introduced into the worldwide debate about economic development in 1975, is based on 5 premises: development should be need-oriented, self-reliant, endogenous, ecologically sound, and based on structural transformations. It should be viewed as an integrated socioeconomic, political, and cultural process. Participants noted that conventional development policies are becoming increasingly incapable of satisfying the basic needs of people in the SADCC region for food, health, housing, education, and employment. The Agenda for Action recognizes that the problems of dependency cannot be solved by the more intensive application of development strategies that created the problems in the first place. Needed, instead, is: 1) effective popular participation in all decision-making processes; 2) the transformation of social structures to facilitate effective participation in decision-making; 3) the full exercise of human rights; 4) the establishment of local, district, and national papers and publishing houses dedicated to the right to be informed; 5) the gearing of agricultural production primarily to the growing of food for domestic markets, with exports limited to surpluses; 6) the production of raw materials for manufactured goods that meet local needs; 7) land reform; 8) the coordinated development of both light and heavy industry and mining, with an emphasis on decentralization of industries to rural areas; 9) the allocation of higher priority to resources for housing; 10) the integration of meaningful productive work into the educational system at every level; 11) the development of an endogenous science and technology base; and 12) the allocation of the resources needed for a primary health care system.

  4. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Basura; Gavves, Efstratios; Oramas M, Jose Oramas; Ghodrati, Amir; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2017-04-01

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation. As a specific example, we learn a pooling function via ranking machines. By learning to rank the frame-level features of a video in chronological order, we obtain a new representation that captures the video-wide temporal dynamics of a video, suitable for action recognition. Other than ranking functions, we explore different parametric models that could also explain the temporal changes in videos. The proposed functional pooling methods, and rank pooling in particular, is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We evaluate our method on various benchmarks for generic action, fine-grained action and gesture recognition. Results show that rank pooling brings an absolute improvement of 7-10 average pooling baseline. At the same time, rank pooling is compatible with and complementary to several appearance and local motion based methods and features, such as improved trajectories and deep learning features.

  5. [Modes of action of IUDs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaud, A

    1982-05-01

    There are between 14-17 million women in the world, excluding China, who wear an IUD, or about 3-5% of all married women younger than 45. Studies on the mode of action of IUDs have been conducted mostly on laboratory animals; they show that ovulation and fecundation are not inhibited by the presence of an IUD. Contrary to what was generally believed, the latest studies have shown that the principle mode of action of the IUD is not its anti-implantation effect, but it depends on the adjustment inside the uterine cavity between the size of the uterine cavity itself, and the size and shape of the device. Endometrial modifications caused by IUDs include inflammatory phenomena, and inhibition of endometrial maturation. Moreover, copper IUDs act directly on spermatozoa and on endometrial steroid receptors. It is still not clear what role prostaglandins play in the mechanism of action of IUDs. Incidence of ectopic pregnancy is not greater in IUD wearers than in women who do not use contraception. Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels also are comparable in IUD wearers and in nonwearers. IUD wearers have a shorter luteal phase, which entails an earlier menstrual bleeding due to the antifibrinolytic action of the IUD; progesterone levels are identical in users and in nonusers of IUDs.

  6. Student Satisfaction Levels in Flipped Classroom:An Action Research in Higher Education%“翻转课堂”的学习满意度--高校课程教学行动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文浩

    2015-01-01

    本研究在高校课程教学中进行了翻转课堂的行动研究,研究分三个阶段,即需求分析与计划阶段、行动实施与调整阶段、评价与反思阶段。研究通过前期的需求分析,结合翻转课堂的特征对课程计划进行设计和实施。在描述了“组织行为学”课程的背景和过程后,本研究以双因素理论为框架,对此次翻转课堂的满意因素和不满意因素进行调研,从而为课程的持续改进和优化提供指导。研究采用开放式问卷,共收集了109个思想单元,并将其归纳为18类满意因素和13类不满意因素,然后对这些因素进行内容分析和深度解释。翻转课堂需要教师对个性化辅导投入更多的时间和精力,并关注学生的自我价值感。%This action research investigates the effects of a “flipped classroom” pedagogy in higher education. The process has three main stages:the stage of needs analysis and planning, the stage of the implementation and adjust-ment, and the stage of evaluation and reflection. Through the needs analysis, and combining the flipped classroom pedagogy, the course of “Organizational Behavior” is designed and implemented accordingly. Using the two-factor theory as the theoretical framework, the satisfying and dissatisfying factors in this flipped classroom practice is outlined and described in detail. We used an open-ended questionnaire survey to collect data, analyzed a total of 109 units of thought, classified the satisfying data into 18 categories and dissatisfying data into 13categories,and conducted a content analysis and in-depth interpretation of these categories. Then we classify all categories into four groups. The instructional model group and learning support group show both in satisfying and dissatisfying categories;the instructor group shows only in satisfying categories;and the adap-tive responsiveness shows only in dissatisfying categories. The instructor group is the

  7. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Affirmative Action Program. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles and Debris) Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 511, Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris). The CAU is comprised of nine corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of nine CASs: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 511 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) and closure activities were performed from January 2005 through August 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris)'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 511 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate preliminary

  9. HEALTH SECTOR ACTIONS TO IMPROVE NUTRITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HEALTH SECTOR ACTIONS TO IMPROVE NUTRITION: CHALLENGES AND ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... advocacy, at all levels, for increased investment in nutrition and development of human and ...

  10. All in Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Annila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which Nature in its entirety and every detail is described in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiple of the most elementary actions which relates to Planck’s constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span an energy landscape, the Universe, which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing energy density differences in least time. During evolution densely-curled actions unfold step-by-step when opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The energy landscape will process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to its dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature in terms of actions does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental forces. Instead a plethora of particles and a diaspora of forces are perceived merely as diverse manifestations of a natural selection for various mechanisms and ways to decrease free energy in the least time.

  11. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, W B

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses, and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with...

  12. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  13. Automatic Recognition of Facial Actions in Spontaneous Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Stewart Bartlett

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous facial expressions differ from posed expressions in both which muscles are moved, and in the dynamics of the movement. Advances in the field of automatic facial expression measurement will require development and assessment on spontaneous behavior. Here we present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous facial expressions. We employ a user independent fully automatic system for real time recognition of facial actions from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS. The system automatically detects frontal faces in the video stream and coded each frame with respect to 20 Action units. The approach applies machine learning methods such as support vector machines and AdaBoost, to texture-based image representations. The output margin for the learned classifiers predicts action unit intensity. Frame-by-frame intensity measurements will enable investigations into facial expression dynamics which were previously intractable by human coding.

  14. Universality of Mixed Action Extrapolation Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Mixed action theories with chirally symmetric valence fermions exhibit very desirable features both at the level of the lattice calculations as well as in the construction and implementation of the low energy mixed action effective field theory. In this work we show that when the mixed action effective field theory is projected onto the valence sector, both the Lagrangian and the extrapolation formulae become universal in form through next to leading order, for all variants of discretization methods used for the sea fermions. This implies that for all sea quark methods which are in the same universality class as QCD, the numerical values of the physical coefficients in the various mixed action chiral Lagrangians will be the same up to perturbative lattice spacing dependent corrections. This allows us to construct a prescription to determine the mixed action extrapolation formulae for a large class of hadronic correlation functions computed in partially quenched chiral perturbation theory at the one-loop level...

  15. Thermal energy storage in aquifiers: preliminary information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.

    1979-12-01

    Topics discussed include: conceptual designs; numerical modelling; field experiments; relevant technical information; feasibility studies; preliminary aquifer selection considerations; and preliminary design and operating considerations. (TFD)

  16. Antisymmetric string actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragone, C.

    1986-12-01

    An action is presented for the free bosonic string on external flat space in terms of an antisymmetric second-rank string background tensor which is classically equivalent to the Nambu-Goto action. Both action and field equations are entirely described in terms of 2D world-sheet forms, without any reference to a 2D metric tensor background. The analysis of its canonical formulation shows how the quadratic Virasoro constraints are generated in this case and what their connection with the Bianchi identities are. Since in the orthonormal gauge the reduced action coincides with the standard one, it has the same critical dimension D = 26. The existence of an interaction term of a purely geometric structure stemming in the extrinsic curvature is pointed out. Its action and the new string field equations are then derived. This polynomial antisymmetric string action is uniformly generalized in order to describe d Apartado 80659, Caracas 1080A, Venezuela.

  17. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale : The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutsebaut, J.; Feenstra, D.J.; Kamphuis, J.H.

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of

  18. Preliminary Evaluation Study on the Participation Level of China in ISO TCM International Standardization Actives%我国参与ISO中医药国际标准化水平评价初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包文虎; 王璐; 李静; 顾晓静; 陶有青; 徐春波; 李振吉

    2015-01-01

    2009年成立的ISO/TC249中医药技术委员会为中医药国际标准化发展打开了又一扇大门。为了解ISO/TC249发展现状和问题,为决策提供依据,本文初步尝试从参与TC管理水平、注册专家水平、实质性参与标准制定水平和ISO成员国参与水平4个方面探索建立指标体系,并对我国参与ISO中医药国际标准化的水平进行了初步评价。通过评价认为,我国参与ISO/TC249管理水平较好;在注册专家绝对数量上优势较大,但专家在WG的分布和专家结构有待优化;在实质性参与标准制定方面的优势相比TC管理和注册专家数量的优势基础还有待提高;在ISO成员国参与水平上还有提升空间。%The establishment of ISO/TC249 in 2009 have opened a new door for TCM international standardization .To learn about the current situation , locate problems of the development ISO/TC249 and support the decision-making, this paper tries to set up an evaluation index system for participation level of China in ISO TCM international standardization actives .The system includes four aspects:the participation level of TCM management , the level of experts ’ registration, participation level of standards developing and the participation level of ISO member bodies in ISO /TC249.The results show that:1) China had greatly engaged in the man-agement of TCM;2) It had a quantity advantage in registered experts , but still needs enlarge experts ’ distribution and optimize expert’s structure in WG;3) In terms of standards developing , China’s advantage was not as significant as participation level of management and the quality of experts;4) Further contribution should be made to the level of ISO member bodies participated in ISO/TC249 .

  19. Action in Introductory Physics

    CERN Document Server

    McGinness, Lachlan P

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of classical physics in a first-year university class. Instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics through to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Student learning and misconceptions were studied with quantitative and qualitative techniques. In particular, an action concept inventory was developed through a process of expert consultation and student feedback. Students reported action physics to be accessible, interesting and valuable.

  20. Optimisation development coordinated young karate sportsmen abilities at the stage of preliminary base training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Rovnyy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation methodise perfection development of young karate sportsmen coordinated abilities at the stage of preliminary base training. Material and Methods: tested results of 57 young sportsmen divided in to 2 groups of equal preparatory level: control group (n=27 and experimental group (n=30 vestibular stability was tested by special tests and Romberg’s (station test. Results: the results of vestibular stability testing were established as the ground of coordinated young sportsmen abilities. Initial indices of statical and dynamic equilibrium of control group didn’t differ from experimental group. Introduction of program of optimization training progress promoted considerable increasing indices statical and dynamic equilibrium. The development of these abilities provided more effective forming complicated coordinated technical actions of young karate sportsmen. Conclusion: worker out programme promoted increasing the level of vestibular stability, which expresses in motive and vegetative improvements. It is just because of right forming moving hobbits of long conservation (keeping equilibrium body is the ground regulation vestibular apparatus (organs of complicated sportsmen action.

  1. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between organizational talk and action. Focusing in particular on the temporal dimension of this relationship, that is, the potential for talk to become action over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk......-action relationships. While we illustrate our theoretical points with examples from both corporate and political contexts, we draw especially on the field of corporate social responsibility (as an extreme case) where expectations of consistency between talk and actions are most explicitly pronounced....

  2. Action principles in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.; Tipler, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Physical theories have their most fundamental expression as action integrals. This suggests that the total action of the universe is the most fundamental physical quantity, and hence finite. In this article it is argued that finite universal action implies that the universe is spatially closed. Further, the possible spatial topologies, the types of matter that can dominate the early universe dynamics, and the form of any quadratic additions to the lagrangian of general relativity are constrained. Initial and final cosmological curvature singularities are required to avoid a universal action singularity.

  3. Action principles in nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, J.D.; Tipler, F.J.

    1988-01-07

    Physical theories have their most fundamental expression as action integrals. This suggests that the total action of the Universe is the most fundamental physical quantity, and hence finite. In this article it is argued that finite universal action implies that the Universe is spatially closed. Further, the possible spatial topologies, the types of matter that can dominate the early universe dynamics, and the form of any quadratic additions to the lagrangian of general relativity are constrained. Initial and final cosmological curvature singularities are required to avoid a universal action singularity.

  4. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...

  5. CHAOTIC GROUP ACTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiEnhui; ZhouLizhen; ZhouYoucheng

    2003-01-01

    It is proved that there is no chaotic group actions on any topological space with free arc.In this paper the chaotic actions of the group like G×F,where F is a finite group,are studied.In particular,under a suitable assumption ,if F is a cyclic group,then the topological space which admits a chaotic action of Z×F must admit a chatotic homeomorphism.A topological space which admits a chaotic group action but admits no chaotic horneomorphism is constructed.

  6. Preliminary remediation goals for use at the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This technical memorandum presents Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for use in human health risk assessment efforts under the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office Environmental Restoration (ER) Division. This document provides the ER Division with standardized PRGs which are integral to the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process. They are used during project scooping (Data Quality Objectives development), in screening level risk assessments to support early action or No Further Investigation decisions, and in the baselines risk assessment where they are employed in the selection of chemicals of potential concern. The primary objective of this document is to standardize these values and eliminate any duplication of effort by providing PRGs to all contractors involved in risk activities. In addition, by managing the assumptions and systems used in PRG derivation, the ER Risk Assessment Program will be able to control the level of quality assurance associated with these risk-based guideline values.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-09-16

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-16

    uranium, beryllium, total petroleum hydrocarbons; and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals. Field activities will consist of geophysical and radiological surveys, and collecting soil samples at biased locations by appropriate methods. A two-step data quality objective strategy will be followed: (1) define the nature of contamination at each CAS location by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); and, (2) determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-18

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive

  10. Preliminary relationship between serum cystatin C level and Parkinson's disease%血清胱抑素C的水平变化与帕金森病的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金敏; 陈静; 毛成洁; 杨亚萍; 刘春风

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of serum cystatin C level in Parkinson's disease (PD) and evaluate the relationship between cystatin C level and clinical characteristics and different stages of PD.Methods A total of 115 PD patients and 110 healthy controls were recruited.The results of such routine laboratory tests as triglyceride,cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein (LDL),high-density lipoprotein (HDL),creatinine,urea,uric acid and cystatin C were assessed from fasting blood samples at our clinical laboratory center.They were further divided into subgroups according to Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) staging.Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 17.0 software.Results Compared to controls (0.96 ± 0.16 mg/L),the mean serum level of cystatin C was significantly higher in PD patients (1.06 ± 0.20 mg/L).Spearman's correlation analyses showed a positive and significant correlation between cystatin C levels and age as well as creatinine levels.Correlation was not found between cystatin C level and triglyceride,cholesterol,LDL,HDL,urea or uric acid.ANOVA analysis showed that cystatin C had a higher level during the middle and late stages of PD than that during the early stage.Conclusion Cystatin C level may play an important role in the progression of PD.%目的 研究血清胱抑素C水平变化与帕金森病患者相关临床指标及分期之间的关系.方法 收集2011年7月至2012年12月在苏州大学附属第二医院神经内科经临床确诊为帕金森病的患者115例,检测这115例帕金森病患者的血清胱抑素C,选取同时间段内在苏州大学附属第二医院体检中心体检的110名健康中老年人作为对照组,采用SPSS 17.0软件对数据进行统计分析.结果 帕金森病组血清胱抑素C平均水平为(1.06±0.20) mg/L,健康对照组为(0.96±0.16) mg/L,组间均数比较差异有统计学意义(t=6.663,P<0.05).斯皮尔曼等级相关分析提示血清胱抑素C水平只与年龄(r =0.381,P<0.001)、血肌酐(r=0

  11. Preliminary results of ANAIS-25

    CERN Document Server

    Amaré, J; Cuesta, C; García, E; Ginestra, C; Martínez, M; Oliván, M A; Ortigoza, Y; de Solórzano, A Ortiz; Pobes, C; Puimedón, J; Sarsa, M L; Villar, P; Villar, J A

    2013-01-01

    The ANAIS (Annual Modulation with NaI(Tl) Scintillators) experiment aims at the confirmation of the DAMA/LIBRA signal using the same target and technique at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. 250 kg of ultrapure NaI(Tl) crystals will be used as a target, divided into 20 modules, each coupled to two photomultipliers. Two NaI(Tl) crystals of 12.5 kg each, grown by Alpha Spectra from a powder having a potassium level under the limit of our analytical techniques, form the ANAIS-25 set-up. The background contributions are being carefully studied and preliminary results are presented: their natural potassium content in the bulk has been quantified, as well as the uranium and thorium radioactive chains presence in the bulk through the discrimination of the corresponding alpha events by PSA, and due to the fast commissioning, the contribution from cosmogenic activated isotopes is clearly identified and their decay observed along the first months of data taking. Following the procedures established with ANAIS-0 and ...

  12. Preliminary assessment report for Kent National Guard Facility (Installation 53065), 24410 Military Road, Kent, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.; Rose, C.M.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard property in Kent, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment.

  13. Preliminary physician and pharmacist survey of the National Health Insurance PharmaCloud system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Chang, Elizabeth H; Kuo, Li-Na; Shen, Wan-Chen; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Wang, Chih-Chi; Chen, Hsiang-Yin

    2017-10-01

    The PharmaCloud system, a cloud-based medication system, was launched by the Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration (NHIA) in 2013 to integrate patients' medication lists among different medical institutions. The aim of the preliminary study was to evaluate satisfaction with this system among physicians and pharmacists at the early stage of system implementation. A questionnaire was developed through a review of the literature and discussion in 6 focus groups to understand the level of satisfaction, attitudes, and intentions of physicians and pharmacists using the PharmaCloud system. It was then administered nationally in Taiwan in July to September 2015. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were performed to identify variables influencing satisfaction and intention to use the system. In total, 895 pharmacist and 105 physician questionnaires were valid for analysis. The results showed that satisfaction with system quality warranted improvement. Positive attitudes toward medication reconciliation among physicians and pharmacists, which were significant predictors of the intention to use the system (β= 0.223, p < 0.001). Most physicians and pharmacists agreed that obtaining signed patient consent was needed but preferred that it be conducted by the NHIA rather than by individual medical institutions (4.02 ± 1.19 vs. 3.49 ± 1.40, p < 0.01). The preliminary study results indicated a moderate satisfaction toward the PharmaCloud system. Hospital pharmacists had a high satisfaction rate, but neither are physicians and community pharmacists. Continuously improvement on system quality has been performing based on the results of this preliminary survey. Policies and standardization processes, including privacy protection, are still warranted further actions to make the Taiwan PharmaCloud system a convenient platform for medication reconciliation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Preliminaries of a Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Sadl, Urska

    2017-01-01

    by the reasons why the Court after an oral hearing held in the presence of the parties and eight intervening Member States, and after hearing the Advocate General did not deliver one. The comment examines the legal framework, as well as the detailed procedural rules and guidelines that govern the cooperation...... of national courts in the preliminary reference procedure. It highlights the fact that preliminary references can only work when the preliminaries of a reference – the culture of sincere cooperation and litigation, efficient communication and flexible procedural rules – are in place....

  15. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  16. An Action Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David

    2004-01-01

    constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...

  17. Validity in Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.

    Emerging criteria are reported for judging the trustworthiness of action research studies as compared to the criteria established for judging the trustworthiness of other forms of naturalistic inquiry set forth by Y. S. Lincoln and E. Guba (1985). Differing conceptions of the nature of action research are delineated, and their accompanying…

  18. On action theory change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Varzinczak, IJ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available revisit the semantics of action theory contraction proposed in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between Kripke-models. Second we give algorithms for syntactical action theory contraction...

  19. Action Learning and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Today's leaders perform the following roles: systems thinker, change agent, innovator, servant, polychronic coordinator, teacher-mentor, and visionary. The elements of action learning (real problems, teams, reflective inquiry, commitment to action, focus on learning) contribute to the development of these critical skills. (Author/SK)

  20. Critical Utopian Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated.......The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated....

  1. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  2. Renormalized action improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  3. DEFINITION OF A NEW LEVEL ONE TEST CASE MEASUREMENTS OF EQUILIBRIUM RADIATION FROM AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA IN THE NEAR-UV TO NEAR-IR SPECTRAL REGION FOR A TITAN-TYPE N2-CH4 MIXTURE. PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vacher, Damien; André, Pascal; Lino Da Silva, Mario; Dudeck, Michel; Faure, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    International audience; A test case, using a similar methodology and experimental set-up than previous test case TC5-Level 1 is presented in this paper. An inductively coupled plasma torch, working at atmospheric pressure, is used to create N2-CH4 Titan-like plasma (98%N2 - 2%CH4). The operating frequency and power are 64 MHz and 3 kW respectively. This kind of apparatus allows obtaining plasma in chemical and quasi-thermal equilibrium The spectral measurements cover the [300-800] nm range an...

  4. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  5. Preliminary reference Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  6. Creativity as action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lubart, Todd; Bonnardel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The present paper outlines an action theory of creativity and substantiates this approach by investigating creative expression in five different domains. We propose an action framework for the analysis of creative acts built on the assumption that creativity is a relational, inter......-subjective phenomenon. This framework, drawing extensively from the work of Dewey (1934) on art as experience, is used to derive a coding frame for the analysis of interview material. The article reports findings from the analysis of 60 interviews with recognized French creators in five creative domains: art, design......, science, scriptwriting, and music. Results point to complex models of action and inter-action specific for each domain and also to interesting patterns of similarity and differences between domains. These findings highlight the fact that creative action takes place not “inside” individual creators but “in...

  7. Preliminary Study on Metacognition and English Specialized Four Levels of Vocabulary Teaching%元认知与英语专业四级词汇教学初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆

    2015-01-01

    元认知作为一种对学习本身的认知和控制能从根本上帮助学习者监管自己的认知活动,英语专业四级考试的重要环节就是词汇的准备。但是学生们除了简单的机械性重复很难有更好的办法。因此元认知与英语专业四级词汇的结合就为大学英语专业的学生提供了很好的学习方法,更能帮助学生通过英语专业的四级考试。%Metacognitive as a kind of cognitive learning and control itself can learn fundamentally help monitoring their cogni-tive activities.An important part of English specialized four levels of tests is that the vocabulary preparation.But in addition to mechanical simple repetition the students is very difficult to have a better way.Therefore metacognition and English specialized four levels of vocabulary provides a good way of learning for university students of English,which can help students to pass TEM4.

  8. 神经系统疾病儿童的血铅水平调查:单中心初步研究%Blood lead levels in children with neurological disorders: a single centre preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Touran MAHMOUDIAN; Mohamadreza MODARESI; Ali ZAREI; Parinaz POURSAFA; Roya KELISHADI

    2009-01-01

    目的 儿童铅中毒具有很大的潜在危害.慢性低水平铅暴露会导致学习障碍及行为问题,如腹痛,失眠,多动,生长发育落后,听力损失,上肢无力.该研究旨在调查神经系统疾病儿童的血铅水平,并与健康儿童作比较.方法 100名患有神经系统疾病的1~10岁儿童作为研究对象.100名年龄和性别匹配的健康儿童作为对照.采用火焰原子吸收光谱法检测血铅含量.结果 神经系统疾病组儿童的平均血铅含量显著高于对照组,差异有显著性(113.2±47.5μ/L VS 84.7±38.0μg/L;P<0.01).神经系统疾病组和对照组分别有44%和19%的儿童血铅超标(100μg/L).结论 儿童血铅水平增高可能与神经系统疾病有关.建议对患神经系统疾病的儿童常规作血铅测定.%Objective Lead poisoning is a potentially devastating problem among young children. Chronic low level lead exposure can lead to learning disabilities and behavior changes such as colic, insomnia, hyperactivity, impaired growth, hearing loss and upper extremity weakness. The purose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the blood lead level in children with neurological disorders in comparison with healthy controls. Methods Blood lead concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in 100 children aged 1-10 years and suffering from various neurological disorders. One hundred age-and sex-matched healthy children served as controls. Results The mean blood lead concentration was higher in children with neurological disorders than in controls ( 113.2±47.5 μg/L vs 84.7± 38.0 μg/L; P<0.01). Overall, 44% of children with neurological disorders and 19% of controls were found to have increased blood lead levels, i.e. 100 μg/L. Conclusions An increase in blood lead level in children might be related to neurological disorders. The measurement of blood lead level might be included in diagnostic eveluation of children with neurological disorders.

  9. Arapahoe NWR diversion reconstruction : Preliminary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary plan for a diversion reconstruction for Hubbard #2. Oklahoma #1, Dryer, Hill and Crowder sites on the Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge.

  10. Community Gardens as Contexts for Science, Stewardship,and Civic Action Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G. Tidball

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Community gardens are heterogeneous environments that integrate environmental restoration, community activism, social interactions, cultural expression, and food security. As such, they provide a context for learning that addresses multiple societal goals, including a populace that is scientifically literate, practices environmental stewardship, and participates in civic life. Several theories are useful in describing the learning that occurs in community gardens, including those focusing on learning as acquisition of content by individuals, learning as interaction with other individuals and the environment and as increasingly skilled levels of participation in a community of practice, and social learning among groups of stakeholders leading to concerted action to enhance natural resources. In this paper, we use preliminary evidence from the Garden Mosaics intergenerational education program to suggest the potential for community gardens to foster multiple types of learning.

  11. Calculus of spatial distribution of absorbed dose to cellular level by Monte Carlo simulation for a radio-labelled peptide with {sup 188}Re and with nuclear internalization : preliminary results; Calculo de la distribucion espacial de dosis absorbida a nivel celular por simulacion Monte Carlo para un peptido radiomarcado con {sup 188}Re y con internalizacion nuclear : resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santos C, C. L. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan y Jesus Carranza, Toluca 50120, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    The {sup 188}Re is a radionuclide of radiation gamma emitter, useful in obtaining of gamma-graphic images, but it is also emitter of beta radiations and Auger electrons. A bio-molecule directed to a specific receptor of a cancer cell labeled with a emitter radionuclide of beta particles and Auger electrons, as the {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin, it has the potential to be used in radiotherapy of molecular targets for its capacity to penetrate to cellular nucleus. In this system, the radiation dose is distributed in way located at microscopic levels in sub cellular specific places, where Auger emissions contributes of significant way in absorbed dose. The cellular dosimetry is realized in most of cases, using analytic or semi analytical methods, for example the cellular MIRD methodology. However, it is required to complement these calculations simulating the electrons transport and considering experimental bio kinetics data. Therefore, in this work preliminary results are presented of dosimetric calculation to sub cellular level for {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin by Monte Carlo simulation, using the 2008 version of PENELOPE: PENEASY code. The spatial distribution of absorbed dose in membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, was calculated with geometry of a cell of 10 {mu}m of diameter, a nucleus of 2 {mu}m of ratio and membrane of 0.2 {mu}m of thickness, considering elementary constitution for each cellular compartment proposal in literature. The total number of disintegrations at sub cellular level was evaluated integrating the activity in function of time starting from experimental bio kinetics data in mamma cancer cells MDA-MB231. The preliminary results show that 46.4% of total disintegrations for unit of captured activity by cell occurs in nucleus, 38.4% in membrane and 15.2% in cytoplasm. The due absorbed dose to Auger electrons for 1 Bq of {sup 188}Re located in cellular membrane were respectively of 1.32E-1 and 1.43E-1 Gy in cytoplasm and nucleus. (Author)

  12. Cytoprotective action of roxatidine acetate HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, K; Fuse, H; Hagiwara, M; Mikami, T; Miyasaka, K; Sakuma, H

    1988-01-01

    The cytoprotective action of roxatidine acetate HCl (roxatidine) was investigated. We also studied the involvement of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) in the cytoprotective action of roxatidine and the effect of roxatidine on SRS content in pleurisy induced by A23187. Simultaneously, these effects of roxatidine were compared with those of other histamine H2-receptor antagonists at the same anti-secretory activity level. Roxatidine prevented formation of the gastric mucosal lesions induced by abs. ethanol, 0.6 N HCl and 0.2 N NaOH, but it failed to prevent 30% NaCl-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine failed to prevent formation of the gastric mucosal lesions induced by necrotizing agents. The cytoprotective action of roxatidine was not abolished by pretreatment with indomethacin. Roxatidine did not greatly influence SRS production. Consequently, it appears that roxatidine has a cytoprotective action and that this action is not associated with endogenous PGs and SRS.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action at the Test Cell A Leachfield System and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The Test Cell A Leachfield System is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 261. Remediation of CAU 261 is required under the FFACO (1996). CAU 261 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 261 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASS): CAS 25-05-01, Leachfield; and CAS 25-05-07, Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (Figures 2 and 3). Test Cell A was operated during the 1960s and 1970s to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Various operations within Building 3124 at Test Cell A resulted in liquid waste releases to the Leachfield and the AWLP. The following existing site conditions were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999): Soil in the leachfield was found to exceed the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preliminary remediation goals for semi volatile organic compounds, and background concentrations for strontium-90; Soil below the sewer pipe and approximately 4.5 meters (m) (15 feet [ft]) downstream of the initial outfall was found to exceed background concentrations for cesium-137 and strontium-90; Sludge in the leachfield septic tank was found to exceed the NDEP Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons and to contain americium-241, cesium-137, uranium-234, uranium-238, potassium-40, and strontium-90; No constituents of concern (COC) were identified at the AWLP. The NDEP-approved CADD (DOWNV, 1999) recommended Corrective Action Alternative 2, ''Closure of the Septic Tank and Distribution Box

  14. Hungarian climate change action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Arpasi, M. [MOL, Budapest (Hungary); Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T. [Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy, Budapest (Hungary); Harnos, Z. [Univ. of Horticulture, Budapest (Hungary); Lontay, Z. [EGI-Contracting Engineering Co. Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Somogyi, Z. [Forest Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Tajthy, T. [Univ. of Technology, Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  15. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    of organizational talk and their associated activities, the paper discusses the different ways time shape the relationship between talk and action. Acknowledging that talk gives rise to different expectations over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk-action relationships....... While we illustrate our theoretical points with examples from both corporate and political contexts, we draw especially on the field of corporate social responsibility (as an extreme case) where expectations of consistency between talk and actions are most explicitly pronounced....

  16. Actions for Curved Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Abou-Zeid, M

    2000-01-01

    The nondeterminantal forms of the Born-Infeld and related brane actions in which the gauge fields couple to both an induced metric and an intrinsic metric are generalised by letting either or both metrics be dynamical. The resulting actions describe ` brane world' and cosmological scenarios in which the gauge fields are confined to the brane, while gravity propagates in both the world-volume and the bulk. In particular, for actions involving a nonsymmetric ` metric', nonsymmetric gravity propagates on the worldvolume. For 3-branes with a symmetric metric, conformal (Weyl) gravity propagates on the worldvolume and has conformally invariant couplings to the gauge fields.

  17. Violence as Situational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Treiber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Violence comes in many forms and occurs in many different circumstances for many different reasons. Is it really possible to develop a single theory that can explain all these disparate acts? In this paper, we argue it is. We make the case that acts of violence are essentially moral actions and therefore can, and should, be analysed and explained as such. We maintain that all acts of violence can be explained within the general framework of a theory of moral action. We present just such a theory – Situational Action Theory – and demonstrate how it can be applied to the explanation and study of violence.

  18. Reasoning about Unreliable Actions

    CERN Document Server

    White, Graham

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the philosopher Davidson's semantics of actions, using a strongly typed logic with contexts given by sets of partial equations between the outcomes of actions. This provides a perspicuous and elegant treatment of reasoning about action, analogous to Reiter's work on artificial intelligence. We define a sequent calculus for this logic, prove cut elimination, and give a semantics based on fibrations over partial cartesian categories: we give a structure theory for such fibrations. The existence of lax comma objects is necessary for the proof of cut elimination, and we give conditions on the domain fibration of a partial cartesian category for such comma objects to exist.

  19. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...... a complexity results overview for the problem of deciding the winner in the game....

  20. Spacelike brane actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Ho, Pei-Ming; Wang, John E

    2003-04-11

    We derive effective actions for "spacelike branes" (S-branes) and find a solution describing the formation of fundamental strings in the rolling tachyon background. The S-brane action is a Dirac-Born-Infeld action for Euclidean world volumes defined in the context of time-dependent tachyon condensation of non-BPS (Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) branes. It includes gauge fields and, in particular, a scalar field associated with translation along the time direction. We show that the BIon spike solutions constructed in this system correspond to the production of a confined electric flux tube (a fundamental string) at late time of the rolling tachyon.

  1. Culture-Independent Study of the Late-Stage of a Bloom of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata: Preliminary Findings Suggest Genetic Differences at the Sub-Species Level and Allow ITS2 Structure Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Ramos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Available genomic data for the toxic, bloom-forming, benthic Ostreopsis spp. are traditionally obtained from isolates rather than from individuals originally present in environmental samples. Samples from the final phase of the first reported Ostreopsis bloom in European North Atlantic waters (Algarve, south coast of Portugal were studied and characterized, using a culture-independent approach. In the first instance, a microscopy-based analysis revealed the intricate complexity of the samples. Then, we evaluated the adequacy of commonly used molecular tools (i.e., primers and nuclear ribosomal markers for the study of Ostreopsis diversity in natural samples. A PCR-based methodology previously developed to identify/detect common Ostreopsis species was tested, including one new combination of existing PCR primers. Two sets of environmental rRNA sequences were obtained, one of them (1052 bp with the newly tested primer set. These latter sequences encompass both the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene, leading us to an accurate identification of ITS2. In turn, this allowed us to predict and show for the first time the ITS2 secondary structure of Ostreopsis. With 92 bp in length and a two-helix structure, the ITS2 of this genus revealed to be unique among the dinoflagellates. Both the PCR approach as the phylogenetic analyses allowed to place the Ostreopsis cells observed in the samples within the O. cf. ovata phylospecies’ complex, discarding the presence of O. cf. siamensis. The (phylogenetic results point out a certain level of nucleotide sequence divergence, but were inconclusive in relation to a possible geographic origin of the O. cf. ovata population from the Algarve’s bloom.

  2. 32 CFR 644.388 - Army military-screening, clearance, preliminary report of excess, except where an E.O. 11954...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military-screening, clearance, preliminary... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.388 Army military—screening, clearance, preliminary report...

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2009-06-01

    radium-226. A corrective action was implemented to remove approximately 50 cubic yards of PCB-contaminated soil, approximately 1 cubic foot of radium-226 contaminated soil (and scabbled asphalt), and a high-efficiency particulate air filter that was determined to meet the criteria of a potential source material (PSM). Electrical and lighting components (i.e., PCB-containing ballasts and capacitors) and other materials (e.g., mercury-containing thermostats and switches, lead plugs and bricks) assumed to be PSM were also removed from Building 2201, as practical, without the need for sampling. Because the COC contamination and PSMs have been removed, clean closure of CAS 26-41-01 is recommended, and no use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU. No further action is necessary because no other contaminants of potential concern were found above preliminary action levels. The physical end state for Building 2201 is expected to be eventual demolition to slab. The DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office provides the following recommendations: • Clean closure is the recommended corrective action for CAS 26-41-01 in CAU 117. • A Notice of Completion to the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 117. • Corrective Action Unit 117 should be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

  4. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...... of interdisciplinary perspectives, ranging from theoretical discussion of concepts to findings from recent scientific studies. It incorporates contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and an artificial intelligence theorist. The contributions take a range of positions with respect...

  5. Call to Action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in countries throughout Africa. Countries should take immediate action to decentralise postabortion care, .... used to provide care, specific activities (includ- ing management of .... a dynamic strategy for addressing unsafe abor- tions in diverse ...

  6. NSP Action Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP Action Plans, also known as Substantial Amendments, contain a description of a grantee’s intended use for NSP funds. The plans contain information on the...

  7. Affirmative Action's Contradictory Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Madeline E.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses affirmative action's success at creating a more equal workplace. Explores some potential psychological costs of this policy--costs that paradoxically may undermine its objectives--and their implications for achieving the goal of workplace equality. (GR)

  8. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  9. Normative Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baboroglu, Oguz; Ravn, Ib

    1992-01-01

    /organizational research, the futures perspective implies that knowledge of the social/organizational world must be based upon images of desirable futures, so-called "futures theories", not causal descriptions of a problematic present. Futures theories identify ends and means for individual and organizational development......This paper presents an argument for an enrichment of action research methodology. To the current state of action research, we add a constructivist epistemological argument, as well as a crucial inspiration from some futures-oriented planning approaches. Within the domain of social....... They are generated jointly by the stakeholders of a system and the involved action researchers and are tested every time that the prescriptions for action contained in them are followed by a system's stakeholders....

  10. Normative Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baboroglu, Oguz; Ravn, Ib

    1992-01-01

    /organizational research, the futures perspective implies that knowledge of the social/organizational world must be based upon images of desirable futures, so-called "futures theories", not causal descriptions of a problematic present. Futures theories identify ends and means for individual and organizational development......This paper presents an argument for an enrichment of action research methodology. To the current state of action research, we add a constructivist epistemological argument, as well as a crucial inspiration from some futures-oriented planning approaches. Within the domain of social....... They are generated jointly by the stakeholders of a system and the involved action researchers and are tested every time that the prescriptions for action contained in them are followed by a system's stakeholders....

  11. 自由基清除剂对香石竹切花瓶插寿命及生理效应的影响%Preliminary Research on Effects of Free Radical Scavenging Agents on Vase Life of Dianthus caryophyllus Cut-flower and Its Physiological Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙斌; 廖梅英

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨自由基清除剂对香石竹切花瓶插寿命及生理效应的影响.[方法]以高温季节的香石竹切花为试材,以8-HQ和蔗糖为基础保鲜物质,分别添加2种自由基清除剂(MA和SBN)和外源活性氧ST,设置4个处理,以蒸馏水为对照,探讨自由基清除剂用在香石竹切花瓶插过程中SOD、CAT及O等生理指标的变化规律.[结果]各处理的香石竹瓶插寿命均比对照长,其中MA处理最为明显,比对照延长了6.5 d;MA和SBN处理对O达到峰值的时间分别比对照推迟6.0和8.0 d,对SOD达到峰值的时间比对照延长2.0d,对CAT达到峰值的时间分别比对照延长8.0和6.0 d.[结论]2种自由基清除剂的处理在香石竹切花瓶插过程中对抑制O的水平及促进SOD和CAT的合成具有明显效果,并能明显减缓SOD和CAT活性下降的速率.%[ Objective ] The study aimed to discuss the effects of free radical scavenging agents on the vase life of Dianthus caryophyllus cut-flowers and its physiological action. [ Method] With D. caryophyllus cut-flower in the high temperature season as the tested materials, 8-HQ and sucrose were taken as the basic preservation material and 2 kinds of free radical scavenging agents ( MA and SBN ) and the exogenous active oxygen ST were added in them to set up the 4 treatments with the distilled water as the CK, thus to discuss the change rule of physiological indexes such as SOD, CAT, and O2 - in the vase process of D. caryophyllus cut-flowers by using free radical scavenging agents. [ Result]The vase life of D.caryophyllus in each treatment was longer than CK, in which the MA treatment extended the vase life by 6. 5 d than CK. As for MA and SBN treatment compared with CK, the time of O2 - reaching peak value was delayed by 6.0 and 8.0 d resp. , the time of SOD reaching peak value was delayed by 2.0 d and the time of CAT reaching peak value was delayed by 8.0 and 6.0 d resp. [ Conclusion ] In the vase process of D. caryophyllus

  12. Communicative Action and the Other of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sík Domokos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communicative action is the coordination mechanism of social actions. However, being a social action itself, it needs coordination in case of obstruction. Such obstruction is especially frequent in late modern constellation burdened with the “individualization of life forms” (Beck and the “dissolution of a mutual ground” (Lash. I call the mechanism capable of overcoming such obstruction the “coordination of action coordination.” In the following essay, this notion is elaborated. Firstly, on the level of formal pragmatics, situations that implicate action coordination are specified. Secondly, the coordinating mechanism of action coordination is elaborated in the frames of the Habermasian theory as the harmonization of different concepts of justice underlying action coordination. Thirdly, a paradoxical aspect of this solution is introduced, which originates from the strict linguistic-intentional character of Habermas’s theory. Fourthly, based on Levinas’s pre-intentional ethical phenomenology, an alternative description of the coordination of action coordination is elaborated. Finally, the broader theoretical consequences of the new solution are detailed.

  13. Input-output analysis of some sector actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Selected energy conservation actions previously discussed in depth but separately in the areas of the energy industry, the industry sector, the transportation sector, and the residential and commercial sector, were brought together and assessed as a group. Particular emphasis was devoted to identifying secondary or indirect impacts and multiple interactions. Preliminary results obtained from the ECASTAR energy input-output model suggest that the impacts of energy conservation actions can be grossly misrepresented if secondary impacts are not included in the assessment. A methodology which stresses the importance of secondary and multiple interactions permeates the underlying philosophy of this discussion.

  14. Introducere in Action Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    In these years action learning has become an increasing aspect of qualifying in service training of teachers in Western European countries. In this article the model of action learning which has been developed by teachers at VIA University College and introduced to the teachers at the SCAN...... in service program will be described and the interaction and the learning aspects in the model will be analyzed....

  15. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage ins...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  16. Color Blind Affirmative Action

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the consequences of the widespread adoption of race-neutral alternatives' to conventional racial affirmative action policies in college admissions. A simple model of applicant competition with endogenous effort is utilized to show that, in comparison to color-conscious affirmative action, these color-blind alternatives can significantly lower the efficiency of the student selection process in equilibrium. We examine data on matricul...

  17. A preliminary Investigation of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in non-uranium mines in China%我国非铀矿山222Rn和220Rn水平初步调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚兵; 崔宏星; 武云云; 张庆召; 苏旭

    2008-01-01

    Objective To measure levels of 222Rn and 220Rn in typical non-uranium mines, China, and to estimate dose from the occupational radon exposure in the miners. Methods Using typical sampling scheme,44 mines were selectcd in 12 provinces, which can be classified into 4 categories and 17 types of mines. The radon-thoron discriminative detectors were used to measure 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in mines. Result The concentration of 222Rn or 220Rn was log-normally distributed. The arithmetic mean (AM) concentration and geometric mean (GM) concentration of 222Rn and 220Rn in 25 metal mines (n=147) were estimated to be (1211±2359) Bq/m3(AM) and (311±5.5) Bq/m3(GM), and (269±700) Bq/m3(AM) and (71±4.4)Bq/m3(GM), respectively. The mean concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in 18 non-metal mines (n=118) were (98±207) Bq/m3(AM) and(55±2.5) Bq/m3(GM), and (60±76) Bq/m3(AM) and (38±2.4)Bq/m3(GM),respectively. In total, we measured 222 Rn concentration in 44 underground mines, 6 of them, accounted for 15%, with the mean radon concentration exceeding 1000 Bqm-3 (limit of workplace in China). Approximately 7% of radon concentration in mines measured were higher than 3700 Bq/m3(current limit in uranium mine in China), some points even exceeded 10 000 Bq/m3. Based on this typical measurements, the equilibrium factor for 222Rn was estimated to be 0.33±0.15 in underground mines and 0.47±0.18 in nearby houses. Equilibrium factor for 222Rn ranged from 0.001 to 0.032. Using the data obtained in this typical survey, the average annual effective dose of underground miners exposed to radon and thoron was estimated to be 8.15 mSv/a. Conclusions High levels of 222Rn exists in metal mines, such as copper, tin, lead and zinc, gold, and aluminum mines among others. More study and administrative measures are needed to address the radiation protection of workers occupationally exposed to high radon in mines.%目的 测量非铀矿山222Rn、220Rn水平,了解我国矿山氡超标比

  18. On dynamo action in the giant star Pollux : first results

    CERN Document Server

    Palacios, A

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a 3D MHD simulation of the convective envelope of the giant star Pollux for which the rotation period and the magnetic ?eld intensity have been measured from spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric observations. This giant is one of the ?rst single giants with a detected magnetic ?eld, and the one with the weakest ?eld so far. Our aim is to understand the development and the action of the dynamo in its extended convective envelope.

  19. [Addictions and action systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  20. Topological Lattice Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W; Pepe, M; Wiese, U -J

    2010-01-01

    We consider lattice field theories with topological actions, which are invariant against small deformations of the fields. Some of these actions have infinite barriers separating different topological sectors. Topological actions do not have the correct classical continuum limit and they cannot be treated using perturbation theory, but they still yield the correct quantum continuum limit. To show this, we present analytic studies of the 1-d O(2) and O(3) model, as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the 2-d O(3) model using topological lattice actions. Some topological actions obey and others violate a lattice Schwarz inequality between the action and the topological charge $Q$. Irrespective of this, in the 2-d O(3) model the topological susceptibility $\\chi_t = \\l/V$ is logarithmically divergent in the continuum limit. Still, at non-zero distance the correlator of the topological charge density has a finite continuum limit which is consistent with analytic predictions. Our study shows explicitly that some cla...

  1. Contamination levels and preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility of employing natural attenuation in 5 priority areas of Presidente Bernardes Refinery in Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, René P; Morano, Sandra C; Gigena, Maria Alejandra C; Missawa, Silvia K; Rocha, Rafael C S; Da Silva, Lucimara Rodrigues; Ellert, Nelson; Kataoka, Sérgio; Katsuragi, Carlos; Rosa, Carlos Da Silva; Filho, Luiz Calixto De Oliveira

    2006-05-01

    Five priority areas of potential impact by contaminants (API) were investigated at the Presidente Bernardes Refinery in Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil with the following aims: (i) to identify both organic and inorganic contaminants present in soil and groundwater; (ii) to define the environmental conditions relevant for microbial activity at the site and (iii) to evaluate the feasibility of employing natural attenuation for treatment of the hydrocarbon contamination. One area (API 1) was an uncontrolled landfill, where waste materials from the refinery were deposited between 1954 and 1986, and four areas (API 4, 5, 7 and 11) were located in the operational section of the refinery. Soil contamination by regulated BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, total xylenes) was restricted to two samples from API 1. Nonregulated ethylbenzene was detected in one soil sample from API 4, one from API 5 and two from API 1. No soil contained regulated PAH above threshold levels. Several nonregulated PAHs were found in 6 soil samples from API 1, 3 soil samples from API 4 and 1 soil sample from API 5. Site soils contained very high aluminium concentrations, but metal contamination was restricted to one soil sample from API 1, which contained nickel above threshold limits. BTEX contamination of groundwater was due mostly to benzene. Of the 17 PAH molecules tested, only naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene occurred in groundwater. The sum of total BTEX and total PAH exceeded 200 microg/L in only a few monitoring wells in API 4, 5 and 11 and was always below 2.640 microg/L. Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag, Tl and Zn were not detected in groundwater, which was contaminated in a few locations by aluminium (mostly below 1 mg/L), lead (inorganic carbon pool in groundwater was up to one order of magnitude larger than the organic carbon pool. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) in API groundwater exceeded TIC of clean groundwater by factors of 2 (API 4), 6 (API 5, 7 and 11) or 10 (API 1). Most of the

  2. 在细胞水平上对高温珊瑚白化的初步研究%Preliminary study of coral bleaching at cellular level under thermal stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑; 余克服; 陈天然; 施祺

    2011-01-01

    Global warming and abnormal high temperature cause coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis collapse and significant loss of zooxanthellae (coral bleaching), and further lead to degradation of coral reef ecosystems. In this study, the authors collected six species of corals from the Luhuitou fringing reef in Sanya, and designed a mesocosm experiment that those corals were cultured under a high temperature stress, for investigating the diversity of tolerance among different coral symbiosis at cellular level. The results are as follows. The diversity of tolerance among different coral species under acute thermal stresses was related to their morphologies: branching corals showed the lowest tolerance in thermal stress, while the foliose and massive corals showed stronger tolerance, which was similar to the result in the field monitoring. Different coral species showed different ways of zooxanthellae loss under thermal stresses: zooxanthellae discharging continuously, like Pocillopora damicornis; zooxanthellae discharging partly and followed by coral tissues containing zooxanthellae separating from skeletons,like Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora brueggemanni; the residual zooxauthellae in coral tissues using mitotic proliferation to replenish their numbers quickly, like Pavona decussate; cell necrosis of zooxanthellae in coral tissues, like Porites lutea. This study confirmed that the role of coral host and zooxanthellae should be considered simultaneously in further studies of coral responses to global warming.%全球变暖背景下的异常高温能够导致珊瑚及其虫黄藻组成的共生体系崩溃,虫黄藻大量损失,出现珊瑚白化,并可能进一步导致珊瑚礁生态系统退化.文章通过对6种造礁石珊瑚的急性高温胁迫实验,分析不同种属的石珊瑚虫黄藻共生体系对高温的耐受性差异,为全球变暖背景下珊瑚群落演替趋势提供理论依据.结果显示:1)在急性高温胁迫下,石珊瑚耐受的差异性与其

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): (1) CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400

  4. Environmental survey preliminary report, Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Mound Plant, conducted August 18 through 29, 1986. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Mound Plant. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the Mound Plant, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey found no environmental problems at the Mound Plant that represent an immediate threat to human life. The environmental problems identified at the Mound Plant by the Survey confirm that the site is confronted with a number of environmental problems which are by and large a legacy from past practices at a time when environmental problems were less well understood. Theses problems vary in terms of their magnitude and risk, as described in this report. Although the sampling and analysis performed by the Mound Plant Survey will assist in further identifying environmental problems at the site, a complete understanding of the significance of some of the environmental problems identified requires a level of study and characterization that is beyond the scope of the Survey. Actions currently under way or planned at the site, particularly the Phase II activities of the Comprehensive Environmental Analysis and Response Program (CEARP) as developed and implemented by the Albuquerque Operations Office, will contribute toward meeting this requirement. 85 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  6. Using Web-Based Homework to Teach Principles of Microeconomics: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeannette C.; Mitchell, Johanna E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates an interactive web-based homework designed to increase student understanding in a principles of microeconomics course. Employing concepts from Action Research, the preliminary investigation was undertaken based on assumptions about the efficacy of online educational resources. Do students who do well on online homework improve…

  7. Synthesis of N11-anchoring biotinylated artemisinin derivatives and their preliminary biological assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Unique endoperoxide moiety of artemisinin and its derivatives has been considered the functionality exhibiting highly potent antimalarial and anticancer activities.To investigate the mechanisms of their biological actions,development of suitable molecular probes including biotinylated derivatives is of extreme significance.The synthesis and preliminary biological assessment of four new biotinylated artemisinin derivatives have been reported in this work.

  8. The total Somali clan genealogy : a preliminary sketch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary genealogy of all Somali 'clans'. Somali kinship is based on patrilineal descent, but there are no equivalents in the Somali language for the words 'clan' and 'lineage'. The Somali terminology for the levels of social segmentation is complex, amongst others because o

  9. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

  10. One safety critical indicators model for regulatory actions on nuclear power plants based on a level 1 PSA; Um modelo de indicadores criticos de seguranca para acoes regulatorias em usinas nucleares baseado em uma APS nivel 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    2006-03-15

    This study presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This methodology can be used for identifying situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can also identify eventual room for improvements by generating suggestions and recommendations, as a complement for regulatory actions and inspections, focusing resources on eventual existing weaknesses, in order to increase or maintain a high pattern of operational safety. (author)

  11. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old What's an Asthma Action Plan? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma Action Plan? ... normal everyday activities without having asthma symptoms. Action Plans Are Unique Each person's experience with asthma is ...

  12. Introducing Actions into Qualitative Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    include the effects of actions to form action-augmented envisionments . The action-augmented envisionment incorporates both the effects of an agent’s...procedure generation than any previous representation . This paper defines action- augmented envisionments and an algorithm for directly computing...Moving actions into the physics . The next section introduces a new representation, the action-augmented envisionment (or .fie), which inte- grates the

  13. Classifying Facial Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  14. Rethinking therapeutic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O; Westen, Drew

    2003-08-01

    Like other core psychoanalytic constructs, the theory of therapeutic action is currently in flux, as theorists of differing persuasions propose different mechanisms. In this article, the authors attempt to integrate developments within and without psychoanalysis to provide a working model of the multifaceted processes involved in producing change in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. A theory of therapeutic action must describe both what changes (the aims of treatment) and what strategies are likely to be useful in facilitating those changes (technique). The authors believe that single-mechanism theories of therapeutic action, no matter how complex, are unlikely to prove useful at this point because of the variety of targets of change and the variety of methods useful in effecting change in those targets (such as techniques aimed at altering different kinds of conscious and unconscious processes). Interventions that facilitate change may be classified into one of three categories: those that foster insight, those that make use of various mutative aspects of the treatment relationship and a variety of secondary strategies that can be of tremendous importance. They propose that, in all forms of psychoanalytic treatment, we would be more accurate to speak of the therapeutic actions, rather than action.

  15. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  16. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    projects, it remains a challenge to investigate in detail how people interact with all of their body. Analysis of full-body movement is time consuming, notation techniques are rare, and findings are difficult to share between members of a design team. In this paper we propose tangible video analysis......, a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving....... By backtracking our design research experiments, we will unfold how and why the tangible tool succeeds in engaging designers with varied analysis experience to collaboratively focus on human action structures – and even find video analysis fun!...

  17. Theater and action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Husted, Mia

    2011-01-01

    difficulties reaching the public agenda or influencing structures of power. In this article we follow the creation of a play and of scenes that address the life, sufferings, and wishes of unemployed people. The skills of actors, writers, and producers are worked into a critical utopian action research project...... and used to highlight and enlarge both critique and dreams in life outside the labor market. The article also discusses some of the reactions the plays received and the formation of knowledge linked to these processes.......Action research on marginalization and exclusion often seeks to examine relations between recognition, respect, and inclusion, but addressing these topics is difficult. Theatre-based action research opens up a new way to communicate and make visible knowledge and experiences from below that have...

  18. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital...... instrument in the pursuit of sustainability.  Prior Work - Extant literature identifies two main approaches to sustainable entrepreneurship. (i) traditional exploitation of environmentally relevant opportunities and (ii) institutional entrepreneurship creating opportunities. We identify a novel form......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...

  19. THE ACTION RESEARCH METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GEORGIEVSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The effort in this work to elaborate an action research method as a central research problem considering the recent contemporary sociological and educa­tional literature. The author begins with the statement that the method is a complex notion, composed of three main components: approach to the research problem, data gathering procedures and data analysis procedures. This point of view is further applied and elaborated in the author's text, emphasizing the action research characteristics: interruption with the positive tradition in social research and the divided of the objective and subjective, application of the qualitative data. The sub­stantial difference between the action research in regard with the other kinds of research, is not only in getting to new knowledge's, but also in problem solving or a change in the situation in a concrete social context.

  20. Knowledge into Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Thorup

    between health knowledge and individual action. The book investigates what political rationality characterizes this new ambition in public health policies to put knowledge into action in the hands of individual citizens and how these policies adapt to the continuous experience that citizens often do...... not listen. Based on a Foucauldian framework, the genealogy demonstrates the new governmentality in Danish and American public health policy, which depends upon a specific politics of truth. Not only does public health policy build on a large amount of scientific knowledge. It also demands a change...... in the production and circulation of health knowledge, which attempts to replace the usual 'ifs, buts and maybes' of medical science with an action-minded public health knowledge just telling people what to do....

  1. Multimodal responsive action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    While a first pair part projects a limited set of second pair parts to be provided next, responders select different types and formats for second pair parts to assemble activities (Schegloff 2007). Accordingly, various ways of shaping responses have been extensively studied (e.g. Pomerantz 1984......; Raymond 2003; Schegloff and Lerner 2009), including those with multimodal actions (e.g. Olsher 2004; Fasulo & Monzoni 2009). Some responsive actions can also be completed with bodily behavior alone, such as: when an agreement display is achieved by using only nonvocal actions (Jarmon 1996), when...... both verbal and body-behavioral elements. This paper explores one such situation in professional-client interaction, during the event of evaluating a service outcome in a haircutting session. In general, a haircutting session is brought to its closure through the service-assessment sequence, in which...

  2. The Refinement of The Preliminary Genetic Decomposition of Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, K.

    2017-04-01

    Mathematics proof is one of the characteristics of advanced mathematics thinking, and proof plays an important role in learning the abstract algebra included group theory. The depth and complexity of individual’s understanding of a concept depend on his/her ability to establish connections among the mental structure that constitute it. One of the cognitive styles is field dependent/independent. Field independent (FI) and field dependent (FD) learners have different characteristics. Our research question is (1)How is the proposed refinement of preliminary genetic decomposition of group that is designed with a preliminary study of the learning with APOS works; (2) What understanding about group that is generated by student (Field Independent, Field Neutral, and Field Dependent) when learning through designed material. This study was a descriptive qualitative. The participants of this study were nine (9) undergraduate students who were taking Introduction of Algebraic Structure 1, which included group, in the even semester of academic year 2015/2016 at Universitas Negeri Semarang. Each of type of cognitive styles consisted of 3 participants. There were two instruments used to gather data: written examination in the course and a set of the interview. The FD and FN participants generated Action for a binary operation. The FI participant generated Action and Process for a binary operation. The FD, FN and FI participants generated Action, Process, Object, and Scheme for the set. The FD and FN participant did not generate mental structure for axiom. The FI participant generated Scheme for axiom. The FD, FN and FI participants tend to have no Coherence of Scheme of the group. Not all mental structure on the refinement of the preliminary genetic decomposition can be constructed by participants so well that there are still obstacles in the process of proving.

  3. Preliminary Collaborative Steps in Establishing CEFR Sign Language Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadlier, L.; van den Bogaerde, B.; Oyserman, P.; Tsagari, D.; Csepes, I.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the role of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) in the context of teaching, learning, and more specifically, assessing signed languages. An exploration of various approaches used in selected universities across Europe provides perspectives on how the

  4. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  5. Controversies on affirmative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Affirmative action was launched by American presidents J.F. Kennedy and L.B. Johnson, yet by ironic historical accident it attained its greatest expansion and most radical form during R. Nixon’s conservative administration. Affirmative action was originally a government programme aimed at improving the social position of Afro-Americans, mostly in the sphere of employment and education, as a kind of compensation for racial discrimination, and also other forms of social injustice suffered by minority and underprivileged groups. Its goal was to increase the proportion of Afro-Americans, and later members of other minorities, as well as women, in higher education institutions and in various types of employment. It was supported by many social researchers and activists. Law courts, namely their verdicts and explanations in the case of precedents, had an especially important role in the debate on affirmative action. Political conservatives attacked various affirmative action programmes (especially preferential enrolment quotas for minority students, basing their criticism on the American constitutional principles on equal rights for every citizen. Market conservatives, furthermore, claimed that the government’s policy of racial preference brought into question the very basis of the capital system (competition and at the same time was not in the interest of the Afro-American working class. Namely, the social strata that profited most was the relatively affluent segment of the Afro-American community, which only increased economic and social differences within the latter. Recently the debate on affirmative action in the US has not been limited only to two opposing sides (liberals and conservatives. More and more scientists and other participants have recognised the negative aspects and also the failures of affirmative action, while at the same time refuting conservative opinions and goals.

  6. Improvisation in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of extemporaneous action and bricolage in designing and implementing information systems in organizations. We report a longitudinal field study of design and implementation of a Web-based groupware application in a multinational corporation. We adopt a sensemaking...... perspective to analyze the dynamics of this process and show that improvisational action and bricolage (making do with the materials at hand) played a vital role in the development of the application. Finally, we suggest that this case study provides an occasion to reconsider how we conceptualize information...

  7. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Dani...... cases: Hafnia case (investment prospectus), and Danish Eternit (roof elements) where the existence of Danish provisions on class actions might have made a difference, and the article also deals with the delicate questions of opt-in and opt-out....

  8. Characterizations of proper actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Harald

    2004-03-01

    Three kinds of proper actions of increasing strength are defined. We prove that the three definitions specialize to the definitions by Bourbaki, by Palais and by Baum, Connes and Higson in their respective settings. The third of these, which thus turns out to be the strongest, originally only concerns actions of second countable locally compact groups on metrizable spaces. In this situation, it is shown to coincide with the other two definitions if the total space locally has the Lindelöf property and the orbit space is regular.

  9. The calcium mobilizing tumor promoting agent, thapsigargin elevates the platelet cytoplasmic free calcium concentration to a higher steady state level. A possible mechanism of action for the tumor promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastrup, Ole; Foder, B; Scharff, O

    1987-01-01

    The ability of the platelet agonists thapsigargin (Tg) and thrombin to elevate the cytoplasmic free calcium level ([Ca2+]i) was examined. Both agonists induced a transient increase of [Ca2+]i with a different time-course, however. Thus, the maximal [Ca2+]i was reached 15 sec and 2 min after...... stimulation with thrombin and Tg, respectively. The thrombin induced rise of [Ca2+]i was reversible, which indicates that active calcium sequestration and/or extrusion is operating. Tg affected [Ca2+]i in a divergent manner, thus, [Ca2+]i was stabilized on a elevated level without initial formation...... of a pronounced peak. The decline in [Ca2+]i observed after thrombin stimulation was not impaired by the calmodulin binding drug trifluoperazine but it was strongly reduced by vanadate, which suggests the active calcium transport systems to be insensitive to calmodulin. We put forward the hypothesis...

  10. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. New lattice action for heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oktay, Mehmet B.; Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2008-03-01

    We extend the Fermilab method for heavy quarks to include interactions of dimension six and seven in the action. There are, in general, many new interactions, but we carry out the calculations needed to match the lattice action to continuum QCD at the tree level, finding six non-zero couplings. Using the heavy-quark theory of cutoff effects, we estimate how large the remaining discretization errors are. We find that our tree-level matching, augmented with one-loop matching of the dimension-five interactions, can bring these errors below 1%, at currently available lattice spacings.

  12. Metaphysics of the Principle of Least Action

    CERN Document Server

    Terekhovich, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of the variational principles of physics, there have been relatively few attempts to consider them for a realistic framework. In addition to the old teleological question, this paper continues the recent discussion regarding the modal involvement of the principle of least action and its relations with the Humean view of the laws of nature. The reality of the possible paths in the principle of least action is examined from the perspectives of the contemporary metaphysics of modality and Leibniz's concept of the possibles striving from essence to existence. This paper introduces a model of a two-level modality based on an intuition that deep ontological connections exist between the possible paths in the principle of least action and possible quantum histories in the Feynman path integral. The proposed modal interpretation of the principle of least action replaces the classical representation of the system's motion along a single history in the actual modality by the simultaneous motions ...

  13. Home economics in development through action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2010-01-01

    This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next...... in discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings...... and suggestions were discussed in relation to theories of learning, education and home economics. The overall perspectives were to involve pupils, to make them responsible by active and critical participation, and lastly to evaluate education in different ways....

  14. THE EFFECTS OF PRELIMINARY RULINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Mădălina LARION

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the effects of the preliminary rulings rendered by the Court of Justice for the judicial body that made the reference and for other bodies dealing with similar cases, for the member states, for the European Union’ s institutions and for EU legal order. Starting from the binding effect of the preliminary judgment for national judicial bodies, which requires them to follow the ruling or make a new reference, to the lack of precedent doctrine in EU law, continuing with the possibility to indirectly verify the compatibility of national law of the member states with EU law and ending with the administrative or legislative measures that can or must be taken by the member states, the study intends to highlight the limits, nuances and consequences of the binding effect. It mentions the contribution of the national courts and of the Court of Justice of the European Union to the development of EU law, such as clarifying autonomous notions and it emphasizes the preliminary procedure's attributes of being a form of judicial protection of individual rights, as well as a means to review the legality of acts of EU institutions. The paper is meant to be a useful instrument for practitioners. Therefor, it also deals with the possibility and limits of asking new questions, in order to obtain reconsideration or a refinement of the legal issue and with the problem of judicial control over the interpretation and application of the preliminary ruling by the lower court.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  16. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility, desirability and preferred approaches for disposal of selected high-level nuclear wastes in space were analyzed. Preliminary space disposal risk estimates and estimates of risk uncertainty are provided.

  17. China’s Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country’s policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China’s efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by

  18. CANEGROWERS Action Research Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, R.H.; Brouwer, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This toolkit contains a selection of tools to conduct action research, organized around four phases: Identify problems and possibilities; Analyze problems and possibilities; Search for solutions; and Reflection tools. The toolkit is customized for staff of Canegrowers in South Africa, who used the t

  19. Hope for Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara J.; DeMoor, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Environmental consciousness-raising programs tend to emphasize the magnitude of imminent ecological disasters, if humans continue on their current trajectory. While these environmental literacy programs also call for action to avoid cataclysmic ecological changes, psychological research on "learned helplessness" suggests that information…

  20. Sustainability as Moral Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…