WorldWideScience

Sample records for prelaunch mission operation

  1. A Pre-launch Analysis of NASA's SMAP Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, V. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Product applications have become an integral part of converting the data collected into actionable knowledge that can be used to inform policy. Successfully bridging scientific research with operational decision making in different application areas requires looking into thematic user requirements and data requirements. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive mission (SMAP) has an applications program that actively seeks to integrate the data prior to launch into a broad range of environmental monitoring and decision making systems from drought and flood guidance to disease risk assessment and national security SMAP is a a combined active/passive microwave instrument, which will be launched into a near-polar orbit in late 2014. It aims to produce a series of soil moisture products and soil freeze/thaw products with an accuracy of +/- 10%, a nominal resolution of between 3 and 40km, and latency between 12 hours and 7 days. These measurements will be used to enhance the understanding of processes that link the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to extend the capabilities of weather and climate prediction models. The driving success of the SMAP applications program is joining mission scientists to thematic end users and leveraging the knowledge base of soil moisture data applications, increase the speed SMAP data product ingestion into critical processes and research, improving societal benefits to science. Because SMAP has not yet launched, the mission is using test algorithms to determine how the data will interact with existing processes. The objective of this profession review is to solicit data requirements, accuracy needs and current understanding of the SMAP mission from the user community and then feed that back into mission product development. Thus, understanding how users will apply SMAP data, prior to the satellite's launch, is an important component of SMAP Applied Sciences and one of NASA's measures for mission success. This paper presents an analysis of

  2. Pre-Launch Assessment of User Needs for SWOT Mission Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M. M.; Peterson, C. A.; Doorn, B.

    2015-12-01

    In order to effectively address the applications requirements of future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission data users, we must understand their needs with respect to latency, spatial scales, technical capabilities, and other practical considerations. We have developed the 1st SWOT User Survey for broad distribution to the SWOT applications community to provide the SWOT Project with an understanding of and improved ability to support users needs. Actionable knowledge for specific applications may be realized when we can determine the margins of user requirements for data products and access. The SWOT Applications team will be launching a SWOT Early Adopters program and are interested in identifying a broad community of users who will participate in pre-launch applications activities including meetings, briefings, and workshops. The SWOT applications program is designed to connect mission scientists to end users and leverage the scientific research and data management tools with operational decision-making for different thematic users and data requirements. SWOT is scheduled to launch in 2020, so simulated hydrology and ocean data sets have been and will continued to be developed by science team members and the SWOT Project in order to determine how the data will represent the physical Earth systems targeted by the mission. SWOT will produce the first global survey of Earth's surface water by measuring sea surface height and the heights, slopes, and inundated areas of rivers, lakes, and wetlands. These coastal, lake and river measurements will be used for monitoring the hydrologic cycle, flooding, and climate impacts of a changing environment. The oceanographic measurements will enhance understanding of submesoscale processes and extend the capabilities of ocean state and climate prediction models.

  3. Pre-Launch Calibration and Performance Study of the Polarcube 3u Temperature Sounding Radiometer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, L.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Sanders, B. T.; Rouw, C.; Alvarenga, G.; Gallaher, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    The positive impact of passive microwave observations of tropospheric temperature, water vapor and surface variables on short-term weather forecasts has been clearly demonstrated in recent forecast anomaly growth studies. The development of a fleet of such passive microwave sensors especially at V-band and higher frequencies in low earth orbit using 3U and 6U CubeSats could help accomplish the aforementioned objectives at low system cost and risk as well as provide for regularly updated radiometer technology. The University of Colorado's 3U CubeSat, PolarCube is intended to serve as a demonstrator for such a fleet of passive sounders and imagers. PolarCube supports MiniRad, an eight channel, double sideband 118.7503 GHz passive microwave sounder. The mission is focused primarily on sounding in Arctic and Antarctic regions with the following key remote sensing science and engineering objectives: (i) Collect coincident tropospheric temperature profiles above sea ice, open polar ocean, and partially open areas to develop joint sea ice concentration and lower tropospheric temperature mapping capabilities in clear and cloudy atmospheric conditions. This goal will be accomplished in conjunction with data from existing passive microwave sensors operating at complementary bands; and (ii) Assess the capabilities of small passive microwave satellite sensors for environmental monitoring in support of the future development of inexpensive Earth science missions. Performance data of the payload/spacecraft from pre-launch calibration will be presented. This will include- (i) characterization of the antenna sub-system comprising of an offset 3D printed feedhorn and spinning parabolic reflector and impact of the antenna efficiencies on radiometer performance, (ii) characterization of MiniRad's RF front-end and IF back-end with respect to temperature fluctuations and their impact on atmospheric temperature weighting functions and receiver sensitivity, (iii) results from roof

  4. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  5. Mission Operations Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  6. Evaluation of Anomaly Detection Capability for Ground-Based Pre-Launch Shuttle Operations. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This chapter will provide a thorough end-to-end description of the process for evaluation of three different data-driven algorithms for anomaly detection to select the best candidate for deployment as part of a suite of IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. These algorithms were deemed to be sufficiently mature enough to be considered viable candidates for deployment in support of the maiden launch of Ares I-X, the successor to the Space Shuttle for NASA's Constellation program. Data-driven algorithms are just one of three different types being deployed. The other two types of algorithms being deployed include a "nile-based" expert system, and a "model-based" system. Within these two categories, the deployable candidates have already been selected based upon qualitative factors such as flight heritage. For the rule-based system, SHINE (Spacecraft High-speed Inference Engine) has been selected for deployment, which is a component of BEAM (Beacon-based Exception Analysis for Multimissions), a patented technology developed at NASA's JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and serves to aid in the management and identification of operational modes. For the "model-based" system, a commercially available package developed by QSI (Qualtech Systems, Inc.), TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System) has been selected for deployment to aid in diagnosis. In the context of this particular deployment, distinctions among the use of the terms "data-driven," "rule-based," and "model-based," can be found in. Although there are three different categories of algorithms that have been selected for deployment, our main focus in this chapter will be on the evaluation of three candidates for data-driven anomaly detection. These algorithms will be evaluated upon their capability for robustly detecting incipient faults or failures in the ground-based phase of pre-launch space shuttle operations, rather than based oil heritage as performed in previous studies. Robust

  7. Autonomous Mission Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human spaceflight missions will occur with crews and spacecraft at large distances, with long communication delays, to the Earth. The one-way light-time delay...

  8. NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdridge, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    On 12 February 2001, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker became the first spacecraft to land on a small body, 433 Eros. Prior to that historic event, NEAR was the first-ever orbital mission about an asteroid. The mission presented general challenges associated with other planetary space missions as well as challenges unique to an inaugural mission around a small body. The NEAR team performed this operations feat with processes and tools developed during the 4-year-long cruise to Eros. Adding to the success of this historic mission was the cooperation among the NEAR science, navigation, guidance and control, mission design, and software teams. With clearly defined team roles, overlaps in responsibilities were minimized, as were the associated costs. This article discusses the processes and systems developed at APL that enabled the success of NEAR mission operations.

  9. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  10. Pre-Launch Phase 1 Calibration and Validation Rehearsal of Geophysical Data Products of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Dunbar, R.; Das, N. N.; Kim, S.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J.; Liu, Q.; Kimball, J. S.; Yi, Y.; Cosh, M. H.; Bindlish, R.; Crow, W. T.; Dang, L.; Yueh, S. H.; Njoku, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate onboard the SMAP spacecraft in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. SMAP measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. The SMAP science data product suite of geophysical parameters will include estimates of surface (top 5 cm) and root-zone (down to 1-m depth) soil moisture, net ecosystem exchange, and classification of the frozen/non-frozen state of the landscape. The primary validation reference of the data products will be ground-based measurements. Other remote sensing and model-based products will be used as additional resources. The post-launch timeline of the mission requires that the geophysical data products are validated (with respect to the mission requirements) within 12 months after a 3-month in-orbit check-out phase. SMAP is taking several preparatory steps in order to meet this schedule. One of the main steps consists of running a rehearsal to exercise calibration and validation procedures planned for the Cal/Val Phase. The rehearsal is divided into two stages. Phase 1, which was conducted in June-August 2013, focused on validation methodologies for the geophysical data products. Phase 2, which will be conducted in May-June 2014, includes operational aspects including a fully functioning SMAP Science Data System. (Note that the rehearsals do not include an airborne field

  11. The pre-launch status of TanSat Mission: Instrument, Retrieval algorithm, Flux inversion and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Yin, Zengshan; Yang, Zhongdong; Zheng, Yuquan; Yan, Changxiang; Tian, Xiangjun; Yang, Dongxu

    2016-04-01

    After 5 years development, The Chinese carbon dioxide observation satellite (TanSat), the first scientific experimental CO2 satellite of China, step into the pre-launch phase. The characters of pre-launch carbon dioxide spectrometer have been optimized during the laboratory test and calibration. Radiometric calibration shows a SNR of 440 (O2A 0.76um band), 300 (CO2 1.61um band) and 180 (CO2 2.06um band) on average in the typical radiance condition. Instrument line shape was calibrated automatically in using a well design testing system with laser control and record. After a series of test and calibration in laboratory, the instrumental performances meet the design requirements. TanSat will be launched on August 2016. The optimal estimation theory was involved in TanSat XCO2 retrieval algorithm in a full physics way with simulation of the radiance transfer in atmosphere. Gas absorption, aerosol and cirrus scattering and surface reflectance associate with wavelength dispersion have been considered in inversion for better correction the interference errors to XCO2. In order to simulate the radiance transfer precisely and efficiently, we develop a fast vector radiative transfer simulation method. Application of TanSat algorithm on GOSAT observation (ATANGO) is appropriate to evaluate the performance of algorithm. Validated with TCCON measurements, the ATANGO product achieves a 1.5 ppm precision. A Chinese carbon cycle data- assimilation system Tan-Tracker is developed based on the atmospheric chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Tan-Tracker is a dual-pass data-assimilation system in which both CO2 concentrations and CO2 fluxes are simultaneously assimilated from atmospheric observations. A validation network has been established around China to support a series of CO2 satellite of China, which include 3 IFS-125HR and 4 Optical Spectrum Analyzer etc.

  12. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  13. A Virtual Mission Operations Center: Collaborative Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) intent is to have a central access point for all the resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment to assist mission operators in communicating on-site and off-site in the investigation and resolution of anomalies. It is a framework that as a minimum incorporates online chat, realtime file sharing and remote application sharing components in one central location. The use of a collaborative environment in mission operations opens up the possibilities for a central framework for other project members to access and interact with mission operations staff remotely. The goal of the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) Project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission control by on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. In order to achieve this goal, the following capabilities are needed: Autonomous mission control systems Automated systems to contact on-call personnel Synthesis and presentation of mission control status and history information Desktop tools for data and situation analysis Secure mechanism for remote collaboration commanding Collaborative environment for remote cooperative work The VMOC-CE is a collaborative environment that facilitates remote cooperative work. It is an application instance of the Virtual System Design Environment (VSDE), developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Systems Engineering Services & Advanced Concepts (SESAC) Branch. The VSDE is a web-based portal that includes a knowledge repository and collaborative environment to serve science and engineering teams in product development. It is a "one stop shop" for product design, providing users real-time access to product development data, engineering and management tools, and relevant design specifications and resources through the Internet. The initial focus of the VSDE has been to serve teams working in the early portion of the system

  14. Mission operations and command assurance - Automating an operations TQM task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Linda; Kazz, Sheri; Potts, Sherrill; Witkowski, Mona; Bruno, Kristin

    1993-01-01

    A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of mission operations through defect prevention and error management. A major element of this program, Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA), provides a system level function on flight projects to instill quality in mission operations. MO&CA embodies the total quality management TQM principle of continuous process improvement (CPI) and uses CPI in applying automation to mission operations to reduce risk and costs. MO&CA has led efforts to apply and has implemented automation in areas that impact the daily flight project work environment including Incident Surprise Anomaly tracking and reporting; command data verification, tracking and reporting; and command support data usage. MO&CA's future work in automation will take into account that future mission operations systems must be designed to avoid increasing error through the introduction of automation, while adapting to the demands of smaller flight teams.

  15. Navigation Operations for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Anne; Farahmand, Mitra; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission employs four identical spinning spacecraft flying in highly elliptical Earth orbits. These spacecraft will fly in a series of tetrahedral formations with separations of less than 10 km. MMS navigation operations use onboard navigation to satisfy the mission definitive orbit and time determination requirements and in addition to minimize operations cost and complexity. The onboard navigation subsystem consists of the Navigator GPS receiver with Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS) software, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator. The four MMS spacecraft are operated from a single Mission Operations Center, which includes a Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) that supports MMS navigation operations, as well as maneuver planning, conjunction assessment and attitude ground operations. The System Manager component of the FDOA automates routine operations processes. The GEONS Ground Support System component of the FDOA provides the tools needed to support MMS navigation operations. This paper provides an overview of the MMS mission and associated navigation requirements and constraints and discusses MMS navigation operations and the associated MMS ground system components built to support navigation-related operations.

  16. Flight Operations . [Zero Knowledge to Mission Complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Greg; Apyan, Alex; Hillin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Outline the process that takes new hires with zero knowledge all the way to the point of completing missions in Flight Operations. Audience members should be able to outline the attributes of a flight controller and instructor, outline the training flow for flight controllers and instructors, and identify how the flight controller and instructor attributes are necessary to ensure operational excellence in mission prep and execution. Identify how the simulation environment is used to develop crisis management, communication, teamwork, and leadership skills for SGT employees beyond what can be provided by classroom training.

  17. Mission Operations Control Room Activities during STS-2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) activities during STS-2 mission. Overall view of the MOCR in the Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. At far right is Eugene F. Kranz, Deputy Director of Flight Operations. At the flight director console in front of Kranz's FOD console are Flight Directors M.P. Frank, Neil B. Hutchinson and Donald R. Puddy as well as others (39506); Wide-angle view of flight controllers in the MOCR. Clifford E. Charlesworth, JSC Deputy Director, huddles with several flight directors for STS-2 at the flight director console. Kranz, is at far right of frame (39507); Dr. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., JSC Director, center, celebrates successful flight and landing of STS-2 with a cigar in the MOCR. He is flanked by Dr. Maxime A Faget, left, Director of Engineering and Development, and Thomas L. Moser, of the Structures and Mechanics Division (39508); Flight Director Donald R. Puddy, near right, holds replica of the STS-2 insignia. Insignias on the opposite wall

  18. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  19. Operational Lessons Learned from NASA Analog Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Larissa S.

    2010-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) efforts in human space flight are currently focused on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs, with efforts beginning on the future exploration opportunities. Both the Space Shuttle and ISS programs are important to the development of a capability for human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS provides extensive research capabilities to determine how the human body reacts to long duration stays in space. Also, the ISS and Shuttle can serve as a limited testbed for equipment or entire systems that may be used on missions to the Moon, Mars, or to a near-Earth asteroid. It has been nearly 35 years since the Apollo astronauts visited the Moon. Future space explorers will have to re-learn how to work and live on planetary surfaces, and how to do that for extended periods of time. Exploration crews will perform a wide assortment of scientific tasks, including material sampling and emplacement of automated instruments. Surface mission operations include the activities of the crew living and working, mission support from the Earth, and the operation of robotic and other remotely commanded equipment on the surface and in planetary orbit. Other surface activities will include the following: exploring areas surrounding a habitat; using rovers to collect rock and soil samples; setting up experiments on the surface to monitor the radiation environment and any seismic or thermal activity; and conducting scientific analyses and experiments inside a habitat laboratory. Of course, the astronauts will also have to spend some of their surface time "doing chores" and maintaining their habitat and other systems. In preparation for future planetary exploration, NASA must design the answers to many operational questions. What will the astronauts do on the surface? How will they accomplish this? What tools will they require for their tasks? How will robots and astronauts work together? What

  20. Earth orbital operations supporting manned interplanetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Whittaker, William L.

    The orbital operations required to accumulate, assemble, test, verify, maintain, and launch complex manned space systems on interplanetary missions from earth orbit are as vital as the flight hardware itself. Vast numbers of orbital crew are neither necessary nor desirable for accomplishing the required tasks. A suite of robotic techniques under human supervisory control, relying on sensors, software and manipulators either currently emergent or already applied in terrestrial settings, can make the job tractable. The mission vehicle becomes largely self-assembling, using its own rigid aerobrake as a work platform. The Space Station, having been used as a laboratory testbed and to house an assembly crew of four, is not dominated by the process. A feasible development schedule, if begun soon, could emplace orbital support technologies for exploration missions in time for a 2004 first interplanetary launch.

  1. Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office Status and Support Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ernest; Webb, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office (CxP MOP) at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is preparing to support the CxP mission operations objectives for the CEV/Orion flights, the Lunar Lander, and and Lunar surface operations. Initially the CEV will provide access to the International Space Station, then progress to the Lunar missions. Initial CEV mission operations support will be conceptually similar to the Apollo missions, and we have set a challenge to support the CEV mission with 50% of the mission operations support currently required for Shuttle missions. Therefore, we are assessing more efficient way to organize the support and new technologies which will enhance our operations support. This paper will address the status of our preparation for these CxP missions, our philosophical approach to CxP operations support, and some of the technologies we are assessing to streamline our mission operations infrastructure.

  2. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  3. Concurrent engineering: Spacecraft and mission operations system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landshof, J. A.; Harvey, R. J.; Marshall, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Despite our awareness of the mission design process, spacecraft historically have been designed and developed by one team and then turned over as a system to the Mission Operations organization to operate on-orbit. By applying concurrent engineering techniques and envisioning operability as an essential characteristic of spacecraft design, tradeoffs can be made in the overall mission design to minimize mission lifetime cost. Lessons learned from previous spacecraft missions will be described, as well as the implementation of concurrent mission operations and spacecraft engineering for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program.

  4. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  5. Mission operations and command assurance: Instilling quality into flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Linda L.; Witkowski, Mona M.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Potts, Sherrill S.

    1993-03-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA) is a Total Quality Management (TQM) task on JPL projects to instill quality in flight mission operations. From a system engineering view, MO&CA facilitates communication and problem-solving among flight teams and provides continuous process improvement to reduce the probability of radiating incorrect commands to a spacecraft. The MO&CA task has evolved from participating as a member of the spacecraft team to an independent team reporting directly to flight project management and providing system level assurance. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's effort to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit from previous and ongoing flight experience.

  6. Web Based Tool for Mission Operations Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Carole A.; Bindschadler, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    A conventional practice for spaceflight projects is to document scenarios in a monolithic Operations Concept document. Such documents can be hundreds of pages long and may require laborious updates. Software development practice utilizes scenarios in the form of smaller, individual use cases, which are often structured and managed using UML. We have developed a process and a web-based scenario tool that utilizes a similar philosophy of smaller, more compact scenarios (but avoids the formality of UML). The need for a scenario process and tool became apparent during the authors' work on a large astrophysics mission. It was noted that every phase of the Mission (e.g., formulation, design, verification and validation, and operations) looked back to scenarios to assess completeness of requirements and design. It was also noted that terminology needed to be clarified and structured to assure communication across all levels of the project. Attempts to manage, communicate, and evolve scenarios at all levels of a project using conventional tools (e.g., Excel) and methods (Scenario Working Group meetings) were not effective given limitations on budget and staffing. The objective of this paper is to document the scenario process and tool created to offer projects a low-cost capability to create, communicate, manage, and evolve scenarios throughout project development. The process and tool have the further benefit of allowing the association of requirements with particular scenarios, establishing and viewing relationships between higher- and lower-level scenarios, and the ability to place all scenarios in a shared context. The resulting structured set of scenarios is widely visible (using a web browser), easily updated, and can be searched according to various criteria including the level (e.g., Project, System, and Team) and Mission Phase. Scenarios are maintained in a web-accessible environment that provides a structured set of scenario fields and allows for maximum

  7. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  8. Designing Mission Operations for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Glen G.; Beerer, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, to understand the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, offered unique challenges to mission operations. From launch through end of mission, the twin GRAIL orbiters had to be operated in parallel. The journey to the Moon and into the low science orbit involved numerous maneuvers, planned on tight timelines, to ultimately place the orbiters into the required formation-flying configuration necessary. The baseline GRAIL mission is short, only 9 months in duration, but progressed quickly through seven very unique mission phases. Compressed into this short mission timeline, operations activities and maneuvers for both orbiters had to be planned and coordinated carefully. To prepare for these challenges, development of the GRAIL Mission Operations System began in 2008. Based on high heritage multi-mission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin, the GRAIL mission operations system was adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper describes GRAIL's system engineering development process for defining GRAIL's operations scenarios and generating requirements, tracing the evolution from operations concept through final design, implementation, and validation.

  9. Designing Mission Operations for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Glen G.; Beerer, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, to understand the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, offered unique challenges to mission operations. From launch through end of mission, the twin GRAIL orbiters had to be operated in parallel. The journey to the Moon and into the low science orbit involved numerous maneuvers, planned on tight timelines, to ultimately place the orbiters into the required formation-flying configuration necessary. The baseline GRAIL mission is short, only 9 months in duration, but progressed quickly through seven very unique mission phases. Compressed into this short mission timeline, operations activities and maneuvers for both orbiters had to be planned and coordinated carefully. To prepare for these challenges, development of the GRAIL Mission Operations System began in 2008. Based on high heritage multi-mission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin, the GRAIL mission operations system was adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper describes GRAIL's system engineering development process for defining GRAIL's operations scenarios and generating requirements, tracing the evolution from operations concept through final design, implementation, and validation.

  10. Cloud Computing for Mission Design and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan; Attiyah, Amy; Beswick, Robert; Gerasimantos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    The space mission design and operations community already recognizes the value of cloud computing and virtualization. However, natural and valid concerns, like security, privacy, up-time, and vendor lock-in, have prevented a more widespread and expedited adoption into official workflows. In the interest of alleviating these concerns, we propose a series of guidelines for internally deploying a resource-oriented hub of data and algorithms. These guidelines provide a roadmap for implementing an architecture inspired in the cloud computing model: associative, elastic, semantical, interconnected, and adaptive. The architecture can be summarized as exposing data and algorithms as resource-oriented Web services, coordinated via messaging, and running on virtual machines; it is simple, and based on widely adopted standards, protocols, and tools. The architecture may help reduce common sources of complexity intrinsic to data-driven, collaborative interactions and, most importantly, it may provide the means for teams and agencies to evaluate the cloud computing model in their specific context, with minimal infrastructure changes, and before committing to a specific cloud services provider.

  11. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  12. Management of information for mission operations using automated keyword referencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Curran, Patrick S.

    1993-01-01

    Although millions of dollars have helped to improve the operability and technology of ground data systems for mission operations, almost all mission documentation remains bound in printed volumes. This form of documentation is difficult and timeconsuming to use, may be out-of-date, and is usually not cross-referenced with other related volumes of mission documentation. A more effective, automated method of mission information access is needed. A new method of information management for mission operations using automated keyword referencing is proposed. We expound on the justification for and the objectives of this concept. The results of a prototype tool for mission information access that uses a hypertextlike user interface and existing mission documentation are shared. Finally, the future directions and benefits of our proposed work are described.

  13. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  14. Psychological Support Operations and the ISS One-Year Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beven, G.; Vander Ark, S. T.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Since NASA began human presence on the International Space Station (ISS) in November 1998, crews have spent two to seven months onboard. In March 2015 NASA and Russia embarked on a new era of ISS utilization, with two of their crewmembers conducting a one-year mission onboard ISS. The mission has been useful for both research and mission operations to better understand the human, technological, mission management and staffing challenges that may be faced on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. The work completed during the first 42 ISS missions provided the basis for the pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight work completed by NASA's Space Medicine Operations Division, while our Russian colleagues provided valuable insights from their long-duration mission experiences with missions lasting 10-14 months, which predated the ISS era. Space Medicine's Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) provided pre-flight training, evaluation, and preparation as well as in-flight psychological support for the NASA crewmember. While the BHP team collaboratively planned for this mission with the help of all ISS international partners within the Human Behavior and Performance Working Group to leverage their collective expertise, the US and Russian BHP personnel were responsible for their respective crewmembers. The presentation will summarize the lessons and experience gained within the areas identified by this Working Group as being of primary importance for a one-year mission.

  15. Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Michelle; Rubin, D.; Hailey, M.; Reyes, D.; Antonsen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Future exploration missions will be the first time humanity travels beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program, taking us to cis-lunar space, interplanetary space, and Mars. These long-duration missions will cover vast distances, severely constraining opportunities for emergency evacuation to Earth and cargo resupply opportunities. Communication delays and blackouts between the crew and Mission Control will eliminate reliable, real-time telemedicine consultations. As a result, compared to current LEO operations onboard the International Space Station, exploration mission medical care requires an integrated medical system that provides additional in-situ capabilities and a significant increase in crew autonomy. The Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions illustrates how a future NASA Mars program could ensure appropriate medical care for the crew of this highly autonomous mission. This Concept of Operations document, when complete, will document all mission phases through a series of mission use case scenarios that illustrate required medical capabilities, enabling the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element to plan, design, and prototype an integrated medical system to support human exploration to Mars.

  16. Mission Command or Mission Failure?: Evaluation Decentralized Execution in Contemporary Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    operations in OEF/OIF are attributable not to underlying weaknesses in mission command as a theoretical construct, or its lack of suitability for...posited that acknowledged shortcomings in the success of stability operations in OEF/OIF are attributable not to underlying weaknesses in mission command...230. 7 Jeffrey Buchman, Maxie Y. Davis, and Lee T. Wright. “Death of the Combatant Command? Toward a Joint Interagency Approach.” Joint Force

  17. Ensemble: an Architecture for Mission-Operations Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Powell, Mark; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, IHsiang; McCurdy, Michael; Vera, Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Ensemble is the name of an open architecture for, and a methodology for the development of, spacecraft mission operations software. Ensemble is also potentially applicable to the development of non-spacecraft mission-operations- type software. Ensemble capitalizes on the strengths of the open-source Eclipse software and its architecture to address several issues that have arisen repeatedly in the development of mission-operations software: Heretofore, mission-operations application programs have been developed in disparate programming environments and integrated during the final stages of development of missions. The programs have been poorly integrated, and it has been costly to develop, test, and deploy them. Users of each program have been forced to interact with several different graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Also, the strategy typically used in integrating the programs has yielded serial chains of operational software tools of such a nature that during use of a given tool, it has not been possible to gain access to the capabilities afforded by other tools. In contrast, the Ensemble approach offers a low-risk path towards tighter integration of mission-operations software tools.

  18. Orbital Express mission operations planning and resource management using ASPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less labor-power rises. Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Like a tow-truck delivering gas to a car on the road, the "servicing" satellite of OE had to find the "client" from several kilometers away, connect directly to the client, and transfer fluid (or a battery) autonomously, while on earth-orbit. The mission met 100% of its success criteria, and proved that autonomous satellite servicing is now a reality for space operations. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. As the constraints for execution could change weekly, daily, and even hourly, the tools used create the mission execution plans needed to be flexible and adaptable to many different kinds of changes. At the same time, the hard constraints of the plans needed to be maintained and satisfied. The Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, an overview of the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the NASA's Earth Observing One mission's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  19. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  20. The BRITE Constellation nanosatellite mission: Testing, commissioning and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Pablo, H; Popowicz, A; Mochnacki, S M; Kuschnig, R; Grant, C C; Moffat, A F J; Rucinski, S M; Matthews, J M; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A; Handler, G; Weiss, W W; Baade, D; Wade, G A; Zoclonska, E; Ramiaramanantsoa, T; Unterberger, M; Zwintz, K; Pigulski, A; Rowe, J; Koudelka, O; Orleanski, P; Pamyatnykh, A; Neiner, C; Wawrzaszek, R; Marciniszyn, G; Romano, P; Wozniak, G; Zawistowski, T; Zee, R E

    2016-01-01

    BRITE (BRIght Target Explorer) Constellation, the first nanosatellite mission applied to astrophysical research, is a collaboration among Austria, Canada and Poland. The fleet of satellites (6 launched, 5 functioning) performs precise optical photometry of the brightest stars in the night sky. A pioneering mission like BRITE - with optics and instruments restricted to small volume, mass and power in several nanosatellites, whose measurements must be coordinated in orbit - poses many unique challenges. We discuss the technical issues, including problems encountered during on-orbit commissioning (especially higher-than expected sensitivity of the CCDs to particle radiation). We describe in detail how the BRITE team has mitigated these problems, and provide a complete overview of mission operations. This paper serves as a template for how to effectively plan, build and operate future low-cost niche-driven space astronomy missions.

  1. Implementing Distributed Operations: A Comparison of Two Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Larsen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Two very different deep space exploration missions--Mars Exploration Rover and Cassini--have made use of distributed operations for their science teams. In the case of MER, the distributed operations capability was implemented only after the prime mission was completed, as the rovers continued to operate well in excess of their expected mission lifetimes; Cassini, designed for a mission of more than ten years, had planned for distributed operations from its inception. The rapid command turnaround timeline of MER, as well as many of the operations features implemented to support it, have proven to be conducive to distributed operations. These features include: a single science team leader during the tactical operations timeline, highly integrated science and engineering teams, processes and file structures designed to permit multiple team members to work in parallel to deliver sequencing products, web-based spacecraft status and planning reports for team-wide access, and near-elimination of paper products from the operations process. Additionally, MER has benefited from the initial co-location of its entire operations team, and from having a single Principal Investigator, while Cassini operations have had to reconcile multiple science teams distributed from before launch. Cassini has faced greater challenges in implementing effective distributed operations. Because extensive early planning is required to capture science opportunities on its tour and because sequence development takes significantly longer than sequence execution, multiple teams are contributing to multiple sequences concurrently. The complexity of integrating inputs from multiple teams is exacerbated by spacecraft operability issues and resource contention among the teams, each of which has their own Principal Investigator. Finally, much of the technology that MER has exploited to facilitate distributed operations was not available when the Cassini ground system was designed, although later adoption

  2. The Science Operations of the ESA JUICE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Nicolas; Cardesin, Alejandro; Costa, Marc; Frew, David; Lorente, Rosario; Vallat, Claire; Witasse, Olivier; Christian, Erd

    2016-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa.JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system.The Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase.We will present the current status of the SOC science planning activities with an overview of the tools and methods in place in this early phase of the mission.

  3. The OSIRIS-Rex Asteroid Sample Return: Mission Operations Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Cheuvront, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the missions science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the SRC lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis.Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together space craft, instrument and operations scenarios. The project implemented lessons learned from other small body missions: APLNEAR, JPLDAWN and ESARosetta. The key lesson learned was expected the unexpected and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle. In preparation to PDR, the project changed the asteroid arrival date, to arrive one year earlier and provided additional time margin. STK is used for Mission Design and STKScheduler for instrument coverage analysis.

  4. The BRITE Constellation Nanosatellite Mission: Testing, Commissioning, and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo, H.; Whittaker, G. N.; Popowicz, A.; Mochnacki, S. M.; Kuschnig, R.; Grant, C. C.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Matthews, J. M.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Handler, G.; Weiss, W. W.; Baade, D.; Wade, G. A.; Zocłońska, E.; Ramiaramanantsoa, T.; Unterberger, M.; Zwintz, K.; Pigulski, A.; Rowe, J.; Koudelka, O.; Orleański, P.; Pamyatnykh, A.; Neiner, C.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Marciniszyn, G.; Romano, P.; Woźniak, G.; Zawistowski, T.; Zee, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    BRIght Target Explorer (BRITE) Constellation, the first nanosatellite mission applied to astrophysical research, is a collaboration among Austria, Canada and Poland. The fleet of satellites (6 launched; 5 functioning) performs precise optical photometry of the brightest stars in the night sky. A pioneering mission like BRITE—with optics and instruments restricted to small volume, mass and power in several nanosatellites, whose measurements must be coordinated in orbit—poses many unique challenges. We discuss the technical issues, including problems encountered during on-orbit commissioning (especially higher-than-expected sensitivity of the CCDs to particle radiation). We describe in detail how the BRITE team has mitigated these problems, and provide a complete overview of mission operations. This paper serves as a template for how to effectively plan, build and operate future low-cost niche-driven space astronomy missions. Based on data collected by the BRITE Constellation satellite mission, designed, built, launched, operated and supported by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), the University of Vienna, the Technical University of Graz, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), the Foundation for Polish Science & Technology (FNiTP MNiSW), and National Science Centre (NCN).

  5. The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Operations Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan S.; Cheuvront, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is an acronym that captures the scientific objectives: Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer. OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize near-Earth asteroid Bennu (Previously known as 1019551999 RQ36). The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission delivers its science using five instruments and radio science along with the Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM). All of the instruments and data analysis techniques have direct heritage from flown planetary missions. The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the mission's science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis. Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together spacecraft, instrument and operations scenarios. Asteroid Touch and Go (TAG) has various options varying from ground only to fully automated (natural feature tracking). Spacecraft constraints such as thermo and high gain antenna pointing impact the timeline. The mission is sensitive to navigation errors, so a late command update has been implemented. The project implemented lessons learned from other "small body" missions. The key lesson learned was 'expect the unexpected' and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle

  6. Mission Analysis, Operations, and Navigation Toolkit Environment (Monte) Version 040

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Monte is a software set designed for use in mission design and spacecraft navigation operations. The system can process measurement data, design optimal trajectories and maneuvers, and do orbit determination, all in one application. For the first time, a single software set can be used for mission design and navigation operations. This eliminates problems due to different models and fidelities used in legacy mission design and navigation software. The unique features of Monte 040 include a blowdown thruster model for GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) with associated pressure models, as well as an updated, optimalsearch capability (COSMIC) that facilitated mission design for ARTEMIS. Existing legacy software lacked the capabilities necessary for these two missions. There is also a mean orbital element propagator and an osculating to mean element converter that allows long-term orbital stability analysis for the first time in compiled code. The optimized trajectory search tool COSMIC allows users to place constraints and controls on their searches without any restrictions. Constraints may be user-defined and depend on trajectory information either forward or backwards in time. In addition, a long-term orbit stability analysis tool (morbiter) existed previously as a set of scripts on top of Monte. Monte is becoming the primary tool for navigation operations, a core competency at JPL. The mission design capabilities in Monte are becoming mature enough for use in project proposals as well as post-phase A mission design. Monte has three distinct advantages over existing software. First, it is being developed in a modern paradigm: object- oriented C++ and Python. Second, the software has been developed as a toolkit, which allows users to customize their own applications and allows the development team to implement requirements quickly, efficiently, and with minimal bugs. Finally, the software is managed in accordance with the CMMI (Capability Maturity Model

  7. Evaluation of human operator visual performance capability for teleoperator missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, C. T.; Malone, T. B.; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the human operator visual performance demands of teleoperator system applications to earth-orbital missions involving visual system requirements for satellite retrieval and satellite servicing functions. The first phase of an experimental program implementing this investigation is described in terms of the overall test apparatus and procedures used, the specific tests performed, and the test results obtained.

  8. RAPID: Rapid Prototyping in Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Operations Center ( NOC ). The NOC is located at the Northrop Grumman Mission Systems (NGMS) facility in Orlando, FL. The NOC provides resources for DMO...that WAN routers degrade dramatically when UDP multicast or broadcast traffic is routed through them, and also that network interface cards ( NICs ) on

  9. Collaborative Research Projects in Support of FNMOC Operational Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Collaborative Research Projects in Support of FNMOC Operational Mission Russell L. Elsberry Department of Meteorology Naval Postgraduate School 589...A simple statistical -synoptic technique for tropical cyclone track forecasting to 72 h in the western North Pacific has been derived and... statistical -synoptic technique. For a statistical -synoptic equation set derived and tested with tropical cyclones in the Standard/Dominant Ridge pattern

  10. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security

  11. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  12. JPSS-1 VIIRS pre-launch radiometric performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Efremova, Boryana; Ji, Qiang; Lee, Shihyan; Schwarting, Tom

    2015-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on-board the first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) completed its sensor level testing on December 2014. The JPSS-1 (J1) mission is scheduled to launch in December 2016, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) mission. VIIRS instrument was designed to provide measurements of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370 and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It covers the wavelength spectrum from reflective to long-wave infrared through 22 spectral bands [0.412 μm to 12.01 μm]. VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EDRs). This paper will briefly describe J1 VIIRS characterization and calibration performance and methodologies executed during the pre-launch testing phases by the independent government team, to generate the at-launch baseline radiometric performance, and the metrics needed to populate the sensor data record (SDR) Look-Up-Tables (LUTs). This paper will also provide an assessment of the sensor pre-launch radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, bands spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS), near field and stray light responses. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to the SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  13. OTF CCSDS Mission Operations Prototype Parameter Service. Phase I: Exit Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the prototype of phase 1 of the parameter service design of the CCSDS mission operations. The project goals are to: (1) Demonstrate the use of Mission Operations standards to implement the Parameter Service (2) Demonstrate interoperability between Houston MCC and a CCSDS Mission Operations compliant mission operations center (3) Utilize Mission Operations Common Architecture. THe parameter service design, interfaces, and structures are described.

  14. CCSDS Spacecraft Monitor and Control Mission Operations Interoperability Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucord, Steve; Martinez, Lindolfo

    2009-01-01

    We are entering a new era in space exploration. Reduced operating budgets require innovative solutions to leverage existing systems to implement the capabilities of future missions. Custom solutions to fulfill mission objectives are no longer viable. Can NASA adopt international standards to reduce costs and increase interoperability with other space agencies? Can legacy systems be leveraged in a service oriented architecture (SOA) to further reduce operations costs? The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is collaborating with Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) to answer these very questions. The Mission Operations and Information Management Services Area (MOIMS) Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C) Working Group within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing the Mission Operations standards to address this problem space. The set of proposed standards presents a service oriented architecture to increase the level of interoperability among space agencies. The OTF and DLR are developing independent implementations of the standards as part of an interoperability prototype. This prototype will address three key components: validation of the SM&C Mission Operations protocol, exploration of the Object Management Group (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS), and the incorporation of legacy systems in a SOA. The OTF will implement the service providers described in the SM&C Mission Operation standards to create a portal for interaction with a spacecraft simulator. DLR will implement the service consumers to perform the monitor and control of the spacecraft. The specifications insulate the applications from the underlying transport layer. We will gain experience with a DDS transport layer as we delegate responsibility to the middleware and explore transport bridges to connect disparate middleware products. A SOA facilitates the reuse of software components. The prototype will leverage the

  15. New Human-Computer Interface Concepts for Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey A.; Hoxie, Mary Sue; Gillen, Dave; Parkinson, Christopher; Breed, Julie; Nickens, Stephanie; Baitinger, Mick

    2000-01-01

    The current climate of budget cuts has forced the space mission operations community to reconsider how it does business. Gone are the days of building one-of-kind control centers with teams of controllers working in shifts 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Increasingly, automation is used to significantly reduce staffing needs. In some cases, missions are moving towards lights-out operations where the ground system is run semi-autonomously. On-call operators are brought in only to resolve anomalies. Some operations concepts also call for smaller operations teams to manage an entire family of spacecraft. In the not too distant future, a skeleton crew of full-time general knowledge operators will oversee the operations of large constellations of small spacecraft, while geographically distributed specialists will be assigned to emergency response teams based on their expertise. As the operations paradigms change, so too must the tools to support the mission operations team's tasks. Tools need to be built not only to automate routine tasks, but also to communicate varying types of information to the part-time, generalist, or on-call operators and specialists more effectively. Thus, the proper design of a system's user-system interface (USI) becomes even more importance than before. Also, because the users will be accessing these systems from various locations (e.g., control center, home, on the road) via different devices with varying display capabilities (e.g., workstations, home PCs, PDAS, pagers) over connections with various bandwidths (e.g., dial-up 56k, wireless 9.6k), the same software must have different USIs to support the different types of users, their equipment, and their environments. In other words, the software must now adapt to the needs of the users! This paper will focus on the needs and the challenges of designing USIs for mission operations. After providing a general discussion of these challenges, the paper will focus on the current efforts of

  16. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  17. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  18. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  19. Science Operations For Esa's Smart-1 Mission To The Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M.; Foing, B.; Heather, D.; Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Racca, G.

    The primary objective of the European Space Agency's SMART-1 mission to the Moon is to test and validate a new electric propulsion engine for potential use on other larger ESA Cornerstone missions. However, the SMART-1 spacecraft will also carry a number of scientific instruments and experiments for use en-route to and in orbit about the Moon. SMART-1's major operational constraint is that it will be only contacted twice per week. As a result, there will be a stronger emphasis on mid-term planning, and the spacecraft will be operated using a large list of telecommands sent during the communication windows. This approach leads to a higher probability of there being resource and/or instruments conflicts. To eliminate these, two software tools were developed: the Experiment Planning System (EPS), and the Project Test Bed (PTB). These tools will also allow us to predict the lunar coverage of the scien- tific instruments, and to simulate target selections.

  20. The CONSERT operations planning process for the Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogez, Yves; Puget, Pascal; Zine, Sonia; Hérique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Altobelli, Nicolas; Ashman, Mike; Barthélémy, Maud; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Casas, Carlos M.; Sitjà, Marc Costa; Delmas, Cédric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Fronton, Jean-François; Geiger, Bernhard; Geurts, Koen; Grieger, Björn; Hahnel, Ronny; Hoofs, Raymond; Hubault, Armelle; Jurado, Eric; Küppers, Michael; Maibaum, Michael; Moussi-Souffys, Aurélie; Muñoz, Pablo; O'Rourke, Laurence; Pätz, Brigitte; Plettemeier, Dirk; Ulamec, Stephan; Vallat, Claire

    2016-08-01

    The COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radio wave Transmission (CONSERT / Rosetta) has been designed to sound the interior of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This instrument consists of two parts: one onboard Rosetta and the other one onboard Philae. A good CONSERT science measurement sequence requires joint operations of both spacecrafts in a relevant geometry. The geometric constraints to be fulfilled involve the position and the orientation of both Rosetta and Philae. At the moment of planning the post-landing and long-term science operations for Rosetta instruments, the actual comet shape and the landing location remained largely unknown. In addition, the necessity of combining operations of Rosetta spacecraft and Philae spacecraft makes the planning process for CONSERT particularly complex. In this paper, we present the specific methods and tools we developed, in close collaboration with the mission and the science operation teams for both Rosetta and Philae, to identify, rank and plan the operations for CONSERT science measurements. The presented methods could be applied to other missions involving joint operations between two platforms, on a complex shaped object.

  1. Evaluation of Army Remotely Piloted Vehicle Mission Payload Operator Performance in Simulated Artillery Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    FILLING MEMORY A. DISPAYING MM~ORY ALU •"MEMORY A __V PPLN I OPA VIDEO MEOR AI 0 PIPELINE ,. :.5 b. DISPLAYING MEY A. FILLUIN MEORY 66 ’ Figure 12...participants. The results are presented in terms of the four jamming levels for each of the two missions and are organized into four major categories: 1...The scene track mode with its larger tracking window would be a better choice for offset tracking operation as long as high precision is not

  2. Rosetta science operations in support of the Philae mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Mike; Barthélémy, Maud; O`Rourke, Laurence; Almeida, Miguel; Altobelli, Nicolas; Costa Sitjà, Marc; García Beteta, Juan José; Geiger, Bernhard; Grieger, Björn; Heather, David; Hoofs, Raymond; Küppers, Michael; Martin, Patrick; Moissl, Richard; Múñoz Crego, Claudio; Pérez-Ayúcar, Miguel; Sanchez Suarez, Eduardo; Taylor, Matt; Vallat, Claire

    2016-08-01

    The international Rosetta mission was launched on 2nd March 2004 and after its ten year journey, arrived at its target destination of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, during 2014. Following the January 2014 exit from a two and half year hibernation period, Rosetta approached and arrived at the comet in August 2014. In November 2014, the Philae lander was deployed from Rosetta onto the comet's surface after which the orbiter continued its approximately one and a half year comet escort phase. The Rosetta Science Ground Segment's primary roles within the project are to support the Project Scientist and the Science Working Team, in order to ensure the coordination, development, validation and delivery of the desired science operations plans and their associated operational products throughout the mission., whilst also providing support to the Principle Investigator teams (including the Philae lander team) in order to ensure the provision of adequate data to the Planetary Science Archive. The lead up to, and execution of, the November 2014 Philae landing, and the subsequent Philae activities through 2015, have presented numerous unique challenges to the project teams. This paper discusses these challenges, and more specifically, their impact on the overall mission science planning activities. It details how the Rosetta Science Ground Segment has addressed these issues in collaboration with the other project teams in order to accommodate Philae operations within the continually evolving Rosetta science planning process.

  3. A distributed computing approach to mission operations support. [for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Computing mission operation support includes orbit determination, attitude processing, maneuver computation, resource scheduling, etc. The large-scale third-generation distributed computer network discussed is capable of fulfilling these dynamic requirements. It is shown that distribution of resources and control leads to increased reliability, and exhibits potential for incremental growth. Through functional specialization, a distributed system may be tuned to very specific operational requirements. Fundamental to the approach is the notion of process-to-process communication, which is effected through a high-bandwidth communications network. Both resource-sharing and load-sharing may be realized in the system.

  4. Avoiding Human Error in Mission Operations: Cassini Flight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Operating spacecraft is a never-ending challenge and the risk of human error is ever- present. Many missions have been significantly affected by human error on the part of ground controllers. The Cassini mission at Saturn has not been immune to human error, but Cassini operations engineers use tools and follow processes that find and correct most human errors before they reach the spacecraft. What is needed are skilled engineers with good technical knowledge, good interpersonal communications, quality ground software, regular peer reviews, up-to-date procedures, as well as careful attention to detail and the discipline to test and verify all commands that will be sent to the spacecraft. Two areas of special concern are changes to flight software and response to in-flight anomalies. The Cassini team has a lot of practical experience in all these areas and they have found that well-trained engineers with good tools who follow clear procedures can catch most errors before they get into command sequences to be sent to the spacecraft. Finally, having a robust and fault-tolerant spacecraft that allows ground controllers excellent visibility of its condition is the most important way to ensure human error does not compromise the mission.

  5. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  6. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 mission flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, C. H.; McIntosh, R. J.; Rowe, J. N.; Defazio, R. L.; Galal, K. F.

    1995-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 spacecraft was launched on April 13, 1994, at 06:04:02 coordinated universal time (UTC), with separation from the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle occurring at 06:33:05 UTC. The launch was followed by a series of complex, intense operations to maneuver the spacecraft into its geosynchronous mission orbit. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) was responsible for GOES-8 attitude, orbit maneuver, orbit determination, and station acquisition support during the ascent phase. This paper summarizes the efforts of the FDF support teams and highlights some of the unique challenges the launch team faced during critical GOES-8 mission support. FDF operations experience discussed includes: (1) The abort of apogee maneuver firing-1 (AMF-1), cancellation of AMF-3, and the subsequent replans of the maneuver profile; (2) The unexpectedly large temperature dependence of the digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) and its effect on GOES-8 attitude targeting in support of perigee raising maneuvers; (3) The significant effect of attitude control thrusting on GOES-8 orbit determination solutions; (4) Adjustment of the trim tab to minimize torque due to solar radiation pressure; and (5) Postlaunch analysis performed to estimate the GOES-8 separation attitude. The paper also discusses some key FDF GOES-8 lessons learned to be considered for the GOES-J launch which is currently scheduled for May 19, 1995.

  7. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Engdahl, Marcus; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Arino, Olivier; Bojkov, Bojan; Ferran, Gaston; Donlon, Craig; Kern, Michael; Scipal, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The prime objective of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 20 years. It aims to further strengthen the international leadership of European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit observations from future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address many new avenues of scientific research that will be opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 covering Sentinel 1 (FRINGE /SEASAR ), Sentinel 2 ( S2 symposium), Sentinel 3 (COAST-ALT workshop , 20 Years Progress in Radar Altimetry, Sentinel 3 OLCI/SLSTR 2012 workshop) and Sentinel 4-5 (Atmospheric Science Confrence). The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the work plan 2013 for the SEOM element. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing, validating and maintaining open-source, multi-mission, scientific software toolboxes capable to handle the Sentinels data products 2. Stimulating the development and validation of advanced EO methods and observation strategies in particular the new TOpS mode on Sentinel 1, the new band settings on Sentinel 2, the new geometry/bands of Sentinel 3 OLCI ,SLSTR intruments and the advanced delay-doppler (SAR) altimeter exploitation. 3. Continuing to federate, support and expand the multi-disciplinary expert EO research communities by organizing thematic workshops and ensuring high-quality scientific publications linked to these research domains. Promoting widespread scientific use of data. 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinel s data

  8. Artificial intelligence for multi-mission planetary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    A brief introduction is given to an automated system called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP). SHARP is designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real-time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager II spacecraft is the initial focus for evaluation of the prototype in a real-time operations setting during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August, 1989. The preliminary results of the SHARP project and plans for future application of the technology are discussed.

  9. Safe Operation of HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem on Herschel Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Malgorzata; Juchnikowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Thomas; Leinz, Christian; Nowosielski, Witold; Orleanski, Piotr; Ward, John

    The HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem is part of the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) dedicated for astronomical observations,to be mounted on the ESA satellite HER- SCHEL. The Subsystem provides the local oscillator signal (480-1910 GHz) to each of the fourteen HIFI input mixers. Part of LO, the Local Oscillator Control Unit (LCU) provides the main interface between Local Oscillator Subsystem and HIFI/Herschel power and telemetry buses. The unit supplies Local Oscillator, decodes the HIFI macro-commands, programs and monitors the parameters of Ka-Band Synthesizer and THz multiplier chains and controls the operation of the whole Local Oscillator Subsystem. The unique microwave components used in HF multipliers are extremely sensitive to the proper biasing (polarity, voltage, current, presence of HF power).The ESA strategy of this mission requires full safe operation of the instrument. This requirements is covered by complex protection system implemented inside LCU. In this paper, we present the general overview of the protection system of microwave components. The different levels of protection (hardware realization and software procedures) are described as well as various reliability aspects. The functionality of LO subsystem controlled by LCU was tested in 2007. Now the flight model of HIFI instrument is integrated with the satellite and will be launched with Herschel mission in July 2008.

  10. The ESA JUICE mission: the Science and the Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Rosario; Altobelli, Nicolas; Vallat, Claire; Munoz, Claudio; Andres, Rafael; Cardesin, Alejandro; Witasse, Olivier; Erd, Christian

    2017-04-01

    sensing capabilities via energetic neutrals, a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will support precise determination of the spacecraft state vector with the focus at improving the ephemeris of the Jovian system. The current baseline assumes a launch in May 2022. Following an interplanetary cruise of 7.6 years, the Jupiter orbit insertion will take place in October 2029. The Jupiter tour will consists of 50 orbits around the giant planet, and will include two flybys of Europa at 400 km altitude, eleven flybys of Ganymede, and thirteen flybys of Callisto, as close as 200 km altitude. The last part of the mission will be the orbital phase around Ganymede, for about 10 months, where the spacecraft will be placed into a series of elliptical and circular orbits, the latest one at 500 km altitude. The end of mission is currently planned as an impact on Ganymede in June 2033. The ESA Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase until launch, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase. This presentation will provide the latest information on the status of the project, and on the designed spacecraft trajectory in the Jovian system. It will focus on the science operational scenario of the two Europa flybys of the mission, and on the overall science return. References: [1] JUICE Definition Study Report, Reference ESA/SRE(2014)1,2014. http://sci.esa.int/juice/54994-juice-definition-study-report/ [2] Grasset, O., et al., JUpiter ICy moons

  11. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express satellite servicing demonstrator program is a DARPA program aimed at developing "a safe and cost-effective approach to autonomously service satellites in orbit". The system consists of: a) the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle, under development by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and b) a prototype modular next-generation serviceable satellite, NEXTSat, being developed by Ball Aerospace. Flexibility of ASPEN: a) Accommodate changes to procedures; b) Accommodate changes to daily losses and gains; c) Responsive re-planning; and d) Critical to success of mission planning Auto-Generation of activity models: a) Created plans quickly; b) Repetition/Re-use of models each day; and c) Guarantees the AML syntax. One SRP per day vs. Tactical team

  12. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  13. Dust Storm Impacts on Human Mars Mission Equipment and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    NASA has accumulated a wealth of experience between the Apollo program and robotic Mars rover programs, but key differences between those missions and a human Mars mission that will require unique approaches to mitigate potential dust storm concerns.

  14. Telescience - Concepts and contributions to the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Will; Dobson, Carl; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Malina, Roger F.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how the contradictory goals of low-cost and fast data turnaround characterizing the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) mission can be achieved via the early use of telescience style transparent tools and simulations. The use of transparent tools reduces the parallel development of capability while ensuring that valuable prelaunch experience is not lost in the operations phase. Efforts made to upgrade the 'EUVE electronics' simulator are described.

  15. Constraint and Flight Rule Management for Space Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, J.; Chachere, J.; Frank, J.; Bertels, C.; Crocker, A.

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et al, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et al., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et al, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on some of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  16. NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    During NEEMO missions, a crew of six Aquanauts lives aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquarius Underwater Laboratory the world's only undersea laboratory located 5.6 km off shore from Key Largo, Florida. The Aquarius habitat is anchored 62 feet deep on Conch Reef which is a research only zone for coral reef monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The crew lives in saturation for a week to ten days and conducts a variety of undersea EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) to test a suite of long-duration spaceflight Engineering, Biomedical, and Geoscience objectives. The crew also tests concepts for future lunar exploration using advanced navigation and communication equipment in support of the Constellation Program planetary exploration analog studies. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas support this effort to produce a high-fidelity test-bed for studies of human planetary exploration in extreme environments as well as to develop and test the synergy between human and robotic curation protocols including sample collection, documentation, and sample handling. The geoscience objectives for NEEMO missions reflect the requirements for Lunar Surface Science outlined by the LEAG (Lunar Exploration Analysis Group) and CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials) white paper [1]. The BHP objectives are to investigate best meas-ures and tools for assessing decrements in cogni-tive function due to fatigue, test the feasibility study examined how teams perform and interact across two levels, use NEEMO as a testbed for the development, deployment, and evaluation of a scheduling and planning tool. A suite of Space Life Sciences studies are accomplished as well, ranging from behavioral health and performance to immunology, nutrition, and EVA suit design results of which will

  17. JPSS-1 VIIRS Radiometric Characterization and Calibration Based on Pre-Launch Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Oudrari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS on-board the first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS completed its sensor level testing on December 2014. The JPSS-1 (J1 mission is scheduled to launch in December 2016, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP mission. VIIRS instrument has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.4 and 12.6 μm. It is a cross-track scanning radiometer capable of providing global measurements twice daily, through observations at two spatial resolutions, 375 m and 750 m at nadir for the imaging and moderate bands, respectively. This paper will briefly describe J1 VIIRS characterization and calibration performance and methodologies executed during the pre-launch testing phases by the government independent team to generate the at-launch baseline radiometric performance and the metrics needed to populate the sensor data record (SDR Look-Up-Tables (LUTs. This paper will also provide an assessment of the sensor pre-launch radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs, radiance dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS, and scattered light response. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to both the VIIRS sensor specification and the SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  18. Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Final Pre-Launch Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Le Vine, David M.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the theoretical basis for the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The inputs to the algorithm are the Aquarius antenna temperature (T(sub A)) measurements along with a number of NCEP operational products and pre-computed tables of space radiation coming from the galaxy and sun. The output is sea-surface salinity and many intermediate variables required for the salinity calculation. This revision of the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) is intended to be the final pre-launch version.

  19. TAMU: Blueprint for A New Space Mission Operations System Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkowski, James T.; Meshkat, Leila; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Al; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a System of System (SOS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically disperse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes of products for a broad range of flight projects. Further, TAMU FPP provides for the automatic execution and re-planning of the workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the blueprint for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This blueprint presents a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that results in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during the flight production process. Based on the many years of experience with the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS), the currently cancelled Constellation Program which aimed on returning humans to the moon as a starting point, has been building a modern model-based Systems Engineering infrastructure to Re-engineer the FPP. This infrastructure uses a structured modeling and architecture development approach to optimize the system design thereby reducing the sustaining costs and increasing system efficiency, reliability, robustness and maintainability metrics. With the advent of the new vision for human space exploration, it is now necessary to further generalize this framework to take into consideration a broad range of missions and the participation of multiple organizations outside of the MOD; hence the Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) concept.

  20. Multi-Agent Modeling and Simulation Approach for Design and Analysis of MER Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Chin; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A space mission operations system is a complex network of human organizations, information and deep-space network systems and spacecraft hardware. As in other organizations, one of the problems in mission operations is managing the relationship of the mission information systems related to how people actually work (practices). Brahms, a multi-agent modeling and simulation tool, was used to model and simulate NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission work practice. The objective was to investigate the value of work practice modeling for mission operations design. From spring 2002 until winter 2003, a Brahms modeler participated in mission systems design sessions and operations testing for the MER mission held at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). He observed how designers interacted with the Brahms tool. This paper discussed mission system designers' reactions to the simulation output during model validation and the presentation of generated work procedures. This project spurred JPL's interest in the Brahms model, but it was never included as part of the formal mission design process. We discuss why this occurred. Subsequently, we used the MER model to develop a future mission operations concept. Team members were reluctant to use the MER model, even though it appeared to be highly relevant to their effort. We describe some of the tool issues we encountered.

  1. Earth observation mission operation of COMS during in-orbit test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2011-11-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service after the In-Orbit Test (IOT) phase. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. During the IOT phase the functionality and the performance of many aspects of the COMS satellite and ground station have been checked through the Earth observation mission operation for the observation of the meteorological phenomenon over several areas of the Earth and the monitoring of marine environments around the Korean peninsula. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS during the IOT phase is introduced in terms of mission operation characteristics, mission planning, and mission operation results for the missions of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively.

  2. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  3. Validation of a Low-Thrust Mission Design Tool Using Operational Navigation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Williams, Ken; Stanbridge, Dale; Ellison, Donald H.

    2017-01-01

    Design of flight trajectories for missions employing solar electric propulsion requires a suitably high-fidelity design tool. In this work, the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is presented as a medium-high fidelity design tool that is suitable for mission proposals. EMTG is validated against the high-heritage deep-space navigation tool MIRAGE, demonstrating both the accuracy of EMTG's model and an operational mission design and navigation procedure using both tools. The validation is performed using a benchmark mission to the Jupiter Trojans.

  4. Wireless Network Communications Overview for Space Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the On-Board Wireless Working Group (WWG) is to serve as a general CCSDS focus group for intra-vehicle wireless technologies. The WWG investigates and makes recommendations pursuant to standardization of applicable wireless network protocols, ensuring the interoperability of independently developed wireless communication assets. This document presents technical background information concerning uses and applicability of wireless networking technologies for space missions. Agency-relevant driving scenarios, for which wireless network communications will provide a significant return-on-investment benefiting the participating international agencies, are used to focus the scope of the enclosed technical information.

  5. Hierarchthis: An Interactive Interface for Identifying Mission-Relevant Components of the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litomisky, Krystof

    2012-01-01

    Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System, or AMMOS, is a collection of multimission tools and services, whose development and maintenance are funded by NASA. I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. HierarchThis automatically creates diagrams of the AMMOS database, and then allows users to show/hide specific details through a graphical interface. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components, along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission-specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

  6. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  7. Command and Control of Joint Air Operations through Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    mile area of responsibility. Colonel Carpenter attended Undergraduate Air Battle Manager (ABM) Training at Tyndall AFB, Florida, earning his controller......joint community must instill the concept and principles of mission command in their culture. Consequently, this article discusses the ori- gins and

  8. SOHO Mission Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the SOHO Mission Pre-Launch Science Briefing. The moderator of the conference is Fred Brown, NASA/GSFC Public Affairs, introduces the panel members. Included are Professor Roger Bonnet, Director ESA Science Program, Dr. Wesley Huntress, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Dr. Vicente Domingo, ESA SOHO Project Scientist. Also present are several members from the SOHO Team: Dr. Richard Harrison, Art Poland, and Phillip Scherrer. The discussions include understanding the phenomena of the sun, eruption of gas clouds into the atmosphere, the polishing of the mirrors for the SOHO satellite, artificial intelligence in the telescopes, and the launch and operating costs. The panel members are also seen answering questions from various NASA Centers and Paris.

  9. Non-Intrusive Techniques of Inspections During the Pre-Launch Phase of Space Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rejkumar; Bardina, Jorge E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses a method of non-intrusive local inspection of surface and sub-surface conditions, interfaces, laminations and seals in both space vehicle and ground operations with an integrated suite of imaging sensors during pre-launch operations. It employs an advanced Raman spectrophotometer with additional spectrophotometers and lidar mounted on a flying robot to constantly monitor the space hardware as well as inner surface of the vehicle and ground operations hardware. This paper addresses a team of micro flying robots with necessary sensors and photometers to monitor the entire space vehicle internally and externally. The micro flying robots can reach altitude with least amount of energy, where astronauts have difficulty in reaching and monitoring the materials and subsurface faults. The micro flying robot has an embedded fault detection system which acts as an advisory system and in many cases micro flying robots act as a Supervisor to fix the problems. As missions expand to a sustainable presence in the Moon, and extend for durations longer than one year in lunar outpost, the effectiveness of the instrumentation and hardware has to be revolutionized if NASA is to meet high levels of mission safety, reliability, and overall success. The micro flying robot uses contra-rotating propellers powered by an ultra-thin, ultrasonic motor with currently the world's highest power weight ratio, and is balanced in mid-air by means of the world's first stabilizing mechanism using a linear actuator. The essence of micromechatronics has been brought together in high-density mounting technology to minimize the size and weight. The robot can take suitable payloads of photometers, embedded chips for image analysis and micro pumps for sealing cracks or fixing other material problems. This paper also highlights advantages that this type of non-intrusive techniques offer over costly and monolithic traditional techniques.

  10. Apollo 14 and 15 missions: Intermittent steerable antenna operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the cause of antenna tracking interruptions during Apollo 14 and Apollo 15 missions prior to powered descent, and after ascent from the lunar surface but before rendezvous. Probable causes examined include: (1) amplitude modulation on the uplink radio frequency carrier, (2) noise capacitively or inductively coupled into the track error line, and (3) hardware problems resulting in tracking loop instabilities. It was determined that amplitude modulation caused the antenna oscillations. The corrective procedures taken are given.

  11. An integrated Constraint-based, power Aware control system for Autonomous rover Mission operations

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Daniel; Rodriguez-Moreno, Maria Dolores; Cesta, Amedeo; Oddi, Angelo; Rasconi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at describing an integrated power-aware, model-based autonomous control architecture for planetary rover-based mission operations synthesized in the context of a Ph.D. program on the topic "Autonomy for Interplanetary missions" funded and supported by ESA. The proposed controller implements a single Sense-Act-Plan (SPA) closed-execution loop to safely command the robot activities considered in the context of a specific key mission scenario. Both highly decision making capabili...

  12. Integrating Mission Type Orders into Operational Level Intelligence Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    Operational Control OPLAN Operation Plan OSINT Open Source Intelligence OT Exercise OLYMPIC TITAN PED Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination PIR...human intelligence (HUMINT), open source intelligence ( OSINT ), and counterintelligence (CI). These are human-oriented collection capabilities and

  13. Autonomy and Sensor Webs: The Evolution of Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration of these sensor web capabilities will enable fast responding science campaigns that combine spaceborne, airborne, and ground assets. Sensor webs will also require new operations paradigms. These sensor webs will be operated directly by scientists using science goals to control their instruments. We will explore these new operations architectures through a study of existing sensor web prototypes.

  14. Status of the SPIRE photometer data processing pipelines during the early phases of the Herschel Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Dowell, C. Darren; Levenson, Louis; Lu, Nanyao; Schulz, Bernhard; Schwartz, Arnold; Shupe, David L.; Xu, C. Kevin; Zhang, Lijun

    2010-01-01

    We describe the current state of the ground segment of Herschel-SPIRE photometer data processing, approximately one year into the mission. The SPIRE photometer operates in two modes: scan mapping and chopped point source photometry. For each mode, the basic analysis pipeline - which follows in reverse the effects from the incidence of light on the telescope to the storage of samples from the detector electronics - is essentially the same as described pre-launch. However, the calibration param...

  15. MOS 2.0: Modeling the Next Revolutionary Mission Operations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Christopher L.; Bindschadler, Duane; Wollaeger, Ryan; Carrion, Carlos; McCullar, Michelle; Jackson, Maddalena; Sarrel, Marc; Anderson, Louise; Lam, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Designed and implemented in the 1980's, the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) was a breakthrough for deep-space NASA missions, enabling significant reductions in the cost and risk of implementing ground systems. By designing a framework for use across multiple missions and adaptability to specific mission needs, AMMOS developers created a set of applications that have operated dozens of deep-space robotic missions over the past 30 years. We seek to leverage advances in technology and practice of architecting and systems engineering, using model-based approaches to update the AMMOS. We therefore revisit fundamental aspects of the AMMOS, resulting in a major update to the Mission Operations System (MOS): MOS 2.0. This update will ensure that the MOS can support an increasing range of mission types, (such as orbiters, landers, rovers, penetrators and balloons), and that the operations systems for deep-space robotic missions can reap the benefits of an iterative multi-mission framework.12 This paper reports on the first phase of this major update. Here we describe the methods and formal semantics used to address MOS 2.0 architecture and some early results. Early benefits of this approach include improved stakeholder input and buy-in, the ability to articulate and focus effort on key, system-wide principles, and efficiency gains obtained by use of well-architected design patterns and the use of models to improve the quality of documentation and decrease the effort required to produce and maintain it. We find that such methods facilitate reasoning, simulation, analysis on the system design in terms of design impacts, generation of products (e.g., project-review and software-delivery products), and use of formal process descriptions to enable goal-based operations. This initial phase yields a forward-looking and principled MOS 2.0 architectural vision, which considers both the mission-specific context and long-term system sustainability.

  16. Integrated Network Architecture for NASA's Orion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.; Sartwell, Thomas; Miller, Ronald A.; Hudiburg, John J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. The series of missions will begin with a new crew exploration vehicle (called Orion) that will initially provide crew exchange and cargo supply support to the International Space Station (ISS) and then become a human conveyance for travel to the Moon. The Orion vehicle will be mounted atop the Ares I launch vehicle for a series of pre-launch tests and then launched and inserted into low Earth orbit (LEO) for crew exchange missions to the ISS. The Orion and Ares I comprise the initial vehicles in the Constellation system of systems that later includes Ares V, Earth departure stage, lunar lander, and other lunar surface systems for the lunar exploration missions. These key systems will enable the lunar surface exploration missions to be initiated in 2018. The complexity of the Constellation system of systems and missions will require a communication and navigation infrastructure to provide low and high rate forward and return communication services, tracking services, and ground network services. The infrastructure must provide robust, reliable, safe, sustainable, and autonomous operations at minimum cost while maximizing the exploration capabilities and science return. The infrastructure will be based on a network of networks architecture that will integrate NASA legacy communication, modified elements, and navigation systems. New networks will be added to extend communication, navigation, and timing services for the Moon missions. Internet protocol (IP) and network management systems within the networks will enable interoperability throughout the Constellation system of systems. An integrated network architecture has developed based on the emerging Constellation requirements for Orion missions. The architecture, as presented in this paper, addresses the early Orion missions to the ISS with communication, navigation, and network services over five

  17. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 2 (JMS Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 2 (JMS Inc 2) Defense...Baseline BY - Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE...DSN Phone: DSN Fax: Date Assigned: May 16, 2014 Program Information Program Name Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 2

  18. The Preparation for and Execution of Engineering Operations for the Mars Curiosity Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover mission is the most complex and scientifically packed rover that has ever been operated on the surface of Mars. The preparation leading up to the surface mission involved various tests, contingency planning and integration of plans between various teams and scientists for determining how operation of the spacecraft (s/c) would be facilitated. In addition, a focused set of initial set of health checks needed to be defined and created in order to ensure successful operation of rover subsystems before embarking on a two year science journey. This paper will define the role and responsibilities of the Engineering Operations team, the process involved in preparing the team for rover surface operations, the predefined engineering activities performed during the early portion of the mission, and the evaluation process used for initial and day to day spacecraft operational assessment.

  19. Decision Making Training in the Mission Operations Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, William S.

    2013-01-01

    At JSC, we train our new flight controllers on a set of team skills that we call Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM). SFRM is akin to Crew Resource Management for the airlines and trains flight controllers to work as an effective team to reduce errors and improve safety. We have developed this training over the years with the assistance of Ames Research Center, Wyle Labs and University of Central Florida. One of the skills we teach is decision making/ problem solving (DM/PS). We teach DM/PS first in several classroom sessions, reinforce it in several part task training environments, and finally practice it in full-mission, full-team simulations. What I am proposing to talk about is this training flow: its content and how we teach it.

  20. Apollo Director Phillips Monitors Apollo 11 Pre-Launch Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    From the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) control room, Apollo Program Director Lieutenant General Samuel C. Phillips monitors pre-launch activities for Apollo 11. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the KSC in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  1. Planck pre-launch status: The Planck mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, J. A.; Mandoles, N.; Puget, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, launched on 14 May 2009, is the third-generation space experiment in the field of cosmic microwave background (CMB) research. It will image the anisotropies of the CMB over the whole sky, with unprecedented sensitivity ( ~ 2 × 10-6) and angular...

  2. Empowering Globally Integrated Operations and Mission Command: Revisiting Key West

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    naval operations in support of ground operations at Plattsburg in the War of 1812, the amphibious landing and siege at Veracruz in the Mexican-American...War.8 Indeed, President Polk praised the Army and Navy after the Veracruz campaign: “There was concert between the heads of the two arms of the...Management and Planning, April 2010), 22. 9 Paul C. Clark and Edward H. Moseley, “D-Day Veracruz , 1847—A Grand Design,” Joint Force Quarterly 10 (Winter 1995

  3. Mission Operations Centers (MOCs): Integrating key spacecraft ground data system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Randy; Szakal, Donna

    1994-11-01

    In an environment characterized by decreasing budgets, limited system development time, and user needs for increased capabilities, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center initiated a new, cost-effective concept in developing its spacecraft ground data systems: the Mission Operations Center (MOC). In the MOC approach, key components are integrated into a comprehensive and cohesive spacecraft planning, monitoring, command, and control system with a single, state-of-the-art graphical user interface. The MOD is currently implementing MOC's, which feature a common, reusable, and extendable system architecture, to support the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) missions. As a result of the MOC approach, mission operations are integrated, and users can, with a single system, perform real-time health and safety monitoring, real-time command and control, real-time attitude processing, real-time and predictive graphical spacecraft monitoring, trend analysis, mission planning and scheduling, command generation and management, network scheduling, guide star selection, and (using an expert system) spacecraft monitoring and fault isolation. The MOD is also implementing its test and training simulators under the new MOC management structure. This paper describes the MOC concept, the management approaches used in developing MOC systems, the technologies employed and the development process improvement initiatives applied in implementing MOC systems, and the expected benefits to both the user and the mission project in using the MOC approach.

  4. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Space Weather Operational Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Trichas, M.

    2015-12-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) have carried out a study for an operational L5 space weather mission, in collaboration with RAL, the UK Met Office, UCL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for operational forecasting needs. The study focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a US mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 offers the greatest benefit for SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to address all MOSWOC/SWPC priorities using UK/US instruments, consisting of: a heliospheric imager, coronagraph, EUV imager, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform is based on extensive re-use from Airbus' past missions to minimize the cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could occur in 2020, assuming Phase A KO in 2015. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  5. Mission Assurance: An Operating Construct for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    structures. A search of databases ; academic, government and open sources is more likely to provide copious data regarding space craft operations when...resource allocation.”15 Summary The literature search in addition to the standard library database search utilized government databases such as; GAO...Retrieved from EBSCOhost . 7 Prizzia, R and Helfand, G (2001) Emergency preparedness and disaster management in Hawaii. Disaster Prevention and

  6. The roadmap for a GMES operational oceanography mission

    OpenAIRE

    Drinkwater, Mark; Rebhan, Helge; Le Traon, Pierre-yves; Phalippou, Laurent; Cotton, David; Johannessen, Johnny; Ruffini, Giulio; Bahurel, Pierre; Bell, Mike; Chapron, Bertrand; Pinardi, Nadia; Robinson, Ian; Santoleri, Lia; Stammer, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    Oceans cover approximately 70% of the Earth's surface and, with about 60% of the World's population living within 200 km of the coast, they have an untold impact on all of us. Not surprisingly, for people living close to the coast or those who depend on the ocean for their livelihood, regular forecasts of ocean conditions are just as important as traditional weather forecasts. Therefore, development of the infrastructure needed to support and sustain independent, European operational ocean fo...

  7. The Evolvable Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS): Making Systems Interoperable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Adans Y.; Maldague, Pierre F.; Bui, Tung; Lam, Doris T.; McKinney, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) provides a common Mission Operation System (MOS) infrastructure to NASA deep space missions. The evolution of AMMOS has been driven by two factors: increasingly challenging requirements from space missions, and the emergence of new IT technology. The work described in this paper focuses on three key tasks related to IT technology requirements: first, to eliminate duplicate functionality; second, to promote the use of loosely coupled application programming interfaces, text based file interfaces, web-based frameworks and integrated Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) to connect users, data, and core functionality; and third, to build, develop, and deploy AMMOS services that are reusable, agile, adaptive to project MOS configurations, and responsive to industrially endorsed information technology standards.

  8. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, M.; Roberts, T.

    2011-09-01

    US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and command and control (C2) of space forces in this challenging domain. JMS will provide the capabilities to effectively employ space forces in this challenging domain. Requirements for JMS were developed based on regular, on-going engagement with the warfighter. The use of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products facilitated requirements scoping and understanding and transferred directly to defining and documenting the requirements in the approved Capability Development Document (CDD). As part of the risk reduction efforts, the Electronic System Center (ESC) JMS System Program Office (SPO) fielded JMS Capability Package (CP) 0 which includes an initial service oriented architecture (SOA) and user defined operational picture (UDOP) along with force status, sensor management, and analysis tools. Development efforts are planned to leverage and integrate prototypes and other research projects from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Innovation and Development Center, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratories. JMS provides a number of benefits to the space community: a reduction in operational “transaction time” to accomplish key activities and processes; ability to process the increased volume of metric observations from new sensors (e.g., SBSS, SST, Space Fence), as well as owner/operator ephemerides thus enhancing the high accuracy near-real-time catalog, and greater automation of SSA data sharing supporting collaboration with government, civil, commercial, and foreign

  9. SIMONS: Ship Monitoring System Support Tactical and Operational Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarit, Gerard

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the latest results that have been obtained by GMV in the Maritime Surveillance and Awareness (MSA) domain through the exploitation of the SIMONS suite within fully operational scenarios. Diversified actors have been interacted with from pure public authorities to pure private companies for different specific goals. Scenario conditions were also varying in terms of area and target of interest, input data sources, ancillary datasets and dissemination strategies. The results show that SIMONS is a very useful tool in MSA that can complement the tactical and strategic information that can be obtained through in-situ and classical surveillance means (airborne- and ship-based visual reconnaissance...). Beyond timely delivery of reports, the capability to detect small non-metallic targets and to categorize most of the detected spots are two of the most prominent and recognized features.

  10. President Richard Nixon visits MSC to award Apollo 13 Mission Operations team

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon introduces Sigurd A. Sjoberg (far right), Director of Flight Operations at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and the four Apollo 13 Flight Directors during the Presidnet's post-mission visit to MSC. The Flight Directors are (l.-r.) Glynn S. Lunney, Eugene A. Kranz, Gerald D. Griffin and Milton L. Windler. Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator, is seated at left. President Nixon was on the site to present the Presidential Medal of Freedom -- the nation's highest civilian honor -- to the Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team (35600); A wide-angle, overall view of the large crowd that was on hand to see President Richard M. Nixon present the Presidnetial Medal of Freedom to the Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team. A temporary speaker's platform was erected beside bldg 1 for the occasion (35601).

  11. Cyber Threat Assessment of Uplink and Commanding System for Mission Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Adans Y.; Tan, Kymie M. C.; Cilloniz-Bicchi, Ferner; Faris, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Most of today's Mission Operations Systems (MOS) rely on Ground Data System (GDS) segment to mitigate cyber security risks. Unfortunately, IT security design is done separately from the design of GDS' mission operational capabilities. This incoherent practice leaves many security vulnerabilities in the system without any notice. This paper describes a new way to system engineering MOS, to include cyber threat risk assessments throughout the MOS development cycle, without this, it is impossible to design a dependable and reliable MOS to meet today's rapid changing cyber threat environment.

  12. Innovative Test Operations to Support Orion and Future Human Rated Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, William J.; Garcia, Rafael; Harris, Richard F.; See, Michael J.; Van Lear, Benjamin S.; Dobson, Jill M.; Norris, Scott Douglas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes how the Orion program is implementing new and innovative test approaches and strategies in an evolving development environment. The early flight test spacecraft are evolving in design maturity and complexity requiring significant changes in the ground test operations for each mission. The testing approach for EM-2 is planned to validate innovative Orion production acceptance testing methods to support human exploration missions in the future. Manufacturing and testing at Kennedy Space Center in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout facility will provide a seamless transition directly to the launch site avoiding transportation and checkout of the spacecraft from other locations.

  13. Concepts of Operations for Asteroid Rendezvous Missions Focused on Resources Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Sanders, Gerald B.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Several asteroids are the targets of international robotic space missions currently manifested or in the planning stage. This global interest reflects a need to study these celestial bodies for the scientific information they provide about our solar system, and to better understand how to mitigate the collision threats some of them pose to Earth. Another important objective of these missions is providing assessments of the potential resources that asteroids could provide to future space architectures. In this paper, we examine a series of possible mission operations focused on advancing both our knowledge of the types of asteroids suited for different forms of resource extraction, and the capabilities required to extract those resources for mission enhancing and enabling uses such as radiation protection, propulsion, life support, shelter and manufacturing. An evolutionary development and demonstration approach is recommended within the framework of a larger campaign that prepares for the first landings of humans on Mars. As is the case for terrestrial mining, the development and demonstration approach progresses from resource prospecting (understanding the resource, and mapping the 'ore body'), mining/extraction feasibility and product assessment, pilot operations, to full in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Opportunities to gather specific knowledge for ISRU via resource prospecting during science missions to asteroids are also examined to maximize the pace of development of needed ISRU capabilities and technologies for deep space missions.

  14. Using AUTORAD for Cassini File Uplinks: Incorporating Automated Commanding into Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Sherwin

    2014-01-01

    As the Cassini spacecraft embarked on the Solstice Mission in October 2010, the flight operations team faced a significant challenge in planning and executing the continuing tour of the Saturnian system. Faced with budget cuts that reduced the science and engineering staff by over a third in size, new and streamlined processes had to be developed to allow the Cassini mission to maintain a high level of science data return with a lower amount of available resources while still minimizing the risk. Automation was deemed an important key in enabling mission operations with reduced workforce and the Cassini flight team has made this goal a priority for the Solstice Mission. The operations team learned about a utility called AUTORAD which would give the flight operations team the ability to program selected command files for radiation up to seven days in advance and help minimize the need for off-shift support that could deplete available staffing during the prime shift hours. This paper will describe how AUTORAD is being utilized by the Cassini flight operations team and the processes that were developed or modified to ensure that proper oversight and verification is maintained in the generation and execution of radiated command files.

  15. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS on Landsat 8: Design Overview and Pre-Launch Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis C. Reuter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS on Landsat 8 is the latest thermal sensor in that series of missions. Unlike the previous single-channel sensors, TIRS uses two channels to cover the 10–12.5 micron band. It is also a pushbroom imager; a departure from the previous whiskbroom approach. Nevertheless, the instrument requirements are defined such that data continuity is maintained. This paper describes the design of the TIRS instrument, the results of pre-launch calibration measurements and shows an example of initial on-orbit science performance compared to Landsat 7.

  16. Design Considerations for Spacecraft Operations During Uncrewed Dormant Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Antol, Jeff; Jefferies, Sharon; Goodliff, Kandyce; Williams, Phillip; Ambrose, Rob; Sylvester, Andre; Anderson, Molly; Dinsmore, Craig; Hoffman, Stephen; Lawrence, James; Seibert, Marc; Schier, Jim; Frank, Jeremy; Alexander, Leslie; Ruff, Gary; Soeder, Jim; Guinn, Joseph; Stafford, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Subject matter experts from NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) are currently studying a human exploration campaign that involves deployment of assets for planetary exploration. This study, called the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) study, explores options with solar electric propulsion as a central component of the transportation architecture. This particular in-space transportation option often results in long duration transit to destinations. The EMC study is also investigating deployed human rated systems like landers, habitats, rovers, power systems and ISRU system to the surface of Mars, which also will involve long dormant periods when these systems are staged on the surface. In order to enable the EMC architecture, campaign and element design leads along with system and capability development experts from HEOMD's System Maturation Team (SMT) have identified additional capabilities, systems and operation modes that will sustain these systems especially during these dormant phases of the mission. Dormancy is defined by the absence of crew and relative inactivity of the systems. For EMC missions, dormant periods could range from several months to several years. Two aspects of uncrewed dormant operations are considered herein: (1) the vehicle systems that are placed in a dormant state and (2) the autonomous vehicle systems and robotic capabilities that monitor, maintain, and repair the vehicle and systems. This paper describes the mission stages of dormancy operations, phases of dormant

  17. 12 CFR 900.2 - Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., section or paragraph: Acquired member assets or AMA means those assets that may be acquired by a Bank... means the Financial Management Policy For The Federal Home Loan Bank System approved by the Finance... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms relating to Bank operations, mission...

  18. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  19. Desert Rats 2011 Mission Simulation: Effects of Microgravity Operational Modes on Fields Geology Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Meyer, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) is a multi-year series of NASA tests that deploy planetary surface hardware and exercise mission and science operations in difficult conditions to advance human and robotic exploration capabilities. DRATS 2011 (Aug. 30-Sept. 9, 2011) tested strategies for human exploration of microgravity targets such as near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Here we report the crew perspective on the impact of simulated microgravity operations on our capability to conduct field geology.

  20. Communications During Critical Mission Operations: Preparing for InSight's Landing on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kurtik, Susan; Weinstein-Weiss, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Radio communications with deep space missions are often taken for granted due to the impressively successful records since, for decades, the technology and infrastructure have been developed for ground and flight systems to optimize telemetry and commanding. During mission-critical events such as the entry, descent, and landing of a spacecraft on the surface of Mars, the signal's level and frequency dynamics vary significantly and typically exceed the threshold of the budgeted links. The challenge is increased when spacecraft shed antennas with heat shields and other hardware during those risky few minutes. We have in the past successfully received signals on Earth during critical events even ones not intended for ground reception. These included the UHF signal transmitted by Curiosity to Marsorbiting assets. Since NASA's Deep Space Network does not operate in the UHF band, large radio telescopes around the world are utilized. The Australian CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope supported the Curiosity UHF signal reception and DSN receivers, tools, and expertise were used in the process. In preparation for the InSight mission's landing on Mars in 2016, preparations are underway to support the UHF communications. This paper presents communication scenarios with radio telescopes, and the DSN receiver and tools. It also discusses the usefulness of the real-time information content for better response time by the mission team towards successful mission operations.

  1. Design, qualification and operation of nuclear rockets for safe Mars missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W.W.; Olson, T.S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Redd, L.R. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion modules planned for use on crew missions to Mars improve mission reliability and overall safety of the mission. This, as well as all other systems, are greatly enhanced if the system specifications take into account safety from design initiation, and operational considerations are well thought through and applied. For instance, the use of multiple engines in the propulsion module can lead to very high system safety and reliability. Operational safety enhancements may include: the use of multiple perigee burns, thus allowing time to ensure that all systems are functioning properly prior to departure from Earth orbit; the ability to perform all other parts of the mission in a degraded mode with little or no degradation of the mission; and the safe disposal of the nuclear propulsion module in a heliocentric orbit out of the ecliptic plane. The standards used to qualify nuclear rockets are one of the main cost drivers of the program. Concepts and systems that minimize cost and risk will rely on use of the element and component levels to demonstrate technology readiness and validation. Subsystem or systems testing then is only needed for verification of performance. Also, these will be the safest concepts because they will be more thoroughly understood and the safety margins will be well established and confirmed by tests.

  2. Design, qualification and operation of nuclear rockets for safe Mars missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W.W.; Olson, T.S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Redd, L.R. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion modules planned for use on crew missions to Mars improve mission reliability and overall safety of the mission. This, as well as all other systems, are greatly enhanced if the system specifications take into account safety from design initiation, and operational considerations are well thought through and applied. For instance, the use of multiple engines in the propulsion module can lead to very high system safety and reliability. Operational safety enhancements may include: the use of multiple perigee burns, thus allowing time to ensure that all systems are functioning properly prior to departure from Earth orbit; the ability to perform all other parts of the mission in a degraded mode with little or no degradation of the mission; and the safe disposal of the nuclear propulsion module in a heliocentric orbit out of the ecliptic plane. The standards used to qualify nuclear rockets are one of the main cost drivers of the program. Concepts and systems that minimize cost and risk will rely on use of the element and component levels to demonstrate technology readiness and validation. Subsystem or systems testing then is only needed for verification of performance. Also, these will be the safest concepts because they will be more thoroughly understood and the safety margins will be well established and confirmed by tests.

  3. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Extended Duration Transit Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Toups, Larry

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Capability-Driven Framework (CDF) describes an approach for progressively extending human exploration missions farther into the Solar System for longer periods of time as allowed by developments in technology and spacecraft systems. Within this framework design reference missions (DRMs) targeted for several specific destinations are being used to assess different combinations of vehicles, operations, and advanced technologies to help understand which combination will best support expanded human exploration both efficiently and sustainably. Several of the identified destinations have been found to require missions with a round trip duration exceeding one year. These mission durations exceed the capabilities of current human-rated spacecraft if resupply from Earth is not possible. This makes the design of an efficient and reliable Deep Space Habitat (DSH) critical for reaching these destinations. The paper will describe the current understanding of DSH capabilities and functions that must be exhibited by any future habitat design for these missions. This description of the DSH is presented in the form of a concept of operation, which focuses on the functions that any DSH must provide, as opposed to a specific DSH design concept. Development of a concept of operations, based on DRM features, provides a common basis for assessing the viability of design concepts incorporating differing configurations and technologies. A study team with representation from several NASA Centers and relevant engineering and scientific disciplines collaborated to develop this DSH concept of operations for the transit phases of these missions. The transit phase of a mission is defined as the time after leaving Earth but before arrival at the destination and the time after leaving the destination but before arriving back at Earth. These transit phases were found to have many common features across all of the destinations being assessed for the CDF and thus arguing for a common concept

  4. Multiagent Modeling and Simulation in Human-Robot Mission Operations Work System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Sims, Michael H.; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative multiagent modeling and simulation approach for designing work systems. The Brahms environment is used to model mission operations for a semi-autonomous robot mission to the Moon at the work practice level. It shows the impact of human-decision making on the activities and energy consumption of a robot. A collaborative work systems design methodology is described that allows informal models, created with users and stakeholders, to be used as input to the development of formal computational models.

  5. Dynamic Sampling of Trace Contaminants During the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Valling, Simo; Cornish, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft during long duration space missions is dynamic due to changes in the living and working environment of crew members, crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition within the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The FTIR monitored up to 20 gases in near- real time. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful and data was collected with the FTIR at 5 minute intervals. Not all the 20 gases sampled were detected in all the modules and it was possible to measure dynamic changes in trace contaminant concentrations that were related to crew activities involving exercise and meal preparation.

  6. Dynamic Sampling of Cabin VOCs during the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft is dynamic due to changes in crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition of four modules (Core lab, Veggie Plant Atrium, Hygiene module, and Xhab loft) within the Deep Space Habitat '(DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center. The FTIR was either physically relocated to a new location or the plumbing was changed so that a different location was monitored. An application composed of 20 gases was used and the FTIR was zeroed using N2 gas every time it was relocated. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful as all data was collected and the FTIR worked during the entire MOT mission. Not all the 20 gases in the application sampled were detected and it was possible to measure dynamic VOC concentrations in each DSH location.

  7. Prelaunch calibration of the HIRDLS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, John J.; Darbyshire, A. G.; Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Palmer, Christopher W.; Row, F.; Venters, P.; Watkins, R. E.; Whitney, John G.; Gille, John C.; Johnson, Brian R.

    1998-11-01

    The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument is being built jointly by the UK and USA, and is scheduled for launch on the NASA EOS Chem satellite in 2002. HIRDLS will measure the concentration of trace species and aerosol, and temperature and pressure variations in the Earth's atmosphere between about 8 and 100 km altitude. It is an infrared limb emission sounder, and a primary aim is that it should measure to much finder spatial resolution than has previously been achieved, with simultaneous 1 km vertical and 500 km horizontal resolutions, globally, every 12 hours. Achieving these objectives will depend upon very precise pre-launch calibration. This will be undertaken at Oxford University in a test laboratory that is currently being constructed specifically for the task. The instrument will be surrounded by cryogenically cooled walls, and mounted together with the test equipment on an optical table contained in a vacuum chamber. The table will be mounted independently of the chamber, on an inertial mass supported on pneumatic isolators. Test equipment is being manufactured to measure (1) the radiometric response (with an absolute accuracy equivalent to 70 mK) using full aperture black body targets, (2) the spectral response of each of the filter channels using a grating monochromator, (3) the spatial response of the instrument field of view, including low level out-of-field contributions, to 10 (mu) rad accuracy using a monochromator. The methods and equipment used are described together with the principal requirements.

  8. A Multifaceted Approach to Modernizing NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estefan, Jeff A.; Giovannoni, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) is NASA's premier space mission operations product line offering for use in deep-space robotic and astrophysics missions. The general approach to AMMOS modernization over the course of its 29-year history exemplifies a continual, evolutionary approach with periods of sponsor investment peaks and valleys in between. Today, the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) office-the program office that manages the AMMOS for NASA-actively pursues modernization initiatives and continues to evolve the AMMOS by incorporating enhanced capabilities and newer technologies into its end-user tool and service offerings. Despite the myriad of modernization investments that have been made over the evolutionary course of the AMMOS, pain points remain. These pain points, based on interviews with numerous flight project mission operations personnel, can be classified principally into two major categories: 1) information-related issues, and 2) process-related issues. By information-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the management and flow of MOS data across the various system interfaces. By process-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the MOS activities performed by mission operators (i.e., humans) and supporting software infrastructure used in support of those activities. In this paper, three foundational concepts-Timeline, Closed Loop Control, and Separation of Concerns-collectively form the basis for expressing a set of core architectural tenets that provides a multifaceted approach to AMMOS system architecture modernization intended to address the information- and process-related issues. Each of these architectural tenets will be further explored in this paper. Ultimately, we envision the application of these core tenets resulting in a unified vision of a future-state architecture for the AMMOS-one that is intended to result in a highly adaptable, highly efficient, and highly cost

  9. Sentinel Convoy: Synergetic Earth Observation with Satellites Flying in Formation with European Operational Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Amanda; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Fernandez, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The successful launch of Sentinel-1A, Sentinel-1B, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-3A signify the beginning of the dedicated space segment for the Copernicus Programme, which is the result of the partnership between the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA). These Sentinels are the first of a long-term operational series of Earth Observation (EO) satellites to be launched by Europe that will complement the already well-established series of meteorological missions.For the first time, these missions will provide a continuous and long term European capability for systematic observations of the Earth surface, its oceans and atmosphere to unprecedented accuracies, resolutions, and temporal coverage. If additional cost- effective missions could be flown together with these operational missions (including operational meteorological satellite series such as MetOp (Second Generation - SG) then the possibilities for meeting new Earth science and application objectives could be far- reaching e.g. fulfilling observational gaps, synergistic measurements of Earth system processes, etc. To explore this potential, the ESA initiated three exploratory paper studies (known as the EO-Convoy studies). The aim of these studies is two fold: Firstly, to identify scientific and operational objectives and needs that would benefit from additional in-orbit support. Secondly, to identify and develop a number of cost- effective mission concepts that would meet these objectives and needs. Each EO Convoy study is dedicated to a specific theme, namely: Study 1 - Ocean and Ice Applications, Study 2 - Land Applications and Study 3 - Atmospheric Applications.This paper will present the results of the EO-Convoy studies including an overview of the user needs and derived convoy concept descriptions. This paper shall focus on the resulting science benefits. Example convoy concepts to be presented include a passive C-band SAR flying with Sentinel-1 and possible free flying thermal

  10. Understanding cost growth during operations of planetary missions: An explanation of changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, J. F.; Chapman, E. L.; Sklar, M. E.

    In the development of project cost estimates for interplanetary missions, considerable focus is generally given to the development of cost estimates for the development of ground, flight, and launch systems, i.e., Phases B, C, and D. Depending on the project team, efforts expended to develop cost estimates for operations (Phase E) may be relatively less rigorous than that devoted to estimates for ground and flight systems development. Furthermore, the project team may be challenged to develop a solid estimate of operations cost in the early stages of mission development, e.g., Concept Study Report or Systems Requirement Review (CSR/SRR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), as mission specific peculiarities that impact cost may not be well understood. In addition, a methodology generally used to develop Phase E cost is engineering build-up, also known as “ grass roots” . Phase E can include cost and schedule risks that are not anticipated at the time of the major milestone reviews prior to launch. If not incorporated into the engineering build-up cost method for Phase E, this may translate into an estimation of the complexity of operations and overall cost estimates that are not mature and at worse, insufficient. As a result, projects may find themselves with thin reserves during cruise and on-orbit operations or project overruns prior to the end of mission. This paper examines a set of interplanetary missions in an effort to better understand the reasons for cost and staffing growth in Phase E. The method used in the study is discussed as well as the major findings summarized as the Phase E Explanation of Change (EoC). Research for the study entailed the review of project materials, including Estimates at Completion (EAC) for Phase E and staffing profiles, major project milestone reviews, e.g., CSR, PDR, Critical Design Review (CDR), the interviewing of select project and mission management, and review of Phase E replan materials. From this work, a detai- ed

  11. SPOT satellite family: Past, present, and future of the operations in the mission and control center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Pacholczyk

    1993-01-01

    SPOT sun-synchronous remote sensing satellites are operated by CNES since February 1986. Today, the SPOT mission and control center (CCM) operates SPOT1, SPOT2, and is ready to operate SPOT3. During these seven years, the way to operate changed and the CCM, initially designed for the control of one satellite, has been modified and upgraded to support these new operating modes. All these events have shown the performances and the limits of the system. A new generation of satellite (SPOT4) will continue the remote sensing mission during the second half of the 90's. Its design takes into account the experience of the first generation and supports several improvements. A new generation of control center (CMP) has been developed and improves the efficiency, quality, and reliability of the operations. The CMP is designed for operating two satellites at the same time during launching, in-orbit testing, and operating phases. It supports several automatic procedures and improves data retrieval and reporting.

  12. Virtualized Multi-Mission Operations Center (vMMOC) and its Cloud Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Haisam Kassim

    2017-01-01

    His presentation will cover, the current and future, technical and organizational opportunities and challenges with virtualizing a multi-mission operations center. The full deployment of Goddard Space Flight Centers (GSFC) Virtualized Multi-Mission Operations Center (vMMOC) is nearly complete. The Space Science Mission Operations (SSMO) organizations spacecraft ACE, Fermi, LRO, MMS(4), OSIRIS-REx, SDO, SOHO, Swift, and Wind are in the process of being fully migrated to the vMMOC. The benefits of the vMMOC will be the normalization and the standardization of IT services, mission operations, maintenance, and development as well as ancillary services and policies such as collaboration tools, change management systems, and IT Security. The vMMOC will also provide operational efficiencies regarding hardware, IT domain expertise, training, maintenance and support.The presentation will also cover SSMO's secure Situational Awareness Dashboard in an integrated, fleet centric, cloud based web services fashion. Additionally the SSMO Telemetry as a Service (TaaS) will be covered, which allows authorized users and processes to access telemetry for the entire SSMO fleet, and for the entirety of each spacecrafts history. Both services leverage cloud services in a secure FISMA High and FedRamp environment, and also leverage distributed object stores in order to house and provide the telemetry. The services are also in the process of leveraging the cloud computing services elasticity and horizontal scalability. In the design phase is the Navigation as a Service (NaaS) which will provide a standardized, efficient, and normalized service for the fleet's space flight dynamics operations. Additional future services that may be considered are Ground Segment as a Service (GSaaS), Telemetry and Command as a Service (TCaaS), Flight Software Simulation as a Service, etc.

  13. Utilizing the EUVE Innovative Technology Testbed to Reduce Operations Cost for Present and Future Orbiting Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under Cooperative Agreement (CA) on the following testbed projects: TERRIERS - The development of the ground systems to support the TERRIERS satellite mission at Boston University (BU). HSTS - The application of ARC's Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS) to the EUVE satellite mission. SELMON - The application of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Selective Monitoring (SELMON) system to the EUVE satellite mission. EVE - The development of the EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE), a prototype three-dimensional (3-D) visualization environment for the EUVE satellite and its sensors, instruments, and communications antennae. FIDO - The development of the Fault-Induced Document Officer (FIDO) system, a prototype application to respond to anomalous conditions by automatically searching for, retrieving, and displaying relevant documentation for an operators use.

  14. [Military psychiatry in a theatre of operations: on mission in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Marie-Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The recent missions of military psychiatrists in the theatres of operation underline the reactivity of the French healthcare system, focused on the expertise of the combat unit doctor. Operation Serval in Mali illustrates in particular the methods of medical-psychological support in exceptional situations, across a vast geographical area and in very difficult climatic conditions. The concept of "forward psychiatry" has a particularly important role to play in the early screening and treatment of psychological disorders in order to preserve the operational capacity of the deployed personnel.

  15. MOS 2.0: The Next Generation in Mission Operations Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Boyles, Carole A.; Carrion, Carlos; Delp, Chris L.

    2010-01-01

    A Mission Operations System (MOS) or Ground System constitutes that portion of an overall space mission Enterprise that resides here on Earth. Over the past two decades, technological innovations in computing and software technologies have allowed an MOS to support ever more complex missions while consuming a decreasing fraction of Project development budgets. Despite (or perhaps, because of) such successes, it is routine to hear concerns about the cost of MOS development. At the same time, demand continues for Ground Systems which will plan more spacecraft activities with fewer commanding errors, provide scientists and engineers with more autonomous functionality, process and manage larger and more complex data more quickly, all while requiring fewer people to develop, deploy, operate and maintain them. One successful approach to such concerns over this period is a multimission approach, based on the reuse of portions (most often software) developed and used in previous missions. The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS), developed for deep-space science missions, is one successful example of such an approach. Like many computing-intensive systems, it has grown up in a near-organic fashion from a relatively simple set of tools into a complexly interrelated set of capabilities. Such systems, like a city lacking any concept of urban planning, can and will grow in ways that are neither efficient nor particularly easy to sustain. To meet the growing demands and unyielding constraints placed on ground systems, a new approach is necessary. Under the aegis of a multi-year effort to revitalize the AMMOS's multimission operations capabilities, we are utilizing modern practices in systems architecting and model-based engineering to create the next step in Ground Systems: MOS 2.0. In this paper we outline our work (ongoing and planned) to architect and design a multimission MOS 2.0, describe our goals and measureable objectives, and discuss some of the benefits

  16. MOS 2.0: The Next Generation in Mission Operations Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Boyles, Carole A.; Carrion, Carlos; Delp, Chris L.

    2010-01-01

    A Mission Operations System (MOS) or Ground System constitutes that portion of an overall space mission Enterprise that resides here on Earth. Over the past two decades, technological innovations in computing and software technologies have allowed an MOS to support ever more complex missions while consuming a decreasing fraction of Project development budgets. Despite (or perhaps, because of) such successes, it is routine to hear concerns about the cost of MOS development. At the same time, demand continues for Ground Systems which will plan more spacecraft activities with fewer commanding errors, provide scientists and engineers with more autonomous functionality, process and manage larger and more complex data more quickly, all while requiring fewer people to develop, deploy, operate and maintain them. One successful approach to such concerns over this period is a multimission approach, based on the reuse of portions (most often software) developed and used in previous missions. The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS), developed for deep-space science missions, is one successful example of such an approach. Like many computing-intensive systems, it has grown up in a near-organic fashion from a relatively simple set of tools into a complexly interrelated set of capabilities. Such systems, like a city lacking any concept of urban planning, can and will grow in ways that are neither efficient nor particularly easy to sustain. To meet the growing demands and unyielding constraints placed on ground systems, a new approach is necessary. Under the aegis of a multi-year effort to revitalize the AMMOS's multimission operations capabilities, we are utilizing modern practices in systems architecting and model-based engineering to create the next step in Ground Systems: MOS 2.0. In this paper we outline our work (ongoing and planned) to architect and design a multimission MOS 2.0, describe our goals and measureable objectives, and discuss some of the benefits

  17. Evaluation of dual multi-mission space exploration vehicle operations during simulated planetary surface exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Jadwick, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    IntroductionA pair of small pressurized rovers (multi-mission space exploration vehicles, or MMSEVs) is at the center of the Global Point-of-Departure architecture for future human lunar exploration. Simultaneous operation of multiple crewed surface assets should maximize productive crew time, minimize overhead, and preserve contingency return paths. MethodsA 14-day mission simulation was conducted in the Arizona desert as part of NASA's 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field test. The simulation involved two MMSEV earth-gravity prototypes performing geological exploration under varied operational modes affecting both the extent to which the MMSEVs must maintain real-time communications with the mission control center (Continuous [CC] versus Twice-a-Day [2/D]) and their proximity to each other (Lead-and-Follow [L&F] versus Divide-and-Conquer [D&C]). As part of a minimalist lunar architecture, no communication relay satellites were assumed. Two-person crews (an astronaut and a field geologist) operated each MMSEV, day and night, throughout the entire 14-day mission, only leaving via the suit ports to perform simulated extravehicular activities. Metrics and qualitative observations enabled evaluation of the extent to which the operating modes affected productivity and scientific data quality (SDQ). Results and discussionSDQ was greater during CC mode than during 2/D mode; metrics showed a marginal increase while qualitative assessments suggested a practically significant difference. For the communications architecture evaluated, significantly more crew time (14% per day) was required to maintain communications during D&C than during L&F (5%) or 2/D (2%), increasing the time required to complete all traverse objectives. Situational awareness of the other vehicle's location, activities, and contingency return constraints were qualitatively enhanced during L&F and 2/D modes due to line-of-sight and direct MMSEV-to-MMSEV communication. Future testing

  18. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  19. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission. Five years in operations: status and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Mardle, Nicola; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2015-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 5th years of operational life in April 2015. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and the main scientific achievements in the last twelve months. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  20. Asteroid Redirect Mission Proximity Operations for Reference Target Asteroid 2008 EV5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, David M.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Broschart, Steve B.; Deweese, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is composed of two segments, the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), and the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM). In March of 2015, NASA selected the Robotic Boulder Capture Option1 as the baseline for the ARRM. This option will capture a multi-ton boulder, (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (greater than approx.100 m diameter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cis-lunar space for subsequent human exploration during the ARCM. Further human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cis-lunar space. In addition, prior to departing the asteroid, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) will perform a demonstration of the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT) planetary defense technique2. This paper will discuss the proximity operations which have been broken into three phases: Approach and Characterization, Boulder Capture, and Planetary Defense Demonstration. Each of these phases has been analyzed for the ARRM reference target, 2008 EV5, and a detailed baseline operations concept has been developed.

  1. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission: Science Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Olivier; Bellerose, Julie; Carnelli, Ian; Carrol, Kieran; Ciarletti, Valérie; Cheng, Andrew F.; Galvez, Andres; Green, Simon F.; Grieger, Bjorn; Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Herique, Alain; Kueppers, Michael; Minton, David A.; Mellab, Karim; Michel, Patrick; Rivkin, Andrew S.; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Tortora, Paolo; Ulamec, Stephan; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Zannoni, Marco

    2016-10-01

    The moon of the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos is the target of the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission. This mission is a joint effort between NASA and ESA to investigate the effectiveness of a kinetic impactor in deflecting an asteroid. The mission is composed of two components: the NASA-led Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART) that will impact Didymos' moon (henceforth Didymos B), and the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) that will survey the Didymos system. Both will undertake proximity operations to characterize the physical and dynamical properties of the Didymos system that are of maximum importance in the joint AIDA mission to understand the factors at play when assessing the mometum transfer that follows DART's impact into Didymos B. Using much of ESA's Rosetta experience, the AIM mission will undertake proximity operations both before and after DART's impact. AIM's chracterization includes measuring the precise orbital configuration, masses, internal properties, surface geology and regolith properties of the primary and secondary, using visible and thermal imaging, radar measurements and radio science data. AIM will also release the small MASCOT-2 lander, as well as a suite of a CubeSats to help achieve these objectives. DART proximity observations include two phases of imaging. The first makes use of a suite of long range images that will add light curve data to what will be collected from Earth. These data will refine the orbit period of Didymos B, and provide constraints for modeling the shape of both Didymos A and B. The second phase begins just under an hour before impact when resolved imaging of the Didymos system provides further shape model constraints for the visble parts of both Didymos A and B, some possible constraints on the mass of Didymos B and key geological information of both objects and the impact site. In this presentation, we will summarize the proximity operations undertaken by both DART and AIM

  2. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  3. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 3 (JMS Inc 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 3 (JMS Inc 3) Defense...Baseline BY - Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE... Increment 3 (JMS Inc 3) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS Original Estimate This investment does not have an

  4. Applications for Mission Operations Using Multi-agent Model-based Instructional Systems with Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of past and possible future applications for artifical intelligence (AI) in astronaut instruction and training. AI systems have been used in training simulation for the Hubble Space Telescope repair, the International Space Station, and operations simulation for the Mars Exploration Rovers. In the future, robots such as may work as partners with astronauts on missions such as planetary exploration and extravehicular activities.

  5. Conjunction Assessment Techniques and Operational Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Carpenter, Russell; Farahmand, Mitra; Ottenstein, Neil; Demoret, Michael; Godine, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    This paper will describe the results that have been obtained to date during the MMS mission concerning conjunction assessment. MMS navigation makes use of a weak-signal GPS-based system: this allows signals to be received even when MMS is flying above the GPS orbits, producing a highly accurate determination of the four MMS orbits. This data is downlinked to the MMS Mission Operations Center (MOC) and used by the Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) for both maneuver design and conjunction assessment. The MMS fly in tetrahedron formations around apogee, in order to collect simultaneous particles and fields science data. The original plan was to fly tetrahedra between 10 and 160 km in size; however, after Phase 1a of the mission, the science team requested that smaller sizes be flown if feasible. After analysis (to be detailed in a companion paper), a new minimum size of 7 km was decided upon. Flying at this reduced scale size makes conjunction assessment between the MMS spacecraft even more important: the methods that are used by the MMS FDOA to address this problem will be described in the paper, and a summary given of the previous analyses that went into the development of these techniques. Details will also be given of operational experiences to date. Finally, two CA mitigation maneuver types that have been designed (but never yet required to actually be performed) will also be outlined.

  6. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  7. Mission concepts and operations for asteroid mitigation involving multiple gravity tractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cyrus; Bellerose, Julie; Mauro, David; Jaroux, Belgacem

    2013-09-01

    The gravity tractor concept is a proposed method to deflect an imminent asteroid impact through gravitational tugging over a time scale of years. In this study, we present mission scenarios and operational considerations for asteroid mitigation efforts involving multiple gravity tractors. We quantify the deflection performance improvement provided by a multiple gravity tractor campaign and assess its sensitivity to staggered launches. We next explore several proximity operation strategies to accommodate multiple gravity tractors at a single asteroid including formation-flying and mechanically-docked configurations. Finally, we utilize 99942 Apophis as an illustrative example to assess the performance of a multiple gravity tractor campaign.

  8. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  9. Ground Data System Risk Mitigation Techniques for Faster, Better, Cheaper Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, John J.; Saylor, Rick; Casasanta, Ralph; Weikel, Craig; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of faster, cheaper, and better missions, NASA Projects acknowledged that a higher level of risk was inherent and accepted with this approach. It was incumbent however upon each component of the Project whether spacecraft, payload, launch vehicle, or ground data system to ensure that the mission would nevertheless be an unqualified success. The Small Explorer (SMEX) program's ground data system (GDS) team developed risk mitigation techniques to achieve these goals starting in 1989. These techniques have evolved through the SMEX series of missions and are practiced today under the Triana program. These techniques are: (1) Mission Team Organization--empowerment of a closeknit ground data system team comprising system engineering, software engineering, testing, and flight operations personnel; (2) Common Spacecraft Test and Operational Control System--utilization of the pre-launch spacecraft integration system as the post-launch ground data system on-orbit command and control system; (3) Utilization of operations personnel in pre-launch testing--making the flight operations team an integrated member of the spacecraft testing activities at the beginning of the spacecraft fabrication phase; (4) Consolidated Test Team--combined system, mission readiness and operations testing to optimize test opportunities with the ground system and spacecraft; and (5). Reuse of Spacecraft, Systems and People--reuse of people, software and on-orbit spacecraft throughout the SMEX mission series. The SMEX ground system development approach for faster, cheaper, better missions has been very successful. This paper will discuss these risk management techniques in the areas of ground data system design, implementation, test, and operational readiness.

  10. Implementation and Test of the Automatic Flight Dynamics Operations for Geostationary Satellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangwook; Lee, Young-Ran; Hwang, Yoola; Javier Santiago Noguero Galilea

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the Flight Dynamics Automation (FDA) system for COMS Flight Dynamics System (FDS) and its test result in terms of the performance of the automation jobs. FDA controls the flight dynamics functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, and fuel accounting. The designed FDA is independent from the specific characteristics which are defined by spacecraft manufacturer or specific satellite missions. Therefore, FDA could easily links its autonomous job control functions to any satellite mission control system with some interface modification. By adding autonomous system along with flight dynamics system, it decreases the operator’s tedious and repeated jobs but increase the usability and reliability of the system. Therefore, FDA is used to improve the completeness of whole mission control system’s quality. The FDA is applied to the real flight dynamics system of a geostationary satellite, COMS and the experimental test is performed. The experimental result shows the stability and reliability of the mission control operations through the automatic job control.

  11. Philae: Operations on Comet 67P/Churyumoc-Gerasimenko. Lessons learned for future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Witte, Lars; Fantinati, Cinzia; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Maibaum, Michael; Delmas, Cedric

    2016-07-01

    Philae a comet Lander which is part of the ESA Rosetta mission successfully landed on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12th, 2014. After several (unplanned) bounces it performed a First Scientific Sequence (FSS), based on the energy stored in it's on board batteries. All ten instruments of the Philae payload have been operated at least once. Due to the fact that the final landing site was poorly illuminated, Philae went into hibernation on November 15th, but signals from the Lander were received again in June and July 2015. However, attempts to re-establish reliable and stable communications links, unfortunately, failed. Analysis of the data gained during FSS, including housekeeping and interpretation of the bouncing trajectory allow conclusions on the comet surface properties. Together with the rich data gained from the orbiter this information will help optimizing future missions to comets and other small bodies in the Solar System. The paper gives an overview on the implications of Philae results for future engineering comet models, required particularly for the design of in-situ (landing) or sample return missions. Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. Rosetta's Philae Lander is provided by a consortium led by DLR, MPS, CNES and ASI with additional contributions from Hungary, UK, Finland, Ireland and Austria.

  12. Ground operations and logistics in the context of the International Asteroid Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of Ground Operations and Logistics, in the context of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM), is to define the mission of Ground Operations; to identify the components of a manned space infrastructure; to discuss the functions and responsibilities of these components; to provide cost estimates for delivery of the spacecraft to LEO from Earth; to identify significant ground operations and logistics issues. The purpose of this dissertation is to bring a degree of reality to the project. 'One cannot dissociate development and set up of a manned infrastructure from its operational phase since it is this last one which is the most costly due to transportation costs which plague space station use' (Eymar, 1990). While this reference is to space stations, the construction and assembly of the proposed crew vehicle and cargo vehicles will face similar cost difficulties, and logistics complexities. The uniqueness of long duration space flight is complicated further by the lack of experience with human habitated, and non-refurbishable life support systems. These problems are addressed.

  13. Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+, Cl-, and NH4+, the rejection of urea is lower. This indicates that the chemical interaction between solutes and the membrane is more important than the size exclusion effect. Low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes appear to be most desirable because of their high permeate flux and rejection. Solute rejection is dependent on the shear rate, indicating the importance of concentration polarization. A simple transport model based on the solution-diffusion model incorporating concentration polarization is used to interpret the experimental results and predict rejection over a range of operating conditions. Grant numbers: NAG 9-1053.

  14. Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+, Cl-, and NH4+, the rejection of urea is lower. This indicates that the chemical interaction between solutes and the membrane is more important than the size exclusion effect. Low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes appear to be most desirable because of their high permeate flux and rejection. Solute rejection is dependent on the shear rate, indicating the importance of concentration polarization. A simple transport model based on the solution-diffusion model incorporating concentration polarization is used to interpret the experimental results and predict rejection over a range of operating conditions. Grant numbers: NAG 9-1053.

  15. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  16. Orbit Transfers for Dawn's Vesta Operations : Navigation and Mission Design Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongsuk

    2012-01-01

    Dawn, a mission belonging to NASA's Discovery Program, was launched on September 27, 2007 to explore main belt asteroids in order to yield insights into important questions about the formation and evolution of the solar system. From July of 2011 to August of 2012, the Dawn spacecraft successfully returned valuable science data, collected during the four planned mapping orbits at its first target asteroid, Vesta. Each mapping orbit was designed to enable a different set of scientific observations. Such a mission would have been impossible without the low thrust ion propulsion system (IPS). Maneuvering a spacecraft using only the IPS for the transfers between the mapping orbits posed many technical challenges to Dawn's flight team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Each transfer needs a robust plan that accounts for uncertainties in maneuver execution, orbit determination, and physical characteristics of Vesta. This paper discusses the mission design and navigational experience during Dawn's Vesta operations. Topics include requirements and constraints from Dawn's science and spacecraft teams, orbit determination and maneuver design and building process for transfers, developing timelines for thrust sequence build cycles, and the process of scheduling very demanding coverage with ground antennae at NASA's Deep Space Network.

  17. A compiler and validator for flight operations on NASA space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Sergio; Politi, Romolo; Capria, Maria Teresa; Giardino, Marco; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina

    2016-07-01

    In NASA missions the management and the programming of the flight systems is performed by a specific scripting language, the SASF (Spacecraft Activity Sequence File). In order to perform a check on the syntax and grammar it is necessary a compiler that stress the errors (eventually) found in the sequence file produced for an instrument on board the flight system. In our experience on Dawn mission, we developed VIRV (VIR Validator), a tool that performs checks on the syntax and grammar of SASF, runs a simulations of VIR acquisitions and eventually finds violation of the flight rules of the sequences produced. The project of a SASF compiler (SSC - Spacecraft Sequence Compiler) is ready to have a new implementation: the generalization for different NASA mission. In fact, VIRV is a compiler for a dialect of SASF; it includes VIR commands as part of SASF language. Our goal is to produce a general compiler for the SASF, in which every instrument has a library to be introduced into the compiler. The SSC can analyze a SASF, produce a log of events, perform a simulation of the instrument acquisition and check the flight rules for the instrument selected. The output of the program can be produced in GRASS GIS format and may help the operator to analyze the geometry of the acquisition.

  18. Designing remote operations strategies to optimize science mission goals : Lessons learned from the Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 field test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yingst, R. A.; Russell, P.; Ten Kate, I. L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217; Noble, S.; Graff, T.; Graham, L. D.; Eppler, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 (MMAMA 2012) field campaign aimed to assess how effectively an integrated science and engineering rover team operating on a 24-h planning cycle facilitates high-fidelity science products. The science driver of this field campaign was to determin

  19. Designing remote operations strategies to optimize science mission goals : Lessons learned from the Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 field test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yingst, R. A.; Russell, P.; Ten Kate, I. L.; Noble, S.; Graff, T.; Graham, L. D.; Eppler, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 (MMAMA 2012) field campaign aimed to assess how effectively an integrated science and engineering rover team operating on a 24-h planning cycle facilitates high-fidelity science products. The science driver of this field campaign was to determin

  20. Airborne campaigns for CryoSat prelaunch calibration and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Hanson, Susanne; Hvidegaard, Sine Munk

    2011-01-01

    After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite is planned for spring 2011. DTU Space has been involved in ESA’s CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the prelaunch performance of the ...

  1. [Determine and Implement Updates to Be Made to MODEAR (Mission Operations Data Enterprise Architecture Repository)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourakis, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    My main project was to determine and implement updates to be made to MODEAR (Mission Operations Data Enterprise Architecture Repository) process definitions to be used for CST-100 (Crew Space Transportation-100) related missions. Emphasis was placed on the scheduling aspect of the processes. In addition, I was to complete other tasks as given. Some of the additional tasks were: to create pass-through command look-up tables for the flight controllers, finish one of the MDT (Mission Operations Directorate Display Tool) displays, gather data on what is included in the CST-100 public data, develop a VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) script to create a csv (Comma-Separated Values) file with specific information from spreadsheets containing command data, create a command script for the November MCC-ASIL (Mission Control Center-Avionics System Integration Laboratory) testing, and take notes for one of the TCVB (Terminal Configured Vehicle B-737) meetings. In order to make progress in my main project I scheduled meetings with the appropriate subject matter experts, prepared material for the meetings, and assisted in the discussions in order to understand the process or processes at hand. After such discussions I made updates to various MODEAR processes and process graphics. These meetings have resulted in significant updates to the processes that were discussed. In addition, the discussions have helped the departments responsible for these processes better understand the work ahead and provided material to help document how their products are created. I completed my other tasks utilizing resources available to me and, when necessary, consulting with the subject matter experts. Outputs resulting from my other tasks were: two completed and one partially completed pass through command look-up tables for the fight controllers, significant updates to one of the MDT displays, a spreadsheet containing data on what is included in the CST-100 public data, a tool to create a csv

  2. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  3. Virtual Mission Operations of Remote Sensors With Rapid Access To and From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, Dave; Walke, Jon; Dikeman, Larry; Sage, Steven; Miller, Eric; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris; Taylor, John; Lynch, Scott; Heberle, Jay

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes network-centric operations, where a virtual mission operations center autonomously receives sensor triggers, and schedules space and ground assets using Internet-based technologies and service-oriented architectures. For proof-of-concept purposes, sensor triggers are received from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to determine targets for space-based sensors. The Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) Disaster Monitoring Constellation satellite, the United Kingdom Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC), is used as the space-based sensor. The UK-DMC s availability is determined via machine-to-machine communications using SSTL s mission planning system. Access to/from the UK-DMC for tasking and sensor data is via SSTL s and Universal Space Network s (USN) ground assets. The availability and scheduling of USN s assets can also be performed autonomously via machine-to-machine communications. All communication, both on the ground and between ground and space, uses open Internet standards.

  4. Sentinel-2 Optical High Resolution Mission for GMES Land Operational Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, Claudia; Drusch, Matthias; Gascon, Ferran; Martimort, Philippe; Del Bello, Umberto; Spoto, Francois; Sy, Omas; Laberinti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Long-term availability of Earth observation-based services and continuity of consistent high quality data is - apart from meteorological services - not guaranteed in Europe. In order to contribute to improve its response to ever growing challenges of global safety and climate change, Europe requires an independent sustained and reliable Earth observation system. The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) is a European programme for the implementation of a European capacity to provide independent and permanent access to reliable Earth observation data. To ensure the operational provision of appropriate Earth-observation data the GMES Space Component (GSC) includes a series of five space missions called 'Sentinels', which are being developed by ESA specifically for GMES. The European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a twin satellites configuration deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit and designed to offer a unique combination of systematic global coverage, high revisit (five days at equator with two satellites) and high spatial resolution imagery (10/20/60m). The Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) features 13 spectral bands, going from visible to short wave infrared domains. The instrument is designed to provide in orbit calibration, excellent radiometric and geometric performance, and with a capability to support accurate image geo-location and co-registration. The Sentinel-2 mission is more particularly tailored to the monitoring of land terrains, including vegetation and urban areas. Sentinel-2 will ensure data continuity with the SPOT and Landsat multi-spectral sensors, while accounting for future service evolution. The lifetime of each Sentinel-2 spacecraft is specified as 7 years and propellant is sized for 12 years, including provision for de-orbiting manoeuvres at

  5. Mission Operations Center (MOC) - Precipitation Processing System (PPS) Interface Software System (MPISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Jeffrey; Calk, William; Atwell, William; Tsui, Tina

    2013-01-01

    MPISS is an automatic file transfer system that implements a combination of standard and mission-unique transfer protocols required by the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) Precipitation Processing System (PPS) to control the flow of data between the MOC and the PPS. The primary features of MPISS are file transfers (both with and without PPS specific protocols), logging of file transfer and system events to local files and a standard messaging bus, short term storage of data files to facilitate retransmissions, and generation of file transfer accounting reports. The system includes a graphical user interface (GUI) to control the system, allow manual operations, and to display events in real time. The PPS specific protocols are an enhanced version of those that were developed for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). All file transfers between the MOC and the PPS use the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). For reports and data files generated within the MOC, no additional protocols are used when transferring files to the PPS. For observatory data files, an additional handshaking protocol of data notices and data receipts is used. MPISS generates and sends to the PPS data notices containing data start and stop times along with a checksum for the file for each observatory data file transmitted. MPISS retrieves the PPS generated data receipts that indicate the success or failure of the PPS to ingest the data file and/or notice. MPISS retransmits the appropriate files as indicated in the receipt when required. MPISS also automatically retrieves files from the PPS. The unique feature of this software is the use of both standard and PPS specific protocols in parallel. The advantage of this capability is that it supports users that require the PPS protocol as well as those that do not require it. The system is highly configurable to accommodate the needs of future users.

  6. Utilization of the Space Vision System as an Augmented Reality System For Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technique whereby computer generated images are superimposed on live images for visual enhancement. Augmented reality can also be characterized as dynamic overlays when computer generated images are registered with moving objects in a live image. This technique has been successfully implemented, with low to medium levels of registration precision, in an NRA funded project entitled, "Improving Human Task Performance with Luminance Images and Dynamic Overlays". Future research is already being planned to also utilize a laboratory-based system where more extensive subject testing can be performed. However successful this might be, the problem will still be whether such a technology can be used with flight hardware. To answer this question, the Canadian Space Vision System (SVS) will be tested as an augmented reality system capable of improving human performance where the operation requires indirect viewing. This system has already been certified for flight and is currently flown on each shuttle mission for station assembly. Successful development and utilization of this system in a ground-based experiment will expand its utilization for on-orbit mission operations. Current research and development regarding the use of augmented reality technology is being simulated using ground-based equipment. This is an appropriate approach for development of symbology (graphics and annotation) optimal for human performance and for development of optimal image registration techniques. It is anticipated that this technology will become more pervasive as it matures. Because we know what and where almost everything is on ISS, this reduces the registration problem and improves the computer model of that reality, making augmented reality an attractive tool, provided we know how to use it. This is the basis for current research in this area. However, there is a missing element to this process. It is the link from this research to the current ISS video system and to

  7. Digital Learning Network Education Events of NASA's Extreme Environments Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather; Guillory, Erika

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Digital Learning Network (DLN) reaches out to thousands of students each year through video conferencing and web casting. The DLN has created a series of live education videoconferences connecting NASA s Extreme Environment Missions Operations (NEEMO) team to students across the United States. The programs are also extended to students around the world live web casting. The primary focus of the events is the vision for space exploration. During the programs, NEEMO Crewmembers including NASA astronauts, engineers and scientists inform and inspire students about the importance of exploration and share the impact of the project as it correlates with plans to return to the moon and explore the planet Mars. These events highlight interactivity. Students talk live with the aquanauts in Aquarius, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration s underwater laboratory. With this program, NASA continues the Agency s tradition of investing in the nation's education programs. It is directly tied to the Agency's major education goal of attracting and retaining students in science, technology, and engineering disciplines. Before connecting with the aquanauts, the students conduct experiments of their own designed to coincide with mission objectives. This paper describes the events that took place in September 2006.

  8. Technical Challenges and Opportunities of Centralizing Space Science Mission Operations (SSMO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Haisam; Burns, Rich

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Science Mission Operations project (SSMO) is performing a technical cost-benefit analysis for centralizing and consolidating operations of a diverse set of missions into a unified and integrated technical infrastructure. The presentation will focus on the notion of normalizing spacecraft operations processes, workflows, and tools. It will also show the processes of creating a standardized open architecture, creating common security models and implementations, interfaces, services, automations, notifications, alerts, logging, publish, subscribe and middleware capabilities. The presentation will also discuss how to leverage traditional capabilities, along with virtualization, cloud computing services, control groups and containers, and possibly Big Data concepts.

  9. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization's guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations.

  10. A Moderated Discussion about Interesting Careers in Aerospace and Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have one of the lowest unemployment rates in the US, yet many do not work in the field of astronomy because of few permanent traditional options relative to the number of PhDs produced each year. Where do so many astronomers find employment? Learn more at this session. Astronomical training provides the background for many interesting careers. As appropriate to the location of this meeting, this session provides a perspective on what those opportunities may be among aerospace industry-related careers. They are more diverse than you might think. In this session, two speakers with wide ranging experience in the field and a high level view of staffing large projects offer their thoughts. Kathy Flanagan is Deputy Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute, which will conduct the science and mission operations for the James Webb Space Telescope. This project has involved staffing at many levels of hardware, software, data analysis, science, operations, and outreach. Jeff Grant is sector vice president and general manager of the Space Systems Division at Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, and leads the design, build, launch and operations of major systems in space. We invite early career scientists and their mentors to hear their thoughts and ask questions at this session.

  11. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  12. Space vehicle design and operation for efficient use of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancati, Mike L.; Hodge, John R.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a high-leverage, and possibly enabling, propulsion choice for sending humans to Mars. Important performance gains are expected for NTP Mars transfer vehicle over their counterparts, the conventional chemical systems. These gains come in spite of vehicle unique requirements for NTP engine development and operations: expected higher development costs, prelaunch and in-space handing safeguards, extra propellant for reactor cool-down after engine burns, and safe, managed disposal of spent NTP engines. Prior studies have also shown that these NTP engines and stages, sized for Mars missions, could increase delivered payloads for some piloted lunar mission as well.

  13. S-NPP ATMS Instrument Prelaunch and On-Orbit Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Lyu, Cheng-Hsuan; Anderson, Kent; Leslie, Vincent R.; Blackwell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of a new generation of microwave sounders was launched aboard the Suomi-National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite in October 2011. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) combines the capabilities and channel sets of three predecessor sounders into a single package to provide information on the atmospheric vertical temperature and moisture profiles that are the most critical observations needed for numerical weather forecast models. Enhancements include size/mass/power approximately one third of the previous total, three new sounding channels, the first space-based, Nyquist-sampled cross-track microwave temperature soundings for improved fusion with infrared soundings, plus improved temperature control and reliability. This paper describes the ATMS characteristics versus its predecessor, the advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU), and presents the first comprehensive evaluation of key prelaunch and on-orbit performance parameters. Two-year on-orbit performance shows that the ATMS has maintained very stable radiometric sensitivity, in agreement with prelaunch data, meeting requirements for all channels (with margins of 40% for channels 1-15), and improvements over AMSU-A when processed for equivalent spatial resolution. The radiometric accuracy, determined by analysis from ground test measurements, and using on-orbit instrument temperatures, also shows large margins relative to requirements (specified as ATMS is especially important for this first proto-flight model unit of what will eventually be a series of ATMS sensors providing operational sounding capability for the U.S. and its international partners well into the next decade.

  14. Designing remote operations strategies to optimize science mission goals: Lessons learned from the Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Russell, P.; ten Kate, I. L.; Noble, S.; Graff, T.; Graham, L. D.; Eppler, D.

    2015-08-01

    The Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 (MMAMA 2012) field campaign aimed to assess how effectively an integrated science and engineering rover team operating on a 24-h planning cycle facilitates high-fidelity science products. The science driver of this field campaign was to determine the origin of a glacially-derived deposit: was the deposit the result of (1) glacial outwash from meltwater; or (2) the result of an ice dam breach at the head of the valley? Lessons learned from MMAMA 2012 science operations include: (1) current rover science operations scenarios tested in this environment provide adequate data to yield accurate derivative products such as geologic maps; (2) instrumentation should be selected based on both engineering and science goals; and chosen during, rather than after, mission definition; and (3) paralleling the tactical and strategic science processes provides significant efficiencies that impact science return. The MER-model concept of operations utilized, in which rover operators were sufficiently facile with science intent to alter traverse and sampling plans during plan execution, increased science efficiency, gave the Science Backroom time to develop mature hypotheses and science rationales, and partially alleviated the problem of data flow being greater than the processing speed of the scientists.

  15. Transitioning from a U.N. Observer Mission to a Robust Peacekeeping Operation: Lessons from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    U.N.CHAPTER VI OBSERVER MISSION TO A ROBUST PEACEKEEPING OPERATION: LESSONS FROM SIERRA LEONE 9. Personal Authors: Peter V. Londono, CIV 10.Type of...necessarily endorsed by the NWC or the Department of the Navy. 14. Ten key words that relate to your paper: Peacekeeping, U.N., Sierra Leone , UNOMSIL...UNAMSIL, RUF, Peace Enforcement, Operation Relief Focus, ECOWAS, ECOMOG 15.Abstract: U.N. peacekeeping operations in Sierra Leone have special

  16. Spaceborne observations of a changing Earth - Contribution from ESÁ s operating and approved satellite missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    , managerial and regulatory activities (i.e. weather forecasting, deforestation, flooding, etc.) essential to the safe exploitation of global resources, conservation of sustainable ecosystems, and the compliance with numerous international treaties and conventions, depend absolutely on continuity of satellite missions to maximise socio-economic and environmental benefits. This presentation will highlight some of the multidisciplinary Earth science achievements and operational applications using ESA satellite missions. It will also address some of the key scientific challenges and need for operational monitoring services in the years to come. It capitalizes on the knowledge and awareness outlined in "The Changing Earth - New scientific challenges for ESÁs Living Planet Programme" issued in 2006 together with updated views and approved plans expressed during ESÁs Earth Sciences Advisory Committee (ESAC) meetings and agreed at the recent User Consultation meeting in January 2009.

  17. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; Garry, Brent; Graff, Trevor; Gruener, John; Heldmann, Jennifer; Hodges, Kip; Horz, Friedrich; Hurtado, Jose; Hynek, Brian; Isaacson, Peter; Juranek, Catherine; Klaus, Kurt; Kring, David; Lanza, Nina; Lederer, Susan; Lofgren, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  18. Nutritional Assessment During a 14-d Saturation Dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Fesperman, J. V.; Smith, M. D.; Rice, B. L.; Zwart, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiological and nutritional changes associated with space travel, particularly since exploration missions are anticipated, and flight research opportunities are limited. A clinical nutritional assessment of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V (NEEMO) crew (4 M, 2 F) was conducted before, during, and after the 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before (D-12 and D-1), during (MD 7 and MD 12), and after (R + 0 and R + 7) the dive. The foods were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiological changes were reported both during the dive and post dive that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Serum hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P less than 0.05) post dive. Serum ferritin and ceruloplasmin significantly increased during the dive, while transferring receptors tended to go down during the dive and were significantly decreased by the last day (R + 0). Along with significant hematological changes, there was also evidence for increased oxidative damage and stress during the dive. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was elevated (P less than 0.05) during the dive, while glutathione peroxidase and superoxide disrnutase activities were decreased (P less than 0.05) during the dive. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration also tended to increase during the dive, suggesting the presence of a stress-induced inflammatory response, Decreased leptin during the dive (P less than 0.05) may also be related to the increased stress. Similar to what is observed during spaceflight, subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to further define the physiological effects of spaceflight and investigate potential countermeasures.

  19. Marshall Space Flight Center's Tower Vector Magnetograph: Upgrades, Hardware, and Operations for the HESSI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Smith, J. E.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) solar group announces the successful upgrade of our tower vector magnetograph. In operation since 1973, the last major alterations to the system (which includes telescope, filter, polarizing optics, camera, and data acquisition computer) were made in 1982, when we upgraded from an SEC Vidicon camera to a CCD. In 1985, other changes were made which increased the field-of-view from 5 x 5 arc min (2.4 arc sec per pixel) to 6 x 6 arc min with a resolution of 2.81 arc sec. In 1989, the Apollo Telescope Mount H-alpha telescope was coaligned with the optics of the magnetograph. The most recent upgrades (year 2000), funded to support the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) mission, have resulted in a pixel size of 0.64 arc sec over a 7 x 5.2 arc min field-of-view (binning 1x1). This poster describes the physical characteristics of the new system and compares spatial resolution, timing, and versatility with the old system. Finally, we provide a description of our Internet web site, which includes images of our most recent observations, and links to our data archives, as well as the history of magnetography at MSFC and education outreach pages.

  20. Historical record of Landsat global coverage: mission operations, NSLRSDA, and International Cooperator stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, Samuel; Arvidson, Terry; Williams, Darrel; Faundeen, John; Irons, James; Franks, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    The long-term, 34 year record of global Landsat remote sensing data is a critical resource to study the Earth system and human impacts on this system. The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) is charged by public law to: “maintain a permanent, comprehensive Government archive of global Landsat and other land remote sensing data for long-term monitoring and study of the changing global environment” (U.S. Congress, 1992). The advisory committee for NSLRSDA requested a detailed analysis of observation coverage within the U.S. Landsat holdings, as well as that acquired and held by International Cooperator (IC) stations. Our analyses, to date, have found gaps of varying magnitude in U.S. holdings of Landsat global coverage data, which appear to reflect technical or administrative variations in mission operations. In many cases it may be possible to partially fill these gaps in U.S. holdings through observations that were acquired and are now being held at International Cooperator stations.

  1. Model based systems engineering (MBSE) applied to Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) CubeSat mission operational scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangelo, S. C.; Cutler, J.; Anderson, L.; Fosse, E.; Cheng, L.; Yntema, R.; Bajaj, M.; Delp, C.; Cole, B.; Soremekum, G.; Kaslow, D.

    Small satellites are more highly resource-constrained by mass, power, volume, delivery timelines, and financial cost relative to their larger counterparts. Small satellites are operationally challenging because subsystem functions are coupled and constrained by the limited available commodities (e.g. data, energy, and access times to ground resources). Furthermore, additional operational complexities arise because small satellite components are physically integrated, which may yield thermal or radio frequency interference. In this paper, we extend our initial Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) framework developed for a small satellite mission by demonstrating the ability to model different behaviors and scenarios. We integrate several simulation tools to execute SysML-based behavior models, including subsystem functions and internal states of the spacecraft. We demonstrate utility of this approach to drive the system analysis and design process. We demonstrate applicability of the simulation environment to capture realistic satellite operational scenarios, which include energy collection, the data acquisition, and downloading to ground stations. The integrated modeling environment enables users to extract feasibility, performance, and robustness metrics. This enables visualization of both the physical states (e.g. position, attitude) and functional states (e.g. operating points of various subsystems) of the satellite for representative mission scenarios. The modeling approach presented in this paper offers satellite designers and operators the opportunity to assess the feasibility of vehicle and network parameters, as well as the feasibility of operational schedules. This will enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout the full design, test, and fly cycle. In particular, vehicle and network parameters and schedules can be verified prior to being implemented, during mission operations, and can also be updated in near real-time with oper

  2. 14 CFR 431.43 - Reusable launch vehicle mission operational requirements and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle poses risk to public health and safety and the safety of property in excess of acceptable flight... LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Safety Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431... RLV mission safety approval shall submit procedures— (1) That ensure RLV mission risks do not exceed...

  3. Suomi NPP VIIRS Prelaunch and On-orbit Geometric Calibration and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna P.; Tilton, James C.; Isaacman, Alice R.

    2013-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor was launched 28 October 2011 on the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. VIIRS has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 m and 12.01 m, including 16 moderate resolution bands (M-bands) with a spatial resolution of 750 m at nadir, 5 imaging resolution bands (I-bands) with a spatial resolution of 375 m at nadir, and 1 day-night band (DNB) with a near-constant 750 m spatial resolution throughout the scan. These bands are located in a visible and near infrared (VisNIR) focal plane assembly (FPA), a short- and mid-wave infrared (SWMWIR) FPA and a long-wave infrared (LWIR) FPA. All bands, except the DNB, are co-registered for proper environmental data records (EDRs) retrievals. Observations from VIIRS instrument provide long-term measurements of biogeophysical variables for climate research and polar satellite data stream for the operational communitys use in weather forecasting and disaster relief and other applications. Well Earth-located (geolocated) instrument data is important to retrieving accurate biogeophysical variables. This paper describes prelaunch pointing and alignment measurements, and the two sets of on-orbit correction of geolocation errors, the first of which corrected error from 1,300 m to within 75 m (20 I-band pixel size), and the second of which fine tuned scan angle dependent errors, bringing VIIRS geolocation products to high maturity in one and a half years of the SNPP VIIRS on-orbit operations. Prelaunch calibration and the on-orbit characterization of sensor spatial impulse responses and band-to-band co-registration (BBR) are also described.

  4. Design and Flight Performance of the Orion Pre-Launch Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to test the prelaunch and entry components of the system. Orion's pre-launch absolute navigation design is presented, together with its EFT-1 performance.

  5. Storyboard for the Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Eric; Hailey, Melinda; Reyes, David; Rubin, David; Urbina, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This storyboard conceptualizes one scenario of an integrated medical system during a Mars exploration mission. All content is for illustrative purposes only and neither defines nor implies system design requirement.

  6. Remote Infrared Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Flight: HYTHIRM Mission Operations and Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; McCrea, Andrew C.; Gruber, Jennifer R.; Hensley, Doyle W.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Oram, Timothy D.; Berger, Karen T.; Splinter, Scott C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project has been responsible for obtaining spatially resolved, scientifically calibrated in-flight thermal imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. Starting with STS-119 in March of 2009 and continuing through to the majority of final flights of the Space Shuttle, the HYTHIRM team has to date deployed during seven Shuttle missions with a mix of airborne and ground based imaging platforms. Each deployment of the HYTHIRM team has resulted in obtaining imagery suitable for processing and comparison with computational models and wind tunnel data at Mach numbers ranging from over 18 to under Mach 5. This paper will discuss the detailed mission planning and coordination with the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center that the HYTHIRM team undergoes to prepare for and execute each mission.

  7. Plans and Combined Operations of the Flight Elements of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erd, Christian; Clark, K.; Ejsm System Teams

    2010-05-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) is a joint NASA-ESA mission candidate, where ESA would provide the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) and NASA would provide the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO). Both spacecraft are foreseen to be launched in 2020, allowing for a joint exploration of the Jovian system, and the Galilean moons. The planning of the development, implementation and combined science phase will be described in the poster.

  8. Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is an annual field test of advanced concepts, prototype hardware, and potential modes of operation to be used on human planetary surface space exploration missions. For the 2009 and 2010 NASA Desert RATS field tests, various engineering concepts and operational exercises were incorporated into mission timelines with the focus of the majority of daily operations being on simulated lunar geological field operations and executed in a manner similar to current Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The field test for 2009 involved a two week lunar exploration simulation utilizing a two-man rover. The 2010 Desert RATS field test took this two week simulation further by incorporating a second two-man rover working in tandem with the 2009 rover, as well as including docked operations with a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). Personnel for the field test included the crew, a mission management team, engineering teams, a science team, and the mission operations team. The mission operations team served as the core of the Desert RATS mission control team and included certified NASA Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controllers, former flight controllers, and astronaut personnel. The backgrounds of the flight controllers were in the areas of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), onboard mechanical systems and maintenance, robotics, timeline planning (OpsPlan), and spacecraft communicator (Capcom). With the simulated EVA operations, mechanized operations (the rover), and expectations of replanning, these flight control disciplines were especially well suited for the execution of the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The inclusion of an operations team has provided the added benefit of giving NASA mission operations flight control personnel the opportunity to begin examining operational mission control techniques, team compositions, and mission scenarios. This also gave the mission operations

  9. The feasibility study and evaluation of applying expert system techniques to the mission operations for the AXAF-I spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai H.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-I) is a spacecraft for X-ray emitting sources observation and has been tentatively scheduled for a space shuttle launch in late 1998 at the Kennedy Space Center. Its main objectives are 'to determine the nature of astronomical objects ranging from normal stars to quasars, to understand the nature of the physical processes which take place in and between astronomical objects, and to add to our understanding of the history and evolution of the universe.' The AXAF-I will have an expected five year life time for the science mission phase. During the science mission phase, the monitoring and management operation of the flight and ground systems is personnel intensive, requiring system experts on duty around the clock. The purpose of the expert system presented in this report is intended to reduce the level of expertise, training, and personnel requirement for the mission operation. The telemetry data from the spacecraft can be divided into two categories: the science observation data and the engineering status data. The science data contains the outputs from the X-ray sensing devices and will be forwarded to the AXAF-I Science Center for interpretation; while the engineering status data will be monitored by the Operation Control Center (OCC) for the operation diagnosis of the spacecraft. The expert system is designed to assist the operation controllers at the OCC to perform the daily mission operations. Since there are hundreds of engineering telemetry data points and the interpretation of the telemetry depends on many factors, e.g., sun or eclipse, the monitoring of the AXAF-I is not a trivial task. In this phase of expert system development, the focus has been limited to the engineering data interpretation, i.e., warnings will be provided to the operation controllers to signal any anomaly. The system is hosted in a Silicon Graphics Indigo-2 workstation running the IRIX operating system. The expert system tool used

  10. Use of Special Operations Forces in United Nations Missions: a Method to Resolve Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    mission. The aggressive approach the unit adopted for clearing the city of Goma and the surrounding areas from rebels required accurate intelligence...the city of Goma . The ability of soldiers from the Special Forces Company to access remote areas, coordinate aviation attacks, and conduct surgical

  11. Cyber Mission Assurance: A Guide to Reducing the Uncertainties of Operating in a Contested Cyber Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    not a sports team that takes the field of battle on game day without having practiced the plan of attack. This chapter will emphasize the importance...forums like Red Flag and the U.S. Air Force Weapons School Mission Employment phase, touted as Red Flag on steroids . This makes it difficult to

  12. Mission Continuity Planning: Strategically Assessing and Planning for Threats to Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.

    This book covers the principles of risk and risk management and offers a framework for analyzing the significant, often unforeseen threats facing higher education institutions today. It examines the critical elements of a disaster preparedness plan and addresses business continuity and mission continuity planning. The book also provides tools for…

  13. Transitions Towards Operational Space-Based Ocean Observations: From Single Research Missions into Series and Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    management perspective on mission procurement and development to highlight advances in subsequent stages of innovation (see section 2). At the final... globalisation has definitely advantages in terms of meeting temporal and spatial requirements provided that timely open access to data is guaranteed and

  14. Pragmatic Divestment of KC-135 Navigators in the Special Operations Air Refueling Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    not only remain as the KC-46 arrives, but inbound navigators will continue arriving until 2018. This thesis applies the Delphi method, a process...officers, and enable the complex SOAR mission to endure. In order to best achieve these results, the experts recommended halting all inbound navigator...Training Life Cycle Costs ...............................................10 Status of Resources and Training System (SORTS

  15. Mission Command: Reconciling the ARFORGEN Model with Training Doctrine and the Current Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    mentor, Dr. John Gordon, played an integral role in the development of my topic and demonstrated great patience as I plodded through the writing...the Yom Kippur War, Generals William DePuy and Donn Starry initiated a transformation toward a mission command centered doctrine, AirLand Battle. In

  16. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  17. Comparative Effects of Antihistamines on Aircrew Mission Effectiveness under Sustained Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    1EC RIY CLASIFICATION S SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURI V CIA9SIFICATION 20. UMOTATION O3F ABSTRACUT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT...periodically during the off-task times. Smoking was allowed in designated, outside areas, during off-task periods only. Meals were low in protein to prevent the...slower absorption of drug into tissue due to plasma protein binding. Air Defense Commander’s Perspective In the present report, only the Mission

  18. Enhancing International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC) Operations Using Tcl/Tk

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHagan, Brian; Long, Stephen K., Sr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will discuss the use of Tcl/Tk to enhance the abilities of flight controllers to control the International Space Station (ISS) from the Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center. We will discuss why existing tools where not able to meet these needs as easily as Tcl/Tk. In addition, we will also discuss how we interfaced with the existing MCC infrastructure to receive ISS telemetry, find servers, register services, and send commands to ISS.

  19. Mission Operations Working Group (MOWG) Report to the OMI Science Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dominic M.

    2017-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss Aura's current spacecraft and OMI insturment status, highlight any performance trends and impacts to OMI operations, identify any operational changes and express concerns or potential process improvements.

  20. 3D Printing in Zero G Technology Demonstration Mission: Summary of On-Orbit Operations, Material Testing, and Future Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Niki; Ordonez, Erick; Ledbetter, Frank; Ryan, Richard; Newton, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration to date has been limited to low Earth orbit and the moon. The International Space Station (ISS), an orbiting laboratory 200 miles above the earth, provides a unique and incredible opportunity for researchers to prove out the technologies that will enable humans to safely live and work in space for longer periods of time and venture farther into the solar system. The ability to manufacture parts in-space rather than launch them from earth represents a fundamental shift in the current risk and logistics paradigm for human spaceflight. In particularly, additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) techniques can potentially be deployed in the space environment to enhance crew safety (by providing an on-demand part replacement capability) and decrease launch mass by reducing the number of spare components that must be launched for missions where cargo resupply is not a near-term option. In September 2014, NASA launched the 3D Printing in Zero G technology demonstration mission to the ISS to explore the potential of additive manufacturing for in-space applications and demonstrate the capability to manufacture parts and tools on-orbit. The printer for this mission was designed and operated by the company Made In Space under a NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) phase III contract. The overarching objectives of the 3D print mission were to use ISS as a testbed to further maturation of enhancing technologies needed for long duration human exploration missions, introduce new materials and methods to fabricate structure in space, enable cost-effective manufacturing for structures and mechanisms made in low-unit production, and enable physical components to be manufactured in space on long duration missions if necessary. The 3D print unit for fused deposition modeling (FDM) of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was integrated into the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in November 2014 and phase I printing operations took place from

  1. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Dennis; Irons, James; Lunsford, Allen; Montanero, Matthew; Pellerano, Fernando; Richardson, Cathleen; Smith, Ramsey; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and United States Geological Survey (USGS) mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will describe the design, capabilities and status of the OLI and TIRS instruments. The OLI will provide 8 channel multispectral images at a spatial resolution of 30 meters and panchromatic images at 15 meter spatial resolution. The TIRS is a 100 meter spatial resolution push-broom imager whose two spectral channels, centered at 10.8 and 12 microns, split the ETM+ thermal bands. The two channels allow the use of the "split-window" technique to aid in atmospheric correction. The TIRS focal plane consists of three Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays to span the 185 km swath width. The OLI and TIRS instruments will be operated independently but in concert with each other. Data from both instruments will be merged into a single data stream at the (USGS)/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) facility. The ground system, being developed by USGS, includes an Image Assessment System (lAS), similar to Landsat-7's, to operationally monitor, characterize and update the calibrations of the two sensors.

  2. Cluster II Wideband (WBD) Plasma Wave Investigation Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    This Summary of Research is being submitted to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. A summary of the significant accomplishments of the Cluster Wideband (WBD) Plasma Wave Investigation team achieved during the period of the grant, October 1,2000 through January 14, 2004, and a listing of all of the publications that resulted from work carried out under the grant is presented. Also included is a listing of the numerous public outreach activities that took place during the period of the grant in which the Cluster mission and Cluster WBD science were discussed.

  3. Computer Based Decision Support Tool for Helicopter Mission Planning in Disaster Relief and Military Operations (Outil informatique d’aide a la decision pour la planification des missions d’helicopteres dans des operations militaires et de secours en cas de catastrophe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    TR-SAS-045 Computer Based Decision Support Tool for Helicopter Mission Planning in Disaster Relief and Military Operations (Outil informatique ...Computer Based Decision Support Tool for Helicopter Mission Planning in Disaster Relief and Military Operations (Outil informatique d’aide à la...RTO-TR-SAS-045 Outil informatique d’aide à la décision pour la planification des missions d’hélicoptères dans des opérations militaires et de

  4. Pre-Launch Noise Characterization of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM Plus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedelty, J. A.; Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.; Seiferth, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    A noise characterization of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument was performed as part of a near-real time performance assessment and health monitoring program. Perl'ormance data for the integrated Landsat-7 spacecraft and ETM+ were collected before, during, and after the spacecraft thermal vacuum testing program at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facilities in Valley Forge, PA. The Landsat-7 spacecraft and ETM+ instrument were successfully launched on April 15, 1999. The spacecraft and ETM+ are now nearing the end of the on orbit engineering checkout phase, and Landsat-7 is expected to be declared operational on or about July 15, 1999. A preliminary post-launch noise characterization was performed and compared with the pre-launch characterization. In general the overall noise levels in the ETM+ are at or below the specification levels. Coherent noise is seen in most bands, but is only operationally significant when imaging in (he panchromatic band (band 8). This coherent noise has an amplitude as high as approximately 3 DN (peak-to-peak, high gain) at the Nyquist rate of 104 kHz, and causes the noise levels in panchromatic band images at times to exceed the total noise specification by up to approximately 10%. However, this 104 kHz noise is now much weaker than it was prior to the successful repair of the ETM+ power supplies that was completed in May 1998. Weak and stable coherent noise at approximately 5 kHz is seen in all bands in the prime focal plane (bands 1-4 and 8) with the prime (side A) electronics. Very strong coherent noise at approximately 20 kHz is seen in a few detectors of bands 1 and 8, but this noise is almost entirely in the turn-around region between scans when the ETM+ is not imaging the Earth. Strong coherent noise was seen in 2 detectors of band 5 during some of the pre-launch testing; however, this noise seems to be temperature dependent, and has not been seen in the current on orbit environment. Strong

  5. The IXV Ground Segment design, implementation and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci di Scarfizzi, Giovanni; Bellomo, Alessandro; Musso, Ivano; Bussi, Diego; Rabaioli, Massimo; Santoro, Gianfranco; Billig, Gerhard; Gallego Sanz, José María

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is an ESA re-entry demonstrator that performed, on the 11th February of 2015, a successful re-entry demonstration mission. The project objectives were the design, development, manufacturing and on ground and in flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled re-entry system. For the IXV mission a dedicated Ground Segment was provided. The main subsystems of the IXV Ground Segment were: IXV Mission Control Center (MCC), from where monitoring of the vehicle was performed, as well as support during pre-launch and recovery phases; IXV Ground Stations, used to cover IXV mission by receiving spacecraft telemetry and forwarding it toward the MCC; the IXV Communication Network, deployed to support the operations of the IXV mission by interconnecting all remote sites with MCC, supporting data, voice and video exchange. This paper describes the concept, architecture, development, implementation and operations of the ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle (IXV) Ground Segment and outlines the main operations and lessons learned during the preparation and successful execution of the IXV Mission.

  6. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate Projects for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies into NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) projects. Other Government and commercial projects managers can also find this useful. Space Transportation; Life Support and Habitation Systems; Extra-Vehicular Activity; High EfficiencySpace Power; Human Exploration and Operations Mission,

  7. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  8. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  9. Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) Automated Task Order Management System (ATOMS) Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Shawn; Fikes, Lou A.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes operational aspects of the ATOMS system. The information provided is limited to the functionality provided by ATOMS and does not include information provided in the contractor's proprietary financial and task management system.

  10. The K2 Mission: Characterization and Early results

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Steve B; Haas, Michael; Still, Martin; Barclay, Thomas; Mullally, Fergal; Troeltzsch, John; Aigrain, Suzanne; Bryson, Stephen T; Caldwell, Doug; Chaplin, William J; Cochran, William D; Huber, Daniel; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Miglio, Andrea; Najita, Joan R; Smith, Marcie; Twicken, J D; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    The K2 mission will make use of the Kepler spacecraft and its assets to expand upon Kepler's groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of exoplanets and astrophysics through new and exciting observations. K2 will use an innovative way of operating the spacecraft to observe target fields along the ecliptic for the next 2-3 years. Early science commissioning observations have shown an estimated photometric precision near 400 ppm in a single 30 minute observation, and a 6-hour photometric precision of 80 ppm (both at V=12). The K2 mission offers simultaneous observation of thousands of objects at a precision far better than is achievable from the ground. Ecliptic fields will be observed for approximately 75-days enabling a unique exoplanet survey which fills the gaps in duration and sensitivity between the Kepler and TESS missions, and offers pre-launch exoplanet target identification for JWST transit spectroscopy. Astrophysics observations with K2 will include studies of young open clusters, bright stars, galaxi...

  11. Design and implementation of an inter-agency, multi-mission space flight operations network interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, R.; Scharf, M.; Doan, D.; Liu, J.; Willems, A.

    2004-01-01

    An advanced network interface was designed and implemented by a team from the Jet Propulsion Lab with support from the European Space Operations Center. This poster shows the requirements for the interface, the design, the topology, the testing and lessons learned from the whole implementation.

  12. Effects of a Prolonged Submarine Deployment on Special Operations Forces Mission-Related Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    utility, reliability, durability, and unobtrusiveness of wrist actigraphy for measuring sleep in personnel in operational environments. 49 METHOD...MATERIEL COMMAND An Objective Evaluation of Quantity and Quality of Sleep as Determined by Wrist Actigraphy in U.S. Navy Special Warfare...actigraphs for detection of rest - activity patterns in competitive solo sailors, Sleep Research, 18, 379. (Abstract).

  13. Design and implementation of an inter-agency, multi-mission space flight operations network interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, R.; Scharf, M.; Doan, D.; Liu, J.; Willems, A.

    2004-01-01

    An advanced network interface was designed and implemented by a team from the Jet Propulsion Lab with support from the European Space Operations Center. This poster shows the requirements for the interface, the design, the topology, the testing and lessons learned from the whole implementation.

  14. A market, operation, and mission assessment of large rural for-profit hospitals with positive cash flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    National benchmark data for 2002 indicate that large rural for-profit hospitals have a median cash flow margin of 19.5% compared to 9.2% for their nonprofit counterparts. This study aims to gain insight regarding the driving factors behind the high cash flow performance of large rural for-profit hospitals. Using 3 annual periods of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid cost report data with the last fiscal year ending between September 30, 2002, and August 30, 2003, the study found a cash flow margin of 21.5% for the large rural for-profit hospitals. All these facilities were owned by hospital management companies. To assess their underlying market, operational, and mission factors, these hospitals were compared to a similar comparison group of large rural nonprofit hospitals that are system owned and have positive cash flows. Using logistic regression analysis, the study found lower operating expense per adjusted discharge and salary expense as a percentage of total operating expense among large rural for-profit, system-owned hospitals with positive cash flows relative to nonprofits with similar traits. Overall, the findings of this study reflect how these for-profit hospitals, which are owned by hospital management companies, focus on controlling their labor costs as well as operating costs per discharge in order to achieve a greater positive cash flow position.

  15. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2): spectrometer performance evaluation using pre-launch direct sun measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, C.; Pollock, R.; Lee, R. A. M.; Rosenberg, R.; Blavier, J.-F.; Crisp, D.; O'Dell, C. W.; Osterman, G. B.; Roehl, C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), launched on 2 July 2014, is a NASA mission designed to measure the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2. Towards that goal, it will collect spectra of reflected sunlight in narrow spectral ranges centered at 0.76, 1.6 and 2.0 μm with a resolving power (λ/Δ λ) of 20 000. These spectra will be used in an optimal estimation framework to retrieve XCO2. About 100 000 cloud free soundings of XCO2 each day will allow estimates of net CO2 fluxes on regional to continental scales to be determined. Here, we evaluate the OCO-2 spectrometer performance using pre-launch data acquired during instrument thermal vacuum tests in April 2012. A heliostat and a diffuser plate were used to feed direct sunlight into the OCO-2 instrument and spectra were recorded. These spectra were compared to those collected concurrently from a nearby high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer that was part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Using the launch-ready OCO-2 calibration and spectroscopic parameters, we performed total column scaling fits to all spectral bands and compared these to TCCON results. On 20 April, we detected a CO2 plume from the Los Angeles basin at the JPL site with strongly enhanced short-term variability on the order of 1% (3-4 ppm). We also found good (< 0.5 ppm) inter-footprint consistency in retrieved XCO2. The variations in spectral fitting residuals are consistent with signal-to-noise estimates from instrument calibration, while average residuals are systematic and mostly attributable to remaining errors in our knowledge of the CO2 and O2 spectroscopic parameters. A few remaining inconsistencies observed during the tests may be attributable to the specific instrument setup on the ground and will be re-evaluated with in-orbit data.

  16. The application of total quality management principles to spacecraft mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetin, Maury

    1993-03-01

    By now, the philosophies of Total Quality Management have had an impact on every aspect of American industrial life. The trail-blazing work of Deming, Juran, and Crosby, first implemented in Japan, has 're-migrated' across the Pacific and now plays a growing role in America's management culture. While initially considered suited only for a manufacturing environment, TQM has moved rapidly into the 'service' areas of offices, sales forces, and even fast-food restaurants. The next logical step has also been taken - TQM has found its way into virtually all departments of the Federal Government, including NASA. Because of this widespread success, it seems fair to ask whether this new discipline is directly applicable to the profession of spacecraft operations. The results of quality emphasis on OAO Corporation's contract at JPL provide strong support for Total Quality Management as a useful tool in spacecraft operations.

  17. The application of total quality management principles to spacecraft mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetin, Maury

    1993-01-01

    By now, the philosophies of Total Quality Management have had an impact on every aspect of American industrial life. The trail-blazing work of Deming, Juran, and Crosby, first implemented in Japan, has 're-migrated' across the Pacific and now plays a growing role in America's management culture. While initially considered suited only for a manufacturing environment, TQM has moved rapidly into the 'service' areas of offices, sales forces, and even fast-food restaurants. The next logical step has also been taken - TQM has found its way into virtually all departments of the Federal Government, including NASA. Because of this widespread success, it seems fair to ask whether this new discipline is directly applicable to the profession of spacecraft operations. The results of quality emphasis on OAO Corporation's contract at JPL provide strong support for Total Quality Management as a useful tool in spacecraft operations.

  18. Mission Impact Generalized Explanatory Base Operating Support Model Development: Final Management Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    C5 Eclusions Constanit R Maintenance and Repair .01584 .01758 424.80 178.92 .717 of Real Propertyl3fl Operation of .02071 16.86 .631 l1ttlities/32... Eclusions Contant R Matintenance andI Repair .1 16A -243.76 122.43 .891 of Real p’roperty/ t0 ’’.rr.o f003836 .01863 -65.54 20.69 .608 it flit ic ,’ 12

  19. Mission Accomplished! Or Not? A Study about Success in Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Hollandaise sauce . 60 effective directives, and as a result make it more difficult to predict the outcome of an information operation and optimize...broadcast media. Initially a thorough examination of the origin of the webpage is necessary. Registration and use of a domain name that sounds...the sources are, and if the actual information is altered from the original source. It is also crucial to find the reason why the information is

  20. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The prelaunch photograph shows the six (6) inch deep Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) master control tray. The tray has three (3) mounting/cover plates elevated on fiberglass stand-offs to provide clearance and protection for hardware and electronics located underneath. The stand-offs also raise the plates to a level that minimizes shading of detectors by the tray sidewalls. The mounting plate located at the left hand end of the tray is populated with eighty (80) metaloxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type impact sensors and one (1) solar sensor that is located approximately in the center of the mounting plate. The IDE sensors are two (2) inch diameter MOS capacitor structures approximately 250 um thick. The detectors are formed by growing either 0.4um or 1.0um thick silicon oxide, SiO2, layer on the 250um thick, B-doped polished silicon wafer. The top metal contact, the visible surface, was formed by vapor deposition of 1000A of aluminum on the SiO2 surface. Aluminum was also vapor deposited on the backside to form the contact with the silicon substrate. Gold wires are bonded to the front and back aluminum layers for use in connecting the detectors to the circuits. The complete wafers, IDE detectors, are mounted on chromic anodized aluminum frames by bonding the detector backside to the aluminum frame with a space qualified RTV silicon adhesive, de-volatized RTV-511. The difference in colors of the detectors is caused by reflections in the metallized surfaces. A reflection of one of the technicians is visible in the three (3) rows of detector on the left hand side of the mounting plate. The solar sensor, located at the mounting plate center, consist of four (4) silicon solar cells connected in series and associated circuity bonded to an aluminum baseplate. The solar sensor registered each orbital sunrise independant of LDEF orientation at the time of sunrise. When IDE solar sensor data from the six

  1. Nanosatellites for Interplanetary Exploration : Missions of Co-Operation and Exploration to Mars, Exo-Moons and other worlds in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Aditya; Radhakrishnan, Arun

    2016-07-01

    The last decade has borne witness to a large number of Nano-satellites being launched.This increasing trend is mainly down to the advancements in consumer electronics that has played a crucial role in increasing the potential power available on board for mission study and analysis whilst being much smaller in size when compared to their satellite counterparts. This overall reduction in size and weight is a crucial factor when coupled with the recent innovations in various propulsion systems and orbital launch vehicles by private players has also allowed the cost of missions to brought down to a very small budget whilst able to retain the main science objectives of a dedicated space Missions. The success of first time missions such as India's Mars Orbiter Mission and the upcoming Cube-Sat Mission to Mars has served as a catalyst and is a major eye-opener on how Interplanetary missions can be funded and initiated in small time spans. This shows that Interplanetary missions with the main objective of a scientific study can be objectified by using Dedicated Nano-satellite constellations with each satellite carrying specific payloads for various mission parameters such as Telemetry, Observation and possible small lander payloads for studying the various Atmospheric and Geo-Physical parameters of a particular object with-out the requirement of a very long term expensive Spacecraft Mission. The association of Major Universities and Colleges in building Nano and-satellites are facilitating an atmosphere of innovation and research among students in a class-room level as their creative potential will allow for experiments and innovation on a scale never imagined before. In this paper, the Author envisions the feasibility of such low cost Nano satellite missions to various bodies in the solar system and how Nano satellite partnerships from universities and space agencies from around the world could foster a new era in diplomacy and International Co-operation.

  2. Operation of an enclosed aquatic ecosystem in the Shenzhou-8 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Richter, Peter R.; Hao, Zongjie; An, Yanjun; Wang, Gaohong; Li, Dunhai; Liu, Yongding; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Schuster, Martin; Haag, Ferdinand W.; Lebert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Long- term spaceflight needs reliable Biological life support systems (BLSS) to supply astronauts with enough food, fresh air and recycle wasters, but the knowledge about the operation pattern and controlling strategy is rear. For this purpose, a miniaturized enclosed aquatic ecosystem was developed and flown on the Chinese spaceship Shenzhou-8. The system with a total volume of about 60 mL was separated into two chambers by means of a gas transparent membrane. The lower chamber was inoculated with Euglena gracilis cells, and the upper chamber was cultured with Chlorella cells and three snails. After 17.5 days flight, the samples were analyzed. It was found that all snails in the ground module (GM) were alive, while in the flight module (FM) only one snail survived. The total cell numbers, assimilation of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, soluble proteins and carbohydrate contents showed a decrease in FM than in GM. The correlation analysis showed upper chambers of both FM and GM had the same positive and negative correlation factors, while differential correlation was found in lower chambers. These results suggested primary productivity in the enclosed system decreased in microgravity, accompanied with nutrients assimilation. The FM chamber endured lacking of domination species to sustain the system development and GM chamber endured richness in population abundance. These results implied photosynthesis intensity should be reduced to keep the system healthy. More Chlorella but less Euglena might be a useful strategy to sustain system stability. It is the first systematic analysis of enclosed systems in microgravity.

  3. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO187-02 : Chemical and Isotropic Measurements of Micrometeoroids by Secondary Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO187-02 : Chemical and Isotropic Measurements of Micrometeoroids by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Tray E08 The prelaunch photograph shows one hundred twenty (120) experiment capture cells installed on six support panels that are mounted in LDEF provided experiment trays. A capture cell consist of four polished high purity germanium plates covered with a 2.5um thick Mylar foil coated with 1300 angstroms of tantalum vapor deposited on the backside and 100 angstroms of gold-palladium vapor deposited on the front side. The capture cells are mounted within an aluminum frame on each panel. The fasteners are nonmagnetic stainless steel.

  4. The Joint Space Operations Center Mission System and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment Status Update 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Krezan, Jeremy; Howard, Samantha; Sabol, Chris; Kim, Richard; Echeverry, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is a service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA) performed at the US-led JSpOC. The Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE) is a test-bed maintained and operated by the Air Force to (1) serve as a centralized test-bed for all research and development activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support JMS Program Office-led market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. In this paper we will share with the international remote sensing community some of the recent JMS and ARCADE developments that may contribute to greater SSA at the JSpOC in the future, and share technical areas still in great need.

  5. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  6. Mission Command in the Age of Network-Enabled Operations: Social Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Fitzhugh, Sean M.; Marusich, Laura R.; Ungvarsky, Diane M.; Lebiere, Christian; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-01-01

    A common assumption in organizations is that information sharing improves situation awareness and ultimately organizational effectiveness. The sheer volume and rapid pace of information and communications received and readily accessible through computer networks, however, can overwhelm individuals, resulting in data overload from a combination of diverse data sources, multiple data formats, and large data volumes. The current conceptual framework of network enabled operations (NEO) posits that robust networking and information sharing act as a positive feedback loop resulting in greater situation awareness and mission effectiveness in military operations (Alberts and Garstka, 2004). We test this assumption in a large-scale, 2-week military training exercise. We conducted a social network analysis of email communications among the multi-echelon Mission Command staff (one Division and two sub-ordinate Brigades) and assessed the situational awareness of every individual. Results from our exponential random graph models challenge the aforementioned assumption, as increased email output was associated with lower individual situation awareness. It emerged that higher situation awareness was associated with a lower probability of out-ties, so that broadly sending many messages decreased the likelihood of attaining situation awareness. This challenges the hypothesis that increased information sharing improves situation awareness, at least for those doing the bulk of the sharing. In addition, we observed two trends that reflect a compartmentalizing of networked information sharing as email links were more commonly formed among members of the command staff with both similar functions and levels of situation awareness, than between two individuals with dissimilar functions and levels of situation awareness; both those findings can be interpreted to reflect effects of homophily. Our results have major implications that challenge the current conceptual framework of NEO. In

  7. Mission Command in the Age of Network-Enabled Operations: Social Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Fitzhugh, Sean M; Marusich, Laura R; Ungvarsky, Diane M; Lebiere, Christian; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-01-01

    A common assumption in organizations is that information sharing improves situation awareness and ultimately organizational effectiveness. The sheer volume and rapid pace of information and communications received and readily accessible through computer networks, however, can overwhelm individuals, resulting in data overload from a combination of diverse data sources, multiple data formats, and large data volumes. The current conceptual framework of network enabled operations (NEO) posits that robust networking and information sharing act as a positive feedback loop resulting in greater situation awareness and mission effectiveness in military operations (Alberts and Garstka, 2004). We test this assumption in a large-scale, 2-week military training exercise. We conducted a social network analysis of email communications among the multi-echelon Mission Command staff (one Division and two sub-ordinate Brigades) and assessed the situational awareness of every individual. Results from our exponential random graph models challenge the aforementioned assumption, as increased email output was associated with lower individual situation awareness. It emerged that higher situation awareness was associated with a lower probability of out-ties, so that broadly sending many messages decreased the likelihood of attaining situation awareness. This challenges the hypothesis that increased information sharing improves situation awareness, at least for those doing the bulk of the sharing. In addition, we observed two trends that reflect a compartmentalizing of networked information sharing as email links were more commonly formed among members of the command staff with both similar functions and levels of situation awareness, than between two individuals with dissimilar functions and levels of situation awareness; both those findings can be interpreted to reflect effects of homophily. Our results have major implications that challenge the current conceptual framework of NEO. In

  8. A Subjective Assessment of Alternative Mission Architecture Operations Concepts for the Human Exploration of Mars at NASA Using a Three-Dimensional Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid

    2003-01-01

    The primary driver for developing missions to send humans to other planets is to generate significant scientific return. NASA plans human planetary explorations with an acceptable level of risk consistent with other manned operations. Space exploration risks can not be completely eliminated. Therefore, an acceptable level of cost, technical, safety, schedule, and political risks and benefits must be established for exploratory missions. This study uses a three-dimensional multi-criteria decision making model to identify the risks and benefits associated with three alternative mission architecture operations concepts for the human exploration of Mars identified by the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. The three alternatives considered in this study include split, combo lander, and dual scenarios. The model considers the seven phases of the mission including: 1) Earth Vicinity/Departure; 2) Mars Transfer; 3) Mars Arrival; 4) Planetary Surface; 5) Mars Vicinity/Departure; 6) Earth Transfer; and 7) Earth Arrival. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and subjective probability estimation are used to captures the experts belief concerning the risks and benefits of the three alternative scenarios through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes.

  9. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program (Overview of the Evolution and Success Stories from MOD During the Space Shuttle program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbell, Jim A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. This paper provides specific examples that illustrate how MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. This paper will discuss specific examples for the Plan, Train, Fly, and Facilities aspects within MOD. This paper also provides a discussion of the joint civil servant/contractor environment and the relative badge-less society within MOD. Several Shuttle mission related examples have also been included that encompass all of the aforementioned MOD elements and attributes, and are used to show significant MOD successes within the Shuttle Program. These examples include the STS-49 Intelsat recovery and repair, the (post-Columbia accident) TPS inspection process and the associated R-Bar Pitch Maneuver for ISS missions, and the STS-400 rescue mission preparation efforts for the Hubble Space Telescope repair mission. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  10. Mission Engineering of a Rapid Cycle Spacecraft Logistics Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; McClendon, Randy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The requirement for logistics re-supply of the International Space Station has provided a unique opportunity for engineering the implementation of NASA's first dedicated pressurized logistics carrier fleet. The NASA fleet is comprised of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) provided to NASA by the Italian Space Agency in return for operations time aboard the International Space Station. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for oversight of the hardware development from preliminary design through acceptance of the third flight unit, and currently manages the flight hardware sustaining engineering and mission engineering activities. The actual MPLM Mission began prior to NASA acceptance of the first flight unit in 1999 and will continue until the de-commission of the International Space Station that is planned for 20xx. Mission engineering of the MPLM program requires a broad focus on three distinct yet inter-related operations processes: pre-flight, flight operations, and post-flight turn-around. Within each primary area exist several complex subsets of distinct and inter-related activities. Pre-flight processing includes the evaluation of carrier hardware readiness for space flight. This includes integration of payload into the carrier, integration of the carrier into the launch vehicle, and integration of the carrier onto the orbital platform. Flight operations include the actual carrier operations during flight and any required real-time ground support. Post-flight processing includes de-integration of the carrier hardware from the launch vehicle, de-integration of the payload, and preparation for returning the carrier to pre-flight staging. Typical space operations are engineered around the requirements and objectives of a dedicated mission on a dedicated operational platform (i.e. Launch or Orbiting Vehicle). The MPLM, however, has expanded this envelope by requiring operations with both vehicles during flight as well as pre-launch and post

  11. Computer simulation of Saturn 5 response to pre-launch wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, T.

    1970-01-01

    A digital computer program is described which was developed to estimate Saturn 5 response to prelaunch wind conditions at Cape Kennedy. The program computes displacement and bending moment statistics as a function of parameters defining the atmospheric environment. A sample problem is provided to illustrate utilization of the program.

  12. TYCHO: Demonstrator and operational satellite mission to Earth-Moon-Libration point EML-4 for communication relay provision as a service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Andreas; Homeister, Maren

    2015-03-01

    In the current wake of mission plans to the Moon and to Earth-Moon Libration points (EML) by several agencies and organizations, TYCHO identifies the key role of telecommunication provision for the future path of lunar exploration. It demonstrates an interesting extension to existing communication methods to the Moon and beyond by combining innovative technology with a next frontier location and the commercial space communication sector. It is evident that all communication systems will rely on direct communication to Earth ground stations. In case of EML-2 missions around HALO orbits or bases on the far side of the Moon, it has to be extended by communication links via relay stations. The innovative approach is that TYCHO provides this relay communication to those out-of-sight lunar missions as a service. TYCHO will establish a new infrastructure for future missions and even create a new market for add-on relay services. The TMA-0 satellite is TYCHO's first phase and a proposed demonstrator mission to the Earth-Moon Libration point EML-4. It demonstrates relay services needed for automated exploratory and manned missions (Moon bases) on the rim (>90°E and >90°W) and far side surface, to lunar orbits and even to EML-2 halo orbits (satellites and space stations). Its main advantage is the permanent availability of communication coverage. This will provide full access to scientific and telemetry data and furthermore to crucial medical monitoring and safety. The communication subsystem is a platform for conventional communication but also a test-bed for optical communication with high data-rate LASER links to serve the future needs of manned bases and periodic burst data-transfer from lunar poles. The operational TMA-1 satellite is a stand-alone mission integrated into existing space communication networks to provide open communication service to external lunar missions. Therefore the long-time stable libration points EML-4 and -5 are selected to guarantee an

  13. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Smith, Myra D.; Rice, Barbara L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures.

  14. Real-Time Upper-Ocean Temperature Observations from Aircraft during Operational Hurricane Reconnaissance Missions: AXBT Demonstration Project Year One Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    theMOOS system video monitor for visual inspection in real time by the equipment operator. b. Data path After transmission of AXBT data from the...mission, OHC was calculated on board the aircraft using the method of Leipper and Volgenau (1972): OHC(x, y)5 rcp ð0 z 26 [Ti(x, y, z)2 26]dz , whereTi

  15. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into NASA Programs Associated With the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies that have gone through Phase II of the SBIR program into NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) programs. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this information useful.

  16. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2: spectrometer performance evaluation using pre-launch direct sun measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Frankenberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2, launched on 2 July 2014, is a NASA mission designed to measure the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2. Towards that goal, it will collect spectra of reflected sun-light in narrow spectral ranges centered at 0.76, 1.6 and 2.0 μm with a resolving power (λ/Δ λ of 20 000. These spectra will be used in an optimal estimation framework to retrieve XCO2. About 100 000 cloud free soundings of XCO2 each day will allow estimates of net CO2 fluxes on regional to continental scales to be determined. Here, we evaluate the OCO-2 spectrometer performance using pre-launch data acquired during instrument thermal vacuum tests in April 2012. A heliostat and a diffuser plate were used to feed direct sunlight into the OCO-2 instrument and spectra were recorded. These spectra were compared to those collected concurrently from a nearby high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer that was part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. Using the launch-ready OCO-2 calibration and spectroscopic parameters, we performed total column scaling fits to all spectral bands and compared these to TCCON results. On 20 April, we detected a CO2 plume from the Los Angeles basin at the JPL site with strongly enhanced short-term variability on the order of 1% (3–4 ppm. We also found good (2. The variations in spectral fitting residuals are consistent with signal-to-noise estimates from instrument calibration, while average residuals are systematic and mostly attributable to remaining errors in our knowledge of the CO2 and O2 spectroscopic parameters. A few remaining inconsistencies observed during TVAC may be attributable to the specific instrument setup on the ground and will be re-evaluated with in-orbit data, when the instrument is expected to be in a much more stable environment.

  17. A Summary of the Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, Docking, and Undocking (RPODU) Lessons Learned from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) Demonstration System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Carpenter, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) sponsored Dr. J. Russell Carpenter, a Navigation and Rendezvous Subject Matter Expert (SME) from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), to provide support to the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) rendezvous and docking flight test that was conducted in 2007. When that DARPA OE mission was completed, Mr. Neil Dennehy, NASA Technical Fellow for GN&C, requested Dr. Carpenter document his findings (lessons learned) and recommendations for future rendezvous missions resulting from his OE support experience. This report captures lessons specifically from anomalies that occurred during one of OE's unmated operations.

  18. The Copernicus S5P Mission Performance Centre / Validation Data Analysis Facility for TROPOMI operational atmospheric data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Steven; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Langerock, Bavo; Granville, José; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Rasson, Olivier; De Mazière, Martine; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P), to be launched in 2017 as the first atmospheric composition satellite of the Copernicus programme, carries as payload the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) developed by The Netherlands in close cooperation with ESA. Designed to measure Earth radiance and solar irradiance in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared, TROPOMI will provide Copernicus with observational data on atmospheric composition at unprecedented geographical resolution. The S5P Mission Performance Center (MPC) provides an operational service-based solution for various QA/QC tasks, including the validation of S5P Level-2 data products and the support to algorithm evolution. Those two tasks are to be accomplished by the MPC Validation Data Analysis Facility (VDAF), one MPC component developed and operated at BIRA-IASB with support from S[&]T and NILU. The routine validation to be ensured by VDAF is complemented by a list of validation AO projects carried out by ESA's S5P Validation Team (S5PVT), with whom interaction is essential. Here we will introduce the general architecture of VDAF, its relation to the other MPC components, the generic and specific validation strategies applied for each of the official TROPOMI data products, and the expected output of the system. The S5P data products to be validated by VDAF are diverse: O3 (vertical profile, total column, tropospheric column), NO2 (total and tropospheric column), HCHO (tropospheric column), SO2 (column), CO (column), CH4 (column), aerosol layer height and clouds (fractional cover, cloud-top pressure and optical thickness). Starting from a generic validation protocol meeting community-agreed standards, a set of specific validation settings is associated with each data product, as well as the appropriate set of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) to which it will be compared. VDAF collects FRMs from ESA's Validation Data Centre (EVDC) and from other sources (e.g., WMO's GAW, NDACC and TCCON). Data

  19. [Potentiality of building-up the medical operations system for long-duration space missions by noncontact physiological functions recording during sleep time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baevskiĭ, R M; Bogomolov, V V; Funtova, I I; Slepchenkova, I N; Chernikova, A G

    2009-01-01

    Methods of investigating the physiological functions in space crews on extended missions during night sleep are of much fundamental and practical substance. The design of experiment "Sonocard" utilizes the method of seismocardiography. Purpose of the experiment is to validate the procedures of noncontact in-sleep physiological data recoding which are potent to enhance the space crew medical operations system. The experiment was performed systematically by ISS Russian crew members starting from mission-16. The experimental procedure is easy and does not cause discomfort to human subjects. Results of the initial experimental sessions demonstrated that, as on Earth, sleep in microgravity is crucial for the recovery of body functional reserves and that the innovative technology is instrumental in studying the recovery processes as well as person unique patterns of adaptation to extended space mission. It also allows conclusions about sleep quality, mechanisms of recreation, and body functionality. These data may enrich substantially the information used by medical operators of the space missions control centers.

  20. Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands Operational Calibration Reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Blonski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric calibration coefficients for the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite reflective solar bands have been reprocessed from the beginning of the Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership mission until present. An automated calibration procedure, implemented in the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System operational data production system, was applied to reprocess onboard solar calibration data and solar diffuser degradation measurements. The latest processing parameters from the operational system were used to include corrected solar vectors, optimized directional dependence of attenuation screens transmittance and solar diffuser reflectance, updated prelaunch calibration coefficients without an offset term, and optimized Robust Holt-Winters filter parameters. The parameters were consistently used to generate a complete set of the radiometric calibration coefficients for the entire duration of the Suomi NPP mission. The reprocessing has demonstrated that the automated calibration procedure can be successfully applied to all solar measurements acquired from the beginning of the mission until the full deployment of the automated procedure in the operational processing system. The reprocessed calibration coefficients can be further used to reprocess VIIRS SDR (Sensor Data Record and other data products. The reprocessing has also demonstrated how the automated calibration procedure can be used during activation of the VIIRS instruments on the future JPSS satellites.

  1. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  2. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  3. Crisis assistance to nuclear operators: the manufacturer missions and methods; L`assistance de crise a l`exploitant nucleaire: missions et methodes du constructeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touati, J. [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France)

    1995-12-31

    Since 1985, the Framatome Company has provided to Electricite de France (EDF) a technical assistance in the case of major accident on a nuclear power plant. During the accident crisis, Framatome establishes a diagnosis and a forecast about the installation state and proposes the safest solutions to the operator for a limitation of accident consequences. Different tools have been developed by Framatome to identify the consequences of electric power outages or to control the state of coolant circuits using expert systems and a data base about reactor component characteristics. A thermo-hydraulic analysis of the accident is performed by the system, using data transmitted to the crisis center, and hypotheses about the origin of the accident are proposed by the expert. After validation, a classification of risks is established and the best strategy to follow is determined by the system, in particular when non-conventional means are required. (J.S.). 1 fig.

  4. Planck pre-launch status: The optical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, J. A.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ade, P. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Planck is a scientific satellite that represents the next milestone in space-based research related to the cosmic microwave background, and in many other astrophysical fields. Planck was launched on 14 May of 2009 and is now operational. The uncertainty in the optical response of its detectors...

  5. Making surgical missions a joint operation: NGO experiences of visiting surgical teams and the formal health care system in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Stephanie; Hall-Clifford, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Each year, thousands of Guatemalans receive non-emergent surgical care from short-term medical missions (STMMs) hosted by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and staffed by foreign visiting medical teams (VMTs). The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of individuals based in NGOs involved in the coordination of surgical missions to better understand how these missions articulate with the larger Guatemalan health care system. During the summers of 2011 and 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 representatives from 11 different Guatemalan NGOs with experience with surgical missions. Transcripts were analysed for major themes using an inductive qualitative data analysis process. NGOs made use of the formal health care system but were limited by several factors, including cost, issues of trust and current ministry of health policy. Participants viewed the government health care system as a potential resource and expressed a desire for more collaboration. The current practices of STMMs are not conducive to health system strengthening. The role of STMMs must be defined and widely understood by all stakeholders in order to improve patient safety and effectively utilise health resources. Priority should be placed on aligning the work of VMTs with that of the larger health care system.

  6. Space Ops 2002: Bringing Space Operations into the 21st Century. Track 3: Operations, Mission Planning and Control. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle-Concepts for Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    With the successful implementation of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enters a new era of opportunity for scientific research. The ISS provides a working laboratory in space, with tremendous capabilities for scientific research. Utilization of these capabilities requires a launch system capable of routinely transporting crew and logistics to/from the ISS, as well as supporting ISS assembly and maintenance tasks. The Space Shuttle serves as NASA's launch system for performing these functions. The Space Shuttle also serves as NASA's launch system for supporting other science and servicing missions that require a human presence in space. The Space Shuttle provides proof that reusable launch vehicles are technically and physically implementable. However, a couple of problems faced by NASA are the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining the Space Shuttle and its relative inability to support high launch rates. The 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV) is NASA's solution to this problem. The 2nd Gen RLV will provide a robust launch system with increased safety, improved reliability and performance, and less cost. The improved performance and reduced costs of the 2nd Gen RLV will free up resources currently spent on launch services. These resource savings can then be applied to scientific research, which in turn can be supported by the higher launch rate capability of the 2nd Gen RLV. The result is a win - win situation for science and NASA. While meeting NASA's needs, the 2nd Gen RLV also provides the United States aerospace industry with a commercially viable launch capability. One of the keys to achieving the goals of the 2nd Gen RLV is to develop and implement new technologies and processes in the area of flight operations. NASA's experience in operating the Space Shuttle and the ISS has brought to light several areas where automation can be used to augment or eliminate functions

  7. 美军虚拟任务作战中心走向实战%U.S.Forces’Virtual Mission Operations Center on the Way to Actual Combat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪海丽; 邱红哲

    2015-01-01

    U.S.Forces’virtual mission operations center (VMOC)became operational with the launches of ORS‐1 and TacSat‐4 in 201 1.Now it is performing flight ops and mission planning for both of intelligence,surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR)and satellite communications (SATCOM). This paper introduces the composition of VMOC system,sub‐systems’functions,as well as its main application software,discusses the role of VMOC in the ORS‐1 and TacSat‐4 missions and presents the future developing trends of VMOC.%随着2011年 ORS‐1和 TacSat‐4的发射,美军虚拟任务作战中心(VMOC)开始运行,它目前正在执行的是飞行操控和情报、监视与侦察(ISR)卫星及通信卫星(SATCOM)的任务规划。介绍了 VMOC 的系统组成、各个子系统功能及其主要应用软件,探讨了 VMOC 在 ORS‐1和 TacSat‐4试验任务中发挥的作用,描述了虚拟任务作战中心的未来发展趋势。

  8. Cryogenic testing of a foam-multilayer insulation concept in a simulated prelaunch environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James J.

    1992-07-01

    NASA-Marshall has devised an upper-stage vehicle-applicable reusable cryogenic insulation thermal-control system which employs spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) that is attached to the cryotank wall and covered by 17-sheet multilayer insulation composed of double-aluminized mylar and Dacron scrim. Four prelaunch test simulations have been conducted for the case of LH2 with gaseous N2 purge gas. Test results indicate that the SOFI surface temperature was sufficiently high to preclude atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen liquefaction.

  9. Performance Testing of Lithium Li-ion Cells and Batteries in Support of JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2007-01-01

    In early 2004, JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling > 300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20(super 0)C to +40(super 0)C), withstand long storage periods (e.g., including pre-launch and cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the inability of meeting these requirements, ground testing was performed on a Rover Battery Assembly Unit RBAU), consisting of two 8-cell 8 Ah lithium-ion batteries connected in parallel. The RBAU upon which the performance testing was performed is nearly identical to the batteries incorporated into the two Rovers currently on Mars. The primary focus of this paper is to communicate the latest results regarding Mars surface operation mission simulation testing, as well as, the corresponding performance capacity loss and impedance characteristics as a function of temperature and life. As will be discussed, the lithium-ion batteries (fabricated by Yardney Technical Products, Inc.) have been demonstrated to far exceed the requirements defined by the mission, being able to support the operation of the rovers for over three years, and are projected to support an even further extended mission.

  10. Lessons from the development and operation of the Chandra x-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Genuine teamwork was a key ingredient of the success of the Chandra x-ray observatory mission. Examples are the science center personnel working as part of the instrument principal investigators (IPI) teams during pre-launch development, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) supporting NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by directly working with the prime contractor, TRW (now Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems), and TRW acceptance of outside scientists performing the data reduction and analysis for qualification of the aspect camera. An end-to-end thread was defined early on, based on the MSFC/SAO operation of the Einstein observatory x-ray telescope, and covered the cycle from solicitation and peer review of observation proposals through scheduling to data processing and delivery. An open science working group chaired by MSFC included instrument principal investigators and interdisciplinary scientists spanning diverse astrophysical and instrumental expertise.

  11. Operating the EOSDIS at the Land Processes DAAC Managing Expectations, Requirements, and Performance Across Agencies, Missions, Instruments, Systems, and User Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    2002-09-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990's. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990's changed as each community had its say -- first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC -- particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) -- are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  12. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, T.A.; ,

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  13. Planning and implementation of the on-comet operations of the instrument SD2 onboard the lander Philae of Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lizia, P.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Ercoli-Finzi, A.; Mottola, S.; Fantinati, C.; Remetean, E.; Dolives, B.

    2016-08-01

    The lander Philae of the Rosetta mission landed on the surface of the comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12, 2014. Among the specific subsystems and instruments carried on Philae, the sampling, drilling and distribution (SD2) subsystem had the role of providing in-situ operations devoted to soil drilling, sample collection, and their distribution to three scientific instruments. After landing, a first sequence of scientific activities was carried out, relying mainly on the energy stored in the lander primary battery. Due to the limited duration and the communication delay, these activities had to be carried out automatically, with a limited possibility of developing and uploading commands from the ground. Philae's landing was not nominal and SD2 was operated in unexpected conditions: the lander was not anchored to the soil and leant on the comet surface shakily. Nevertheless, one sampling procedure was attempted. This paper provides an overview of SD2 operation planning and on-comet operations, and analyses SD2 achievements during the first science sequence of Philae's on-comet operations.

  14. Pre-Launch Absolute Calibration of CCD/CBERS-2B Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Flávio Jorge; Albuquerque, Bráulio Fonseca Carneiro

    2008-01-01

    Pre-launch absolute calibration coefficients for the CCD/CBERS-2B sensor have been calculated from radiometric measurements performed in a satellite integration and test hall in the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) headquarters, located in Beijing, China. An illuminated integrating sphere was positioned in the test hall facilities to allow the CCD/CBERS-2B imagery of the entire sphere aperture. Calibration images were recorded and a relative calibration procedure adopted exclusively in Brazil was applied to equalize the detectors responses. Averages of digital numbers (DN) from these images were determined and correlated to their respective radiance levels in order to calculate the absolute calibration coefficients. It has been the first time these pre-launch absolute calibration coefficients have been calculated considering the Brazilian image processing criteria. Now it will be possible to compare them to those that will be calculated from vicarious calibration campaigns. This comparison will permit the CCD/CBERS-2B monitoring and the frequently data updating to the user community. PMID:27873886

  15. The SPICA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.; Simon, R.; Schaaf, R.; Stutzki, J,

    2016-01-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 yea

  16. Operation Sophia in Uncharted Waters: European and International Law Challenges for the EU Naval Mission in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Ratcovich, Martin

    2016-01-01

    States alike. Even if such strictures can be avoided by a broad United Nations mandate and/or the consent of the neighbouring government(s), international refugee law and international human rights law provide limitations on measures that Operation Sophia will be tasked with. A number of avenues...

  17. Study on Safety Assessment of Space Station Operation Missions%空间站运营任务安全性评估工作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤熹; 卿寿松; 李福秋; 李孝鹏; 李健; 刘金燕

    2016-01-01

    One of the critical tasks for the space station during the operation stage is to ensure the safety of the crew and the platform. This paper introduced the safety work organization framework and engineering experiences of the International Space Station and analyzed the mission characteris⁃tics of China’ s space station during the operation stage. Then a safety assessment methodology for space station operation missions was proposed including the aspects of payloads safety identification, safety⁃based maintenance and probabilistic risk analysis and control.%针对空间站运营管理中保证航天员和平台安全的需求,介绍了国际空间站安全性工作组织架构和工程活动实施经验,从我国空间站在轨寿命长、在轨任务多、安全性要求高等特点出发,从与人机工效相关的安全性工作、有效载荷安全性认定、以安全性为中心的维修、风险量化分析与控制、建立运营任务安全性规范体系五个方面提出了空间站运营任务的安全性评估工作思路,可以为我国空间站工程安全性技术体系的建立提供借鉴和参考。

  18. Achieving Ships Mission Flexibility Through Designing, Printing And Operating Unmanned Systems With Additive Manufacturing And Delayed Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    practices. A reduction in operational risk could allow a more aggressive posture that would force an adversary to change tactics or increase...small boat threats can hop from vessel to vessel and hug close behind a large merchant vessel before launching a close-by surprise attack on the LCS...Maps (n.d.). Thus, the challenge is not so much to extend detection and tracking ranges but to be able to survey the far side of large merchant

  19. Secure, Network-Centric Operations of a Space-Based Asset: Cisco Router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) and Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William; Stewart, Dave; Shell, Dan; Wood, Lloyd; Paulsen, Phil; Jackson, Chris; Hodgson, Dave; Notham, James; Bean, Neville; Miller, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the design of network infrastructure to support operations demonstrating the concept of network-centric operations and command and control of space-based assets. These demonstrations showcase major elements of the Transformal Communication Architecture (TCA), using Internet Protocol (IP) technology. These demonstrations also rely on IP technology to perform the functions outlined in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Link Extension (SLE) document. A key element of these demonstrations was the ability to securely use networks and infrastructure owned and/or controlled by various parties. This is a sanitized technical report for public release. There is a companion report available to a limited audience. The companion report contains detailed networking addresses and other sensitive material and is available directly from William Ivancic at Glenn Research Center.

  20. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate Projects at Glenn Research Center for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Glenn Research Center Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR)/(STTR) technologies into NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) programs and projects. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this useful. Introduction Incorporating Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)-developed technology into NASA projects is important, especially given the Agency's limited resources for technology development. The SBIR program's original intention was for technologies that had completed Phase II to be ready for integration into NASA programs, however, in many cases there is a gap between Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) 5 and 6 that needs to be closed. After SBIR Phase II projects are completed, the technology is evaluated against various parameters and a TRL rating is assigned. Most programs tend to adopt more mature technologies-at least TRL 6 to reduce the risk to the mission rather than adopt TRLs between 3 and 5 because those technologies are perceived as too risky. The gap between TRLs 5 and 6 is often called the "Valley of Death" (Figure 1), and historically it has been difficult to close because of a lack of funding support from programs. Several papers have already suggested remedies on how to close the gap (Refs. 1 to 4).

  1. On-Board and Ground-Based Complexes for Operating the Science Payload of the CORONAS-F Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A. I.; Lisin, D. V.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Afanas'ev, A. N.; Osin, A. I.; Schwarz, J.

    To ensure reliable operation of the science payload of the CORONAS-F satellite and to exercise its flexible control in the course of realization of the research program, an on-board and a specialized ground-based control complexes (GCCs) were designed and manufactured at the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN). A demand for such systems arose because the service facilities of the satellite basic platform were unable to satisfy the requirements of the unique scientific experiments, i.e., an efficient on-line control of the variety of scientific instruments, managing large amounts of scientific information, etc.

  2. DAN instrument for NASA`s MSL mission: fast science data processing and instrument commanding for Mars surface operations and for field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostrukhin, A.; Kozyrev, A.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Mokrousov, M.; Sanin, A.; Tretyakov, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument is contributed by Russian Space Agency to NASA for Mars Science Laboratory mission which was originally scheduled for 2009 and now is shifted to 2011. The design of DAN instrument is partially inherited from HEND instrument for NASA's Mars Odyssey, which now successfully operates providing global mapping of martian neutron albedo, searching the distribution of martian water and observing the martian seasonal cycles. DAN is specially designed as an active neutron instrument for surface operations onboard mobile platforms. It is able to focus science investigations on local surface area around rover with horizontal resolution about 1 meter and vertical penetration about 0.5 m. The primary goal of DAN is the exploration of the hydrogen content of the bulk Martian subsurface material. This data will be used to estimate the content of chemically bound water in the hydrated minerals. The concept of DAN operations is based on combination of neutron activation analysis and neutron well logging tequnique, which are commonly used in the Earth geological applications. DAN consists blocks of Detectors and Electronics (DE) and Pulse Neutron Generator (PNG). The last one is used to irradiate the martian subsurface by pulses of 14MeV neutrons with changeable frequency up to 10 Hz. The first one detects post-pulse afterglow of neutrons, as they were thermalized down to epithermal and thermal energies within the martian subsurface. The result of detections are so called die away curves of neutrons afterglow, which show flux and time profile of thermalized neutrons and bring to us the observational signature of layering structure of martian regolith in part of depth distribution of Hydrogen (most effective element for thermalization of neutrons). In this study we focus on the development, verification and validation of DAN fast data processing and commanding. It is necessary to perform deconvolution from counting statistic in DAN

  3. Pre-Launch Radiometric Characterization of JPSS-1 VIIRS Thermal Emissive Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff McIntire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-launch characterization and calibration of the thermal emissive spectral bands on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS is critical to ensure high quality data products for environmental and climate data records post-launch. A comprehensive test program was conducted at the Raytheon El Segundo facility in 2013–2014, including extensive environmental testing. This work is focused on the thermal band radiometric performance and stability, including evaluation of a number of sensor performance metrics and estimation of uncertainties. Analysis has shown that JPSS-1 VIIRS thermal bands perform very well in relation to their design specifications, and comparisons to the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP VIIRS instrument have shown their performance to be comparable.

  4. The Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  5. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control center focused on executing the Space Control mission of the Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-SPACE) to ensure freedom of action of United States (US) space assets, while preventing adversary use of space against the US. To accomplish this, the JSpOC tasks a network of space surveillance sensors to collect Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data on resident space objects (RSOs) in near earth and deep space orbits. SSA involves the ingestion of data sources and use of algorithms and tools to build, maintain, and disseminate situational awareness of RSOs in space. On the heels of emergent and complex threats to space assets, the JSpOC's capabilities are limited by legacy systems and CONOPs. The JSpOC Mission System (JMS) aims to consolidate SSA efforts across US agencies, international partners, and commercial partners. The JMS program is intended to deliver a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) based infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to remove the current barriers to JSpOC operations. JMS has been partitioned into several developmental increments. Increment 1, completed and operational in early 2013, and Increment 2, which is expected to be completed in 2016, will replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. In 2017 JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources. Most importantly, Increment 3 is uniquely postured to evolve the JSpOC into the centralized and authoritative source for all Space Control applications by using its SOA to aggregate information and capabilities from across the community. To achieve this goal, Scitor Corporation has supported the JMS Program Office as it has entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed

  6. Recce mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  7. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, A.; Echeverry, J.; Kim, R.; Sabol, C.; Zetocha, P.; Murray-Krezan, J.

    2014-09-01

    The JSpOC Mission System is a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA). The JMS program has already delivered Increment 1 in April 2013 as initial capability to operations. The programs current focus, Increment 2, will be completed by 2016 and replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. Post 2016, JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources with more agility. In 2012, the JMS Program Office entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed Energy) and AFRL/RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE). The purpose of the ARCADE is to: (1) serve as a centralized testbed for all research and development (R&D) activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. AFRL/RV and AFRL/RD have created development environments at both unclassified and classified levels that together allow developers to develop applications and work with data sources. The unclassified ARCADE utilizes the Maui high performance computing (HPC) Portal, and can be accessed using a CAC or Kerberos using Yubikey. This environment gives developers a sandbox

  8. 4-D COMMON OPERATIONAL PICTURE (COP) FOR MISSION ASSURANCE (4D COP) Task Order 0001: Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Autonomy Collaboration in Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), Electronic Warfare (EW)/Cyber and Combat Identification (CID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    distribution is unlimited. Action Plan Triggering Question 85 3. Structured Dialogic Design 2 Workshop Plan 86 Solution Domains, Portfolios ...and provided the opportunity for feedback and alignment within the AFRL organization. This developmental pilot workshop covered: • SDD2 workshop...technology (S&T) program guided by feedback from operational experience and evolving mission requirements. • The Undersecretary of Defense for

  9. Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 3: Digital autopilots (revision 14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Digital autopilots for the manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program COLOSSUS 3 are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) reaction control system digital autopilot, (2) thrust vector control autopilot, (3) entry autopilot and mission control programs, (4) takeover of Saturn steering, and (5) coasting flight attitude maneuver routine.

  10. Planck pre-launch status: calibration of the Low Frequency Instrument flight model radiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, F; Sandri, M; Meinhold, P; Poutanen, T; Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C; Hughes, N; Laaninen, M; Lapolla, P; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; D'Arcangelo, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Gregorio, A; Leonardi, R; Lowe, S R; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Stringhetti, L; Tomasi, M; Valenziano, L; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A; Aja, B; Artal, E; Balasini, M; Bernardino, T; Blackhurst, E; Boschini, L; Cappellini, B; Cavaliere, F; Colin, A; Colombo, F; Davis, R J; De La Fuente, L; Edgeley, J; Gaier, T; Galtress, A; Hoyland, R; Jukkala, P; Kettle, D; Kilpia, V-H; Lawrence, C R; Lawson, D; Leahy, J P; Leutenegger, P; Levin, S; Maino, D; Malaspina, M; Mediavilla, A; Miccolis, M; Pagan, L; Pascual, J P; Pasian, F; Pecora, M; Pospieszalski, M; Roddis, N; Salmon, M J; Seiffert, M; Silvestri, R; Simonetto, A; Sjoman, P; Sozzi, C; Tuovinen, J; Varis, J; Wilkinson, A; Winder, F

    2010-01-01

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on-board the ESA Planck satellite carries eleven radiometer subsystems, called Radiometer Chain Assemblies (RCAs), each composed of a pair of pseudo-correlation receivers. We describe the on-ground calibration campaign performed to qualify the flight model RCAs and to measure their pre-launch performances. Each RCA was calibrated in a dedicated flight-like cryogenic environment with the radiometer front-end cooled to 20K and the back-end at 300K, and with an external input load cooled to 4K. A matched load simulating a blackbody at different temperatures was placed in front of the sky horn to derive basic radiometer properties such as noise temperature, gain, and noise performance, e.g. 1/f noise. The spectral response of each detector was measured as was their susceptibility to thermal variation. All eleven LFI RCAs were calibrated. Instrumental parameters measured in these tests, such as noise temperature, bandwidth, radiometer isolation, and linearity, provide essential i...

  11. An Overview of JPSS-1 VIIRS Pre-Launch Testing and Performanc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; McIntire, J.; Oudrari, H.; Thome, K.; Butler, J. J.; Ji, Q.; Schwarting, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key instrument for the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite launched in 2011 and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites. The JPSS-1 (J1) spacecraft is scheduled to launch in January 2017. VIIRS instrument was designed to provide measurements of the globe twice daily. It is a cross-track scanning radiometer using a rotating telescope with spatial resolutions of 375 and 750 m at nadir for its imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It has 22 spectral bands covering wavelengths from 0.412 to 12.01 μm, including 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and 1 day-night band (DNB). VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EDRs), enabling a wide range of applications. This paper describes J1 VIIRS pre-launch testing program, instrument calibration and characterization strategies, and its projected performance based on independent analyses made by the NASA VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST). It also discusses the effort made the joint government team to produce sensor at-launch baseline performance parameters and the metrics needed to populate the Look-Up-Tables (LUTs) needed for the sensor data records (SDR) production. Sensor performance to be illustrated in this paper include signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, spatial and spectral performance, response versus scan-angle (RVS), and polarization sensitivity.

  12. A review of Spacelab mission management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.

  13. The Prisma Hyperspectra Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, R.; Ananasso, C.; Guarini, R.; Lopinto, E.; Candela, L.; Pisani, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) hyperspectral mission currently scheduled for the lunch in 2018. PRISMA is a single satellite placed on a sun- synchronous Low Earth Orbit (620 km altitude) with an expected operational lifetime of 5 years. The hyperspectral payload consists of a high spectral resolution (VNIR-SWIR) imaging spectrometer, optically integrated with a medium resolution Panchromatic camera. PRISMA will acquire data on areas of 30 km Swath width and with a Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) of 30 m (hyperspectral) and of 5 m Panchromatic (PAN). The PRISMA Ground Segment will be geographically distributed between Fucino station and ASI Matera Space Geodesy Centre and will include the Mission Control Centre, the Satellite Control Centre and the Instrument Data Handling System. The science community supports the overall lifecycle of the mission, being involved in algorithms definition, calibration and validation activities, research and applications development.

  14. ESA ExoMars: Pre-launch PanCam Geometric Modeling and Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, R.; Yilmaz, A.

    2014-08-01

    ExoMars is the flagship mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Aurora Programme. The mobile scientific platform, or rover, will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research. As the ExoMars rover is designed to travel kilometres over the Martian surface, high-precision rover localization and topographic mapping will be critical for traverse path planning and safe planetary surface operations. For such purposes, the ExoMars rover Panoramic Camera system (PanCam) will acquire images that are processed into an imagery network providing vision information for photogrammetric algorithms to localize the rover and generate 3-D mapping products. Since the design of the ExoMars PanCam will influence localization and mapping accuracy, quantitative error analysis of the PanCam design will improve scientists' awareness of the achievable level of accuracy, and enable the PanCam design team to optimize its design to achieve the highest possible level of localization and mapping accuracy. Based on photogrammetric principles and uncertainty propagation theory, we have developed a method to theoretically analyze how mapping and localization accuracy would be affected by various factors, such as length of stereo hard-baseline, focal length, and pixel size, etc.

  15. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  16. Sentinel-5 Precursor: First Copernicus Atmospheric Chemistry Mission ready for Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Kevin; Nett, Herbert

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) will be the first of a series of atmospheric chemistry missions to be launched within the European Commission's Copernicus (former GMES) Programme. With the current launch window of June 2017 and a nominal lifetime of 7 years, S-5P is expected to provide continuity in the availability of global atmospheric data products between its predecessor missions SCIAMACHY (Envisat) and OMI (AURA) and the future Sentinel-4 and -5 series. S-5P will deliver unique data regarding the sources and sinks of trace gases with a focus on the lower Troposphere including the planet boundary layer due to its enhanced spatial, temporal and spectral sampling capabilities as compared to its predecessors. The S-5P satellite will carry a single payload, TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) which is jointly developed by The Netherlands and ESA. Covering spectral channels in the UV, visible, near- and short-wave infrared, it will measure various key species including tropospheric/stratospheric ozone, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, CH2O as well as cloud and aerosol parameters. The S-5P Project successfully passed the Ground Segment Acceptance Review (GS-AR) and the satellite-level Qualification Acceptance Review (QAR) in March and April 2016, respectively. Remaining pre-launch tasks focus on the detailed planning of Phase E1 activities and the training of the operations teams. The paper includes descriptions of the S-5p spacecraft, the TROPOMI instrument, data products and applications, Level-1b and Level-2 processing, Ground Segment, launch preparation, launch and in-orbit commissioning and in-flight calibration and validation.

  17. JPSS-1 VIIRS Pre-Launch Response Versus Scan Angle Testing and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS instruments on-board both the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP and the first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1 spacecraft, with launch dates of October 2011 and December 2016 respectively, are cross-track scanners with an angular swath of ±56.06°. A four-mirror Rotating Telescope Assembly (RTA is used for scanning combined with a Half Angle Mirror (HAM that directs light exiting from the RTA into the aft-optics. It has 14 Reflective Solar Bands (RSBs, seven Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs and a panchromatic Day Night Band (DNB. There are three internal calibration targets, the Solar Diffuser, the BlackBody and the Space View, that have fixed scan angles within the internal cavity of VIIRS. VIIRS has calibration requirements of 2% on RSB reflectance and as tight as 0.4% on TEB radiance that requires the sensor’s gain change across the scan or Response Versus Scan angle (RVS to be well quantified. A flow down of the top level calibration requirements put constraints on the characterization of the RVS to 0.2%–0.3% but there are no specified limitations on the magnitude of response change across scan. The RVS change across scan angle can vary significantly between bands with the RSBs having smaller changes of ~2% and some TEBs having ~10% variation. Within a band, the RVS has both detector and HAM side dependencies that vary across scan. Errors in the RVS characterization will contribute to image banding and striping artifacts if their magnitudes are above the noise level of the detectors. The RVS was characterized pre-launch for both S-NPP and JPSS-1 VIIRS and a comparison of the RVS curves between these two sensors will be discussed.

  18. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  19. Mission informed needed information: discoverable, available sensing sources (MINI-DASS): the operators and process flows the magic rabbits must negotiate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Today's battlefield space is extremely complex, dealing with an enemy that is neither well-defined nor well-understood. Adversaries are comprised of widely-distributed, loosely-networked groups engaging in nefarious activities. Situational understanding is needed by decision makers; understanding of adversarial capabilities and intent is essential. Information needed at any time is dependent on the mission/task at hand. Information sources potentially providing mission-relevant information are disparate and numerous; they include sensors, social networks, fusion engines, internet, etc. Management of these multi-dimensional informational sources is critical. This paper will present a new approach being undertaken to answer the challenge of enhancing battlefield understanding by optimizing the utilization of available informational sources (means) to required missions/tasks as well as determining the "goodness'" of the information acquired in meeting the capabilities needed. Requirements are usually expressed in terms of a presumed technology solution (e.g., imagery). A metaphor of the "magic rabbits" was conceived to remove presumed technology solutions from requirements by claiming the "required" technology is obsolete. Instead, intelligent "magic rabbits" are used to provide needed information. The question then becomes: "WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU NEED THE RABBITS TO PROVIDE YOU?" This paper will describe a new approach called Mission-Informed Needed Information - Discoverable, Available Sensing Sources (MINI-DASS) that designs a process that builds information acquisition missions and determines what the "magic rabbits" need to provide in a manner that is machine understandable. Also described is the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) model used, the process flow utilized, the approach to developing an ontology of information source means and the approach for determining the value of the information acquired.

  20. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  1. Planning for Planetary Science Mission Including Resource Prospecting Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in computer-aided mission planning can enhance mission operations and science return for surface missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond. While the...

  2. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  3. The Sentinel-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Sentinel-3 Operational Mission is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative, which was established to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. The first launch is expected in 2013. Currently half way through the development phase of the project, this paper presents the consolidated Sentinel-3 design and expected performances related to the different mission objectives (ocean colour, altimetry, surface temperature, land). The operational concept and key system performances are also addressed, as well as the satellite and instruments design. Finally, the schedule for the remaining development is presented.

  4. Multi-mission Satellite Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  5. The Gaia mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-11-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page. http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia

  6. Agile: From Software to Mission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark; Hobart, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission Operations System (MOS) design, we are evolving principles from agile and lean methods for software, to the complete mission system. This allows for reduced operational risk at reduced cost, and achieves a more effective design through early integration of operations into mission system engineering and flight system design. The core principles are assessment of capability through demonstration, risk reduction through targeted experiments, early test and deployment, and maturation of processes and tools through use.

  7. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    support mission services. To effectively integrate into the SOA infrastructure, an application developer must understand various components of the...the left) as an example. The child nodes under the Space Order of Battle entry identify the gadgets and views placed in the perspective. The...benchmarks are not available for all algorithm technologies, for example the Community of Interest for Space Environmental Effects does not currently and

  8. In-Flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System Through Orbit Capture at Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.; Brophy, John R.; Mikes, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt asteroids, Vesta and Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta -II 7925H-9.5 (Delta-II Heavy) rocket that placed the 1218 kg spacecraft into an Earth-escape trajectory. Onboard the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which will provide most of the ?V needed for heliocentric transfer to Vesta, orbit capture at Vesta, transfer among Vesta science orbits, departure and escape from Vesta, heliocentric transfer to Ceres, orbit capture at Ceres, and transfer among Ceres science orbits. The first 80 days after launch were dedicated to the initial checkout of the spacecraft which was followed by about ten months of full-power thrusting leading to a Mars gravity assist in February 2009 that provided 1 km/s of heliocentric energy increase and is the only part of the mission following launch in which a needed velocity change is not accomplished by the IPS. Deterministic thrusting for heliocentric transfer to Vesta resumed in June 2009 and was concluded with orbit capture at Vesta in July 2011. IPS was operated for approximately 23,400 hours, consumed approximately 250 kg of xenon, and provided a delta-V of approximately 6.7 km/s to achieve orbit capture at Vesta. IPS performance characteristics are very close to the expected performance characteristics based on analysis performed pre-launch. The only significant problem to have occurred over the almost four years of IPS operations in flight was the temporary failure of a valve driver board in DCIU-1, resulting in a loss of thrust of approximately 29 hours. Thrusting operations resumed after switching to DCIU-2, and power cycling conducted after orbit capture indicates DCIU-1 is completely operational. After about three weeks of survey operations IPS will be used to maneuver the

  9. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  10. Mechanical design of the Mars Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Howard Jay; Buck, Carl W.; Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Umland, Jeffrey W.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission and the Sojourner rover is reported on, with emphasis on the various mission steps and the performance of the technologies involved. The mechanical design of mission hardware was critical to the success of the entry sequence and the landing operations. The various mechanisms employed are considered.

  11. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  12. Planetary Protection Concerns During Pre-Launch Radioisotope Power System Final Integration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; McKay, Terri; Spry, James A.; Colozza, Anthony J.; DiStefano, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a next-generation radioisotope-based power system that is currently being developed as an alternative to the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Power sources such as these may be needed for proposed missions to solar system planets and bodies that have challenging Planetary Protection (PP) requirements (e.g. Mars, Europa, Enceladus) that may support NASA s search for life, remnants of past life, and the precursors of life. One concern is that the heat from the ASRG could potentially create a region in which liquid water may occur. As advised by the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, when deploying an ASRG to Mars, the current COSPAR/NASA PP policy should be followed for Category IVc mission. Thus, sterilization processing of the ASRG to achieve bioburden reduction would be essential to meet the Planetary Protection requirements. Due to thermal constraints and associated low temperature limits of elements of the ASRG, vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) was suggested as a candidate alternative sterilization process to complement dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) for the assembled ASRG. The following proposed sterilization plan for the ASRG anticipates a mission Category IVc level of cleanliness. This plan provides a scenario in which VHP is used as the final sterilization process. Keywords: Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Planetary Protection (PP), Vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization.

  13. Trajectory Design Considerations for Exploration Mission 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion vehicle to cislunar space in 2018, targeted to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO). Analysis of EM-1 DRO mission opportunities in 2018 help characterize mission parameters that are of interest to other subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc). Subsystems request mission design trades which include: landing lighting, addition of an Orion main engine checkout burn, and use of auxiliary thruster only cases. This paper examines the evolving trade studies that incorporate subsystem feedback and demonstrate the feasibility of these constrained mission trajectory designs and contingencies.

  14. Exploration Missions to Host Small Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, Jonathan; Pelfrey, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation heavy launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS), will provide the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the exploration mission trajectory. We will describe the payload mission concept of operations, the payload capacity for the SLS, and the payload requirements. Exploration Mission 1, currently planned for launch in December 2017, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS.

  15. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth- Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time.

  16. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  17. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  18. Open Source Next Generation Visualization Software for Interplanetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Rinker, George

    2016-01-01

    Mission control is evolving quickly, driven by the requirements of new missions, and enabled by modern computing capabilities. Distributed operations, access to data anywhere, data visualization for spacecraft analysis that spans multiple data sources, flexible reconfiguration to support multiple missions, and operator use cases, are driving the need for new capabilities. NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS), Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are collaborating to build a new generation of mission operations software for visualization, to enable mission control anywhere, on the desktop, tablet and phone. The software is built on an open source platform that is open for contributions (http://nasa.github.io/openmct).

  19. Mission design considerations for nuclear risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancati, Mike; Collins, John

    1993-01-01

    Strategies for the mitigation of the nuclear risk associated with two specific mission operations are discussed. These operations are the safe return of nuclear thermal propulsion reactors to earth orbit and the disposal of lunar/Mars spacecraft reactors.

  20. In-flight transfusion of packed red blood cells on a combat search and rescue mission: a case report from operation enduring freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brad C; Bentley, Richard; Place, Ronald J

    2004-03-01

    Injuries on the battlefield can occur far from the nearest medical treatment facility. This is especially likely for downed pilots and special operations personnel. Some of these injuries lead to significant blood loss requiring transfusion. We present two cases of injured coalition force members during Operation Enduring Freedom that illustrate the potential need for a transfusion capability at the site of injury to prevent death. Consideration should be given to augmenting transfusion capabilities in military environments with predictably long evacuation times.

  1. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  2. The Euclid mission design

    CERN Document Server

    Racca, Giuseppe D; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean Christophe; Alvarez, Jose Lorenzo; Criado, Gonzalo Saavedra; Venancio, Luis Gaspar; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Boenke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jerome; Berthe, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-01-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the sc...

  3. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) High-Energy X-ray Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Craig, Willliam W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Zhang, William W.; Boggs, Steven E.; Stern, Daniel; Cook, W. Rick; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; hide

    2013-01-01

    High-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the 10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than 100-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Using its unprecedented combination of sensitivity and spatial and spectral resolution, NuSTAR will pursue five primary scientific objectives: (1) probe obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity out to thepeak epoch of galaxy assembly in the universe (at z 2) by surveying selected regions of the sky; (2) study the population of hard X-ray-emitting compact objects in the Galaxy by mapping the central regions of the Milky Way; (3) study the non-thermal radiation in young supernova remnants, both the hard X-ray continuum and the emission from the radioactive element 44Ti; (4) observe blazars contemporaneously with ground-based radio, optical, and TeV telescopes, as well as with Fermi and Swift, to constrain the structure of AGN jets; and (5) observe line and continuum emission from core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group, and from nearby Type Ia events, to constrain explosion models. During its baseline two-year mission, NuSTAR will also undertake a broad program of targeted observations. The observatory consists of two co-aligned grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes pointed at celestial targets by a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Deployed into a 600 km, near-circular, 6 inclination orbit, the observatory has now completed commissioning, and is performing consistent with pre-launch expectations. NuSTAR is now executing its primary science mission, and with an expected orbit lifetime of 10 yr, we anticipate proposing a guest investigator program, to begin in late 2014.

  4. A Japanese New Altimetry Mission, COMPIRA - Towards High Temporal and Spatial Sampling of Sea Surface Height Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, N.; Uematsu, A.; Yajima, Y.; Isoguchi, O.

    2014-12-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is working on a conceptual study of altimeter mission named Coastal and Ocean measurement Mission with Precise and Innovative Radar Altimeter (COMPIRA), which will carry a wide-swath altimeter named Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Height Imaging Oceanic Sensor with Advanced Interferometry (SHIOSAI). Capturing meso/submeso-scale phenomena is one of important objectives of the COMPIRA mission, as well as operational oceanography and fishery. For operational oceanography including coastal forecast, swath of SHIOSAI is selected to be 80 km in left and right sides to maximize temporal and spatial sampling of the sea surface height. Orbit specifications are also designed to be better sampling especially for mid-latitude region. That is, a spatial grid sampling is 5 km and an observation times per revisit period (about 10 days) is 2 to 3 times. In order to meet both sampling frequency and spatial coverage requirements as much as possible, orbit inclination was set relatively low, 51 degrees. Although this sampling frequency is, of course, not enough high to capture time evolution of coastal phenomena, an assimilation process would compensate its time evolution if 2D SSH fields was observed at least once within decal time scale of phenomena. JAXA has launched a framework called "Coastal forecast core team" to aim at developing coastal forecast system through pre-launch activities toward COMPIRA. Assimilation segment as well as satellite and in situ data provision will play an important role on these activities. As a first step, we evaluated effects of ocean current forecast improvement with COMPIRA-simulated wide-swath and high sampling sea surface heights (SSH) data. Simulated SSH data are generated from regional ocean numerical models and the COMPIRA orbit and error specifications. Then, identical twin experiments are conducted to investigate the effect of wide-swath SSH measurements on coastal forecast in the Tohoku Pacific coast

  5. CryoSat2 Pre-Launch Validation Measurements on Arctic Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars

    2010-01-01

    One of the main goals of ESA’s CryoSat-2 mission are estimates of the sea-ice mass and mass balance. For this aim, CryoSat-2 is designed to retrieve high-quality thickness data for over sea ice through its onboard radar altimeter. Together with other satellite data products, these thickness data...... of sea ice and its snow cover will contribute to increasing our understanding of atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction and improve our ability to quantify observed changes. Our validation measurements show that the penetration depth of the radar signal strongly depends on snow cover characteristics...... (seasonality and underlying ice type) and is often not the snow-ice interface, as commonly assumed. Validation transects, using airborne electromagnetic ice-thickness measurements, are shown to be a powerful tool for regional-scale validation experiments during different seasons....

  6. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  7. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  8. The INTEGRAL mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Di Cocco, G.

    2003-01-01

    The ESA observatory INTEGRAL (International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) is dedicated to the fine spectroscopy (2.5 keV FWHM @ 1 MeV) and fine imaging (angular resolution: 12 arcmin FWHM) of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range 15 keV to 10 MeV with concurrent source monitoring......-angular resolution imaging (15 keV-10 MeV). Two monitors, JEM-X (Lund et al. 2003) in the (3-35) keV X-ray band, and OMC (Mas-Hesse et al. 2003) in optical Johnson V-band complement the payload. The ground segment includes the Mission Operations Centre at ESOC, ESA and NASA ground stations, the Science Operations...

  9. Planck pre-launch status: Design and description of the Low Frequency Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Mennella, A; Villa, F; Aja, B; Artal, E; Artina, E; Baccigalupi, C; Balasini, M; Baldan, G; Banday, A; Bastia, P; Battaglia, P; Bernardino, T; Blackhurst, E; Boschini, L; Burigana, C; Cafagna, G; Cappellini, B; Cavaliere, F; Colombo, F; Crone, G; Cuttaia, F; D'Arcangelo, O; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; De Angelis, L; De Gasperis, G C; De La Fuente, L; De Rosa, A; De Zotti, G; Falvella, M C; Ferrari, F; Ferretti, R; Figini, L; Fogliani, S; Franceschet, C; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T; Garavaglia, S; Gomez, F; Gorski, K; Gregorio, A; Guzzi, P; Herreros, J M; Hildebrandt, S R; Hoyland, R; Hughes, N; Janssen, M; Jukkala, P; Kettle, D; Kilpia, V H; Laaninen, M; Lapolla, P M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leutenegger, P; Levin, S; Lilje, P B; Lowe, S R; Lubin, D Lawson P M; Maino, D; Malaspina, M; Maris, M; Marti-Canales, J; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Mediavilla, A; Meinhold, P; Miccolis, M; Morgante, G; Natoli, P; Nesti, R; Pagan, L; Paine, C; Partridge, B; Pascual, J P; Pasian, F; Pearson, D; Pecora, M; Perrotta, F; Platania, P; Pospieszalski, M; Poutanen, T; Prina, M; Rebolo, R; Roddis, N; Rubino-Martin, J A; Salmon, n M J; Sandri, M; Seiffert, M; Silvestri, R; Simonetto, A; Sjoman, P; Smoot, G F; Sozzi, C; Stringhetti, L; Taddei, E; Tauber, J; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Varis, J; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wilkinson, A; Winder, F; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), designed and developed as part of the Planck space mission, the ESA program dedicated to precision imaging of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Planck-LFI will observe the full sky in intensity and polarisation in three frequency bands centred at 30, 44 and 70 GHz, while higher frequencies (100-850 GHz) will be covered by the HFI instrument. The LFI is an array of microwave radiometers based on state-of-the-art Indium Phosphide cryogenic HEMT amplifiers implemented in a differential system using blackbody loads as reference signals. The front-end is cooled to 20K for optimal sensitivity and the reference loads are cooled to 4K to minimise low frequency noise. We provide an overview of the LFI, discuss the leading scientific requirements and describe the design solutions adopted for the various hardware subsystems. The main drivers of the radiometric, optical and thermal design are discussed, including the stringent requirements on sensitivity, ...

  10. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission - Science and Data Product Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nloku, E.; Entekhabi, D.; O'Neill, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, planned for launch in late 2014, has the objective of frequent, global mapping of near-surface soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state. The SMAP measurement system utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate on a spacecraft in a 685 km polar orbit with 6am/6pm nodal crossings, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width, providing 3-day global coverage. Data from the instruments will yield global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolutions, respectively, every two to three days. The 10-km soil moisture product will be generated using a combined radar and radiometer retrieval algorithm. SMAP will also provide a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution and a radar-only soil moisture product at 3-km resolution. The relative accuracies of these products will vary regionally and will depend on surface characteristics such as vegetation water content, vegetation type, surface roughness, and landscape heterogeneity. The SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of the fluxes of water, energy and carbon between the land and atmosphere. Soil moisture and freeze/thaw controls of these fluxes are key factors in the performance of models used for weather and climate predictions and for quantifYing the global carbon balance. Soil moisture measurements are also of importance in modeling and predicting extreme events such as floods and droughts. The algorithms and data products for SMAP are being developed in the SMAP Science Data System (SDS) Testbed. In the Testbed algorithms are developed and evaluated using simulated SMAP observations as well as observational data from current airborne and spaceborne L-band sensors including data from the SMOS and Aquarius missions. We report here on the development status

  11. The Gaia mission

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We...

  12. Design Reference Missions (DRM): Integrated ODM 'Air-Taxi' Mission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloesel, Kurt; Starr, Ginn; Saltzman, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Design Reference Missions (DRM): Integrated ODM Air-Taxi Mission Features, Hybrid Electric Integrated System Testbed (HEIST) flight control. Structural Health, Energy Storage, Electric Components, Loss of Control, Degraded Systems, System Health, Real-Time IO Operator Geo-Fencing, Regional Noise Abatement and Trusted Autonomy Inter-operability.

  13. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    Human exploration of the Moon is a target by 2020 with an initial lunar outpost planned in polar regions. Current architectures maintain a capability for sorties to other latitudes for science activities. In the early stages of design of lunar outpost infrastructure and science activity planning, it has been recognized that analogue missions could play a major role in Moon mission design. Analogue missions, as high fidelity simulations of human and robotic surface operations, can help field scientists and engineers develop and test strategies as well as user requirements, as they provide opportunities to groundtruth measurements, and for the team to share understanding of key science needs and key engineering trades. These types of missions also provide direct training in planning science operations, and in team building and communication. The Canadian Space Agency's Exploration Core Program targets the development of technology infrastructure elements in key areas of science, technology and robotics in preparation for its role in the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. Within this Program, Analogue Missions specifically target the operations requirements and lessons learned that will reduce costs and lower the risk of planetary surface missions. Analogue missions are simulations of planetary surface operations that take place at analogue sites on Earth. A terrestrial analogue site resembles in some key way: eg. geomorphologically or geochemically, a surface environment of another planet. An analogue mission can, therefore, be defined as an integrated set of activities that represent (or simulate) entire mission designs or narrowly focus on specific aspects of planned or potential future planetary exploration missions. Within the CSA's Exploration Core Program, Analogue Missions facilitate the maturation of science instruments and mission concepts by integrating ongoing space instrument and technology development programs with science and analogue elements. As

  14. Exomars Mission Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    ExoMars is the first step of the European Space Agency's Aurora Exploration Programme. Comprising two missions, the first one launched in 2016 and the second one to be launched in 2020, ExoMars is a program developed in a broad ESA and Roscosmos co-operation, with significant contribution from NASA that addresses the scientific question of whether life ever existed on Mars and demonstrate key technologies for entry, descent, landing, drilling and roving on the Martian surface . Thales Alenia Space is the overall prime contractor of the Exomars program leading a large industrial team The Spacecraft Composite (SCC), consisting of a Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an EDL (Entry Descend and Landing) Demonstrator Module (EDM) named Schiaparelli, has been launched on 14 March 2016 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome by a Proton Launcher. The two modules will separate on 16 October 2016 after a 7 months cruise. The TGO will search for evidence of methane and other atmospheric gases that could be signatures of active biological or geological processes on Mars and will provide communications relay for the 2020 surface assets. The Schiaparelli module will prove the technologies required to safely land a payload on the surface of Mars, with a package of sensors aimed to support the reconstruction of the flown trajectory and the assessment of the performance of the EDL subsystems. For the second Exomars mission a space vehicle composed of a Carrier Module (CM) and a Descent Module (DM), whose Landing Platform (LP) will house a Rover, will begin a 7 months long trip to Mars in August 2020. In 2021 the Descent Module will be separated from the Carrier to carry out the entry into the planet's atmosphere and subsequently make the Landing Platform and the Rover land gently on the surface of Mars. While the LP will continue to measure the environmental parameters of the landing site, the Rover will begin exploration of the surface, which is expected to last 218 Martian days (approx. 230 Earth

  15. OMV servicing missions from Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Wright, Jerome L.; Deaton, A. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will provide a means of bringing large observatories to the Space Station for servicing and redeployment to their operating altitudes. However, there are many constraints which must be met in mission planning. The missions must be designed so that propellant consumption is within the usable allowance, but contingency operations can still be accomplished. The vehicle was designed specifically to accommodate such missions, with emphasis upon servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. The OMV has been designed for operations from the Shuttle Orbiter and the Space Station. It will readily accommodate basing at the Space Station and executing observatory retrieval and redeployment missions. Mission profiles have been designed which allow retrieval with contingency hold before descent, and which allow contingency return of the observatory if it fails to reactivate properly. This capability will be a major addition to the Space Transportation System and will increase the utility of the Space Station.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Mission Accomplishments, Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Todd Randall [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Virginia Latta [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A summary of mission accomplishments for the research organizations at the Idaho National Laboratory for FY 2015. Areas include Nuclear Energy, National and Homeland Security, Science and Technology Addressing Broad DOE Missions; Collaborations; and Stewardship and Operation of Research Facilities.

  17. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions activity has four tasks:Asteroid Retrieval Capture Mechanism Development and Testbed;Mission Operations...

  18. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  19. Space mission Millimetron for terahertz astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Baryshev, A. M.; Pilipenko, S. V.; Myshonkova, N. V.; Bulanov, V. B.; Arkhipov, M. Y.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Likhachev, S. F.; Kardashev, N. S.

    We present an overview of the current status of the space mission Millimetron. Millimetron is a large 10-m cooled space telescope optimized for operation in the submillimeter and far infrared wavelengths. This mission will be able to contribute to the solution of several key problems in

  20. Space mission Millimetron for terahertz astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Baryshev, A. M.; Pilipenko, S. V.; Myshonkova, N. V.; Bulanov, V. B.; Arkhipov, M. Y.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Likhachev, S. F.; Kardashev, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the current status of the space mission Millimetron. Millimetron is a large 10-m cooled space telescope optimized for operation in the submillimeter and far infrared wavelengths. This mission will be able to contribute to the solution of several key problems in astrophysics

  1. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface...

  2. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface...

  3. The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Mission Applications Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, David M.; Winski, Richard; Shidner, Jeremy; Zumwalt, Carlie; Johnston, Christopher O.; Komar, D. R.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the HIAD Mission Applications Study is to quantify the benefits of HIAD infusion to the concept of operations of high priority exploration missions. Results of the study will identify the range of mission concepts ideally suited to HIADs and provide mission-pull to associated technology development programs while further advancing operational concepts associated with HIAD technology. A summary of Year 1 modeling and analysis results is presented covering missions focusing on Earth and Mars-based applications. Recommended HIAD scales are presented for near term and future mission opportunities and the associated environments (heating and structural loads) are described.

  4. Human Mars Missions: Cost Driven Architecture Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates various methods of reducing the cost in space transportation systems for human Mars missions. The reference mission for this task is a mission currently under study at NASA. called the Mars Design Reference Mission, characterized by In-Situ propellant production at Mars. This study mainly consists of comparative evaluations to the reference mission with a view to selecting strategies that would reduce the cost of the Mars program as a whole. One of the objectives is to understand the implications of certain Mars architectures, mission modes, vehicle configurations, and potentials for vehicle reusability. The evaluations start with year 2011-2014 conjunction missions which were characterized by their abort-to-the-surface mission abort philosophy. Variations within this mission architecture, as well as outside the set to other architectures (not predicated on an abort to surface philosophy) were evaluated. Specific emphasis has been placed on identifying and assessing overall mission risk. Impacts that Mars mission vehicles might place upon the Space Station, if it were to be used as an assembly or operations base, were also discussed. Because of the short duration of this study only on a few propulsion elements were addressed (nuclear thermal, cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen, cryogenic oxygen-methane, and aerocapture). Primary ground rules and assumptions were taken from NASA material used in Marshall Space Flight Center's own assessment done in 1997.

  5. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  6. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  7. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at the Dynamic Moon: Five Years of Operations in Lunar Orbit - An Overview of the Mission, Key Science Results, Data Products, and Future Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, N. E.; Keller, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been orbiting the Moon for over five years. In that time, data from the seven instruments onboard the spacecraft have made significant advances in our understanding of the Moon and its environment. In September 2014 LRO completed its first Extended Science Mission (ESM) and began a second ESM (pending NASA approval). During the ESM and the second ESM, LRO has been in a quasi-stable, eccentric orbit of ~30 x 180 km with a periapse near the South Pole. This orbit enabled high-resolution measurements around the South Pole. LRO's seven instruments are operating nominally, and have experienced no significant degradation since beginning the ESM. The spacecraft has performed exceptionally well, with 98.4% uptime during the mission. LRO retains sufficient fuel so that its current orbit can be maintained for at least 8 years. LRO's science teams have been extremely productive, focusing on the distribution of volatiles, evidence for early differentiation, measuring the lunar impact record, and the Moon's interactions with its external environment. Three of the most exciting findings by LRO have been the identification of LRO-era impacts, global tectonic features, and the transient nature of some volatiles at the surface. These findings are areas of study for future LRO measurements. LRO's data is released to the PDS every 3 months, as of Aug. 2014 528.75 TB of data have been delivered by LRO. Many of the teams have delivered higher-level data products as part of their routine PDS deliveries (e.g., mosaics, maps, derived products). These products are intended to act as useful resources for the science community. Some higher-level LRO data products are of interest for future lunar landers. These products include illumination maps, meter-scale digital elevation models, roughness maps, and 50cm per pixel images of a range of possible landing sites. All of these products are available either from the PDS [1] or individual teams websites

  8. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1996-09-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission is a Discovery class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Pathfinder flight system is a single small lander, packaged within an aeroshell and back cover with a back-pack-style cruise stage. The vehicle will be launched, fly independently to Mars, and enter the atmosphere directly on approach behind the aeroshell. The vehicle is slowed by a parachute and 3 small solid rockets before landing on inflated airbags. Petals of a small tetrahedron shaped lander open up, to right the vehicle. The lander is solar powered with batteries and will operate on the surface for up to a year, downlinking data on a high-gain antenna. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, with 3 imagers and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The rover (includes a series of technology experiments), the instruments (including a stereo multispectral surface imager on a pop up mast and an atmospheric structure instrument-surface meteorology package) and the telemetry system will allow investigations of: the surface morphology and geology at meter scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products and early environments and conditions on Mars.

  9. 75 FR 5146 - Hewlett Packard Company Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical Business Software Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Company Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical... Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical Business Software Division, OpenVMS Operating System... of Hewlett Packard Company, Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical Business Software Division...

  10. 75 FR 11918 - Hewlett Pachard Company, Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical Business Software Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Pachard Company, Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical... Company, Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical Business Software Division, Openvms Operating System..., applicable to workers of Hewlett Packard Company, Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical Business...

  11. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft began its four-year Prime Mission to study Saturn's system in July 2004. Two tour extensions followed: a two-year Equinox Mission beginning in July 2008 and a seven-year Solstice Mission starting in September 2010. This paper highlights Cassini maneuver activities from June 2010 through June 2011, covering the transition from the Equinox to Solstice Mission. This interval included 38 scheduled maneuvers, nine targeted Titan flybys, three targeted Enceladus flybys, and one close Rhea flyby. In addition, beyond the demanding nominal navigation schedule, numerous unforeseen challenges further complicated maneuver operations. These challenges will be discussed in detail.

  12. Pre-Launch phase 2 rehearsal of the calibration and validation of soil moisture active passive (SMAP) geophysical data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in early November 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes L-band radar and radiometer measurements sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna...

  13. The Ricor K508 cryocooler operational experience on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dean L.; Lysek, Mark J.; Morookian, John Michael [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity) landed successfully on Mars on August 5, 2012, eight months after launch. The chosen landing site of Gale Crater, located at 4.5 degrees south latitude, 137.4 degrees east longitude, has provided a much more benign environment than was originally planned for during the critical design and integration phases of the MSL Project when all possible landing sites were still being considered. The expected near-surface atmospheric temperatures at the Gale Crater landing site during Curiosity's primary mission (1 Martian year or 687 Earth days) are from −90°C to 0°C. However, enclosed within Curiosity's thermal control fluid loops the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument is maintained at approximately +20°C. The CheMin instrument uses X-ray diffraction spectroscopy to make precise measurements of mineral constituents of Mars rocks and soil. The instrument incorporated the commercially available Ricor K508 Stirling cycle cryocooler to cool the CCD detector. After several months of brushing itself off, stretching and testing out its subsystems, Curiosity began the exploration of the Mars surface in October 2012. The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) received its first soil sample from Curiosity on October 24, and successfully analyzed its first soil sample. After a brief review of the rigorous Ricor K508 cooler qualification tests and life tests based on the original MSL environmental requirements this paper presents final pre-launch instrument integration and testing results, and details the operational data of the CheMin cryocooler, providing a snapshot of the resulting CheMin instrument analytical data.

  14. Radiological risk analysis of potential SP-100 space mission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, B.W.; Weitzberg, A.

    1988-08-19

    This report presents a radiological risk analysis of three representative space mission scenarios utilizing a fission reactor. The mission profiles considered are: a high-altitude mission, launched by a TITAN IV launch vehicle, boosted by chemical upper stages into its operational orbit, a interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission, started directly from a shuttle parking orbit, a low-altitude mission, launched by the Shuttle and boosted by a chemical stage to its operational orbit, with subsequent disposal boost after operation. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. IntroductionThe Cluster mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fehringer

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission, ESA’s first cornerstone project, together with the SOHO mission, dating back to the first proposals in 1982, was finally launched in the summer of 2000. On 16 July and 9 August, respectively, two Russian Soyuz rockets blasted off from the Russian cosmodrome in Baikonour to deliver two Cluster spacecraft, each into their proper orbit. By the end of August 2000, the four Cluster satellites had reached their final tetrahedral constellation. The commissioning of 44 instruments, both individually and as an ensemble of complementary tools, was completed five months later to ensure the optimal use of their combined observational potential. On 1 February 2001, the mission was declared operational. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study the small-scale plasma structures in three dimensions in key plasma regions, such as the solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail and the auroral zones. With its unique capabilities of three-dimensional spatial resolution, Cluster plays a major role in the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP, where Cluster and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO are the European contributions. Cluster’s payload consists of state-of-the-art plasma instrumentation to measure electric and magnetic fields from the quasi-static up to high frequencies, and electron and ion distribution functions from energies of nearly 0 eV to a few MeV. The science operations are coordinated by the Joint Science Operations Centre (JSOC, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK, and implemented by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany. A network of eight national data centres has been set up for raw data processing, for the production of physical parameters, and their distribution to end users all over the world. The latest information on the Cluster mission can be found at http://sci.esa.int/cluster/.

  16. The SPICA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.

    2016-05-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 years. The spacecraft will house a 2.5 m telescope actively cooled to 8 K, providing unprecedented sensitivity at mid-far infrared wavelengths. The low background environment and wavelength coverage provided by SPICA will make it possible to conduct detailed spectroscopic surveys of sources in both the local and distant Universe, deep into the most obscured regions. Using these data the evolution of galaxies over a broad and continuous range of cosmic time can be studied, spanning the era of peak star forming activity. SPICA will also provide unique access to, among others, the deep-lying water-ice spectral features and HD lines within planet forming discs. SPICA will conduct an extensive survey of both planet forming discs and evolved planetary systems, with the aim of providing the missing link between planet formation models and the large number of extrasolar planetary systems now being discovered.

  17. OMV mission simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Keith E.

    1989-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will be remotely piloted during rendezvous, docking, or proximity operations with target spacecraft from a ground control console (GCC). The real-time mission simulator and graphics being used to design a console pilot-machine interface are discussed. A real-time orbital dynamics simulator drives the visual displays. The dynamics simulator includes a J2 oblate earth gravity model and a generalized 1962 rotating atmospheric and drag model. The simulator also provides a variable-length communication delay to represent use of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and NASA Communications (NASCOM). Input parameter files determine the graphics display. This feature allows rapid prototyping since displays can be easily modified from pilot recommendations. A series of pilot reviews are being held to determine an effective pilot-machine interface. Pilots fly missions with nominal to 3-sigma dispersions in translational or rotational axes. Console dimensions, switch type and layout, hand controllers, and graphic interfaces are evaluated by the pilots and the GCC simulator is modified for subsequent runs. Initial results indicate a pilot preference for analog versus digital displays and for two 3-degree-of-freedom hand controllers.

  18. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  19. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  20. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  1. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  2. Evolution of Orion Mission Design for Exploration Mission 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Dawn, Timothy F.; Jedrey, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The evolving mission design and concepts of NASA’s next steps have shaped Orion into the spacecraft that it is today. Since the initial inception of Orion, through the Constellation Program, and now in the Exploration Mission frame-work with the Space Launch System (SLS), each mission design concept and pro-gram goal have left Orion with a set of capabilities that can be utilized in many different mission types. Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2) have now been at the forefront of the mission design focus for the last several years. During that time, different Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were built, analyzed, and modified to solve or mitigate enterprise level design trades to ensure a viable mission from launch to landing. The resulting DRMs for EM-1 and EM-2 were then expanded into multi-year trajectory scans to characterize vehicle performance as affected by variations in Earth-Moon geometry. This provides Orion’s subsystems with stressing reference trajectories to help design their system. Now that Orion has progressed through the Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews (PDR and CDR), there is a general shift in the focus of mission design from aiding the vehicle design to providing mission specific products needed for pre-flight and real time operations. Some of the mission specific products needed include, large quantities of nominal trajectories for multiple monthly launch periods and abort options at any point in the mission for each valid trajectory in the launch window.

  3. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  4. The Mission Partner Environment: Challenges To Multinational Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Colonel Sims participated in operational missions to Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Japan , South Korea, and other locations within...Mission Network (AMN) makes the case for the using common operational priorities ("mission threads") as the basis for network security architecture ...with an architecture customized for specific multinational operations or requirements. In this approach, a coalition lead nation (typically the U.S

  5. The third mission

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO

    2016-01-01

    The editorial of this first issue of volume 17, corresponding to 2016, is devoted to the university-business-society relationships that is usually known as Third Mission of the University or the knowledge transfer mission.

  6. Mission of Librarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşit Sarıgül

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the book titled “Mission of Librarian” authored by Jose Ortega y Gasset and translated into Turkish by M. Turker Acaroğlu. The book, which is published by  İstanbul Branch of Turkish Librarians’ Association, explains mission, professional mission and mission of librarian in the future. The book also includes an interview with M. Turker Acaroğlu.

  7. Threads of Mission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  8. Mission Success for Combustion Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes how mission success for combustion experiments has been obtained in previous spaceflight experiments and how it will be obtained for future International Space Station (ISS) experiments. The fluids and combustion facility is a payload planned for the ISS. It is composed of two racks: the fluids Integrated rack and the Combustion INtegrated Rack (CIR). Requirements for the CIR were obtained from a set of combustion basis experiments that served as surrogates for later experiments. The process for experiments that fly on the ISS includes proposal selection, requirements and success criteria definition, science and engineering reviews, mission operations, and postflight operations. By following this process, the microgravity combustion science program has attained success in 41 out of 42 experiments.

  9. Skylab mission report, third visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the operational and engineering aspects of the third Skylab visit, including information on the performance of the command and service module and the experiment hardware, the crew's evaluation of the visit, and other visit-related areas of interest such as biomedical observations. The specific areas discussed are contained in the following: (1) solar physics and astrophysics investigations; (2) Comet Kohoutek experiments; (3) medical experiments; (4) earth observations, including data for the multispectral photographic facility, the earth terrain camera, and the microwave radiometer/scattermometer and altimeter; (5) engineering and technology experiments; (6) food and medical operational equipment; (7) hardware and experiment anomalies; and (8) mission support, mission objectives, flight planning, and launch phase summary. Conclusions discussed as a result of the third visit to Skylab involve the advancement of the sciences, practical applications, the durability of man and systems in space, and spaceflight effectiveness and economy.

  10. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 246 - Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. A Appendix A to Part 246—Mission... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mission A Appendix A to Part 246 National...-defense mission overseas by providing news and information for the Armed Forces internal audiences serving...

  11. Mission Status at Aura Science Team MOWG Meeting: EOS Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation at the 24797-16 Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Science Team Meeting (Mission Operations Work Group (MOWG)) at Rotterdam, Netherlands August 29, 2016. Presentation topics include mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, spacecraft anomalies, data capture, propellant usage and lifetime estimates, spacecraft maneuvers and ground track history, mission highlights and past spacecraft anomalies and reliability estimates.

  12. Creative Analytics of Mission Ops Event Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Historically, tremendous effort has been put into processing and displaying mission health and safety telemetry data; and relatively little attention has been paid to extracting information from missions time-tagged event log messages. Todays missions may log tens of thousands of messages per day and the numbers are expected to dramatically increase as satellite fleets and constellations are launched, as security monitoring continues to evolve, and as the overall complexity of ground system operations increases. The logs may contain information about orbital events, scheduled and actual observations, device status and anomalies, when operators were logged on, when commands were resent, when there were data drop outs or system failures, and much much more. When dealing with distributed space missions or operational fleets, it becomes even more important to systematically analyze this data. Several advanced information systems technologies make it appropriate to now develop analytic capabilities which can increase mission situational awareness, reduce mission risk, enable better event-driven automation and cross-mission collaborations, and lead to improved operations strategies: Industry Standard for Log Messages. The Object Management Group (OMG) Space Domain Task Force (SDTF) standards organization is in the process of creating a formal standard for industry for event log messages. The format is based on work at NASA GSFC. Open System Architectures. The DoD, NASA, and others are moving towards common open system architectures for mission ground data systems based on work at NASA GSFC with the full support of the commercial product industry and major integration contractors. Text Analytics. A specific area of data analytics which applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources. This presentation describes work now underway at NASA to increase situational awareness through the collection of non

  13. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  14. Downsizing a great observatory: reinventing Spitzer in the warm mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Dodd, Suzanne R.

    2010-07-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope transitioned from the cryogen mission to the IRAC warm mission during 2009. This transition involved changing several areas of operations in order to cut the mission annual operating costs to 1/3 of the cryogen mission amount. In spite of this substantial cut back, Spitzer continues to have one of the highest science return per dollar ratio of any of NASA's extended missions. This paper will describe the major operational changes made for the warm mission and how they affect the science return. The paper will give several measures showing that warm Spitzer continues as one of the most scientifically productive mission in NASA's portfolio. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. The Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP): A New Tool for Performance Evaluation of Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Stewart, Shaun M.; Lee, David E.; Davis, Elizabeth C.; Condon, Gerald L.; Senent, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Constellation Program paves the way for a series of lunar missions leading to a sustained human presence on the Moon. The proposed mission design includes an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), a Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and a lunar lander (Altair) which support the transfer to and from the lunar surface. This report addresses the design, development and implementation of a new mission scan tool called the Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP) and its use to provide insight into the integrated (i.e., EDS, Orion, and Altair based) mission cost as a function of various mission parameters and constraints. The Constellation architecture calls for semiannual launches to the Moon and will support a number of missions, beginning with 7-day sortie missions, culminating in a lunar outpost at a specified location. The operational lifetime of the Constellation Program can cover a period of decades over which the Earth-Moon geometry (particularly, the lunar inclination) will go through a complete cycle (i.e., the lunar nodal cycle lasting 18.6 years). This geometry variation, along with other parameters such as flight time, landing site location, and mission related constraints, affect the outbound (Earth to Moon) and inbound (Moon to Earth) translational performance cost. The mission designer must determine the ability of the vehicles to perform lunar missions as a function of this complex set of interdependent parameters. Trade-offs among these parameters provide essential insights for properly assessing the ability of a mission architecture to meet desired goals and objectives. These trades also aid in determining the overall usable propellant required for supporting nominal and off-nominal missions over the entire operational lifetime of the program, thus they support vehicle sizing.

  16. Human missions to Mars: issues and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, M.; Kminek, G.

    Recent announcements of the planned future human exploration of Mars by both European and US space agencies have raised a host of questions and challenges that must be addressed in advance of long-duration human missions. While detailed mission planning is a long way off, numerous issues can already be identified in the broad context of planetary protection. In this session, a panel of experts will provide brief overviews of the types of challenges ahead, such as the protection of the martian environment; the integration of human and robotic mission elements and operations; precursor scientific information necessary to plan human missions; development and use of nuclear and other technologies for the protection and support of astronauts during the mission; protection of Earth upon return; and societal and ethical questions about human exploration. The session has been designed to encourage and incorporate audience participation in the discussion about the issues and challenges ahead.

  17. The VSOP-2 Space VLBI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Murata, Yasuhiro; Murphy, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Following the success of the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), a next generation space VLBI mission, VSOP-2, is currently being planned. Higher observing frequencies, cooled receivers, increased bandwidths and larger telescope diameters will result in gains in resolution and interferometer sensitivity by factors of 10 over the VSOP mission. The use of phase-referencing by fast switching between a calibrator source and the target source is now being studied as this technique allows sources 50-150 times weaker to be observed depending on the frequency band. Such a capability would greatly enhance the VSOP-2 mission. Several other enhancements to the VSOP-2 mission are also presently under investigation including the VSOP-2 spacecraft operating at the same time as a US spacecraft to form what has come to be known as the iARISE (international ARISE) mission.

  18. Approach to Spacelab Payload mission management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G.; Lester, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus of the approach to Spacelab Payload mission management is the establishment of a single point of authority for the entire payload on a given mission. This single point mission manager will serve as a 'broker' between the individual experiments and the STS, negotiating agreements by two-part interaction. The payload mission manager, along with a small support team, will represent the users in negotiating use of STS accommodations. He will provide the support needed by each individual experimenter to meet the scientific, technological, and applications objectives of the mission with minimum cost and maximum efficiency. The investigator will assume complete responsibility for his experiment hardware definition and development and will take an active role in the integration and operation of his experiment.

  19. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the ICESat Mission: Science Measurement Performance since Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; McGarry, J.; Sirota, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System is a space lidar and the primary instrument on NASA's ICESat mision. Since launch in January 2003 GLAS has produced about 544 million measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere. It has made global measurements of the Earth's icesheets, land topography and atmosphere with unprecedented vertical resolution and accuracy. GLAS was first activated for science measurements in February 2003. Since then its operation and performance has confirmed many pre-launch expectations and exceed a few of the most optimistic expectations in vertical resolution and sensitivity. However GLAS also suffered an unexpected failure with its first laser, and the GLAS measurements have yielded some surprises in other areas. This talk will give a post-launch assessment of the science measurement performance of the GLAS instrument, and compare the measurement environment and its science measurements to pre-launch expectations. It also will address some of what has been learned from the GLAS design, operations and measurements which may benefit future space lidar.

  20. The Europa Jupiter System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Clark, K.; Erd, C.; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R. R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.; van Houten, T.

    2009-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will be an international mission that will achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission has been selected by NASA as the next Flagship mission to the out solar system. JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM will fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision for exploration of the outer solar system. The Decadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission target. EJSM would uniquely address several of the central themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM will investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geological and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the

  1. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  2. Software Innovation in a Mission Critical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Operating in mission-critical environments requires trusted solutions, and the preference for "tried and true" approaches presents a potential barrier to infusing innovation into mission-critical systems. This presentation explores opportunities to overcome this barrier in the software domain. It outlines specific areas of innovation in software development achieved by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate in support of NASA's major human spaceflight programs, including International Space Station, Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), and Commercial Crew Programs. Software engineering teams at JSC work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements for genuinely mission critical applications. The innovations described, including the use of NASA Core Flight Software and its associated software tool chain, can lead to software that is more affordable, more reliable, better modelled, more flexible, more easily maintained, better tested, and enabling of automation.

  3. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  4. The final year of the Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Ferri, Paolo; Lodiot, Sylvain; Pellon-Bailon, Jose-Luis; Hubault, Armelle; Urbanek, Jakub; Kay, Ritchie; Eiblmaier, Matthias; Francisco, Tiago

    2017-07-01

    The International Rosetta Mission was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to rendezvous with comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta performed comet orbit insertion on the 6th of August 2014, after which it characterised the nucleus and orbited it at altitudes as low as a few kilometres. In November 2014 Rosetta delivered the lander Philae to perform the first soft landing ever on the surface of a comet. After this critical operation, Rosetta began the escort phase of the comet in its journey in the Solar System heading to the perihelion, reached in August 2015. Originally foreseen till the end of 2015, the mission was extended for another nine months to follow the comet on its outbound arc of the orbit. In view of the acquired experience and of the approaching end of mission the spacecraft was flown at much closer distances from the nucleus so that the scientific instruments had the chance to perform unique measurements. Following this phase of very close orbits, on the 30th of September 2016 Rosetta was set on a collision course trajectory with the comet to terminate the mission with a controlled impact. This paper describes the details of the extended mission phase and the issues encountered during these months. It also includes the changes implemented on the spacecraft and in the operations concept to optimise the remaining mission time. The paper also includes the lessons learned from this unique and complex mission phase.

  5. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.; Wong, Mau C.

    2013-01-01

    The Solstice Mission is the final extension of the Cassini spacecraft s tour of Saturn and its moons. To accommodate an end-of-mission in 2017, the maneuver decision process has been refined. For example, the Cassini Project now prioritizes saving propellant over minimizing maneuver cycles. This paper highlights 30 maneuvers planned from June 2012 through July 2013, targeted to nine Titan flybys and the final Rhea encounter in the mission. Of these maneuvers, 90% were performed to maintain the prescribed trajectory and preserve downstream delta V. Recent operational changes to maneuver executions based on execution-error modeling and analysis are also discussed.

  6. The INTEGRAL Mission: Status and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Since its launch on October 17, 2002, the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission has been producing exciting scientific results. I will present a brief overview of the INTEGRAL mission including its complement of scientific instruments and its current operational status. This will set the stage for the scientific talks that follow. I will then discuss opportunities for US investigator participation including the NASA INTEGRAL Guest Investigator Program and support services available through the US INTEGRAL Guest Observer Facility.

  7. Small Combatants for the Homeland Defense Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    maritime related terrorism, weapons proliferation, transnational crime, piracy, environmental destruction, and illegal seaborne immigration.”35 But...humanitarian assistance, development assistance, environmental response operations, and security assistance. HA/DR missions can be both reactive and...Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations.”70 Some of the first missions of the Navy were raids against

  8. The INTEGRAL Mission: Status and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Since its launch on October 17, 2002, the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission has been producing exciting scientific results. I will present a brief overview of the INTEGRAL mission including its complement of scientific instruments and its current operational status. This will set the stage for the scientific talks that follow. I will then discuss opportunities for US investigator participation including the NASA INTEGRAL Guest Investigator Program and support services available through the US INTEGRAL Guest Observer Facility.

  9. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  10. Simulation of Mission Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  11. The STEREO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  12. UNAIDS: mission and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The UN has responded to the ongoing AIDS crisis by creating a new Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). UNAIDS is the AIDS program of six UN agencies (UNICEF; the Development Programme; the Population Fund; the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; the World Health Organization, and the World Bank). The mission of UNAIDS is to lead a multisectoral effort to prevent HIV transmission, provide care and support, alleviate the impact of the epidemic, and reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Thus, UNAIDS will operate in the areas of policy development and research, technical support, and advocacy. UNAIDS has had an executive director since January 1995, and a formal review of its strategic plan was scheduled for November 1995. At the country level, country representatives of the various agencies that make up UNAIDS will meet regularly to plan, program, and evaluate their HIV/AIDS activities. UNAIDS staff will be available to aid the country efforts. While UNAIDS will assume most of the global-level activities of its six cosponsor agencies, each agency will integrate HIV/AIDS considerations into their ongoing efforts.

  13. Sentinel-3 Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, U.; Berruti, B.; Donlon, C.; Frerick, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Stroede, J.; Rebhan, H.

    2009-04-01

    The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will provide global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring. Sentinel-3 will be particularly devoted to the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. It will continue the successful observations of similar predecessor instruments onboard Envisat from 2012 onwards. The Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) is based on the Envisat MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) instrument. It fulfils ocean-colour and land-cover objectives with a larger swath and additional spectral bands. The Sea and Land Surface Temperature radiometer (SLSTR) is based on Envisat's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). SLSTR has a double-scanning mechanism, yielding a wider swath and a complete overlap with OLCI. This enables the generation of a synergy product with a total of 30 spectral bands, fully co-registered for new and innovative ocean and land products. The topography mission has the primary objective of providing accurate, closely spaced altimetry measurements from a high-inclination orbit with a long repeat cycle. It will complement the Jason ocean altimeter series monitoring mid-scale circulation and sea levels. The altimeter will be operated in two different modes, a classical low resolution mode and a synthetic aperture mode similar to CryoSat for increased along-track resolution and improved performance. Accompanying the altimeter will be a Precise Orbit Determination system and microwave radiometer (MWR) for removing the errors related to the altimeter signals being delayed by water vapour in the atmosphere. The altimeter will track over a variety of surfaces: Open ocean, coastal zones, sea ice and inland waters. The conceptual designs of the major instruments and their basic performance parameters will be introduced together with the expected accuracies of the main

  14. Mission Medical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  15. KEEL for Mission Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-06

    cognitive technology for application in automotive , industrial automation, medical, military, governmental, enterprise software and electronic gaming...evaluate risks or develop and test new tactics and strategies. This paper separates Mission Planning Software into two domains: 1. Rendering of the...simplest form, Mission Planning is the process of evaluating information in the form of risks (threats) and rewards (opportunities) to most appropriately

  16. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks...

  17. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  18. Operation Poorman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.; Tsitouras, J.

    1981-03-18

    The objectives of Operation Poorman were to design and build a portable seismic system and to set up and use this system in a cold-weather environment. The equipment design uses current technology to achieve a low-power, lightweight system that is configured into three modules. The system was deployed in Alaska during wintertime, and the results provide a basis for specifying a mission-ready seismic verification system.

  19. Kepler Observations of Three Pre-Launch Exoplanet Candidates: Discovery of Two Eclipsing Binaries and a New Exoplanet

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Steve B; Sherry, William; von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David R; Bryson, Stephen T; Feldmeier, John J; Horch, Elliott; van Belle, Gerard T

    2010-01-01

    Three transiting exoplanet candidate stars were discovered in a ground-based photometric survey prior to the launch of NASA's {\\it Kepler} mission. {\\it Kepler} observations of them were obtained during Quarter 1 of the {\\it Kepler} mission. All three stars are faint by radial velocity follow-up standards, so we have examined these candidates with regard to eliminating false positives and providing high confidence exoplanet selection. We present a first attempt to exclude false positives for this set of faint stars without high resolution radial velocity analysis. This method of exoplanet confirmation will form a large part of the {\\it Kepler} mission follow-up for Jupiter-sized exoplanet candidates orbiting faint stars. Using the {\\it Kepler} light curves and pixel data, as well as medium resolution reconnaissance spectroscopy and speckle imaging, we find that two of our candidates are binary stars. One consists of a late-F star with an early M companion while the other is a K0 star plus a late M-dwarf/brown...

  20. Kepler Observations of Three Pre-launch Exoplanet Candidates: Discovery of Two Eclipsing Binaries and a New Exoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Sherry, William; von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David R.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Feldmeier, John J.; Horch, Elliott; van Belle, Gerard T.

    2010-12-01

    Three transiting exoplanet candidate stars were discovered in a ground-based photometric survey prior to the launch of NASA's Kepler mission. Kepler observations of them were obtained during Quarter 1 of the Kepler mission. All three stars are faint by radial velocity follow-up standards, so we have examined these candidates with regard to eliminating false positives and providing high confidence exoplanet selection. We present a first attempt to exclude false positives for this set of faint stars without high-resolution radial velocity analysis. This method of exoplanet confirmation will form a large part of the Kepler mission follow-up for Jupiter-sized exoplanet candidates orbiting faint stars. Using the Kepler light curves and pixel data, as well as medium-resolution reconnaissance spectroscopy and speckle imaging, we find that two of our candidates are binary stars. One consists of a late-F star with an early M companion, while the other is a K0 star plus a late M-dwarf/brown dwarf in a 19 day elliptical orbit. The third candidate (BOKS-1) is an r = 15 G8V star hosting a newly discovered exoplanet with a radius of 1.12 R Jupiter in a 3.9 day orbit.

  1. Study of Power Options for Jupiter and Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James

    2015-01-01

    Power for missions to Jupiter and beyond presents a challenging goal for photovoltaic power systems, but NASA missions including Juno and the upcoming Europa Clipper mission have shown that it is possible to operate solar arrays at Jupiter. This work analyzes photovoltaic technologies for use in Jupiter and outer planet missions, including both conventional arrays, as well as analyzing the advantages of advanced solar cells, concentrator arrays, and thin film technologies. Index Terms - space exploration, spacecraft solar arrays, solar electric propulsion, photovoltaic cells, concentrator, Fresnel lens, Jupiter missions, outer planets.

  2. Modeling in the State Flow Environment to Support Launch Vehicle Verification Testing for Mission and Fault Management Algorithms in the NASA Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Berg, Peter; England, Dwight; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis methods and testing processes are essential activities in the engineering development and verification of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS). Central to mission success is reliable verification of the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the SLS launch vehicle (LV) flight software. This is particularly difficult because M&FM algorithms integrate and operate LV subsystems, which consist of diverse forms of hardware and software themselves, with equally diverse integration from the engineering disciplines of LV subsystems. M&FM operation of SLS requires a changing mix of LV automation. During pre-launch the LV is primarily operated by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) organization with some LV automation of time-critical functions, and much more autonomous LV operations during ascent that have crucial interactions with the Orion crew capsule, its astronauts, and with mission controllers at the Johnson Space Center. M&FM algorithms must perform all nominal mission commanding via the flight computer to control LV states from pre-launch through disposal and also address failure conditions by initiating autonomous or commanded aborts (crew capsule escape from the failing LV), redundancy management of failing subsystems and components, and safing actions to reduce or prevent threats to ground systems and crew. To address the criticality of the verification testing of these algorithms, the NASA M&FM team has utilized the State Flow environment6 (SFE) with its existing Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) platform which also hosts vendor-supplied physics-based LV subsystem models. The human-derived M&FM algorithms are designed and vetted in Integrated Development Teams composed of design and development disciplines such as Systems Engineering, Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and major subsystems and vehicle elements

  3. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David; Johnson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the new Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex system engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through Flight Software certification are an important focus of this development effort to further insure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. NASA formed a dedicated M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle for the SLS initiative. As part of the development of the M&FM capabilities, this team has developed a dedicated testbed that

  4. Global Precipitation Mission Visualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) software provides graphic visualization tools that enable easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. It was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground-based, S- and C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite's precipitation radar instrument. This design is also applicable to other groundbased and space-based radars, and allows both ground- and space-based radar data to be compared for validation purposes. The tool creates an operational system that routinely performs several steps. It ingests satellite radar data (precipitation radar data from TRMM) and groundbased meteorological radar data from a number of sources. Principally, the ground radar data comes from national networks of weather radars (see figure). The data ingested by the visualization tool must conform to the data formats used in GPM Validation Network Geometry-matched data product generation. The software also performs match-ups of the radar volume data for the ground- and space-based data, as well as statistical and graphical analysis (including two-dimensional graphical displays) on the match-up data. The visualization tool software is written in IDL, and can be operated either in the IDL development environment or as a stand-alone executable function.

  5. Tandem-X Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, M.

    2015-04-01

    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) is an innovative formation flying radar mission that opens a new era in spaceborne radar remote sensing. Its primary objective is the acquisition of a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with unprecedented accuracy (12 m horizontal resolution and 2 m relative height accuracy). This goal is achieved by extending the TerraSAR-X synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission by a second TerraSAR-X like satellite, TanDEM-X (TDX). Both satellites fly in close orbit formation of a few hundred meters distance, and the resulting large single-pass SAR interferometer features flexible baseline selection enabling the acquisition of highly accurate cross-track interferograms not impacted by temporal decorrelation and atmospheric disturbances. Beyond the global DEM, several secondary mission objectives based on along-track interferometry as well as new bistatic and multistatic SAR techniques have been defined. Since 2010 both satellites have been operated in close formation to map all land surfaces at least twice and difficult terrain even up to four times. While data acquisition for the DEM generation will be concluded by the end of 2014 it is expected to complete the processing of the global DEM in the second half of 2016.

  6. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cañizares, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferrone, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hernández, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H.-B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission, a precursor mission aimed at demonstrating key technologies for future space-based gravitational wave detectors, like LISA. Since much of the flight hardware has already been constructed and tested, we will show that performance measurements and analysis of these flight components lead to an expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder which is a significant improvement over the mission requirements, and which actually reaches the LISA requirements over the entire LISA Pathfinder measurement band.

  7. The Trojans' Odyssey space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, P.; Vernazza, P.; Groussin, O.; Poncy, J.; Martinot, V.; Hinglais, E.; Bell, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Helbert, J.; Marzari, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2011-10-01

    , and radio science/mass determination. The total mass of the payload amounts to 50 kg (including margins). The spacecraft is in the class of Mars-Express or a down-scaled version of Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter. It will have a dry mass of 1200 kg, a total mass at launch of 3070 kg and a V capability of 700 m/sec (after having reached the first Trojan) and can be launched by a Soyuz rocket. The mission operations concept (ground segment) and science operations are typical of a planetary mission as successfully implemented by ESA during, for instance, the recent flybys of Main Belt asteroids Steins and Lutetia.

  8. Mission activities planning for a Hermes mission by means of AI-technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, U.; Hajen, G.; Schielow, N.; Mitschdoerfer, P.; Allard, F.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Activities Planning is a complex task to be performed by mission control centers. AI technology can offer attractive solutions to the planning problem. This paper presents the use of a new AI-based Mission Planning System for crew activity planning. Based on a HERMES servicing mission to the COLUMBUS Man Tended Free Flyer (MTFF) with complex time and resource constraints, approximately 2000 activities with 50 different resources have been generated, processed, and planned with parametric variation of operationally sensitive parameters. The architecture, as well as the performance of the mission planning system, is discussed. An outlook to future planning scenarios, the requirements, and how a system like MARS can fulfill those requirements is given.

  9. The SENTINEL-3 Mission: Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The Sentinel-3 missions will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT for the marine products. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products. Sentinel-3A is foreseen to be launched at the beginning of November 2015. The paper will give an overview on the mission, its instruments and objectives, the data products provided, the mechanisms to access the mission's data, and if available first results.

  10. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  11. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  12. Uganda Mission PRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...

  13. STS-83 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  14. Athena Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Rau, Arne

    2015-09-01

    The optimization of the Athena mission, the ESA's large X-ray observatory for 2028, is a key challenge. Critical elements for achieving the scientific performances are obviously the two instruments and the optics. However, additional aspects related to the overall mission performances are crucial as well, including the particle background environment (separate presentation), the calibration, the response time to Target of Opportunity requests, the functionality of the science ground segment, and the available high-quality data analysis tools. In addition, the full performance of the satellite will be modeled by an end-to-end simulator. In this presentation we will give an overview of the various systems and also present the Mock Observing Plan that is used to optimize the mission. The work presented in this contribution is based on a collective effort of the Athena science community and is coordinated by the Athena Mission Performance Working Group.

  15. Doing mission inclusively

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... language, rituals, rules, values, and other religious and cultural settings. ... This article posits that Christians, while being in the world, are not of this world. ..... is at the heart of all Christian missions, a core competence of.

  16. View of Mission Control Center celebrating conclusion of Apollo 11 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), at the conclusion of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The television monitor shows President Richard M. Nixon greeting the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet in the Pacific recovery area (40301); NASA and MSC Officials join the flight controllers in celebrating the conclusion of the Apollo 11 mission. From left foreground Dr. Maxime A. Faget, MSC Director of Engineering and Development; George S. Trimble, MSC Deputy Director; Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., MSC Director fo Flight Operations; Julian Scheer (in back), Assistant Adminstrator, Offic of Public Affairs, NASA HQ.; George M. Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program, MSC; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director; and Charles W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA HQ (40302).

  17. Understanding NEOs: The Role of Characterization Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    2007-10-01

    NEOs are important from multiple perspectives, including science, hazard mitigation, space resources, and as targets for human missions. Much can be learned from ground-based studies, especially with radar, but the unique value of in situ investigation has been shown by missions such as NEAR-Shoemaker and Hayabusa to asteroids Eros and Itokawa, and Deep Impact and Stardust to comets. The next mission targets are likely to be NEAs in the subkilometer size range. Because these smaller objects are much more numerous, they are the objects we most need to understand from a defense perspective, and they are also the most likely targets for early human missions. However, there are unique challenges in sending spacecraft to investigate sub-km asteroids. Reconnaissance flybys are of little use, orbiting requires active control, and landing on such a low-gravity surface is perhaps better described as docking. Yet we need to operate close to the target, and probably to land, to obtain crucial information about interior structure. This paper deals primarily with small landers like the Near Earth Asteroid Trailblazer Mission (NEAT) studied at Ames Research Center. The NEAT objectives are to provide global reconnaissance (shape, mass, density, dynamical state), in situ surface characterization, and long-term precision tracking. Alternative approaches use deep-penetrating radar and electromagnetic sounding to probe interior structure. A third class of missions is ballistic impactors such as the ESA Don Quijote, which test one of the technologies for deflecting small asteroids. If the targets are selected for their accessibility, such missions could be implemented with low-cost launchers such as Pegasus, Falcon, or Minotaur. Such missions will have high science return. But from the perspective of defense, we have not yet developed a consensus strategy for the role of such characterization missions.

  18. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  19. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks, "Bering" sports several new technological enhancements and advanced instruments under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The autonomous on-board orbit determination method is part...

  20. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  1. All Sky Survey Mission Observing Scenario Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Spangelo, Sara C; Unwin, Stephen C; Bock, Jamie J

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a general observing strategy for missions performing all-sky surveys, where a single spacecraft maps the celestial sphere subject to realistic constraints. The strategy is flexible such that targeted observations and variable coverage requirements can be achieved. This paper focuses on missions operating in Low Earth Orbit, where the thermal and stray-light constraints due to the Sun, Earth, and Moon result in interacting and dynamic constraints. The approach is applicable to broader mission classes, such as those that operate in different orbits or that survey the Earth. First, the instrument and spacecraft configuration is optimized to enable visibility of the targeted observations throughout the year. Second, a constraint-based high-level strategy is presented for scheduling throughout the year subject to a simplified subset of the constraints. Third, a heuristic-based scheduling algorithm is developed to assign the all-sky observations over short planning horizons. The constraint-based...

  2. Planning Coverage Campaigns for Mission Design and Analysis: Clasp for the Proposed DESDynI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Russell; McLaren, David; Hu, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Mission design and analysis present challenges in that almost all variables are in constant flux, yet the goal is to achieve an acceptable level of performance against a concept of operations, which might also be in flux. To increase responsiveness, our approach is to use automated planning tools that allow for the continual modification of spacecraft, ground system, staffing, and concept of operations while returning metrics that are important to mission evaluation, such as area covered, peak memory usage, and peak data throughput. We have applied this approach to DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice) mission design concept using the CLASP (Compressed Large-scale Activity Scheduler/Planner) planning system [7], but since this adaptation many techniques have changed under the hood for CLASP and the DESDynI mission concept has undergone drastic changes, including that it has been renamed the Earth Radar Mission. Over the past two years, we have run more than fifty simulations with the CLASP-DESDynI adaptation, simulating different mission scenarios with changing parameters including targets, swaths, instrument modes, and data and downlink rates. We describe the evolution of simulations through the DESDynI MCR (Mission Concept Review) and afterwards.

  3. Robotic Mission Simulation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and...

  4. The Sentinel-2 Mission Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Ferran

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. This system will deliver a new generation of optical data products designed to directly feed downstream services acting in several domains such as land management, agricultural industry, forestry, food security, or disaster control management following floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, etc. The Sentinel-2 mission designed to generate products with accurate radiometric and geometric performances (including multi-temporal imagery co-registration). To maximize the products suitability and readiness to downstream usage for the majority of applications, the Sentinel-2 PDGS will systematically generate and archive Level-1C products, which will provide Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance images, orthorectified using a global DEM and UTM projection. A Level-1B product will also be available for expert users and will provide the radiometrically corrected pixels in sensor geometry with the geometric model appended. Finally, a complementary atmospheric correction and enhanced cloud screening algorithm is being prototyped in parallel with the goal of providing some initial capabilities to the users, by means of a specific software toolbox operated on their platforms, to translate the Level-1C TOA reflectance image into Bottom of Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance.

  5. Validation of Mission Plans Through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, J.; Melanson, P.; Brunet, C.; Crabtree, D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of a spacecraft mission planning system is to automatically generate safe and optimized mission plans for a single spacecraft, or more functioning in unison. The system verifies user input syntax, conformance to commanding constraints, absence of duty cycle violations, timing conflicts, state conflicts, etc. Present day constraint-based systems with state-based predictive models use verification rules derived from expert knowledge. A familiar solution found in Mission Operations Centers, is to complement the planning system with a high fidelity spacecraft simulator. Often a dedicated workstation, the simulator is frequently used for operator training and procedure validation, and may be interfaced to actual control stations with command and telemetry links. While there are distinct advantages to having a planning system offer realistic operator training using the actual flight control console, physical verification of data transfer across layers and procedure validation, experience has revealed some drawbacks and inefficiencies in ground segment operations: With these considerations, two simulation-based mission plan validation projects are under way at the Canadian Space Agency (CSA): RVMP and ViSION. The tools proposed in these projects will automatically run scenarios and provide execution reports to operations planning personnel, prior to actual command upload. This can provide an important safeguard for system or human errors that can only be detected with high fidelity, interdependent spacecraft models running concurrently. The core element common to these projects is a spacecraft simulator, built with off-the- shelf components such as CAE's Real-Time Object-Based Simulation Environment (ROSE) technology, MathWork's MATLAB/Simulink, and Analytical Graphics' Satellite Tool Kit (STK). To complement these tools, additional components were developed, such as an emulated Spacecraft Test and Operations Language (STOL) interpreter and CCSDS TM

  6. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Edna; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P.

    2009-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the "Name In Space” project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The "Kepler Star Wheel” (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AAS. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://kepler.nasa.gov. Funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. STEREO Superior Solar Conjunction Mission Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossing, Daniel A.; Wilson, Daniel; Balon, Kevin; Hunt, Jack; Dudley, Owen; Chiu, George; Coulter, Timothy; Reese, Angel; Cox, Matthew; Srinivasan, Dipak; hide

    2017-01-01

    With its long duration and high gain antenna (HGA) feed thermal constraint; the NASA Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) solar conjunction mission phase is quite unique to deep space operations. Originally designed for a two year heliocentric orbit mission to primarily study coronal mass ejection propagation, after 8 years of continuous science data collection, the twin STEREO observatories entered the solar conjunction mission phase, for which they were not designed. Nine months before entering conjunction, an unforeseen thermal constraint threatened to stop daily communications and science data collection for 15months. With a 3.5 month long communication blackout from the superior solar conjunction, without ground commands, each observatory will reset every 3 days, resulting in 35 system resets at an Earth range of 2 AU. As the observatories will be conjoined for the first time in 8 years, a unique opportunity for calibrating the same instruments on identical spacecraft will occur. As each observatory has lost redundancy, and with only a limited fidelity hardware simulator, how can the new observatory configuration be adequately and safely tested on each spacecraft? Without ground commands, how would a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft safely manage the ever accumulating system momentum without using propellant for thrusters? Could science data still be collected for the duration of the solar conjunction mission phase? Would the observatories survive? In its second extended mission, operational resources were limited at best. This paper discusses the solutions to the STEREO superior solar conjunction operational challenges, science data impact, testing, mission operations, results, and lessons learned while implementing.

  8. Mission assurance increased with regression testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R.; Spezio, M.

    Knowing what to test is an important attribute in any testing campaign, especially when it has to be right or the mission could be in jeopardy. The New Horizons mission, developed and operated by the John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, received a planned major upgrade to their Mission Operations and Control (MOC) ground system architecture. Early in the mission planning it was recognized that the ground system platform would require an upgrade to assure continued support of technology used for spacecraft operations. With the planned update to the six year operational ground architecture from Solaris 8 to Solaris 10, it was critical that the new architecture maintain critical operations and control functions. The New Horizons spacecraft is heading to its historic rendezvous with Pluto in July 2015 and then proceeding into the Kuiper Belt. This paper discusses the Independent Software Acceptance Testing (ISAT) Regression test campaign that played a critical role to assure the continued success of the New Horizons mission. The New Horizons ISAT process was designed to assure all the requirements were being met for the ground software functions developed to support the mission objectives. The ISAT team developed a test plan with a series of test case designs. The test objectives were to verify that the software developed from the requirements functioned as expected in the operational environment. As the test cases were developed and executed, a regression test suite was identified at the functional level. This regression test suite would serve as a crucial resource in assuring the operational system continued to function as required with such a large scale change being introduced. Some of the New Horizons ground software changes required modifications to the most critical functions of the operational software. Of particular concern was the new MOC architecture (Solaris 10) is Intel based and little endian, and the legacy architecture (Solaris 8) was SPA

  9. The pre-launch Planck Sky Model: a model of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Delabrouille, J; Melin, J -B; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Jeune, M Le; Castex, G; de Zotti, G; Basak, S; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A; Bernard, J -P; Bouchet, F R; Clements, D L; da Silva, A; Dickinson, C; Dodu, F; Dolag, K; Elsner, F; Fauvet, L; Faÿ, G; Giardino, G; Leach, S; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Macias-Perez, J F; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Montier, L; Mottet, S; Paladini, R; Partridge, B; Piffaretti, R; Prezeau, G; Prunet, S; Ricciardi, S; Roman, M; Schaefer, B; Toffolatti, L

    2012-01-01

    We present the Planck Sky Model (PSM), a parametric model for the generation of all-sky, few arcminute resolution maps of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths, in both intensity and polarisation. Several options are implemented to model the cosmic microwave background, Galactic diffuse emission (synchrotron, free-free, thermal and spinning dust, CO lines), Galactic H-II regions, extragalactic radio sources, dusty galaxies, and thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich signals from clusters of galaxies. Each component is simulated by means of educated interpolations/extrapolations of data sets available at the time of the launch of the Planck mission, complemented by state-of-the-art models of the emission. Distinctive features of the simulations are: spatially varying spectral properties of synchrotron and dust; different spectral parameters for each point source; modeling of the clustering properties of extragalactic sources and of the power spectrum of fluctuations in the cosmic infrared back...

  10. Using Natural Language to Enhance Mission Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Meszaros, Erica

    2016-01-01

    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for professional-related activities. The driving function of this research is allowing a non-UAV pilot, an operator, to define and manage a mission. This paper describes the preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define the mission using speech to make inputs. An experiment was conducted to begin to enumerate the efficacy and user acceptance of using voice commands to define a multi-UAV mission and to provide high-level vehicle control commands such as "takeoff." The primary independent variable was input type - voice or mouse. The primary dependent variables consisted of the correctness of the mission parameter inputs and the time needed to make all inputs. Other dependent variables included NASA-TLX workload ratings and subjective ratings on a final questionnaire. The experiment required each subject to fill in an online form that contained comparable required information that would be needed for a package dispatcher to deliver packages. For each run, subjects typed in a simple numeric code for the package code. They then defined the initial starting position, the delivery location, and the return location using either pull-down menus or voice input. Voice input was accomplished using CMU Sphinx4-5prealpha for speech recognition. They then inputted the length of the package. These were the option fields. The subject had the system "Calculate Trajectory" and then "Takeoff" once the trajectory was calculated. Later, the subject used "Land" to finish the run. After the voice and mouse input blocked runs, subjects completed a NASA-TLX. At the conclusion of all runs, subjects completed a questionnaire asking them about their experience in inputting the mission parameters, and starting and stopping the mission using mouse and voice input. In general, the usability of voice commands is acceptable

  11. KuaFu Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Lidong; TU Chuanyi; Schwenn Rainer; Donovan Eric; Marsch Eckart; WANG Jingsong; ZHANG Yongwei; XIAO Zuo

    2006-01-01

    The KuaFu mission-Space Storms, Aurora and Space Weather Explorer-is an "L1+Polar" triple satellite project composed of three spacecraft: KuaFu-A will be located at L1 and have instruments to observe solar EUV and FUV emissions, and white-light Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and to measure radio waves, the local plasma and magnetic field,and high-energy particles. KuaFuB1 and KuaFu- B2 will bein polar orbits chosen to facilitate continuous 24 hours a day observation of the north polar Aurora Oval. The KuaFu mission is designed to observe the complete chain of disturbances from the solar atmosphere to geospace, including solar flares, CMEs, interplanetary clouds, shock waves, and their geo-effects, such as magnetospheric sub-storms and magnetic storms, and auroral activities. The mission may start at the next solar maximum (launch in about 2012), and with an initial mission lifetime of two to three years. KuaFu data will be used for the scientific study of space weather phenomena, and will be used for space weather monitoring and forecast purposes. The overall mission design, instrument complement, and incorporation of recent technologies will target new fundamental science, advance our understanding of the physical processes underlying space weather, and raise the standard of end-to-end monitoring of the Sun-Earth system.

  12. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Blattnig, Steve B.; Lee, Kerry T.; Fry, Dan J.; Stoffle, Nicholas N.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.; Zapp, Edward N.

    2010-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. Both galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) environments pose a risk to astronauts for missions beyond LEO. The GCR environment, which is made up of protons and heavier ions covering a broad energy spectrum, is ever present but varies in intensity with the solar cycle, while SPEs are sporadic events, consisting primarily of protons moving outward through the solar system from the sun. The GCR environment is more penetrating and is more difficult to shield than SPE environments, but lacks the intensity to induce acute effects. Large SPEs are rare, but they could result in a lethal dose, if adequate shielding is not provided. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large SPE. Longer missions also require planning for large SPEs; adequate shielding must be provided and operational constraints must allow astronauts to move quickly to shielded locations. The dominant risk for longer missions, however, is GCR exposure, which accumulates over time and can lead to late effects such as cancer. SPE exposure, even low level SPE exposure received in heavily shielded locations, will increase this risk. In addition to GCR and SPE environments, the lunar neutron albedo resulting mainly from the interaction of GCRs with regolith will also contribute to astronaut risk. Full mission exposure assessments were performed for proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, radiation shielding models were developed for a proposed lunar habitat and rover. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for

  13. MetNet - Martian Network Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.

    2009-04-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The actual practical mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various countries and space agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. This development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development.

  14. The Clementine mission – A 10-year perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trevor C Sorensen; Paul D Spudis

    2005-12-01

    Clementine was a technology demonstration mission jointly sponsored by the Department of Defense (DOD)and NASA that was launched on January 25th, 1994. Its principal objective was to use the Moon, a near-Earth asteroid, and the spacecraft’s Interstage Adapter as targets to demonstrate lightweight sensor performance and several innovative spacecraft systems and technologies. The design, development, and operation of the Clementine spacecraft and ground system was per-formed by the Naval Research Laboratory. For over two months Clementine mapped the Moon, producing the first multispectral global digital map of the Moon, the first global topographic map, and contributing several other important scientific discoveries, including the possibility of ice at the lunar South Pole. New experiments or schedule modifications were made with minimal constraints, maximizing science return, thus creating a new paradigm for mission operations. Clementine was the first mission known to conduct an in-flight autonomous operations experiment. After leaving the Moon, Clementine suffered an onboard failure that caused cancellation of the asteroid rendezvous. Despite this setback, NASA and the DOD applied the lessons learned from the Clementine mission to later missions. Clementine set the standard against which new small spacecraft missions are commonly measured. More than any other mission, Clementine has the most in fluence (scientifically, technically, and operationally) on the lunar missions being planned for the next decade.

  15. Effective Use of Simulation Means in Collective Mission Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, J.M.; Lemmers, A.; Gerretsen, A.; Roza, M.; Karelse, R.

    2009-01-01

    Mission training and rehearsal are vital to successful operations. Advances in modeling and simulation (M&S) technology now allow for Collective Mission Simulation (CMS). The Royal Netherlands Armed Forces have exploited CMS through participation in a number of virtual exercises. The potential of co

  16. Twenty Years of Systems Engineering on the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Chapman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the Cassini-Huygens Mission has successfully utilized systems engineering to develop and execute a challenging prime mission and two mission extensions. Systems engineering was not only essential in designing the mission, but as knowledge of the system was gained during cruise and science operations, it was critical in evolving operational strategies and processes. This paper discusses systems engineering successes, challenges, and lessons learned on the Cassini-Huygens Mission gathered from a thorough study of mission plans and developed scenarios, and interviews with key project leaders across its twenty-year history.

  17. The PROBA-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  18. The Hinode Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    The Solar-B satellite was launched in 2006 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), and was renamed Hinode ('sunrise' in Japanese). Hinode carries three instruments: the X-ray telescope (XRT), the EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS), and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). These instruments were developed by ISAS/JAXA in cooperation with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan as domestic partner, and NASA and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK) as international partners. ESA and the Norwegian Space Center have been providing a downlink station. The Hinode (Solar-B) Mission gives a comprehensive description of the Hinode mission and its instruments onboard. This book is most useful for researchers, professionals, and graduate students working in the field of solar physics, astronomy, and space instrumentation. This is the only book that carefully describes the details of the Hinode mission; it is richly illustrated with full-color ima...

  19. Athena Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, D.

    2016-07-01

    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  20. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R. [AeroAstro, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  1. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  2. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  3. STS-65 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the STS-65 insignia features the International Microgravity Lab (IML)-2 mission and its Spacelab module which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. IML-2 is reflected in the emblem by two gold stars shooting toward the heavens behind the IML lettering. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted orbiting the logo and reaching off into space, with Spacelab on an international quest for a better understanding of the effects of space flight on materials processing and life sciences.

  4. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...

  5. Magellan: mission summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H

    1991-04-12

    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar.

  6. CEO Sites Mission Management System (SMMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Late in fiscal year 2011, the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) team was tasked to upgrade its science site database management tool, which at the time was integrated with the Automated Mission Planning System (AMPS) originally developed for Earth Observations mission planning in the 1980s. Although AMPS had been adapted and was reliably used by CEO for International Space Station (ISS) payload operations support, the database structure was dated, and the compiler required for modifications would not be supported in the Windows 7 64-bit operating system scheduled for implementation the following year. The Sites Mission Management System (SMMS) is now the tool used by CEO to manage a heritage Structured Query Language (SQL) database of more than 2,000 records for Earth science sites. SMMS is a carefully designed and crafted in-house software package with complete and detailed help files available for the user and meticulous internal documentation for future modifications. It was delivered in February 2012 for test and evaluation. Following acceptance, it was implemented for CEO mission operations support in April 2012. The database spans the period from the earliest systematic requests for astronaut photography during the shuttle era to current ISS mission support of the CEO science payload. Besides logging basic image information (site names, locations, broad application categories, and mission requests), the upgraded database management tool now tracks dates of creation, modification, and activation; imagery acquired in response to requests; the status and location of ancillary site information; and affiliations with studies, their sponsors, and collaborators. SMMS was designed to facilitate overall mission planning in terms of site selection and activation and provide the necessary site parameters for the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE), which is used by CEO operations to perform daily ISS mission planning. The CEO team

  7. Mission Implementation Constraints on Planetary Muon Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Kedar, Sharon; Naudet, Charles; Webb, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Cost: Use heritage hardware, especially use a tested landing system to reduce cost (Phoenix or MSL EDL stage). The sky crane technology delivers higher mass to the surface and enables reaching targets at higher elevation, but at a higher mission cost. Rover vs. Stationary Lander: Rover-mounted instrument enables tomography, but the increased weight of the rover reduces the allowable payload weight. Mass is the critical design constraint for an instrument for a planetary mission. Many factors that are minor factors or do not enter into design considerations for terrestrial operation are important for a planetary application. (Landing site, diurnal temperature variation, instrument portability, shock/vibration)

  8. Overview and Updated Status of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Chodas, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley N.; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder and regolith samples from its surface, demonstrate a planetary defense technique known as the enhanced gravity tractor, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s and other destinations, as well as provide other broader benefits. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. Current plans are for the robotic mission to be launched in late 2021 with the crewed mission segment conducted using an Orion capsule via a Space Launch System rocket in 2026. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is providing accommodations for payloads to be carried on the robotic segment of the mission and also organizing an ARM Investigation Team. The Investigation Team will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals from US industry, government, academia, and international institutions to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. The presentation will provide a mission overview and the most recent update concerning the robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, and potential

  9. Descent guidance and mission planning for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle descent mission planning, mission design, deorbit targeting, and entry guidance have necessarily become interrelated because of the nature of the Orbiter's design and mission requirements. The desired descent trajectory has been formulated in a drag acceleration/relative velocity state space since nearly all of the vehicle's highly constraining flight limitations can be uniquely represented in this plane. Constraints and flight requirements that affect the descent are described. The guidance logic which allows the Orbiter to follow the designed trajectory, the impacts of contingency aborts and flightcrew interaction are discussed. The mission planning and guidance techniques remain essentially unchanged through the Shuttle flight test program and subsequent operational flights.

  10. Sentinel-1 Mission Overview and Implementation Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M.; Attema, E.; Snoeij, P.; Levrini, G.

    2009-04-01

    Sentinel-1 is an imaging radar mission at C-band consisting of a constellation of two satellites aimed at providing continuity of all-weather day-and-night supply of imagery for user services. Special emphasis is placed on services identified in ESA's GMES service elements program and on projects funded by the European Union Framework Programmes. Three priorities (fast-track services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services, Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. These cover applications such as: - Monitoring sea ice zones and the arctic environment - Surveillance of marine environment - Monitoring land surface motion risks - Mapping of land surfaces: forest, water and soil, agriculture - Mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. The Sentinel 1 space segment will be designed and built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. Data products from current and previous ESA missions including ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat missions form the basis for many of the pilot GMES services. Consequently Sentinel-1 data maintain data quality levels of the Agency‘s previous SAR missions in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, accuracy, polarization and wavelength. Nonetheless, the Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) constellation represents a completely new approach to SAR mission design by ESA in direct response to the operational needs for SAR data expressed under the EU-ESA Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. The Sentinel-1 constellation is expected to provide near daily coverage over Europe and Canada, global coverage all independent of weather with delivery of radar data within 1 hour of acquisition - all vast improvements with respect to the existing SAR systems. The continuity of C-band SAR data combined with the greatly improved data provision is

  11. The pre-launch Planck Sky Model: a model of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabrouille, J.; Betoule, M.; Melin, J.-B.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Le Jeune, M.; Castex, G.; de Zotti, G.; Basak, S.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bouchet, F. R.; Clements, D. L.; da Silva, A.; Dickinson, C.; Dodu, F.; Dolag, K.; Elsner, F.; Fauvet, L.; Faÿ, G.; Giardino, G.; Leach, S.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Montier, L.; Mottet, S.; Paladini, R.; Partridge, B.; Piffaretti, R.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Ricciardi, S.; Roman, M.; Schaefer, B.; Toffolatti, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present the Planck Sky Model (PSM), a parametric model for generating all-sky, few arcminute resolution maps of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths, in both intensity and polarisation. Several options are implemented to model the cosmic microwave background, Galactic diffuse emission (synchrotron, free-free, thermal and spinning dust, CO lines), Galactic H ii regions, extragalactic radio sources, dusty galaxies, and thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich signals from clusters of galaxies. Each component is simulated by means of educated interpolations/extrapolations of data sets available at the time of the launch of the Planck mission, complemented by state-of-the-art models of the emission. Distinctive features of the simulations are spatially varying spectral properties of synchrotron and dust; different spectral parameters for each point source; modelling of the clustering properties of extragalactic sources and of the power spectrum of fluctuations in the cosmic infrared background. The PSM enables the production of random realisations of the sky emission, constrained to match observational data within their uncertainties. It is implemented in a software package that is regularly updated with incoming information from observations. The model is expected to serve as a useful tool for optimising planned microwave and sub-millimetre surveys and testing data processing and analysis pipelines. It is, in particular, used to develop and validate data analysis pipelines within the Planck collaboration. A version of the software that can be used for simulating the observations for a variety of experiments is made available on a dedicated website.

  12. NOC chefs de mission manual: Rio 2016 : April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Published in April 2016, the “Chefs de mission manual” offers a detailed overview of the services available to National Olympic Committees (NOCs) during the Rio 2016 Olympic Games, as well as Games-time operations.

  13. The Development and Mission of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, David B.; Irace, William R.; Werner, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the SIRTF mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, orbit, operations and project management approach; and this paper serves as an introduction to the accompanying set of detailed papers about specific aspects of SIRTF.

  14. Operational effectiveness analyses of AH/UAV cooperative surveillance against mission%基于AH/UAV编队协同侦察打击的作战效能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任鹏; 高晓光

    2011-01-01

    The cooperative combat mission was descripted, and the dynamic mathematical model of the AH/UAV cooperative attacking ground target in the particular threaten environment was established. By simulation analysis, the mission success probability, the target damage probability and the survival probability of the AH/UAV cooperative combat were significantly increased.%对AH/UAV协同作战任务进行了客观描述,建立了AH/UAV编队协同在指定威胁环境条件下对地面重要目标实施攻击的动态数学模型.通过仿真,分析了AH/UAV协同执行侦察打击任务的重要作战效能指标,并通过对比分析可知,AH/UAV协同作战能够显著提高攻击作战的任务成功率和对目标的击毁率,同时能够降低风险,提高自身安全.

  15. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by Euro

  16. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  17. The Lobster Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  18. Mission from Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  19. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  20. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  1. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a re

  2. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  3. EOS Aura Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  4. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by

  5. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  6. Mission from Mars:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  7. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  8. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  9. The OCO-3 MIssion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, A.; Kaki, S.; Crisp, D.; Gunson, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    For the OCO-3 mission, NASA has approved a proposal to install the OCO-2 flight spare instrument on the International Space Station (ISS). The OCO-3 mission on ISS will have a key role in delivering sustained, global, scientifically-based, spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 to monitor natural sources and sinks as part of NASA's proposed OCO-2/OCO-3/ASCENDS mission sequence and NASA's Climate Architecture. The OCO-3 mission will contribute to understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle through enabling flux estimates at smaller spatial scales and through fluorescence measurements that will reduce the uncertainty in terrestrial carbon flux measurements and drive bottom-up land surface models through constraining GPP. The combined nominal missions of both OCO-2 and OCO-3 will likely span a complete El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, a key indicator of ocean variability. In addition, OCO-3 may allow investigation of the high-frequency and wavenumber structures suggested by eddying ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics models. Finally, significant growth of urban agglomerations is underway and projected to continue in the coming decades. With the city mode sampling of the OCO-3 instrument on ISS we can evaluate different sampling strategies aimed at studying anthropogenic sources and demonstrate elements of a Greenhouse Gas Information system, as well as providing a gap-filler for tracking trends in the fastest-changing anthropogenic signals during the coming decade. In this presentation, we will describe our science objectives, the overall approach of utilization of the ISS for OCO-3, and the unique features of XCO2 measurements from ISS.

  10. Human Mars Surface Mission Nuclear Power Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2018-01-01

    A key decision facing Mars mission designers is how to power a crewed surface field station. Unlike the solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) that could retreat to a very low power state during a Martian dust storm, human Mars surface missions are estimated to need at least 15 kilowatts of electrical (kWe) power simply to maintain critical life support and spacecraft functions. 'Hotel' loads alone for a pressurized crew rover approach two kWe; driving requires another five kWe-well beyond what the Curiosity rover’s Radioisotope Power System (RPS) was designed to deliver. Full operation of a four-crew Mars field station is estimated at about 40 kWe. Clearly, a crewed Mars field station will require a substantial and reliable power source, beyond the scale of robotic mission experience. This paper explores the applications for both fission and RPS nuclear options for Mars.

  11. Solar sail Engineering Development Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Since photons have momentum, a useful force can be obtained by reflecting sunlight off of a large, low mass surface (most likely a very thin metal-coated plastic film) and robbing the light of some of its momentum. A solar sail Engineering Development Mission (EDM) is currently being planned by the World Space Foundation for the purpose of demonstrating and evaluating solar sailing technology and to gain experience in the design and operation of a spacecraft propelled by sunlight. The present plan is for the EDM spacecraft to be launched (sail stowed) in a spin-stabilized configuration into an initial elliptical orbit with an apogee of 36,000 km and a perigee of a few hundred kilometers. The spacecraft will then use its own chemical propulsion system to raise the perigee to at least 1,200 km. The deployed sail will have an area of 880 sq m and generate a solar force of about 0.007 N.

  12. Design Reference Missions for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, J.; Abraham, D.

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential, but uncertain, NASA mission portfolio out to a time horizon of 20 years, to identify mission concepts that potentially could benefit from optical communication, considering their communications needs, the environments in which they would operate, and their notional size, weight, and power constraints. A set of 12 design reference missions was selected to represent the full range of potential missions. These design reference missions span the space of potential customer requirements, and encompass the wide range of applications that an optical ground segment might eventually be called upon to serve. The design reference missions encompass a range of orbit types, terminal sizes, and positions in the solar system that reveal the chief system performance variables of an optical ground segment, and may be used to enable assessments of the ability of alternative systems to meet various types of customer needs.

  13. Supportability for Beyond Low Earth Orbit Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crillo, William M.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Aaseng, Gordon; Stromgren, Chel; Maxwell, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) presents many unique challenges that will require changes from current Supportability approaches. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) is supported and maintained through a series of preplanned resupply flights, on which spare parts, including some large, heavy Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), are delivered to the ISS. The Space Shuttle system provided for a robust capability to return failed components to Earth for detailed examination and potential repair. Additionally, as components fail and spares are not already on-orbit, there is flexibility in the transportation system to deliver those required replacement parts to ISS on a near term basis. A similar concept of operation will not be feasible for beyond LEO exploration. The mass and volume constraints of the transportation system and long envisioned mission durations could make it difficult to manifest necessary spares. The supply of on-demand spare parts for missions beyond LEO will be very limited or even non-existent. In addition, the remote nature of the mission, the design of the spacecraft, and the limitations on crew capabilities will all make it more difficult to maintain the spacecraft. Alternate concepts of operation must be explored in which required spare parts, materials, and tools are made available to make repairs; the locations of the failures are accessible; and the information needed to conduct repairs is available to the crew. In this paper, ISS heritage information is presented along with a summary of the challenges of beyond LEO missions. A number of Supportability issues are discussed in relation to human exploration beyond LEO. In addition, the impacts of various Supportability strategies will be discussed. Any measure that can be incorporated to reduce risk and improve mission success should be evaluated to understand the advantages and disadvantages of implementing those measures. Finally, an effort to model and evaluate

  14. Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Students at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY, monitor the progress of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87, Nov. 19 - Dec. 5, 1997). Remote Operation Control Center (ROCC) like this one will become more common during operations with International Space Station. IDGE, flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: Renssenlaer Polythnic Institute (RPI)

  15. PROBA-3: Precise formation flying demonstration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, J. S.; Agenjo, A.; Carrascosa, C.; de Negueruela, C.; Mestreau-Garreau, A.; Cropp, A.; Santovincenzo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Formation Flying (FF) has generated a strong interest in many space applications, most of them involving a significant complexity for building for example on-board large "virtual structures or distributed observatories". The implementation of these complex formation flying missions with critical dependency on this new, advanced and critical formation technology requires a thorough verification of the system behaviour in order to provide enough guarantees for the target mission success. A significant number of conceptual or preliminary designs, analyses, simulations, and HW on-ground testing have been performed during the last years, but still the limitations of the ground verification determine that enough confidence of the behaviour of the formation flying mission will only be possible by demonstration in flight of the concept and the associated technologies. PROBA-3 is the mission under development at ESA for in-flight formation flying demonstration, dedicated to obtain that confidence and the necessary flight maturity level in the formation flying technologies for those future target missions. PROBA-3 will demonstrate technologies such as formation metrology sensors (from very coarse to highest accuracy), formation control and GNC, system operability, safety, etc. During the last years, PROBA-3 has evolved from the initial CDF study at ESA, to two parallel phase A studies, followed by a change in the industrial configuration for the Bridging step between A and B phases. Currently the SRR consolidation has been completed, and the project is in the middle of the phase B. After the phase A study SENER and GMV were responsible for the Formation Flying System, within a mission core team completed by OHB-Sweden, QinetiQ Space and CASA Espacio. In this paper an overview of the PROBA-3 mission is provided, with a more detailed description of the formation flying preliminary design and results.

  16. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  17. Lessons learned from planetary entry probe missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Hasso; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kasprzak, Wayne

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and too costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future planetary missions should also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. The success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and unique data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. There are, however, unique challenges associated with entry probe missions and with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme. There are operating time constraints due to the usually short duration of the probe descent, and the instruments experience rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Because of the protective heat shield and the high acceleration the probe experiences during entry, the ratio of payload to total probe mass is usually much smaller than in other missions. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result, there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements are more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrumentation and consequently reducing the required size of the probe. Improved heat shield

  18. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  19. Applied Operations Research: Operator's Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operates high value critical equipment (HVCE) that requires trouble shooting, periodic maintenance and continued monitoring by Operations staff. The complexity HVCE and information required to maintain and trouble shoot HVCE to assure continued mission success as paper is voluminous. Training on new HVCE is commensurate with the need for equipment maintenance. LaRC Research Directorate has undertaken a proactive research to support Operations staff by initiation of the development and prototyping an electronic computer based portable maintenance aid (Operator's Assistant). This research established a goal with multiple objectives and a working prototype was developed. The research identified affordable solutions; constraints; demonstrated use of commercial off the shelf software; use of the US Coast Guard maintenance solution; NASA Procedure Representation Language; and the identification of computer system strategies; where these demonstrations and capabilities support the Operator, and maintenance. The results revealed validation against measures of effectiveness and overall proved a substantial training and capability sustainment tool. The research indicated that the OA could be deployed operationally at the LaRC Compressor Station with an expectation of satisfactorily results and to obtain additional lessons learned prior to deployment at other LaRC Research Directorate Facilities. The research revealed projected cost and time savings.

  20. TerraSAR-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werninghaus, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  1. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations.

  2. GPM Constellation Reconfiguration and Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission that uses combined active and passive remote sensing techniques to improve global precipitation measurements derived from dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals to (1) advance the knowledge of precipitation physics and the global water cycle variability, and (2) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation and innovative application methods. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional domestic and international partners in satellite constellation buildup and ground validation activities. The GPM concept is centered on employing a dualfrequency precipitation radar and a microwave radiometer with high-frequency capabilities on a core satellite to serve as a physics observatory and calibration standard to provide a consistent framework for unifying precipitation measurements from a heterogeneous constellation of passive microwave sensors. Building on the siccess of TRMM, GPM extends combined radadradiometer precipitation measurements into the mid and high latitudes, with new science foci on improved capabilities for light-rain and snowfall measurements, as well as more accurate precipitation retrievals over land. With recent studies indicating that AMSU-B rainfall estimates are comparable in quality to those derived from conically-scanning radiometers over land, it is envisioned that cross-track microwave sounders with high-frequency channels on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), NOAA-N', and MetOp satellites can play a significant role in augmenting conically-scanning microwave radiometers to achieve better

  3. The THEMIS Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, J. L

    2009-01-01

    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  4. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  5. Deep Blue Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese Navy dispatches ships to the Gulf of Aden on a second escort mission, marking its growing strength in the face of more diverse challenges Elarly in the morning of April 23, crew- imembers from the Chinese Navy’s second escort fleet in the Gulf of Aden Igathered on deck and saluted to the east, paying their respects to the motherland in celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Chinese Navy. This fleet,

  6. Space VLBI Mission: VSOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Edwards, P. G.

    2001-03-01

    We succeeded in performing space VLBI observations using the VLBI satellite HALCA (VSOP satellite), launched in February, 1997 aboard the first M-V rocket developed by ISAS. The mission is led by ISAS and NAO, with the collaborations from CRL, NASA, NRAO, and other institutes and observatories in Europe, Australia, Canada, South-Africa, and China, We succeeded to make a lot of observations and to get the new features from the active galaxies, the cosmic jets, and other astronomical objects.

  7. A Somalia mission experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  8. A Mars 1984 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  9. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Technology applications 12 5 VMs allow one host to belong to multiple VLANs 14 6 Asset recommendation system mockup 15 7 Perturbative mapping may...extended list of critical assets based on communications patterns and software dependencies. Once vulnerabilities have been assessed, AMMO produces a...status of not just network machines, but also software tools, network connections, server room conditions, and many other mission parameters. From this

  10. Titan Saturn System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap. NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two worlds of intense astrobiological interest can be initiated now as a single NASA/ESA collaboration.

  11. The Juno Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  12. Multi-Mission SDR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless transceivers used for NASA space missions have traditionally been highly custom and mission specific. Programs such as the GRC Space Transceiver Radio...

  13. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  14. The mission execution crew assistant : Improving human-machine team resilience for long duration missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Grant, T.; Olmedo-Soler, A.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Manned long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars set high operational, human factors and technical demands for a distributed support system, which enhances human-machine teams' capabilities to cope autonomously with unexpected, complex and potentially hazardous situations. Based on a situated Cogn

  15. UAS Architecture for Distributed Sensing Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) for Earth science data collection for missions with variable durations, operating proximities, altitudes, and...

  16. Solar sail mission design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipold, M.

    2000-02-01

    The main subject of this work is the design and detailed orbit transfer analysis of space flight missions with solar sails utilizing solar pressure for primary propulsion. Such a sailcraft requires ultra-light weight, gossamer-like deployable structures and materials in order to effectively utilize the transfer of momentum of solar photons. Different design concepts as well as technological elements for solar sails are considered, and an innovative design of a deployable sail structure including new methods for sail folding and unfolding is presented. The main focus of this report is on trajectory analysis, simulation and optimization of planetocentric as well as heliocentric low-thrust orbit transfers with solar sails. In a parametric analysis, geocentric escape spiral trajectories are simulated and corresponding flight times are determined. In interplanetary space, solar sail missions to all planets in our solar system as well as selected minor bodies are included in the analysis. Comparisons to mission concepts utilizing chemical propulsion as well as ion propulsion are included in order to assess whether solar sailing could possibly enhance or even enable this mission. The emphasis in the interplanetary mission analysis is on novel concepts: a unique method to realize a sun-synchronous Mercury orbiter, fast missions to the outer planets and the outer heliosphere applying a ''solar photonic assist'', rendezvous and sample return missions to asteroids and comets, as well as innovative concepts to reach unique vantage points for solar observation (''Solar Polar Orbiter'' and ''Solar Probe''). Finally, a propellant-less sailcraft attitude control concept using an external torque due to solar pressure is analyzed. Examples for sail navigation and control in circular Earth orbit applying a PD-control algorithm are shown, illustrating the maneuverability of a sailcraft. (orig.) [German] Gegenstand dieser

  17. 75 FR 6178 - Mission Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ...), thermal coal, and palm oil exports for bio fuel, dominate energy exports. Sound fiscal and monetary.... Mission Statement Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission May 23-25, 2010. Mission... to Jakarta, Indonesia May 23-25, 2010 to discuss market development policies and promote U.S. exports...

  18. The impact of using jason-1 and cryosat-2 geodetic mission altimetry for gravity field modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Jain, Maulik; Knudsen, Per

    2016-01-01

    operating in a geodetic mission as part its end of life mission. In this presentation, we perform an investigation of the impact of the Cryosat-2 and Jason-1 geodetic missions on high resolution marine gravity field mapping through comparison with recent high quality marine gravity measured by the United...

  19. The COBE mission - Its design and performance two years after launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, N. W.; Mather, J. C.; Weiss, R.; Bennett, C. L.; Cheng, E. S.; Dwek, E.; Gulkis, S.; Hauser, M. G.; Janssen, M. A.; Kelsall, T.

    1992-01-01

    The COBE mission, NASA's first space mission devoted primarily to cosmology, is described and the spacecraft concepts central to enabling the mission to achieve its scientific objectives are examined. The major components of the COBE instrument and spacecraft modules are shown and their characteristics are given. Early scientific results are summarized and plans for continuing satellite operations and data analysis are addressed.

  20. Pre-Launch Radiometric Performance Characterization of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder on the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig K.; Kim, Edward; Leslie, R. Vincent; Lyu, Joseph; McCormick, Lisa M.; Anderson, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is a space-based, cross-track radiometer for operational atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding, utilizing 22 channels over a frequency range from 23 to 183 gigahertz. The ATMS for the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 has undergone two rounds of re-work in 2014-2015 and 2016, following performance issues discovered during and following thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC) testing at the instrument and observatory level. Final shelf-level testing, including measurement of pass band characteristics and spectral response functions, was completed in December 2016. Final instrument-level TVAC testing and calibration occurred during February 2017. Here we will describe the instrument-level TVAC calibration process, and illustrate with results from the final TVAC calibration effort.

  1. Recapitalization of Amphibious Operation and Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    on independent operations to conduct presence, irregular warfare, maritime security, humanitarian assistance, and partnership building missions. 5...irregular warfare, maritime security, humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, and partnership building missions. 19 3. USMC Organization The...a design flaw impacting multiple ships. ( P3 ) Risk of Failing to Conduct a Diverse Mission Set – This factor focused on the ability of the

  2. Controlling UCAVs by JTACs in CAS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaş, A. E.

    2014-06-01

    By means of evolving technology, capabilities of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)s are increasing rapidly. This development provides UAVs to be used in many different areas. One of these areas is CAS (Close Air Support) mission. UAVs have several advantages compared to manned aircraft, however there are also some problematic areas. The remote controlling of these vehicles from thousands of nautical miles away via satellite may lead to various problems both ethical and tactical aspects. Therefore, CAS missions require a good level of ALI (Air-Land Integration), a high SA (situational awareness) and precision engagement. In fact, there is an aware friendly element in the target area in CAS missions, unlike the other UAV operations. This element is an Airman called JTAC (Joint Terminal Attack Controller). Unlike the JTAC, UAV operators are too far away from target area and use the limited FOV (Field of View) provided by camera and some other sensor data. In this study, target area situational awareness of a UAV operator and a JTAC, in a high-risk mission for friendly ground forces and civilians such as CAS, are compared. As a result of this comparison, answer to the question who should control the UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle) in which circumstances is sought. A literature review is made in UAV and CAS fields and recent air operations are examined. The control of UCAV by the JTAC is assessed by SWOT analysis and as a result it is deduced that both control methods can be used in different situations within the framework of the ROE (Rules Of Engagement) is reached.

  3. Search and Rescue Mission Using Multicopters

    OpenAIRE

    Steen, Thor Audun

    2014-01-01

    Search and rescue operations can greatly benefit from the use of autonomous unmanned aerial systems to survey the environment and collect evidence about the positions of missing persons. This thesis considers the design of an autonomous multicopter system for use in a search and rescue mission. The ArduPilot Mega is used as the autopilot and is presented together with detailed information about the utilized hardware and software. The design of a low- level control interface is implemented as ...

  4. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  5. Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2). Volume 3: Business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO). Part 5: Analysis of GSFC Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) system mission model using BRAVO techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost comparisons were made between three modes of operation (expend, ground refurbish, and space resupply) for the Earth Observation System (EOS-B) to furnish data to NASA on alternative ways to use the shuttle/EOS. Results of the analysis are presented in tabular form.

  6. Mission Control Technologies: A New Way of Designing and Evolving Mission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Walton, Joan; Saddler, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Current mission operations systems are built as a collection of monolithic software applications. Each application serves the needs of a specific user base associated with a discipline or functional role. Built to accomplish specific tasks, each application embodies specialized functional knowledge and has its own data storage, data models, programmatic interfaces, user interfaces, and customized business logic. In effect, each application creates its own walled-off environment. While individual applications are sometimes reused across multiple missions, it is expensive and time consuming to maintain these systems, and both costly and risky to upgrade them in the light of new requirements or modify them for new purposes. It is even more expensive to achieve new integrated activities across a set of monolithic applications. These problems impact the lifecycle cost (especially design, development, testing, training, maintenance, and integration) of each new mission operations system. They also inhibit system innovation and evolution. This in turn hinders NASA's ability to adopt new operations paradigms, including increasingly automated space systems, such as autonomous rovers, autonomous onboard crew systems, and integrated control of human and robotic missions. Hence, in order to achieve NASA's vision affordably and reliably, we need to consider and mature new ways to build mission control systems that overcome the problems inherent in systems of monolithic applications. The keys to the solution are modularity and interoperability. Modularity will increase extensibility (evolution), reusability, and maintainability. Interoperability will enable composition of larger systems out of smaller parts, and enable the construction of new integrated activities that tie together, at a deep level, the capabilities of many of the components. Modularity and interoperability together contribute to flexibility. The Mission Control Technologies (MCT) Project, a collaboration of

  7. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990's, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD. This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Neck Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF standard.

  8. 3 EXPOSE Missions - overview and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, E.; Willnekcer, R.; Reitz, G.; Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Cman, C.

    2011-10-01

    The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for experiments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation and in particular extraterrestrial short wavelength UV and ionizing radiation which cannot be simulated accurately in the laboratory. Three Missions, two past and one upcoming, will be presented. A family of astrobiological experimental ESA facilities called "EXPOSE" were and will be accommodated on these outside exposure platforms: on one of the external balconies of the European Columbus Module (EXPOSE-E) and on the URM-D platform on the Russian Zvezda Module (EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-R2). Exobiological and radiation experiments, exposing chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment are - and will be - accommodated on these facilities to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigate resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens, plant seeds and small animals like mosquito larvae to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biological specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation are regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. Two long term missions named according to their facility - EXPOSE-E and EXPOSE-R - are completed and a third mission is planned and currently prepared. Operations of all three missions including sample accommodation are performed by DLR. An overview of the two completed missions will be given including lessons learned as well as an outlook

  9. The Copernicus Sentinel-3 Mission: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, C.; Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Frerrick, J.; Vuilleumier@esa int, P.; Rebhan, H.; Mecklenburg, S.; Goryl, P.; Féménias, P.

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to Copernicus services. Products include ocean, ice and land surface altimetry, complemented by thermal and visible wavelength multi-spectral image data. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. In terms of ocean applications, the Sentinel-3 payload is designed to monitor open-ocean, coastal and inland waters using a suite of contemporaneous measurements. The spacecraft accommodates a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). In addition, two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) have been developed as part of the mission. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Together, the optical and topography instruments of Sentinel-3 will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Four Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with Sentinel-3A planned for launch in late 2015 and the Sentinel-3B satellite launch expected in 2017. Procurement of the C and D satellites is ongoing. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years and is expected to be fulfilled by a series of several satellites. This paper reports the current status of the Sentinel-3 Mission and presets some first results from the instrument payload.

  10. OSIRIS-REx Asterod Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messinger, Keiki; Connolly, Harold C. Jr.; Messenger, Scott; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2017-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is NASA's third New Frontiers Program mission, following New Horizons that completed a flyby of Pluto in 2015 and the Juno mission to Jupiter that has just begun science operations. The OSIRIS-REx mission's primary objective is to collect pristine surface samples of a carbonaceous asteroid and return to Earth for analysis. Carbonaceous asteroids and comets are 'primitive' bodies that preserved remnants of the Solar System starting materials and through their study scientists can learn about the origin and the earliest evolution of the Solar System. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft was successfully launched on September 8, 2016, beginning its seven year journey to asteroid 101955 Bennu. The robotic arm will collect 60-2000 grams of material from the surface of Bennu and will return to Earth in 2023 for worldwide distribution by the Astromaterials Curation Facility at NASA Johnson Space Center. The name OSIRIS-REx embodies the mission objectives (1) Origins: Return and analyze a sample of a carbonaceous asteroid, (2) Spectral Interpretation: Provide ground-truth for remote observation of asteroids, (3) Resource Identification: Determine the mineral and chemical makeup of a near-Earth asteroid (4) Security: Measure the non-gravitational that changes asteroidal orbits and (5) Regolith Explorer: Determine the properties of the material covering an asteroid surface. Asteroid Bennu may preserve remnants of stardust, interstellar materials and the first solids to form in the Solar System and the molecular precursors to the origin of life and the Earth's oceans. Bennu is a potentially hazardous asteroid, with an approximately 1 in 2700 chance of impacting the Earth late in the 22nd century. OSIRIS-REx collects from Bennu will help formulate the types of operations and identify mission activities that astronauts will perform during their expeditions. Such information is crucial in preparing for humanity's next steps beyond low Earthy orbit and on to deep space

  11. Enabling the human mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, John

    The duplication of earth conditions aboard a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat requires 60 lb/day/person of food, potable and hygiene water, and oxygen. A 1000-day mission to Mars would therefore require 30 tons of such supplies per crew member in the absence of a closed-cycle, or regenerative, life-support system. An account is given of the development status of regenerative life-support systems, as well as of the requisite radiation protection and EVA systems, the health-maintenance and medical care facilities, zero-gravity deconditioning measures, and planetary surface conditions protection.

  12. The CHEOPS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  13. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  14. The ARTEMIS mission

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    The ARTEMIS mission was initiated by skillfully moving the two outermost Earth-orbiting THEMIS spacecraft into lunar orbit to conduct unprecedented dual spacecraft observations of the lunar environment. ARTEMIS stands for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun. Indeed, this volume discusses initial findings related to the Moon’s magnetic and plasma environments and the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior. This work is aimed at researchers and graduate students in both heliophysics and planetary physics. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol. 165/1-4, 2011.

  15. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Brophy, John; Mazanek, Dan; Muirhead, Brian

    A major element of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) new Asteroid Initiative is the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). This concept was first proposed in 2011 during a feasibility study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS)[1] and is under consideration for implementation by NASA. The ARM involves sending a high-efficiency (ISP 3000 s), high-power (40 kW) solar electric propulsion (SEP) robotic vehicle that leverages technology developed by NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) to rendezvous with a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and return asteroidal material to a stable lunar distant retrograde orbit (LDRO)[2]. There are two mission concepts currently under study, one that captures an entire 7 - 10 meter mean diameter NEA[3], and another that retrieves a 1 - 10 meter mean diameter boulder from a 100+ meter class NEA[4]. Once the retrieved asteroidal material is placed into the LDRO, a two person crew would launch aboard an Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic SEP vehicle. After docking, the crew would conduct two extra-vehicular activities (EVA) to collect asteroid samples and deploy instruments prior to Earth return. The crewed portion of the mission is expected to last approximately 25 days and would represent the first human exploration mission beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program. The ARM concept leverages NASA’s activities in Human Exploration, Space Technology, and Planetary Defense to accomplish three primary objectives and several secondary objectives. The primary objective relevant to Human Exploration is to gain operational experience with vehicles, systems, and components that will be utilized for future deep space exploration. In regard to Space Technology, the ARM utilizes advanced SEP technology that has high power and long duration capabilities that enable future missions to deep space destinations, such as the Martian system. With respect to Planetary Defense, the ARM

  16. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  17. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  18. Calvin and mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus (Kobus P. Labuschagne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It has often been stated or implied that John Calvin and the Reformers in general were indifferent to or even against mission. The aim of this study is to point out that this understanding is not a true version of the facts. A thorough examination of the theology and actions of John Calvin, evaluated against the background of his times and world, reveals that he was firmly committed to spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Lord. Also the theological insights of Calvin and the Reformers not only provided the crucial theological basis to support the future massive missionary expansion of Protestant churches, but necessitate for all times Church mission as a sure consequence of their theology. Calvin’s theology can indeed be described as an ‘essentially missionary theology’. In the heart of Calvin’s theological thinking clearly features the doctrine of justifi cation – because medieval man’s concern for salvation needed to be answered.

  19. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  20. EU Universities’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Arcimaviciene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years, a highly productive space of metaphor analysis has been established in the discourse studies of media, politics, business, and education. In the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis, the restored metaphorical patterns are especially valued for their implied ideological value as realized both conceptually and linguistically. By using the analytical framework of Critical Metaphor Analysis and procedurally employing Pragglejaz Group’s Metaphor Identification Procedure, this study aims at analyzing the implied value of the evoked metaphors in the mission statements of the first 20 European Universities, according to the Webometrics ranking. In this article, it is proposed that Universities’ mission statements are based on the positive evaluation of the COMMERCE metaphor, which does not fully correlate with the ideological framework of sustainability education but is rather oriented toward consumerism in both education and society. Despite this overall trend, there are some traceable features of the conceptualization reflecting the sustainability approach to higher education, as related to freedom of speech, tolerance, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, these are suppressed by the metaphoric usages evoking traditional dogmas of the conservative ideology grounded in the concepts of the transactional approach to relationship, competitiveness for superiority, the importance of se