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Sample records for preirradiation control levels

  1. Preirradiation of host (monkey) cells mitigates the effects of UV upon simian virus 40 DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaria, A.; Edenberg, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of preirradiation of host (monkey) cells upon the replication of UV-damaged SV40. Control cells and cells preirradiated with low fluences of UV were infected with undamaged SV40, and the immediate effects of a subsequent irradiation were determined. UV inhibited total SV40 DNA synthesis in both preirradiated and control cells, but the extent of inhibition was less in the preirradiated cells. A test fluence of 60 J/m 2 to SV40 replicating in preirradiated cells reduced synthesis only as much as a test fluence of 25 J/m 2 in control cells. The fraction of recently replicated SV40 molecules that re-entered the replication pool and subsequently completed one round of replication in the first 2 h after UV was also decreased less in the preirradiated cells. Thus preirradiation of the host cell mitigates the immediate inhibitory effects of a subsequent UV exposure upon SV40 replication. (Auth.)

  2. PIXE analysis showed that the preirradiation enhanced recovery of bone marrow elements after challenging irradiation in C57BL/6N Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Yonezawa, M.; Nishiyama, F.

    2000-01-01

    Priming X-irradiation with 0.3-0.5 Gy induces radio-resistance in C57BL/6 strain of mice 2 weeks afterward. Elements in the bone marrow, sampled 11 days after challenging exposure to 5.0 Gy, were determined by PIXE. The challenging irradiation decreased Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn as well as dried bone marrow weight. The pre-irradiation enhanced recovery of these levels, indicating stimulated recovery of the metabolism int he tissue. Fe in both control (without pre-irradiation) and experimental groups increased to about twice the original value, showing elevated hemoglobin synthesis after challenging exposure. In previous studies we have reported that recovery of peripheral blood cell counts after sub-lethal irradiation was enhanced by the pre-irradiation. Further, study on accumulation of p53 and Bax proteins, which lead to apoptotic cell death, revealed that the pre-irradiation significantly suppressed accumulation of these proteins in the spleen after challenging irradiation with 3 Gy. These results and our present study suggest that the pre-irradiation decreased the spleen cell death, and favored re-growth of the spleen cells, resulting in stimulated recovery of metabolism for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as well as in the spleen after challenging high dose irradiation. Stimulated recovery of Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn levels might indicate the importance of these elements in hematopoiesis. (author)

  3. Inhibition of IL-17A suppresses enhanced-tumor growth in low dose pre-irradiated tumor beds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation induces modification of the tumor microenvironment such as tumor surrounding region, which is relevant to treatment outcome after radiotherapy. In this study, the effects of pre-irradiated tumor beds on the growth of subsequently implanted tumors were investigated as well as underlying mechanism. The experimental model was set up by irradiating the right thighs of C3H/HeN mice with 5 Gy, followed by the implantation of HCa-I and MIH-2. Both implanted tumors in the pre-irradiated bed showed accelerated-growth compared to the control. Tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte (TIL levels were increased, as well as pro-tumor factors such as IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 in the pre-irradiated group. In particular, the role of pro-tumor cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A was investigated as a possible target mechanism because IL-6 and TGF-β are key factors in Th17 cells differentiation from naïve T cells. IL-17A expression was increased not only in tumors, but also in CD4+ T cells isolated from the tumor draining lymph nodes. The effect of IL-17A on tumor growth was confirmed by treating tumors with IL-17A antibody, which abolished the acceleration of tumor growth. These results indicate that the upregulation of IL-17A seems to be a key factor for enhancing tumor growth in pre-irradiated tumor beds.

  4. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Windes; W. David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-08-01

    This report described the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the second Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-2) irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule is the second in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. Similar to the AGC-1 specimen pre-irradiation examination report, material property tests were conducted on specimens from 18 nuclear graphite types but on an increased number of specimens (512) prior to loading into the AGC-2 irradiation assembly. All AGC-2 specimen testing was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from October 2009 to August 2010. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-2 irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule design requires “matched pair” creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-2 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce “matched pairs” of graphite samples above and below the AGC-2 capsule elevation mid-point to provide specimens with similar neutron dose levels.

  5. HRB-22 preirradiation thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Sawa, K.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the preirradiation thermal analysis of the HRB-22 capsule designed for irradiation in the removable beryllium (RB) position of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). CACA-2 a heavy isotope and fission product concentration calculational code for experimental irradiation capsules was used to determine time dependent fission power for the fuel compacts. The Heat Engineering and Transfer in Nine Geometries (HEATING) computer code, version 7.2, was used to solve the steady-state heat conduction problem. The diameters of the graphite fuel body that contains the compacts and the primary pressure vessel were selected such that the requirements of running the compacts at an average temperature of < 1,250 C and not exceeding a maximum fuel temperature of 1,350 C was met throughout the four cycles of irradiation

  6. The effect of endotoxin on preirradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlert, W.; Oehlert, M. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie); Moenig, H.; Konermann, G. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie)

    1992-12-01

    Adult male mice were given a whole body irradiation with non-lethal doses of 2.5 or 5 Gy. Unirradiated animals served as controls. The animals (including controls) received a single injection of endotoxin (LPS from Salmonella abortus equi) with doses of 100, 200 or 400 [mu]g one day up to one year after irradiation. Twelve, 24 or 48 hours after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application the animals were killed and dissected. Animals which died spontaneously were also examined. Liver, lung, kidney, small intestine, and stomach were histologically investigated. The histological findings showed, that differences exist between irradiated and unirradiated mice and that the cause of death is also different for animals dying spontaneously. The investigations have shown that after irradiation phases of different degrees of sensitivity with regard to the endotoxin response exist. This behaviour can be observed by different lethality rates or in the light of the histological results. Moreover, the histological findings have shown, that distinct regenerative changes occur first of all in the liver, in the mucosa of small intestine, and the gastric mucosa, in which the number of differntiated cells compared with the mitotic active cells is reduced. It can be ascertained, that a whole body irradiation with 2.5 to 5 Gy enhances an additional injury by endotoxin weeks to months later. Contrary to this a preirradiation a few days before endotoxin application leads to a 'protection' against the efficacy of endotoxin. These findings can be explained by modes of action described in literature, according to which endotoxins induce the formation of highly active mediators especially the tumor necrosis factor. (orig.).

  7. The effect of endotoxin on preirradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlert, W; Oehlert, M [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Moenig, H; Konermann, G [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie

    1992-12-01

    Adult male mice were given a whole body irradiation with non-lethal doses of 2.5 or 5 Gy. Unirradiated animals served as controls. The animals (including controls) received a single injection of endotoxin (LPS from Salmonella abortus equi) with doses of 100, 200 or 400 [mu]g one day up to one year after irradiation. Twelve, 24 or 48 hours after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application the animals were killed and dissected. Animals which died spontaneously were also examined. Liver, lung, kidney, small intestine, and stomach were histologically investigated. The histological findings showed, that differences exist between irradiated and unirradiated mice and that the cause of death is also different for animals dying spontaneously. The investigations have shown that after irradiation phases of different degrees of sensitivity with regard to the endotoxin response exist. This behaviour can be observed by different lethality rates or in the light of the histological results. Moreover, the histological findings have shown, that distinct regenerative changes occur first of all in the liver, in the mucosa of small intestine, and the gastric mucosa, in which the number of differntiated cells compared with the mitotic active cells is reduced. It can be ascertained, that a whole body irradiation with 2.5 to 5 Gy enhances an additional injury by endotoxin weeks to months later. Contrary to this a preirradiation a few days before endotoxin application leads to a 'protection' against the efficacy of endotoxin. These findings can be explained by modes of action described in literature, according to which endotoxins induce the formation of highly active mediators especially the tumor necrosis factor. (orig.).

  8. AGC-3 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Windes; David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the third Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-3) irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule is third in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The general design of AGC-3 test capsule is similar to the AGC-2 test capsule, material property tests were conducted on graphite specimens prior to loading into the AGC-3 irradiation assembly. However the 6 major nuclear graphite grades in AGC-2 were modified; two previous graphite grades (IG-430 and H-451) were eliminated and one was added (Mersen’s 2114 was added). Specimen testing from three graphite grades (PCEA, 2114, and NBG-17) was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and specimen testing for two grades (IG-110 and NBG-18) were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from May 2011 to July 2013. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-3 irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule design requires "matched pair" creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-3 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce "matched pairs" of graphite samples above and below the AGC-3 capsule elevation mid-point to

  9. In-cell refabrication of experimental pencils from pencils pre-irradiated in a power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignesoult, N.; Atabek, R.; Ducas, S.

    1980-05-01

    For the fuel-cladding study, small irradiated pencils were fabricated in a hot cell from long elements taken from power reactors. This reconstitution in a hot cell makes it possible to: - avoid long and costly fabrications of pencils and pre-irradiations in experimental reactors, - perform re-irradiations on very long fuel elements from power reactors, - fabricate several small pencils from one pre-irradiation pencil having homogeneous characteristics. This paper describes (a) the various in-cell fabrication stages of small pre-irradiated pencils, stressing the precautions taken to avoid any pollution and modifications in the characteristics of the pencil, in order to carry out a perfectly representative re-irradiation, (b) the equipment used and the quality control made, and (c) the results achieved and the qualification programme of this operation [fr

  10. Thermal Decompositon Studies Of Pre-Irradiated Nickel (II) Azides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pre-irradiation on the thermal decomposition of three samples of nickel (II) azide was studied. It was found that the rates of thermal decomposition of Ni(OH)N3 increased substantially with increase in pre-irradiation dosage. The initial reaction rates change from time-dependant nucleation law for the unirradiated ...

  11. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  12. Perfluorinated polymer grafting: influence of preirradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, E.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Silveira, C.G.; Paes, H.A.; Sousa, C.A.; Fernandes, W.; Manzoli, J.E; Geraldo, A.B.; Cardozo, P.

    2009-01-01

    The technological interest of perfluorinated polymers is related to its specific properties like low chemical reactivity and high mechanical and temperature resistance. The development of polymeric membranes for PEM fuel cell dispositives requires beyond these characteristics, a long-life time performance and low cost compared to Nafion membranes. By these material have high crystallinity, the radiation grafting indeed occurs but this process generate a low mechanical resistance aggregate. In this way, it is necessary to render the polymer with a low crystallinity or even amorphous. Generally, irradiation under polymer melt temperatures makes the crystallinity breaking and polymer crosslinking. The main objective of this work was promoting the crosslinking process into perfluorinated polymers by pre-irradiation method and to precede styrene grafting by electron beam irradiation in a second step. The experimental methodology consists in pre-irradiate perfluorinated polymers films like PTFE and PFA under high temperature (> 300 deg C) and vacuum conditions by electron beam irradiation at 5 kGy to 30 kGy doses and 2,85 kGy/s to 22,4 kGy/s dose rates. To obtain temperatures above 300 deg C, it was necessary construct a vacuum chamber with a heating system where temperature process could be follow up in real time. Some molecular alterations in polymeric matrix were analyzed by Mid-ATR-FTIR spectroscopy; macroscopic changes are verified by gravimetry. The styrene grafting onto these samples is realized by electron beam irradiation at doses between 30 and 100 kGy. These results are discussed. (author)

  13. Pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate blunted p53 response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Asakawa, I.; Tamamoto, T.; Yasumoto, J.; Yuki, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Tachibana, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We have studied whether the p53-centered signal transduction pathway induced by acute radiation is interfered with chronic pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate in human cultured cells and whole body of mice. In squamous cell carcinoma cells, we found that a challenge irradiation with X-ray immediately after chronic irradiation resulted in lower levels of p53 than those observed after the challenge irradiation alone. In addition, the induction of p53-centered apoptosis and the accumulation of its related proteins after the challenge irradiation were strongly correlated with the above-mentioned phenomena. In mouse spleen, the induction of apoptosis and the accumulation of p53 and Bax were observed dose-dependently at 12 h after a challenge irradiation. In contrast, we found significant suppression of them induced by challenge irradiation at a high dose-rate when mice were pre-irradiated with chronic irradiation at a low dose-rate. These findings suggest that chronic pre-irradiation suppressed the p53 function through radiation-induced p53-dependent signal transduction processes. There are numerous papers about p53 functions in apoptosis, radiosensitivity, genomic instability and cancer incidence in cultured cells or animals. According to our data and other findings, since p53 can prevent carcinogenesis, pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate might enhance the predisposition to cancer. Therefore, it is possible that different maximal permissible dose equivalents for the public populations are appropriate. Furthermore, concerning health of human beings, studies of the adaptive responses to radiation are quite important, because the radiation response strongly depends on experience of prior exposure to radiation

  14. Pre-Irradiation Chemotherapy in High Risk Medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El-Aal, H.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: The present study evaluates the effect of pre-irradiation chemotherapy in pediatric patients with high risk medulloblastoma. Twenty-four (24) pediatric patients attended the pediatric unit of Kasr-EI-Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK) from January 2000 to January 2003. Patients and Methods: Our patients were 13 boys and II girls aged 3-12 years with a median of 6.5 years. According to Chang staging system 6 cases had T2, 14 cases had T3 A and 4 cases had T3 B, 20 cases were M0, 3 cases were M I and I case was M2. All patients were treated by initial surgery, 2 cycles of pre-irradiation chemotherapy followed by craniospinal radiation then by 4 cycles of post-radiation chemotherapy. Results: Fifteen out of the 20 patients with M0 had objective response (10CR + 5PR) and no one had disease progression after pre-irradiation chemotherapy. Among 4 patients with M0 disease, 2 patients had PR and 2 had S.D. There was no disease progression among patients who received pre-irradiation chemotherapy. The 3-year overall survival and 3-year progression-free survival; (PFS) were 50% and 51 %, respectively, Myelosuppression was the main toxic effect observed during pre-irradiation chemotherapy; however, there was no delay or interruption of craniospinal irradiation. Conclusion: Pre-irradiation chemotherapy is effective in high risk medulloblastoma and is associated with acceptable side effects. The delay in craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for about 5 weeks to receive 2 courses of chemotherapy will not significantly increase disease progression. Multiple cycles of post-irradiation chemotherapy can be given safely after C51. A larger number of patients and longer follow-up is needed to confirm the results

  15. Anomalous low-temperature desorption from preirradiated rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, E.V.; Gumenchuk, G.B.; Yurtaeva, E.M.; Belov, A.G.; Khyzhniy, I.V.; Frankowski, M.; Beyer, M.K.; Smith-Gicklhorn, A.M.; Ponomaryov, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    The role for the exciton-induced defects in the stimulation of anomalous low-temperature desorption of the own lattice atoms from solid Ar and Ne preirradiated by an electron beam is studied. The free electrons from shallow traps-structural defects-was monitored by the measurements of a yield of the thermally induced exoelectron emission (TSEE). The reaction of recombination of self-trapped holes with electrons is considered as a source of energy needed for the desorption of atoms from the surface of preirradiated solids. A key part of the exciton-induced defects in the phenomenon observed is demonstrated

  16. Pre-irradiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers onto polyethylene: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargan, K.; Kronfli, E.; Lovell, K.V.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to identify compounds which are suitable for use as homopolymerisation inhibitors when grafting acrylic acid or methacrylic acid onto pre-irradiated low-density polyethylene. It was found that certain transition metal compounds were able to suppress the formation of homopolymer whilst still allowing significant levels of grafting to take place. For acrylic acid the most suitable inhibitor found was ferrous sulphate, whilst cupric sulphate or potassium ferrocyanide were favoured for use with methacrylic acid. The influence of the inhibitor concentration on the degree of grafting was also investigated. (author)

  17. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels

  18. Pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate blunted p53 response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akihisa

    2002-01-01

    We investigated whether chronic irradiation at a low dose-rate interferes with the p53-centered signal transduction pathyway induced by radiation in human cultured cells and C57BL/6N mice. In in vitro experiments, we found that a challenge with X-ray irradiation immediately after chronic irradiation resulted in lower levels of p53 than those observed after the challenge alone in glioblastoma cells (A-172). In addition, the levels of p53-centered apoptosis and its related proteins after the challenge were strongly correlated with the above-mentioned phenomena in squamous cell carcinoma cells (SAS/neo). In in vivo experiments, the accumulation of p53 and Bax, and the induction of apoptosis were observed dose-dependently in mouse spleen at 12 h after a challenge with X-rays (3.0 Gy). However, we found significant suppression of p53 and Bax accumulation and the induction of apoptosis 12 h after challenge irradiation at 3.0 Gy with a high doses-rate following chronic pre-irradiation (1.5 Gy, 0.001 Gy/min). These findings suggest that chronic pre-irradiation suppressed the p53 function through radiation-induced signaling and/or p53 stability. (author)

  19. Liquid level controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies

  20. Influence of photo- and thermal bleaching on pre-irradiation low water peak single mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jianchong; Wen, Jianxiang; Luo, Wenyun; Xiao, Zhongyin; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2011-12-01

    Reducing the radiation-induced transmission loss in low water peak single mode fiber (LWP SMF) has been investigated by using photo-bleaching method with 980nm pump light source and using thermal-bleaching method with temperature control system. The results show that the radiation-induced loss of pre-irradiation optical fiber can be reduced effectively with the help of photo-bleaching or thermal-bleaching. Although the effort of photo-bleaching is not as significant as thermal-bleaching, by using photo-bleaching method, the loss of fiber caused by radiation-induced defects can be reduced best up to 49% at 1310nm and 28% at 1550nm in low pre-irradiation condition, the coating of the fiber are not destroyed, and the rehabilitating time is just several hours, while self-annealing usually costs months' time. What's more, the typical high power LASER for photo-bleaching can be 980nm pump Laser Diode, which is very accessible.

  1. Thermotolerance in preirradiated intestine and its influence on time-temperature relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.; Manjil, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    The crypt compartment of mouse jejunum showed a transient increase in thermal susceptibility approximately 10 days after moderate X-ray doses to the abdomen (9-10 Gy). The increase in response was manifest as an increase in slope of the crypt dose-response curve but was limited to temperatures below 43 0 C. As a result, the 43 0 C inflexion in the Arrhenius plot (the relationship between treatment time and temperature) for thermal sensitivity of crypts was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, and the curve became monophasic over the range 42.0-44.5 0 C. At temperatures below 42 0 C, the curve again deviated. At supranormal temperatures of 42 0 C and below, the durations of hyperthermia needed for measurable effect were sufficient to allow thermotolerance to be expressed within the heating period. Neither the threshold heating times nor this thermotolerance were affected by prior irradiation. In the temperature range 42-43 0 C, an earlier development of thermotolerance could be demonstrated in control tissue by challenging with an acute high-temperature heat treatment. This thermotolerance was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, resulting in the apparent increase in sensitivity. The findings support the view that the complex nature of the time-temperature relationship seen in normal tissue in vivo is a manifestation of the ability of the tissue to progressively acquire a thermotolerant state during treatment at temperatures below approximately 43 0 C, so that the intrinsic sensitivity is modulated while being assessed

  2. Influence of radiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of BISGMA / TEGDMA based nanocomposites using pre-irradiated MMT nanoparticles as filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Tamiris M.R.; Campos, Luiza M.P.; Santos, Mariana de J.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Boaro, Leticia C.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study was observed the influence of gamma radiation in thermal and mechanical properties of the experimental dental composites based on BISGMA/TEGDMA filled with pre-irradiated MMT nanoparticles (Cloisite® 20A). MMT nanoparticle was pre-irradiated at doses of 10, 15 and 70 kGy. As a control group MMT nanoparticle was added in the polymeric matrix without pre-irradiation. Four formulations of experimental nanocomposites were studied all with 50% wt of filler. The characterization of the experimental composites was performed by means of the following techniques: Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA), Elastic Modulus and Flexural Strength. It was observed that the group filled with pre-irradiated nanoparticles at dose of 70 kGy showed a delay in the decomposition temperature when compared to the control group. For elastic modulus the results showed a proportional increase related to the dose of radiation applied in the MMT nanoparticle. Regarding flexural strength, the groups filled with pre–irradiated nanoparticles and the control group presented similar results. (author)

  3. Influence of radiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of BISGMA / TEGDMA based nanocomposites using pre-irradiated MMT nanoparticles as filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Tamiris M.R.; Campos, Luiza M.P.; Santos, Mariana de J.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: tamiris.martins@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boaro, Leticia C. [Universidade de Santo Amaro (UNISA), Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Biomateriais

    2017-07-01

    In the present study was observed the influence of gamma radiation in thermal and mechanical properties of the experimental dental composites based on BISGMA/TEGDMA filled with pre-irradiated MMT nanoparticles (Cloisite® 20A). MMT nanoparticle was pre-irradiated at doses of 10, 15 and 70 kGy. As a control group MMT nanoparticle was added in the polymeric matrix without pre-irradiation. Four formulations of experimental nanocomposites were studied all with 50% wt of filler. The characterization of the experimental composites was performed by means of the following techniques: Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA), Elastic Modulus and Flexural Strength. It was observed that the group filled with pre-irradiated nanoparticles at dose of 70 kGy showed a delay in the decomposition temperature when compared to the control group. For elastic modulus the results showed a proportional increase related to the dose of radiation applied in the MMT nanoparticle. Regarding flexural strength, the groups filled with pre–irradiated nanoparticles and the control group presented similar results. (author)

  4. Reactor water level control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utagawa, Kazuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    A device of the present invention can effectively control fluctuation of a reactor water level upon power change by reactor core flow rate control operation. That is, (1) a feedback control section calculates a feedwater flow rate control amount based on a deviation between a set value of a reactor water level and a reactor water level signal. (2) a feed forward control section forecasts steam flow rate change based on a reactor core flow rate signal or a signal determining the reactor core flow rate, to calculate a feedwater flow rate control amount which off sets the steam flow rate change. Then, the sum of the output signal from the process (1) and the output signal from the process (2) is determined as a final feedwater flow rate control signal. With such procedures, it is possible to forecast the steam flow rate change accompanying the reactor core flow rate control operation, thereby enabling to conduct preceding feedwater flow rate control operation which off sets the reactor water level fluctuation based on the steam flow rate change. Further, a reactor water level deviated from the forecast can be controlled by feedback control. Accordingly, reactor water level fluctuation upon power exchange due to the reactor core flow rate control operation can rapidly be suppressed. (I.S.)

  5. Stability of the stimulatory effect of preirradiation of agricultural plant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seregina, M.T.; Orlov, V.V.; Batygin, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Three interrelated and interdependent factors are responsible for stability of the results obtained with preirradiation of seeds, they are: quality of seeds to be sowed, irradiation schedule and postirradiation conditions. Should these factors be taken into account one can obtain a stable stimulatory effect. The harvest increments make 10-30% after preirradiation of air-dry seeds

  6. Nucleonic level control in industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Rao, S.S.; Nair, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    The paper elicits the particular advantages of nucleonic level control methods in certain applications. The technique used is described briefly. Normal radioactive sources used and their selection for any application based on their characteristic emissions is explained. Level controller developed by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, is described including details regarding electronic circuitry and the radiation detector used. Its application in zinc powder plant to measure powder level in a hopper is described. Some of the typical applications of gamma-ray level controllers are mentioned. (auth.)

  7. Preirradiation microstructrual development designed to minimize properties degradation during irradiation in austentic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Roche, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    The first-generation Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) for the austenitic stainless steel class of alloys for application as a Magnet Fusion Energy (MFE) first-wall material is a 14 Cr-16 Ni-0.25 Ti modification of Type 316 stainless steel. A key parameter for material performance is wall lifetime. The ability of the material to resist swelling and resist embrittlement during irradiation is important to longer wall lifetimes. The microstructure that evolves during irradiation is primarily responsible for both the swelling and embrittlement responses, and helium plays a central role in this microstructural evolution. This paper indicated how preirradiation microstructures that employ control of MC precipitation and dislocation density are designed and produced for fusion application of PCA

  8. Pre-irradiation tests on U-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.; Bell, L.G.

    1958-05-01

    Pre-irradiation tests of hardness, density, electrical resistivity, and corrosion resistance as well as metallographic and X-ray examinations were undertaken on U-Si core material, which had been co-extruded in Zr--2, in order that the effect of irradiation on alloys in the epsilon range could be assessed. In addition, a study of the epsilonization of arc-melted material was undertaken in order to rain familiarity with the epsilonization process and to obtain information on the corrosion behaviour of epsilonized material. Sheathed U-Si samples in the epsilonized and de-epsilonized conditions have been irradiated in the X-2 loop, with a water temperature of 275 o C. The samples have been examined after 250 MWD/Tonne and show no dimensional change. (author)

  9. Reactor water level control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Yohei.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the rapid response of the waterlevel control converting a reactor water level signal into a non-linear type, when the water level is near to a set value, to stabilize the water level reducting correlatively the reactor water level variation signal to stabilize greatly from the set value, and increasing the variation signal. Constitution: A main vapor flow quality transmitter detects the vapor flow generated in a reactor and introduced into a turbine. A feed water flow transmitter detects the quantity of a feed water flow from the turbine to the reactor, this detected value is sent to an addition operating apparatus. On the other hand, the power signal of the reactor water level transmitter is sent to the addition operating apparatus through a non-linear water level signal converter. The addition operation apparatus generates a signal for requesting the feed water flow quantity from both signals. Upon this occasion, the reactor water level signal converter makes small the reactor water level variation when the reactor level is close the set value, and when the water level deviates greatly from the set value, the reactor water level variation is made large thereby to improve the rapid response of the reactor coater level control. (Yoshino, Y.)

  10. Radiochemotherapy in combination with regional hyperthermia in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, V.; Issels, R.D.; Buecklein, V.; Institute of Molecular Immunology, Muenchen; Pazos, M.; Schaffer, P.; Wilkowski, R.; Duehmke, E.; Rahman, S.; Tschoep, K.; Schaffer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Encouraging results of phase II studies combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy have been published. In this study, the results of a multimodal salvage therapy including radiochemotherapy (RCT) and regional hyperthermia (RHT) in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer are reported. Patients and Methods: All patients enrolled had received previous pelvic irradiation (median dose 50.4 Gy). The median time interval between prior radiotherapy and the onset of local recurrence was 34 months. The combined treatment consisted of reirradiation with a median dose of 39.6 Gy (30.0-45.0 Gy), delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy/day. 5-fluorouracil was given as continuous infusion 350 mg/m2/day five times weekly, and RHT (BSD-2000 system) was applied twice a week within 1 h after radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was local progression-free survival (LPFS); secondary endpoints were overall survival, symptom control, and toxicity. Results: 24 patients (median age 59 years) with a previously irradiated locally recurrent adenocarcinoma of the rectum were enrolled. The median LPFS was 15 months (95% confidence interval 12-18 months) with a median follow-up of 27 months (16-37 months). The overall 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 87% and 30%, respectively. Pain was the main symptom in 17 patients. Release of pain was achieved in 12/17 patients (70%). No grade 3 or 4 hematologic or skin toxicity occurred. Grade 3 gastrointestinal acute toxicity was observed in 12.5% of the patients. Paratumoral thermometry revealed a homogeneous distribution of temperatures. Conclusion: RCT combined with RHT is an efficient salvage therapy showing high efficacy with acceptable toxicity and can be recommended as treatment option for this unfavorable group of preirradiated patients with local recurrence of rectal cancer. (orig.)

  11. Radiochemotherapy in combination with regional hyperthermia in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, V.; Issels, R.D.; Buecklein, V. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Internal Medicine III; Institute of Molecular Immunology, Muenchen (Germany). KKG Hyperthermie GSF-Haematologikum; Pazos, M.; Schaffer, P.; Wilkowski, R.; Duehmke, E. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rahman, S.; Tschoep, K.; Schaffer, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Internal Medicine III

    2008-03-15

    Background and Purpose: Encouraging results of phase II studies combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy have been published. In this study, the results of a multimodal salvage therapy including radiochemotherapy (RCT) and regional hyperthermia (RHT) in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer are reported. Patients and Methods: All patients enrolled had received previous pelvic irradiation (median dose 50.4 Gy). The median time interval between prior radiotherapy and the onset of local recurrence was 34 months. The combined treatment consisted of reirradiation with a median dose of 39.6 Gy (30.0-45.0 Gy), delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy/day. 5-fluorouracil was given as continuous infusion 350 mg/m2/day five times weekly, and RHT (BSD-2000 system) was applied twice a week within 1 h after radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was local progression-free survival (LPFS); secondary endpoints were overall survival, symptom control, and toxicity. Results: 24 patients (median age 59 years) with a previously irradiated locally recurrent adenocarcinoma of the rectum were enrolled. The median LPFS was 15 months (95% confidence interval 12-18 months) with a median follow-up of 27 months (16-37 months). The overall 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 87% and 30%, respectively. Pain was the main symptom in 17 patients. Release of pain was achieved in 12/17 patients (70%). No grade 3 or 4 hematologic or skin toxicity occurred. Grade 3 gastrointestinal acute toxicity was observed in 12.5% of the patients. Paratumoral thermometry revealed a homogeneous distribution of temperatures. Conclusion: RCT combined with RHT is an efficient salvage therapy showing high efficacy with acceptable toxicity and can be recommended as treatment option for this unfavorable group of preirradiated patients with local recurrence of rectal cancer. (orig.)

  12. Study of PVC membrane grafted by Acrylic Acid, Acrylonitrile and Acrylamide using preirradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.; Al-Kasseri, H.

    2015-03-01

    Grafting of acrylic acid, acrylamide and acrylonitrile onto poly vinyl chloride (PVC) films using gamma radiation has been carried out by both type direct and preirradiation methods. The effect of different parameter such as monomer concentration, inhibitor concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were investigated. It was found that the grafting yield depends on these parameters. The grafting yield was strongly monomer dependent and grafting method: the highest was found for AAc by the preirradiation method. The samples were characterized by tensile strength measurement, swilling and ion uptake. The highest increase in swilling was observed on samples grafted with AAc by the preirradiation method.(author)

  13. Safety evaluation of the NSRR facility relevant to the modification for improved pulse operation and preirradiated fuel experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inabe, Teruo; Terakado, Yoshibumi; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1988-11-01

    The Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) is a pulse reactor for the inpile experiments to study the fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions. The present operation modes of the NSRR consist of the steady state operation up to 300 kW and the natural pulse operation in which a sharp pulsed power is generated from substantially zero power level. In addition to these, two new modes of shaped pulse operation and combined pulse operation will be conducted in the near future as the improved pulse operations. A transient power up to 10 MW will be generated in the shaped pulse operation, and a combination of a transient power up to 10 MW and a sharp pulsed power will be generated in the combined pulse operation. Furthermore, preirradiated fuel rods will be employed in the future experiments whereas the present experiments are confined to the test specimens of unirradiated fuel rods. To provide for these programs, the fundamental design works relevant to the modification of the reactor facility including the reactor instrumentation and control systems and experimental provision were developed. The reactor safety evaluation is prerequisite for confirming the propriety of the fundamental design of the reactor facility from the safety point of view. The safety evaluation was therefore conducted postulating such events that would bring about abnormal conditions in the reactor facility. As a result of the safety evaluation, it has been confirmed as to the NSRR facility after modification that the anticipated transients, the postulated accidents, the major accident and the hypothetical accident do not result respectively in any serious safety problem and that the fundamental design principles and the reactor siting are adequate and acceptable. (author)

  14. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  15. Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiations. Evidence of effect of pre-irradiation of culture medium on subsequent growth in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus lividus in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conter, A.; Planel, H.

    1986-01-01

    In order to distinguish the direct effects of low dose of ionizing radiations at the cellular level from those indirect through the culture medium, we have compared proliferation of Synechococcus lividus grown in pre-irradiated medium to proliferation of cultures grown in non-irradiated medium. A stimulation of growth was observed at the 7th day in cultures inoculated with cells selected in deceleration phase, while an inhibition occured in cultures inoculated with exponential growing cells. Addition of catalase (100 U/ml) counteracted the stimulating effect but did not change the inhibiting effect induced by pre-irradiated medium. Results demonstrated the indirect effect of low dose of irradiation, implying hydrogen peroxide, but let us to think that others radioproduced products could be also involved in the mechanism [fr

  16. Effects of pre-irradiation on isogeneic and semi-isogeneic CFU growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buurman, W.A.; Bruggen, I. Van.

    1977-01-01

    The genetic resistance to a parental bone marrow transplant as demonstrated, when transplantation were performed early after irradiation, failed to occur if the interval between irradiation and transplantation was increased to 4 days. A similar radiation induced weakening of genetic resistance to a parental bone marrow graft in spleen and bone marrow would be demonstrated in mice, which has been irradiated with a sublethal dose at 7 days prior to the lethal irradiation and transplantation. The pre-irradiation of the recipient with a sublethal dose induced an enhancement of the growth in spleen and bone marrow of isogenic transplanted CFU. The pre-irradiation of a single tibia also resulted in a significant weakening of the resistance in the spleen. The experiments with partial body pre-irradiation suggested a local effect of the pre-irradiation, but it could be shown that the enhanced CFU growth is not caused by an enhanced seeding of CFU in pre-irradiation bone marrow. The role of microenvironment in the phenomenon of genetic resistance is discussed. (author)

  17. Neurodevelopmental status of infants and young children treated for brain tumors with preirradiation chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhern, R.K.; Horowitz, M.E.; Kovnar, E.H.; Langston, J.; Sanford, R.A.; Kun, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the severity of late neurotoxicities associated with cranial irradiation, 14 infants and young children with malignant brain tumors were given preirradiation chemotherapy for 2 to 22 months (median, 8 months). Prospective neurodevelopmental evaluations were routinely conducted and now extend from 35 to 60 months (median, 41 months) postdiagnosis, and 10 to 52 months (median, 31 months) postirradiation in the 12 surviving children. At the initiation of chemotherapy, less than one fourth of the patients displayed normal performance status or mental functioning on age-corrected tests; the majority remained stable or declined while receiving chemotherapy. Declining mental development and adaptive behavior were noted in six patients following radiation therapy with only two patients now functioning in the normal range for age. The analysis suggests that neurodevelopmental progress is a function of multiple factors, including neurologic and sensorimotor deficits associated with the tumor, surgical intervention, and chemotherapy that antedated radiation therapy. This implies that delaying irradiation will not necessarily improve the patients' functional status. Whether the interval of postponement of irradiation evidenced in this sample will translate into an ultimately better quality of life remains unknown. Given the probable interaction of multiple risk factors, well-controlled prospective clinical trials are needed to definitively analyze this issue

  18. Cladding temperature measurement by thermocouples at preirradiated LWR fuel rod samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiling, W.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the technique to measure cladding temperatures of test fuel rod samples, applied during the in-pile tests on fuel rod failure in the steam loop of the FR2 reactor. NiCr/Ni thermocouples with stainless steel and Inconel sheaths, respectively,of 1 mm diameter were resistance spot weld to the outside of the fuel rod cladding. For the pre-irradiated test specimens, welding had to be done under hot-cell conditions, i.e. under remote handling. In order to prevent the formation of eutectics between zirconium and the chemical elements of the thermocouple sheath at elevated temperatures, the thermocouples were covered with a platinum jacket of 1.4 mm outside diameter swaged onto the sheath in the area of the measuring junction. This thermocouple design has worked satisfactorily in the in-pile experiments performed in a steam atmosphere. Even in the heatup phase, in which cladding temperatures up to 1050 0 C were reached, only very few failures occured. This good performance is to a great part due to a careful control and a thorough inspection of the thermocouples. (orig.) [de

  19. Prolonged survival of isolated rat islet allografts pre-irradiated with X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Toshihisa; Note, Masayuki; Nakagawara, Gizo (Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)); Kojima, Yasuhiko

    1994-04-01

    Prior to transplantation of islets, pre-incubation, or pre-irradiation may suppress the immunogenicity of islet cells without suppressing islet function. In the presently described experiments we investigated the use of X-ray irradiation prior to transplantation to reduce islet immunogenicity. To determine whether or not the islet function was reduced after irradiation, ACI rat islets were transplanted into the subrenal capsules of isogeneic rats which had been diabetic and examined the blood glucose level over a period of 40 days. The results indicated that irradiation injury was dose-dependent and that islets irradiated with over 80 Gy lost their function. Next, allogeneic transplantation was performed using the model of ACI rats to Lewis rats without the use of any immunosuppressive agent. Non-irradiated islets were rejected within 7 days. However 20 Gy or 40 Gy irradiated islets prolonged survival (18.7[+-]5.8 days (n=6) and 26.7[+-]10.0 days (n=6), respectively). To determine the basis for this effect, MHC expression of islets was examined by the immunoperoxidase technique. Immunohistologic studies showed that 40 Gy-irradiated islets were depleted of Class II antigen positive cells while Class I antigen expression was unchanged. These results suggest that the prolongation of islets survival by X-ray irradiation may possibly be due to, in part, the depletion of donor Class II antigen positive cells. (author).

  20. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanzhou; Yu Ming; Deng Bo; Li Linfan; Jiang Haiqing; Li Jingye

    2012-01-01

    Acrylonitrile has been widely used in the modification of polymers by graft polymerization. In the present work, pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization method is used to introduce acrylonitrile onto PE nonwoven fabric instead of the traditional reaction in organic solvents system. The degree of grafting (DG) is measured by gravimetric method and the kinetics of the graft polymerization is studied. The existence of the graft chains is proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Thermal stability of the grafted polymer is measured by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). - Highlights: → Acrylonitrile is grafted onto pre-irradiated polyethylene (PE) nonwoven fabrics. → Emulsion system is applied, for the graft polymerization avoids organic solvent. → Kinetic of the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization is studied. → Optimal condition is determined at the temperature below the b.p. of acrylonitrile.

  1. New method for immobilization of biomolecules using preirradiation grafting at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Chang Dong; Hoffman, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    A new method of biomolecule immobilization is described in which a monomer-conjugated enzyme (asparaginase, Asp) is grafted together with free monomer (acrylamide, AAm) onto a cellulose sheet which had been preirradiated in a /sup 60/Co source. The preirradiation and grafting steps are carried out in air at - 78/sup 0/C and in vacuum at 0/sup 0/C respectively. The grafting is probably caused by trapped radicals. The immobilized enzyme retains significant activity and is stable to storage. The technique is applicable to immobilization of a wide variety of biomolecules, such as enzymes, antibodies and drugs. The products may be used for therapeutic or diagnostic applications.

  2. A new method for immobilization of biomolecules using preirradiation grafting at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Chang Dong; Hoffman, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    A new method of biomolecule immobilization is described in which a monomer-conjugated enzyme (asparaginase, Asp) is grafted together with free monomer (acrylamide, AAm) onto a cellulose sheet which had been preirradiated in a 60 Co source. The preirradiation and grafting steps are carried out in air at - 78 0 C and in vacuum at 0 0 C respectively. The grafting is probably caused by trapped radicals. The immobilized enzyme retains significant activity and is stable to storage. The technique is applicable to immobilization of a wide variety of biomolecules, such as enzymes, antibodies and drugs. The products may be used for therapeutic or diagnostic applications. (author)

  3. Effect of low dose pre-irradiation on DNA damage and genetic material damage caused by high dosage of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Zhu Jingjuan; Shang Qingjun; Wang Zhuomin; Cui Fuxian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose γ-rays pre-irradiation on the induction of DNA damage and genetic material damage in peripheral lymphocytes by high dosage of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Methods: Male Kunming strain mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, sham-irradiated group, low dose irradiated group(LDR group), cyclophosphamide chemotherapy group(CTX group) and low dose irradiation combined with chemotherapy group(LDR + CTX group). After being feeded for one week, all the mice were implanted subcutaneously with S180 cells in the left groin (control group excluded). On days 8 and 11, groups of LDR and LDR + CTX were administered with 75 mGy of whole-body irradiation, 30 h later groups CTX and LDR + CTX were injected intraperitoneally 3.0 mg cyclophosphamide. All the mice were sacrificed on day 13. DNA damage of the peripheral lymphocytes was analyzed using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Genetic material damage was analyzed using micronucleus frequency(MNF) of polychromatoerythrocytes(PCE) in bone marrow. Results: (1) Compared with control group and sham-irradiated group, the DNA damage of peripheral lymphocytes in CTX group were increased significantly (P 0.05). Conclusions: (1) High- dosage of CTX chemotherapy can cause DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes. 75 mGy y-irradiation before chemotherapy may have certain protective effect on DNA damage. (2) CTX has potent mutagenic effect, giving remarkable rise to MNF of PCE. 75 mGy γ-ray pre-irradiation has not obvious protection against genetic toxicity of high-dose CTX chemotherapy. (authors)

  4. Use of pre-irradiated commercial MOSFETs in a power supply hardened to withstand gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, M.; Huillet, H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used to design a hardened power supply capable of operating to a total gamma irradiation dose of 10 kGy(Si). Pre-irradiation of power MOSFETs proved to be necessary, and the paper also discusses the effects of this treatment. (authors)

  5. Experiments with preirradiated fuel rods in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiki, O.; Kobayashi, S.; Takariko, I.; Ishijima, K.

    1992-01-01

    In the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) owned and operated by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), extensive experimental studies on the fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions have been continued since the start of the test program in 1975. Accumulated experimental data were used as the fundamental data base of the Japanese safety evaluation guideline for reactivity initiated events in light water cooled nuclear power plants established by the nuclear safety commission in 1984. All of the data used to establish the guideline were, however, limited to those derived from the tests with fresh fuel rods as test samples because of the lack of experimental facility to handle highly radioactive materials.The guideline, therefore, introduces the peak fuel enthalpy of 85 cal/g which was adopted from the SPERT-CDC data as a provisional failure threshold of preirradiated fuel rod and, says that this value should be revised based on the NSRR experiments in the future. According to the above requirement, new NSRR experimental program with the preirradiated fuel rods as test samples was started in 1989. Test fuel rods are prepared by refabrication of the long-sized fuel rods preirradiated in commercial PWRs and BWRs into short segments and by preirradiation of short-sized test fuel rods in the Japan Material Testing Reactor(JMTR). For the tests with preirradiated fuel rods as test samples, the special experimental capsules, the automatic instrumentation fitting device, the automatic capsule assembling device and the capsule loading device were newly developed. In addition, the existing hot cave was modified to mount the capsule assembling device and the other inspection tools and, a new small iron cell was established adjacent to the cave to store the instrumentation fitting device. (author)

  6. Vasculatures in Tumors Growing From Preirradiated Tissues: Formed by Vasculogenesis and Resistant to Radiation and Antiangiogenic Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fang-Hsin; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Fu, Sheng-Yung; Tsai, Chien-Sheng; Jung, Shih-Ming; Wen, Chih-Jen; Lee, Chung-Chi; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate vasculatures and microenvironment in tumors growing from preirradiated tissues (pre-IR tumors) and study the vascular responses of pre-IR tumors to radiation and antiangiogenic therapy. Methods and Materials: Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate C1 tumors were implanted into unirradiated or preirradiated tissues and examined for vascularity, hypoxia, and tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltrates by immunohistochemistry. The origin of tumor endothelial cells was studied by green fluorescent protein-tagged bone marrow (GFP-BM) transplantation. The response of tumor endothelial cells to radiation and antiangiogenic agent was evaluated by apoptotic assay. Results: The pre-IR tumors had obvious tumor bed effects (TBE), with slower growth rate, lower microvascular density (MVD), and more necrotic and hypoxic fraction compared with control tumors. The vessels were dilated, tightly adhered with pericytes, and incorporated with transplanted GFP-BM cells. In addition, hypoxic regions became aggregated with TAM. As pre-IR tumors developed, the TBE was overcome at the tumor edge where the MVD increased, TAM did not aggregate, and the GFP-BM cells did not incorporate into the vessels. The vessels at tumor edge were more sensitive to the following ionizing radiation and antiangiogenic agent than those in the central low MVD regions. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that vasculatures in regions with TBE are mainly formed by vasculogenesis and resistant to radiation and antiangiogenic therapy. Tumor bed effects could be overcome at the edge of larger tumors, but where vasculatures are formed by angiogenesis and sensitive to both treatments. Vasculatures formed by vasculogenesis should be the crucial target for the treatment of recurrent tumors after radiotherapy.

  7. Automatic Control of Silicon Melt Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Stickel, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    A new circuit, when combined with melt-replenishment system and melt level sensor, offers continuous closed-loop automatic control of melt-level during web growth. Installed on silicon-web furnace, circuit controls melt-level to within 0.1 mm for as long as 8 hours. Circuit affords greater area growth rate and higher web quality, automatic melt-level control also allows semiautomatic growth of web over long periods which can greatly reduce costs.

  8. Erythrokinetics in mice bearing tumours in either preirradiated or unirradiated tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirtle, R.L.; Clifton, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were designed to clarify the causes of anaemia in hosts bearing tumours in either unirradiated or preirradiated tissue. Isotopic methods are described which enable the estimation of erythrocyte destruction and production rates, and the potential red cell life spans in tumour-bearing animals. In this experimental system, anaemia (a) is in large part due to accelerated random erythrocyte loss, (b) is exacerbated as tumours grow by a progressive reduction in the potential erythrocyte life span due to intrinsic erythrocyte defects. (c) is accompanied by an increase in erythrocyte production of six- to ten-fold and (d) is postponed in onset and decreased in magnitude by preirradiation of the tumour transplant site. (author)

  9. Erythrokinetics in mice bearing tumours in either preirradiated or unirradiated tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirtle, R L; Clifton, K H [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Div. of Clinical Oncology

    1978-11-01

    Experiments were designed to clarify the causes of anaemia in hosts bearing tumours in either unirradiated or preirradiated tissue. Isotopic methods are described which enable the estimation of erythrocyte destruction and production rates, and the potential red cell life spans in tumour-bearing animals. In this experimental system, anaemia (a) is in large part due to accelerated random erythrocyte loss, (b) is exacerbated as tumours grow by a progressive reduction in the potential erythrocyte life span due to intrinsic erythrocyte defects. (c) is accompanied by an increase in erythrocyte production of six- to ten-fold and (d) is postponed in onset and decreased in magnitude by preirradiation of the tumour transplant site.

  10. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1). Effect of alcohol additives on pre-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, M; Meshitsuka, G; Nakano, J [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1979-12-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2 in all, over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking.

  11. Level controlling system in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joge, Toshio; Higashigawa, Yuichi; Oomori, Takashi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To reasonably attain fully automatic water level control in the core of BWR type nuclear power plants. Constitution: A feedwater flow regulation valve for reactor operation and a feedwater flow regulation valve for starting are provided at the outlet of a motor-driven feedwater pump in a feedwater system, and these valves are controlled by a feedwater flow rate controller. While on the other hand, a damp valve for reactor clean up system is controlled either in ''computer'' mode or in ''manual'' mode selected by a master switch, that is, controlled from a computer or the ON-OFF switch of the master switch by way of a valve control analog memory and a turn-over switch. In this way, the water level in the nuclear reactor can be controlled in a fully automatic manner reasonably at the starting up and shutdown of the plant to thereby provide man power saving. (Seki, T.)

  12. Technical safety requirements control level verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEWART, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) control level verification process was developed for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) TSRs at the Hanford Site in Richland, WA, at the direction of the US. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The objective of the effort was to develop a process to ensure that the TWRS TSR controls are designated and managed at the appropriate levels as Safety Limits (SLs), Limiting Control Settings (LCSs), Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs), Administrative Controls (ACs), or Design Features. The TSR control level verification process was developed and implemented by a team of contractor personnel with the participation of Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) integrating contractor, and RL representatives. The team was composed of individuals with the following experience base: nuclear safety analysis; licensing; nuclear industry and DOE-complex TSR preparation/review experience; tank farm operations; FDH policy and compliance; and RL-TWRS oversight. Each TSR control level designation was completed utilizing TSR control logic diagrams and TSR criteria checklists based on DOE Orders, Standards, Contractor TSR policy, and other guidance. The control logic diagrams and criteria checklists were reviewed and modified by team members during team meetings. The TSR control level verification process was used to systematically evaluate 12 LCOs, 22 AC programs, and approximately 100 program key elements identified in the TWRS TSR document. The verification of each TSR control required a team consensus. Based on the results of the process, refinements were identified and the TWRS TSRs were modified as appropriate. A final report documenting key assumptions and the control level designation for each TSR control was prepared and is maintained on file for future reference. The results of the process were used as a reference in the RL review of the final TWRS TSRs and control suite. RL

  13. Technical safety requirements control level verification; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEWART, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) control level verification process was developed for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) TSRs at the Hanford Site in Richland, WA, at the direction of the US. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The objective of the effort was to develop a process to ensure that the TWRS TSR controls are designated and managed at the appropriate levels as Safety Limits (SLs), Limiting Control Settings (LCSs), Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs), Administrative Controls (ACs), or Design Features. The TSR control level verification process was developed and implemented by a team of contractor personnel with the participation of Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) integrating contractor, and RL representatives. The team was composed of individuals with the following experience base: nuclear safety analysis; licensing; nuclear industry and DOE-complex TSR preparation/review experience; tank farm operations; FDH policy and compliance; and RL-TWRS oversight. Each TSR control level designation was completed utilizing TSR control logic diagrams and TSR criteria checklists based on DOE Orders, Standards, Contractor TSR policy, and other guidance. The control logic diagrams and criteria checklists were reviewed and modified by team members during team meetings. The TSR control level verification process was used to systematically evaluate 12 LCOs, 22 AC programs, and approximately 100 program key elements identified in the TWRS TSR document. The verification of each TSR control required a team consensus. Based on the results of the process, refinements were identified and the TWRS TSRs were modified as appropriate. A final report documenting key assumptions and the control level designation for each TSR control was prepared and is maintained on file for future reference. The results of the process were used as a reference in the RL review of the final TWRS TSRs and control suite. RL

  14. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  15. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  16. Liquid level control system for vapour generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    1984-01-01

    A system for regulating the liquid level in a vapor generator, in which the incoming flow of feed liquid is regulated in response to the difference between the measured liquid level and a reference level, the difference between the exiting vapor mass flow rate and the incoming liquid mass flow rate, and a function of the measured incoming liquid temperature. The temperature function produces a gain value, which increases in response to decreasing incoming liquid temperature. The purpose of the temperature function is to stabilize the level control under transient conditions (e.g. sudden lose of load). (author)

  17. Pre-irradiation testing of experimental fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basova, B.G.; Davydov, E.F.; Dvoretskij, V.G.; Ivanov, V.B.; Syuzev, V.N.; Timofeev, G.A.; Tsykanov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The problems of testing of experimental fuel elements of nuclear reactors on the basis of complex accountancy of the factors defining operating capacity of the fuel elements are considered. The classification of the parameters under control and the methods of initial technological testing, including testing of the fuel product, cladding and fished fuel element, is given. The requirements to the apparatus used for complex testing are formulated. One of the possible variants of representation of the information obtained in the form of the input certificate of a single fuel element under study is proposed. The processing flowsheet of the gathered information using the computer is given. The approach under consideration is a methodological basis of investigation of fuel element operating life at the testing stage of the experimental fuel elements

  18. Graft copolymerization of water soluble mixed monomers onto polyethylene by the pre-irradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Fu; Tang Liming; Zhao Jin; Gao Zhenyong

    1993-01-01

    Grafting of water soluble mixed monomers of acrylic acid (AA)/acrylamide (Am) and acrylic acid/methacrylic acid (MA) onto polyethylene film by the pre-irradiation grafting method was investigated. The results showed that the grafting proceeded successfully with the adding of ferric salt in the solution. In the case of AA/Am system, a synergistic effect was noticed. In the case of AA/MA system, the graft percent increased with the increase in the concentration of MA in the feed ratio. Furthermore, the effects of monomer concentration, radiation dose and temperature on the grafting were also studied

  19. System level modeling and component level control of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xingjian

    This dissertation investigates the fuel cell systems and the related technologies in three aspects: (1) system-level dynamic modeling of both PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); (2) condition monitoring scheme development of PEM fuel cell system using model-based statistical method; and (3) strategy and algorithm development of precision control with potential application in energy systems. The dissertation first presents a system level dynamic modeling strategy for PEM fuel cells. It is well known that water plays a critical role in PEM fuel cell operations. It makes the membrane function appropriately and improves the durability. The low temperature operating conditions, however, impose modeling difficulties in characterizing the liquid-vapor two phase change phenomenon, which becomes even more complex under dynamic operating conditions. This dissertation proposes an innovative method to characterize this phenomenon, and builds a comprehensive model for PEM fuel cell at the system level. The model features the complete characterization of multi-physics dynamic coupling effects with the inclusion of dynamic phase change. The model is validated using Ballard stack experimental result from open literature. The system behavior and the internal coupling effects are also investigated using this model under various operating conditions. Anode-supported tubular SOFC is also investigated in the dissertation. While the Nernst potential plays a central role in characterizing the electrochemical performance, the traditional Nernst equation may lead to incorrect analysis results under dynamic operating conditions due to the current reverse flow phenomenon. This dissertation presents a systematic study in this regard to incorporate a modified Nernst potential expression and the heat/mass transfer into the analysis. The model is used to investigate the limitations and optimal results of various operating conditions; it can also be utilized to perform the

  20. Identification of Pre-pasteurization or Pre-irradiation Treatment in Frozen Crushed Garlic Commercially Available in Korean Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.Y.; Ahn, J.J.; Kim, G.R.; Jeong, J.H.; Park, K.H.; Kwon, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Five different chopped frozen garlic products samp les, three from Chinese an d two from Korean origins being commercially available products in Korean market, were used to confirm their pre-pasteurization or pre-irradiation status by screening (direct epifluorescent filter techni que/aerobic plate counts, DEFT/APC; electronic nose, E-nose; photostimulated luminescence, PSL) and identification (the rmoluminescence, TL; electron spin resonance, ESR) techniques. Some parts of samples were gamma-irradiated at 1 kGy to be used as control samples in irradiation history identification. DEFT/APC and e-nose succ essfully showed distinct results between the domestic and imported samples. The PSL photon counts of all the unknown samples were less than 700 (negative), while most of 1 kGy-irradiated samples gave PSL photon counts more than 5,000 (positiv e). The domestic unknown samples produced the TL glow peaks after 300°C or more, whereas the imported samples showed TL peaks at the range of 240 ~ 250°C. A clear TL glow peak was obtained from all irradiated samples at 150 ~ 250°C. The unknown samples of Chinese origin gave radiation-specific cellulose ESR signal that was not shown by domestic samples. A multiple step of applying the physical analytical methods is recommended for the effec tive identification of irradiation status on chopped frozen garlic products. (author)

  1. Mining level of control in medical organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalimli, Olgu; Türkeli, Serkan; Eken, Emir Gökberk; Gönen, Halil Emre

    2014-01-01

    In literature of strategic management, there are three layers of control defined in organizational structures. These layers are strategic, tactical and operational, in which resides senior, medium level and low level managers respectively. In strategic level, institutional strategies are determined according to senior managers' perceived state of organization. In tactical level, this strategy is processed into methods and activities of a business management plan. Operational level embodies actions and functions to sustain specified business management plan. An acknowledged lead organization in Turkish medical area is examined using case study and data mining method in the scope of this paper. The level of decisions regarded in managerial purposes evaluated through chosen organization's business intelligence event logs report. Hence specification of management level importance of medical organizations is made. Case study, data mining and descriptive statistical method of taken case's reports present that positions of "Chief Executive Officer", "Outpatient Center Manager", "General Manager", monitored and analyzed functions of operational level management more frequently than strategic and tactical level. Absence of strategic management decision level research in medical area distinguishes this paper and consequently substantiates its significant contribution.

  2. Pre-irradiation effects on ionization chambers used in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaffrey, J P; Downton, B; Shen, H; Niven, D; McEwen, M

    2005-01-01

    Dosimetry protocols recommend that ionization chambers used in radiation therapy be pre-irradiated until they 'settle', i.e., until a stable reading is obtained. Previous reports have claimed that a lack of pre-irradiation could result in errors up to several per cent. Recently, data collected for a large number of commonly used ion chambers at the Institute for National Measurement Standards, NRC, Canada, have been collated and analysed, with additional data contributed by the National Physical Laboratory, UK. With this data set, it was possible to relate patterns of ion chamber behaviour to design parameters. While several mechanisms seem to contribute to this behaviour, the most obvious correlations implicate the type of insulator surrounding the central collector electrode, the extent of collector electrode shielding and possibly the area of the insulator exposed at the base of the active air volume. The results show that ion chambers with electrode connections guarded up to the active air volume settle quickly (∼9 min) and the change in response is small (less than ∼0.2%). For ion chambers where the guard connection surrounding the central collector does not extend up to the active air volume, settling times of 15-20 min and an associated change in response of up to 1% are typical. For some models of ion chambers, the irradiation rate may also play a role in settling behaviour. Settling times for the ion chambers studied here were found to be independent of beam quality. (note)

  3. Helium retention in krypton ion pre-irradiated nanochannel W film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wenjing; Ren, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Xiaonan; Feng, Yongjin; Wang, Hui; Tang, Jun; Cai, Guangxu; Wang, Yongqiang; Jiang, Changzhong

    2018-02-01

    Nanochannel tungsten (W) film is a promising candidate as an alternative to bulk W for use in fusion applications. In previous work it has been shown to have good radiation resistance under helium (He) irradiation. To further understand the influence of the irradiation-induced displacement cascade damage on helium retention behaviour in a fusion environment, in this work, nanochannel W film and bulk W were pre-irradiated by 800 keV Kr2+ ions to the fluence of 2.6  ×  1015 ions cm-2 and subsequently irradiated by 40 keV He+ ions to the fluence of 5  ×  1017 ions cm-2. The Kr2+ ion pre-irradiation greatly increases helium retention in the form of small clusters and retards the formation of large clusters. It can effectively inhibit surface helium blistering under high temperature annealing. Compared with bulk W, no cracks were found in the nanochannel W film post-irradiated by He+ ions at high fluence. The release of helium from the nanochannel W film is more than one order of magnitude higher than that of bulk W whether they are irradiated by single He+ ions or sequentially irradiated by Kr2+ and He+ ions. Moreover, swelling of the bulk W is more serious than that of the nanochannel film. Therefore, nanochannel W film has a higher radiation tolerance performance in the synergistic irradiation.

  4. Behavior of pre-irradiated fuel under a simulated RIA condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Mori, Yukihide

    1994-07-01

    This report presents results from the power burst experiment with pre-irradiated fuel rod, Test JM-3, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSSR). The data concerning test method, pre-irradiation, pre-pulse fuel examination, pulse irradiation, transient records and post-pulse fuel examination are described, and analyses, interpretations, and discussions of the results are presented. Preceding to the pulse irradiation in the NSRR, test fuel rod was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to a fuel burnup of 19.6MWd/kgU with average linear heat rate of 25.3 kW/m. The fuel rod was subjected to the pulse irradiation resulting in a deposited energy of 174±6 cal/g·fuel and a peak fuel enthalpy of 130±5 cal/g·fuel under stagnant water cooling condition at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Test fuel rod behavior was assessed from pre- and post-pulse fuel examinations and transient records during the pulse. The cladding surface temperature increased to only 150degC, and the test resulted in slight fuel deformation and no fuel failure. An estimated rod-average fission gas release during the transient was about 2.2%. Through the detailed fuel examinations, the information concerning microstructural change in the fuel pellets were also obtained. (author)

  5. Graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto delignified kenaf fibers through pre-irradiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, Jamaliah; Mohamad, Siti Fatahiyah; Fatimah Othman, Nor Azilah; Bakaruddin, Nurul Azra; Osman, Hasnul Nizam; Güven, Olgun

    2013-01-01

    Glycidyl methacrylate grafted kenaf (GMA-g-Kenaf) was prepared by pre-irradiation grafting technique. Kenaf fibers were treated with different concentration of sodium chlorite solution before used as trunk polymer. Treated kenaf fibers were irradiated by electron beam followed by grafting reaction in GMA/water emulsion system. The degree of grafting was determined as a function of absorbed dose, reaction time, reaction temperature and concentration of monomer. The results showed that the lignin content was decreased from 14.3% to as low as 3.3% with the increased of sodium chlorite concentration. This was evidenced by SEM pictures which show the surface of treated kenaf fibers was cleaner and smoother compared to that of untreated one. The degree of grafting increased with the increase of absorbed dose, reaction temperature, reaction time and monomer concentration as well as with decreasing lignin content. Formation of graft copolymer was confirmed with SEM, FTIR analysis. The structural investigation by XRD showed that degree of crystallinity of graft copolymers decreased with the increase in degree of grafting. - Highlights: • We used kenaf fibers for radiation induce graft copolymerization with GMA. • Kenaf fibers was treated to remove lignin in order to increase grafting yield. • Treated kenaf fibers were graft copolymerize through preirradiation technique. • Optimum conditions for graft copolymerization of kenaf fibers were established. • Formation of graft copolymer is also confirmed with SEM, FTIR and XRD

  6. Network Communication for Low Level RF Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiqing; Yin Chengke; Zhang Tongxuan; Fu Zechuan; Liu Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    Low Level RF (LLRF) control system for storage ring of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) has been built by digital technology. The settings of parameters and the feedback loop status are carried out through the network communication interface, and the local oscillation and clock, which is the important component of the digital LLRF control system, are also configured through network communication. NIOS II processor was employed as a core to build the embedded system with a real-time operating system MicroC/OS-II, finally Lightweight TCP/IP (LwIP) was used to achieve the communication interface. The communication network is stable after a long-term operation. (authors)

  7. Frontiers of controlling energy levels at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Norbert

    The alignment of electron energy levels at interfaces between semiconductors, dielectrics, and electrodes determines the function and efficiency of all electronic and optoelectronic devices. Reliable guidelines for predicting the level alignment for a given material combination and methods to adjust the intrinsic energy landscape are needed to enable efficient engineering approaches. These are sufficiently understood for established electronic materials, e.g., Si, but for the increasing number of emerging materials, e.g., organic and 2D semiconductors, perovskites, this is work in progress. The intrinsic level alignment and the underlying mechanisms at interfaces between organic and inorganic semiconductors are discussed first. Next, methods to alter the level alignment are introduced, which all base on proper charge density rearrangement at a heterojunction. As interface modification agents we use molecular electron acceptors and donors, as well as molecular photochromic switches that add a dynamic aspect and allow device multifunctionality. For 2D semiconductors surface transfer doping with molecular acceptors/donors transpires as viable method to locally tune the Fermi-level position in the energy gap. The fundamental electronic properties of a prototypical 1D interface between intrinsic and p-doped 2D semiconductor regions are derived from local (scanning probe) and area-averaged (photoemission) spectroscopy experiments. Future research opportunities for attaining unsurpassed interface control through charge density management are discussed.

  8. The control of radon levels in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarallah, M. B. I.

    2007-01-01

    The article speaks about radon entry ways to houses, the technologies of controlling the level of radon in indoors and four possible ways to solve the problem of high concentration of radon gas in housing and protection from being gathered to a certain extent that is harmful to health. These methods are: removal of the radon source, modifying the radon source, ventilation and air filtration. The article also addresses the impact of reducing the consumption of heating energy in homes and buildings using thermal insulators in floors, walls, ceilings and doors and making double glazed windows that confine the air. It has been proven that there is a steady relationship between energy conservation measures in housing and the increase of radon concentration by two to three times. In a lot of buildings, where conservation measures have been taken, materials to conserve heat are used, which themselves launch radon and this may lead to increased levels of the gas in the housing.

  9. Study on grafting glycidyl methacrylate onto HDPE membranes by pre-irradiation graft copolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Long; Zu Jianhua; Liu Xinwen; Sun Guisheng; Yu Chunhui

    2006-01-01

    Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was grafted onto HDPE membranes by pre-irradiation method with 1.8 MeV E-beam and a kind of membranes having reactive epoxy groups was successfully synthesized. Effects of monomer concentration, reaction temperature and time and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were studied. Composition, thermo-property and surface morphology of the grafted membranes were studied by FTIR, DSC and Tapping-mode AFM, respectively. The FTIR measurements proved the synthesized copolymer is HDPE-g-GMA. The DSC results indicated the grafted HDPE's melting temperature (T m ) and heat of fusion (ΔH f ( HDPE) ) which was reduced with increasing grafting yield. The AFM images indicated that surface of the HDPE-g-GMA membranes was rougher than the virgin HDPE. (authors)

  10. Synthesis of Fuel Cell Membrane: Copolymerization of Styrene on ETFE Film by Grafted pre-Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Yohan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Preirradiation Grafting styrene monomer on ETFE  film has been prepared. Research has been  performed by γ-ray radiation at various total dose from 2.5 - 12.5 kGy and various dose rate from 1.3 - 1.9 kGy/hour. Irradiated copolymer is then grafted by styrene monomer in various solvent: ethanol, 2-propanol, and toluene, various concentration from 20 - 70% volume, various temperature from 50 - 90oC, and various grafting time from 2 - 12 hours. The results showed that percent of grafting is increase with increase of total dose and decrease of  rate dose. The optimum experiment conditions are obtained at total dose 10 kGy, dose rate 1,9 kGy/hour, 2-propanol solvent, 40% volume styrene, 4 hours grafting time, and 70oC grafting temperature.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of c-PTFE-g-styrene copolymer by preirradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktaviani; Ambyah Suliwarno; Tita Puspitasari

    2011-01-01

    Crosslinked-poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-graf-styrene (c-PTFE-g-styrene) copolymer has been synthesized by copolymerization preirradiation method. Irradiation onto c-PTFE films was carried out by γ-ray with irradiation doses of 15, 30, and 45 kGy at room temperature. Styrene was grafted into irradiated c-PTFE films in the temperature range of between 600-90°C. Parameter observed in the grafting process was degree of grafting. The results showed that the degree of grafting increased with increasing of irradiation doses. The highest degree of grafting was 25,44 % obtained at temperature of 70°C and still increased up to 25,73% with increasing of the grafting time. The optimum grafting time was 2 hours. Chemical and physical properties of c-PTFE-g-styrene film were analyzed by IR spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). (author)

  12. Preliminary studies on 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafting onto cellulose by pre-irradiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severich, Patrick; Dutra, Rodrigo da Costa; Kodama, Yasko, E-mail: ykodama@ipen.br, E-mail: patrick.severich@ipen.br, E-mail: rodrigo.dutra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Cellulose is considered a renewable biopolymer most abundant in nature. Better functional surfaces can be Obtained by modifying cellulose. On the other hand, poly vinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, is a synthetic nontoxic, water-soluble polymer frequently used in an extensive variety of applications including several pharmaceutical applications. Grafting 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, NVP, onto polymeric cellulose can be obtained by ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation grafting can be affected by several factors as environment, solvent, monomer concentration, temperature of graft reaction. Grafting by ionizing radiation can be performed by three methods, pre-irradiation, oxidation by peroxide and simultaneous irradiation. In this study, it was used pre-irradiation method of cellulose. Paper filter without ash, NVP without purification was used in this study. Paper samples were exposed to electron beam from Dynamitron Accelerator with radiation absorbed dose of 25 kGy. Influence of NVP concentration, temperature of reaction after irradiation on degree of grafting (DG) was studied. Also, cellulose radicals of grafted paper samples was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance using a Bruker X-band ESR at room temperature just after heating reaction. Small decrease of cellulose radicals was observed with increasing reaction temperature. It was observed DG small increase with increasing concentration of monomer in solution of water ethanol 50-50 v:v and rising temperature of reaction. Further tests using simultaneous method of grafting of NVP in cellulose paper, in water:ethanol 75:25 v:v solution, induced by gamma irradiation were performed. It was observed homopolymerization forming PVP with increasing monomer concentration. (author)

  13. Preliminary studies on 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafting onto cellulose by pre-irradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severich, Patrick; Dutra, Rodrigo da Costa; Kodama, Yasko

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose is considered a renewable biopolymer most abundant in nature. Better functional surfaces can be Obtained by modifying cellulose. On the other hand, poly vinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, is a synthetic nontoxic, water-soluble polymer frequently used in an extensive variety of applications including several pharmaceutical applications. Grafting 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, NVP, onto polymeric cellulose can be obtained by ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation grafting can be affected by several factors as environment, solvent, monomer concentration, temperature of graft reaction. Grafting by ionizing radiation can be performed by three methods, pre-irradiation, oxidation by peroxide and simultaneous irradiation. In this study, it was used pre-irradiation method of cellulose. Paper filter without ash, NVP without purification was used in this study. Paper samples were exposed to electron beam from Dynamitron Accelerator with radiation absorbed dose of 25 kGy. Influence of NVP concentration, temperature of reaction after irradiation on degree of grafting (DG) was studied. Also, cellulose radicals of grafted paper samples was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance using a Bruker X-band ESR at room temperature just after heating reaction. Small decrease of cellulose radicals was observed with increasing reaction temperature. It was observed DG small increase with increasing concentration of monomer in solution of water ethanol 50-50 v:v and rising temperature of reaction. Further tests using simultaneous method of grafting of NVP in cellulose paper, in water:ethanol 75:25 v:v solution, induced by gamma irradiation were performed. It was observed homopolymerization forming PVP with increasing monomer concentration. (author)

  14. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  15. Determination of iodine in diverse botanical and dietary matrices by pre-irradiation combustion followed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.R.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1994-01-01

    The method chosen for determination of iodine in this investigation is an extension of an existing analytical technique to food samples which was developed for environmental samples. The method is based on pre-irradiation combustion of the sample to liberate iodine, trapping the iodine on charcoal, and quantitating the element by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Existing botanical and dietary reference materials were used to check the validity of the method. Several mixed diet samples with high fat content from the U.S. Total Diet Study and composites of cereals with both low and high iodine content were analyzed. This method of pre-irradiation combustion followed by NAA has been shown to be a viable technique for the determination of iodine in dietary samples. However, with a detection limit of about 50 ng of iodine, large amounts of sample (> 1 g) are typically required for each determination. (orig.)

  16. Influence of preirradiational and postirradiational heating of lyophilized Micrococcus radioproteolyticus cells on their survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryznar, L; Drasil, V [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav

    1981-12-10

    The survival curve of Micrococcus radioproteolyticus following gamma irradiation of lyophilized cells is characterized by a broad shoulder reaching as far as the dose range 10 - 20 kGy (1 - 2 Mrad). The course of the curve indicates that under these conditions most of the changes induced by irradiation have the character of sublethal damage, which the cell can repair. The course of the survival curve does not change if the lyophilized cells are heated prior to irradiation for 2 h at 60 /sup 0/C. Certain changes do occur if the preirradiational temperature is 80 /sup 0/C. If the cells are exposed to increased temperature after irradiation even a temperature of 60 /sup 0/C brings about a marked decrease in survival. A temperature of 80 /sup 0/C after irradiation leads to extensive changes in the shape of survival curves, which are characterized by a narrowing or even disappearing of the shoulders. It can be concluded from the results obtained that an increased temperature modifies the capability of irradiated lyophilized cells to repair radiation damage.

  17. Influence of preirradiational and postirradiational heating of lyophilized Micrococcus radioproteolyticus cells on their survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryznar, L.; Drasil, V.

    1981-01-01

    The survival curve of Micrococcus radioproteolyticus following gamma irradiation of lyophilized cells is characterized by a broad shoulder reaching as far as the dose range 10 - 20 kGy (1 - 2 Mrad). The course of the curve indicates that under these conditions most of the changes induced by irradiation have the character of sublethal damage, which the cell can repair. The course of the survival curve does not change if the lyophilized cells are heated prior to irradiation for 2 h at 60 0 C. Certain changes do occur if the preirradiational temperature is 80 0 C. If the cells are exposed to increased temperature after irradiation even a temperature of 60 0 C brings about a marked decrease in survival. A temperature of 80 0 C after irradiation leads to extensive changes in the shape of survival curves, which are characterized by a narrowing or even disappearing of the shoulders. It can be concluded from the results obtained that an increased temperature modifies the capability of irradiated lyophilized cells to repair radiation damage. (author)

  18. Preparation of the proton exchange membranes for fuel cell under pre-irradiation induced grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingye; Muto, F.; Matsuura, A.; Kakiji, T.; Miura, T.; Oshima, A.; Washio, M.; Katsumura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared via pre-irradiation induced grafting of styrene or styrene/divinylbenzene (S/DVB) into the crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (RX-PTFE) films with thickness around 10 m and then sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid. The membrane electrode assembles (MEAs) based on these PEMs with ion exchange capacity (IEC) values around 2meq/g were prepared by hot-press with Nafion dispersion coated on the surfaces of the membranes and electrodes. And the MEA based on the Nafion 112 membrane was also prepared under same procedure as a comparison. The performances of the MEAs in single fuel cell were tested under different working temperatures and humidification conditions. The performance of the synthesized PEMs showed better results than that of Nafion 112 membrane under low humidification at 80 degree C. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were taken with the direct current density of 0.5A/cm 2 and the resulted curves in Nyqvist representation obeyed the half circle pattern. (authors)

  19. HIGH-LEVEL CONTROL SYSTEM IN C*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Timossi, Chris; Portmann, Greg; Urashka, Michael; Ikami, Craig; Beaudrow, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have started upgrading the control room programs for the injector at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We chose to program in C* exclusively on the .NET Framework to create EPICS client programs on Windows Vista PCs. This paper reports the status of this upgrade project

  20. The study and improvement of water level control of pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Peng; Zhang Qinshun

    2006-01-01

    The PI controller which is used widely in water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system usually leads dynamic overshoot and long setting time. The improvement project for intelligent fuzzy controller to take the place of PI controller is advanced. This paper researches the water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system of Daya Bay Phase I, and describes the method of intelligent fuzzy control in practice. Simulation indicates that the fuzzy control has advantages of small overshoot and short settling time. It can also improve control system's real time property and anti-interference ability. Especially for non-linear and time-varying complicated control systems, it can obtain good control results. (authors)

  1. Experimental Hamiltonian identification for controlled two-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Kolli, A.; Oi, D.K.L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a strategy to empirically determine the internal and control Hamiltonians for an unknown two-level system (black box) subject to various (piecewise constant) control fields when direct readout by measurement is limited to a single, fixed observable

  2. Electronic circuit provides automatic level control for liquid nitrogen traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvy, R. R.

    1968-01-01

    Electronic circuit, based on the principle of increased thermistor resistance corresponding to decreases in temperature provides an automatic level control for liquid nitrogen cold traps. The electronically controlled apparatus is practically service-free, requiring only occasional reliability checks.

  3. Water level control for a nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Tan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A water level control system for a nuclear steam generator (SG) is proposed. → The parameters of the control system are directly related to those of the plant model thus scheduling is easy to implement in practice. → The proposed gain-scheduled controller can achieve good performance at both low and high power levels. - Abstract: A water level control system for a nuclear steam generator (SG) is proposed. The control system consists of a feedback controller and a feedforward controller. The feedback controller is of first order, the feedforward controller is of second order, and parameters of the two controllers are directly related to the parameters of plant model thus scheduling is easy to implement in practice. Robustness and performance of the feedback and the feedforward controllers are analyzed in details and tuning of the two parameters of the controllers are discussed. Comparisons among a single robust controller, a multi-model controller and a gain-scheduled controller are studied. It is shown that the proposed gain-scheduled controller can achieve good performance at both low and high power levels.

  4. Effect of Pre-Irradiation Annealing and Laser Modification on the Formation of Radiation-Induced Surface Color Centers in Lithium Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitovich, A. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Novikov, A. N.; Radkevich, A. V.; Runets, L. P.; Stupak, A. P.; Tarasenko, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that surface color centers of the same type are formed in the surface layer and in regions with damaged crystal structure inside crystalline lithium fluoride after γ-irradiation. Results are presented from a study of the effect of pre-irradiation annealing on the efficiency with which surface centers are formed in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. Raising the temperature for pre-irradiation annealing from room temperature to 250°C leads to a substantial reduction in the efficiency with which these centers are created. Surface color centers are not detected after γ-irradiation for pre-irradiation annealing temperatures of 300°C and above. Adsorption of atmospheric gases on the crystal surface cannot be regarded as a necessary condition for the formation of radiation-induced surface centers.

  5. Preirradiation of medium induces a subsequent stimulation or inhibition of growth according to the physiological state in Synechococcus lividus in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conter, A.

    1987-01-01

    The proliferation of Synechococcus lividus cells grown in preirradiated medium was compared with the proliferation of cells grown in a shielded or freshly prepared medium. Aging of medium in a shielded chamber resulted in a slight inhibiting effect on growth in every phase of the cell cycle which was used. Preirradiation of medium resulted in a stimulation of growth observed on Day 7 in cultures inoculated with cells selected in the deceleration phase and an inhibition of growth in cultures inoculated with exponentially growing cells. Addition of catalase (100 U X ml-1) counteracted the stimulating effect but did not modify the inhibiting effect induced by preirradiated medium. Results demonstrated the indirect effect of low doses of irradiation, implying the presence of hydrogen peroxide in radiostimulation and other radioproducts in the inhibitory effect

  6. Graft copolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone onto pre-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chenqi; Huang Wei; Zhou Yongfeng; Yan Deyue; Chen Shutao; Huang Hua

    2012-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) onto 60 Co γ-ray pre-irradiated poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was investigated to find out the relationship between the degree of grafting (DG) and various factors, including monomer concentration, irradiation dose, reaction time, catalyst and so on. The DG can be calculated by comparing the amount of nitrogen element in the resulting copolymer (PVDF-g-PVP) powder with that in PVP on the basis of element analysis. The presence of PVP in the resulting PVDF powder was confirmed by the comparative studies of pristine PVDF and grafted PVDF powder through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. When the reaction was performed at the monomer concentration of 20% (vol.) and the absorbed dose of 40 kGy for 3 h in water, the max. DG of 17.7% was obtained. - Highlights: ► We modify pristine PVDF powders with NVP by the pre-irradiated graft polymerization. ► The various factors influencing the degree of grafting are investigated in detail. ► The optimal condition of graft polymerization is obtained. ► The polymerization is processed at 20% (vol.) of NVP and 40kGy for 3 hours in water. ► The maximum degree of grafting is 17.7 % at such a condition.

  7. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  8. DeviceNet-based device-level control in SSRF

    CERN Document Server

    Leng Yong Bin; Lu Cheng Meng; Miao Hai Feng; Liu Song Qiang; Shen Guo Bao

    2002-01-01

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is an EPICS-based distributed system. One of the key techniques to construct the system is the device-level control. The author describes the design and implementation of the DeviceNet-based device controller. A prototype of the device controller was tested in the experiments of magnet power supply and the result showed a precision of 3 x 10 sup - sup 5

  9. QUESTION OF IMPROVEMENT OF BUDGET CONTROL AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Vatslavskyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to analyse the current practice of budgetary control to develop its areas of improvement at the local level. The subject of the research is theoretical and methodological principles of functioning of budgetary control at the local level. The methodological basis of the study comprises research approaches, general theoretical principles of scientific knowledge, system of methods and techniques. The paper clarifies the nature of budgetary control at the local level. The main bodies that implement budget control, namely the State Audit Office, the Accounting Chamber, the State Treasury, the State Fiscal Service, financial and management departments are singled out. It is found that the leading part among all of the special budgetary control bodies in the rational and efficient use of local financial resources is performed by the State Audit Office. Analysis of the State Audit Office in three regions of Ukraine for the period 2013-2015 has been carried out. We distinguish two main types of violations that the State Audit Service reveals during its work at the local level: 1 shortfall in the financial resources of public enterprises, institutions and organizations; 2 violations that lead to illegal, non-target costs and shortages. It is proved that the efficiency of budgetary control is low. The paper states basic problems of budget control at the local level, namely, low income funds and reimbursements from violations revealed by regulatory agencies; insufficient work with the public to explain the problems of budget control and eliminate violations in the public sector; lack of a consolidated legal act, which would have regulated all the major components of budgetary control; insufficient use of controlling and auditing methods aimed at determining the effectiveness of budget funds; low preventive function on the part of budget control bodies. We offer ways to improve budget control at the local level through: standardization system of

  10. Pre-irradiation and surgical intervention in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and the oropharynx: Results of a study conducted from 1973 to 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoebber, D.; Sack, H.; Stuetzer, H.; Rose, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    In collaboration with the Radiotherapeutic Hospital, 87 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and the oropharynx were treated by combined pre-irradiation and surgical intervention at the University ORL Hospital of Cologne. The study was supposed to improve the five-year survival of patients suffering from advanced carcinomas of the head and neck area. The male and female patient's ratio was 4,5 to 1. Half of the patients had squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx, 21 patients had tumors of the floor of the mouth, and another 21 had tumors of the anterior two thirds of the tongue. The tumor and lymph node status was classified according to the UICC regulations (1979). In the pre-irradiation, 40 to 50 Gy were applied to the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes. Surgery was executed generally four weeks after pre-irradiation. The tumor remission following to pre-irradiation was very good. 27% of the patients showed little or moderate post-operative disturbances in wound healing. An osteoradionecrosis was found in 4,6%. Almost 25% of the patients developed local recurrences. The cumulated five-year survival of all patients is 32%. In dependence on TNM stages, the three-year survival rates are as follows: stage I and II 80%, stage III 44%, and stage IV 40%. (orig.) [de

  11. Exploring the level sets of quantum control landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, Adam; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2006-01-01

    A quantum control landscape is defined by the value of a physical observable as a functional of the time-dependent control field E(t) for a given quantum-mechanical system. Level sets through this landscape are prescribed by a particular value of the target observable at the final dynamical time T, regardless of the intervening dynamics. We present a technique for exploring a landscape level set, where a scalar variable s is introduced to characterize trajectories along these level sets. The control fields E(s,t) accomplishing this exploration (i.e., that produce the same value of the target observable for a given system) are determined by solving a differential equation over s in conjunction with the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. There is full freedom to traverse a level set, and a particular trajectory is realized by making an a priori choice for a continuous function f(s,t) that appears in the differential equation for the control field. The continuous function f(s,t) can assume an arbitrary form, and thus a level set generally contains a family of controls, where each control takes the quantum system to the same final target value, but produces a distinct control mechanism. In addition, although the observable value remains invariant over the level set, other dynamical properties (e.g., the degree of robustness to control noise) are not specifically preserved and can vary greatly. Examples are presented to illustrate the continuous nature of level-set controls and their associated induced dynamical features, including continuously morphing mechanisms for population control in model quantum systems

  12. 1997 N-Basin Administrative Control Level Dose Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1997-04-01

    This document provides justification for extending the Administrative Control Level of 500 mrem per year to 1,000 mrem per year Total Effective Dose Equivalent for workers involved with N-Reactor Basin Deactivation in accordance with established procedures

  13. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  14. Adaptive Backstepping Controller Design for Leveling Control of an Underwater Platform Based on Joint Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on high precision leveling control of an underwater heavy load platform, which is viewed as an underwater parallel robot on the basis of its work pattern. The kinematic of platform with deformation is analyzed and the dynamics model of joint space is established. An adaptive backstepping controller according to Lyapunov's function is proposed for leveling control of platform based on joint space. Furthermore, the “lowest point fixed angle error” leveling scheme called “chase” is chosen for leveling control of platform. The digital simulation and practical experiment of single joint space actuator are carried out, and the results show high precision servo control of joint space. On the basis of this, the platform leveling control simulation relies on the hardware-in-loop system. The results indicate that the proposed controller can effectively restrain the influence from system parameter uncertainties and external disturbance to realize high precision leveling control of the underwater platform.

  15. Hydrophilic microfiltration membranes prepared from acryl amide grafted PVDF powder by γ-rays pre-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuanxuan; Deng Bo; Yu Ming; Yu Yang; Zhang Bowu; Li Jingye

    2011-01-01

    Acryl amide (AAm) was grafted onto poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder by a γ-rays pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The DG values of the PVDF-g-PAM powder were determined by fluorine elemental analysis. Effects of grafting time on DG of PVDF-g-PAM powder at the same monomer concentration were studied. And modified powder was dissolved in NMP and added PVP as pre-forming agent. The microfiltration (MF) membranes were cast using a phase inversion method. The contact angle, degree of swelling, water flux and antifouling properties of those modified MF membranes were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrophilicity of modified MF membranes was improved obviously and the antifouling property of modified MF membranes (DG of 13%) was better than that of the pristine membrane. (authors)

  16. Fabrication of thermo-responsive PNIPAAm-g-ETFE for cell culture dishes by pre-irradiation grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamahara, Yumi; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Oshima, Akihiro; Washio, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Thermo-responsive templates for the cell cultivation based on Poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-ethylene) (ETFE) were fabricated by pre-irradiation grafting of N-isoproplyacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer by electron beam (EB) irradiation under nitrogen gas atmosphere at room temperature, and their characteristic properties were studied. The detachment of cultured HeLa cells from fabricated thermo-responsive templates were attempted. Furthermore, the reaction mechanism is proposed using ESR spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. It is confirmed that the cultured HeLa cells were detached from fabricated thermo-responsive templates at 20 °C. Water contact angle analysis indicated that obtained templates had thermo-response around 30 °C. It is suggested that the grafted polymer chains would mainly react with peroxy radicals (-CF2-CF(OO・)-) on tetrafluoroethylene unit in ETFE.

  17. design and implementation of a water level controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH) ... in real time application by using it to control the level of water in a tank fed by a ... chine when a cow is finished in a milking par- .... Robotics Arm. IEEE Control Systems 10(1).

  18. Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the control unit of the prototype performs automatic switching control of on and off on a single phase centrifugal water pump, 220volts, 0.5hp motor via a motor driver circuit (relay). It also incorporates a buzzer that beeps briefly when water level hits 100%, thus causing the pump to be switched off but when water ...

  19. Endogenous heparin levels in the controlled asthmatic patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Since heparin possesses anti-inflammatory properties, it is hypothesised that asthmatic patients have decreased levels of circulating heparin compared with healthy individuals. Design. We compared endogenous heparin levels in controlled asthmatic patients (53 adults) from the Asthma Clinic at ...

  20. Behavior of pre-irradiated fuel under a simulated RIA condition. Results of NSRR Test JM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Mori, Yukihide; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Kamata, Hiroshi; Homma, Kozo; Sakai, Haruyuki.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents results from the power burst experiment with pre-irradiated fuel rod, Test JM-5, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The data concerning test method, pre-irradiation, pre-pulse fuel examination, pulse irradiation, transient records and post-pulse fuel examination are described, and interpretations and discussions of the results are presented. Preceding to the pulse irradiation in the NSRR, test fuel rod was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to a fuel burnup of 25.7 MWd/kgU with average linear heat rate of 33.4 kW/m. The fuel rod was subjected to the pulse irradiation resulting in a desposited energy of 223 ± 7 cal/g·fuel (0.93 ± 0.03 kJ/g·fuel) and a peak fuel enthalpy of 167 ± 5 cal/g·fuel (0.70 ± 0.02 kJ/g·fuel) under stagnant water cooling condition at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Test fuel rod behavior was assessed from pre- and post-pulse fuel examinations and transient records during the pulse. The Test JM-5 resulted in cladding failure. More than twenty small cracks were found in the post-test cladding, and most of the defects located in pre-existing locally hydrided region. The result indicates an occurrence of fuel failure by PCMI (pellet/cladding mechanical interaction) in combination with decreased integrity of hydrided cladding. (author)

  1. Long lasting second remission and quality of life following brachytherapy of relapsing cancer in preirradiated regions. Experience in 108 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.F.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with unresectable relapsing malignant tumor following external beam radiotherapy retreatment by brachytherapy gives a second chance of good palliation and even cure. But regardless the great number of tumor relapse reirradiation is given only to few patients due to the impending risks of severe radiation sequelae. Material and method: From January 1st 1992 to December 31st 1995 overall 108 patients with histologically proven local tumor relapses in preirradiated regions were reirradiated by interstitial or intraluminal brachytherapy (192-Iridium sources). The preirradiation dose was 40 to 70 Gray (Gy) in conventional fractionation. The brachytherapy retreatment dose was 30 to 40 Gy at the individually shaped reference isodose shell. In high dose-rate technique (about two third of all patients) mostly single doses of 5 Gy were applied once or twice a week. If low dose-rate techniques were used, a maximum dose of 60 Gy was applied. In some cases a second course of external beam radiotherapy was added. The sites of reirradiation were: ear-nose-throat-yaw areas 76, large airways 24, soft tissues 7, scalp 1. Results: In (23(108)) patients (21 %) complete or partial remission could be achieved lasting at least one year. In (8(23)) patients (overall 7,4 %) the second remission lasted longer than two years. The quality of life in the long time survivors was felt to be good or at least acceptable. Local necroses, not life threatening, occurred in about 20 %. No fatal complication was to be observed. Altogether in about 85 % the reirradiation resulted in effective palliation and was well tolerated. Discussion and conclusion: Retreatment by brachytherapy yields valuable palliation to the vast majority of patients and gives a second chance of long time good quality survival to about 10 % of all retreated patients. Careful selection of patients and experienced realisation of brachytherapy is essential to avoid severe complications

  2. Recent progress in SG level control in French PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, A.; Petetrot, J.F.; Vivier, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    Controlling the steam generator (SG) level is of major importance in a large PWR plant. This has led to extensive work on SG computer models. This paper presents results of the comparison between calculations and tests on the first four-loop plant in France. Four-loop plants started up after 1985 will be equipped with digital instead of analog controllers. A new SG level control has been designed and then optimised using the validated SG model. A prototype of this new system has been successfully tested on a three-loop plant. 4 refs

  3. Very-high-level neutral-beam control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elischer, V.; Jacobson, V.; Theil, E.

    1981-10-01

    As increasing numbers of neutral beams are added to fusion machines, their operation can consume a significant fraction of a facility's total resources. LBL has developed a very high level control system that allows a neutral beam injector to be treated as a black box with just 2 controls: one to set the beam power and one to set the pulse duration. This 2 knob view allows simple operation and provides a natural base for implementing even higher level controls such as automatic source conditioning

  4. A Receding Horizon Controller for the Steam Generator Water Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Lee, Yoon Joon

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the receding horizon control method was used to control the water level of nuclear steam generators and applied to two linear models and also a nonlinear model of steam generators. A receding horizon control method is to solve an optimization problem for finite future steps at current time and to implement the first optimal control input as the current control input. The procedure is then repeated at each subsequent instant. The dynamics of steam generators is very different according to power levels. The receding horizon controller is designed by using a reduced linear steam generator model fixed over a certain power range and applied to a Westinghouse-type (U-tube recirculating type) nuclear steam generator. The proposed controller designed at a fixed power level shows good performance for any other power level within this power range. The steam generator shows actually nonlinear characteristics. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is implemented for a nonlinear model of the nuclear steam generator to verify its real performance and also shows good responses

  5. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller for mold level control in continuous casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolghadri Jahromi, M.; Abolhassan Tash, F.

    2001-01-01

    Mold variations in continuous casting are believed to be the main cause of surface defects in the final product. Although a Pid controller is well capable of controlling the level under normal conditions, it cannot prevent large variations of mold level when a disturbance occurs in the form of nozzle unclogging. In this paper, dual controller architecture is presented, a Pid controller is used as the main controller of the plant and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller is used as an auxiliary controller to help the Pid during disturbed phases. The control is passed back to the Pid controller after the disturbance is being dealt with. Simulation results prove the effectiveness of this control strategy in reducing mold level variations during the unclogging period

  6. Reliability review of the LHC collimators low level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, A.; Donze, M.; Losito, R.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC collimators' low level control system is responsible for the positioning, with an accuracy of a few um, of more than 500 motor axes located around the entire LHC tunnel and synchronized at us level,The collimators' axes position is verified in Real Time, monitoring at 100 Hz more than 700 LVDT positioning sensors. Apart from the challenging requirements of timing and positioning accuracy, the system is characterized by a high level of reliability since the collimators have the crucial function of machine protection. In this paper we focus on the architectural and technical choices adopted to guarantee the level of reliability required by the application. We also present the tools and solutions developed to manage this huge control system making the support easier and faster for its operation. (authors)

  7. Control of lipid oxidation at the mitochondrial level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Kent

    2009-01-01

    , but the mechanisms regulating fuel preferences remain unclear. During intense exercise, oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) decreases, and the major control is likely to be at the mitochondrial level. Potential mitochondrial sites for control of lipid oxidation include transport of LCFAs into mitochondrial......-oxidation by redox state is thought to be an important mechanism for the slowing of lipid oxidation during intensive exercise....

  8. The upper level of control system of electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribov, I.V.; Nedeoglo, F.N.; Shvedunov, I.V.

    2005-01-01

    The upper level software of a three-level control system that supports several electron accelerators is described. This software operates in the Linux and RTLinux (Real Time Linux) environment. The object information model functions on the basis of a parametric description supported by the SQLite Data Base Management System. The Javascript sublanguage is used for script forming, and the Qt Designer application is used to construct the user interface [ru

  9. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  10. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  11. Extending the enterprise through multi-level supply control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der P.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.E.M.; Hegge, H.M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Demands for flexibility require larger parts of the supply chain to become customer driven. This article describes multi-level supply control (MLSC) as a mechanism to facilitate that; it allows to specify gradually and thus to shift the customer order decoupling point well across the boundary to the

  12. Controlling Special Education Costs at the School District Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Describes the financing of a New York school district for emotionally disturbed children. Summarizes suggestions for controlling special education costs at the district level obtained from a nationwide sample of school business officials. Among the suggestions offered are to include a review of private placements and an annual caseload review,…

  13. Preirradiation PSA predicts biochemical disease-free survival in patients treated with postprostatectomy external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Read, Paul W.; Sanfilippo, Nicholas J.; Gillenwater, Jay Y.; Kelly, Maria D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical outcome and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and to determine prognostic factors for biochemical disease-free survival in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy without hormonal therapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were treated after prostatectomy with radiotherapy between March, 1988 and December, 1993. Seven patients had undetectable PSA ( 2.7. Five-year actuarial biochemical disease-free survival values were 71, 48, and 0%, respectively, for the three groups. Biochemical disease-free survival was not affected by preoperative PSA level, clinical stage, Gleason's score, pathologic stage, surgical margins, presence of undetectable PSA after surgery, surgery to radiation interval, total dose, or presence of clinically suspicious local disease. Based on digital rectal exam, there were no local failures. Conclusion: Biochemical disease-free survival after postprostatectomy radiation is predicted by the PSA at the time of irradiation. Clinical local control is excellent, but distant failure remains a significant problem in this population. The addition of concomitant systemic therapy should be investigated in patients with PSA >2.7

  14. Design and development of Low Level RF (LLRF) control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandi, T.K.; Suman, S.; Pandey, H.K.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2015-01-01

    All the linear accelerator cavities of Radioactive Ion Beam have separate RF power amplifiers. In these accelerators, high stabilities of the order of ± 0.5% in amplitude and ± 0.5° in phase of RF signal inside the cavities are required for proper and efficient acceleration of RIB. For this purpose, a low level RF (LLRF) control system is being designed which includes amplitude and phase controllers to ensure efficient and stable operation of the RF accelerators. The RF output of the LLRF system is finally amplified and fed to the accelerator cavities. The LLRF system is based on IQ (In-phase and Quadrature) modulation-demodulation technique in which an IQ modulator and a demodulator has been used to control the amplitude and phase of the RF carrier signal. The HigH-speed DAC and ADC have been used for processing the in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) components of the RF signal. This system is a closed-loop feedback control system. The feedback signal is obtained from the pick-up of accelerator cavity. PID control method is used to regulate the amplitude and phase of the RF signal to the desired/set value. The control system is optimized for minimum response time with satisfactory performance. The transfer function of the PID controller and the RF cavity is compared with the transfer function of a first order system and the values of proportional gain (Kp), integral gain (Ti) and derivative gain (Td) are obtained from Matlab- Simulink Simulation. The PID controller has been implemented into a high speed microcontroller (LPC2478) for fast operation. A GUI has been developed in NI LabView software to monitor the Amplitude and Phase of the RF signal and control manually if required. The detailed design and development of the control system will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Particle swarm optimization based PID controller tuning for level control of two tank system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Anju K.; Nersisson, Ruban

    2017-11-01

    Automatic control plays a vital role in industrial operation. In process industries, in order to have an improved and stable control system, we need a robust tuning method. In this paper Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based algorithm is proposed for the optimization of a PID controller for level control process. A two tank system is considered. Initially a PID controller is designed using an Internal Model Control (IMC). The results are compared with the PSO based controller setting. The performance of the controller is compared and analyzed by time domain specification. In order to validate the robustness of PID controller, disturbance is imposed. The system is simulated using MATLAB. The results show that the proposed method provides better controller performance.

  16. [Knowledge level of hypertensive patients about hypertension. Relationship between knowledge level and hypertension control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez Camps, M; Egocheaga Cabello, M Isabel; Dalfó Baqué, A; Bajo García, J; Vara González, L; Sanchis Doménech, C; Martín Rioboo, E; Ureña Fernández, T; Domínguez Sardiña, M; Bonet Pla, A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the knowledge of the hypertensive patients about their hypertension and their relation to its control. Cross-sectional study among 400 hypertensive patients, all over 18 years, selected from 50 primary-care centres, who responded to an hypertension-related survey. Included variables were survey items, age, gender, educational level, professional occupation, blood pressure data and antihypertensive treatment. The obtained differences were analyzed using the chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, Anova and Bonferroni methods. There were 323 valid surveys. 52.9% of respondents were women, the average age: 65.4 years (SD: 11.2), 54.8% of them had primary education. 39.6% were aware of the objectives of systolic BP control. Only 19.6% having knowledge of those for diastolic BP control, with no differences between controlled and uncontrolled (systolic BP: 39% vs 38.1%, P=.887; diastolic BP: 19.2% vs 21%, P=.721). Over 70% knew about lifestyle changes, without significant differences between controlled and uncontrolled respondents. 82% of controlled respondents, and 79% of those uncontrolled, recognized the chronical nature of the treatment (P=.548), but 15.1% of the controlled respondents and 12.4% of uncontrolled respondents did not see the relation between the treatment and hypertension control (P=.525). 31.1% believed to be well-controlled, but in fact was not. Our patients doesn't know blood pressure targets of control. There isn't relationship between this knowledge and control of hypertension. Copyright © 2014 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental data report for Test TS-2 reactivity initiated accident test in NSRR with pre-irradiated BWR fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Sobajima, Makoto; Fujishiro, Toshio; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sukegawa, Tomohide; Kikuchi, Teruo

    1993-02-01

    This report presents experimental data for Test TS-2 which was the second test in a series of Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) condition test using pre-irradiated BWR fuel rods, performed at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in February, 1990. Test fuel rod used in the Test TS-2 was a short sized BWR (7x7) type rod which was fabricated from a commercial rod irradiated at Tsuruga Unit 1 power reactor. The fuel had an initial enrichment of 2.79% and a burnup of 21.3Gwd/tU (bundle average). A pulse irradiation of the test fuel rod was performed under a cooling condition of stagnant water at atmospheric pressure and at ambient temperature which simulated a BWR's cold start-up RIA event. The energy deposition of the fuel rod in this test was evaluated to be 72±5cal/g·fuel (66±5cal/g·fuel in peak fuel enthalpy) and no fuel failure was observed. Descriptions on test conditions, test procedures, transient behavior of the test rod during the pulse irradiation, and, results of pre and post pulse irradiation examinations are described in this report. (author)

  18. Graft copolymerization of vinyl monomers onto nylon 6 fibers by γ-ray pre-irradiation in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tatsuo; Ueda, Yoshitsugu

    1992-01-01

    Vinyl acetate, methyl methacrylate, alkyl acrylates, acrylonitrile, and acrylamide, were grafted onto nylon 6 fibers by the γ-ray pre-irradiation technique, and the effects of grafting on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the graft copolymers were investigated. According to the analysis by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, the degree of crystallization decreased by increasing the percent graft of poly(vinyl acetate) in the grafted nylon 6 films. The mechanical parameters, such as the Young's modulus and the tensile strength at break, increased with increasing percent graft up to 50%. When percent grafting was smaller than 50%, rather homogeneous amorphous materials were obtained with vinyl acetate, while heterogeneous ones were obtained with other vinyl monomers. A poly(vinyl alcohol) grafted nylon 6 was obtained effectively by saponification of poly(vinyl acetate) grafted nylon 6, the former showing higher mechanical properties than the latter. Similar behavior was observed after saponification of the poly(methyl acrylate) grafted nylon 6. (author)

  19. Radiation catalytical effects in the pre-irradiated and thermally treated catalyst BASF K-3-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of different heat treatment methods on radiation catalysis, induced by pre-irradiation of the BASF K-3-10 catalyst by γ- or β-radiation or by fast neutrons were investigated. It was found that calcination of the irradiated non-reduced catalyst resulted in a strong decrease in or even a total disappearance of the final radiation catalytical effects; however, at the same time the catalytical activity of the unirradiated catalyst was found to increase. The calcination of the catalyst in a nitrogen atmosphere after reduction also led to a substantial decrease in the resulting positive radiation catalytical effects and the exceedance of a certain calcination temperature also resulted in a decrease in the unirradiated catalyst activity. It could be concluded that calcination in nitrogen of the reduced irradiated samples decreased the radiation catalytical effects to a lesser degree than the calcination in the air of the non-reduced irradiated samples. In both cases, a different thermal stability of effects induced by different types of ionizing radiation was observed and it was found that it increased in the sequence beta radiation - gamma radiation - fast neutrons. The investigation of the γ radiation dose dependence of the radiation catalytical effect on the catalyst calcined before irradiation in the presence of air showed that the final radiation catalytical effects were lower than those observed in case of similarly irradiated but non-calcined samples. The dose dependence of the effect had the same character in both cases. (author). 3 tabs., 8 refs

  20. Radiation-induced microenvironments - The molecular basis for free flap complications in the pre-irradiated field?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Cornelia Katharina; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The effect of preoperative radio- or radiochemotherapy on the survival of free flaps used for head and neck reconstruction is reported in a contradictory way. Although there is a lot of knowledge on radiation-induced wound healing disorders from animal models there are no investigations on human patients so far. Our prospective study aimed at clarifying the effect of radiotherapy on clinically apparent free flap complications and on correlating them with radiation-induced extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Materials and methods: Healing of 114 free flaps was monitored in a prospective study and correlated with different anamnestic features, such as diabetes and radio- or radiochemotherapy using multivariate regression. During the operation connective tissue biopsies were harvested from the graft beds and analyzed for Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β 1 -expression by means of Western blotting as well as Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix-Metallo-Proteinase (TIMP)-1 and Matrix-Metallo-Proteinase (MMP)-1 by immunohistochemistry. Results: History of radio- or radiochemotherapy was the only factor significantly predicting free flap complications. Radiochemotherapy resulted in a significant increase in TGF-β 1 - and TIMP-1-expression, while MMP-1-expression was not significantly altered. Radiotherapy alone significantly increased TIMP-1-expression without detectable effects on TGF-β 1 and MMP-1. Conclusions: Radio- and radiochemotherapy alter graft bed ECM organization prior to surgery. This alteration impacts significantly on free flap survival in the pre-irradiated field.

  1. Experimental data report for Test TS-1 Reactivity Initiated Accident Test in NSRR with pre-irradiated BWR fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Sobajima, Makoto; Fujishiro, Toshio; Horiki, Ohichiro; Yamahara, Takeshi; Ichihashi, Yoshinori; Kikuchi, Teruo

    1992-01-01

    This report presents experimental data for Test TS-1 which was the first in a series of tests, simulating Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) conditions using pre-irradiated BWR fuel rods, performed in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in October, 1989. Test fuel rod used in the Test TS-1 was a short-sized BWR (7 x 7) type rod which was fabricated from a commercial rod provided from Tsuruga Unit 1 power reactor. The fuel had an initial enrichment of 2.79 % and burnup of 21.3 GWd/t (bundle average). Pulse irradiation was performed at a condition of stagnant water cooling, atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature using a newly developed double container-type capsule. Energy deposition of the rod in this test was evaluated to be about 61 cal/g·fuel (55 cal/g·fuel in peak fuel enthalpy) and no fuel failure was observed. Descriptions on test conditions, test procedures, fuel burnup measurements, transient behavior of the test rod during pulse irradiation and results of post pulse irradiation examinations are contained in this report. (author)

  2. Influence on measurements of pre-irradiation due to differences in ionization chamber shape or frequency in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimono, Tetsunori; Nambu, Hidekazu; Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Gomi, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Ionization chamber measurements in radiation therapy should be repeatedly performed until a stable reading is obtained. Ionization chambers exhibit a response which depends on time elapsed since the previous irradiation. In this study, we investigated the response of a set of two Farmer-style, one Plane parallel, and seven small ionization chambers, which are exposed to 4, 6, 10, and 14 MV. The results show that Farmer-style and Plane parallel ionization chambers settle quickly within 9-20 min. On the other hand, small ionization chambers exhibit settling times of 12-33 min for 6, 10, and 14 MV. It will take longer for a settling time of 4 MV. The settling time showed time dependent irradiation. The first reading was up to 0.76% lower in the Farmer-style and Plane parallel ionization chambers. The small ionization chambers had a 2.60% lower first reading and more gradual response in reaching a stable reading. In this study, individual ionization chambers can vary significantly in their settling behavior. Variation of the responses on ionization chambers were confirmed not only when radiation was not used for a week but also when it was halted for a month. Pre-irradiation of small ionization chambers is clearly warranted for eliminating inadvertent error in the calibration of radiation beams. (author)

  3. UVΑ pre-irradiation to P25 titanium dioxide nanoparticles enhanced its toxicity towards freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Barsha; Chandrasekaran, Hemamalini; Palamadai Krishnan, Suresh; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-04-02

    There has recently been an increase in the usage of TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs). P25 TiO 2 NPs, a mixture of anatase and rutile phase in 3:1 ratio, are generally used for photocatalytic applications because both phases exhibit a synergistic effect on the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 NPs. In the present study, increased toxicity of UVA-pre-irradiated P25 TiO 2 NPs on freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus was assessed under visible light and dark exposure conditions at actual low concentrations (0.3, 3 and 35 μM of Ti). Photocatalytic property of P25 TiO 2 NPs caused disaggregation of UVA-pre-irradiated NPs, thus significantly decreasing the mean hydrodynamic diameter (MHD) (188.74 ± 0.54 nm) than that of non-irradiated NPs (232.26 ± 0.44). This decrease in diameter of UVA-pre-irradiated NPs may increase its biological activity towards algal samples. All concentrations of pre-irradiated NPs, under both light and dark conditions, showed a significantly lesser cell viability (p effects of UVA-pre-irradiated TiO 2 NPs on freshwater algae, thereby emphasising the need for ecological risk assessments of metal oxide nanoparticles in a natural experimental medium.

  4. Control of intracellular heme levels: Heme transporters and heme oxygenases

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Anwar A.; Quigley, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Heme serves as a co-factor in proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including oxidative metabolism, oxygen storage and transport, signal transduction and drug metabolism. In addition, heme is important for systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. Heme has important regulatory roles in cell biology, yet excessive levels of intracellular heme are toxic; thus, mechanisms have evolved to control the acquisition, synthesis, catabolism and expulsion of cellular heme. Recently, a number...

  5. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter

  6. Low Level RF Control System of J-PARC Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Schnase, Alexander; Takagi, Akira; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept and the design of the low level RF (LLRF) control system of the J-PARC synchrotrons. The J-PARC synchrotrons are the rapid cycling 3-GeV synchrotron (RCS) and the 50-GeV main ring (MR) which require very precise and stable LLRF control systems to accelerate the ultra-high proton beam current. The LLRF system of the synchrotron is a full-digital system based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS). The functions of the system are (1) the multi-harmonic RF generation for the acceleration and the longitudinal bunch shaping, (2) the feedbacks for stabilizing the beam, (3) the feedforward for compensating the heavy beam loading, and (4) other miscellaneous functions such as the synchronization and chopper timing. The LLRF system of the RCS is now under construction. We present the details of the system. Also, we show preliminary results of performance tests of the control modules.

  7. Multiple levels of epigenetic control for bone biology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino, Martin; Stein, Gary; Stein, Janet; Zaidi, Kaleem; Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Multiple dimensions of epigenetic control contribute to regulation of gene expression that governs bone biology and pathology. Once confined to DNA methylation and a limited number of post-translational modifications of histone proteins, the definition of epigenetic mechanisms is expanding to include contributions of non-coding RNAs and mitotic bookmarking, a mechanism for retaining phenotype identity during cell proliferation. Together these different levels of epigenetic control of physiological processes and their perturbations that are associated with compromised gene expression during the onset and progression of disease, have contributed to an unprecedented understanding of the activities (operation) of the genomic landscape. Here, we address general concepts that explain the contribution of epigenetic control to the dynamic regulation of gene expression during eukaryotic transcription. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Epigenetics and Bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aquaponic Growbed Water Level Control Using Fog Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi Romli, Muhamad; Daud, Shuhaizar; Raof, Rafikha Aliana A.; Awang Ahmad, Zahari; Mahrom, Norfadilla

    2018-05-01

    Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is an advance method of aquaculture which combines species with different nutritional needs to live together. The combination between aquatic live and crops is called aquaponics. Aquatic waste that normally removed by biofilters in normal aquaculture practice will be absorbed by crops in this practice. Aquaponics have few common components and growbed provide the best filtration function. In growbed a siphon act as mechanical structure to control water fill and flush process. Water to the growbed comes from fish tank with multiple flow speeds based on the pump specification and height. Too low speed and too fast flow rate can result in siphon malfunctionality. Pumps with variable speed do exist but it is costly. Majority of the aquaponic practitioner use single speed pump and try to match the pump speed with siphon operational requirement. In order to remove the matching requirement some control need to be introduced. Preliminarily this research will show the concept of fill-and-flush for multiple pumping speeds. The final aim of this paper is to show how water level management can be done to remove the speed dependency. The siphon tried to be controlled remotely since wireless data transmission quite practical in vast operational area. Fog architecture will be used in order to transmit sensor data and control command. This paper able to show the water able to be retented in the growbed within suggested duration by stopping the flow in once predefined level.

  9. Optimal coherent control of dissipative N-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirari, H.; Poetz, W.

    2005-01-01

    General optimal coherent control of dissipative N-level systems in the Markovian time regime is formulated within Pointryagin's principle and the Lindblad equation. In the present paper, we study feasibility and limitations of steering of dissipative two-, three-, and four-level systems from a given initial pure or mixed state into a desired final state under the influence of an external electric field. The time evolution of the system is computed within the Lindblad equation and a conjugate gradient method is used to identify optimal control fields. The influence of both field-independent population and polarization decay on achieving the objective is investigated in systematic fashion. It is shown that, for realistic dephasing times, optimum control fields can be identified which drive the system into the target state with very high success rate and in economical fashion, even when starting from a poor initial guess. Furthermore, the optimal fields obtained give insight into the system dynamics. However, if decay rates of the system cannot be subjected to electromagnetic control, the dissipative system cannot be maintained in a specific pure or mixed state, in general

  10. Influence of HLA-C Expression Level on HIV Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Richard; Qi, Ying; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Chen, Haoyan; Gao, Xiaojiang; Thomas, Rasmi; Yuki, Yuko; Del Prete, Greg Q.; Goulder, Philip; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brumme, Chanson J.; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Nelson, George; Bosch, Ronald; Heckerman, David; Stein, Judy L.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Moody, M. Anthony; Denny, Thomas N.; Zeng, Xue; Fang, Jingyuan; Moffett, Ashley; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Goedert, James J.; Buchbinder, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D.; Fellay, Jacques; McLaren, Paul; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce; Michael, Nelson L.; Weintrob, Amy; Wolinsky, Steven; Liao, Wilson; Carrington, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A variant upstream of human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C) shows the most significant genome-wide effect on HIV control in European Americans and is also associated with the level of HLA-C expression. We characterized the differential cell surface expression levels of all common HLA-C allotypes and tested directly for effects of HLA-C expression on outcomes of HIV infection in 5243 individuals. Increasing HLA-C expression was associated with protection against multiple outcomes independently of individual HLA allelic effects in both African and European Americans, regardless of their distinct HLA-C frequencies and linkage relationships with HLA-B and HLA-A. Higher HLA-C expression was correlated with increased likelihood of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and frequency of viral escape mutation. In contrast, high HLA-C expression had a deleterious effect in Crohn’s disease, suggesting a broader influence of HLA expression levels in human disease. PMID:23559252

  11. Control of cyclin C levels during development of Dictyostelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greene

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cdk8 and its partner cyclin C form part of the mediator complex which links the basal transcription machinery to regulatory proteins. The pair are required for correct regulation of a subset of genes and have been implicated in control of development in a number of organisms including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. When feeding, Dictyostelium amoebae are unicellular but upon starvation they aggregate to form a multicellular structure which develops into a fruiting body containing spores. Cells in which the gene encoding Cdk8 has been deleted fail to enter aggregates due to a failure of early gene expression.We have monitored the expression levels of cyclin C protein during development and find levels decrease after the multicellular mound is formed. This decrease is triggered by extracellular cAMP that, in turn, is working in part through an increase in intracellular cAMP. The loss of cyclin C is coincident with a reduction in the association of Cdk8 with a high molecular weight complex in the nucleus. Overexpression of cyclin C and Cdk8 lead to an increased rate of early development, consistent with the levels being rate limiting.Overall these results show that both cyclin C and Cdk8 are regulated during development in response to extracellular signals and the levels of these proteins are important in controlling the timing of developmental processes. These findings have important implications for the role of these proteins in controlling development, suggesting that they are targets for developmental signals to regulate gene expression.

  12. High level model predictive control for plug-and-play process control with stability guaranty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel Gottlieb; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a method for designing a stabilizing high level model predictive controller for a hierarchical plug- and-play process is presented. This is achieved by abstracting the lower layers of the controller structure as low order models with uncertainty and by using a robust model predictive...... controller for generating the references for these. A simulation example, in which the actuators in a process control system are changed, is reported to show the potential of this approach for plug and play process control....

  13. Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, G; Rohling, E J; Rodríguez-Sanz, L; Grant, K M; Heslop, D; Roberts, A P; Stanford, J D; Yu, J

    2015-06-11

    Our current understanding of ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere interactions at ice-age terminations relies largely on assessments of the most recent (last) glacial-interglacial transition, Termination I (T-I). But the extent to which T-I is representative of previous terminations remains unclear. Testing the consistency of termination processes requires comparison of time series of critical climate parameters with detailed absolute and relative age control. However, such age control has been lacking for even the penultimate glacial termination (T-II), which culminated in a sea-level highstand during the last interglacial period that was several metres above present. Here we show that Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent North Atlantic cold episode, occurred between 135 ± 1 and 130 ± 2 thousand years ago and was linked with rapid sea-level rise during T-II. Our conclusions are based on new and existing data for T-II and the last interglacial that we collate onto a single, radiometrically constrained chronology. The HS11 cold episode punctuated T-II and coincided directly with a major deglacial meltwater pulse, which predominantly entered the North Atlantic Ocean and accounted for about 70 per cent of the glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. We conclude that, possibly in response to stronger insolation and CO2 forcing earlier in T-II, the relationship between climate and ice-volume changes differed fundamentally from that of T-I. In T-I, the major sea-level rise clearly post-dates Heinrich Stadial 1. We also find that HS11 coincided with sustained Antarctic warming, probably through a bipolar seesaw temperature response, and propose that this heat gain at high southern latitudes promoted Antarctic ice-sheet melting that fuelled the last interglacial sea-level peak.

  14. Regulatory control of low level radiation exposure in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanda, A.M.; Muhogora, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    In Tanzania, the radiation protection law was issued in 1983. Under this law, the National Radiation Commission is responsible for safe uses of ionizing radiation. The regulatory control of the resulting doses from the uses of radiation sources in medicine, industry, research and teaching is presented. The system of control reflects the existing interactions between the National Radiation Commission and users through the established radiation protection infrastructure. From the national dose registry data, it is found that the highest annual individual doses over 10 years ago, came from less than 5% of total monitored workers and were in the range 10 - 15 mSv y -1 . The experienced radiation levels in uncontrolled areas of potential workplaces is less than 1 μSv h -1 . The possibility for associating such low dose levels to the effectiveness of the existing regulatory dose control framework is discussed. Despite of this achievement, the need to improve further the radiation protection and safety programs is found necessary. (author)

  15. Application of a fuzzy control algorithm with improved learning speed to nuclear steam generator level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gee Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the load of tuning works by trial-and-error for obtaining the best control performance of conventional fuzzy control algorithm, a fuzzy control algorithm with learning function is investigated in this work. This fuzzy control algorithm can make its rule base and tune the membership functions automatically by use of learning function which needs the data from the control actions of the plant operator or other controllers. Learning process in fuzzy control algorithm is to find the optimal values of parameters, which consist of the membership functions and the rule base, by gradient descent method. Learning speed of gradient descent is significantly improved in this work with the addition of modified momentum. This control algorithm is applied to the steam generator level control by computer simulations. The simulation results confirm the good performance of this control algorithm for level control and show that the fuzzy learning algorithm has the generalization capability for the relation of inputs and outputs and it also has the excellent capability of disturbance rejection

  16. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, A

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg sup - sup 1. The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author)

  17. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, A.; Loria, G.

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg -1 . The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author) [es

  18. Experimental data base for assessment of irradiation induced ageing effects in pre-irradiated RPV materials of German PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, H.; Gundermann, A.; Keim, E.; Schnabel, H. [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany); Ganswind, J. [VGB PowerTech e.V (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The 5 year research program CARISMA which ended in 2008 has produced a data base to characterize the fracture toughness of pre-irradiated original RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) materials being representative for all four German PWR construction lines of former Siemens/KWU company. For this purpose tensile, Charpy-V impact, crack initiation and crack arrest tests have been performed for three base materials and four weld metals irradiated to neutron fluences beyond the designed EoL range. RPV steels with optimized chemical composition and with high copper as well as high nickel content were examined in this study. The RTNDT concept and the Master Curve approach were applied for the assessment of the generated data in order to compare both approaches. A further objective was to clarify in which extent crack arrest curves can be generated for irradiated materials and how crack arrest can be integrated into the Master Curve approach. By the ongoing follow-up project CARINA the experimental data base will be extended by additional representative materials irradiated under different conditions and with respect to the accumulated neutron fluences and specific impact parameters such as neutron flux and manufacturing effects. The irradiation data cover also the long term irradiation behavior of the RPV steels concerned. Moreover, most of the irradiated materials were and will be used for microstructural examinations to get a deeper insight in the irradiation embrittlement mechanisms and their causal relationship to the material property changes. By evaluation of the data base the applicability of the Master Curve approach for both crack initiation and arrest was confirmed to a large extent. Moreover, within both research programs progress was made in the development of crack arrest test techniques and in specific issues of RPV integrity assessment. (authors)

  19. Interaction of atomic and low-energy deuterium with tungsten pre-irradiated with self-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Markelj, S.; Toussaint, U. von

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline tungsten (W) specimens were pre-irradiated with self-ions to create identical samples with high density of defects up to ∼2.5 μm near the surface. Then, W specimens were exposed to either thermal atomic deuterium (D) beam with an incident energy of ∼0.2 eV or low energy D plasma with the incident energy varied between 5 and 200 eV at different sample temperatures. Each sample was exposed once at certain temperature and fluence. The D migration and accumulation in W were studied post-mortem by nuclear reaction method. It was shown that the rate of the D to occupy radiation-induced defects increases with increasing the incident energy, ion flux, and temperature. Experimental investigation was accompanied by modelling using the rate-equation model. Moreover, the analytical model was developed and benchmarked against numerical model. The calculations of the deuterium diffusion with trapping at radiation-induced defects in tungsten by analytical model are consistent with numerical calculations using rate-equation model. The data of reflection and penetration of atomic and low-energy D were taking from calculations using molecular dynamics (MD) with Juslin interatomic potentials and a binary collision code TRIM. MD calculations show an agreement with a binary collision code TRIM only in a very narrow range of deuterium energies between 1 and 20 eV. Incorporation of the data of reflection and penetration of deuterium in the macroscopic modelling has been done to verify the range of validity of calculations using MD and binary collision code TRIM by comparison of modelling results with experimental data. Modelling results are consistent with experiments using reflection and penetration data of D obtained from TRIM code for incident ion energy above 1 eV. Otherwise, the parameters obtained from MD should be incorporated in the rate-equation model to have a good agreement with the experiments

  20. Soft Computing Technique and Conventional Controller for Conical Tank Level Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsana Vijayan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many process industries the control of liquid level is mandatory. But the control of nonlinear process is difficult. Many process industries use conical tanks because of its non linear shape contributes better drainage for solid mixtures, slurries and viscous liquids. So, control of conical tank level is a challenging task due to its non-linearity and continually varying cross-section. This is due to relationship between controlled variable level and manipulated variable flow rate, which has a square root relationship. The main objective is to execute the suitable controller for conical tank system to maintain the desired level. System identification of the non-linear process is done using black box modelling and found to be first order plus dead time (FOPDT model. In this paper it is proposed to obtain the mathematical modelling of a conical tank system and to study the system using block diagram after that soft computing technique like fuzzy and conventional controller is also used for the comparison.

  1. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs

  2. Phase Angle Control of Three Level Inverter Based D-STATCOM Using Neuro-Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COTELI, R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM is a shunt compensation device used to improve electric power quality in distribution systems. It is well-known that D-STATCOM is a nonlinear, semi-defined and time-varying system. Therefore, control of D-STATCOM by the conventional control techniques is very difficult task. In this paper, the control of D-STATCOM is carried out by the neuro-fuzzy controller (NFC which has non-linear and robust structure. For this aim, an experimental setup based on three-level H-bridge inverter is constructed. Phase angle control method is used for control of D-STATCOM's output reactive power. Control algorithm for this experimental setup is prepared in MATLAB/Simulink and downloaded to DS1103 controller card. A Mamdani type NFC is designed for control of D-STATCOM's reactive current. Output of NFC is integrated to increase tracking performance of controller in steady state. The performance of D-STATCOM is experimentally evaluated by changing reference reactive current as on-line. The experimental results show that the proposed controller gives very satisfactory performance under different loading conditions.

  3. Design of fuzzy learning control systems for steam generator water level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gee Yong

    1996-02-01

    A fuzzy learning algorithm is developed in order to construct the useful control rules and tune the membership functions in the fuzzy logic controller used for water level control of nuclear steam generator. The fuzzy logic controllers have shown to perform better than conventional controllers for ill-defined or complex processes such as nuclear steam generator. Whereas the fuzzy logic controller does not need a detailed mathematical model of a plant to be controlled, its structure is to be made on the basis of the operator's linguistic information experienced from the plant operations. It is not an easy work and also there is no systematic way to translate the operator's linguistic information into quantitative information. When the linguistic information of operators is incomplete, tuning the parameters of fuzzy controller is to be performed for better control performance. It is the time and effort consuming procedure that controller designer has to tune the structure of fuzzy logic controller for optimal performance. And if the number of control inputs is many and the rule base is constructed in multidimensional space, it is very difficult for a controller designer to tune the fuzzy controller structure. Hence, the difficulty in putting the experimental knowledge into quantitative (or numerical) data and the difficulty in tuning the rules are the major problems in designing fuzzy logic controller. In order to overcome the problems described above, a learning algorithm by gradient descent method is included in the fuzzy control system such that the membership functions are tuned and the necessary rules are created automatically for good control performance. For stable learning in gradient descent method, the optimal range of learning coefficient not to be trapped and not to provide too slow learning speed is investigated. With the optimal range of learning coefficient, the optimal value of learning coefficient is suggested and with this value, the gradient

  4. Control of intracellular heme levels: Heme transporters and Heme oxygenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar A.; Quigley, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Heme serves as a co-factor in proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including oxidative metabolism, oxygen storage and transport, signal transduction and drug metabolism. In addition, heme is important for systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. Heme has important regulatory roles in cell biology, yet excessive levels of intracellular heme are toxic; thus, mechanisms have evolved to control the acquisition, synthesis, catabolism and expulsion of cellular heme. Recently, a number of transporters of heme and heme synthesis intermediates have been described. Here we review aspects of heme metabolism and discuss our current understanding of heme transporters, with emphasis on the function of the cell-surface heme exporter, FLVCR. Knockdown of Flvcr in mice leads to both defective erythropoiesis and disturbed systemic iron homeostasis, underscoring the critical role of heme transporters in mammalian physiology. PMID:21238504

  5. Reactivation of DNA replication of the parvovirus MVM in UV preirradiated mouse cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.M.; Rommelaere, J. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Rhode-St-Genese (Belgium))

    1982-07-01

    The parvovirus Minute-Virus-of-Mice (MVM) was used to probe the DNA replication activities expressed by mouse fibroblasts. This system allowed us to study quantitatively the effect of UV-induced DNA lesions on the progression of DNA replication in vivo. MVM was UV-irradiated prior to infection. Pyrimidine dimers induced in the viral genome account for the reduced level of intracellular viral DNA synthesis, assuming that most of these lesions block viral DNA replication in unirradiated cells. The inhibition of damaged MVM DNA synthesis is less severe if the host cells themselves are irradiated prior to virus infection. This stimulation of viral DNA replication in pretreated cells might account for the UV-enhanced viral reactivation phenomenon, i.e. the increased survival of nuclear-replicating viruses propagated in cells preexposed to various genotoxic agents.

  6. Reactivation of DNA replication of the parvovirus MVM in UV preirradiated mouse cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, J.M.; Rommelaere, Jean

    1982-01-01

    The parvovirus Minute-Virus-of-Mice (MVM) was used to probe the DNA replication activities expressed by mouse fibroblasts. This system allowed us to study quantitatively the effect of UV-induced DNA lesions on the progression of DNA replication in vivo. MVM was UV-irradiated prior to infection. Pyrimidine dimers induced in the viral genome account for the reduced level of intracellular viral DNA synthesis, assuming that most of these lesions block viral DNA replication in unirradiated cells. The inhibition of damaged MVM DNA synthesis is less severe if the host cells themselves are irradiated prior to virus infection. This stimulation of viral DNA replication in pretreated cells might account for the UV-enhanced viral reactivation phenomenon, i.e. the increased survival of nuclear-replicating viruses propagated in cells preexposed to various genotoxic agents [fr

  7. Optimal control of multi-level quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Robert M.

    2010-12-02

    This thesis is concerned with the control of quantum systems. Given a Hamiltonian model of a quantum system, we are interested in finding controls - typically shaped electromagnetic pulses - that steer the evolution of the system toward a desired target operation. For this we employ a numerical optimisation method known as the GRAPE algorithm. For particular experimental systems, we design control schemes that respect constraints of robustness and addressability, and are within the reach of the experimental hardware. A general procedure is given for specifying a Hamiltonian model of a driven N-level system and converting it to an appropriate rotating frame. This is then applied together with the numerical algorithm to design improved schemes for two different systems, where laser fields manipulate orbital and hyperfine states of Pr{sup 3+} and Rb. The generation of cluster states in Ising-coupled systems is also studied. We find that, in the ideal case, the solution of evolving only under the coupling Hamiltonian is not time-optimal. This surprising result is in contrast to the known cases for unitary gates. For a symmetrised three-qubit example, we provide a geometrical interpretation of this. Numerically optimised control schemes are then developed for a nonideal coupling topology, modelling an experimental configuration of trapped ions. Controls for the implementation of the two-qubit Deutsch and Grover algorithms are designed for a pair of {sup 13}C nuclear spins at a nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. These implementations are robust to experimental errors, and found to be reproduced with high accuracy on a VFG-150 pulse generator. We also consider two-qubit gate synthesis in a system of superconducting qubits coupled by microwave resonators known as the cavity grid. We find that the optimised schemes allow two-qubit operations to be performed between an arbitrary qubit pair on the grid with only a small time overhead, with speedups of 2-4 over the existing

  8. Optimal control of multi-level quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the control of quantum systems. Given a Hamiltonian model of a quantum system, we are interested in finding controls - typically shaped electromagnetic pulses - that steer the evolution of the system toward a desired target operation. For this we employ a numerical optimisation method known as the GRAPE algorithm. For particular experimental systems, we design control schemes that respect constraints of robustness and addressability, and are within the reach of the experimental hardware. A general procedure is given for specifying a Hamiltonian model of a driven N-level system and converting it to an appropriate rotating frame. This is then applied together with the numerical algorithm to design improved schemes for two different systems, where laser fields manipulate orbital and hyperfine states of Pr 3+ and Rb. The generation of cluster states in Ising-coupled systems is also studied. We find that, in the ideal case, the solution of evolving only under the coupling Hamiltonian is not time-optimal. This surprising result is in contrast to the known cases for unitary gates. For a symmetrised three-qubit example, we provide a geometrical interpretation of this. Numerically optimised control schemes are then developed for a nonideal coupling topology, modelling an experimental configuration of trapped ions. Controls for the implementation of the two-qubit Deutsch and Grover algorithms are designed for a pair of 13 C nuclear spins at a nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. These implementations are robust to experimental errors, and found to be reproduced with high accuracy on a VFG-150 pulse generator. We also consider two-qubit gate synthesis in a system of superconducting qubits coupled by microwave resonators known as the cavity grid. We find that the optimised schemes allow two-qubit operations to be performed between an arbitrary qubit pair on the grid with only a small time overhead, with speedups of 2-4 over the existing schemes

  9. Standpipe-bubbler pump level control study: 1E-3862, controlled clearance pump/system Model W. P. 7373. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation results of the standpipe-bubbler pump level control system/controlled clearance pump configuration 1E-3862 using specific plan elevations are presented. Fluid level control system behavior is presented in graphical form for normal plant loading, unloading, and trip transients. Satisfactory fluid level control can be attained for this configuration with a standpipe-bubbler system.

  10. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Samuel Y; Zalk, David M; Swuste, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Control banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  11. Demonstration of a Concurrently Programmed Tactical Level Control Software for Autonomous Vehicles and the Interface to the Execution Level Code

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, William

    2000-01-01

    .... One of the greatest challenges to the successful development of truly autonomous vehicles is the ability to link logically based high-level mission planning with low-level vehicle control software...

  12. Adaptive neural network controller for the molten steel level control of strip casting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hung Yi; Huang, Shiuh Jer

    2010-01-01

    The twin-roll strip casting process is a steel-strip production method which combines continuous casting and hot rolling processes. The production line from molten liquid steel to the final steel-strip is shortened and the production cost is reduced significantly as compared to conventional continuous casting. The quality of strip casting process depends on many process parameters, such as molten steel level in the pool, solidification position, and roll gap. Their relationships are complex and the strip casting process has the properties of nonlinear uncertainty and time-varying characteristics. It is difficult to establish an accurate process model for designing a model-based controller to monitor the strip quality. In this paper, a model-free adaptive neural network controller is developed to overcome this problem. The proposed control strategy is based on a neural network structure combined with a sliding-mode control scheme. An adaptive rule is employed to on-line adjust the weights of radial basis functions by using the reaching condition of a specified sliding surface. This surface has the on-line learning ability to respond to the system's nonlinear and time-varying behaviors. Since this model-free controller has a simple control structure and small number of control parameters, it is easy to implement. Simulation results, based on a semi experimental system dynamic model and parameters, are executed to show the control performance of the proposed intelligent controller. In addition, the control performance is compared with that of a traditional Pid controller

  13. Photoperiodic controls on ecosystem-level photosynthetic capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, P. C.; Trowbridge, A. M.; Bauerle, W.

    2012-12-01

    Most models of photosynthesis at the leaf or canopy level assume that temperature is the dominant control on the variability of photosynthetic parameters. Recent studies, however, have found that photoperiod is a better descriptor of the seasonal variability of photosynthetic function at the leaf and plant scale, and that spectral indices of leaf functionality are poor descriptors of this seasonality. We explored the variability of photosynthesic parameters at the ecosystem scale using over 100 site-years of air temperature and gross primary productivity (GPP) data from non-tropical forested sites in the Free/Fair Use LaThuille FLUXNET database (www.fluxdata.org), excluding sites that were classified as dry and/or with savanna vegetation, where we expected GPP to be driven by moisture availability. Both GPP and GPP normalized by daily photosynthetic photon flux density (GPPn) were considered, and photoperiod was calculated from eddy covariance tower coordinates. We performed a Granger causality analysis, a method based on the understanding that causes precede effects, on both the GPP and GPPn. Photoperiod Granger-caused GPP (GPPn) in 95% (87%) of all site-years. While temperature Granger-caused GPP in a mere 23% of site years, it Granger-caused GPPn 73% of the time. Both temperature values are significantly less than the percent of cases in which day length Granger-caused GPP (p<0.05, Student's t-test). An inverse analysis was performed for completeness, and it was found that GPP Granger-caused photoperiod (temperature) in 39% (78%) of all site years. Results demonstrate that incorporating simple photoperiod controls may be a logical step in improving ecosystem and global model output.

  14. Education Organization Baseline Control Protection and Trusted Level Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim A. Al-Hamdani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many education organizations have adopted for security the enterprise best practices for implementation on their campuses, while others focus on ISO Standard (or/and the National Institution of Standards and Technology.All these adoptions are dependent on IT personal and their experiences or knowledge of the standard. On top of this is the size of the education organizations. The larger the population in an education organization, the more the problem of information and security become very clear. Thus, they have been obliged to comply with information security issues and adopt the national or international standard. The case is quite different when the population size of the education organization is smaller. In such education organizations, they use social security numbers as student ID, and issue administrative rights to faculty and lab managers – or they are not aware of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA – and release some personal information.The problem of education organization security is widely open and depends on the IT staff and their information security knowledge in addition to the education culture (education, scholarships and services has very special characteristics other than an enterprise or comparative organizationThis paper is part of a research to develop an “Education Organization Baseline Control Protection and Trusted Level Security.” The research has three parts: Adopting (standards, Testing and Modifying (if needed.

  15. Effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on green algae under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiations: no evidence of enhanced algal toxicity under UV pre-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2013-04-01

    Some metal oxide nanoparticles are photoreactive, thus raising concerns regarding phototoxicity. This study evaluated ecotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiation conditions. The nanoparticles were prepared in algal test medium, and the test units were pre-irradiated by UV light in a photoreactor. Algal assays were also conducted with visible, UVA or UVB lights only without nanoparticles. Algal growth was found to be inhibited as the nanoparticle concentration increased, and ZnO NPs caused destabilization of the cell membranes. We also noted that the inhibitory effects on the growth of algae were not enhanced under UV pre-irradiation conditions. This phenomenon was attributed to the photocatalytic activities of ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs in both the visible and UV regions. The toxicity of ZnO NPs was almost entirely the consequence of the dissolved free zinc ions. This study provides us with an improved understanding of toxicity of photoreactive nanoparticles as related to the effects of visible and UV lights. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Malaria control. generating evidence from local to global level

    OpenAIRE

    Plüss, Bianca

    2009-01-01

    In addition of the provision of effective treatment to each case, malaria control is heavily relying on vector control with either insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). The effectiveness of ITNs in controlling malaria in many different settings has already been comprehensively documented. On the other hand, while IRS has a long and distinguished history in malaria control, its health effects have never been properly quantified. The present thesis aimed...

  17. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A.; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G.; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K.; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-01

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  18. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-26

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  19. Development of fuzzy algorithm with learning function for nuclear steam generator level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gee Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    A fuzzy algorithm with learning function is applied to the steam generator level control of nuclear power plant. This algorithm can make its rule base and membership functions suited for steam generator level control by use of the data obtained from the control actions of a skilled operator or of other controllers (i.e., PID controller). The rule base of fuzzy controller with learning function is divided into two parts. One part of the rule base is provided to level control of steam generator at low power level (0 % - 30 % of full power) and the other to level control at high power level (30 % - 100 % of full power). Response time of steam generator level control at low power range with this rule base is shown to be shorter than that of fuzzy controller with direct inference. (Author)

  20. Adaptive Levels of Autonomy (ALOA) for UAV Supervisory Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Rubin; Leen, Michael; Goldberg, Dan; Chiu, Michael

    2005-01-01

    .... To demonstrate the architecture and LOA implementation, we designed a prototype Multi-UAV Control Station Emulator research test bed, by building on existing ORCA-developed software components...

  1. Estimation of CANDU reactor zone controller level by generalized perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung; Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong; Yang, Won Sik

    1998-01-01

    The zone controller level change due to refueling operation has been studied using a generalized perturbation method. The generalized perturbation method provides sensitivity of zone power to individual refueling operation and incremental change of zone controller level. By constructing a system equation for each zone power, the zone controller level change was obtained. The details and a proposed model for future work are described

  2. CERN Proton Synchrotron Complex High-Level Controls Renovation

    CERN Document Server

    Deghaye, S; Garcia Quintas, D; Gourber-Pace, M; Kruk, G; Kulikova, O; Lezhebokov, V; Pasinelli, S; Peryt, M; Roderick, C; Roux, E; Sobczak, M; Steerenberg, R; Wozniak, J; Zaharieva, Z

    2009-01-01

    After a detailed study of the Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex requirements by experts of CERN controls & operation groups, a proposal to develop a new system, called Injector Controls Architecture (InCA), was presented to and accepted by the management late 2007. Aiming at the homogenisation of the control systems across CERN accelerators, InCA is based on components developed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) but also new components required to fulfil operation needs. In 2008, the project was in its elaboration phase and we successfully validated its architecture and critical use-cases during several machine development sessions. After description of the architecture put in place and the components used, this paper describes the planning approach taken combining iterative development phases with deployment in operation for validation sessions.

  3. Mid-Level Planning and Control for Articulated Locomoting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-12

    processor to a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4F running at 7X the clock speed. We also wanted to enable higher frequency external control and sen- sor feedback and to...modules into separate threads. ChibiOS/RT1 was selected due to its out-of-the-box support for STM32 Cortex processors and a hardware abstraction layer...fine torque control on each joint. Additionally, each module contains a 32-bit processor and 100 Mbps Ethernet data bus, a 400X improvement in

  4. Gas-phase and liquid-phase pre-irradiation grafting of AAc onto LDPE and HDPE films for pervaporation membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Zhigong; Li Guixiang; Sugo, Takanobu; Okamoto, Jiro

    1992-01-01

    A study has been made on gas-phase and liquid-phase pre-irradiation grafting of acrylic acid onto LDPE and HDPE films for pervaporation membranes of ethanol-water mixtures. It was found that the degree of grafting, percent volume change of grafted membranes and length of grafting chains depend on the methods of grafting, crystal state of substrate films and diffusion rate of the monomer in the films. The pervaporation characteristics of grafted membranes is influenced directly by the surface hydrophilicity of grafted membranes, temperature of the feed, degree of grafting, crosslinking of grafted chains and alkaline metal ions in the functional groups. The potassium ion exchange membrane of HDPE synthesized by gas-phase grafting has better pervaporation efficiency. At 80 wt% ethanol in the feed, 25 o C feed temperature and 70% degree of grafting a grafted membrane has a 0.65 kg/m 2 h flux and a separation factor of 20. (Author)

  5. The stimulatory effect of single-dose pre-irradiation administration of indomethacin and diclofenac on haemopoietic recovery in the spleen of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the effect of the single-dose pre-irradiation administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, i.e. indomethacin (0.15 mg/mouse) and diclofenac (0.6 mg/mouse) on the recovery of haemopoiesis in the spleen of whole-body irradiated male mice (CBA x C57BL/10)F 1 . It was shown that the administation of these substances 1-24 h prior to sublethal irradiation stimulates the recovery of the proliferation activity of the spleen and the formation of endogenous spleen colonies. These results can be explained as the inhibitory effect of the substances administered on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. (author)

  6. Pharmacist's Intervention in the Control of Blood Sugar Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The extended roles of pharmacists in Nigeria in the improvement of quality of health care at the primary health care (PHC) level is currently poorly executed even though pharmacists have been proven to be involved in interventional activities in health care delivery. Objective: To evaluate pharmacists' ...

  7. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  8. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiong; Wang Yi Na; Wang Bo

    2013-01-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a + Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer. (author)

  9. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiong; Wang, Yi Na; Wang, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a(+) Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer.

  10. Digitization and simulation realization of full range control system for steam generator water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Hong; Ye Jianhua; Qian Fei; Li Chao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a full range digital control system for the steam generator water level is designed by a control scheme of single element control and three-element cascade feed-forward control, and the method to use the software module configuration is proposed to realize the water level control strategy. This control strategy is then applied in the operation of the nuclear power simulation machine. The simulation result curves indicate that the steam generator water level maintains constant at the stable operation condition, and when the load changes, the water level changes but finally maintains the constant. (authors)

  11. Operational challenges to feedwater/steam generator water level control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V.M.; Whaley, S.D.; Federico, P.A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Feedwater control and turbine control have historically been at the top of the list of contributors to unplanned outages and forced curtailments in the nuclear industry, and they remain so according to recent industry data. Much has been done and is available by way of measures to improve this area and, in spite of much progress, opportunities remain to extend implementation. Toward this end, this paper aims to focus upon feedwater control and provide background on associated characteristics and attributes as a context for identifying the issues which are key challenges that lie at the root of this concern. Primary groupings of these issues will be discussed in order to better define their nature and to establish a basis for a presentation of the range of solutions which have been implemented and remain available to address them. The need for a systems engineering approach, and the role of I&C and field-mounted equipment to application of these solutions will be discussed. (author)

  12. Study on application of adaptive fuzzy control and neural network in the automatic leveling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiping; Zhao, Zizhao; Lan, Weiyong; Sha, Lei; Qian, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the adaptive fuzzy control and neural network BP algorithm in large flat automatic leveling control system application. The purpose is to develop a measurement system with a flat quick leveling, Make the installation on the leveling system of measurement with tablet, to be able to achieve a level in precision measurement work quickly, improve the efficiency of the precision measurement. This paper focuses on the automatic leveling system analysis based on fuzzy controller, Use of the method of combining fuzzy controller and BP neural network, using BP algorithm improve the experience rules .Construct an adaptive fuzzy control system. Meanwhile the learning rate of the BP algorithm has also been run-rate adjusted to accelerate convergence. The simulation results show that the proposed control method can effectively improve the leveling precision of automatic leveling system and shorten the time of leveling.

  13. Control Loops for the J-PARC RCS Digital Low-Level RF Control

    CERN Document Server

    Schnase, Alexander; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Takagi, Akira; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    The low-level radiofrequency control for the Rapic Cycling Synchrotron of J-PARC is based on digital signal processing. This system controls the acceleration voltages of 12 magnetic alloy loaded cavities. To achive a short overall delay, mandatory for stable loop operation, the data-processing is based on distributed arithmetics in FPGA. Due to the broadband characteristic of the acceleration cavities, no tuning loop is needed. To handle the large beam current, the RF system operates simultaneously with dual harmonics (h=2) and (h=4). The stability of the amplitude loops is limited by the delay of the FIR filters used after downconversion. The phase loop offers several operation modes to define the phase relation of (h=2) and (h=4) between the longitudinal beam signal and the vector-sum of the cavity voltages. Besides the FIR filters, we provide cascaded CIC filters with smoothly varying coefficients. Such a filter tracks the revolution frequency and has a substantially shorter delay, thereby increasing the s...

  14. Performance of high-level and low-level control for coordination of mobile robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adinandra, S.; Caarls, J.; Kostic, D.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze performance of different strategies for coordinated control of mobile robots. By considering an environment of a distribution center, the robots should transport goods from place A to place B while maintaining the desired formation and avoiding collisions. We evaluate performance of two

  15. From street level to system level bureaucracies. How ICT is transforming administrative discretion and constitutional control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovens, M.A.P.; Zouridis, S.

    2002-01-01

    The use of ICT is rapidly changing the structure of a number of large executive public agencies. They used to be machine bureaucracies in which street level officials exercised ample administrative discretion in dealing with individual clients. This was kept in check by elaborate systems of external

  16. Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O 2 ) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O 2 level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O 2 atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O 2 level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O 2 consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O 2 conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O 2 levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author) [es

  17. Application of high level programs in a controls environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, C.J.; Mouat, M.; Dohan, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Highly interactive display utilities, operating on a VAX/VMS computer system, have been usefully interfaced to the controls environment of the TRIUMF cyclotron. Machine data is acquired by a VAX-CAMAC interface, an is passed to these utilities in an efficient manner by memory mapping to global sections for on-line manipulation. The data can also be readily analyzed off-line by operators with the user-friendly command driven utilities OPDATA and PLOTDATA which permit the user to obtain graphics output on a variety of terminal and hardcopy devices using device independent metafiles. Sample applications show the usefulness of these utilities for a wide range of tasks, such as real-time simulation of trim-coil tuning on the beam phase history, and semi-on-line analysis of radial probe data

  18. CAMAC-controlled 4-level discriminator with four settable threshold levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujiie, N.; Ikeda, M.

    1989-01-01

    A CAMAC-controlled discriminator containing four input channels per module has been developed to provide a fast trigger signal for the TOPAZ barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. The calorimeter consists of 4300 lead-glass counters constructed and operated at the e + e - collider at KEK. The performance of the discriminator obtained in a test and in a real setup with cosmic ray is described. (orig.)

  19. Fuzzy logic controller for crude oil levels at Escravos Tank Farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for crude oil flow rates and tank levels was designed for monitoring flow and tank level management at Escravos Tank Farm in Nigeria. The fuzzy control system incorporated essence of expert knowledge required to handle the tasks. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control of crude flow ...

  20. Multi-Level Energy Management and Optimal Control of a Residential DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    of a residential DC microgrid (R-DCMG) with different distributed generations (DGs) and loads is proposed and implemented as an optimal hierarchical control strategy. A system-level optimizer is designed to calculate the optimal operating points of the controllable energy sources (CESs) when needed, while lower......-level controllers are utilized to enforce the CESs to follow optimal set-points....

  1. Optimal sampling period of the digital control system for the nuclear power plant steam generator water level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Woo Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    A great effort has been made to improve the nuclear plant control system by use of digital technologies and a long term schedule for the control system upgrade has been prepared with an aim to implementation in the next generation nuclear plants. In case of digital control system, it is important to decide the sampling period for analysis and design of the system, because the performance and the stability of a digital control system depend on the value of the sampling period of the digital control system. There is, however, currently no systematic method used universally for determining the sampling period of the digital control system. Generally, a traditional way to select the sampling frequency is to use 20 to 30 times the bandwidth of the analog control system which has the same system configuration and parameters as the digital one. In this paper, a new method to select the sampling period is suggested which takes into account of the performance as well as the stability of the digital control system. By use of the Irving's model steam generator, the optimal sampling period of an assumptive digital control system for steam generator level control is estimated and is actually verified in the digital control simulation system for Kori-2 nuclear power plant steam generator level control. Consequently, we conclude the optimal sampling period of the digital control system for Kori-2 nuclear power plant steam generator level control is 1 second for all power ranges. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 8 refs. (Author)

  2. Improvement of Control Infrastructure and High Level Application for KOMAC LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young-Gi; Kim, Jae-Ha; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) has two beam extraction points at 20 and 100 MeV for proton beam utilization. There are about 70 control systems for controlling the KOMAC subsystems, such as the ion source, the radio frequency, the diagnostic devices, the magnet power supply, and the cooling system. The infrastructure which includes network system, local controllers, and control system environment was required to be changed to process increasing process variables without fail. Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based high level control environment which includes alarm, data archiving was changed to support the improved infrastructure of KOMAC control system. In this paper, we will describe the improvement of infrastructures for the KOMAC control system and EPICS based high level application. We improved the control network environment and EPCIS based high level application for enhancement of the KOMAC control system.

  3. Fuzzy logic controller architecture for water level control in nuclear power plant steam generator using ANFIS training method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Ekrami, AmirHasan; Naseri, Zahra

    2003-01-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. It is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial membership functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generator while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input-output mapping based on both human knowledge (in the from of fuzzy if - then rules) and stipulated input-output data. This fuzzy logic controller is applied to the steam generator level control by computer simulations. The simulation results confirm the excellent performance of this control architecture in compare with a well-turned PID controller. (author)

  4. Units 3 and 4 steam generators new water level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoev, D.; Genov, St.

    2001-01-01

    The Steam Generator Water Level Control System is one of the most important for the normal operation systems, related to the safety and reliability of the units. The main upgrading objective for the SG level and SGWLC System modernization is to assure an automatic maintaining of the SG level within acceptable limits (below protections and interlocks) from 0% to 100% of the power in normal operation conditions and in case of transients followed by disturbances in the SG controlled parameters - level, steam flow, feedwater flow and/or pressure/temperature. To achieve this objective, the computerized controllers of new SG water level control system follows current computer control technology and is implemented together with replacement of the feedwater control valves and the needed I and C equipment. (author)

  5. Stealth low-level manipulation of programmable logic controllers I/O by pin control exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Hashemi, M.; Zambon, E.; Etalle, S.; Havarneanu, G.; Setola, R.; Nassopoulos, H.; Wolthusen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Input/OutputisthemechanismthroughwhichProgrammable Logic Controllers (PLCs) interact with and control the outside world. Particularly when employed in critical infrastructures, the I/O of PLCs has to be both reliable and secure. PLCs I/O like other embedded devices are controlled by a pin based

  6. [Influence of education level on self-evaluation and control of patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-jin; Cai, Shao-xi; Tong, Wan-cheng; Li, Wen-jun; Fu, Liang

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the effect of education on self-evaluation and control level in patients with bronchial asthma. Seventy-five asthmatic patients with the initial diagnosis in line with the American Thoracic Society criteria, including 46 with junior high school education or below (group A) and 29 with senior high school education or above (group B), were asked to complete a survey to assess their symptoms and asthma attacks. Asthma control test (ACT) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) evaluation were performed 8, 12 and 24 weeks after salmeterol/fluticasone therapy. Step-down treatment was administered according to GINA guidelines. The self-evaluation of the patients was assessed according to ACT score, physical signs and pulmonary function. An ACT score over 19 indicate well controlled condition. The effect of education on the self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma was assessed. The two groups had similar basal level of pulmonary function (FEV1). Eight weeks after the therapy, 29 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, including 11 with high control level; in group B, 17 had ACT score over 19, of whom 4 showed high control level. There was no significant difference between the two groups in control levels and self-evaluation (P>0.05). At 12 weeks, 37 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, with 17 having high control level; 22 patients in group B had ACT score over 19, 4 showing high control level; the two groups were similar in the control levels (P>0.05) but showed significant difference in self-evaluation (Pevaluation (Peducation level may play a role in self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma, but its impact differs in the course of the treatment.

  7. Studies on some quantitative characters in the M2 generation in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) originating after pre-irradiation treatments with hydroxylamine and pre- and post-irradiation treatments with colchicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.; Chakrabarti, C.C.; Banerjee, B.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on quantitative characters have been made on M 2 mutants like - slender plants with many branches and oval shaped leaves, plants with bifurcation at the base of the stem, stout dwarf plants with many branches, slender plants with many branches, small, slender plants with lesser number of branches, slender, tall plants with many branches, tall plants with crincked leaves and many branches and in the bulk type having many branches and tall habit. The bulk types originated after pre-irradiation treatment with hydroxylamine, colchicine and post-irradiation treatment with colchicine and the mutants originated after pre-irradiation treatment with hydroxylamine and distilled water. The quantitative characters taken into consideration were plant height, basal diameter, number of nodes per plant, number pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 100 seed weight. (author)

  8. Burnup calculation with estimated neutron spectrum of JMTR irradiation field. Development of the burnup calculation method for fuel pre-irradiated in the JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonogi, Kazunari; Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Hosoyamada, Ryuji

    1999-03-01

    As a series of the pulse irradiation tests with the irradiated fuel, the high-enriched fuel rods pre-irradiated in the JMTR as well as the fuels irradiated in commercial reactors have been irradiated in the NSRR. In the pre-irradiation at the JMTR, the test fuels were placed at the irradiation holes in the reflector region far from the driver core to keep the linear heat generation rate of the test fuel low. Accordingly, neutron energy spectra of the irradiation holes for the test fuels are softened due to the higher moderator ratio than in those of the ordinary LWR core, which causes quite different burnup characteristics. JMTR post irradiation condition corresponds to the pre-test condition in the NSRR. Therefore, proper understanding of the condition is quite important for the precise evaluating the energy deposition and FP generation in the test. Then, neutron spectra at the JMTR irradiation field were evaluated and its effects on the burnup calculation were quantified. Basing on the configuration of the JMTR core in the operation cycle No.85, neutron diffusion calculations of 107 groups were executed in 2-D slab (X-Y) geometry of CITATION of SRAC95 code system, and neutron energy spectra of the irradiation hole for the test fuels were evaluated. Burnup calculations of Test JMN-1 fuel with the estimated neutron energy spectra were performed and the results were compared to both the measurements and calculation results with the PWR and BWR libraries in ORIGEN2 code. SWAT code was used to collapse the 107 groups spectra into 1 group libraries for the ORIGEN2 use. The calculation results for both the generation and depletion of U, Pu and Nd with the JMTR libraries obtained in the present study were in the reasonably good agreement with the measurements, while in the case of calculation with the PWR and BWR libraries in ORIGEN2, the generation of fission products having mass numbers from 105 to 130 and some actinides were overestimated by about 1.5 to 3.5 times

  9. The duration of the institutional controls on the low and intermediate level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Li Yang; Liu Yafang; Lian Bing; Zhao Yangjun; Chen Hailong; Gu Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate institutional controls are put in place prior to repository closure. Such controls can guarantee the long term safety of the repository. Today there is no clear standard on how to determine the institutional control period. This paper tries to give possible factors and activities of the institutional controls on the low and intermediate level waste repositories, and makes some suggestions on the institutional controls in our country. (authors)

  10. Adaptative control with non-minimum phase system. Application to level control in PWR power plant steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihoreau, C.

    1981-03-01

    This thesis presents the proposal for a water control level method likely to improve performance, especially at low power. Particular problems are analyzed in detail. Finally, computerized simulations are presented; they confirm the algorithm performance [fr

  11. High level language for measurement complex control based on the computer E-100I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    A high level language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested high level language is described.

  12. Constructing Hotelling's T 2 control limits for different α levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the quality of a product is controlled by combinations of two or more variables, a high level decision qui-ckly determines the out of control signals, while simultaneously, evaluating the variable(s) responsible for the false alarm rate (α) levels of significance. In this connection, bootstrap algorithm for constructing ...

  13. Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masataka; Oda, Shigeto; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Watanabe, Eizo; Abe, Ryuzo; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Morita, Yasumasa; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-12

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P glucose control (blood glucose level blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control.

  14. Low-level wastewater treatment facility process control operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of a new TK 102 level controller and total outflow integrator added to the NHCON software that controls the Low-Level Wastewater Treatment Facility (LLWTF). The test was performed with WHC-SD-CP-OTP 154, PFP Low-Level Wastewater Treatment Facility Process Control Operational Test. A complete test copy is included in appendix A. The new TK 102 level controller provides a signal, hereafter referred to its cascade mode, to the treatment train flow controller which enables the water treatment process to run for long periods without continuous operator monitoring. The test successfully demonstrated the functionality of the new controller under standard and abnormal conditions expected from the LLWTF operation. In addition, a flow totalizer is now displayed on the LLWTF outlet MICON screen which tallies the process output in gallons. This feature substantially improves the ability to retrieve daily process volumes for maintaining accurate material balances

  15. Bi-Level Decentralized Active Power Control for Large-Scale Wind Farm Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shengli; Wu, Qiuwei; Guo, Yifei

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a bi-level decentralized active power control (DAPC) for a large-scale wind farm cluster, consisting of several wind farms for better active power dispatch. In the upper level, a distributed active power control scheme based on the distributed consensus is designed to achieve...... fair active power sharing among multiple wind farms, which generates the power reference for each wind farm. A distributed estimator is used to estimate the total available power of all wind farms. In the lower level, a centralized control scheme based on the Model Predictive Control (MPC) is proposed...... to regulate active power outputs of all wind turbines (WTs) within a wind farm, which reduces the fatigue loads of WTs while tracking the power reference obtained from the upper level control. A wind farm cluster with 8 wind farms and totally 160 WTs, was used to test the control performance of the proposed...

  16. Information Flow Analysis for Human-System Interaction in the SG Level Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Yeong Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between automatic control and operators is one of main issues in the application of automation technology. Inappropriate information from automatic control systems causes unexpected problems in human-automation collaboration. Poor information becomes critical, especially when the operator takes over the control from an automation system. Operators cannot properly handle the situation transferred from the automatic mode because of inadequate situation awareness, if the operator is out-of-the loop and the automatic control system fails. Some cases of unplanned reactor trips during the transition between the manual mode and the automatic mode are reported in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Among unplanned reactor trips since 2002, two cases were partially caused by automation-related failures of steam generator (SG) level control. This paper conducts information flow analysis to identify information and control requirement for human-system interaction of SG level control. At first, this paper identifies the level of automation in SG level control systems and then function allocation between system control and human operators. Then information flow analysis for monitoring and transition of automation is performed by adapting job process chart. Information and control requirements will be useful as an input for the human-system interface (HSI) design of SG level control

  17. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of ...

  18. A low dose pre-irradiation induces radio- and heat-resistance via HDM2 and NO radicals, and is associated with p53 functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the effect of low dose pre-irradiation on radio- and heat-sensitivity. Wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line were used. The parental H1299 cell line is p53-null. Cellular sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. When wtp53 cells were exposed to a low dose X-irradiation, induction of radio- and heat-resistance was observed only in the absence of RITA (an inhibitor of p53-HDM2 interactions), aminoguanidine (an iNOS inhibitor) and c-PTIO (an NO radical scavenger). In contrast, the induced radio- and heat-resistance was not observed under similar conditions in mp53 cells. Moreover, heat-resistance as well as radio-resistance developed when wtp53 cells were treated with ISDN (an NO generating agent) alone. These findings suggest that NO radicals are an initiator of radio- and heat-resistance, and function through the activation of HDM2 and the depression of p53 accumulation.

  19. Preirradiation evaluation and technical assessment of involved-field radiotherapy using computed tomographic (CT) simulation and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for intracranial germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Sawamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Keishiro; Ikeda, Jun; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the importance of preirradiation mental and endocrinological evaluation, and the effectiveness of involved-field radiotherapy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Following etoposide and cisplatin with or without ifosfamide, 13 patients with nondisseminated disease received involved-field irradiation of 24 Gy in 12 fractions within 3 weeks and 2 patients with disseminated germinoma received 24 Gy craniospinal irradiation (CSI). CT simulation was used to cover the tumor bed. Results: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) tests given at the time of the initial radiotherapy showed less than 90 in 7 of 11 patients who had tumors involving the neurohypophyseal region, but the 4 patients who had solitary pineal tumors showed higher scores. Panhypopituitarism was observed in 9 patients with tumors involving the neurohypophyseal region. All patients are alive without disease, with a median follow-up period of 40 months. No in-field relapse was noted after the involved-field radiotherapy. One patient experienced a recurrence outside of the planning target volume. Conclusion: Decline of neurocognitive and endocrine functions were often seen in patients with tumors involving the hypophyseal region, but not in patients with solitary pineal germinoma before radiotherapy. Involved-field radiotherapy using 24 Gy is effective with the help of CT simulation and neoadjuvant chemotherapy

  20. Experimental data report for test TS-3 Reactivity Initiated Accident test in the NSRR with pre-irradiated BWR fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Fujishiro, Toshio; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sukegawa, Tomohide; Kikuchi, Teruo; Sobajima, Makoto.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents experimental data for Test TS-3 which was the third test in a series of Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) tests using pre-irradiated BWR fuel rods, performed in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in September, 1990. Test fuel rod used in the Test TS-3 was a short-sized BWR (7 x 7) type rod which was re-fabricated from a commercial rod irradiated in the Tsuruga Unit 1 power reactor of Japan Atomic Power Co. The fuel had an initial enrichment of 2.79 % and a burnup of 26 Gwd/tU. A pulse irradiation of the test fuel rod was performed under a cooling condition of stagnant water at atmospheric pressure and at ambient temperature which simulated a BWR's cold start-up RIA event. The energy deposition of the fuel rod in this test was evaluated to be 94 ± 4 cal/g · fuel (88 ± 4 cal/g · fuel in peak fuel enthalpy) and no fuel failure was observed. Descriptions on test conditions, test procedures, transient behavior of the test rod during the pulse irradiation, and results of pre-pulse and post-pulse irradiation examinations are described in this report. (author)

  1. The effect of pre-heating and pre-irradiation with gamma rays on thermal annealing in bis [n-benzoil-n-phenyl hydroxilaminate] copper (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, C.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1988-10-01

    The main purpose of this work was to make a contribution to the study of the chemical effects of the (n,γ) reaction on copper chelate. The influence of some factors such as pre-heating and pre-irradiation with gamma-rays on the retention and thermal annealing of bis-[N-benzoil-N-phenlhydroxilaminate] copper (II) was investigated. The complex was synthesized and later characterized by means of: determination of the melting-Point, elemental analysis, infra-red and vesible range absortion spectrophotometry. The compound was heated and also irradiated with gamma-rays in order to verify the effect of thermolysis and radiolysis on the retention. It seems that heat gamma-radiation can produce deffects which will lower the susceptibility of the compound to thermal annealing. On the model envolving electronic species some explanation of ours results were made and a mechanism was proposed for the retention and thermal annealing aasuming the capture of free electrons and also the existence of holes. (author) [pt

  2. The effect of pre-heating and pre-irradiation with gamma-rays on thermal annealing in-bis-[n-benzoil-n-(o) tolylhydroxylaminate] cooper (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, C.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1990-02-01

    The main purpose of this work was to make a contribution on the study of the chemical effects of the (N,γ) reaction on copper chelate. The influence of some factors such as pre-heating and pre-irradiation with gama-rays on the retention and thermal annealing of bis [N-benzoyl-N-(o)tolylhydroxylaminate] copper (II) was investigated. The complex was synthesized and later characterized by means of: determination of the melting-point, elemental analysis, infra-red and visible range absortion spectrophotometry. The compound was heated and also irradiated with gamma-rays in order to verify the effect of thermolysis on the retention. It seems that heat and gamma-radiaition can produce deffects which will lower the susceptibility of the compound to thermal annealling. On the basis on the model envolving electronic species some explanation of ours results were made and a mechanism was proposed for the retention and thermal annealing assuming the capture of free electrons and also the existence of holes. (author) [pt

  3. Study on radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto fluorine-containing polymers. II. Properties of membrane obtained by preirradiation grafting onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.S.A.; Ishigaki, I.; Rabie, A.; Dessouki, A.M.; Okamoto, J.

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the membranes obtained by the preirradiation grafting of acrylic acid onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) film have been studied. The dimensional change by grafting and swelling, water uptake, electric conductivity, and mechanical properties of the grafted PTFE films were measured and were found to increase as the grafting proceeds. These properties were found to be dependent mainly on the degree of grafting regardless of grafting conditions except higher monomer concentration (80 wt %). The electric conductivity and mechanical properties of the membranes at 80 wt % monomer concentration is lower than those at a lower monomer concentration. The results suggest that the membranes obtained at 80-wt % acrylic acid solution have a somewhat heterogeneous distribution of electrolyte groups as compared with those prepared at a monomer concentration less than 60 wt %. X-ray microscopy of the grafted films revealed that the grafting begins at the part close to the film surface and proceeds into the center with progressive diffusion of monomer to give finally the homogeneous distribution of electrolyte groups. The membranes show good electrochemical and mechanical properties which make them acceptable for the practical uses as cation exchange membrane

  4. High–Level Control System for Biomimetic Autonomous Under-water Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praczyk Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, a rough software architecture designed for a robot can be can be shortly presented in the form of layers. The lowest layer is responsible for direct control of the hardware, i.e. engines, energy system, sensors, navigation devices, etc. A next layer is a low–level control which knows how to use the hardware in order to achieve a desired state of the robot, e.g. to stay on a desired course. And the last layer, the layer which is the nearest to the human–operator, is a high–level control which decides how to use the low–level control and sometimes also individual pieces of the hardware to achieve predefined objectives. The paper describes architecture, tasks and operation of the high–level control system (HLCS designed for Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (BAUV.

  5. A PC Based Level Indicating Controller Using a Hall Probe Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Bera

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A PC-based measurement and control of liquid level is a very important part of the modern instrumentation system of a process plant in any process industry. In this measurement and control system, the liquid level is measured by using a suitable level transducer. Among the different types of level transducers for measurement and control of liquid level in storage tank the cheapest one is perhaps the float type sensor and the movement of the float with level is generally converted into the movement of a pointer or that of a flapper or that of a potentiometer. In all of these system float is connected with the output device through a mechanical linkage and thus the measurement is subjected to errors due to wear and tear, friction etc. at the mechanical linkage. Here a non-contact float & magnet type level transducer using hall probe has been described in the present paper. A control system has been designed by using thyristor driven pump as the final control element, the speed of which is controlled by the computer through an opto-isolator unit. Experiments have been performed to find the operational characteristics of the transducer and the control loop. The experimental reports are presented in the paper. A very good performance characteristic has been observed.

  6. Steam drum level control studies of a natural circulation multi loop reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Contractor, A.D.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Lele, H.G. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.; Vaze, K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Reactor Design and Development Group

    2013-12-15

    The proposed heavy water moderated and light water cooled pressure tube type boiling water reactor works on natural circulation at all power levels. It has parallel inter-connected loops with 452 boiling channels in the main heat transport system configuration. These multiple (four) interconnected loops influence the steam drum level control adversely through the common reactor inlet header. Alternate design studies made earlier for efficient control of SD levels have shown favorable results. This has lead to explore further the present scheme with the compartmentalization of CRIH into four compartments catering to four loops separately. The conventional 3-element level control has been found to be working satisfactorily. The interconnections between ECCS header and inlet header compartments have also increased the safety margin for various LOCA and design basis events. The paper deals with the SD level control aspects for this novel MHT configuration which has been analyzed for various PIEs (Postulated Initiating Events) and found to be satisfactory. (orig.)

  7. Multi-level Control Framework for Enhanced Flexibility of Active Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control objectives of future active distribution networks with high penetration of renewables and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. From a state of the art review, the important control objectives seen from the perspective of a distribution system operator are identifie......-ordination and management of the network assets at different voltage levels and geographical locations. The paper finally shows the applicability of the multi-level control architecture to some of the key challenges in the distribution system operation by relevant scenarios....... to be hosting capacity improvement, high reliable operation and cost effective network management. Based on this review and a state of the art review concerning future distribution network control methods, a multi-level control architecture is constructed for an active distribution network, which satisfies...... the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...

  8. Progranulin gene variation affects serum progranulin levels differently in Danish bipolar individuals compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Nielsen, Marit N; Thotakura, Gangadaar; Lee, Chris W; Nykjær, Anders; Mors, Ole; Glerup, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The identification of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder is of great importance and has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Recent studies have reported lower plasma progranulin levels in bipolar individuals compared with controls and association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the progranulin gene (GRN). In the present study, we investigated the effect of GRN and sortilin (SORT1) gene variation on serum progranulin levels in bipolar individuals and controls. In a Danish cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder and controls, we analysed the serum progranulin level (nbipolar=80, ncontrols=76) and five SNPs located within GRN and two SNPs near the SORT1 gene encoding sortilin, a progranulin scavenger receptor known to affect circulating progranulin levels (nbipolar=166, ncontrols=186). We observed no significant difference in the serum progranulin level between cases and controls and none of the analysed SNPs located within GRN or close to SORT1 were associated with bipolar disorder. Crude and adjusted (adjusted for case-control status, sex and age) linear regression analyses showed no effect of any SNPs on the serum progranulin level. However, we observed that the mean serum progranulin level in cases and controls is affected differently depending on the genotypes of two SNPs within GRN (rs2879096 and rs4792938). The sample size is relatively small and detailed information on medication and polarity of the disorder is not available. No correction for multiple testing was performed. Our study suggests that the potential of progranulin as a biomarker for bipolar disorder is genotype dependent.

  9. Replacement of the level control of draining tanks MSRS and powered water heaters with the OVATION system in Asco NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Jimenez, J.

    2012-01-01

    The current MSR drains and heaters tanks level control is local control individual, pneumatic and without action from Control room. The system has level switches for the generation of alarms, isolations and shots of bombs. Single control room operators have level alarms, final race of valves of control and indication of temperature and pressure of some tanks.

  10. Comparison of bi-level optimization frameworks for sizing and control of a hybrid electric vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Bergshoeff, N.D.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the integrated design problem related to determining the power specifications of the main subsystems (sizing) and the supervisory control (energy management). Different bi-level optimization methods, with the outer loop using algorithms as Genetic Algorithms, Sequential

  11. Automatic Flight Control System Design of Level Change Mode for a Large Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Gong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The level change mode is an essential part of large civil aircraft automatic flight control systems. In cruise, with the decrease of the plane's weight caused by fuel consumption and the influence of bad weather, such as thunderstorms, the level change mode is required to solve this problem. This work establishes a nonlinear model of large aircraft, takes level changed from 9500m to 10100m as an example to design control laws for the level change mode in cruise. The classical engineering method is used to design longitudinal and lateral control laws synthetically. The flight qualities are considered in the design process. Simulation results indicate the control laws can meet design requirements and have a good anti-gust performance.

  12. An instrumentation and control philosophy for high-level nuclear waste processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigle, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an instrumentation and control philosophy which may be applied to high-level nuclear waste processing facilities. This philosophy describes the recommended criteria for automatic/manual control, remote/local control, remote/local display, diagnostic instrumentation, interlocks, alarm levels, and redundancy. Due to the hazardous nature of the process constituents of a high-level nuclear waste processing facility, it is imperative that safety and control features required for accident-free operation and maintenance be incorporated. A well-instrumented and controlled process, while initially more expensive in capital and design costs, is generally safer and less expensive to operate. When the long term cost savings of a well designed process is coupled with the high savings enjoyed by accident avoidance, the benefits far outweigh the initial capital and design costs

  13. Process controls for radiation hardened aluminum gate bulk silicon CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, B.L.

    1975-01-01

    Optimized dry oxides have recently yielded notable improvements in CMOS radiation-hardness. By following the proper procedures and recipes, it is now possible to produce devices which will function satisfactorily after exposure to a total ionizing dose in excess of 10 6 RADS (Si). This paper is concerned with the controls required on processing parameters once the optimized process is defined. In this process, the pre-irradiation electrical parameters must be closely controlled to insure that devices will function after irradiation. In particular, the specifications on n- and p-channel threshold voltages require tight control of fixed oxide charge, surface-state density, oxide thickness, and substrate and p-well surface concentrations. In order to achieve the above level of radiation hardness, certain processing procedures and parameters must also be closely controlled. Higher levels of cleanliness are required in the hardened process than are commonly required for commercial CMOS since, for hardened dry oxides, no impurity gettering can be employed during or after oxidation. Without such gettering, an unclean oxide is unacceptable due to bias-temperature instability. Correct pre-oxidation cleaning, residual surface damage removal, proper oxidation and annealing temperatures and times, and the correct metal sintering cycle are all important in determining device hardness. In a reproducible, hardened process, each of these processing steps must be closely controlled. (U.S.)

  14. A novel non-uniform control vector parameterization approach with time grid refinement for flight level tracking optimal control problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao; Xiao, Long; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Chunhua; Gui, Weihua

    2018-02-01

    High quality control method is essential for the implementation of aircraft autopilot system. An optimal control problem model considering the safe aerodynamic envelop is therefore established to improve the control quality of aircraft flight level tracking. A novel non-uniform control vector parameterization (CVP) method with time grid refinement is then proposed for solving the optimal control problem. By introducing the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis, an efficient time grid refinement approach is presented and an adaptive time grid is automatically obtained. With this refinement, the proposed method needs fewer optimization parameters to achieve better control quality when compared with uniform refinement CVP method, whereas the computational cost is lower. Two well-known flight level altitude tracking problems and one minimum time cost problem are tested as illustrations and the uniform refinement control vector parameterization method is adopted as the comparative base. Numerical results show that the proposed method achieves better performances in terms of optimization accuracy and computation cost; meanwhile, the control quality is efficiently improved. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Construing Morality at High versus Low Levels Induces Better Self-control, Leading to Moral Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chun Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering ‘how’ questions, a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering ‘why’ questions promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts. We conducted two experiments to show that answering “why” (high-level construal vs. “how” (low-level construal questions regarding morality was associated with a situational state of greater self-control, as indexed by less Stroop interference in the Stroop color-naming task (Experiments 1 and 2. Participants exposed to “why” questions regarding morality displayed a greater inclination for volunteerism (Experiment 1, showed a lower tendency toward selfishness in a dictator game (Experiment 2, and were more likely to return undeserved money (Experiment 2 compared with participants exposed to “how” questions regarding morality. In both experiments, self-control mediated the effect of a high-level construal of morality on dependent measures. The current research constitutes a new approach to promoting prosociality and moral education. Reminding people to think abstractly about human morality may help them to generate better control over the temptation to benefit from unethical acts and make it more likely that they will act morally.

  16. Construing Morality at High versus Low Levels Induces Better Self-control, Leading to Moral Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering 'how' questions), a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering 'why' questions) promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts. We conducted two experiments to show that answering "why" (high-level construal) vs. "how" (low-level construal) questions regarding morality was associated with a situational state of greater self-control, as indexed by less Stroop interference in the Stroop color-naming task (Experiments 1 and 2). Participants exposed to "why" questions regarding morality displayed a greater inclination for volunteerism (Experiment 1), showed a lower tendency toward selfishness in a dictator game (Experiment 2), and were more likely to return undeserved money (Experiment 2) compared with participants exposed to "how" questions regarding morality. In both experiments, self-control mediated the effect of a high-level construal of morality on dependent measures. The current research constitutes a new approach to promoting prosociality and moral education. Reminding people to think abstractly about human morality may help them to generate better control over the temptation to benefit from unethical acts and make it more likely that they will act morally.

  17. Support vector regression model based predictive control of water level of U-tube steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavaklioglu, Kadir, E-mail: kadir.kavaklioglu@pau.edu.tr

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Water level of U-tube steam generators was controlled in a model predictive fashion. • Models for steam generator water level were built using support vector regression. • Cost function minimization for future optimal controls was performed by using the steepest descent method. • The results indicated the feasibility of the proposed method. - Abstract: A predictive control algorithm using support vector regression based models was proposed for controlling the water level of U-tube steam generators of pressurized water reactors. Steam generator data were obtained using a transfer function model of U-tube steam generators. Support vector regression based models were built using a time series type model structure for five different operating powers. Feedwater flow controls were calculated by minimizing a cost function that includes the level error, the feedwater change and the mismatch between feedwater and steam flow rates. Proposed algorithm was applied for a scenario consisting of a level setpoint change and a steam flow disturbance. The results showed that steam generator level can be controlled at all powers effectively by the proposed method.

  18. Development of EPICS Input Output Controller and User Interface for the PEFP Low Level RF Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Gi; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was developed for handling the driving frequency for Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Draft Tube Linac (DTL) cavities in 2006. The RF amplitude and phase of the accelerating field were controlled within 1% and 1 degree by stability requirements, respectively. Operators have been using the LLRF control system under the windows based text console mode as an operator interface. The LLRF control system could not be integrated with Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input Output Controllers (IOC) for each subsection of PEFP facility. The main objective of this study is to supply operators of the LLRF control system with user friendly and convenient operating environment. The new LLRF control system is composed of a Verse Module Eurocard (VME) baseboard, a PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC), Board Support Package (BSP), EPICS software tool and a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) VxWorks. A test with a dummy cavity of the new LLRF control system shows that operators can control and monitor operation parameters for a desired feedback action by using EPICS Channel Access (CA).

  19. Development of EPICS Input Output Controller and User Interface for the PEFP Low Level RF Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2010-01-01

    The Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was developed for handling the driving frequency for Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Draft Tube Linac (DTL) cavities in 2006. The RF amplitude and phase of the accelerating field were controlled within 1% and 1 degree by stability requirements, respectively. Operators have been using the LLRF control system under the windows based text console mode as an operator interface. The LLRF control system could not be integrated with Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input Output Controllers (IOC) for each subsection of PEFP facility. The main objective of this study is to supply operators of the LLRF control system with user friendly and convenient operating environment. The new LLRF control system is composed of a Verse Module Eurocard (VME) baseboard, a PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC), Board Support Package (BSP), EPICS software tool and a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) VxWorks. A test with a dummy cavity of the new LLRF control system shows that operators can control and monitor operation parameters for a desired feedback action by using EPICS Channel Access (CA).

  20. INTERIM ANALYSIS OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF HIGH-LEVEL EVIDENCE FOR DENGUE VECTOR CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstick, Olaf; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2015-01-01

    This interim analysis reviews the available systematic literature for dengue vector control on three levels: 1) single and combined vector control methods, with existing work on peridomestic space spraying and on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis; further work is available soon on the use of Temephos, Copepods and larvivorous fish; 2) or for a specific purpose, like outbreak control, and 3) on a strategic level, as for example decentralization vs centralization, with a systematic review on vector control organization. Clear best practice guidelines for methodology of entomological studies are needed. There is a need to include measuring dengue transmission data. The following recommendations emerge: Although vector control can be effective, implementation remains an issue; Single interventions are probably not useful; Combinations of interventions have mixed results; Careful implementation of vector control measures may be most important; Outbreak interventions are often applied with questionable effectiveness.

  1. Multivariable H force/level control of the twin-roller strip caster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavazos, A.; Edwards, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Twin-roller steel strip casters may offer some advantages with respect to classical continuous casting hot rolling processes. Some works have reported control aspects of this process and although the process has been found to be highly interactive and non-linear, little or no attention has been given to its multivariable characteristics. The purpose of this work is to design a multivariable control capable of decoupling the system. This paper presents some important aspects of the strip caster modeling and reports the simulation results of the application of the multivariable H-optimal control for nominal performance to force/level control. Various controllers have been designed for different pool level heights and it is shown that they can decouple the system, allowing the application of PI decentralized controllers to considerably improve performance. (author)

  2. Automatic control of the water level of steam generators from 0% to 100% of the load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocepied, R.; Debelle, J.; Timmermans, A.; Lams, J.-L.; Baeyens, R.; Eussen, G.; Bassem, G.

    1978-01-01

    The water level of a steam generator is hard to control manually and it is practically impossible for a human operator to react correctly to every important perturbation. These phenomena are further accentuated during the start-up at low load and at low feedwater temperature. The control schemes traditionally provided do not permit satisfactory automatic level control during all operating circumstances. Adaptions of the control system permit all the problems encountered to be solved: automatic control of the level in the steam generators is possible from 0% to 100% of the load and also when large-scale perturbations occur. Such a result has been obtained by use of systematic methods for the analysis of the steam generator's behaviour. These methods have also been used to verify the performance of the control system. The control system installed at the Doel nuclear power station prevents most of the reactor or turbine trip-outs caused by level deviations occurring during start-up and low-load operation. It also minimizes the effects on the unit of incidents such as tripping the unit on house load, safety tripping, fast run-back on reduced load, etc. The principles used are applicable to the control of steam generators of all pressurized water reactor power stations. (author)

  3. Identification and robust water level control of horizontal steam generators using quantitative feedback theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarzadeh, O.; Khaki-Sedigh, A.; Shirani, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A robust water level controller for steam generators (SGs) is designed based on the Quantitative Feedback Theory. → To design the controller, fairly accurate linear models are identified for the SG. → The designed controller is verified using a developed novel global locally linear neuro-fuzzy model of the SG. → Both of the linear and nonlinear models are based on the SG mathematical thermal-hydraulic model developed using the simulation computer code. → The proposed method is easy to apply and guarantees desired closed loop performance. - Abstract: In this paper, a robust water level control system for the horizontal steam generator (SG) using the quantitative feedback theory (QFT) method is presented. To design a robust QFT controller for the nonlinear uncertain SG, control oriented linear models are identified. Then, the nonlinear system is modeled as an uncertain linear time invariant (LTI) system. The robust designed controller is applied to the nonlinear plant model. This nonlinear model is based on a locally linear neuro-fuzzy (LLNF) model. This model is trained using the locally linear model tree (LOLIMOT) algorithm. Finally, simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the designed QFT level controller. It is shown that it will ensure the entire designer's water level closed loop specifications.

  4. Identification and robust water level control of horizontal steam generators using quantitative feedback theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarzadeh, O., E-mail: O_Safarzadeh@sbu.ac.ir [Shahid Beheshti University, P.O. Box: 19839-63113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaki-Sedigh, A. [K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirani, A.S. [Shahid Beheshti University, P.O. Box: 19839-63113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} A robust water level controller for steam generators (SGs) is designed based on the Quantitative Feedback Theory. {yields} To design the controller, fairly accurate linear models are identified for the SG. {yields} The designed controller is verified using a developed novel global locally linear neuro-fuzzy model of the SG. {yields} Both of the linear and nonlinear models are based on the SG mathematical thermal-hydraulic model developed using the simulation computer code. {yields} The proposed method is easy to apply and guarantees desired closed loop performance. - Abstract: In this paper, a robust water level control system for the horizontal steam generator (SG) using the quantitative feedback theory (QFT) method is presented. To design a robust QFT controller for the nonlinear uncertain SG, control oriented linear models are identified. Then, the nonlinear system is modeled as an uncertain linear time invariant (LTI) system. The robust designed controller is applied to the nonlinear plant model. This nonlinear model is based on a locally linear neuro-fuzzy (LLNF) model. This model is trained using the locally linear model tree (LOLIMOT) algorithm. Finally, simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the designed QFT level controller. It is shown that it will ensure the entire designer's water level closed loop specifications.

  5. Ex vivo changes in blood glucose levels seldom change blood glucose control algorithm recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groene, L.; Harmsen, R. E.; Binnekade, J. M.; Spronk, P. E.; Schultz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Hyperglycemia and glycemic variabilities are associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Blood glucose control with insulin mandates an adequate and precise assessment of blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels, however, can change ex vivo after sampling. The aim of

  6. Automatic cryogenic liquid level controller is safe for use near combustible substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejsa, M.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic mechanical liquid level controller that is independent of any external power sources is used with safety in the presence of combustibles. A gas filled capillary tube which leads from a pressurized chamber, is inserted into the cryogenic liquid reservoir and becomes a liquid level sensing element or probe.

  7. The impact of decentralised control on firm-level inventory: evidence from the automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Holweg, M.; Williams, G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of decentralised control on finished goods inventory levels in a distribution system, and to identify the factors that determine the overall inventory level. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' study is based on a mixed method

  8. A Robust Control Scheme for Medium-Voltage-Level DVR Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Li, Yun Wei

    2007-01-01

    of Hinfin controller weighting function selection, inner current loop tuning, and system disturbance rejection capability is presented. Finally, the designed control scheme is extensively tested on a laboratory 10-kV MV-level DVR system with varying voltage sag (balanced and unbalanced) and loading (linear....../nonlinear load and induction motor load) conditions. It is shown that the proposed control scheme is effective in both balanced and unbalanced sag compensation and load disturbance rejection, as its robustness is explicitly specified....

  9. Overview of the Spallation Neutron Source Linac Low-Level RF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Champion, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Ma, Hengjie; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The design and production of the Spallation Neutron Source Linac Low-Level RF control system is complete, and installation will be finished in Spring 2005. The warm linac beam commissioning run in Fall 2004 was the most extensive test to date of the LLRF control system, with fourteen (of an eventual 96) systems operating simultaneously. In this paper we present an overview of the LLRF control system, the experience in designing, building and installing the system, and operational results.

  10. Programmable Logic Controllers for Systems of Automatic of the Level Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway crossings are vulnerable to incidence of high number of accidents often deadly. In order to face this problem, the modern systems of automatic of the level crossing have been introduced. These systems are based on Programmable Logic Controllers, which allow the designers to exploit self-control mechanisms, events acquiring, technical diagnostic which in turn enable remote control and acquisition of faults.

  11. Training elements at different levels in the strategies for control of schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Niels; Simonsen, P. E.; Furu, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Recently acquired comprehensive knowledge concerning the epidemiology of schistosomiasis has provided the background for the establishment of schistosomiasis control strategies. However, the planning, implementation, and maintenance of such control programmes requires sufficient numbers of well t...... trained personnel at the local, district and central levels. Training of health personnel as well as motivation of the community are fundamental and essential elements in any schistosomiasis control programme. The training elements and approaches are discussed....

  12. Nonlinear Power-Level Control of the MHTGR Only with the Feedback Loop of Helium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Power-level control is a crucial technique for the safe, stable and efficient operation of modular high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (MHTGRs, which have strong inherent safety features and high outlet temperatures. The current power-level controllers of the MHTGRs need measurements of both the nuclear power and the helium temperature, which cannot provide satisfactory control performance and can even induce large oscillations when the neutron sensors are in error. In order to improve the fault tolerance of the control system, it is important to develop a power-level control strategy that only requires the helium temperature. The basis for developing this kind of control law is to give a state-observer of the MHTGR a relationship that only needs the measurement of helium temperature. With this in mind, a novel nonlinear state observer which only needs the measurement of helium temperature is proposed. This observer is globally convergent if there is no disturbance, and has the L2 disturbance attenuation performance if the disturbance is nonzero. The separation principle of this observer is also proven, which denotes that this observer can recover the performance of both globally asymptotic stabilizers and L2 disturbance attenuators. Then, a new dynamic output feedback power-level control strategy is established, which is composed of this observer and the well-built static state-feedback power-level control based upon iterative dissipation assignment (IDA-PLC. Finally, numerical simulation results show the high performance and feasibility of this newly-built dynamic output feedback power-level controller.

  13. Automatic control of the NMB level in general anaesthesia with a switching total system mass control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel; Mendonça, Teresa; Rocha, Paula; Rabiço, Rui

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a model based switching control strategy to drive the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) level of patients undergoing general anesthesia to a predefined reference. A single-input single-output Wiener system with only two parameters is used to model the effect of two different muscle relaxants, atracurium and rocuronium, and a switching controller is designed based on a bank of total system mass control laws. Each of such laws is tuned for an individual model from a bank chosen to represent the behavior of the whole population. The control law to be applied at each instant corresponds to the model whose NMB response is closer to the patient's response. Moreover a scheme to improve the reference tracking quality based on the analysis of the patient's response, as well as, a comparison between the switching strategy and the Extended Kalman Kilter (EKF) technique are presented. The results are illustrated by means of several simulations, where switching shows to provide good results, both in theory and in practice, with a desirable reference tracking. The reference tracking improvement technique is able to produce a better reference tracking. Also, this technique showed a better performance than the (EKF). Based on these results, the switching control strategy with a bank of total system mass control laws proved to be robust enough to be used as an automatic control system for the NMB level.

  14. Energy Conservation Analysis and Control of Hybrid Active Semiactive Suspension with Three Regulating Damping Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active suspension has not been popularized for high energy consumption. To address this issue, this paper introduces the concept of a new kind of suspension. The linear motor is considered to be integrated into an adjustable shock absorber to form the hybrid active semiactive suspension (HASAS. To realize the superiority of HASAS, its energy consumption and regeneration mechanisms are revealed. And the system controller which is composed of linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller, mode decision and switch controller, and the sliding mode control based thrust controller is developed. LQR controller is designed to maintain the suspension control objectives, while mode decision and switch controller decides the optimal damping level to tune motor thrust. The thrust controller ensures motor thrust tracking. An adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels to be used in HASAS is trial produced and tested to obtain its working characteristics. Finally, simulation analysis is made with the experimental three damping characteristics. The impacts of adjustable damping on the motor force and energy consumption are investigated. Simulation results demonstrate the advantages of HASAS in energy conservation with various suspension control objectives. Even self-powered active control and energy regenerated to the power source can be realized.

  15. Effect of pre-irradiation on thermal inactivation of B. pumilus E 601 dry spores irradiated with EB and. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yuhei; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1989-11-01

    The survival fraction of B. pumilus spores irradiated with {gamma} -rays and electron beams in vacuum were increased when the spores were heated or allowed to stand in vacuum for a long time at room temperature. The survival curves of the spores thus treated after irradiation might give apparent radiation sensitivities which were lower than true ones obtained just after irradiation. On the contrary, the radiation sensitivities of the spores irradiated in dry air and then heated or allowed to stand in dry air became high. To elucidate the characteristics of th spores, the effect of heating on the radiation sensitivity of the B. pumilus spores has been studied. By heating the pre-irradiated spores in vacuum, its survival fraction was increased, in other words, the spores inactivated with radiation were recovered. However, the thermal sensitivity of the recovered spores was found to be high compared with that of the original spores. On the other hand, when B. pumilus spores were irradiated in dry air and then heated in dry air, the survival curves of the spores were found to be composed of two exponential curves, suggesting that two kinds of thermal inactivation mechanism existed. From Arrhenius plots of unirradiated B. pumilus spores, the activation energies of the thermal inactivation in the range of 90degC to 120degC in vacuum and in air were found to be about 38 kcal/mol and 29 kcal/mol, respectively. The activation energy of the spores at a temperature of higher than 120degC, however increased to give the same value (about 38 kcal/mol) as found in vacuum. This fact suggests the main mechanism of the thermal inactivation of the spores varies near 120degC. Arrhenius plots of irradiated spores in vacuum was similar to that of unirradiated ones. Thermal inactivation rates of the irradiated spores in the presence of air will also be discussed as compared with those of unirradiated ones. (author).

  16. In vitro hemocompatibility of sulfonated polypropylene non-woven fabric prepared via a facile γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wu, Guozhong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Ye, Yin, E-mail: yeyin@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated PP{sub NWF} was successfully fabricated via γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of SSS method with the aid of AAm. • Compared with the pristine PP{sub NWF}, the sulfonated PP{sub NWF} material presented outstanding hydrophilicity. • The sulfonated PP{sub NWF} exhibited good hemocompatibility. - Abstract: Sulfonated polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP{sub NWF}) was successfully prepared via γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of sodium styrenesulfonate (SSS) and acrylamide (AAm). The effect of pre-irradiation dose, reaction temperature, reaction time and concentration of binary monomer on the degree of grafting (DG) was studied. The chemical structure of the original and modified PP{sub NWF} materials were investigated by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the successful introduction of sulfonated (−SO{sub 3}{sup −}) group. The wettability was examined via measurement of de-ionized water adsorption percentage, which demonstrated that the hydrophilicity of PP{sub NWF} was greatly enhanced after graft modification. A little amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption and nearly no platelet adhesion on the surface of modified PP{sub NWF} and low hemolytic ratio of the modified PP{sub NWF} revealed that the sulfonated PP{sub NWF} exhibited good hemocompatibility. Besides, blood clotting time measurement indicated that the anticoagulant property of PP{sub NWF} was effectively enhanced via SSS modification. Consequently, the hydrophilicity, in vitro hemocompatibility and anticoagulant effect of PP{sub NWF} were significantly improved by γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of SSS.

  17. Identification of dynamical Lie algebras for finite-level quantum control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Pullen, I.C.H.; Solomon, A.I. [Quantum Processes Group and Department of Applied Maths, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)]. E-mails: S.G.Schirmer@open.ac.uk; I.C.H.Pullen@open.ac.uk; A.I.Solomon@open.ac.uk

    2002-03-08

    The problem of identifying the dynamical Lie algebras of finite-level quantum systems subject to external control is considered, with special emphasis on systems that are not completely controllable. In particular, it is shown that the dynamical Lie algebra for an N-level system with symmetrically coupled transitions, such as a system with equally spaced energy levels and uniform transition dipole moments, is a subalgebra of so(N) if N=2l+1, and a subalgebra of sp(l) if N=2l. General criteria for obtaining either so(2l+1) or sp(l) are established. (author)

  18. Hierarchical Control and Skilled Typing: Evidence for Word-Level Control over the Execution of Individual Keystrokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J. C.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2010-01-01

    Routine actions are commonly assumed to be controlled by hierarchically organized processes and representations. In the domain of typing theories, word-level information is assumed to activate the constituent keystrokes required to type each letter in a word. We tested this assumption directly using a novel single-letter probe technique. Subjects…

  19. Shop Floor-Level Control of Manufacturing Companies: An Interview Study in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokola Henri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper publishes the results of interviews regarding shop-floor-level control of 18 Finnish manufacturing companies. The interviews had 17 open questions relating to demand characteristics, shop floor-level control issues, production flexibility, inventory control, and potential development areas. In order to get insights from the interviews, this paper analyses the answers from the interviews and categorises them into typical answers. The companies that were interviewed are also categorised as small companies with their own end products, subcontractors, or large companies with their own end products, and the emphasis of the analysis is on how companies differ in their shop floor-level control. The results show that different types of companies have different characteristics. Small companies are characterised by constant workflow, seasonal trends in demand, and the use of forecasts. Subcontractors have great daily variation in their demand and processing times. Large companies tend to focus on inventory issues.

  20. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys Sentaurus™ Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys Sentaurus™ simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project.

  1. A model predictive controller for the water level of nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the model predictive control method was applied to a linear model and a nonlinear model of steam generators. The parameters of a linear model for steam generators are very different according to the power levels. The model predictive controller was designed for the linear steam generator model at a fixed power level. The proposed controller designed at the fixed power level showed good performance for any other power levels by changing only the input-weighting factor. As the input-weighting factor usually increases, its relative stability does so. The stem generator has some nonlinear characteristics. Therefore, the proposed algorithm has been implemented for a nonlinear model of the nuclear steam generator to verify its real performance and also, showed good performance. (author)

  2. Availability verification of information for human system interface in automatic SG level control using activity diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljugun (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Steam Generator (SG) level control system in OPR 1000 is one of representative automatic systems that falls under the Supervisory Control level in Endsley's taxonomy. Supervisory control of automated systems is classified as a form of out of the loop (OOTL) performance due to passive involvement in the systems operation, which could lead to loss of situation awareness (SA). There was a reported event, which was caused by inadequate human automation communication that contributed to an unexpected reactor trip in July 2005. A high SG level trip occurred in Yeonggwang (YGN) Unit 6 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) due to human operator failure to recognize the need to change the control mode of the economizer valve controller (EVC) to manual mode during swap over (the transition from low power mode to high power mode) after the loss of offsite power (LOOP) event was recovered. This paper models the human system interaction in NPP SG level control system using Unified Modeling Language (UML) Activity Diagram. Then, it identifies the missing information for operators in the OPR1000 Main Control Room (MCR) and suggests some means of improving the human system interaction.

  3. Availability verification of information for human system interface in automatic SG level control using activity diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Steam Generator (SG) level control system in OPR 1000 is one of representative automatic systems that falls under the Supervisory Control level in Endsley's taxonomy. Supervisory control of automated systems is classified as a form of out of the loop (OOTL) performance due to passive involvement in the systems operation, which could lead to loss of situation awareness (SA). There was a reported event, which was caused by inadequate human automation communication that contributed to an unexpected reactor trip in July 2005. A high SG level trip occurred in Yeonggwang (YGN) Unit 6 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) due to human operator failure to recognize the need to change the control mode of the economizer valve controller (EVC) to manual mode during swap over (the transition from low power mode to high power mode) after the loss of offsite power (LOOP) event was recovered. This paper models the human system interaction in NPP SG level control system using Unified Modeling Language (UML) Activity Diagram. Then, it identifies the missing information for operators in the OPR1000 Main Control Room (MCR) and suggests some means of improving the human system interaction

  4. CompactPCI/Linux platform for medium level control system on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Centioli, C.; Iannone, F.; Panella, M.; Mazza, G.; Vitale, V.

    2004-01-01

    In large fusion experiments, such as tokamak devices, there are common trends for slow control systems. Because of complexity of the plants, several tokamaks adopt the so-called 'standard model' (SM) based on a three levels hierarchical control: (i) high level control (HLC) - the supervisor; (ii) medium level control (MLC) - I/O field equipments interface and concentration units and (iii) low level control (LLC) - the programmable logic controllers (PLC). FTU control system was designed with SM concepts and, in its 15 years life cycle, it underwent several developments. The latest evolution was mandatory, due to the obsolescence of the MLC CPUs, based on VME/Motorola 68030 with OS9 operating system. Therefore, we had to look for cost-effective solutions and we chose a CompactPCI-Intel x86 platform with Linux operating system. A software porting has been done taking into account the differences between OS9 and Linux operating system in terms of inter/network processes communications and I/O multi-ports serial driver. This paper describes the hardware/software architecture of the new MLC system emphasising the reliability and the low costs of the open source solutions. Moreover, the huge amount of software packages available in open source environment will assure a less painful maintenance, and will open the way to further improvements of the system itself

  5. Fuzzy logic control of water level in advanced boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chaung; Lee, Chi-Szu; Raghavan, R.; Fahrner, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The feedwater control system in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is more challenging to design compared to other control systems in the plant, due to the possible change in level from void collapses and swells during transient events. A basic fuzzy logic controller is developed using a simplified ABWR mathematical model to demonstrate and compare the performance of this controller with a simplified conventional controller. To reduce the design effort, methods are developed to automatically tune the scaling factors and control rules. As a first step in developing the fuzzy controller, a fuzzy controller with a limited number of rules is developed to respond to normal plant transients such as setpoint changes of plant parameters and load demand changes. Various simulations for setpoint and load demand changes of plant performances were conducted to evaluate the modeled fuzzy logic design against the simplified ABWR model control system. The simulation results show that the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is comparable to that of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, However, the fuzzy logic controller produced shorter settling time for step setpoint changes compared to the simplified conventional controller

  6. Fuzzy algorithms to generate level controllers for nuclear power plant steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byung Soo; Park, Jae Chang; Kim, Dong Hwa; Kim, Byung Koo

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we present two sets of fuzzy algorithms for the steam generater level control; one for the high power operations where the flow error is available and the other for the low power operations where the flow error is not available. These are converted to a PID type controller for the high power case and to a quadratic function form of a controller for the low power case. These controllers are implemented on the Compact Nuclear Simulator at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and tested by a set of four simulation experiments for each. For both cases, the results show that the total variation of the level error and of the flow error are about 50% of those by the PI controllers with about one half of the control action. For the high power case, this is mainly due to the fact that a combination of two PD type controllers in the velocity algorithm form rather than a combination of two PI type controllers in the position algorithm form is used. For the low power case, the controller is essentially a PID type with a very small integral component where the average values for the derivative component input and for the controller output are used. (Author)

  7. The Assessment Of The Level Of Management Control Standards Completion In Treasury Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulińska Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the rules of the functioning of management control standards used in the Treasury Control Office. Its purpose is to present research results conducted in the years 2013–2014 in Polish Treasury Control Offices. Obtained results are the effect of applying author’s model of the assessment of management control implementation. The research was conducted for management personnel and the rest of offices employees separately. Significant discrepancies between these two groups of respondents were indicated. Based on the results, the areas of deviation from expected level of management control standards were established and the areas where implementation of control mechanisms relying on increasing the supervision of board of directors over managers were indicated, providing permanent and efficient elements of managers supervision over subordinate employees and making purposes and tasks put on the Treasury Control Office for given year more precise and familiarization of employees and carrying out trainings and series of other corrective measures.

  8. A possible methodological approach to setting up control level of radiation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devyatajkin, E.V.; Abramov, Yu.V.

    1986-01-01

    The mathematical formalization of the concept of control levels (CL) which enables one to obtain CL numerical values of controllable parameters required for rapid control purposes is described. The initial data for the assessment of environmental radioactivity are the controllable parameter values that is practical characteristic of controllable radiation factor showing technically measurable or calculation value. The controllable parameters can be divided into two classes depending on the degree of radiation effect on a man: possessing additivity properties (dosimetric class) and non-possessing (radiation class, which comprises the results of control of medium alteration dynamics, equipment operation safety, completeness of protection measures performance). The CL calculation formulas with account for requirements of radiation safety standards (RSS-76) are presented

  9. Plant level of automated control system at a NPP with RBMK reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, V.P.; Gorbunov, V.P.; Dmitriev, V.M.; Litvin, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The functional structure of plant level automated control system (ACS) at NPP with RBMK-1000 reactors, its binding with the on-line control system of higher and lower levels, as well as engineering requirements to software and recommendations on composition of hardware components, are considered. NPP ACS is an organizational-engineering system consisting of computer facilities and binding aimed at solving management, economical, organizational and physical-engineering problems to control NPP more effectively. The system carries out data acquisition, preliminary processing, analysis, transmission and representation for users to accept solutions for NPP operation by operative and management personnel. The main aim of integrated NPP ACS is the control development and increase of NPP economical efficiency, the increase of electric and heat energy production, the optimization of the production distribution between units, the development of production and economic NPP control

  10. Evaluation of BWROG EPG level/power control strategy for Vermont Yankee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, V.; Robichaud, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The current Boiling Water Reactor Owner's Group (BWROG) emergency procedure guidelines (EPGs) direct reactor operators to manually lower the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level to the top of active fuel (TAF) during an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) event. Lowering the water level reduces the core inlet flow, thereby reducing core power. However, reducing water level is contrary to current operator training, which requires that normal RPV water level be maintained to assure core cooling. In addition, the indicated water level near TAF using cold calibrated level instrumentation may not be reliable, which could potentially result in uncovering the core. This paper evaluates the EPGs' level/power control strategy for the Vermont Yankee plant and proposes alternative to the BWROG guidelines as applied to ATWS response

  11. General overview of the APS low-level rf control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, J.D.; Bridges, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the proposed low-level rf system of the positron accumulator ring (PAR), the injector synchrotron, and the storage ring of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source. Four rf systems are described since the PAR consists of a fundamental frequency system at 9.8 MHz and a harmonic system at 117 MHz. A block diagram of an accelerating unit is shown and descriptions of various control loops are made (including amplitude control, phase control, and cavity tuning control). Also, a brief overview of the computer interface is given

  12. On Usage of Pareto curves to Select Wind Turbine Controller Tunings to the Wind Turbulence Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2015-01-01

    Model predictive control has in recently publications shown its potential for lowering of cost of energy of modern wind turbines. Pareto curves can be used to evaluate performance of these controllers with multiple conflicting objectives of power and fatigue loads. In this paper an approach...... to update an model predictive wind turbine controller tuning as the wind turbulence increases, as increased turbulence levels results in higher loads for the same controller tuning. In this paper the Pareto curves are computed using an industrial high fidelity aero-elastic model. Simulations show...

  13. Non-destructive Preirradiation Assessment of UN / U-Si “LANL1” ATF formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Losko, Adrian Simon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pokharel, Reeju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ickes, Timothy Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunter, James F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Voit, Stewart Lancaster [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tremsin, Anton S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourke, Mark Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McClellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The goal of the Advanced Non-destructive Fuel Examination (ANDE) work package is the development and application of non-destructive neutron imaging and scattering techniques to ceramic and metallic nuclear fuels, ultimately also to irradiated fuels. The results of these characterizations provide complete pre- and post-irradiation on length scales ranging from mm to nm, guide destructive examination, and inform modelling efforts. Besides technique development and application to samples to be irradiated, the ANDE work package also examines possible technologies to provide these characterization techniques pool-side, e.g. at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using laser-driven intense pulsed neutron and gamma sources. Neutron tomography and neutron diffraction characterizations were performed on nine pellets; four UN/ U-Si composite formulations (two enrichment levels), three pure U3Si5 reference formulations (two enrichment levels), and two reject pellets with visible flaws (to qualify the technique). The 235U enrichments ranged from 0.2 to 8.8 wt. %. The nitride/silicide composites are candidate compositions for use as Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF). The monophase U3Si5 material was included as a reference. Pellets from the same fabrication batches will be inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho during 2016. We have also proposed a data format to build a database for characterization results of individual pellets. Neutron data reported in this report were collected in the LANSCE run cycle that started in September 2015 and ended in March 2016. This report provides the results for the characterized samples and discussion in the context of ANDE and APIE. We quantified the gamma spectra of several samples in their received state as well as after neutron irradiation to ensure that the neutron irradiation does not add significant activation that would complicate shipment and

  14. Non-destructive Preirradiation Assessment of UN / U-Si ''LANL1'' ATF formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Sven C.; Losko, Adrian Simon; Pokharel, Reeju; Ickes, Timothy Lee; Hunter, James F.; Brown, Donald William; Voit, Stewart Lancaster; Tremsin, Anton S.; Bourke, Mark Andrew; McClellan, Kenneth James

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Non-destructive Fuel Examination (ANDE) work package is the development and application of non-destructive neutron imaging and scattering techniques to ceramic and metallic nuclear fuels, ultimately also to irradiated fuels. The results of these characterizations provide complete pre- and post-irradiation on length scales ranging from mm to nm, guide destructive examination, and inform modelling efforts. Besides technique development and application to samples to be irradiated, the ANDE work package also examines possible technologies to provide these characterization techniques pool-side, e.g. at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using laser-driven intense pulsed neutron and gamma sources. Neutron tomography and neutron diffraction characterizations were performed on nine pellets; four UN/ U-Si composite formulations (two enrichment levels), three pure U 3 Si 5 reference formulations (two enrichment levels), and two reject pellets with visible flaws (to qualify the technique). The 235 U enrichments ranged from 0.2 to 8.8 wt. %. The nitride/silicide composites are candidate compositions for use as Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF). The monophase U 3 Si 5 material was included as a reference. Pellets from the same fabrication batches will be inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho during 2016. We have also proposed a data format to build a database for characterization results of individual pellets. Neutron data reported in this report were collected in the LANSCE run cycle that started in September 2015 and ended in March 2016. This report provides the results for the characterized samples and discussion in the context of ANDE and APIE. We quantified the gamma spectra of several samples in their received state as well as after neutron irradiation to ensure that the neutron irradiation does not add significant activation that would complicate shipment and handling. We demonstrated synchrotron-based 3D X

  15. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapojuwo Abraham O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  16. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Fapojuwo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  17. Fuzzy logic control of steam generator water level in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, C.C.; Lin, C.; Hsu, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical mode of the object to be controlled. The design is based on a set of linguistic rules that were adopted from the human operator's experience. After off-line fuzzy computation, the controller is a lookup table, and thus, real-time control is achieved. Shrink-and-swell phenomena are considered in the linguistic rules, and the simulation results show that their effect is dramatically reduced. The performance of the control system can also be improved by changing the input and output scaling factors, which is convenient for on-line tuning

  18. Operator interface for the PEP-II low level RF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.; Claus, R.

    1997-05-01

    This paper focuses on the operational aspects of the low level RF control system being built for the PEP-II storage rings at SLAC. Subsystems requiring major operational considerations include displays for monitor and control from UNIX workstations, slow feedback loops and control sequences residing on microprocessors, and various client applications in the existing SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Since commissioning of PEP-II RF is currently in-progress, only those parts of the control system used during this phase are discussed in detail. Based on past experience with the SLC control system, it is expected that effort expended during commissioning on a solid user interface will result in smoother transition to full reliable 24-hour-a-day operation

  19. Apparatus for controlling coolant level in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor which has a thermal liner spaced inwardly of the pressure vessel and includes means for passing bypass coolant through the annulus between the thermal liner and the pressure vessel to insulate the pressure vessel from hot outlet coolant includes control ports in the thermal liner a short distance below the normal operating coolant level in the reactor and an overflow nozzle in the pressure vessel below the control ports connected to an overflow line including a portion at an elevation such that overflow coolant flow is established when the coolant level in the reactor is above the top of the coolant ports. When no makeup coolant is added, bypass flow is inwardly through the control ports and there is no overflow; when makeup coolant is being added, coolant flow through the overflow line will maintain the coolant level.

  20. Apparatus for controlling coolant level in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor which has a thermal liner spaced inwardly of the pressure vessel and includes means for passing bypass coolant through the annulus between the thermal liner and the pressure vessel to insulate the pressure vessel from hot outlet coolant includes control ports in the thermal liner a short distance below the normal operating coolant level in the reactor and an overflow nozzle in the pressure vessel below the control ports connected to an overflow line including a portion at an elevation such that overflow coolant flow is established when the coolant level in the reactor is above the top of the coolant ports. When no makeup coolant is added, bypass flow is inwardly through the control ports and there is no overflow; when makeup coolant is being added, coolant flow through the overflow line will maintain the coolant level

  1. Multi-model predictive control method for nuclear steam generator water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ke; Yuan Jingqi

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of a nuclear steam generator (SG) is very different according to the power levels and changes as time goes on. Therefore, it is an intractable as well as challenging task to improve the water level control system of the SG. In this paper, a robust model predictive control (RMPC) method is developed for the level control problem. Based on a multi-model framework, a combination of a local nominal model with a polytopic uncertain linear parameter varying (LPV) model is built to approximate the system's non-linear behavior. The optimization problem solved here is based on a receding horizon scheme involving the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Closed loop stability and constraints satisfaction in the entire operating range are guaranteed by the feasibility of the optimization problem. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed method

  2. Automated Liquid-Level Control of a Nutrient Reservoir for a Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Boris; Asumadu, Johnson A.; Dogan, Numan S.

    1997-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system for control of the liquid level of a nutrient reservoir for a plant hydroponic growing system has been developed. The system uses an ultrasonic transducer to sense the liquid level or height. A National Instruments' Multifunction Analog and Digital Input/Output PC Kit includes NI-DAQ DOS/Windows driver software for an IBM 486 personal computer. A Labview Full Development system for Windows is the graphical programming system being used. The system allows liquid level control to within 0.1 cm for all levels tried between 8 and 36 cm in the hydroponic system application. The detailed algorithms have been developed and a fully automated microprocessor based nutrient replenishment system has been described for this hydroponic system.

  3. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saygin Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

  4. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ali; Kerem, Alper

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

  5. Experience in the development and practical use of working control levels for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epishin, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The experience of development and practical use of working control levels (WCL) of radiation safety in the Gorky region, is discussed. WCL are introduced by ''Radiation Safety Guides'' (RSG-76) and have great practical importance. Regional control levels of radiation safety are determined for certain types of operations implying radioactive hazard and differentiated according to the types of sources applied and types of operation. Dose rates, radioactive contamination of operating surfaces, skin, air and waste water are subject to normalization. Limits of individual radiation doses specified according to operation categories are included. 10 tables of regional WCL indices are developed [ru

  6. Experiences in messaging middle-ware for high-level control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanga, N.; Shasharina, S.; Matykiewicz, J.; Rooparani Pundaleeka

    2012-01-01

    Existing high-level applications in accelerator control and modeling systems leverage many different languages, tools and frameworks that do not inter-operate with one another. As a result, the accelerator control community is moving toward the proven Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach to address the inter-operability challenges among heterogeneous high-level application modules. Such SOA approach enables developers to package various control subsystems and activities into 'services' with well-defined 'interfaces' and make leveraging heterogeneous high-level applications via flexible composition possible. Examples of such applications include presentation panel clients based on Control System Studio (CSS) and middle-layer applications such as model/data servers. This paper presents our experiences in developing a demonstrative high-level application environment using emerging messaging middle-ware standards. In particular, we utilize new features in EPICS v4 and other emerging standards such as Data Distribution Service (DDS) and Extensible Type Interface by the Object Management Group. We first briefly review examples we developed previously. We then present our current effort in integrating DDS into such a SOA environment for control systems. Specifically, we illustrate how we are integrating DDS into CSS and develop a Python DDS mapping. (authors)

  7. Assessment of vitamin K2 levels in osteoporotic patients: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Akram; Lashkari, Mahin; Oveisi, Sonia; Khair Khah, Mohamad Reza; Zargar, Ali

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to measure the level of Vitamin K2 (Vit K2) in osteoporotic patients and individuals with normal bone density as controls. This case-control study was done in Outpatient Department of Rheumatology at Qazvin Boo-ali Sina Hospital in 2013. Participants were 50 patients with osteoporotic densitometry measured by DEXA (T score? -2.5) who were matched with 48 persons in control group with normal bone density (T score> -1). The level of Vit K2 in samples was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. The level of Vit K2 in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group (Median: 75.95 vs. 71.35 nmol/L, respectively; P-value: 0.709). The authors determined cut-offs 75 percentile of vitamin K2 in all participants that was 85 nmol/L and percentages of persons in two groups were similar. Although Vit K2 level in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group, further studies are necessary to confirm the association of osteoporosis and Vit K2.

  8. Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Gattoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. It seems that zinc deficiency is associated with increased risk of febrile seizures.Aim: To estimate the serum Zinc level in children with simple Febrile seizures and to find the correlation between serum zinc level and simple Febrile seizures.Materials and Methods: The proposed study was a hospital based prospective case control study which included infants and children aged between 6 months to 5 years, at Post Graduate Department of Pediatrics, (SMGS Hospital, GMC Jammu, northern India. A total of 200 infants and children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. Patients were divided into 100(cases in Group A with simple febrile seizure and 100(controls in Group B of children with acute febrile illness without seizure. All patients were subjected to detailed history and thorough clinical examination followed by relevant investigations.Results: Our study had slight male prepondance of 62% in cases and 58% in controls . Mean serum zinc level in cases was 61.53±15.87 ugm/dl and in controls it was 71.90+18.50 ugm/dl .Serum zinc level was found significantly low in cases of simple febrile seizures as compaired to controls ,with p value of

  9. Feedback controlled dephasing and population relaxation in a two-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin

    2009-01-01

    This Letter presents the maximum achievable stability and purity that can be obtained in a two-level system with both dephasing and population relaxation processes by using homodyne-mediated feedback control. An analytic formula giving the optimal amplitudes of the driving and feedback for the steady-state is also presented. Experimental examples are used to show the importance of controlling the dephasing process.

  10. Implementation of Improved Management Control of Aviation Depot Level Repairable Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    for comparing and testing. Pf ter Drucker states that ". . . control is an ambiguous word. It means the abiliti to direct oneself and one’s work. It...Frequency 50 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Drucker , Peter F., The Practice of Management , Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1954. 2. Terry, George R., Principles of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOLMonterey, California 0- 6~~VI E1B9 87THESIS I IMPLEMENTATION OF IMPROVED MANAGEMENT CONTROL OF AVIATION DEPOT LEVEL

  11. Converging evidence for control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M; Hutchison, Keith A

    2013-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that cognitive control is implemented at the list and context levels in the color-word Stroop task. At first blush, the finding that Stroop interference is reduced for mostly incongruent items as compared with mostly congruent items (i.e., the item-specific proportion congruence [ISPC] effect) appears to provide evidence for yet a third level of control, which modulates word reading at the item level. However, evidence to date favors the view that ISPC effects reflect the rapid prediction of high-contingency responses and not item-specific control. In Experiment 1, we first show that an ISPC effect is obtained when the relevant dimension (i.e., color) signals proportion congruency, a problematic pattern for theories based on differential response contingencies. In Experiment 2, we replicate and extend this pattern by showing that item-specific control settings transfer to new stimuli, ruling out alternative frequency-based accounts. In Experiment 3, we revert to the traditional design in which the irrelevant dimension (i.e., word) signals proportion congruency. Evidence for item-specific control, including transfer of the ISPC effect to new stimuli, is apparent when 4-item sets are employed but not when 2-item sets are employed. We attribute this pattern to the absence of high-contingency responses on incongruent trials in the 4-item set. These novel findings provide converging evidence for reactive control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level, reveal theoretically important factors that modulate reliance on item-specific control versus contingency learning, and suggest an update to the item-specific control account (Bugg, Jacoby, & Chanani, 2011).

  12. Resource Leveling Based on Backward Controlling Activity in Line of Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The line of balance method that provides continuous and uninterrupted use of resources is one of the best methods for repetitive project resource management. This paper develops a resource leveling algorithm based on the backward controlling activity in line of balance. The backward controlling activity is a kind of special activity, and if its duration is prolonged the project duration could be reduced. It brings two advantages to the resource leveling: both the resource allocated on the backward activity and the project duration are reduced. A resource leveling algorithm is presented which permits the number of crews of the backward controlling activity to be reduced until the terminal situation is reached, where the backward controlling activity does not exist or the number of crews cannot be reduced. That adjustment enables the productivity of all activities to be consistent. An illustrative pipeline project demonstrates the improvement in resource leveling. And this study designed a MATLAB program to execute the design algorithm. The proposed model could help practitioners to achieve the goals of both resource leveling and project duration reduction without increasing any resource.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid cortisol levels are higher in patients with delirium versus controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Timothy O

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High plasma cortisol levels can cause acute cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and have been linked with delirium. CSF cortisol levels more closely reflect brain exposure to cortisol, but there are no studies of CSF cortisol levels in delirium. In this pilot study we acquired CSF specimens at the onset of spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, and compared CSF and plasma cortisol levels in delirium cases versus controls. Findings Delirium assessments were performed the evening before or on the morning of operation with a standard battery comprising cognitive tests, mental status assessments and the Confusion Assessment Method. CSF and plasma samples were obtained at the onset of the operation and cortisol levels measured. Twenty patients (15 female, 5 male aged 62 - 93 years were studied. Seven patients were diagnosed with delirium. The mean ages of cases (81.4 (SD 7.2 and controls (80.5 (SD 8.7 were not significantly different (p = 0.88. The median (interquartile range CSF cortisol levels were significantly higher in cases (63.9 (40.4-102.1 nmol/L than controls (31.4 (21.7-43.3 nmol/L; Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.029. The median (interquartile range of plasma cortisol was also significantly higher in cases (968.8 (886.2-1394.4 nmol/L, than controls (809.4 (544.0-986.4 nmol/L; Mann Whitney U, p = 0.036. Conclusions These findings support an association between higher CSF cortisol levels and delirium. This extends previous findings linking higher plasma cortisol and delirium, and suggests that more definitive studies of the relationship between cortisol levels and delirium are now required.

  14. Application of fuzzy synthetic assessment to assess human factors design level on reactor control panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xuecheng

    1999-01-01

    Reactor control panel design level on human factors must be considered by designer. The author evaluated the human factor design level of arrangement and combinations including the switch buttons, meter dials and indication lamps on Minjiang Reactor and High-Flux Engineer Test Reactor (HFETR) critical device by application of fuzzy synthetic assessment method in mathematics. From the assessment results, the advantages and shortcomings are fount, and some modification suggestions have also been proposed

  15. Controlling the optical bistability and multistability in a two-level pumped-probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad; Sahrai, Mostafa; Masoumeh Mousavi, Seyede

    2010-01-01

    We study the behavior of the optical bistability (OB) and multistability (OM) in a two-level pumped-probe atomic system by means of a unidirectional ring cavity. We show that the optical bistability in a two-level atomic system can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of the pump field and the detuning between two fields. We find that applying the pumping field decreases the threshold of the optical bistability.

  16. Investigation on the use digital controls instead of PID analog controls in the level control of steam generators of nuclear power PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify current alternatives for the implementation of digital controllers in the level control of steam generators of nuclear power PWR (Pressurized Water Reaetor). It is intended to identify the types of digital controls that are available from the theoretical and conceptual viewpoints for this purpose. We investigate the advantages and disadvantages of each controller model. From this assessment are pointed the most suitable models in hierarchical scale. This evaluation also serves to suggest possible types of control installation as a whole, where the level control of the steam generators becomes just one of many controls that are part of the plant. In this case, the use of digital controls allows the non-linear and multivariable treatment which is characteristic of complex systems, such as the nuclear power generation. The treatment of nonlinearities and multivariable aspects allows a more detailed study of the stability of these plants when they are subject to transients or several accidents, such as the case of losing external power of transients. In the specific case of steam generators, the instabilities result from the emergence of the shrink and swell phenomenas, depending on the load variations of thermonuclear plant. The application of several types and digital controllers, considering these inherent characteristics of the level control of steam generators, allows to infer which types of controllers are more appropriate to treat instabilities of this type and to make conjectures in its use for the cases of more complex instabilities, considering the integration of all nucleus-plant controls.

  17. Minimum time control of a pair of two-level quantum systems with opposite drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Raffaele; D’Alessandro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we solve two equivalent time optimal control problems. On one hand, we design the control field to implement in minimum time the SWAP (or equivalent) operator on a two-level system, assuming that it interacts with an additional, uncontrollable, two-level system. On the other hand, we synthesize the SWAP operator simultaneously, in minimum time, on a pair of two-level systems subject to opposite drifts. We assume that it is possible to perform three independent control actions, and that the total control strength is bounded. These controls either affect the dynamics of the target system, under the first perspective, or, simultaneously, the dynamics of both systems, in the second view. We obtain our results by using techniques of geometric control theory on Lie groups. In particular, we apply the Pontryagin maximum principle, and provide a complete characterization of singular and nonsingular extremals. Our analysis shows that the problem can be formulated as the motion of a material point in a central force, a well known system in classical mechanics. Although we focus on obtaining the SWAP operator, many of the ideas and techniques developed in this work apply to the time optimal implementation of an arbitrary unitary operator. (paper)

  18. MPC-based auto-tuned PID controller for the steam generator water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun

    2001-01-01

    In this work, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control gains are automatically tuned by using a model predictive control (MPC) method. The MPC has received much attention as a powerful tool for the control of industrial process systems. An MPC-based PID controller can be derived from the second order linear model of a process. The steam generator is usually described by the well-known 4 th order linear model which consists of the mass capacity, reverse dynamics and mechanical oscillations terms. But the important terms in this linear model are the mass capacity and reverse dynamics terms, both of which can be described by a 2 nd order linear system. The proposed auto-tuned PID controller was applied to a linear model of steam generators. The parameters of a linear model for steam generators are very different according to the power levels. The proposed controller showed good performance for the water level deviation and sudden steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plants by changing only the input-weighting factor according to the power level

  19. An Internet of Things Based Multi-Level Privacy-Preserving Access Control for Smart Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Salama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the Internet of Things (IoT in healthcare through the use of mobile medical applications and wearable devices allows patients to capture their healthcare data and enables healthcare professionals to be up-to-date with a patient’s status. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, which is considered as one of the major applications of IoT, is a home environment augmented with embedded ambient sensors to help improve an individual’s quality of life. This domain faces major challenges in providing safety and security when accessing sensitive health data. This paper presents an access control framework for AAL which considers multi-level access and privacy preservation. We focus on two major points: (1 how to use the data collected from ambient sensors and biometric sensors to perform the high-level task of activity recognition; and (2 how to secure the collected private healthcare data via effective access control. We achieve multi-level access control by extending Public Key Infrastructure (PKI for secure authentication and utilizing Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC for authorization. The proposed access control system regulates access to healthcare data by defining policy attributes over healthcare professional groups and data classes classifications. We provide guidelines to classify the data classes and healthcare professional groups and describe security policies to control access to the data classes.

  20. Undetectable inhibin B serum levels in men after testicular irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Andersson, A M; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    A group of men treated with testicular irradiation for carcinoma in situ in the remaining testis after orchidectomy for unilateral testicular germ cell cancer was used as a model to study of the effect of selective eradication of germ cells on the levels of serum inhibin B in the human male....... Thirteen men with verified spermatogenesis and detectable preirradiation levels of serum inhibin B (median, 55; range, 23-193 pg/mL) were investigated before and after testicular irradiation (14-20 Gy). All patients had undetectable levels of inhibin B 2-12 months (median, 5 months) after radiotherapy (...

  1. The Architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Xie, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of the Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring system for the CMS experiment is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking at the LHC. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time.

  2. The Low-Level Control System for the CERN PS Multi-Turn Extraction Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Schipper, J; Boucly, C; Carlier, E; Fowler, T; Gaudillet, H; Noulibos, R; Sermeus, L

    2010-01-01

    To reduce the beam losses when preparing high intensity proton beam for the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso (CNGS) facility, a new Multi-Turn extraction (MTE) scheme has been implemented in the PS, to replace the present Continuous Transfer (CT) to the SPS. Industrial off-the-shelf components have been used for the low-level part of the MTE kicker control system. National Instruments PXI systems are used to control the high voltage pulse generators and a SIEMENS programmable logic controller (PLC) handles the centralised oil cooling and gas insulation sub-systems

  3. Spectrometer control subsystem with high level functionality for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1980-11-01

    We have developed a subsystem capable of controlling stepping motors in a wide variety of vuv and x-ray spectrometers to be used at the National Sychrotron Light Source. The subsystem is capable of controlling up to 15 motors with encoder readback and ramped acceleration/deceleration. Both absolute and incremental encoders may be used in any mixture. Function commands to the subsystem are communicated via ASCII characters over an asynchronous serial link in a well-defined protocol in decipherable English. Thus the unit can be controlled via write statements in a high-level language. Details of hardware implementation will be presented

  4. High performance fuzzy sliding mode control of DFIG supplied by seven level NPC inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed BENKAHLA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the powers control of a variable speed wind turbine (WT based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG because of their advantages in terms of economy and control. The considered system consists of a double fed induction generator whose stator is connected directly to the network and its rotor is supplied by seven-level inverter with structure NPC are well used to minimize the harmonics absorbed by the DFIG. In order to control the power flowing between the stator of the DFIG and the grid. Have been studied and compared two types of controllers : Sliding Mode Control (SMC and Fuzzy SMC (FSMC. Their respective performances are compared in terms of power reference tracking, response to sudden speed variations, sensitivity to perturbations and robustness against machine parameters variations.

  5. Cosmogenic He and Ne in chondrules from clastic matrix and a lithic clast of Murchison: No pre-irradiation by the early sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, My E. I.; Huber, Liliane; Metzler, Knut; Busemann, Henner; Luginbuehl, Stefanie M.; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Maden, Colin; Wieler, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    other regolithic meteorites for which large occasional excesses of cosmogenic noble gases have been reported. Considering pre-irradiation in a regolith (2π exposure), the pre-exposure times for these four chondrules are at least between some 4 and 40 Ma near the very surface of the parent body, and even longer if they were buried deeper in the regolith.

  6. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of preirradiation chemotherapy with BCNU, cisplatin, etoposide, and accelerated radiation therapy in patients with high-grade glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Buckner, Jan C.; Schomberg, Paula J.; Reid, Joel M.; Bagniewski, Pamela J.; Ames, Matthew M.; Cascino, Terrence L.; Marks, Randolph S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We conducted a Phase I study of bischloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU), cisplatin, and oral etoposide administered prior to and during accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy in newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. Pharmacokinetic studies of oral etoposide were also done. Methods and Materials: Patients started chemotherapy after surgery but prior to definitive radiation therapy (160 cGy twice daily x 15 days; 4800 cGy total). Initial chemotherapy consisted of BCNU 40 mg/m 2 days 1-3, cisplatin 30 mg/m 2 days 1-3 and 29-31, and etoposide 50 mg orally days 1-14 and 29-42, repeated in 8 weeks concurrent with radiation therapy. BCNU 200 mg/m 2 every 8 weeks x 4 cycles was given after radiation therapy. Results: Sixteen patients, 5 with grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma and 11 with glioblastoma were studied. Grade 3-4 leukopenia (38%) and thrombocytopenia (31%) were dose-limiting. Other toxicities were anorexia (81%), nausea (94%), emesis (56%), alopecia (88%), and ototoxicity (38%). The maximum tolerated dose was BCNU 40 mg/m 2 days 1-3, cisplatin 20 mg/m 2 days 1-3 and 29-31, and oral etoposide 50 mg days 1-21 and 29-49 prior to radiation therapy and repeated in 8 weeks with the start of radiation therapy followed by BCNU 200 mg/m 2 every 8 weeks for 4 cycles. Median time to progression and survival were 13 and 14 months respectively. Responses occurred in 2 of 9 (22%) patients with evaluable disease. In pharmacokinetic studies, all patients achieved plasma concentrations of >0.1 μg/ml etoposide (the in vitro radiosensitizing threshold), following a 50 mg oral dose. The mean ± SD 2 hr and 6 hr plasma concentrations were 0.92 ± 0.43 μg/ml and 0.36 ± 0.12 μg/ml, respectively. Estimated duration of exposure to >0.1 μg/ml etoposide was 10-17 hr. Conclusions: Preirradiation chemotherapy with BCNU, cisplatin, and oral etoposide with accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy in high-grade gliomas is feasible and merits further investigation. Sustained

  7. SU-F-T-318: Sensitivity and Stability of OSLDs with Filled Deep Electron/hole Traps Under Pre-Irradiation and Bleaching Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J; Park, S; Lee, H; Kim, H; Choi, C; Park, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work evaluated the characteristics of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) with fully filled deep electron/hole traps (OSLDfull) with the bleaching conditions according to the accumulated dose. Methods: The OSLDs were first pre-irradiated with a Co-60 gamma ray at more than 5 kGy, so as to fill the deep electron and hole traps. Using a 6-MV beam, the OSLDfull characteristics were investigated in terms of the full bleaching, fading, dose linearity, and dose sensitivity obtained in response to the accumulated dose values. To facilitate a comparison of the dose sensitivity, OSLDs with un-filled deep electron/hole traps (OSLDempty) were investigated in the same manner. A long-pass filter was used to exclude bleaching-source wavelengths of less than 520 nm. Various bleaching time and wavelength combinations were used in order to determine the optimal bleaching conditions for the OSLD full. Results: The fading for the OSLDfull exhibited stable signals after 8 min, for both 1- and 10-Gy. For 4-h bleaching time and an unfiltered bleaching device, the supralinear index values for the OSLDfull were 1.003, 1.002, 0.999, and 1.001 for doses of 2, 4, 7, and 10 Gy, respectively. For a 65-Gy accumulated dose with a 5-Gy fraction, no variation in dose sensitivity was obtained for the OSLDfull, within a standard deviation of 0.85%, whereas the OSLDempty dose sensitivity decreased by approximately 2.3% per 10 Gy. The filtered bleaching device yielded a highly stable sensitivity for OSLDfull, independent of bleaching time and within a standard deviation of 0.71%, whereas the OSLDempty dose sensitivity decreased by approximately 4.2% per 10 Gy for an accumulated dose of 25 Gy with a 5-Gy fraction. Conclusion: Under the bleaching conditions determined in this study, clinical dosimetry with OSLDfull is highly stable, having an accuracy of 1% with no change in dose sensitivity or linearity at clinical doses. This work was supported by a National Research

  8. Understanding tobacco control policy at the national level: bridging the gap between public policy and tobacco control advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc C. Willemsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background While some countries have advanced tobacco control policies, other countries struggle to adopt and implement FCTC's measures. This presentation uncovers the main factors that explain such variations, taking insights from public policy and political science as a starting point for a case study. Methods A case study of tobacco control policy making in the Netherlands, covering the period from the 1960s until the present. The study consisted of a systematic search and analysis of documents and proceedings of parliamentary debates on tobacco policy, supplemented with 22 interviews with key informants from the government, health organisations, politicians, and the tobacco industry. In addition, documents from the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents database, pertaining to the influence of the tobacco industry on Dutch policy making, were analysed. Results The Dutch government started relatively late to regulate tobacco. The choices in tobacco control policy making at the national level and the tempo in which they are made are explained by the interaction of the five main elements of the tobacco control policy making process: Relatively stable context factors (constitutional structures, 'rules of the policy making game', national cultural values Relatively dynamic context factors (regime changes, EU regulation and FCTC guidelines, changing social norms, public support Transfer of ideas (availability and interpretation of scientific evidence Pro and anti-tobacco control networks and coalitions (their organisational and lobby strength Agenda-setting (changes in problem definition, issue framing, media advocacy Conclusions Despite worldwide convergence of tobacco control policies, accelerated by the ratification of the FCTC treaty by most nations, governments develop approaches to tobacco control in line with cultural values, ideological preferences and specific national institutional arrangements. There is no one-size-fits-all approach. The

  9. Sex differences in plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenia and normal controls: relation to neuroleptic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Hasegawa, M; Jayathilake, K; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were compared in a large number of neuroleptic-resistant and -responsive schizophrenic patients (male/female = 161/46) and normal controls (67/27), and correlated with various measures of psychopathology. Psychopathology was evaluated with the brief psychiatric rating scale, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change version (SADS-C) and SADS-C Global Assessment Scale, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), and the Quality of Life Scale. No significant differences in pHVA levels between neuroleptic-resistant (n = 104) or -responsive (n = 103) schizophrenic patients, and normal controls, were found; however, there was a main effect for sex, due to higher pHVA levels in women than men. There were no diagnosis x gender or age effects on pHVA levels. No significant correlations were observed between psychopathology ratings and baseline pHVA levels, except with the Hallucinations subscale of SAPS in neuroleptic-responsive patients. Neither duration of neuroleptic washout nor plasma prolactin levels correlated with pHVA levels. Further studies on the origin and significance of the gender difference in pHVA are indicated.

  10. Design and application of discrete wavelet packet transform based multiresolution controller for liquid level system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rimi; Sengupta, Anindita

    2017-11-01

    A new controller based on discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) for liquid level system (LLS) has been presented here. This controller generates control signal using node coefficients of the error signal which interprets many implicit phenomena such as process dynamics, measurement noise and effect of external disturbances. Through simulation results on LLS problem, this controller is shown to perform faster than both the discrete wavelet transform based controller and conventional proportional integral controller. Also, it is more efficient in terms of its ability to provide better noise rejection. To overcome the wind up phenomenon by considering the saturation due to presence of actuator, anti-wind up technique is applied to the conventional PI controller and compared to the wavelet packet transform based controller. In this case also, packet controller is found better than the other ones. This similar work has been extended for analogous first order RC plant as well as second order plant also. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-level alcohol consumption during adolescence and its impact on cognitive control development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Sarah; Mennigen, Eva; Goschke, Thomas; Smolka, Michael N

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for maturation of cognitive control and most adolescents start experimenting with alcohol around that time. On the one hand, recent studies indicate that low control abilities predict future problematic alcohol use. On the other hand, binge drinking during young adulthood can (further) impair cognitive control. However, so far no study examined the effects of low-level alcohol use during adolescence. In the present longitudinal fMRI study, we therefore investigated the development of cognitive control in a community-based sample of 92 adolescents at ages 14, 16 and 18. Two different cognitive control functions, i.e. inhibition of pre-potent responses (operationalized by incongruence effects) and switching between different task sets, were measured within one task. Alcohol use in our sample was low (mean: 54 g/week at age 18). The study revealed that neither behavioural nor neural measures of cognitive control function at age 14 predicted alcohol use at age 18 but confirmed established predictors such as gender and personality. As expected, from age 14 to 18, cognitive control abilities were improving (decreased reaction times and/or errors), and activation of cognitive control networks (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area) during incongruent trials increased. Unexpectedly, higher alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with a more pronounced increase in cognitive performance and a smaller increase of neural activation when incongruent trials afforded inhibitory control. We conclude that low-level alcohol use during adolescence does not severely impair ongoing maturation of cognitive control abilities and networks. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. 40 CFR 57.302 - Performance level of interim constant controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... correction of the effects of any serious deficiencies in the system. For the purpose of this paragraph, at... system if the smelter owner has not upgraded serious deficiencies in the constant control system in... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance level of interim constant...

  13. The data module, the missing link in high level control languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    In order to be able to use the full power and simplicity of a high level language for writing plant control programs, it must be possible to use the plant variables in the same manner as program variables, completely transparent to the address structure of the hardware and interface. Some of the high level languages provide facilities for writing procedures or subroutines to make this possible. However, most of the facilities provided share a number of disadvantages: they are usually relatively complicated for the user, involving passing many parameters which the programmer has to specify at each call; they usually have restrictions on the data types that can be used, and the data bases are normally organised to suit the interface system. However, the high level programmer is interested in the equipment to be controlled such as motors, pumps, power supplies, valves, etc., rather than the means of interfacing the equipment, and it greatly simplifies his task if he can call for actions on these items, using simple mnemonic names and a simple format. The design of the control system for the CERN 400 GeV proton accelerator, using a network of some thirty computers, provided the opportunity to try out a different approach, using an interpreter for the high-level control language NODAL, together with special functions which are called 'data modules'. The use of the data module and interpreter are described. (author)

  14. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  15. The high level programmer and user interface of the NSLS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.N.; Smith, J.D.; Sathe, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the major components of the high level software in the NSLS upgraded control system. Both programmer and user interfaces are discussed. The use of the high-speed work stations, fast network communications, UNIX system, X-window and Motif have greatly changed and improved these interfaces

  16. Comparison of folic acid levels in schizophrenic patients and control groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthy, C. C.; Amin, M. M.; Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    Folic acid deficiency is a risk factor for schizophrenia through epidemiology, biochemistry and gene-related studies. Compared with healthy people, schizophrenic patients may have high homocysteine plasma values and homocysteine or low levels of folic acid, which seems to correlate with extrapyramidal motor symptoms caused by neuroleptic therapy and with symptoms of schizophrenia. In this present study, we focus on the difference of folic acid level between schizophrenic patient and control group. The study sample consisted of schizophrenic patients and 14 people in the control group and performed blood sampling to obtain the results of folic acid levels. The folic acid level in both groups was within normal range, but the schizophrenic patient group had lower mean folic acid values of 5.00 ng/ml (sb 1.66), compared with the control group with mean folic acid values of 10.75 ng/ml (sb 4.33). there was the group of the control group had a higher value of folic acid than the schizophrenic group.

  17. Converging Evidence for Control of Color-Word Stroop Interference at the Item Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M.; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that cognitive control is implemented at the list and context levels in the color-word Stroop task. At first blush, the finding that Stroop interference is reduced for mostly incongruent items as compared with mostly congruent items (i.e., the item-specific proportion congruence [ISPC] effect) appears to provide evidence…

  18. Annual report on the effluent control of low level liquid water in Tokai Works. FY2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeishi, Minoru; Miyagawa, Naoto; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    2005-08-01

    This report was written about the effluent control of low level liquid waste in JNC Tokai Works Fiscal Year 2004, from 1st April 2004 to 31th March 2005. In this period, the quantities and concentrations of radioactivity in liquid waste from Tokai Works were under the discharge limits of 'Safety Regulations for the Tokai Reprocessing Plant' and regulations of government. (author)

  19. Effects of Level of Glycaemic Control in Reduction of Maternal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of morbidity for mother and fetus during pregnancy and at birth as well as later in life. The objective of this study was to determine the association between level of glycaemic control and maternal and perinantal complications in pregnant diabetic women. Institution ...

  20. Dealing with Law in migration control: The Powers of Street-level bureaucrats at French Consulates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpes, M.J.; Spire, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how street-level bureaucrats within migration control use their scope for discretionary powers. On the basis of two ethnographic studies of French consulates in Yaoundé and Tunis, we argue that state agents' practices are significantly shaped by organizational constraints such

  1. Neural Network with Local Memory for Nuclear Reactor Power Level Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluyol, Oender; Ragheb, Magdi; Tsoukalas, Lefteri

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is introduced for a neural network with local memory called a multilayered local output gamma feedback (LOGF) neural network within the paradigm of locally-recurrent globally-feedforward neural networks. It appears to be well-suited for the identification, prediction, and control tasks in highly dynamic systems; it allows for the presentation of different timescales through incorporation of a gamma memory. A learning algorithm based on the backpropagation-through-time approach is derived. The spatial and temporal weights of the network are iteratively optimized for a given problem using the derived learning algorithm. As a demonstration of the methodology, it is applied to the task of power level control of a nuclear reactor at different fuel cycle conditions. The results demonstrate that the LOGF neural network controller outperforms the classical as well as the state feedback-assisted classical controllers for reactor power level control by showing a better tracking of the demand power, improving the fuel and exit temperature responses, and by performing robustly in different fuel cycle and power level conditions

  2. Simulation and controller design for an agricultural sprayer boom leveling system

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2011-01-01

    According to the agricultural precision requirements, the distance from sprayer nozzles to the corps should be kept between 50 cm to 70 cm. The sprayer boom also needs to be kept parallel to the field during the operation process. Thus we can guarantee the quality of the chemical droplets distribution on the crops. In this paper we introduced a sprayer boom leveling system for agricultural sprayer vehicles with electro-hydraulic auto-leveling system. The suitable hydraulic actuating cylinder and valve were selected according to the specific systemic specifications. Furthermore, a compensation controller for the electro-hydraulic system was designed based on the mathematical model. With simulations we can optimize the performance of this controller to make sure a fast leveling response to the inclined sprayer boom. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Thermoelectric properties control due to doping level and sintering conditions for FGM thermoelectric element

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, T; Shiraishi, K; Ohmori, M; Hirai, T

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance is determined with three factors, namely, Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity. For metal and single crystalline semiconductor, those factors have close interrelation each $9 other. However, as the sintered thermoelectric element has various levels of superstructure from macro scale and micro scale in terms of the thermoelectric mechanism, the relationship among them is more complex than that for the $9 melt- grown element, so it is suggested that the control of the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties is possible to enhance the thermoelectric performance for wide temperature range due to FGM approach. The research $9 objective is to investigate the characteristics of the thermoelectric properties for various doping levels and hot-pressed conditions to make the thermoelectric elements for which the temperature dependence of the performance is $9 controlled due to FGM approach varying the doping levels and sintering conditions. By usage ...

  4. Risk Presentation Using the Three Dimensions of Likelihood, Severity, and Level of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    Traditional hazard analysis techniques utilize a two-dimensional representation of the results determined by relative likelihood and severity of the residual risk. These matrices present a quick-look at the Likelihood (Y-axis) and Severity (X-axis) of the probable outcome of a hazardous event. A three-dimensional method, described herein, utilizes the traditional X and Y axes, while adding a new, third dimension, shown as the Z-axis, and referred to as the Level of Control. The elements of the Z-axis are modifications of the Hazard Elimination and Control steps (also known as the Hazard Reduction Precedence Sequence). These steps are: 1. Eliminate risk through design. 2. Substitute less risky materials for more hazardous materials. 3. Install safety devices. 4. Install caution and warning devices. 5. Develop administrative controls (to include special procedures and training.) 6. Provide protective clothing and equipment. When added to the two-dimensional models, the level of control adds a visual representation of the risk associated with the hazardous condition, creating a tall-pole for the leastwell-controlled failure while establishing the relative likelihood and severity of all causes and effects for an identified hazard. Computer modeling of the analytical results, using spreadsheets and three-dimensional charting gives a visual confirmation of the relationship between causes and their controls.

  5. Risk Assessment Using the Three Dimensions of Probability (Likelihood), Severity, and Level of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clifford C.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional hazard analysis techniques utilize a two-dimensional representation of the results determined by relative likelihood and severity of the residual risk. These matrices present a quick-look at the Likelihood (Y-axis) and Severity (X-axis) of the probable outcome of a hazardous event. A three-dimensional method, described herein, utilizes the traditional X and Y axes, while adding a new, third dimension, shown as the Z-axis, and referred to as the Level of Control. The elements of the Z-axis are modifications of the Hazard Elimination and Control steps (also known as the Hazard Reduction Precedence Sequence). These steps are: 1. Eliminate risk through design. 2. Substitute less risky materials for more hazardous materials. 3. Install safety devices. 4. Install caution and warning devices. 5. Develop administrative controls (to include special procedures and training.) 6. Provide protective clothing and equipment. When added to the two-dimensional models, the level of control adds a visual representation of the risk associated with the hazardous condition, creating a tall-pole for the least-well-controlled failure while establishing the relative likelihood and severity of all causes and effects for an identified hazard. Computer modeling of the analytical results, using spreadsheets and three-dimensional charting gives a visual confirmation of the relationship between causes and their controls.

  6. Uhrig dynamical control of a three-level system via non-Markovian quantum state diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Wenchong; Zhao, Xinyu; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to implement the Uhrig dynamical decoupling to a three-level quantum system coupled to a non-Markovian reservoir comprising of infinite numbers of degrees of freedom. For this purpose, we first reformulate the non-Markovian QSD to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. With this stochastic QSD approach, we demonstrate that an unknown state of the three-level quantum system can be universally protected against both coloured phase and amplitude noises when the control-pulse sequences and control operators are properly designed. The advantage of using non-Markovian QSD equations is that the control dynamics of open quantum systems can be treated exactly without using Trotter product formula and be efficiently simulated even when the environment is comprised of infinite numbers of degrees of freedom. We also show how the control efficacy depends on the environment memory time and the designed time points of applied control pulses. (paper)

  7. Digital control system of a steam generator water level by LQG optimal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Joon

    1993-01-01

    A digital control system for the steam generator water level control is developed using LQG optimal design method. To describe the more realistic situaton, a feedwater valve actuator is assumed to be of the first order lagger and is included in the overall control system. By composing the digital control circuit in such a way that the overall control system consists of two sub-systems of feedwater station and feedback loop digital controller, the design procedure is divided into two independent steps. The feedwater station system is described in the error dynamics of an ordinary regulator system. The optimal gains are obtained by LQ method which imposes the constraints of the feedwater valve motion as well as on the output deviations. Developed also is a Kalman observer on account of the flow measurement uncertainty at low power. Then a digital controller on the feedback loop is designed so that the system maintains the same stability margins for all power ranges. The simulation results show thst the optimal digital system has a good control characteristics despite the adverse dynamics of a steam generator at low power. (Author)

  8. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized control of air power at operational level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Uǧur

    2014-05-01

    People do not want to see and hear a war. In today's world, if war is inevitable, the use of air power is seen as the preferable means of conducting operations instead of financially burdensome land battles which are more likely to cause heavy loss of life. The use of Air Power has gained importance in NATO operations in the Post-Cold War era. For example, air power has undertaken a decisive role from the beginning to the end of the operation in Libya. From this point of view, the most important issue to consider is how to direct air power more effectively at operational level. NATO's Core JFAC (Joint Force Air Command) was established in 2012 to control joint air power at operational level from a single center. US had experienced JFAC aproach in the Operation Desert Storm in 1991. UK, France, Germany, Italy and Spain are also directing their air power from their JFAC structures. Joint air power can be directed from a single center at operational level by means of JFAC. JFAC aproach provides complex planning progress of Air Power to be controled faster in a single center. An Air Power with a large number of aircrafts, long range missiles of cutting-edge technology may have difficulties in achieving results unless directed effectively. In this article, directing air power more effectively at operational level has been studied in the framework of directing air power from a single center carried out by SWOT analysis technique. "Directing Air Power at operational level from a single center similar to JFAC-like structure" is compared with "Directing Air Power at operational level from two centers similar to AC (Air Command) + CAOC (Combined Air Operations Center) structure" As a result of this study, it is assessed that directing air power at operational level from a single center would bring effectiveness to the air campaign. The study examines directing air power at operational level. Developments at political, strategic and tactical levels have been ignored.

  9. Effect of heat treatments and pre-irradiation on the corrosion at high pressure and temperature of pressure tube Zr-2.5Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmedo, A.M; Bordoni, R

    2006-01-01

    becomes evident when observing the oxide/metal interface of the coupons without HT in which oxide strands penetrate deeply into the metal which coincides with the material's βZr phase. These strands are not present in the oxide metal interface of the coupons with HT. In order to analyze the effect of the pre-irradiation (neutron flow) on the behavior to corrosion machined test pieces of the PT extracted from the CNE in autoclave at 300 o C, were oxidized in lithiated degassed water, pH≅ 10, and simultaneously oxidized coupons obtained from the off cuts (non irradiated material) of these pressure tubes. The range of neutron flow (E ≥1MeV) for the irradiated material is 0.69 x10 25 to 10.2 x10 25 n/m 2 . The results of the corrosion kinetics showed a reduction of up to 40% in the speed of corrosion of the irradiated material compared to the non irradiated material and also showed that the reduction in this speed increases with the increased flow and is saturated for flows greater than 1.5x 10 25 n/m2. The analysis of the oxide/metal interfaces of the coupons with and without pre-irradiation showed the presence of strands of oxides in them, which would indicate that the increase in the irradiated material's resistance to corrosion is associated with modifications in the microstructure of the αZr phase in which the flow of rapid neutrons would induce the precipitation of small βNb precipitates with the resulting drop in their Nb content (CW)

  10. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  11. Subjective annoyance caused by indoor low-level and low frequency noise and control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Guo-qing; ZHANG Bang-jun; SHANG Qi

    2005-01-01

    The influence of low-level noise has not been widely noticed. This paper discovered that low-level and low frequency noise(Aweighted equivalent level Leq < 45 dB) causes higher probability of subjective annoyance. The fuzzy mathematic principle was applied to deal with the threshold level of subjective annoyance from noise in this study; there is preferable relationship between the indoor noise and noise annoyance at low frequency noise level. Study indicated at the same centered noise level, the change of annoyance probability is mainly caused by the change of the frequency spectrum characteristic of the indoor noise. Under low noise level environment, without change of the medium-low frequency noise, the slight increase of medium-high frequency noise level with the help of noise sheltering effect can significantly reduce the noise annoyance. This discovery brings a new resolution on how to improve the environmental quality of working or living places. A noise control model is given in this study according to the acoustic analysis.

  12. Is There a Relationship Between 25-Hydroksyvitamin D3 Levels and Diabetes Control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide Hacer Tekin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and to investigate the difference in this relationship between genders. Methods: In this study, we retrospectively evaluated fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels in 3675 subjects (660 male, 3015 female. The subjects were divided into two groups according to sex and into three groups according to HbA1c levels as pre-diabetics (5.7-6.4%, diabetics (6.5-8.0% and uncontrolled diabetics (>8.1%. Individuals with an HbA1c value between 4.0% and 5.6% who had no history of diabetes mellitus constituted the control group. Results: Significantly low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were detected in female uncontrolled diabetics (p<0.001. However, no difference found in males between the groups A downward trend in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels was observed to start in prediabetes period. There was no significant difference in parathyroid hormone levels between the groups. Conclusion: In addition to HbA1c levels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels should be investigated and considered especially in follow-up of diabetic female patients.

  13. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-11-01

    Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP.

  14. Maintenance Free and Sustainable High-Level Control in Cement and Mining Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Fink

    2009-01-01

    High-level control systems have been utilized in the process industry for decades, and also in cement production their use is well established. In comparison to manual control their ability to increase production and quality of end product, while reducing energy consumption and emission, is well...... but nevertheless still require maintenance. For the 10% of the algorithm that is control related, the maintenance issue is to some extent addressed by research topics such as adaptive control, which aim at retuning the parameters of the algorithm to match the changing process. In this project however, it has been...... chosen to focus on the remaining 90% of the algorithm which still require manual modifications to cope with a changed process. Although this issue has gained limited attention from academia so far it is well recognized by the industry. In the process of maintaining an algorithm it has turned out...

  15. Low-level feedback control for the phase regulation of CLIC Drive Beam Klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)752526

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of luminosity loss below 1% raises tight tolerances for the phase and power stability of the CLIC drive beam (DB) klystrons and consequently for the high voltage pulse ripple of the modulators. A low-level RF (LLRF) feedback system needs to be developed and combined with the modulator in order to guarantee the phase and amplitude tolerances. To this aim, three feedback control strategies were investigated, i) Proportional Integral (PI) controller, ii) Linear Quadratic Integral Regulator (LQI) and iii) Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The klystron, as well as the incident phase noise were modelled and used for the design and evaluation of the controllers. First simulation results are presented along with future steps and directions.

  16. Effects of training on postural control and agility when wearing socks of different compression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakkola Timo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of training while wearing socks differing in compression level (clinical, sub-clinical, regular on performance of static and dynamic balancing and agility tasks in healthy, physically active people. We sought to understand whether socks with different compression properties supported postural regulation and agility task performance by enhancing somatosensory perception, unskewed by specific age range effects. Material and methods: Participants comprised 61 adults aged 18-75 years, divided into three groups (two experimental groups wearing clinical or sub-clinical level compression socks, and one control group wearing regular non-compression socks during training. An 8-week (2 × 1h per week intervention programme was administered to train static and dynamic balance and postural control, leg strength and agility. Results: A mixed model ANOVA revealed no differences in static and dynamic balance and postural control and agility performance between clinical, sub-clinical, and control groups before and after training. All groups significantly improved their test performance, suggesting that training had some benefit on motor performance. Conclusions: These results raised interesting questions requiring further investigation to examine the effects of wearing socks (with and without different levels of compression on motor behaviours in specific groups of elderly vs. young participants, in physically active vs. less physically active people, and in performance settings outside standardized laboratory tests to study applications in natural performance environments.

  17. Design and construction of an optical sensor for liquid level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razani, M.; Golnabi, H.; Dabbaghian, M. H.; Dariani, R. S.; Vaziri, N.; Hojabri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Design and construction of an optical sensor for liquid level control is reported here. Operation of this sensor is based on the intensity modulation. The modulated light intensity is detected by total internal reflection in a prism. The variation of output intensity is measured by an optical detector and is monitored by a digital voltmeter. This optical fiber sensor is used for water level measurement in this experiment. For a white light source, the output voltage in the case of low water level is equal to 480 mV and when the water level reaches to prism reduced to 8 mV. Height measurement accuracy in this system is about ±1mm.

  18. Representation and Integration: Combining Robot Control, High-Level Planning, and Action Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrick, Ronald; Kraft, Dirk; Mourao, Kira

    We describe an approach to integrated robot control, high-level planning, and action effect learning that attempts to overcome the representational difficulties that exist between these diverse areas. Our approach combines ideas from robot vision, knowledgelevel planning, and connectionist machine......-level action specifications, suitable for planning, from a robot’s interactions with the world. We present a detailed overview of our approach and show how it supports the learning of certain aspects of a high-level lepresentation from low-level world state information....... learning, and focuses on the representational needs of these components.We also make use of a simple representational unit called an instantiated state transition fragment (ISTF) and a related structure called an object-action complex (OAC). The goal of this work is a general approach for inducing high...

  19. Regulation of the water level in the steam generator using modal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Guy.

    1981-11-01

    The nuclear power reactors type P.W.R. (900 MWe) have three steam generators (S.G.). The problem of the water level in the S.G. is analogous to that for a system with non-minimum phase. This causes a serious trouble for the stability of the regulation, which is actually realized by using the PID regulator. The first part of this study is devoted to construct a mathematical model which represents the S.G. This model is simulated on a digital computer, which order is six. The validity of this model is checked using actual measured signals which have been collected from the BUGEY III power reactor. In the second part, the mathematical representation for simulating the regulation of the level in the S.G. using the modal control is given. The simulation of the actual system is given in the third part. This actual system is composed from the S.G. as well as the PI and PID for regulating the water level. As results from this study, it can be concluded that, the modal control improves the regulation of the water level. The accuracy of the steam flow measurement at low rate is poor. So, the actual regulating system using the measurements has a reduced performance performance. The control modal which is represented in this study overcome this problem [fr

  20. Catecholamine levels in a Ramadan fasting model in rats: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakize Gamze Erten Bucaktepe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eating habits as well as physical exercise are very important for a healthy lifespan. Ramadan-type fasting, which is food and water avoidance during the daylight period for four weeks, has drawn attention due to its positive impacts on metabolism and health. The aim of this study was to compare the blood and urine catecholamine (CA levels in fasting and non-fasting rats, in terms of stress response. A total of 20 male rats were randomly divided into a fasting group and a control group. Four weeks later, blood and urine samples were taken after decapitation. Analysis of CAs was done using high-performance liquid chromatography with florescence detection (HPLC-FLD. The dopamine (DA, adrenaline (ADR and noradrenaline (NA blood and urine concentrations were found to be higher in the fasting group compared to the control group, but the difference was statistically significant only for the blood DA levels (p < 0.05. In the fasting group, the blood values of ADR and NA correlated with each other but not with the DA levels, whereas there was correlation among the urine levels of DA, ADR and NA. In the control group, the blood and urine values of DA, ADR and NA correlated with each other. The differences observed in the blood and urine CAs indicate a specific regulation of CAs in Ramadan-type fasting, which needs to be investigated thoroughly in future studies.

  1. Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkelä Sari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. Methods A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity health clinics. The intervention included individual counseling on diet and on physical activity, while the controls received conventional care. Blood samples were collected on gestation weeks 8-9 (baseline and 36-37 (end of intervention. The serum levels of the plant lignans 7-hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, cyclolariciresinol, and pinoresinol, and of the enterolignans 7-hydroxyenterolactone, enterodiol, and enterolactone, were measured using a validated method. Results The baseline levels of enterolactone, enterodiol and the sum of lignans were higher in the control group, whereas at the end of the trial their levels were higher in the intervention group. The adjusted mean differences between the baseline and end of the intervention for enterolactone and the total lignan intake were 1.6 ng/ml (p = 0.018, 95% CI 1.1-2.3 and 1.4 ng/mg (p = 0.08, 95% CI 1.0-1.9 higher in the intervention group than in the controls. Further adjustment for dietary components did not change these associations. Conclusion The dietary intervention was successful in increasing the intake of lignan-rich food products, the fiber consumption and consequently the plasma levels of lignans in pregnant women. Trial registration ISRCTN21512277, http://www.isrctn.org

  2. Controls on valley spacing in landscapes subject to rapid base-level fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Pelletier, John D.

    2015-01-01

    What controls the architecture of drainage networks is a fundamental question in geomorphology. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of drainage network development in steadily uplifting landscapes, but the controls on drainage-network morphology in transient landscapes are relatively unknown. In this paper we exploit natural experiments in drainage network development in incised Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces in order to understand and quantify drainage network development in highly transient landscapes, i.e. initially unincised low-relief surfaces that experience a pulse of rapid base-level drop followed by relative base-level stasis. Parallel drainage networks formed on incised alluvial-fan surfaces tend to have a drainage spacing that is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the base-level drop. Numerical experiments suggest that this observed relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean drainage spacing is the result of feedbacks among the depth of valley incision, mass wasting and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport with slope gradient on steep valley side slopes that lead to increasingly wide valleys in cases of larger base-level drop. We identify a threshold magnitude of base-level drop above which side slopes lengthen sufficiently to promote increases in contributing area and fluvial incision rates that lead to branching and encourage drainage networks to transition from systems of first-order valleys to systems of higher-order, branching valleys. The headward growth of these branching tributaries prevents the development of adjacent, ephemeral drainages and promotes a higher mean valley spacing relative to cases in which tributaries do not form. Model results offer additional insights into the response of initially unincised landscapes to rapid base-level drop and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how varying amounts of base-level change influence valley network morphology.

  3. Relationship of Circulating Hyaluronic Acid Levels to Disease Control in Asthma and Asthmatic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszes, Noémi; Toldi, Gergely; Bohács, Anikó; Ivancsó, István; Müller, Veronika; Rigó Jr., János; Losonczy, György; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Tamási, Lilla

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled asthma is a risk factor for pregnancy-related complications. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a potential peripheral blood marker of tissue fibrosis in various diseases, promotes eosinophil survival and plays a role in asthmatic airway inflammation as well as in physiological processes necessary to maintain normal pregnancy; however the level of circulating HA in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy is unknown. We investigated HA levels in asthmatic patients (N = 52; asthmatic pregnant (AP) N = 16; asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) N = 36) and tested their relationship to asthma control. Serum HA level was lower in AP than in ANP patients (27 [24.7–31.55] vs. 37.4 [30.1–66.55] ng/mL, p = 0.006); the difference attenuated to a trend after its adjustment for patients’ age (p = 0.056). HA levels and airway resistance were positively (r = 0.467, p = 0.004), HA levels and Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score inversely (r = −0.437, p = 0.01) associated in ANP patients; these relationships remained significant even after their adjustments for age. The potential value of HA in the determination of asthma control was analyzed using ROC analysis which revealed that HA values discriminate patients with ACT total score ≥20 (controlled patients) and <20 (uncontrolled patients) with a 0.826 efficacy (AUC, 95% CI: 0.69–0.97, p = 0.001) when 37.4 ng/mL is used as cut-off value in ANP group, and with 0.78 efficacy (AUC, 95% CI: 0.65–0.92, p = 0.0009) in the whole asthmatic cohort. In conclusion circulating HA might be a marker of asthma control, as it correlates with airway resistance and has good sensitivity in the detection of impaired asthma control. Decrease of HA level in pregnancy may be the consequence of pregnancy induced immune tolerance. PMID:24736408

  4. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: decreased striatal dopamine transporter levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Rizos, Alexandra; Chakravartty, Riddhika; Mulholland, Nicola; Robinson, Stephanie; Howell, Nicholas A; Harrison, Neil; Vivian, Gill; Ray Chaudhuri, K

    2014-02-01

    Impulse control disorders are commonly associated with dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients with impulse control disorders demonstrate enhanced dopamine release to conditioned cues and a gambling task on [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and enhanced ventral striatal activity to reward on functional MRI. We compared PD patients with impulse control disorders and age-matched and gender-matched controls without impulse control disorders using [(123)I]FP-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density. The [(123)I]FP-CIT binding data in the striatum were compared between 15 PD patients with and 15 without impulse control disorders using independent t tests. Those with impulse control disorders showed significantly lower DAT binding in the right striatum with a trend in the left (right: F(1,24)=5.93, p=0.02; left: F(1,24)=3.75, p=0.07) compared to controls. Our findings suggest that greater dopaminergic striatal activity in PD patients with impulse control disorders may be partly related to decreased uptake and clearance of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. Whether these findings are related to state or trait effects is not known. These findings dovetail with reports of lower DAT levels secondary to the effects of methamphetamine and alcohol. Although any regulation of DAT by antiparkinsonian medication appears to be modest, PD patients with impulse control disorders may be differentially sensitive to regulatory mechanisms of DAT expression by dopaminergic medications.

  5. Some aspects of public associations’ participation in implementing public control at municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Gornev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to clarify the status of public associations as subjects of public control and to analyze the problems of participation of citizens 39 associations in conducting public expertise and public audits. Methods the methodology of research includes general scientific methods such as dialectic method. Specific jurisprudence methods of scientific cognition have also been used. Systematic method was used for the analysis of forms of public control by citizens39 associations at the municipal level. The principle of scientific objectivity has allowed for a comprehensive and objective analysis of the factual material the totality of factors affecting the interaction of public associations with local authorities in the implementation of public control. The formallegal method allowed to analyze the normativelegal acts to reveal the signs of fixing of such public control forms as public expertise and public audit. In the present study other research methods were also applied allowing to study the theme in detail. Results the study identified the lack of legal regulation of the legal status of public associations as subjects of public control as well as some forms of public control. The additions to the list of subjects of public control by public associations were proposed as well as improvements in the implementation of public expertise and public audit by the citizens39 associations as forms of social control. Scientific novelty the author found a lack of regulation of public associationsrsquo participation in some forms of social control and justified proposals for their improvement from a scientific point of view. Practical significance the possibility to apply the research results in legislative activity aimed at improving the provisions of the Federal Laws quotOn fundamentals of public control in the Russian Federationquot and quotOn the general principles of local selfgovernment organization in the Russian Federationquot. In addition the

  6. Digital low level RF control system for the DESY TTF VUV-FEL Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayvazyan, V.; Choroba, S.; Matyushin, A.; Moeller, G.; Petrosyan, G.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.N.; Vetrov, P.

    2005-01-01

    In the RF system for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (VUV-FEL) Linac each klystron supplies RF power to up to 32 cavities. The superconducting cavities are operated in pulsed mode and high accelerating gradients close to the performance limit. The RF control of the cavity fields to the level of 10 -4 for amplitude and 0.1 degree for phase however presents a significant technical challenge due to the narrow bandwidth of the cavities which results in high sensitivity to perturbations of the resonance frequency by mechanical vibrations (microphonics) and Lorenz force detuning. The VUV-FEL Linac RF control system employs a completely digital feedback system to provide flexibility in the control algorithms, precise calibration of the accelerating field vector-sum, and extensive diagnostics and exception handling capabilities. The RF control algorithm is implemented in DSP (Digital Signal Processor) firmware and DOOCS (Distributed Object Oriented Control System) servers. The RF control system design objectives are discussed. Hardware and software design of the DSP based RF control are presented. (orig.)

  7. Digital low level RF control system for the DESY TTF VUV-FEL Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayvazyan, V.; Choroba, S.; Matyushin, A.; Moeller, G.; Petrosyan, G.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.N.; Vetrov, P.

    2005-07-01

    In the RF system for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (VUV-FEL) Linac each klystron supplies RF power to up to 32 cavities. The superconducting cavities are operated in pulsed mode and high accelerating gradients close to the performance limit. The RF control of the cavity fields to the level of 10{sup -4} for amplitude and 0.1 degree for phase however presents a significant technical challenge due to the narrow bandwidth of the cavities which results in high sensitivity to perturbations of the resonance frequency by mechanical vibrations (microphonics) and Lorenz force detuning. The VUV-FEL Linac RF control system employs a completely digital feedback system to provide flexibility in the control algorithms, precise calibration of the accelerating field vector-sum, and extensive diagnostics and exception handling capabilities. The RF control algorithm is implemented in DSP (Digital Signal Processor) firmware and DOOCS (Distributed Object Oriented Control System) servers. The RF control system design objectives are discussed. Hardware and software design of the DSP based RF control are presented. (orig.)

  8. Circulating folate levels and colorectal adenoma: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeong Mi; Youn, Jiyoung; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between folate and colorectal neoplasia remains controversial. We examined the association between serum folate concentrations and colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of Korean adults and conducted a meta-analysis. Our case-control study included 113 pairs of case and control who underwent colonoscopy and provided blood samples. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression models to obtain the odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CIs). For meta-analysis, we identified the relevant studies by searching the PubMed database up to February 2017, included our case-control study and combined the study-specific relative risks (RRs) using a random-effects model. In this case-control study, we included 58 men and 55 women with colorectal adenomas and sex and fasting status matched the controls. We did not find any significant association between the serum folate levels and colorectal adenomas in either men or women. For meta-analysis, a total of eleven studies were included in our analysis and classified into two groups; polyp clearance group (PC) for the studies that included participants who underwent endoscopies and had their polyps removed at baseline; and no polyp clearance group (NPC) for the studies that included participants whose histories of endoscopies were unknown or who underwent their first endoscopies. Four PC (1,311 cases and 1,672 non-cases) and eight NPC studies (3,501 cases and 11,347 non-cases) were included. The combined RRs (95% CIs) comparing the bottom with the top categories of circulating folate levels were 1.07 (0.97-1.18) for the NPC group but 1.45 (1.16-1.74) for the PC group. Low circulating folate levels were associated with new adenoma formation.

  9. A biomolecular proportional integral controller based on feedback regulations of protein level and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairet, Francis

    2018-02-01

    Homeostasis is the capacity of living organisms to keep internal conditions regulated at a constant level, despite environmental fluctuations. Integral feedback control is known to play a key role in this behaviour. Here, I show that a feedback system involving transcriptional and post-translational regulations of the same executor protein acts as a proportional integral (PI) controller, leading to enhanced transient performances in comparison with a classical integral loop. Such a biomolecular controller-which I call a level and activity-PI controller (LA-PI)-is involved in the regulation of ammonium uptake by Escherichia coli through the transporter AmtB. The P II molecules, which reflect the nitrogen status of the cell, inhibit both the production of AmtB and its activity (via the NtrB-NtrC system and the formation of a complex with GlnK, respectively). Other examples of LA-PI controller include copper and zinc transporters, and the redox regulation in photosynthesis. This scheme has thus emerged through evolution in many biological systems, surely because of the benefits it offers in terms of performances (rapid and perfect adaptation) and economy (protein production according to needs).

  10. Controller Strategies for Automation Tool Use under Varying Levels of Trajectory Prediction Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Susan; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Martin, Lynne; Bienert, Nancy; Cabrall, Christopher; Hunt, Sarah; Homola, Jeffrey; Kraut, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to examine the effects of varying levels of trajectory prediction uncertainty on air traffic controller workload and performance, as well as how strategies and the use of decision support tools change in response. This paper focuses on the strategies employed by two controllers from separate teams who worked in parallel but independently under identical conditions (airspace, arrival traffic, tools) with the goal of ensuring schedule conformance and safe separation for a dense arrival flow in en route airspace. Despite differences in strategy and methods, both controllers achieved high levels of schedule conformance and safe separation. Overall, results show that trajectory uncertainties introduced by wind and aircraft performance prediction errors do not affect the controllers' ability to manage traffic. Controller strategies were fairly robust to changes in error, though strategies were affected by the amount of delay to absorb (scheduled time of arrival minus estimated time of arrival). Using the results and observations, this paper proposes an ability to dynamically customize the display of information including delay time based on observed error to better accommodate different strategies and objectives.

  11. Study on on-Line Measurement and Controlling System of the Foundation Trench-Leveling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, J G; Jiang, H Y; Xing, Y Z; Chen, J; Liu, J T

    2006-01-01

    Research the system software and hardware composing, the control mode, the online measurement and control principle based on the laser receiver and the inclination sensor as the signal source. After the laser receiver accepts the laser signal, the laser signal is carried through the light filter treatment so as to reduce the sunlight interference, and then amplified and modulated, last transmitted to the control unit. The inclination sensor adapts XWQJ02-01S, measure the slope angle the x and y verticality direction. The error adjusting range is ±0.05 0 . The separate time treatment avoids simultaneously adjusting the laser and inclination signal to each other interfere. The on-line measurement and control system realizes the parts to work on the plane that parallels with the datum plane of the laser beam scan. The trench-leveling machine must retain ±0.05 0 with the datum plane. Adapting the least square method to fit the linear curve, the movement trend of the work parts on the work plane is judged through the slope number. The test result shows that thought the combination measurement and control of the laser and slope angle the leveling precision are ±5mm/100. Its can satisfy with the construction criterion request

  12. Serum prolactin levels in psoriasis and its association with disease activity: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abid Keen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune chronic skin disorder in which an environmental factor, perhaps a viral antigen, induces T cells to produce cytokines. These cytokines stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and production of antigenic adhesion molecules in the dermal blood vessels. Several mediators and hormones have been implicated in keratinocyte hyperproliferation and among these hormones, prolactin (PRL has been found to have an effect on epithelial cells, lymphocytes and keratinocytes, thus an effect on the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis. Aim: The present study was designed to compare serum PRL levels in psoriatic patients with a control group. Settings and Design: This study was a hospital-based case control study, conducted in the department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, SMHS Hospital (Associated teaching hospital of Government Medical College Srinagar over a period of 1 year, from September 2012 to 2013. Materials and Methods: The present study included 60 patients of psoriasis (42 males and 18 females and 60 controls matched for age and sex. Serum PRL levels of patients and controls were measured by ECLIA and inferences were drawn. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical significance of the results was carried out by the Chi-square test and the independent samples t-test. Statistical significance was determined at a level of P < 0.05. Results: Serum PRL levels were significantly increased in patients as compared to the control group (P value: 0.002. There was a positive correlation between pretreatment serum PRL levels and PASI score (r value: 0.379; P value: 0.003. An insignificant association was found between the pretreatment PRL level and serum PRL level after treatment (P value: 0.22. Also, a negative correlation between the duration of psoriasis and serum PRL was seen (r value: -0.008; P value: 0.954. Conclusion: PRL may have a role to play in the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis. However, further studies with

  13. Preliminary evaluation of the control of indoor radon daughter levels in new structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, J.E. Jr.; Guimond, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of its assessment of the radiological impact of the phosphate industry in Florida, the US Environmental Protection Agency has surveyed residences built atop uraniferous reclaimed phosphate mining land. These surveys have shown elevated radon daughter levels to exist in structures built on this land. In order to allow safer use of this land for residential construction, various state-of-the-art radon daughter control technologies were evaluated by the Agency. These included forced ventilation, polymeric sealants, excavation, crawl space construction, and improved slab quality. From a cost-effectiveness evaluation, improved slab quality and crawl space construction were determined to best satisfy the criteria for optimal radon daughter control

  14. Grid Connected WECS with A Five Level DCMLI using PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Balaji

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis, modeling and control system for permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG based wind turbine connected to the grid. A wind energy conversion using DC-DC Buck- Boost Converter for permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG based variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS has been proposed which is integrated with grid using five-level diode clamped multilevel (DCMLI inverter. In this work the instantaneous values of input side current and voltage of DC-DC buck-boost converter are utilized for implementing the PID controller. The proposed work is verified by the simulation in Powersim.

  15. Digital low level rf control system with four different intermediate frequencies for the International Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Sigit Basuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miura, Takako; Qiu, Feng; Liu, Na

    2017-09-01

    A field programmable gate array-based digital low level rf (LLRF) control system will be used in the International Linear Collider (ILC) in order to satisfy the rf stability requirements. The digital LLRF control system with four different intermediate frequencies has been developed to decrease the required number of analog-to-digital converters in this system. The proof of concept of this technique was demonstrated at the Superconducting RF Test Facility in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Japan. The amplitude and phase stability has fulfilled the ILC requirements.

  16. Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

  17. Deadbeat control of power leveling unit with bidirectional buck/boost DC/DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    Hamasaki, Shin-ichi; Mukai, Ryosuke; Yano, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    As a distributed generation system increases, a stable power supply becomes difficult. Thus control of power leveling (PL) unit is required to maintain the balance of power flow for irregular power generation. The unit is required to respond to change of voltage and bidirectional power flow. So the bidirectional buck/boost DC/DC converter is applied for the control of PL unit in this research. The PL unit with Electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) is able to absorb change of power, and it is...

  18. Development of the LEP high level control system using ORACLE as an online database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Belk, A.; Collier, P.; Lamont, M.; De Rijk, G.; Tarrant, M.

    1994-01-01

    A complete rewrite of the high level application software for the control of LEP has been carried out. ORACLE was evaluated and subsequently used as the on-line database in the implementation of the system. All control information and settings are stored on this database. This paper describes the project development cycle, the method used, the use of CASE and the project management used by the team. The performance of the system and the database and their impact on the LEP performance is discussed. ((orig.))

  19. PBDE levels in human milk: the situation in Germany and potential influencing factors - a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, B.; Mielke, H.; Ostermann, B.; Ruediger, T. [Federal Inst. for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    An exponential increase of PBDE levels in breast milk from Sweden between 1972 and 1997 has been reported, which is in contrast to the continuous decline of other chlorinated POPs in breast milk. Also in blood samples from Germany, an increasing trend has been observed during the period from 1985 to 1999. The knowledge about human exposure pathways, which contribute to the PBDE body burden, is very limited. Consumption of food of animal origin, inhalation or ingestion of dust and further factors possibly influencing the PBDE levels in human matrices, like age, breast-feeding or smoking are under discussion. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany have been published. To fill the data gaps, a controlled study was started in 2001 to characterise the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. Furthermore, it was intended to verify potential factors possibly influencing PBDE levels. Two main hypotheses were proposed: (1) Are PBDE levels in breast milk from mothers consuming traditional food (omnivores) higher than those found in breast milk from mothers consuming vegetarian or vegan food? and (2) Are the PBDE levels found in human milk after a three-months period of breast-feeding lower than those detected at the beginning or does breast feeding result in a lower body burden, respectively? This paper summarises preliminary results. Further analytical data and results of data evaluation will be presented at the conference.

  20. Optimal blood glucose level control using dynamic programming based on minimal Bergman model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettian Anggita Sari, Maria; Hartono

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to simulate the glucose dynamic and the insulin kinetic of diabetic patient. The model used in this research is a non-linear Minimal Bergman model. Optimal control theory is then applied to formulate the problem in order to determine the optimal dose of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus such that the glucose level is in the normal range for some specific time range. The optimization problem is solved using dynamic programming. The result shows that dynamic programming is quite reliable to represent the interaction between glucose and insulin levels in diabetes mellitus patient.

  1. Multi-interface Level Sensors and New Development in Monitoring and Control of Oil Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuqiang Yang

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the oil industry, huge saving may be made if suitable multi-interface levelmeasurement systems are employed for effectively monitoring crude oil separators andefficient control of their operation. A number of techniques, e.g. externally mounteddisplacers, differential pressure transmitters and capacitance rod devices, have beendeveloped to measure the separation process with gas, oil, water and other components.Because of the unavailability of suitable multi-interface level measurement systems, oilseparators are currently operated by the trial-and-error approach. In this paper someconventional techniques, which have been used for level measurement in industry, and newdevelopment are discussed.

  2. Validation and reliability of the scale Self-efficacy and their child's level of asthma control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Araújo Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties in terms of validity and reliability of the scale Self-efficacy and their child's level of asthma control: Brazilian version. Method: Methodological study in which 216 parents/guardians of children with asthma participated. A construct validation (factor analysis and test of hypothesis by comparison of contrasted groups and an analysis of reliability in terms of homogeneity (Cronbach's alpha and stability (test-retest were carried out. Results: Exploratory factor analysis proved suitable for the Brazilian version of the scale (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkim index of 0.879 and Bartlett's sphericity with p < 0.001. The correlation matrix in factor analysis suggested the removal of item 7 from the scale. Cronbach's alpha of the final scale, with 16 items, was 0.92. Conclusion: The Brazilian version of Self-efficacy and their child's level of asthma control presented psychometric properties that confirmed its validity and reliability.

  3. Change in CNE boiler control level and stepback to overcome strong grid transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzetti, J.; Sablic, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    In Argentina the grid distribution is organized in such a way that the Embalse Power Plant is located in a place where power is produced. The most important places of power consumption are located near Buenos Aires city. Just one line connects Embalse with the consumption places. As a result of that condition the power is flowing through the interconnection line in such a way that every time a disturb cuts the line a strong power transient affects the Nuclear Power Plant. The changes in the boiler level control were done in order to avoid reactor trip, reactor stepback or turbine trip based on boiler level upsets. After several years of operation it was possible to verify that the new algorithm reduces the chances of plant outage increasing the confidence in the plant to overcome with success such transient. Every transient in the plant is analyzed in order to improve the control algorithm

  4. A measurement control program to meet desired levels of precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement control programs are usually designed to test for precision and accuracy. Many instruments, however, display non-random data patterns such as biases or seasonal variations which are statistically significant but are of no practical significance. Application of the usual statistical tests can cause these instruments to be removed from service unnecessarily. It is tempting to try to overcome this problem by frequently adjusting the instrument or by arbitrarily changing the parameters of the statistical tests so that failures occur less often. This, of course invalidates the statistical tests. In the author's opinion, the correct way to handle this problem is to identify the desired levels of precision and accuracy, and then to combine these levels with valid statistical techniques in the measurement control-program. This paper describes one way to accomplish this

  5. A microfluidic-based lid device for conventional cell culture dishes to automatically control oxygen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeob; Yang, Sung

    2018-04-25

    Most conventional hypoxic cell culture systems undergo reoxygenation during experimental manipulations, resulting in undesirable effects including the reduction of cell viability. A lid device was developed herein for conventional cell culture dishes to resolve this limitation. The integration of multilayered microfluidic channels inside a thin membrane was designed to prevent the reoxygenation caused by reagent infusion and automatically control the oxygen level. The experimental data clearly show the reducibility of the dissolved oxygen in the infusing reagent and the controllability of the oxygen level inside the dish. The feasibility of the device for hypoxia studies was confirmed by HIF-1α experiments. Therefore, the device could be used as a compact and convenient hypoxic cell culture system to prevent reoxygenation-related issues.

  6. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...

  7. Procedural Generation of Levels with Controllable Difficulty for a Platform Game Using a Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Classon, Johan; Andersson, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the implementation and evaluation of a genetic algorithm (GA) for procedurally generating levels with controllable difficulty for a motion-based 2D platform game. Manually creating content can be time-consuming, and it may be desirable to automate this process with an algorithm, using Procedural Content Generation (PCG). An algorithm was implemented and then refined with an iterative method by conducting user tests. The resulting algorithm is considered a success and sho...

  8. Association between tobacco industry denormalization beliefs, tobacco control community discontent and smokers' level of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Selby, Peter; Cunningham, John A

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco industry denormalization (TID) informs the public about the tobacco industry's role in the tobacco epidemic and is an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Although TID beliefs have been noted in adult smokers and associated with intent to quit, research has not evaluated whether they are affected by smokers' level of nicotine dependence. The present article sought to concurrently examine how attitudes towards the tobacco industry and tobacco control groups may differ among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. In addition, it evaluated how these attitudes and beliefs may be associated with smokers' intentions to reduce or quit smoking. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. Attitudes towards the tobacco industry were mixed among the entire cohort and differences in beliefs towards the tobacco industry were not found among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. However, smokers that held strong TID beliefs were 5 times more intent to quit smoking than those without such beliefs. Compared to smokers with low level of nicotine dependence, heavy smokers were more likely to report strong overall displeasure with the tobacco control community (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.23-3.19, p=0.005), however there were no differences with regards to future intent to quit. The absence of strong negative sentiment toward the tobacco industry among smokers as a whole suggests that more targeted anti-industry messages are needed, raising greater awareness of tobacco industry practices within smokers and non-smokers alike. As heavier smokers' discontent with the tobacco control community highlights increasing social disapproval and pressure to quit smoking, future educational and media strategies used for smoking cessation purposes may benefit from emphasizing more of the positive attributes associated with quitting smoking, as opposed to the negative features of

  9. A HIGH-LEVEL PYTHON INTERFACE TO THE FERMILAB ACNET CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, P. [Fermilab; Halavanau, A. [Fermilab

    2016-10-19

    This paper discusses the implementation of a python- based high-level interface to the Fermilab acnet control system. The interface has been successfully employed during the commissioning of the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility. Specifically, we present examples of applications at FAST which include the interfacing of the elegant program to assist lattice matching, an automated emittance measurement via the quadrupole-scan method and tranverse transport matrix measurement of a superconducting RF cavity.

  10. Estimation of bias shifts in a steam-generator water-level controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A method for detecting and estimating the value of sudden bias shifts in a U-tube steam-generator water-level controller is described and evaluated. Generalized likelihood ratios (GLR) are used to perform both the bias detection and bias estimation. Simulation results using a seventh-order, linear, discrete steam-generator model demonstrate the capabilities of the GLR detection/estimation approach

  11. Low Vitamin D Levels Do Not Predict Hyperglycemia in Elderly Endurance Athletes (but in Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmuth Haslacher

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed a link between hypovitaminosis D3 and the risk for hyperglycemia. Further mechanistic and interventional investigations suggested a common reason for both conditions rather than a causal relationship. Exposure to sunlight is the most relevant source of vitamin D3 (25(OHD, whereas adipose tissue is able to store relevant amounts of the lipophilic vitamin. Since running/bicycling leads to increased out-door time and alters physiological response mechanisms, it can be hypothesized that the correlation between hypovitaminosis D3 and hyperglycemia might be disturbed in outdoor athletes.47 elderly marathoners/bicyclists and 47 age/sex matched controls were studied in a longitudinal setting at baseline and after three years. HbA1c as a surrogate for (pre-diabetic states was quantified via HPLC, 25(OHD levels were measured by means of chemiluminescent assays. Physical performance was assessed by ergometry.When adjusted for seasonal variations, 25(OHD was significantly higher in athletes than in controls. 25(OHD levels inversely correlated with triglycerides in both groups, whereas only in controls an association between high BMI or low physical performance with hypovitaminosis D3 had been found. Likewise, the presence of hypovitaminosis D3 at baseline successfully predicted hyperglycemia at the follow up examinations within the control group (AUC = 0.85, 95% CI [0.74, 0.96], p < .001, statistically independent from BMI, but not in athletes.Our data suggest that mechanisms of HbA1c elevation might differ between athletes and controls. Thus, intense physical activity must be taken into account as a potential pre-analytic confounder when it is aimed to predict metabolic risk by vitamin D3 levels.

  12. Urinary hepcidin level as an early predictor of iron deficiency in children: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharib Amal F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal screening test would be capable of identifying iron deficiency in the absence of anemia. We tried to detect role of urinary hepcidin-25 level in early prediction of iron deficiency in children. Methods This is a case control study performed on 100 children in Hematology Unit of Pediatric Department, Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. Our study included 25 cases of iron deficiency (ID stage-1 (iron depletion, 25 cases ID stage-2 (iron-deficient erythropoiesis, 25 cases ID stage-3 (iron deficiency anemia and 25 healthy children as a control group. Estimation of iron status parameters was done. Urinary hepcidin-25 level was detected. Results Urinary hepcidin-25 level was significantly lower in all stages of iron deficiency than in control group, more significant reduction in its level was observed with the progress in severity of iron deficiency. Urinary hepcidin showed significant positive correlation with hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit value, serum iron and ferritin and transferrin saturation. In contrary, it showed significant negative correlation with serum transferrin and total iron binding capacity. Urinary hepcidin at cutoff point ≤0.94 nmol/mmol Cr could Predict ID stage-1 with sensitivity 88% and specificity 88%. Cutoff point ≤0.42 nmol/mmol Cr could predict ID stage-2 with sensitivity 96% and specificity 92%. Cutoff point ≤0.08 nmol/mmol Cr could Predict ID stage-3 with Sensitivity 96% and specificity 100%. Conclusions We can conclude that detection of urinary hepcidin-25 level was a simple and non invasive test and could predict iron deficiency very early, before appearance of hematological affections.

  13. Control of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Using Three-Level T-Type Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorig, Abdelmalik; Belkeiri, Mohammed; Barkat, Said; Rabhi, Abdelhamid

    2016-08-01

    Three-level T-Type inverter (3LT2I) topology has numerous advantageous compared to three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter. The main benefits of 3LT2I inverter are the efficiency, inverter cost, switching losses, and the quality of output voltage waveforms. In this paper, a photovoltaic distributed generation system based on dual-stage topology of DC-DC boost converter and 3LT2I is introduced. To that end, a decoupling control strategy of 3LT2I is proposed to control the current injected into the grid, reactive power compensation, and DC-link voltage. The resulting system is able to extract the maximum power from photovoltaic generator, to achieve sinusoidal grid currents, and to ensure reactive power compensation. The voltage-balancing control of two split DC capacitors of the 3LT2I is achieved using three-level space vector modulation with balancing strategy based on the effective use of the redundant switching states of the inverter voltage vectors. The proposed system performance is investigated at different operating conditions.

  14. Inverse association of leptin levels with renal cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridopoulos, Themistoklis N; Petridou, Eleni Th; Dessypris, Nick; Terzidis, Agapios; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P

    2009-01-01

    Leptin is primarily produced in adipose tissue and appears to play a modulatory role between metabolism and immunity. Given that obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, is an established risk factor for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), we investigated the association between plasma leptin levels and RCC risk. This case-control study included 70 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed RCC and 280 age-, gender- and district of residence-matched controls. Anthropometric data, socio-demographic variables, medical history, lifestyle habits and dietary data were derived from a personal interview. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined using standard commercial kits. Adjusted odds ratios for RCC risk were derived through multiple logistic regression analyses. Leptin levels were inversely associated with RCC risk (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.28- 0.99, p = 0.05), even after controlling for potential confounding factors, such as Body Mass Index (BMI), recent weight change, history of diabetes mellitus and other obesity related hormones, notably adiponectin. The precise mechanism linking obesity with RCC remains unclear; however, the inverse association of leptin with RCC might be attributed, at least in part, to hormonal cross-talk with complex neuron-endocrine and immune circuits. These findings, if confirmed in prospective and interventional studies, might further elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  15. Light-Triggered Soft Artificial Muscles: Molecular-Level Amplification of Actuation Control Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, Michael P M; Baker, Anna B; Iredale, Robert J; Naficy, Sina; Bond, Ian P; Faul, Charl F J; Rossiter, Jonathan M; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Weaver, Paul M

    2017-08-23

    The principle of control signal amplification is found in all actuation systems, from engineered devices through to the operation of biological muscles. However, current engineering approaches require the use of hard and bulky external switches or valves, incompatible with both the properties of emerging soft artificial muscle technology and those of the bioinspired robotic systems they enable. To address this deficiency a biomimetic molecular-level approach is developed that employs light, with its excellent spatial and temporal control properties, to actuate soft, pH-responsive hydrogel artificial muscles. Although this actuation is triggered by light, it is largely powered by the resulting excitation and runaway chemical reaction of a light-sensitive acid autocatalytic solution in which the actuator is immersed. This process produces actuation strains of up to 45% and a three-fold chemical amplification of the controlling light-trigger, realising a new strategy for the creation of highly functional soft actuating systems.

  16. When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G.; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

  17. SWATCH Common software for controlling and monitoring the upgraded CMS Level-1 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaridis, Christos; Bunkowski, Karol; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Dirkx, Glenn; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Lingemann, Joschka; Kreczko, Lukasz; Thea, Alessandro; Williams, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN restarted in 2015 with a higher centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. An upgraded Level-1 trigger system is being deployed in the CMS experiment in order to maintain the same efficiencies for searches and precision measurements as those achieved in the previous run. This system must be controlled and monitored coherently through software, with high operational efficiency.The legacy system is composed of approximately 4000 data processor boards, of several custom application-specific designs. These boards are organised into several subsystems; each subsystem receives data from different detector systems (calorimeters, barrel/endcap muon detectors), or with differing granularity. These boards have been controlled and monitored by a medium-sized distributed system of over 40 computers and 200 processes. Only a small fraction of the control and monitoring software was common between the different s...

  18. Low-level rf control of Spallation Neutron Source: System and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjie Ma

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-level rf control system currently commissioned throughout the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS LINAC evolved from three design iterations over 1 yr intensive research and development. Its digital hardware implementation is efficient, and has succeeded in achieving a minimum latency of less than 150 ns which is the key for accomplishing an all-digital feedback control for the full bandwidth. The control bandwidth is analyzed in frequency domain and characterized by testing its transient response. The hardware implementation also includes the provision of a time-shared input channel for a superior phase differential measurement between the cavity field and the reference. A companion cosimulation system for the digital hardware was developed to ensure a reliable long-term supportability. A large effort has also been made in the operation software development for the practical issues such as the process automations, cavity filling, beam loading compensation, and the cavity mechanical resonance suppression.

  19. Evaluating the Level of Internal Control System in the Management of Financial Security of Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidvysotska Lyudmyla J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the organization and technology of evaluation process of the internal control system of bank in order to ensure financial security management of its activities. The work of the internal audit service on monitoring and evaluating the performance of the bank’s internal control system was analyzed. It has been found that improving the level of financial security of commercial banks is conditional upon improvements in the quality of audits and the provision of sound and objective conclusions. The interrelation of the tasks of internal audit service and the tasks of bank’s financial security management has been determined. Methodological recommendations on evaluation of the bank’s internal control system on the basis of results of audit have been proposed.

  20. Chronophin coordinates cell leading edge dynamics by controlling active cofilin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme-Walker, Violaine; Seo, Ji-Yeon; Gohla, Antje; Fowler, Bruce; Bohl, Ben; DerMardirossian, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Cofilin, a critical player of actin dynamics, is spatially and temporally regulated to control the direction and force of membrane extension required for cell locomotion. In carcinoma cells, although the signaling pathways regulating cofilin activity to control cell direction have been established, the molecular machinery required to generate the force of the protrusion remains unclear. We show that the cofilin phosphatase chronophin (CIN) spatiotemporally regulates cofilin activity at the cell edge to generate persistent membrane extension. We show that CIN translocates to the leading edge in a PI3-kinase–, Rac1-, and cofilin-dependent manner after EGF stimulation to activate cofilin, promotes actin free barbed end formation, accelerates actin turnover, and enhances membrane protrusion. In addition, we establish that CIN is crucial for the balance of protrusion/retraction events during cell migration. Thus, CIN coordinates the leading edge dynamics by controlling active cofilin levels to promote MTLn3 cell protrusion. PMID:26324884

  1. Design and development of low level S-Band RF control system for IRFEL injector LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Singh, Adarsh Pratap; Namdeo, Rajkumar; Baxy, Deodatta; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    A low level RF system has been designed and developed for phase and amplitude stabilization of S- Band microwave power being fed to fundamental buncher cavity and the injector LINAC structure of the Infra Red Free Electron Laser being developed at RRCAT Indore. The system uses analog phase shifters and voltage variable attenuators to control the phase and amplitude respectively, the control voltages for phase shifters and attenuators are generated using a 12 Bit ADC and is software controlled. The system has a slow feedback to correct phase and amplitude drifts occurring due to thermal variations and a fast feed forward mechanism to vary amplitude and phase of the output pulse to compensate beam loading and to shape the klystron output power. The present paper describes the design aspects of the LLRF system. (author)

  2. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yang

    Full Text Available Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p0.05 when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  3. EPICS based low-level radio frequency control system in LIPAc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Julio, E-mail: julio.calvo@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Ciemat (Spain); Rivers, Mark L. [Department of Geophysical Sciences and Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago (United States); Patricio, Miguel A. [Departamento de Informatica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, Angel [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Ciemat (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system proposed can control amplitude and phase of each cavity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid diagnostics are refreshed in milliseconds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing control parameters will not increase consumed time neither complexity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IQ demodulation can be achieved thanks to the transformed values at driver level. - Abstract: The IFMIF-EVEDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity) linear accelerator, known as Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), will be a 9 MeV, 125 mA continuous wave (CW) deuteron accelerator prototype to validate the technical options of the accelerator design for IFMIF. The primary mission of such facility is to test and verify materials performance when subjected to extensive neutron irradiation of the type encountered in a fusion reactor to prepare for the design, construction, licensing and safe operation of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO). The radio frequency (RF) power system of IFMIF-EVEDA consists of 18 RF chains working at 175 MHz with three amplification stages each. The low-level radio frequency (LLRF) controls the amplitude and phase of the signal to be synchronized with the beam and it also controls the resonance frequency of the cavities. The system is based on a commercial compact peripheral component interconnect (cPCI) field programmable gate array (FPGA) board, provided by Lyrtech and controlled by a Windows host PC. For this purpose, it is mandatory to communicate the cPCI FPGA board from EPICS Channel Access [1]. A software architecture on EPICS framework in order to control and monitor the LLRF system is presented.

  4. [The interdependence of coronary pain control and level of anxiety in women with ischiaemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleba, Elzbieta; Nasiłowska-Barud, Alicja; Wysokiński, Andrzej; Jedrych, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Interdependences between pain and anxiety in cardiac ischaemia are multidimensional and complex. Both of these phenomena share a lot of traits and they tend to reinforce each other at physiological level. Apart from arduousness of pain, cognitive understanding of its nature becomes an important mediating factor. One of important characteristics of the patient's attitude towards their illness is localization of pain control. The aim of the study was to analyze an interdependence between an anxiety as a state and as a trait and the localization of pain control in women with coronary heart decease. The study included 52 female patients hospitalised at The Department of Cardiology of The Medical University of Lublin who underwent coronarography. The used methods included an interview, State - Trait Anxiety Inventory of Spielberger (STAI) and The Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ). The results did not confirm an often suggested opinion that internal localization of pain control reduces anxiety and activates the patient. The intensity of the internal localization of pain control correlates significantly with the intensity of the dependence of pain of activity of the doctors as well as on the anxiety as trait. It is higher in women with lower education. Perhaps better educated patients, not so ready to react with anxiety, can treat pain more realistically as a sign of a pathological process which can be understood and evaluated not so much as a catastrophe. They do not feel personally responsible for the pain, either, and are able to accept the limits of the doctor's assistance, having no unrealistic expectations with regard to the pain treatment. The results of the research indicate that in women with ischiaemic heart decease better adjustment to the illness and a lower level of anxiety as a trait are connected with the understanding and acceptance of their situation by the patient, rather than with too big extent of expectations towards the control of pain

  5. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  6. Levels of automation and user control - evaluation of a turbine automation interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    The study was performed during the annual operator training at the Studsvik nuclear power plant simulator facility in Nykoeping, Sweden. The participating operators came from the Oskarshamn 3 nuclear power plant. In the study, seven nuclear power plant turbine operators were interviewed concerning their use of the automatic turbine system. A field study approach together with a heuristic usability evaluation was made to assess how the operators are affected by use of automation in the control room setting. The purpose of the study was to examine how operator performance is affected by varying levels of automation in nuclear power plant turbine operation. The Automatic Turbine System (ATS) was evaluated to clarify how the ATS interface design supports the operators work. The results show that during manual control the operators experience loss of speed and accuracy in performing actions together with difficulty of dividing attention between performing a task and overall monitoring, as the major problems. The positive aspects of manual operations lie in increased feeling of being in control when performing actions by hand. With higher levels of automation the problems shift to issues concerning difficulty of following the automatic sequences and loosing track in procedures. As the level of automation gets higher, the need of feedback increases which means that information presentation also becomes more important. The use of the semiautomatic, step-mode is often preferred by the operators since it combines the speed and accuracy of the automation with the ability of maintaining the feeling of being in control. Further, a number of usability related concerns was found in the ATS interface. The operators especially experience the presentation of the conditions that manage the automatic sequences as difficult to perceive. (author)

  7. Levels of automation and user control - evaluation of a turbine automation interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jonas

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed during the annual operator training at the Studsvik nuclear power plant simulator facility in Nykoeping, Sweden. The participating operators came from the Oskarshamn 3 nuclear power plant. In the study, seven nuclear power plant turbine operators were interviewed concerning their use of the automatic turbine system. A field study approach together with a heuristic usability evaluation was made to assess how the operators are affected by use of automation in the control room setting. The purpose of the study was to examine how operator performance is affected by varying levels of automation in nuclear power plant turbine operation. The Automatic Turbine System (ATS) was evaluated to clarify how the ATS interface design supports the operators work. The results show that during manual control the operators experience loss of speed and accuracy in performing actions together with difficulty of dividing attention between performing a task and overall monitoring, as the major problems. The positive aspects of manual operations lie in increased feeling of being in control when performing actions by hand. With higher levels of automation the problems shift to issues concerning difficulty of following the automatic sequences and loosing track in procedures. As the level of automation gets higher, the need of feedback increases which means that information presentation also becomes more important. The use of the semiautomatic, step-mode is often preferred by the operators since it combines the speed and accuracy of the automation with the ability of maintaining the feeling of being in control. Further, a number of usability related concerns was found in the ATS interface. The operators especially experience the presentation of the conditions that manage the automatic sequences as difficult to perceive. (au)

  8. Data acquisition and control system for the High-Level Waste Tank Farm at Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoida, H.W.; Hatcher, C.R.; Trujillo, L.T.; Holt, D.H.; Vargo, G.F.; Martin, J.; Stastny, G.; Echave, R.; Eldridge, K.

    1993-01-01

    The High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage Tank 241-SY-101 periodically releases flammable gasses. Mitigation experiments to release the gasses continuously to avoid a catastrophic build-up are planned for FY93 and beyond. Los Alamos has provided a data acquisition and control system (DACS) to monitor and control mitigation experiments on SY-101. The DACS consists of a data acquisition trailer to house the electronic components and computers in a friendly environment, a computer system running process control software for monitoring and controlling the tests, signal conditioners to convert the instrument signals to a usable form for the DACS, programmable logic controllers to process sensor signals and take action quickly, a fast data acquisition system for recording transient data, and a remote monitoring system to monitor the progress of the experiment. Equipment to monitor the release of the gasses was also provided. The first experiment involves a mixer pump to mix the waste and allow the gasses to be released at the surface of the liquid as the gas is being formed. The initial tests are scheduled for July 1993

  9. A low-level rf control system for a quarter-wave resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwon; Hwang, Churlkew

    2012-06-01

    A low-level rf control system was designed and built for an rf deflector, which is a quarter wave resonator, and was designed to deflect a secondary electron beam to measure the bunch length of an ion beam. The deflector has a resonance frequency near 88 MHz, its required phase stability is approximately ±1° and its amplitude stability is less than ±1%. The control system consists of analog input and output components and a digital system based on a field-programmable gate array for signal processing. The system is cost effective, while meeting the stability requirements. Some basic properties of the control system were measured. Then, the capability of the rf control was tested using a mechanical vibrator made of a dielectric rod attached to an audio speaker system, which could induce regulated perturbations in the electric fields of the resonator. The control system was flexible so that its parameters could be easily configured to compensate for the disturbance induced in the resonator.

  10. Conflict control of children with different intellectual levels: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Shi, Jiannong; Zhao, Daheng; Liu, Jizhong

    2011-02-25

    Conflict control is an important cognitive ability in human behavioral regulation. The Eriksen flanker task was employed to explore the neural correlation between conflict control and intelligence with the aid of event-related potential (ERP) techniques. Two groups of early adolescents with different intellectual levels participated in the current study (an intellectually gifted group of 20 children vs. an intellectually average group of 21 children, with mean scores of 43 vs. 35.7 in Cattell's Culture Fair Test, respectively). Behavioral results indicate that the gifted children had better conflict control performances, with increased accuracy and faster response speeds than the intellectually average children. Electrophysiological results further show that the gifted children had more efficient N2 activations during conflict monitoring processing, faster P3 responses over frontal regions, and stronger P3 activations over central-parietal regions during attentional control processing. The difference waveform analysis showed that the gifted children had the weakest N2d activations when elicited by multiple conflicts. N2d amplitudes can be used to distinguish a stimulus conflict from a response conflict, and P3d amplitudes can be used to separate multiple conflicts from a single conflict. The results support the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence and shed light on the close relationship between conflict control ability and human intelligence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A cascadic monotonic time-discretized algorithm for finite-level quantum control computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditz, P.; Borzi`, A.

    2008-03-01

    A computer package (CNMS) is presented aimed at the solution of finite-level quantum optimal control problems. This package is based on a recently developed computational strategy known as monotonic schemes. Quantum optimal control problems arise in particular in quantum optics where the optimization of a control representing laser pulses is required. The purpose of the external control field is to channel the system's wavefunction between given states in its most efficient way. Physically motivated constraints, such as limited laser resources, are accommodated through appropriately chosen cost functionals. Program summaryProgram title: CNMS Catalogue identifier: ADEB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADEB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 770 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7098 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB 6 Computer: AMD Athlon 64 × 2 Dual, 2:21 GHz, 1:5 GB RAM Operating system: Microsoft Windows XP Word size: 32 Classification: 4.9 Nature of problem: Quantum control Solution method: Iterative Running time: 60-600 sec

  12. Strong-field spatiotemporal ultrafast coherent control in three-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, Barry D.; Suchowski, Haim; Silberberg, Yaron; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2010-01-01

    Simple analytical approaches for implementing strong field coherent control schemes are often elusive due to the complexity of the interaction between the intense excitation field and the system of interest. Here, we demonstrate control over multiphoton excitation in a three-level resonant system using simple, analytically derived ultrafast pulse shapes. We utilize a two-dimensional spatiotemporal control technique, in which temporal focusing produces a spatially dependent quadratic spectral phase, while a second, arbitrary phase parameter is scanned using a pulse shaper. In the current work, we demonstrate weak-to-strong field excitation of 85 Rb, with a π phase step and the quadratic phase as the chosen control parameters. The intricate dependence of the multilevel dynamics on these parameters is exhibited by mapping the data onto a two-dimensional control landscape. Further insight is gained by simulating the complete landscape using a dressed-state, time-domain model, in which the influence of individual shaping parameters can be extracted using both exact and asymptotic time-domain representations of the dressed-state energies.

  13. A gene expression system offering multiple levels of regulation: the Dual Drug Control (DDC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudomoina, Marina; Latypova, Ekaterina; Favorova, Olga O; Golemis, Erica A; Serebriiskii, Ilya G

    2004-04-29

    Whether for cell culture studies of protein function, construction of mouse models to enable in vivo analysis of disease epidemiology, or ultimately gene therapy of human diseases, a critical enabling step is the ability to achieve finely controlled regulation of gene expression. Previous efforts to achieve this goal have explored inducible drug regulation of gene expression, and construction of synthetic promoters based on two-hybrid paradigms, among others. In this report, we describe the combination of dimerizer-regulated two-hybrid and tetracycline regulatory elements in an ordered cascade, placing expression of endpoint reporters under the control of two distinct drugs. In this Dual Drug Control (DDC) system, a first plasmid expresses fusion proteins to DBD and AD, which interact only in the presence of a small molecule dimerizer; a second plasmid encodes a cassette transcriptionally responsive to the first DBD, directing expression of the Tet-OFF protein; and a third plasmid encodes a reporter gene transcriptionally responsive to binding by Tet-OFF. We evaluate the dynamic range and specificity of this system in comparison to other available systems. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining two discrete drug-regulated expression systems in a temporally sequential cascade, without loss of dynamic range of signal induction. The efficient layering of control levels allowed by this combination of elements provides the potential for the generation of complex control circuitry that may advance ability to regulate gene expression in vivo.

  14. A gene expression system offering multiple levels of regulation: the Dual Drug Control (DDC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golemis Erica A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether for cell culture studies of protein function, construction of mouse models to enable in vivo analysis of disease epidemiology, or ultimately gene therapy of human diseases, a critical enabling step is the ability to achieve finely controlled regulation of gene expression. Previous efforts to achieve this goal have explored inducible drug regulation of gene expression, and construction of synthetic promoters based on two-hybrid paradigms, among others. Results In this report, we describe the combination of dimerizer-regulated two-hybrid and tetracycline regulatory elements in an ordered cascade, placing expression of endpoint reporters under the control of two distinct drugs. In this Dual Drug Control (DDC system, a first plasmid expresses fusion proteins to DBD and AD, which interact only in the presence of a small molecule dimerizer; a second plasmid encodes a cassette transcriptionally responsive to the first DBD, directing expression of the Tet-OFF protein; and a third plasmid encodes a reporter gene transcriptionally responsive to binding by Tet-OFF. We evaluate the dynamic range and specificity of this system in comparison to other available systems. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining two discrete drug-regulated expression systems in a temporally sequential cascade, without loss of dynamic range of signal induction. The efficient layering of control levels allowed by this combination of elements provides the potential for the generation of complex control circuitry that may advance ability to regulate gene expression in vivo.

  15. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  16. Level ofaggression and sense of control inself-harming youth receiving psychiatric treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gmitrowicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acts of autoaggression are a more and more frequent reason for psychiatric hospitalisation of adolescents. Within the last years the number of patients committing acts of deliberate self‑harm without suicidal intensions almost doubled. Deliberate self‑harm (DSH is defined as an act of direct destructiveness, in which a person wants to commit self‑harm immediately, without an intention of killing her/himself. In this paper we present the results of the study on the level and direction of aggression and the sense of control among inpatients (N=187 of the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Central University Hospital in Łódź. The studied group consisted of patients with deliberate self‑harm (DSH group, N=88, whereas the control group comprised the patients without such behaviours (non‑DSH group, N=99. For the study we recruited patients who were admitted to the hospital due to various mental disorders – 58 boys, mean age 16.81, SD=1.25, and 129 girls, mean age 16.5, SD=1.38. The mean age of all patients was 16.59 (SD=1.35. Patients with men‑ tal retardation were excluded from the study, due to expected difficulties with understanding the questions. We used the IPSA (Inventory of Psychological Syndrome of Aggression and “Delta” (test invented by Drwal, designed for evalua‑ tion of the sense of control. In the DSH group we found a significantly higher level of aggression, directed both inwards and outwards, a greater tendency of retaliatory behaviours and by far lower sense of internal control of one’s behaviours, as compared to the non‑DSH group. Therapeutic programs for patients with DSH should aim at the reduction of aggres‑ sion and the development of internal control over one’s behaviours.

  17. Explicit control of adaptive automation under different levels of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jürgen; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wastell, David; Nickel, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of three different forms of explicit control of adaptive automation under low- and high-stress conditions, operationalised by different levels of noise. In total, 60 participants were assigned to one of three types of automation design (free, prompted and forced choice). They were trained for 4 h on a highly automated simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS. This was followed by a 4-h testing session under noise exposure and quiet conditions. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that all three modes of explicit control of adaptive automation modes were able to attenuate the negative effects of noise. This was partly due to the fact that operators opted for higher levels of automation under noise. It also emerged that forced choice showed marginal advantages over the two other automation modes. Statement of Relevance: This work is relevant to the design of adaptive automation since it emphasises the need to consider the impact of work-related stressors during task completion. During the presence of stressors, different forms of operator support through automation may be required than under more favourable working conditions.

  18. Closed Loop Fuzzy Logic Controlled PV Based Cascaded Boost Five-Level Inverter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revana, Guruswamy; Kota, Venkata Reddy

    2018-04-01

    Recent developments in intelligent control methods and power electronics have produced PV based DC to AC converters related to AC drives. Cascaded boost converter and inverter find their way in interconnecting PV and Induction Motor. This paper deals with digital simulation and implementation of closed loop controlled five-level inverter based Photo-Voltaic (PV) system. The objective of this work is to reduce the harmonics using Multi Level Inverter based system. The DC output from the PV panel is boosted using cascaded-boost-converters. The DC output of these cascaded boost converters is applied to the bridges of the cascaded inverter. The AC output voltage is obtained by the series cascading of the output voltage of the two inverters. The investigations are done with Induction motor load. Cascaded boost-converter is proposed in the present work to produce the required DC Voltage at the input of the bridge inverter. A simple FLC is applied to CBFLIIM system. The FLC is proposed to reduce the steady state error. The simulation results are compared with the hardware results. The results of the comparison are made to show the improvement in dynamic response in terms of settling time and steady state error. Design procedure and control strategy are presented in detail.

  19. Controlling the optical bistability and transmission coefficient in a four-level atomic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Eslami-Majd, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    A novel four level atomic configuration is proposed for controlling the optical bistability and transmission coefficient with application on all-optical switching. Two circularly polarized components from a weak linearly-polarized probe beam are interacted separately by two transitions of this medium. A coherent coupling field has derived another atomic transition. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient of two orthogonally polarized beams at different frequencies can be achieved by adjusting the magnitude of the external magnetic field. It is found that the threshold of the optical bistability can be controlled by magnitude of the external magnetic field. Also, it is shown that optical bistability can be converted to optical multistability by switching the two orthogonally polarized beams. - Highlights: ► An inverted Y-type four level atomic system is proposed. ► Transmission coefficient can be controlled by a novel interesting parameter. ► Optical bistability and multistability can be achieved via external magnetic field. ► It is shown that our proposed model is suitable for all optical switching application.

  20. Effect of Jeju Water on Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwanpyo Koh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeju water is the groundwater of Jeju Island, a volcanic island located in Republic of Korea. We investigated whether Jeju water improved glycemic control in patients with diabetes. This was a 12-week single-center, double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial. The subjects daily drank a liter of one of three kinds of water: two Jeju waters (S1 and S2 and Seoul tap water (SS. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in the per-protocol (PP population achieving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c < 7.0% at week 12. In total, 196 patients were randomized and analyzed in the intention-to-treat (ITT population (66 consuming S1, 63 consuming S2, and 67 consuming SS; 146 patients were considered in the PP population. There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes of the groups consuming S1, S2, or SS. However, the percentage of patients achieving HbA1c < 8% was significantly higher in the S2 group than in the SS group. In the ITT population, the 12-week HbA1c and fructosamine levels were lower in the S1 group than in the SS group and the 4-, 8-, and 12-week fructosamine levels were lower in the S2 group than in the SS group. Although we failed to achieve the primary outcome, it is possible that the Jeju waters improve glycemic control compared with the Seoul tap water in diabetic patients.

  1. Control of fixed-wing UAV at levelling phase using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfeddine, Daher

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the share of fly-by-wire and software controlled UAV is explained by the need to release the human-operator and the desire to reduce the degree of influence of the human factor errors that account for 26% of aircraft accidents. An important reason for the introduction of new control algorithms is also the high level of UAV failures due loss of communication channels and possible hacking. This accounts for 17% of the total number of accidents. The comparison with manned flights shows that the frequency of accidents of unmanned flights is 27,000 times higher. This means that the UAV has 1611 failures per million flight hours and only 0.06 failures at the same time for the manned flight. In view of that, this paper studies the flight autonomy of fixed-wing UAV at the levelling phase. Landing parameters of the UAV are described. They will be used to setup a control scheme for an autopilot based on fuzzy logic algorithm.

  2. A case study: application of statistical process control tool for determining process capability and sigma level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Vikram; Bairagi, Mukesh; Trivedi, P; Nagar, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to the measurement and analysis of variation process. Various regulatory authorities such as Validation Guidance for Industry (2011), International Conference on Harmonisation ICH Q10 (2009), the Health Canada guidelines (2009), Health Science Authority, Singapore: Guidance for Product Quality Review (2008), and International Organization for Standardization ISO-9000:2005 provide regulatory support for the application of statistical process control for better process control and understanding. In this study risk assessments, normal probability distributions, control charts, and capability charts are employed for selection of critical quality attributes, determination of normal probability distribution, statistical stability, and capability of production processes, respectively. The objective of this study is to determine tablet production process quality in the form of sigma process capability. By interpreting data and graph trends, forecasting of critical quality attributes, sigma process capability, and stability of process were studied. The overall study contributes to an assessment of process at the sigma level with respect to out-of-specification attributes produced. Finally, the study will point to an area where the application of quality improvement and quality risk assessment principles for achievement of six sigma-capable processes is possible. Statistical process control is the most advantageous tool for determination of the quality of any production process. This tool is new for the pharmaceutical tablet production process. In the case of pharmaceutical tablet production processes, the quality control parameters act as quality assessment parameters. Application of risk assessment provides selection of critical quality attributes among quality control parameters. Sequential application of normality distributions, control charts, and capability analyses provides a valid statistical

  3. Computer-based control of nuclear power information systems at international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface, Ekechukwu; Okonkwo, Obi

    2011-01-01

    In most highly industrialized countries of the world information plays major role in anti-nuclear campaign. Information and discussions on nuclear power need critical and objective analysis before the structured information presentation to the public to avoid bias anti-nuclear information on one side and neglect of great risk in nuclear power. This research is developing a computer-based information system for the control of nuclear power at international level. The system is to provide easy and fast information highways for the followings: (1) Low Regulatory dose and activity limit as level of high danger for individuals and public. (2) Provision of relevant technical or scientific education among the information carriers in the nuclear power countries. The research is on fact oriented investigation about radioactivity. It also deals with fact oriented education about nuclear accidents and safety. A standard procedure for dissemination of latest findings using technical and scientific experts in nuclear technology is developed. The information highway clearly analyzes the factual information about radiation risk and nuclear energy. Radiation cannot be removed from our environment. The necessity of radiation utilizations defines nuclear energy as two-edge sword. It is therefore, possible to use computer-based information system in projecting and dissemination of expert knowledge about nuclear technology positively and also to use it in directing the public on the safety and control of the nuclear energy. The computer-based information highway for nuclear energy technology is to assist in scientific research and technological development at international level. (author)

  4. The impact of climate change and emissions control on future ozone levels: Implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Kim, Young-Min; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S; Chang, Howard H; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence has shown that, from the Industrial Revolution to the present, human activities influence ground-level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations. Past studies demonstrate links between O 3 exposure and health. However, knowledge gaps remain in our understanding concerning the impacts of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 concentrations and health. Using a hybrid downscaling approach, we evaluated the separate impact of climate change and emission control policies on O 3 levels and associated excess mortality in the US in the 2050s under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We show that, by the 2050s, under RCP4.5, increased O 3 levels due to combined climate change and emission control policies, could contribute to an increase of approximately 50 premature deaths annually nationwide in the US. The biggest impact, however, is seen under RCP8.5, where rises in O 3 concentrations are expected to result in over 2,200 additional premature deaths annually. The largest increases in O 3 are seen in RCP8.5 in the Northeast, the Southeast, the Central, and the West regions of the US. Additionally, when O 3 increases are examined by climate change and emissions contributions separately, the benefits of emissions mitigation efforts may significantly outweigh the effects of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 -related mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater control measures (SCMs are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM performance. Five case studies are presented that use water level loggers to evaluate the overflow of basins, compare a traditional stormpipe trench with an infiltration trench, monitor timing of blue roof storage, show the effects of retrofitting a basin, and provide long term performance data. Water level loggers can be used to answer questions about the timing and location of stormwater overflows, which helps to evaluate the effectiveness of SCMs. More expensive monitoring and modeling can be used as a follow up if needed to more thoroughly assess a site. Nonetheless, low-cost monitoring can be a first step in identifying sites that need improvement or additional monitoring.

  6. A study on water level control of PWR steam generator at low power and the self-tuning of its fuzzy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, N.; Kwon, K.; Ham, C.; Bien, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The water level control system of a steam generator in a pressurized water reactor and its control problems during the operation at low power is analysed. In particular, a strategy for a water level control system, which is based on the use of a fuzzy logic controller, is proposed. The control strategy includes dynamic tuning for the large transient. The fuzzy variable of the flow rate during the power operation is obtained from the bypass valve opening and not from the incorrect measured signal at the low flow rate. The practical self-tuning algorithm is based on the optimal control performance

  7. Optimal control of quantum dissipative dynamics: Analytic solution for cooling the three-level Λ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklarz, Shlomo E.; Tannor, David J.; Khaneja, Navin

    2004-01-01

    We study the problem of optimal control of dissipative quantum dynamics. Although under most circumstances dissipation leads to an increase in entropy (or a decrease in purity) of the system, there is an important class of problems for which dissipation with external control can decrease the entropy (or increase the purity) of the system. An important example is laser cooling. In such systems, there is an interplay of the Hamiltonian part of the dynamics, which is controllable, and the dissipative part of the dynamics, which is uncontrollable. The strategy is to control the Hamiltonian portion of the evolution in such a way that the dissipation causes the purity of the system to increase rather than decrease. The goal of this paper is to find the strategy that leads to maximal purity at the final time. Under the assumption that Hamiltonian control is complete and arbitrarily fast, we provide a general framework by which to calculate optimal cooling strategies. These assumptions lead to a great simplification, in which the control problem can be reformulated in terms of the spectrum of eigenvalues of ρ, rather than ρ itself. By combining this formulation with the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theorem we are able to obtain an equation for the globally optimal cooling strategy in terms of the spectrum of the density matrix. For the three-level Λ system, we provide a complete analytic solution for the optimal cooling strategy. For this system it is found that the optimal strategy does not exploit system coherences and is a 'greedy' strategy, in which the purity is increased maximally at each instant

  8. The feeling of doing across levels of analysis: The effects of perceived control on learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Chatman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A person's sense of control was initially conceptualized in psychology as either a trait (Rotter, 1966, an attribution style (Weiner, 1979 or self-efficacy belief (Bandura, 1989a. More recent work in social cognition focuses on the process of inferring one's own causality and how the feeling of doing comes about. This investigation centers on a cue based process as leading to the experience of agency. These cues include vision, proprioception, social cues, and action relevant thought (Wegner & Sparrow, 2004. Since the advent of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, progress has been made in understanding the neural substrates implicated when one's infers own causality (for review see David, Newen, & Vogeley, 2008. An analysis of the different approaches to studying human agency, reveals their contributions with each level of analysis adding to and refining our understanding of perceived control and its effect on learning.

  9. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  10. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect.

  11. Storage of low-level radioactive waste and regulatory control of sealed sources in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Markkanen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the non nuclear low-level radioactive waste. The cornerstone for maintaining radioactive sources under control in Finland is that all practices involving sources are subject to authorization and all licensing information, including information on each individual source, are entered into a register which is continuously updated based on applications and notifications received from the licenses. Experiences during the past twenty years have shown that source-specific records of sources combined with regular inspections at the places of use have prevented efficiency losing control over sealed radioactive sources. The current capacity in the interim storage for State owned waste is not adequate for all used sealed sources and other small user waste which are currently kept in the possession of the licensees. Thus, expansion of the storage capacity and other options for taking care of the small user waste is under consideration. (N.C.)

  12. Simulation experiment on low-level RF control for dual-harmonic acceleration at CSNS RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Sirong; Li Xiao; Zhang Chunlin; Sun Hong; Tang Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    The design and test of the low-level RF (LLRF) control system for the dual-harmonic acceleration at the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) at phase Ⅰ is introduced. In order to implement the mode switch from the second harmonic to the fundamental during the acceleration cycle for one of the eight RF cavities, the LLRF system for the cavity has been designed differently from the others. Several technical measures such as the opening of the control loops during the mode switch and the reclosing of two tuning circuits of the RF amplifier at different moments, have been taken. The experimental results on the testing platform based on an RF prototype show good dynamic performance of the LLRF system and prove the feasibility of dual-harmonic operation. (authors)

  13. High-Level software requirements specification for the TWRS controlled baseline database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    This Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is an as-built document that presents the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Controlled Baseline Database (TCBD) in its current state. It was originally known as the Performance Measurement Control System (PMCS). Conversion to the new system name has not occurred within the current production system. Therefore, for simplicity, all references to TCBD are equivalent to PMCS references. This SRS will reference the PMCS designator from this point forward to capture the as-built SRS. This SRS is written at a high-level and is intended to provide the design basis for the PMCS. The PMCS was first released as the electronic data repository for cost, schedule, and technical administrative baseline information for the TAAS Program. During its initial development, the PMCS was accepted by the customer, TARS Business Management, with no formal documentation to capture the initial requirements

  14. An Application-Level QoS Control Method Based on Local Bandwidth Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of service (QoS is an important performance indicator for Web applications and bandwidth is a key factor affecting QoS. Current methods use network protocols or ports to schedule bandwidth, which require tedious manual configurations or modifications of the underlying network. Some applications use dynamic ports and the traditional port-based bandwidth control methods cannot deal with them. A new QoS control method based on local bandwidth scheduling is proposed, which can schedule bandwidth at application level in a user-transparent way and it does not require tedious manual configurations. Experimental results indicate that the new method can effectively improve the QoS for applications, and it can be easily integrated into current Web applications without the need to modify the underlying network.

  15. Analysis, control and design of a non-inverting buck-boost converter: A bump-less two-level T-S fuzzy PI control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Omid Naghash; Fereshtehpoor, Vahid; Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new modified fuzzy Two-Level Control Scheme (TLCS) is proposed to control a non-inverting buck-boost converter. Each level of fuzzy TLCS consists of a tuned fuzzy PI controller. In addition, a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy switch proposed to transfer the fuzzy PI controllers to each other in the control system. The major difficulty in designing fuzzy TLCS which degrades its performance is emerging unwanted drastic oscillations in the converter output voltage during replacing the controllers. Thereby, the fuzzy PI controllers in each level of TLCS structure are modified to eliminate these oscillations and improve the system performance. Some simulations and digital signal processor based experiments are conducted on a non-inverting buck-boost converter to support the effectiveness of the proposed TLCS in controlling the converter output voltage. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaural Level Difference Dependent Gain Control and Synaptic Scaling Underlying Binaural Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaorui R.; Liang, Feixue; Li, Haifu; Mesik, Lukas; Zhang, Ke K.; Polley, Daniel B.; Tao, Huizhong W.; Xiao, Zhongju; Zhang, Li I.

    2013-01-01

    Binaural integration in the central nucleus of inferior colliculus (ICC) plays a critical role in sound localization. However, its arithmetic nature and underlying synaptic mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we showed in mouse ICC neurons that the contralateral dominance is created by a “push-pull”-like mechanism, with contralaterally dominant excitation and more bilaterally balanced inhibition. Importantly, binaural spiking response is generated apparently from an ipsilaterally-mediated scaling of contralateral response, leaving frequency tuning unchanged. This scaling effect is attributed to a divisive attenuation of contralaterally-evoked synaptic excitation onto ICC neurons with their inhibition largely unaffected. Thus, a gain control mediates the linear transformation from monaural to binaural spike responses. The gain value is modulated by interaural level difference (ILD) primarily through scaling excitation to different levels. The ILD-dependent synaptic scaling and gain adjustment allow ICC neurons to dynamically encode interaural sound localization cues while maintaining an invariant representation of other independent sound attributes. PMID:23972599

  17. A system level boundary scan controller board for VME applications [to CERN experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, N; Da Silva, J C

    2000-01-01

    This work is the result of a collaboration between INESC and LIP in the CMS experiment being conducted at CERN. The collaboration addresses the application of boundary scan test at system level namely the development of a VME boundary scan controller (BSC) board prototype and the corresponding software. This prototype uses the MTM bus existing in the VME64* backplane to apply the 1149.1 test vectors to a system composed of nineteen boards, called here units under test (UUTs). A top-down approach is used to describe our work. The paper begins with some insights about the experiment being conducted at CERN, proceed with system level considerations concerning our work and with some details about the BSC board. The results obtained so far and the proposed work is reviewed in the end of this contribution. (11 refs).

  18. Optimal control of population and coherence in three-level Λ systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Malinovskaya, Svetlana A.; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.

    2011-08-01

    Optimal control theory (OCT) implementations for an efficient population transfer and creation of maximum coherence in a three-level system are considered. We demonstrate that the half-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage scheme for creation of the maximum Raman coherence is the optimal solution according to the OCT. We also present a comparative study of several implementations of OCT applied to the complete population transfer and creation of the maximum coherence. Performance of the conjugate gradient method, the Zhu-Rabitz method and the Krotov method has been analysed.

  19. An automatic controlled apparatus of target chamber for atomic spectra and level lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mengchun; Yang Zhihu

    1998-01-01

    An automatically controlled apparatus of target chamber was made to measure spectra of the excited atoms and lifetime of the excited levels. The hardware is composed of nine parts including a computer and a step-motor, while the software consists of three branch programs. The maximum movable distance of target position is 65 cm with a step-length of 8.3 μm and a precision of +- 18 μm per 2 mm. On account of simple structure and double protection, the apparatus exhibits flexibility and reliability in years service

  20. The Design and Performance of the Spallation Neutron Source Low-Level RF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Champion, M; Kasemir, K; Ma, H; Piller, C

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator low-level RF control system has been developed within a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge national laboratories. Three distinct generations of the system, described in a previous publication [1], have been used to support beam commissioning at Oak Ridge. The third generation system went into production in early 2004, with installation in the coupled-cavity and superconducting linacs to span the remainder of the year. The final design of this system will be presented along with results of performance measurements.

  1. Control, Test and Monitoring Software Framework for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, R; Aharrouche, M; Andrei, V; Åsman, B; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Bohm, C; Booth, J R A; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I P; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J; Davis, A O; Eckweiler, S; Eisenhandler, E F; Faulkner, P J W; Fleckner, J; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Goringer, C; Groll, M; Hadley, D R; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Johansen, M; Kluge, E E; Kühl, T; Landon, M; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Moa, T; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Neusiedl, A; Ohm, C; Oltmann, B; Perera, V J O; Prieur, D P F; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rühr, F; Sankey, D P C; Schäfer, U; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Silverstein, S; Sjölin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stockton, M C; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wessels, M; Wildt, M

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-pT jets, electron/photon and tau candidates and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS calorimeters. The complete trigger system consists of over 300 customdesignedVME modules of varying complexity. These modules are based around FPGAs or ASICs with many configurable parameters, both to initialize the system with correct calibrations and timings and to allow flexibility in the trigger algorithms. The control, testing and monitoring of these modules requires a comprehensive, but well-designed and modular, software framework, which we will describe in this paper.

  2. The Main Biological Hazards in Animal Biosafety Level 2 Facilities and Strategies for Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Yan; Xue, Kang Ning; Jiang, Jin Sheng; Lu, Xuan Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Concern about the biological hazards involved in microbiological research, especially research involving laboratory animals, has increased in recent years. Working in an animal biosafety level 2 facility (ABSL-2), commonly used for research on infectious diseases, poses various biological hazards. Here, the regulations and standards related to laboratory biosafety in China are introduced, the potential biological hazards present in ABSL-2 facilities are analyzed, and a series of strategies to control the hazards are presented. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. The exemption of regulatory control for the management of low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M.T.; Carboneras, P.

    1993-01-01

    A high number of wastes produced in different fields of science and technology, as well as nuclear power plants, contain a significant volume of byproducts contaminated with radioisotopes, having a very low radioactive level. This kind of wastes might be managed as ordinary wastes by conventional methods or even reused. In order to carry out this procedure, a new regulation exempting these products from the regulatory control normatives would be necessary. This paper analyzes the big advantages of introducing these exemptions (costs recycling, radioactive wastes minimization) and how they follow the recommendations of ICRP, IAEA, EC and NRC

  4. Limitations of two-level emitters as nonlinearities in two-photon controlled-PHASE gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.; Heuck, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the origin of imperfections in the fidelity of a two-photon controlled-PHASE gate based on two-level-emitter nonlinearities. We focus on a passive system that operates without external modulations to enhance its performance. We demonstrate that the fidelity of the gate is limited...... by opposing requirements on the input pulse width for one-and two-photon-scattering events. For one-photon scattering, the spectral pulse width must be narrow compared with the emitter linewidth, while two-photon-scattering processes require the pulse width and emitter linewidth to be comparable. We find...

  5. Optimal control of population and coherence in three-level Λ systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Malinovskaya, Svetlana A; Malinovsky, Vladimir S

    2011-01-01

    Optimal control theory (OCT) implementations for an efficient population transfer and creation of maximum coherence in a three-level system are considered. We demonstrate that the half-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage scheme for creation of the maximum Raman coherence is the optimal solution according to the OCT. We also present a comparative study of several implementations of OCT applied to the complete population transfer and creation of the maximum coherence. Performance of the conjugate gradient method, the Zhu-Rabitz method and the Krotov method has been analysed.

  6. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  7. Cost effectiveness of tobacco control policies in Vietnam: the case of population-level interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hideki; Truong, Khoa D; Barendregt, Jan J; Nguyen, Phuong K; Vuong, Mai L; Nguyen, Thuy T; Hoang, Phuong T; Wallace, Angela L; Tran, Tien V; Le, Cuong Q; Doran, Christopher M

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the leading public health problems in the world. It is also possible to prevent and/or reduce the harm from tobacco use through the use of cost-effective tobacco control measures. However, most of this evidence comes from developed countries and little research has been conducted on this issue in developing countries. The objective of this study was to analyse the cost effectiveness of four population-level tobacco control interventions in Vietnam. Four tobacco control interventions were evaluated: excise tax increase; graphic warning labels on cigarette packs; mass media campaigns; and smoking bans (in public or in work places). A multi-state life table model was constructed in Microsoft® Excel to examine the cost effectiveness of the tobacco control intervention options. A government perspective was adopted, with costing conducted using a bottom-up approach. Health improvement was considered in terms of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. All assumptions were subject to sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. All the interventions fell within the definition of being very cost effective according to the threshold level suggested by the WHO (i.e. place smoking bans. If the cost offset was included in the analysis, all interventions would provide cost savings to the government health sector. All four interventions to reduce the harm from tobacco use appear to be highly cost effective and should be considered as priorities in the context of Vietnam. The government may initially consider graphic warning labels and tax increase, followed by other interventions.

  8. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  9. MODIS information, data and control system (MIDACS) level 2 functional requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D.; Salomonson, V.; Ormsby, J.; Sharts, B.; Folta, D.; Ardanuy, P.; Mckay, A.; Hoyt, D.; Jaffin, S.; Vallette, B.

    1988-01-01

    The MODIS Information, Data and Control System (MIDACS) Level 2 Functional Requirements Document establishes the functional requirements for MIDACS and provides a basis for the mutual understanding between the users and the designers of the EosDIS, including the requirements, operating environment, external interfaces, and development plan. In defining the requirements and scope of the system, this document describes how MIDACS will operate as an element of the EOS within the EosDIS environment. This version of the Level 2 Requirements Document follows an earlier release of a preliminary draft version. The sections on functional and performance requirements do not yet fully represent the requirements of the data system needed to achieve the scientific objectives of the MODIS instruments and science teams. Indeed, the team members have not yet been selected and the team has not yet been formed; however, it has been possible to identify many relevant requirements based on the present concept of EosDIS and through interviews and meetings with key members of the scientific community. These requirements have been grouped by functional component of the data system, and by function within each component. These requirements have been merged with the complete set of Level 1 and Level 2 context diagrams, data flow diagrams, and data dictionary.

  10. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30

    The Project Objective is to design innovative energy storage architecture and associated controls for high wind penetration to increase reliability and market acceptance of wind power. The project goals are to facilitate wind energy integration at different levels by design and control of suitable energy storage systems. The three levels of wind power system are: Balancing Control Center level, Wind Power Plant level, and Wind Power Generator level. Our scopes are to smooth the wind power fluctuation and also ensure adequate battery life. In the new hybrid energy storage system (HESS) design for wind power generation application, the boundary levels of the state of charge of the battery and that of the supercapacitor are used in the control strategy. In the controller, some logic gates are also used to control the operating time durations of the battery. The sizing method is based on the average fluctuation of wind profiles of a specific wind station. The calculated battery size is dependent on the size of the supercapacitor, state of charge of the supercapacitor and battery wear. To accommodate the wind power fluctuation, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery energy system (BESS) and super-capacitor is adopted in this project. A probability-based power capacity specification approach for the BESS and super-capacitors is proposed. Through this method the capacities of BESS and super-capacitor are properly designed to combine the characteristics of high energy density of BESS and the characteristics of high power density of super-capacitor. It turns out that the super-capacitor within HESS deals with the high power fluctuations, which contributes to the extension of BESS lifetime, and the super-capacitor can handle the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been verified based on the real wind data from an existing wind power plant in Iowa. An

  11. Current Controller for Multi-level Front-end Converter and Its Digital Implementation Considerations on Three-level Flying Capacitor Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekwani, P. N.; Shah, M. T.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents behaviour analysis and digital implementation of current error space phasor based hysteresis controller applied to three-phase three-level flying capacitor converter as front-end topology. The controller is self-adaptive in nature, and takes the converter from three-level to two-level mode of operation and vice versa, following various trajectories of sector change with the change in reference dc-link voltage demanded by the load. It keeps current error space phasor within the prescribed hexagonal boundary. During the contingencies, the proposed controller takes the converter in over modulation mode to meet the load demand, and once the need is satisfied, controller brings back the converter in normal operating range. Simulation results are presented to validate behaviour of controller to meet the said contingencies. Unity power factor is assured by proposed controller with low current harmonic distortion satisfying limits prescribed in IEEE 519-2014. Proposed controller is implemented using TMS320LF2407 16-bit fixed-point digital signal processor. Detailed analysis of numerical format to avoid overflow of sensed variables in processor, and per-unit model implementation in software are discussed and hardware results are presented at various stages of signal conditioning to validate the experimental setup. Control logic for the generation of reference currents is implemented in TMS320LF2407A using assembly language and experimental results are also presented for the same.

  12. Comparison of serum lead level in oral opium addicts with healthy control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hossein; Sayadi, Ahmad Reza; Tashakori, Mahnaz; Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Soltanpoor, Narges; Sadeghi, Hossein; Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmood

    2009-11-01

    Drug abuse and its consequences are major health problems in Middle-East countries such as Iran. Salesmen and smugglers may add lead to opium during the process of opium preparation to increase the weight of opium for more profit. Several reports have found lead poisoning symptoms in opium addicted patients and there are many nonspecific symptoms mimicking lead poisoning in opium addicted patients. As far as the literature review is concerned, there is no comparative study about blood lead level (BLL) in addicted patients with healthy controls. Therefore, it seems evaluation of blood lead level in opium addicted patients to be important. In this study, the BLL of forty-four subjects in two patient and control groups was evaluated. The patient group (22 subjects) was comprised of patients who used oral opium. Control group (22 subjects) was matched with the patient group for age and sex, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria with a mean age of 38.8+/-6.7. For blood lead assay, 3 mL of whole blood was obtained from both groups by venipuncture and BLL was assessed immediately using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The BLL in patient group had a range of 7.2 to 69.9 g/dL with a mean of 21.9+/-13.2. In the healthy control group, BLL was between 4.1 to 17.4 g/dL with a mean of 8.6+/-3.5. The mean difference of both groups (t=4.56) was statistically significant (Popium ingested (r=0.65, Popium ingestion in the patient group. It would be concluded that opium addicts have an elevated BLL compared to healthy controls. Therefore, screening of blood lead concentration is helpful for opium addicted people especially with non-specific symptoms. In this regard, a similar investigation with a larger sample size of opium addicted patients (including both oral and inhaled) and a control group is suggested to confirm the findings of this research.

  13. Development of a low-level RF control system for PET cyclotron CYCIAE-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pengzhan, E-mail: lipengzhan@ciae.ac.cn; Yin, Zhiguo; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Zhao, Zhenlu

    2014-01-21

    The project of a 14 MeV PET cyclotron aiming at medical diagnosis and treatment was proposed and started at CIAE in 2010. The low-level RF system is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance of the cavity. Based on the experience of the existing CRM Cyclotron in CIAE, a new start-up sequence is developed and tested. The frequency sweeping is used to activate the RF system. Before the tuner is put into use, a new state called “DDS tuning” is applied to trace the resonance frequency to the designed value. This new option state helps to cover the tuning range, if a large frequency variation occurs because of a thermal cavity deformation. The logic control unit detects the spark, reflection, Pulse/CW state and the frequency of the RF source to perform all kinds of protection and state operations. The test bench and on-line test are carried out to verify the initial design. -- Highlights: • The low-level RF system is designed and verified for PET cyclotron CYCIAE-14. • The frequency sweeping is used to activate the RF system. • A new state called “DDS tuning” is applied to trace the resonance frequency. • This new option state helps to cover the tuning range. • Protection module allows a quick restart after an alarm and improves cyclotron's efficiency.

  14. Phosphorylation-mediated control of histone chaperone ASF1 levels by Tousled-like kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Pilyugin

    Full Text Available Histone chaperones are at the hub of a diverse interaction networks integrating a plethora of chromatin modifying activities. Histone H3/H4 chaperone ASF1 is a target for cell-cycle regulated Tousled-like kinases (TLKs and both proteins cooperate during chromatin replication. However, the precise role of post-translational modification of ASF1 remained unclear. Here, we identify the TLK phosphorylation sites for both Drosophila and human ASF1 proteins. Loss of TLK-mediated phosphorylation triggers hASF1a and dASF1 degradation by proteasome-dependent and independent mechanisms respectively. Consistent with this notion, introduction of phosphorylation-mimicking mutants inhibits hASF1a and dASF1 degradation. Human hASF1b is also targeted for proteasome-dependent degradation, but its stability is not affected by phosphorylation indicating that other mechanisms are likely to be involved in control of hASF1b levels. Together, these results suggest that ASF1 cellular levels are tightly controlled by distinct pathways and provide a molecular mechanism for post-translational regulation of dASF1 and hASF1a by TLK kinases.

  15. 162.5 MHz digital low-level radio frequency control monitoring system design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruifeng; Wang Xianwu; Xu Zhe; Yi Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    162.5 MHz high-frequency low-level control system self-developed by Institute of Modern Physics for ADS project took digital technology. All parameters' reading and writing, including loop parameter setting, open and close-loop operation, and condition monitoring, were achieved through the monitoring system. The system used lightweight client-server working mode that client running in the PC sent command data, server running on high-frequency digital low level system responded instructions to complete parameter monitoring and control. The system consisted of three parts. Firstly, server hardware system was constructed based on Atera Stratix Ⅲ family of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) development board. Secondly, the server software system was designed based on Micro C/OS Ⅱ real-time operating systems and lightweight TCP/IP protocol stack, and finally a client PC program was designed based on MFC. After a long test, it was indicated that the monitoring system works properly and stably. TCP sends and receives throughput reached 11.931038 Mbps and 8.117624 Mbps. (authors)

  16. Universal health coverage at the macro level: Synthetic control evidence from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Matthias; Wagner, Natascha; Bedi, Arjun S

    2017-01-01

    As more and more countries are moving towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC), it is important to understand the macro level or aggregate impacts of such a policy. We use synthetic control methods to study the impact of UHC, introduced in Thailand in 2001, on various macroeconomic and health outcomes. Thailand is compared to a weighted average of control countries in terms of aggregate health financing indicators, aggregate health outcomes and economic performance, over the period 1995 to 2012. Our results suggest that UHC helps alleviate the financial consequences of illnesses. The estimated treatment effect of UHC on out-of-pocket payments as a percentage of overall health expenditures is negative 13 percentage points and its effect on annual government per capita health spending is US$ 79. We detect a smaller effect of US$ 60.8 on total health spending per capita which appears with a lag. We document positive health effects as captured by reductions in infant and child mortality. We do not find any effect on GDP and the share of the government budget devoted to health. Overall, our results complement micro evidence based on within country variation. The counterfactual design implemented here may be used to inform other countries on the macro level repercussions of UHC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Engineering of Fermi level by nin diamond junction for control of charge states of NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, T.; Makino, T.; Kato, H.; Shimizu, M.; Murooka, T.; Herbschleb, E. D.; Doi, Y.; Morishita, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatano, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Mizuochi, N.

    2018-03-01

    The charge-state control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is very important toward its applications because the NV centers undergo stochastic charge-state transitions between the negative charge state (NV-) and the neutral charge state (NV0) of the NV center upon illumination. In this letter, engineering of the Fermi level by a nin diamond junction was demonstrated for the control of the charge state of the NV centers in the intrinsic (i) layer region. By changing the size (d) of the i-layer region between the phosphorus-doped n-type layer regions (nin) from 2 μm to 10 μm, we realized the gradual change in the NV- charge-state population in the i-layer region from 60% to 80% under 532 nm excitation, which can be attributed to the band bending in the i-layer region. Also, we quantitatively simulated the changes in the Fermi level in the i-layer region depending on d with various concentrations of impurities in the i-layer region.

  18. Reduction Expansion Synthesis as Strategy to Control Nitrogen Doping Level and Surface Area in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Canty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene sheets doped with nitrogen were produced by the reduction-expansion (RES method utilizing graphite oxide (GO and urea as precursor materials. The simultaneous graphene generation and nitrogen insertion reactions are based on the fact that urea decomposes upon heating to release reducing gases. The volatile byproducts perform two primary functions: (i promoting the reduction of the GO and (ii providing the nitrogen to be inserted in situ as the graphene structure is created. Samples with diverse urea/GO mass ratios were treated at 800 °C in inert atmosphere to generate graphene with diverse microstructural characteristics and levels of nitrogen doping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to study the microstructural features of the products. The effects of doping on the samples structure and surface area were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET. The GO and urea decomposition-reduction process as well as nitrogen-doped graphene stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS analysis of the evolved gases. Results show that the proposed method offers a high level of control over the amount of nitrogen inserted in the graphene and may be used alternatively to control its surface area. To demonstrate the practical relevance of these findings, as-produced samples were used as electrodes in supercapacitor and battery devices and compared with conventional, thermally exfoliated graphene.

  19. Control of a deareador level of a thermoelectric power station using modern control techniques; Control de nivel de un deareador de una central termoelectrica utilizando tecnicas de control moderno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Estrada, Jose Israel

    1997-01-01

    The present work shows the implementation of the scheme of predictive control IMC (Internal Model Control) in order to control the level of the deareador of a combined cycle thermoelectric power station of (C.C.T.S.). The implementation has the purpose of looking for alternative strategies of control to the classic ones (PID`s) that more efficiently control the variables of interest, in addition to getting into the new control techniques of control. Following the philosophy of predictive control IMC the form to applying this technique is shown, as well as the implementation of this type of controllers. A comparison of predictive control IMC is made with the scheme of conventional control (three control elements PID`s ) used at present to control the level of the deareador in the Combined Cycle Thermoelectric Power stations of Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Mexico and of Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra la implementacion del esquema de control predictivo IMC (Control con Modelo Interno) con el objeto de controlar el nivel del deareador de una Central Termoelectrica de Ciclo Combinado (C.T.C.C.). La implementacion tiene la finalidad de buscar estrategias de control alternas a las clasicas (PID`s) que controlen mas eficientemente la variable de interes, ademas de incursionar en las nuevas tecnicas de control. Siguiendo la filosofia del control predictivo IMC se muestra la forma de aplicar esta tecnica, asi como la implementacion de este tipo de controladores. Se hace una comparacion del control predictivo IMC con el esquema de control convencional (control de tres elementos PID`s) utilizando actualmente para controlar el nivel del deareador en las centrales termoelectricas de ciclo combinado de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y de Gomez Palacio, Durango en Mexico.

  20. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  1. Academic Locus of Control, Tendencies Towards Academic Dishonesty and Test Anxiety Levels as the Predictors of Academic Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have focused on finding the level of effect that academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic dishonesty, and test anxiety levels have had on academic self-efficacy, and providing a separate explanation ratio for each. The relationship among the effects of the academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic…

  2. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity controls systemic cytokine levels through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Parrish, William R.; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Ochani, Mahendar; Puerta, Margot; Ochani, Kanta; Chavan, Sangeeta; Al-Abed, Yousef; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The excessive release of cytokines by the immune system contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Recent advances in understanding the biology of cytokine toxicity led to the discovery of the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway,” defined as neural signals transmitted via the vagus nerve that inhibit cytokine release through a mechanism that requires the alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Vagus nerve regulation of peripheral functions is controlled by brain nuclei and neural networks, but despite considerable importance, little is known about the molecular basis for central regulation of the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report that brain acetylcholinesterase activity controls systemic and organ specific TNF production during endotoxemia. Peripheral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine significantly reduced serum TNF levels through vagus nerve signaling, and protected against lethality during murine endotoxemia. Administration of a centrally-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist abolished the suppression of TNF by galantamine, indicating that suppressing acetylcholinesterase activity, coupled with central muscarinic receptors, controls peripheral cytokine responses. Administration of galantamine to α7nAChR knockout mice failed to suppress TNF levels, indicating that the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is required for the anti-inflammatory effect of galantamine. These findings show that inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase suppresses systemic inflammation through a central muscarinic receptor-mediated and vagal- and α7nAChR-dependent mechanism. Our data also indicate that a clinically used centrally-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor can be utilized to suppress abnormal inflammation to therapeutic advantage. PMID:18639629

  3. Conditions for settling liquid levels by means of gamma-ray relay control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, N [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1976-03-01

    Using a control action which consists of infusion and exhaust at constant speeds and a neutral zone to maintain liquid levels within a given range, a gamma-ray source, a detector, and two relays at the upper and lower limits of the counting rate were provided. The optimum condition in this case is discussed and confirmed experimentally. Since a counting rate-meter has a time constant and its output is subject to the statistical fluctuation, the liquid level may overrun the opposite limit, move again after settling within the range, or drift far out of the range by a load before actuation of the relay. Formulas are derived providing the conditions such that these phenomena will not occur more frequently than a tolerant probability. These give the relations between the counting rates at the upper and lower limits, the time constant of the rate-meter, the multipliers of the standard deviations of the counting rates, the infusing and exhausting speeds, and the hysteresis widths of the limiting relays. Since it can be said that the first two of the five quantities should be smaller and the next two greater, the optimum condition can be determined from the formulas. When the infusing and exhausting speeds are the same and the hysteresis widths are equal, the formulas show that the optimum is a case where the ratio of the counting rates at the two limits, which is taken smaller than unity, is small, and where each hysteresis width is equal to 0.34 times the difference between the two counting rates, almost regardless of the value of their ratio. The above-mentioned deductions were examined in a system constructed with a backscattered gamma-ray type level gauge and a controller for infusion and exhaust of water. Its results almost agreed with those of the deductions when the multipliers of the standard deviations are substituted for by 2.

  4. System Level Analysis of a Water PCM HX Integrated into Orion's Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moses; Hansen, Scott; Seth, Rubik; Ungar, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development an Orion system level analysis was performed using Thermal Desktop for a water PCM HX integrated into Orion's thermal control system in a 100km Lunar orbit. The study verified of the thermal model by using a wax PCM and analyzed 1) placing the PCM on the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) versus the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) 2) use of 30/70 PGW verses 50/50 PGW and 3) increasing the radiator area in order to reduce PCM freeze times. The analysis showed that for the assumed operating and boundary conditions utilizing a water PCM HX on Orion is not a viable option for any case. Additionally, it was found that the radiator area would have to be increased by at least 40% in order to support a viable water-based PCM HX.

  5. System Level Analysis of a Water PCM HX Integrated Into Orion's Thermal Control System Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moses; Hansen, Scott; Ungar, Eugene; Sheth, Rubik

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development an Orion system level analysis was performed using Thermal Desktop for a water PCM HX integrated into Orion's thermal control system and in a 100km Lunar orbit. The study analyzed 1) placing the PCM on the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) versus the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) 2) use of 30/70 PGW verses 50/50 PGW and 3) increasing the radiator area in order to reduce PCM freeze times. The analysis showed that for the assumed operating and boundary conditions utilizing a water PCM HX on Orion is not a viable option. Additionally, it was found that the radiator area would have to be increased over 20% in order to have a viable water-based PCM HX.

  6. Barriers to adopting and implementing local-level tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-08-01

    Although California communities have been relatively successful in adopting and implementing a wide range of local tobacco control policies, the process has not been without its setbacks and barriers. Little is known about local policy adoption, and this paper examines these processes related to adopting and implementing outdoor smoke-free policies, focusing on the major barriers faced by local-level tobacco control organizations in this process. Ninety-six projects funded by the California Tobacco Control Program submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to an outdoor smoking objective, and the reports from these projects were analyzed. The barriers were grouped in three primary areas: politically polarizing barriers, organizational barriers, and local political orientation. The barriers identified in this study underscore the need for an organized action plan in adopting local tobacco policy. The authors also suggest potential strategies to offset the barriers, including: (1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward; (2) tapping into a pool of youth volunteers; (3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool; (4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts; (5) working strategically within the local political climate; and (6) demonstrating to policymakers the constituent support for proposed policy.

  7. The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Lazaridis, Christos; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

  8. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem levels in obese children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Seda; Orhon, Filiz Şimşek; Tayfun, Meltem; Uçaktürk, Seyit Ahmet; Demirel, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a global health problem affecting all age groups. Childhood obesity, which may cause chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, etc., deserves more attention. However, few studies highlight the association between childhood obesity and psychological diseases. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the psychological condition in obese children. One hundred and sixty-seven obese (body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile) and 200 normal weight children (BMI between 5th and 85th percentile) aged 9-16 years were enrolled into this case-control study. In order to assess the self-concept, anxiety and depression levels: the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS), state and trait anxiety inventory for children (STAI-C) and the children depression inventory (CDI) were administered both obese and control groups. There were significant differences among obese and control groups in terms of the total score of PHCSCS [55 (22-69) versus 65 (57-74)], STAI-C [37 (20-55) versus 28 (20-42)], and CDI [12 (4-39)] versus [8 (3-19)]; respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001). We also found statistically significant differences among groups in all of the subscales parameters of PHCSCS (p<0.001). Our results indicate that obese children may experience psychiatric disorders more than normal-weight peers.

  9. Human-factors-based implementation of the remote characterization system high-level control station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, M.W.; Richardson, B.S.; Rowe, J.C.; Draper, J.V.; Sandness, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important first step in the restoration of the numerous US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Department of Defense waste disposal sites. DOE, through its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Robotics and Technology Development Program, has developed the Remote Characterization System (RCS) to address the needs of remote subsurfacecharacterization. The RCS consists of a low-metal-content (low-metallic-signature) remotely piloted vehicle, a high-level control station (HLCS) where operators can remotely control the vehicle and analyze real-time data from sensors, and an array of sensors that can be chosen to meet the survey task at hand. Communication between the vehicle and the base station is handled by a radio link. Site mapping is made possible through the use of geopositioning satellite data. The primary mode of vehicle operation is teleoperation, but provision has been made for semiautonomous or supervisory control that allows for automated sitesurvey on simple sites. Data analysis and display is supported for both real-time observation and postprocessing of data. The particular emphasis of this paper documents the human-factors-based design influences on the HLCS and describes the design in detail

  10. Control levels for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support joint efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232); by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop radiological control criteria for the recycle and reuse of scrap materials and equipment that contain residual radioactive contamination. The initial radiological control levels are the concentrations in or on materials considered for recycle or reuse that meet the individual (human) or industrial (electronics/film) dose criteria. The analysis identifies relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and methods to determine possible non-health-related impacts from residual radioactive contamination in materials considered for recycle or reuse. The generic methodology and scenarios described here provide a basic framework for numerically deriving radiological control criteria for recycle or reuse. These will be adequately conservative for most situations

  11. The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L.; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Lazaridis, Christos

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

  12. The Relationship Between the Serum Level of Vitamin D and Vitiligo: A Controlled Study on 300 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurrum, Huma; AlGhamdi, Khalid M

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels have been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Vitiligo could be associated with low vitamin D levels. To determine the level of serum vitamin D in vitiligo patients compared to controls and reveal the possible association of vitamin levels with the pathogenesis of vitiligo. A case-controlled study was conducted. After excluding factors that may affect serum vitamin D levels, blood samples were taken from vitiligo patients and controls. The association between vitamin D levels and various vitiligo subgroups (duration of vitiligo, site of onset, age, etc) was measured and correlated. A total of 150 vitiligo patients, 90 (60%) males with a mean age of 30.6 ± 11.4 years, were recruited. The study also had 150 age- and gender-matched vitiligo-free control subjects. There was no significant difference in median serum vitamin D levels between the cases and the controls (P = .25). The serum levels of vitamin D of the vitiligo patients were found to be lower in males (P = .01), the younger age group (P = .01), and patients not treated with ultraviolet (UV) treatment (P = .01). There is no difference between the vitamin D levels of the vitiligo patients and the control subjects. However, deficiency of 25(OH)D levels within the vitiligo subgroups may be linked to younger age, male gender, short duration of vitiligo, and non-use of phototherapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Control and Testing of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) at Medium Voltage Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John Godsk; Newman, Michael; Nielsen, Hans Ove

    2004-01-01

    power sensitive loads from voltage sags. This paper reports practical test results obtained on a medium voltage (10 kV) level using a DVR at a Distribution test facility in Kyndby, Denmark. The DVR was designed to protect a 400-kVA load from a 0.5-p.u. maximum voltage sag. The reported DVR verifies......The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) has become popular as a cost effective solution for the protection of sensitive loads from voltage sags. Implementations of the DVR have been proposed at both a low voltage (LV) level, as well as a medium voltage (MV) level; and give an opportunity to protect high...... the use of a feed-forward and feed-back technique of the controller and it obtains both good transient and steady state responses. The effect of the DVR on the system is experimentally investigated under both faulted and non-faulted system states, for a variety of linear and non-linear loads. Variable...

  14. Comparison of the pain levels of computer-controlled and conventional anesthesia techniques in prosthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yenisey

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels on opposite sides of the maxilla at needle insertion during delivery of local anesthetic solution and tooth preparation for both conventional and anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA technique with the Wand computer-controlled local anesthesia application. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pain scores of 16 patients were evaluated with a 5-point verbal rating scale (VRS and data were analyzed nonparametrically. Pain differences at needle insertion, during delivery of local anesthetic, and at tooth preparation, for conventional versus the Wand technique, were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (p=0.01. RESULTS: The Wand technique had a lower pain level compared to conventional injection for needle insertion (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The AMSA technique using the Wand is recommended for prosthodontic treatment because it reduces pain during needle insertion and during delivery of local anaesthetic. However, these two techniques have the same pain levels for tooth preparation.

  15. Synergistic Control of Kinetochore Protein Levels by Psh1 and Ubr2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Herrero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division is achieved by attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle via the kinetochore, a large multi-protein complex that assembles on centromeres. The budding yeast kinetochore comprises more than 60 different proteins. Although the structure and function of many of these proteins has been investigated, we have little understanding of the steady state regulation of kinetochores. The primary model of kinetochore homeostasis suggests that kinetochores assemble hierarchically from the centromeric DNA via the inclusion of a centromere-specific histone into chromatin. We tested this model by trying to perturb kinetochore protein levels by overexpressing an outer kinetochore gene, MTW1. This increase in protein failed to change protein recruitment, consistent with the hierarchical assembly model. However, we find that deletion of Psh1, a key ubiquitin ligase that is known to restrict inner kinetochore protein loading, does not increase levels of outer kinetochore proteins, thus breaking the normal kinetochore stoichiometry. This perturbation leads to chromosome segregation defects, which can be partially suppressed by mutation of Ubr2, a second ubiquitin ligase that normally restricts protein levels at the outer kinetochore. Together these data show that Psh1 and Ubr2 synergistically control the amount of proteins at the kinetochore.

  16. Can salivary creatinine and urea levels be used to diagnose chronic kidney disease in children as accurately as serum creatinine and urea levels? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Rahime

    2017-11-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop many metabolic changes in blood that often necessitate frequent biochemical analysis. Serum analysis is an invasive and painful procedure. It would be highly beneficial if a noninvasive alternative process to serum analysis in children were identified. Saliva can be collected noninvasively, repeatedly, and without the use of healthcare personnel. The aims of this study were to compare serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels in children with CKD and healthy controls, and to determine if salivary creatinine and urea levels can be used to diagnose CKD in children as accurately as serum creatinine and urea levels. This case-control study included 35 children with CKD and 28 healthy children as controls. Saliva and blood samples were collected for measurement of urea and creatinine levels. The urea and creatinine levels in serum and saliva in the CKD and control groups were compared using the independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between the serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of salivary creatinine and cutoff values were identified. In the CKD group, the mean salivary creatinine level was 0.45 mg/dL and the mean salivary urea level was 0.11 mg/dL, versus 28.83 mg/dL and 21.78 mg/dL, respectively, in the control group. Stage 4 and 5 CKD patients had a mean salivary urea level of 31.35 mg/dL, as compared to 17.78 mg/dL in the control group. Serum urea and creatinine, and salivary creatinine were significantly higher in the CKD patients (regardless of disease stage) than in the controls (p creatinine. The area under the curve for salivary creatinine was 0.805. The cutoff value for salivary creatinine was 0.125 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 82.9% and specificity of 78.6%. Based on the positive correlation between the serum and saliva

  17. Hospital-Level Care at Home for Acutely Ill Adults: a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David M; Ouchi, Kei; Blanchfield, Bonnie; Diamond, Keren; Licurse, Adam; Pu, Charles T; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2018-05-01

    Hospitals are standard of care for acute illness, but hospitals can be unsafe, uncomfortable, and expensive. Providing substitutive hospital-level care in a patient's home potentially reduces cost while maintaining or improving quality, safety, and patient experience, although evidence from randomized controlled trials in the US is lacking. Determine if home hospital care reduces cost while maintaining quality, safety, and patient experience. Randomized controlled trial. Adults admitted via the emergency department with any infection or exacerbation of heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or asthma. Home hospital care, including nurse and physician home visits, intravenous medications, continuous monitoring, video communication, and point-of-care testing. Primary outcome was direct cost of the acute care episode. Secondary outcomes included utilization, 30-day cost, physical activity, and patient experience. Nine patients were randomized to home, 11 to usual care. Median direct cost of the acute care episode for home patients was 52% (IQR, 28%; p = 0.05) lower than for control patients. During the care episode, home patients had fewer laboratory orders (median per admission: 6 vs. 19; p Home patients were more physically active (median minutes, 209 vs. 78; p home patients, one occurred in control patients. Median direct cost for the acute care plus 30-day post-discharge period for home patients was 67% (IQR, 77%; p home-care services (22% vs. 55%; p = 0.08) and fewer readmissions (11% vs. 36%; p = 0.32). Patient experience was similar in both groups. The use of substitutive home-hospitalization compared to in-hospital usual care reduced cost and utilization and improved physical activity. No significant differences in quality, safety, and patient experience were noted, with more definitive results awaiting a larger trial. Trial Registration NCT02864420.

  18. United States regulations for institutional controls at high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccone, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The United States regulations for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are found at Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Parts 60 and 63, which cover deep geologic disposal at a generic site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, respectively. As an independent regulator, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing and oversight of a high-level waste repository in the United States. The licensing approach for disposal has discreet decisions, made by the NRC, that include approval of construction authorisation, approval to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste, and approval for permanent closure. For construction authorisation approval, the applicant must provide a description of the programme to be used to maintain the records. The NRC will have an active oversight role during the construction and operation period, which can be on the order of 100 years for the facility before permanent closure. The oversight activities are part of the active institutional controls, and serve as a means of conveying knowledge for that initial period, given that this will likely involve multiple generations of workers for both the implementer and the regulator. Additionally, the NRC provides requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at 10 CFR Chap. 73.51. For permanent closure approval, the applicant must provide a detailed description of the measures to be employed-such as land use controls, construction of monuments, and preservation of records. The NRC's regulatory role in any licensing action is to apply the applicable regulations and guidance, and to review applications for proposed actions to determine if compliance with regulations has been achieved. The burden of proof is on the applicant or licensee to show that the proposed action is safe, to demonstrate that regulations are met, and to ensure continued compliance with the regulations

  19. Locus of control, self-efficacy, and the mediating effect of outcome control: predicting course-level and global outcomes in an academic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Evelyn W M

    2015-01-01

    The current study utilizes Skinner's framework to examine the unique contributions of internal locus of control, self-efficacy, and perceived outcome control over course performance on students' academic experiences. Undergraduate students (N = 225) took part in a longitudinal study and completed two surveys (Time 1: just before their mid-term exams; Time 2: just before their final exam in the same semester). Both locus of control and self-efficacy at Time 1 predicted course-level perceived control over course performance at Time 2. Student-level perceived control over course performance at Time 2 mediated the relationship between self-efficacy at Time 1 and course-level perseverance, course-specific stress, and course enjoyment at Time 2. For global perceived stress and life satisfaction measured at Time 2, both locus of control and self-efficacy at Time 1 had only a direct effect on global perceived stress at Time 2, but only self-efficacy at Time 1 predicted life satisfaction at Time 2. Both locus of control and self-efficacy uniquely contribute to students' academic experiences. Student-level perceived control plays an important mediating role between locus of control and self-efficacy at Time 1, and course-level perseverance, course-specific stress, and course enjoyment at Time 2.

  20. High level programming for the control of a tele operating mobile robot and with line following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal U, E.

    2006-01-01

    The TRASMAR automated vehicle was built with the purpose of transporting radioactive materials, it has a similar kinematic structure to that of a tricycle, in where the front wheel is the one in charge of offering the traction and direction, both rear wheels rotate freely and they are subject to a common axle. The electronic design was carried out being based on a MC68HC811 micro controller of the Motorola company. Of the characteristics that the robot possesses it stands out that it counts with an obstacle perception system through three ultrasonic sensors located in the front part of the vehicle to avoid collisions. The robot has two operation modes, the main mode is the manual, manipulated through a control by infrareds, although it can also move in autonomous way by means of the line pursuit technique using two reflective infrared sensors. As any other electronic system, the mobile robot required of improvements and upgrades. The modifications to be carried out were focused to the control stage. Its were intended as elements of upgrade the incorporation of the MC68HC912B32 micro controller and to replace the assembler language characteristic of this type of systems, by a high level language for micro controllers of this type, in this case the FORTH. In a same way it was implemented inside the program the function of the robot's displacement in an autonomous way by means of the line pursuit technique using control with fuzzy logic. The carried out work is distributed in the following way: In the chapter 1 the robot's characteristics are mentioned, as well as the objectives that thought about to the beginning of the project and the justifications that motivated the realization of this upgrade. In the chapters 2 at 5 are presented in a theoretical way the supports used for the the robot's upgrade, as the used modules of the micro controller, those main characteristics of the FORTH language, the theory of the fuzzy logic and the design of the stage of power that

  1. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...... monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time...

  2. The Use of BPMN for Modelling The MES Level in Information and Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michalik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how to use the process map to model the MES level of information and control systems. In the practical application, the BPMN standard was used for the design of the function of the management maintenance, which, according MES organization, is one of the 11 basic MES functions. The application was implemented on the flexible production line, located in the laboratory at the Department of Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence. In this article, there is only one BPMN model of  a MES function from the set of modelled functions in our laboratory. These functions were also modelled by the UML Activity Diagram. Although the UML model is not included in this article, there is a comparison of these approaches based on selected criteria and our experiences with modelling in the laboratory at the university.

  3. Using inferential sensors for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2016-09-29

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), with over 240 real-time gaging stations, provides hydrologic data for freshwater and tidal areas of the Everglades. These data are used to generate daily water-level and water-depth maps of the Everglades that are used to assess biotic responses to hydrologic change resulting from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The generation of EDEN daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from water-level stations. Real-time data are automatically checked for outliers by assigning minimum and maximum thresholds for each station. Small errors in the real-time data, such as gradual drift of malfunctioning pressure transducers, are more difficult to immediately identify with visual inspection of time-series plots and may only be identified during on-site inspections of the stations. Correcting these small errors in the data often is time consuming and water-level data may not be finalized for several months. To provide daily water-level and water-depth maps on a near real-time basis, EDEN needed an automated process to identify errors in water-level data and to provide estimates for missing or erroneous water-level data.The Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) software uses inferential sensor technology often used in industrial applications. Rather than installing a redundant sensor to measure a process, such as an additional water-level station, inferential sensors, or virtual sensors, were developed for each station that make accurate estimates of the process measured by the hard sensor (water-level gaging station). The inferential sensors in the ADAM software are empirical models that use inputs from one or more proximal stations. The advantage of ADAM is that it provides a redundant signal to the sensor in the field without the environmental threats associated with field conditions at stations (flood or hurricane, for example). In the

  4. Paternal occupational contact level and childhood leukaemia in rural Scotland: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinlen, L J; Bramald, S

    2001-04-06

    In a national Scottish study of 809 cases of leukaemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma diagnosed in 1950-89 among children aged 0-4 years who were born in Scotland, together with 2363 matched population controls, we investigated one aspect of the infective hypothesis. This concerns whether in rural areas (where the prevalence of susceptible individuals is likely to be higher) the risk is greater among the young children of men whose work involves contacts with many different people, particularly children, as noted in certain childhood infections. A positive trend was found in rural areas across 3 levels of increasing paternal occupational contact (as recorded at birth) by each of 2 previously defined classifications; no such effect was found in urban areas. The rural trend was more marked in that part of the study period with greater population mixing, but the difference from the period with less mixing was not itself significant, leaving open whether these rural findings reflect the extreme isolation of much of rural Scotland, or the effects in such areas of a degree of population mixing. In marked contrast, among the 850 cases and 2492 controls aged 5-14, those in rural areas in the higher population mixing period showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing paternal occupational contact level. This would be consistent with immunity produced either by earlier infection at ages 0-4 years, or directly by low doses of the infective agent that were largely immunizing at these older ages. The findings overall provide further support for infection underlying childhood leukaemia and for the role of adults. Copyright 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com.

  5. [Effects of the renal blood flow at different levels by transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation combined general anesthesia induced controlled hypotension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Le-Le; Shao, Xiao-Mei

    2012-11-01

    To observe the intervention of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the renal blood flow at different levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) in controlled hypotension. Forty-two male beagle dogs were randomly divided into seven groups, i. e., the general anesthesia group, the 50% controlled group, the 40% controlled group, the 30% controlled group, the 50% experimental group, the 40% experimental group, and the 30% experimental group, 6 in each group. Beagles in the general anesthesia group were not treated with controlled hypotension, and the target MAP was achieved in those of the rest groups and maintained for 60 min. In the experimental groups, TEAS was applied to bilateral Hegu (LI4), Zusanli (ST36), Sanyinjiao (SP6), and Quchi (LI11) at 2/100 Hz with the stimulation strength of (4 +/- 1) mA starting from the stability of their physiological conditions to 60 min of maintaining the target MAP level. The changes of the renal blood flow were monitored at different time points using laser Doppler. From starting pressure control to the target MAP level, the renal blood flow was significantly lower in the 30% controlled group than in the general anesthesia group and the basic level of the same group (P blood pressure, the renal blood flow was significantly lower in the 50% controlled group, the 40% controlled group, the 30% controlled group, and the 30% experimental group than in the general anesthesia group (P blood pressure recovery, the renal blood flow restored to the basic level in the 50% controlled group, the 50% experimental group, and the 40% experimental group (P > 0.05), while it was not restored to the basic level in the 40% controlled group, the 30% controlled group, and the 30% experimental group (P renal blood flow, thus protecting the kidney.

  6. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben C Arslan

    Full Text Available Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  7. Personality and emotion-based high-level control of affective story characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Poh; Pham, Binh; Wardhani, Aster

    2007-01-01

    Human emotional behavior, personality, and body language are the essential elements in the recognition of a believable synthetic story character. This paper presents an approach using story scripts and action descriptions in a form similar to the content description of storyboards to predict specific personality and emotional states. By adopting the Abridged Big Five Circumplex (AB5C) Model of personality from the study of psychology as a basis for a computational model, we construct a hierarchical fuzzy rule-based system to facilitate the personality and emotion control of the body language of a dynamic story character. The story character can consistently perform specific postures and gestures based on his/her personality type. Story designers can devise a story context in the form of our story interface which predictably motivates personality and emotion values to drive the appropriate movements of the story characters. Our system takes advantage of relevant knowledge described by psychologists and researchers of storytelling, nonverbal communication, and human movement. Our ultimate goal is to facilitate the high-level control of a synthetic character.

  8. Lessons from an evaluation of a provincial-level smoking control policy in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Gao, Junling; Zhang, Zhixing; Wei, Minqi; Zheng, Pinpin; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y; Berg, Carla J

    2013-01-01

    The Shanghai Public Places Smoking Control Legislation was implemented in March 2010 as the first provincial-level legislation promoting smoke-free public places in China. To evaluate the compliance with this policy as well as its impact on exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), respiratory symptoms, and related attitudes among employees in five kinds of workplaces (schools, kindergartens, hospitals, hotels, and shopping malls). A cross-sectional survey was conducted six months before and then six months after the policy was implemented. Five types of occupational employees from 52 work settings were surveyed anonymously using multistage stratified cluster sampling. Six months after implementation, 82% of the participants agreed that "legislation is enforced most of the time". The percentage of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke declined from round up to 49% to 36%. High compliance rates were achieved in schools and kindergartens (above 90%), with less compliance in hotels and shopping malls (about 70%). Accordingly, prevalence of exposure to SHS was low in schools and kindergartens (less than 10%) and high in hotels and shopping malls (40% and above). The prevalence of respiratory and sensory symptoms (e.g., red or irritated eyes) among employees decreased from 83% to 67%. Initial positive effects were achieved after the implementation of Shanghai Smoking Control legislation including decreased exposure to SHS. However, compliance with the policies was a considerable problem in some settings. Further evaluation of such policy implementation should be conducted to inform strategies for increasing compliance in the future.

  9. Low-level laser therapy: Case-control study in dogs with sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Perego

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a therapeutic photobiostimulation with properties in reducing swelling, inflammation, and promoting tissue healing. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate LLLT in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in five dogs. Materials and Methods: In each dog, one lesion was designated as the control (treated with a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray, and one or more other lesions were treated with a gallium aluminum arsenide-laser, daily for 5 days. Lesions were scored before treatment (D0, at the end (D4, 16 days after the last laser treatment (D20, and after 2 months (D65. Results: Comparing the treated lesion group with the control lesion group, the clinical score was similar at D0, whereas there was a statistically significant difference at D4 and D20; in the treated group over time, there was a statistically significant improvement between D0, D4, and D20. Lesion recurrence was absent in more than 50% of the treated lesions at D65. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Given the positive results of this first clinical study, it would be interesting to extend the study to confirm the validity of this type of therapy in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in the dog.

  10. Adult tobacco use levels after intensive tobacco control measures: New York City, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, Thomas R; Mostashari, Farzad; Kerker, Bonnie D; Miller, Nancy; Hajat, Anjum; Frankel, Martin

    2005-06-01

    We sought to determine the impact of comprehensive tobacco control measures in New York City. In 2002, New York City implemented a tobacco control strategy of (1) increased cigarette excise taxes; (2) legal action that made virtually all work-places, including bars and restaurants, smoke free; (3) increased cessation services, including a large-scale free nicotine-patch program; (4) education; and (5) evaluation. The health department also began annual surveys on a broad array of health measures, including smoking. From 2002 to 2003, smoking prevalence among New York City adults decreased by 11% (from 21.6% to 19.2%, approximately 140000 fewer smokers). Smoking declined among all age groups, race/ethnicities, and education levels; in both genders; among both US-born and foreign-born persons; and in all 5 boroughs. Increased taxation appeared to account for the largest proportion of the decrease; however, between 2002 and 2003 the proportion of cigarettes purchased outside New York City doubled, reducing the effective price increase by a third. Concerted local action can sharply reduce smoking prevalence. However, further progress will require national action, particularly to increase cigarette taxes, reduce cigarette tax evasion, expand education and cessation services, and limit tobacco marketing.

  11. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Randomized Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guneet Guram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment is time-consuming procedure. Pain is usually associated with orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of low-level laser therapy (LLLT on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM duration and pain perception. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind splint-mouth controlled clinical study includes 20 (8 males and 12 females orthodontic patients requiring bilateral canine retraction. Time taken for canine retraction with LLLT (Group A over control (Group B quadrant on the same patient was assessed along with pain experience using facial pain scale. The data were tabulated and statistically evaluated using SPSS 20 for windows (Microsoft, Chicago, IL, USA and t-test with P 0.05. There was statistically significant decrease in rate of canine retraction in Group A compared to Group B. There was statistically significant difference for maxillary and mandibular arches in Group A whereas it was not significant in Group B. Pain experience was statistically significant till 2nd day, and after 3rd day, it was not significant between the groups. Conclusion: LLLT can reduce the fixed OTM timing and pain experience.

  12. 2-Oxoglutarate levels control adenosine nucleotide binding by Herbaspirillum seropedicae PII proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marco A S; Gerhardt, Edileusa C M; Huergo, Luciano F; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in Proteobacteria is controlled by the Ntr system, in which PII proteins play a pivotal role, controlling the activity of target proteins in response to the metabolic state of the cell. Characterization of the binding of molecular effectors to these proteins can provide information about their regulation. Here, the binding of ATP, ADP and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) to the Herbaspirillum seropedicae PII proteins, GlnB and GlnK, was characterized using isothermal titration calorimetry. Results show that these proteins can bind three molecules of ATP, ADP and 2-OG with homotropic negative cooperativity, and 2-OG binding stabilizes the binding of ATP. Results also show that the affinity of uridylylated forms of GlnB and GlnK for nucleotides is significantly lower than that of the nonuridylylated proteins. Furthermore, fluctuations in the intracellular concentration of 2-OG in response to nitrogen availability are shown. Results suggest that under nitrogen-limiting conditions, PII proteins tend to bind ATP and 2-OG. By contrast, after an ammonium shock, a decrease in the 2-OG concentration is observed causing a decrease in the affinity of PII proteins for ATP. This phenomenon may facilitate the exchange of ATP for ADP on the ligand-binding pocket of PII proteins, thus it is likely that under low ammonium, low 2-OG levels would favor the ADP-bound state. © 2015 FEBS.

  13. Design and construction of AT89C2051 micro controller based water level indicator for poly tank manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashong, Cynthia Ama

    2011-08-01

    This project is aimed at designing and constructing an AT89C2051 Micro controller Based Water level Indicator by programming a micro controller that has high frequency, logic, clock circuitry and 2.7V to 6V operating range with 5V volts being logic level 1 and 0 Volts being logic level 0 using Assembler language and programming the AT89C2051 Microcontroller using Galep 4 programmer. The device component and assembly includes A T89C2051 Micro controller, sensor (copper probe), bread board, electric bell for alarm to indicate low water level and a bulb to indicate high water level (that is the water tank is full). The AT89C2051 Micro controller Based Water Level Indicator works by sounding a bell when the tank is empty or the water level is low and light a bulb when the poly tank is full. The boundary within which the device operates is at the upper water level and the lower water level of the device (tank). That is it can operate within the levels of high to low limit. The result is very useful since it will help in ensuring water security. It is satisfactory since the project is working and indicating that the water level is low or high (that is the tank is empty or full). (au)

  14. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  15. Atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission in a five-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Yu Benli; Zhu Jun; Cao Zhigang; Zhen Shenglai; Wu Xuqiang; Xu Feng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the one- and two-dimensional atom localization behaviors via spontaneous emission in a coherently driven five-level atomic system by means of a radio-frequency field driving a hyperfine transition. It is found that the detecting probability and precision of atom localization behaviors can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters. More importantly, the two-dimensional atom localization patterns reveal that the maximal probability of finding an atom within the sub-wavelength domain of the standing waves can reach unity when the corresponding conditions are satisfied. As a result, our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography via atom localization. - Highlights: ► One- and two-dimensional atom localization behaviors via spontaneous emission in five-level atoms are investigated. ► An assisting radio-frequency field is used to control the atom localization behaviors. ► High-precision and high-resolution two-dimensional atom localization can be realized in this scheme.

  16. Molecular evolution of multiple-level control of heme biosynthesis pathway in animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5' untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway.

  17. Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, L.E.; Gilbert, E.S.; Hessol, N.A.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking of quantitative individual measurement of external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation exposure of employees at the Hanford Site, using personal dosimeters, and the disease outcome, congenital malformations. The study population included 672 malformation cases and 977 matched controls from births occurring from 1957 through 1980. Twelve specific malformation types were analyzed for evidence of association with employment of the parents at Hanford and with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Two defects, congenital dislocation of the hip and tracheoesophageal fistula, showed statistically significant associations with employment of the parents at Hanford, but not with parental radiation exposure. Neural tube defects showed a significant association with parental preconception exposure, on the basis of a small number of cases. Eleven other defects, including Down syndrome, for which an association with radiation was considered most likely, showed no evidence of such an association. When all malformations were analyzed as a group, there was no evidence of an association with employment of the parents at Hanford, but the relation of parental exposure to radiation before conception was in the positive direction (one-tailed p value between 0.05 and 0.10). Given the number of statistical tests conducted, some or all of the observed positive correlations are likely to represent false positive findings. 30 references

  18. Population-level effects of automated smoking cessation help programs: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron; Balmford, James; Benda, Peter

    2013-03-01

    To test the population impact of offering automated smoking cessation interventions via the internet and/or by mobile phone. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with five conditions: offer of (i) minimal intervention control; (ii) QuitCoach personalized tailored internet-delivered advice program; (iii) onQ, an interactive automated text-messaging program; (iv) an integration of both QuitCoach and onQ; and (v) a choice of either alone or the combined program. Australia, via a mix of internet and telephone contacts. A total of 3530 smokers or recent quitters recruited from those interested in quitting, and seeking self-help resources (n = 1335) or cold-contacted from internet panels (n = 2195). The primary outcome was self-report of 6 months sustained abstinence at 7 months post-recruitment. Only 42.5% of those offered one of the interventions took it up to a minimal level. The intervention groups combined had a non-significantly higher 6-month sustained abstinence rate than the control [odds ratio (OR) = 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-2.24] (missing cases treated as smokers), with no differences between the interventions. Among those who used an intervention, there was a significant overall increase in abstinence (OR = 1.95; CI: 1.04-3.67), but not clearly so when analysing only cases with reported outcomes. Success rates were greater among those recruited after seeking information compared to those cold-contacted. Smokers interested in quitting who were assigned randomly to an offer of either the QuitCoach internet-based support program and/or the interactive automated text-messaging program had non-significantly greater odds of quitting for at least 6 months than those randomized to an offer of a simple information website. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European ecologic studies suggest higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. Using data from a case-control study of diabetes among racially/ethnically diverse youth in the United States (U.S., we aimed to evaluate the independent impact of neighborhood characteristics on type 1 diabetes risk. Data were available for 507 youth with type 1 diabetes and 208 healthy controls aged 10-22 years recruited in South Carolina and Colorado in 2003-2006. Home addresses were used to identify Census tracts of residence. Neighborhood-level variables were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were applied. Results Controlling for individual risk factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, infant feeding, birth weight, maternal age, number of household residents, parental education, income, state, higher neighborhood household income (p = 0.005, proportion of population in managerial jobs (p = 0.02, with at least high school education (p = 0.005, working outside the county (p = 0.04 and vehicle ownership (p = 0.03 were each independently associated with increased odds of type 1 diabetes. Conversely, higher percent minority population (p = 0.0003, income from social security (p = 0.002, proportion of crowded households (0.0497 and poverty (p = 0.008 were associated with a decreased odds. Conclusions Our study suggests that neighborhood characteristics related to greater affluence, occupation, and education are associated with higher type 1 diabetes risk. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the influence of neighborhood context.

  20. Coherent control of the group velocity in a dielectric slab doped with duplicated two-level atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    Coherent control of reflected and transmitted pulses is investigated theoretically through a slab doped with atoms in a duplicated two-level configuration. When a strong control field and a relatively weak probe field are employed, coherent control of the group velocity is achieved via changing the phase shift ϕ between control and probe fields. Furthermore, the peak values in the delay time of the reflected and transmitted pulses are also studied by varying the phase shift ϕ.

  1. Sex steroid levels in urine of cattle of different ages: evaluation of abuse control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Tomaz; Dolenc, Jozica; Kobal, Silvestra

    2014-04-01

    Levels of several natural urinary steroids have been determined in the urine of a large number of animals of different cattle categories in the context of steroid abuse in beef production. Bovine animals of different breeds, sex and age included in the Slovene national residue detection plan for steroid abuse were studied. Urine from 120 males and 174 females was analysed. Urinary boldenone, boldione, androstenedione, equiline, medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, melengestrol acetate, progesterone, stanozolol, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, epitestosterone, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, and nandrolone were determined by LC-MS/MS. Epitestosterone was found in all bulls; while the proportion of animals containing testosterone and androstenedione increased with age. Testosterone was not detected in bulls less than 5 months of age. Epitestosterone levels, however, were not age dependent. The ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone thus increased with age, from 0.13 ± 0.09 at 1-7 months to 0.42 ± 0.10 at 25-38 months. It was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in bulls above 13 months than in younger animals. In contrast to males, no urinary testosterone was found in females, whereas epitestosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and estradiol were present. The proportion of animals of various age groups in which epitestosterone was detected ranged from 68% to 100%, but the differences were not significant. The presence of both estradiol and progesterone in the same sample was not observed in any animal. The results of this study could be helpful in determining physiological urinary steroid levels in order to provide a baseline for the control of steroid abuse in beef production.

  2. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2, acid sphingomyelinase, and ceramide levels in COPD patients compared to controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea SR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simon R Lea,1,* Hannah J Metcalfe,1,* Jonathan Plumb,1 Christian Beerli,2 Chris Poll,3 Dave Singh,1 Katharine H Abbott-Banner3 1Centre for Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester and University Hospital of South Manchester, NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Postfach, Basel, Switzerland; 3Respiratory Diseases, Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Horsham, West Sussex, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Increased pulmonary ceramide levels are suggested to play a causative role in lung diseases including COPD. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2 and acid SMase (aSMase, which hydrolyze sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, are activated by a range of cellular stresses, including inflammatory cytokines and pathogens, but notably cigarette smoke appears to only activate nSMase-2. Our primary objective was to investigate nSMase-2 and aSMase protein localization and quantification in lung tissue from nonsmokers (NS, smokers (S, and COPD patients. In addition, various ceramide species (C16, C18, and C20 were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients versus controls. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected or confirmed lung cancer were recruited, and nSMase-2 and aSMase protein was investigated in different areas of lung tissue (small airways, alveolar walls, subepithelium, and alveolar macrophages by immunohistochemistry. Ceramide species were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and controls by mass spectrometry. Results: nSMase-2 and aSMase were detected in the majority of small airways. There was a significant increase in nSMase-2 immunoreactivity in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients (54% compared with NS (31.7% (P<0.05, and in aSMase immunoreactivity in COPD (68.2% and S (69.5% alveolar macrophages compared with NS (52.4% (P

  3. Development of a PID-Fuzzy controller in the water level control of a pressurizer of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Thiago S.P.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Vasconcelos, Wagner E., E-mail: thiago.brito86@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br, E-mail: wagner@unicap.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that safety in the operation of nuclear power plants is a primary requirement because a failure of this system can result in serious problems to the environment. A nuclear reactor has several systems that help keep it in normal operation, within safety margins. Many of these systems operate in the control of variable quantities in the primary circuit of a reactor. However, nuclear reactors are nonlinear physical systems, and this introduces a complexity in the control strategies. Among several mechanisms in the thermal-hydraulic system of a reactor that actuate as a controller, the pressurizer is the component responsible for absorbing pressure variations that occur in the primary circuit. This work aims at the development of a PID controller (Proportional Integral Derivative) based on fuzzy logic to operate in a pressurizer of a nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor. A Fuzzy Controller was developed using the process of fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification of the variables of interest to a pressurizer, then this controller was coupled to a PID Controller building a PID Controller, but oriented by Fuzzy logic. Subsequently, the PID-Fuzzy Controller was experimentally validated in a Simulation Plant in which transients like those in a PWR were conducted. The PID parameters were analyzed and adjusted for better responses and results. The results of the validation were also compared to simple controllers (on / off). (author)

  4. Development of a PID-Fuzzy controller in the water level control of a pressurizer of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Thiago S.P.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Vasconcelos, Wagner E.; Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that safety in the operation of nuclear power plants is a primary requirement because a failure of this system can result in serious problems to the environment. A nuclear reactor has several systems that help keep it in normal operation, within safety margins. Many of these systems operate in the control of variable quantities in the primary circuit of a reactor. However, nuclear reactors are nonlinear physical systems, and this introduces a complexity in the control strategies. Among several mechanisms in the thermal-hydraulic system of a reactor that actuate as a controller, the pressurizer is the component responsible for absorbing pressure variations that occur in the primary circuit. This work aims at the development of a PID controller (Proportional Integral Derivative) based on fuzzy logic to operate in a pressurizer of a nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor. A Fuzzy Controller was developed using the process of fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification of the variables of interest to a pressurizer, then this controller was coupled to a PID Controller building a PID Controller, but oriented by Fuzzy logic. Subsequently, the PID-Fuzzy Controller was experimentally validated in a Simulation Plant in which transients like those in a PWR were conducted. The PID parameters were analyzed and adjusted for better responses and results. The results of the validation were also compared to simple controllers (on / off). (author)

  5. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2014-10-01

    depressive symptoms, the Children Depression Inventory (CDI and the Italian Self-Administered Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA were administered. The control group consisted of 273 healthy children (129 males and 144 females (mean age 9.1±1.8 years, enrolled in schools within the Campania region of Italy. Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (8.9±1.23 years in the obese sample and 9.1±1.8 years in the control group (P=0.228 or sex (ratio male/female: 69/79 in the obese group versus 129/144 in the control group (P=0.983. Obviously, significant difference was found for the BMI z-score (2.46±0.31 in the obese group vs 0.73±0.51 in the control group (P<0.001. The obese subjects showed significant higher level of depressive symptoms (CDI total score (16.82±7.73 vs 8.2±2.9 (P<0.001 and anxiety (SAFA – Anxiety [SAFA-A] scale score (58.71±11.84 vs 27.75±11.5 (P<0.001 compared with the control group. Moreover, the Pearson’s correlation analysis showed a significantly positive relationship between the BMI z-score and both the CDI (r=0.677; P<0.001 and SAFA-A scores (r=0.591; P<0.001. Conclusion: Our findings highlighted the importance of assessing the presence of internalizing problems, such as anxiety and depression, in the common management of childhood obesity. Keywords: childhood obesity, internalizing problems, SAFA, CDI

  6. Direct Power Control for Three-Phase Two-Level Voltage-Source Rectifiers Based on Extended-State Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhanfeng; Tian, Yanjun; Yan, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed a direct power control strategy for three-phase two-level voltage-source rectifiers based on extended-state observation. Active and reactive powers are directly regulated in the stationary reference frame. Similar to the family of predictive controllers whose inherent characte......This paper proposed a direct power control strategy for three-phase two-level voltage-source rectifiers based on extended-state observation. Active and reactive powers are directly regulated in the stationary reference frame. Similar to the family of predictive controllers whose inherent...

  7. Thermal hydraulic aspects of steam drum level control philosophy for the natural circulation based heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Gaikwad, A.J.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    From safety considerations advanced nuclear reactors rely more and more on passive systems such as natural circulation for primary heat removal. A natural circulation based water reactor is relatively larger in size so as to reduce flow losses and channel type for proper flow distribution. From the size of steam drum considerations it has to be multi loop but has a common inlet header. Normally the turbine follows the reactor. This paper addresses the thermal hydraulic aspects of the steam drum pressure and level control philosophy for a four drum, natural circulation based, channel type boiling water advanced reactor. Three philosophies may be followed for drum control viz. individual drum control, one control drum approach and an average of all the four drums. For drum pressure control, the steam flow to the turbine is be regulated. A single point pressure control is better than individual drum pressure control. This is discussed in the paper. But the control point has to be at a place down steam the point where all steam line from individual drum meet. This may lead to different pressure in all the four drums depending on the power produced in the respective loops. The difference in pressure cannot be removed even if the four drums are directly connected through pipes. Also the pressure control scheme with/without interconnection is discussed. For level, the control of individual drum may not be normally possible because of common inlet header. As the frictional pressure drops in the large diameter downcomers are small as compared to elevation pressure drops, the level in all the steam drum tend to equalize. Consequently a single representative drum level may be chosen as a control variable for controlling level in all the four drums. But in case, where all the four loops are producing different powers and single point pressure control is effective, the scheme may not work satisfactorily. the level in a drum may depend on the power produced in the loop

  8. A New Dual-purpose Quality Control Dosimetry Protocol for Diagnostic Reference-level Determination in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Parsi, Masoumeh; Sina, Sedigheh

    2018-05-17

    A diagnostic reference level is an advisory dose level set by a regulatory authority in a country as an efficient criterion for protection of patients from unwanted medical exposure. In computed tomography, the direct dose measurement and data collection methods are commonly applied for determination of diagnostic reference levels. Recently, a new quality-control-based dose survey method was proposed by the authors to simplify the diagnostic reference-level determination using a retrospective quality control database usually available at a regulatory authority in a country. In line with such a development, a prospective dual-purpose quality control dosimetry protocol is proposed for determination of diagnostic reference levels in a country, which can be simply applied by quality control service providers. This new proposed method was applied to five computed tomography scanners in Shiraz, Iran, and diagnostic reference levels for head, abdomen/pelvis, sinus, chest, and lumbar spine examinations were determined. The results were compared to those obtained by the data collection and quality-control-based dose survey methods, carried out in parallel in this study, and were found to agree well within approximately 6%. This is highly acceptable for quality-control-based methods according to International Atomic Energy Agency tolerance levels (±20%).

  9. Predictive Control of the Blood Glucose Level in Type I Diabetic Patient Using Delay Differential Equation Wang Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esna-Ashari, Mojgan; Zekri, Maryam; Askari, Masood; Khalili, Noushin

    2017-01-01

    Because of increasing risk of diabetes, the measurement along with control of blood sugar has been of great importance in recent decades. In type I diabetes, because of the lack of insulin secretion, the cells cannot absorb glucose leading to low level of glucose. To control blood glucose (BG), the insulin must be injected to the body. This paper proposes a method for BG level regulation in type I diabetes. The control strategy is based on nonlinear model predictive control. The aim of the proposed controller optimized with genetics algorithms is to measure BG level each time and predict it for the next time interval. This merit causes a less amount of control effort, which is the rate of insulin delivered to the patient body. Consequently, this method can decrease the risk of hypoglycemia, a lethal phenomenon in regulating BG level in diabetes caused by a low BG level. Two delay differential equation models, namely Wang model and Enhanced Wang model, are applied as controller model and plant, respectively. The simulation results exhibit an acceptable performance of the proposed controller in meal disturbance rejection and robustness against parameter changes. As a result, if the nutrition of the person decreases instantly, the hypoglycemia will not happen. Furthermore, comparing this method with other works, it was shown that the new method outperforms previous studies.

  10. Comparative case-control study of homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid levels in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Fontes, L; Pulido Fontes, M; Quesada Jiménez, P; Muruzabal Pérez, J; Mendioroz Iriarte, M

    2017-09-01

    Increased blood homocysteine levels are a known cardiovascular risk factor. Epileptic patients on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs may present higher homocysteine levels and, consequently, a potential increase in cardiovascular risk. We conducted an observational case-control study to compare plasma levels of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B 12 . Our study included a total of 88 subjects: 52 patients with epilepsy and 36 controls. Epileptic patients showed higher homocysteine levels (P=.084) and lower levels of folic acid (P<.05). Homocysteine levels should be monitored in epileptic patients on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs. We suggest starting specific treatment in patients with high homocysteine levels. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Verification of a level-3 diesel emissions control strategy for transport refrigeration units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewalla, Umesh

    Transport Refrigeration Units (TRUs) are refrigeration systems used to control the environment of temperature sensitive products while they are being transported from one place to another in trucks, trailers or shipping containers. The TRUs typically use an internal combustion engine to power the compressor of the refrigeration unit. In the United States TRUs are most commonly powered by diesel engines which vary from 9 to 40 horsepower. TRUs are capable of both heating and cooling. The TRU engines are relatively small, inexpensive and do not use emissions reduction techniques such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A significant number of these engines operate in highly populated areas like distribution centers, truck stops, and other facilities which make them one of the potential causes for health risks to the people who live and work nearby. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is known for its adverse effects on both human beings and the environment. Considering these effects, regulatory bodies have imposed limitations on the PM emissions from a TRU engine. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the regulated emissions from a TRU engine under both engine out and particulate filter system out conditions during pre-durability (when the filter system was new) and post-durability test (after the filter system was subjected to 1000 hours in-field trial). The verification program was performed by the Center for Alternative Fuel, Engines and Emissions (CAFEE) at West Virginia University (WVU). In this program, a catalyzed silicon carbide (SiC) diesel particulate filter (DPF) was evaluated and verified as a Level-3 Verified Diesel Emissions Control Strategy (VDECS) (. 85% PM reduction) under California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations 2702 [1]. The emissions result showed that the filter system reduced diesel PM by a percentage of 96 +/- 1 over ISO 8178-C1 [2] cycle and 92 +/- 5 over EPA TRU [3] cycle, qualifying as a Level 3 VDECS. The percentage

  12. Fault-Tolerant Control of ANPC Three-Level Inverter Based on Order-Reduction Optimal Control Strategy under Multi-Device Open-Circuit Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Zhou; Wang, Chun-Jie; Lin, Fang-Li; Li, Shi-Xiang

    2017-10-31

    The multi-device open-circuit fault is a common fault of ANPC (Active Neutral-Point Clamped) three-level inverter and effect the operation stability of the whole system. To improve the operation stability, this paper summarized the main solutions currently firstly and analyzed all the possible states of multi-device open-circuit fault. Secondly, an order-reduction optimal control strategy was proposed under multi-device open-circuit fault to realize fault-tolerant control based on the topology and control requirement of ANPC three-level inverter and operation stability. This control strategy can solve the faults with different operation states, and can works in order-reduction state under specific open-circuit faults with specific combined devices, which sacrifices the control quality to obtain the stability priority control. Finally, the simulation and experiment proved the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  13. Efficacy of Using the Japanese Version of the Asthma Control Test for Determing the Level of Asthma Control in Clinical Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hasegawa

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study, the first large-scale investigation of the efficacy of the J-ACT, determined that this evaluation tool is highly efficacious in establishing the level of asthma control. However, the determination of accurate cutpoints for the J-ACT will require more clear definitions of asthma control in future prospective studies.

  14. Output feedback dissipation control for the power-level of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its strong inherent safety features and the high outlet temperature, the modular high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (MHTGR) is the chosen technology for a new generation of nuclear power plants. Such power plants are being considered for industrial applications with a wide range of power levels, thus power-level regulation is very important for their efficient and stable operation. Exploiting the large scale asymptotic closed-loop stability provided by nonlinear controllers, a nonlinear power-level regulator is presented in this paper that is based upon both the techniques of feedback dissipation and well-established backstepping. The virtue of this control strategy, i.e., the ability of globally asymptotic stabilization, is that it takes advantage of the inherent zero-state detectability property of the MHTGR dynamics. Moreover, this newly built power-level regulator is also robust towards modeling uncertainty in the control rod dynamics. If modeling uncertainty of the control rod dynamics is small enough to be omitted, then this control law can be simplified to a classical proportional feedback controller. The comparison of the control performance between the newly-built power controller and the simplified controller is also given through numerical study and theoretical analysis. (author)

  15. Output Feedback Dissipation Control for the Power-Level of Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of its strong inherent safety features and the high outlet temperature, the modular high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (MHTGR is the chosen technology for a new generation of nuclear power plants. Such power plants are being considered for industrial applications with a wide range of power levels, thus power-level regulation is very important for their efficient and stable operation. Exploiting the large scale asymptotic closed-loop stability provided by nonlinear controllers, a nonlinear power-level regulator is presented in this paper that is based upon both the techniques of feedback dissipation and well-established backstepping. The virtue of this control strategy, i.e., the ability of globally asymptotic stabilization, is that it takes advantage of the inherent zero-state detectability property of the MHTGR dynamics. Moreover, this newly built power-level regulator is also robust towards modeling uncertainty in the control rod dynamics. If modeling uncertainty of the control rod dynamics is small enough to be omitted, then this control law can be simplified to a classical proportional feedback controller. The comparison of the control performance between the newly-built power controller and the simplified controller is also given through numerical study and theoretical analysis.

  16. Social cognition and levels of personality organization in patients with somatoform disorders: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelen, Jurrijn A; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; van Broeckhuysen-Kloth, Saskia A M; Snellen, Wim M; Luyten, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Social cognition and its association with level of personality organization (PO) were examined in 163 patients with severe somatoform disorders (SFDs) and 151 psychiatric (PSA) control patients. Social cognition was measured with the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale, which assessed both affective and cognitive facets of social cognition. Levels of PO were assessed using theory-driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The SFD patients exhibited impairments in the cognitive facets of social cognition but not more so than the PSA controls. The results for the affective aspects indicated that the SFD patients exhibited lower levels of emotional investment yet higher affect tone in interactions than the PSA controls. In contrast to the control group, level of PO was not associated with social cognition in SFD. Together, the results indicated that impairments in complexity of mental representations are not specific to SFD patients, yet impairments in emotional investment may be specific to SFD.

  17. Lessons from an evaluation of a provincial-level smoking control policy in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Shanghai Public Places Smoking Control Legislation was implemented in March 2010 as the first provincial-level legislation promoting smoke-free public places in China. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the compliance with this policy as well as its impact on exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS, respiratory symptoms, and related attitudes among employees in five kinds of workplaces (schools, kindergartens, hospitals, hotels, and shopping malls. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted six months before and then six months after the policy was implemented. Five types of occupational employees from 52 work settings were surveyed anonymously using multistage stratified cluster sampling. RESULTS: Six months after implementation, 82% of the participants agreed that "legislation is enforced most of the time". The percentage of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke declined from round up to 49% to 36%. High compliance rates were achieved in schools and kindergartens (above 90%, with less compliance in hotels and shopping malls (about 70%. Accordingly, prevalence of exposure to SHS was low in schools and kindergartens (less than 10% and high in hotels and shopping malls (40% and above. The prevalence of respiratory and sensory symptoms (e.g., red or irritated eyes among employees decreased from 83% to 67%. CONCLUSIONS: Initial positive effects were achieved after the implementation of Shanghai Smoking Control legislation including decreased exposure to SHS. However, compliance with the policies was a considerable problem in some settings. Further evaluation of such policy implementation should be conducted to inform strategies for increasing compliance in the future.

  18. Lessons from an Evaluation of a Provincial-Level Smoking Control Policy in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Gao, Junling; Zhang, Zhixing; Wei, Minqi; Zheng, Pinpin; Nehl, Eric J.; Wong, Frank Y.; Berg, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Shanghai Public Places Smoking Control Legislation was implemented in March 2010 as the first provincial-level legislation promoting smoke-free public places in China. Objective To evaluate the compliance with this policy as well as its impact on exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), respiratory symptoms, and related attitudes among employees in five kinds of workplaces (schools, kindergartens, hospitals, hotels, and shopping malls). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted six months before and then six months after the policy was implemented. Five types of occupational employees from 52 work settings were surveyed anonymously using multistage stratified cluster sampling. Results Six months after implementation, 82% of the participants agreed that “legislation is enforced most of the time”. The percentage of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke declined from round up to 49% to 36%. High compliance rates were achieved in schools and kindergartens (above 90%), with less compliance in hotels and shopping malls (about 70%). Accordingly, prevalence of exposure to SHS was low in schools and kindergartens (less than 10%) and high in hotels and shopping malls (40% and above). The prevalence of respiratory and sensory symptoms (e.g., red or irritated eyes) among employees decreased from 83% to 67%. Conclusions Initial positive effects were achieved after the implementation of Shanghai Smoking Control legislation including decreased exposure to SHS. However, compliance with the policies was a considerable problem in some settings. Further evaluation of such policy implementation should be conducted to inform strategies for increasing compliance in the future. PMID:24058544

  19. Individual-level predictors of inpatient childhood burn injuries: a case–control study

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    Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries are considered one of the most preventable public health issue among children; however, are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to assess individual-level predictors of severe burn injuries among children leading to hospitalization, in East Azerbaijan Province, in North-West of Iran. Methods The study was conducted through a hospital based case–control design involving 281 burn victims and 273 hospital-based controls who were frequency matched on age, gender and urbanity. Both bivariate and multivariate methods were used to analyze the data. Results Mean age of the participants was 40.5 months (95 % CI: 37–44 with the majority of burns occurring at ages between 2 months-13.9 years. It was demonstrated that with increase in the caregiver’s age there was a decrease in the odds of burn injuries (OR = 0.94, 95 % CI: 0.92-0.97. According to the multivariate logistic regression there were independent factors associated with burn injuries including childhood ADHD (OR = 2.82, 95 % CI: 1.68 - 4.76, child’s age (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.67 - 0.80, flammability of clothing (OR = 1.60, 95 % CI: 1.12 - 2.28, daily length of watching television (OR = 1.31, 95 % CI: 1.06 - 1.61, playing outdoors (OR = 1.32, 95 % CI: 1.16 - 1.50 and increment in the economic status (OR = 1.37, 95 % CI: 1.18 - 1.60. Conclusion Major risk predictors of burn injuries among the Iranian population included childhood ADHD, child’s age, watching television, playing outdoors, high economic status and flammable clothing.

  20. Establishment of local diagnostic reference levels for quality control in intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Maki; Harata, Yasuo; Shiba, Noriyoshi; Koizumi, Nobuhide; Ozawa, Tomonori; Takahashi, Nobutoshi; Okumura, Yasuhiko

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the dosage and imaging conditions for patients undergoing intraoral radiography at Meikai University Hospital and establish assurance and quality control data. Tube voltage, exposure time, and air kinetic energy released per unit mass (air kerma) of three intraoral radiography units were measured. To calculate the patient entrance dose (PED) for each radiograph using Insight film, we extracted data for 1063 patients from their exposure records. The PED was compared with the diagnostic reference level (DRL) from the European Commission and the UK. The tube voltage of the three units was maintained at 60 ± 2 kV. Differences in exposure time were less than 1.7 % for all units. The air kerma rates were well maintained within a 4.2 % error. Based on the patient data, there were no significant differences in the mean exposure times for males and females for all anatomical sites. The mean PED ranged from 1.09 ± 0.31 mGy for the mandibular incisors to 2.42 ± 0.33 mGy for the maxillary molars. The mean PED at the mandibular molars using InSight film was 1.59 ± 0.20 mGy, being less than the recommended value based on the DRL for intraoral radiography in the UK. We concluded that radiographic conditions at the hospital have been properly maintained. This basic quality control data may assist other dental radiation facilities to reduce patient dosage.

  1. Randomized controlled trial of computerized alcohol intervention for college students: role of class level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohman, Ashleigh Sweet; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Alhassoon, Omar M; Shuttleworth, Sylvie; Van Slyke, Jenna; Gandy, Sharareh

    2016-01-01

    Because of their ability to reach a much wider audience than face-to-face counseling or psychoeducation, computer-delivered interventions for risky or potentially problematic use have been increasing on college campuses. However, there are very few studies that examine who benefits most from such interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in Alcohol-Wise, a computerized intervention, is associated with changes in alcohol drinking behavior and its consequences, perceptions of college drinking norms, and expectancies. It was hypothesized that class level (i.e. freshman/sophomore versus junior/senior) would moderate the effectiveness of Alcohol-Wise. College students (n = 58) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (i) the computer-delivered intervention or (ii) wait-list control. Measures were completed at baseline and approximately 30-days later. At follow-up, freshman and sophomore students in the intervention group showed significant reduction in peak number of standard drinks and blood alcohol concentration, but the effect was not observed for juniors and seniors. The intervention group reported more accurate estimates of drinking norms at follow-up relative to controls. There were no significant changes over time in alcohol expectancies in either group. This study provides support for the potential usefulness of Alcohol-Wise intervention at reducing short-term drinking among underclassmen but not upperclassmen in a 4-year college setting. These findings suggest that computerized interventions may be more effective when provided early, but not later, in a student's college career.

  2. Energy level and thickness control on PEDOT:PSS layer for efficient planar heterojunction perovskite cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Chujun; Tong, Sichao; Xia, Huayan; Wang, Lijuan; Xie, Haipeng; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang

    2018-01-01

    Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ-PSCs) with an architecture of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM/Al were fabricated by controlling the energy level and thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer, where the PEDOT:PSS precursor was diluted with deionized water (H2O) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), i.e. W-PEDOT:PSS and I-PEDOT:PSS. The performance parameters of the PHJ-PSCs showed soaring enhancement after employing W-PEDOT:PSS or I-PEDOT:PSS instead of pristine PEDOT:PSS (P-PEDOT:PSS), resulting in an increase of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of W-PEDOT:PSS-based PHJ-PSCs to 15.60% from 11.95% for P-PEDOT:PSS-based PHJ-PSCs. The performance improvement results from two aspects. On the one hand, as compared to P-PEDOT:PSS, the occupied molecular orbital energy (HOMO) level of dilute PEDOT:PSS showed an impressive decrease and can well match the valence band of CH3NH3PbI3 film, resulting in less energy loss and a significant improvement in the open-circuit voltage (V oc). On the other hand, the dilute PEDOT:PSS could produce a thinner film as compared with the P-PEDOT:PSS, which also played an important role in the performance of the PHJ-PSCs. Furthermore, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results indicated that the interface between perovskite and PEDOT:PSS was greatly improved by employing W-PEDOT:PSS or I-PEDOT:PSS, leading to an obvious decrease in the series resistance (R s) and an increase in the recombination resistance (R rec). The research demonstrated that diluting PEDOT:PSS with a common solvent, such as H2O and IPA, is a feasible low-temperature way of achieving efficient PHJ-PSCs.

  3. Health-related quality of life and risk factor control: the importance of educational level in prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Dominik; Rochon, Justine; Campbell, Stephen M; Wensing, Michel; Freund, Tobias; van Lieshout, Jan; Längst, Gerda; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ludt, Sabine

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to describe and to analyse the importance of educational level for controlled risk factors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This observational study was conducted in nine European countries (5632 patients in 249 practices). We compared patients with a low level of education (up to 9 years) with patients with a high level of education (>9 years), with regard to controlled cardiovascular disease risk factors and HRQoL. A multilevel approach was used for statistical analysis. Patients with a low level of education were older (P education, female gender, living as single, patient group (coronary heart disease patients) and the number of other conditions were negatively associated with HRQoL. A higher sum of controlled risk factors were positively associated with higher HRQoL in the whole sample (r = 0.0086, P educational-level groups (r = 0.0075, P = 0.038 in the low-level group and r = 0.0082, P = 0.001 in the high-level group). Patients with a lower educational level were more often females, singles, had a higher number of other conditions, a higher number of uncontrolled risk factors and a lower HRQoL. However, the higher the control of risk factors was, the higher the HRQoL was overall as well as in both educational-level groups. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. EXAMINING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ COGNITIVE ABSORPTION LEVELS REGARDING TO WEB AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LOCUS OF CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem CUHADAR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated university students’ cognitive absorption levels according to several variables, and presented the relationship between cognitive absorption and locus of control. This study resorted to a descriptive model. Participants were 374 undergraduate students. The Cognitive Absorption Scale and Locus of Control Scale were used to collect the data. Independent samples t-test, one-way between-groups ANOVA, correlation and regression analyses were used to analyze data. Findings suggested that university students had above average cognitive absorption. Moreover, the higher the general internal control/personal control was, the lesser the cognitive absorption level. It was plausible to infer that information and communication technologies served as sources of pleasure and curiosity for university students. However, for students with a higher internal locus of control, levels of pleasure and curiosity dropped.

  5. Effect of high-dose dexamethasone on perioperative lactate levels and glucose control : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottens, Thomas H; Nijsten, Maarten W N; Hofland, Jan; Dieleman, Stefan; Hoekstra, Miriam; van Dijk, Diederik; van der Maaten, Joost Maa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Blood lactate levels are increasingly used to monitor patients. Steroids are frequently administered to critically ill patients. However, the effect of steroids on lactate levels has not been adequately investigated. We studied the effect of a single intraoperative high dose of

  6. Evaluation of Blood Pressure Control Levels and Treatment Compliances of Hypertensive Patients

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    Cenk Aypak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge of patients about hypertension (HT, compliance with lifestyle changes and to determine their blood pressure levels under antihypertensive therapy. Method: Hypertensive patients that applied to Family medicine outpatient clinics of Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital for the first time, in 2012 (between February 1 to April 30, were included in our cross-sectional study. Patients are evaluated primarily for the control and the factors that can affect high blood pressure and the rate on achieving treatment goals. Results: Three hundred and forty patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 60.5±10.7 years and 222 of them (65.3% were female. The blood pressure was not under control in 108 (31.8% patients. The mean body weight of male patients was statistically higher than females (p=0.015. The number of the patients that knew the normal blood pressure value was 249 (73.2%. Among those 155 (62.2% were women and 179 (71.9% were younger than 65 years of age (p=0.0001. Forty one patients (12.1% were still smoking, 46 (13.5% patients were exercising regularly and 32 (9.4% were consuming regular diet. Blood pressure was better controlled in the group that was exercising regularly (p=0.001. The rate of male patients that were on regular exercise and diet, were higher than females (p=0.09. Only 86 patients (25.3% knew the name of their antihypertensive medication and 65 of patients (19.1% knew the dose of their medication. Female patients knew the name of their medication better than males (p=0.002. 156 patients (45.9% were using two kinds of antihypertensive medication. 58 patients (17.1% were skipping doses a few times a week. Conclusion: The knowledge of hypertensive patients on their illness and their compliance on non-drug treatments were inadequate. The compliance of patients should be improved by development of patient-doctor should be improved

  7. Child-Pugh classification dependent alterations in serum leptin levels among cirrhotic patients: a case controlled study

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    Zeyrek Fadile

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As anorexia and hypermetabolism are common in cirrhosis, leptin levels may be increased in this disease. In this study, we investigated the relation between the severity of disease and serum leptin levels in post-hepatitis cirrhosis and the role of body composition, gender and viral aetiology of cirrhosis in this association. Methods Thirty-five cases with post-hepatitis cirrhosis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Body composition including body mass index, body fat percentage and body fat mass were determined. Serum leptin levels were assayed. Results Leptin levels were significantly higher among cirrhotic patients independent of sex compared to controls (p = 0.001. Female patients in both groups have had higher leptin levels than males (in cirrhotics p = 0.029, in controls p = 0.02. Cirrhotic patients in each of A, B and C subgroups according to the Child- Pugh classification revealed significantly different levels compared to controls (p = 0.046, p = 0.004, p = 0.0001, respectively. Male cirrhotics in Child-Pugh Class B and C subgroups had significantly higher leptin levels compared to male controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.008. On the other hand, female patients only in Child Pugh class C subgroup have had higher levels of serum leptin compared to controls (p = 0.022. Child-Pugh classification has been found to be the sole discriminator in determination of leptin levels in cirrhotics by linear regression (beta: 0.435 p = 0.015. Conclusion Serum leptin levels increase in advanced liver disease independently of gender, body composition in posthepatitic cirrhosis. The increase is more abundant among patients that belong to C subgroup according to the Child- Pugh classification.

  8. Entropy as a measure of the noise extent in a two-level quantum feedback controlled system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao-Bo; Fang Mao-Fa; Hu Yao-Hua

    2007-01-01

    By introducing the von Neumann entropy as a measure of the extent of noise, this paper discusses the entropy evolution in a two-level quantum feedback controlled system. The results show that the feedback control can induce the reduction of the degree of noise, and different control schemes exhibit different noise controlling ability, the extent of the reduction also related with the position of the target state on the Bloch sphere. It is shown that the evolution of entropy can provide a real time noise observation and a systematic guideline to make reasonable choice of control strategy.

  9. Design and Real Time Implementation of CDM-PI Control System in a Conical Tank Liquid Level Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhaba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the design and real time implementation of Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM based PI (CDM-PI control system for a Conical Tank Liquid Level Process (CTLLP which exhibits severe static non-linear characteristics. By taking this static non-linearity into account, a Wiener Model (WM based CDM-PI control system is developed and implemented in real time operations. The performance of this control system for set point tracking and load disturbance rejection is studied. In addition, the performance is compared with other WM based PI controllers. Real time results clearly show that WM based CDM-PI control system outperforms over the others.

  10. Increased Urinary Phthalate Levels in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ah; Kho, Younglim; Chun, Kyoung Chul; Koh, Jae Whoan; Park, Jeong Woo; Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2016-12-15

    We assessed the urinary concentration of 16 phthalate metabolites in 57 women with and without uterine leiomyoma ( n = 30 and 27; respectively) to determine the association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. To evaluate exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); we calculated the molar sum of DEHP metabolites; ∑3-DEHP (combining mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP); mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP); and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate); ∑4-DEHP (∑3-DEHP plus mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate); and ∑5-DEHP (∑4-DEHP plus mono (2-(carboxylmethyl)hexyl) phthalate (2cx-MMHP)). The log transformed urinary levels of MEHP; MEHHP; 2cx-MMHP; ∑3-DEHP; ∑4-DEHP; and ∑5-DEHP in the leiomyoma group were significantly higher than those of controls. When we adjusted for age; waist circumference; and parity using multiple logistic regression analyses; we found log ∑3-DEHP (OR = 10.82; 95% CI = 1.25; 93.46) and ∑4-DEHP (OR = 8.78; 95% CI = 1.03; 75.29) were significantly associated with uterine leiomyoma. Our findings suggest an association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. However; larger studies are needed to investigate potential interactions between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma.

  11. Pulse number control of electrical resistance for multi-level storage based on phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, K; Takata, M; Kasai, T; Kitagawa, A; Akita, J

    2007-01-01

    Phase change nonvolatile memory devices composed of SeSbTe chalcogenide semiconductor thin film were fabricated. The resistivity of the SeSbTe system was investigated to apply to multi-level data storage. The chalcogenide semiconductor acts as a programmable resistor that has a large dynamic range. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor can be set to intermediate resistances between the amorphous and crystalline states using electric pulses of a specified power, and it can be controlled by repetition of the electric pulses. The size of the memory cell used in this work is 200 nm thick with a contact area of 1 μm diameter. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor gradually varies from 41 kΩ to 840 Ω within octal steps. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor decreases with increasing number of applied pulses. The step-down characteristic of the resistance can be explained as the crystalline region of the active phase change region increases with increasing number of applied pulses. The extent of crystallization was also estimated by the overall resistivity of the active region of the memory cell

  12. Wavelet denoising method; application to the flow rate estimation for water level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gee Young; Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Bong Soo; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2003-01-01

    The wavelet transform decomposes a signal into time- and frequency-domain signals and it is well known that a noise-corrupted signal could be reconstructed or estimated when a proper denoising method is involved in the wavelet transform. Among the wavelet denoising methods proposed up to now, the wavelets by Mallat and Zhong can reconstruct best the pure transient signal from a highly corrupted signal. But there has been no systematic way of discriminating the original signal from the noise in a dyadic wavelet transform. In this paper, a systematic method is proposed for noise discrimination, which could be implemented easily into a digital system. For demonstrating the potential role of the wavelet denoising method in the nuclear field, this method is applied to the steam or feedwater flow rate estimation of the secondary loop. And the configuration of the S/G water level control system is proposed for incorporating the wavelet denoising method in estimating the flow rate value at low operating powers

  13. Common software for controlling and monitoring the upgraded CMS Level-1 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Codispoti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider restarted in 2015 with a higher centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. An upgraded Level-1 trigger system was deployed in the CMS experiment in order to maintain the same efficiencies for searches and precision measurements as those achieved in 2012. This system must be controlled and monitored coherently through software, with high operational efficiency.The legacy system was composed of a large number of custom data processor boards; correspondingly, only a small fraction of the software was common between the different subsystems. The upgraded system is composed of a set of general purpose boards, that follow the MicroTCA specification, and transmit data over optical links, resulting in a more homogeneous system. The associated software is based on generic components corresponding to the firmware blocks that are shared across different cards, regardless of the role that the card plays in the system. ...

  14. Infiltration control for low-level radioactive solid waste disposal areas: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.

    1980-11-01

    The primary mode of radionuclide transport from shallow land-disposal sites for low-level wastes can be traced to infiltration of precipitation. This report examines the factors that affect surface water entry and movement in the ground and assesses available infiltration-control technology for solid-waste-disposal sites in the humid eastern portion of the United States. A survey of the literature suggests that a variety of flexible and rigid liner systems are available as barriers for the stored waste and would be effective in preventing water infiltration. Installation of near-surface seals of bentonite clay admixed with dispersive chemicals seem to offer the required durability and low permeability at a reasonable cost. The infiltration rate in a bentonite-sealed area may be further retarded by the application of dispersive chemicals that can be easily admixed with the surface soil. Because the effectiveness of a dispersive chemical for infiltration reduction is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil, appropriate laboratory tests should be conducted prior to field application

  15. CA-LOD: Collision Avoidance Level of Detail for Scalable, Controllable Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Sébastien; Gerdelan, Anton; O'Sullivan, Carol

    The new wave of computer-driven entertainment technology throws audiences and game players into massive virtual worlds where entire cities are rendered in real time. Computer animated characters run through inner-city streets teeming with pedestrians, all fully rendered with 3D graphics, animations, particle effects and linked to 3D sound effects to produce more realistic and immersive computer-hosted entertainment experiences than ever before. Computing all of this detail at once is enormously computationally expensive, and game designers as a rule, have sacrificed the behavioural realism in favour of better graphics. In this paper we propose a new Collision Avoidance Level of Detail (CA-LOD) algorithm that allows games to support huge crowds in real time with the appearance of more intelligent behaviour. We propose two collision avoidance models used for two different CA-LODs: a fuzzy steering focusing on the performances, and a geometric steering to obtain the best realism. Mixing these approaches allows to obtain thousands of autonomous characters in real time, resulting in a scalable but still controllable crowd.

  16. Controlled comparison of species- and community-level models across novel climates and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Blois, Jessica L.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Williams, John W.; Ferrier, Simon; Lorenz, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) assume species exist in isolation and do not influence one another's distributions, thus potentially limiting their ability to predict biodiversity patterns. Community-level models (CLMs) capitalize on species co-occurrences to fit shared environmental responses of species and communities, and therefore may result in more robust and transferable models. Here, we conduct a controlled comparison of five paired SDMs and CLMs across changing climates, using palaeoclimatic simulations and fossil-pollen records of eastern North America for the past 21 000 years. Both SDMs and CLMs performed poorly when projected to time periods that are temporally distant and climatically dissimilar from those in which they were fit; however, CLMs generally outperformed SDMs in these instances, especially when models were fit with sparse calibration datasets. Additionally, CLMs did not over-fit training data, unlike SDMs. The expected emergence of novel climates presents a major forecasting challenge for all models, but CLMs may better rise to this challenge by borrowing information from co-occurring taxa. PMID:26962143

  17. A local maximum in gibberellin levels regulates maize leaf growth by spatial control of cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Hilde; Rymen, Bart; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Demuynck, Kirin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Kamiya, Yuji; Inzé, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2012-07-10

    Plant growth rate is largely determined by the transition between the successive phases of cell division and expansion. A key role for hormone signaling in determining this transition was inferred from genetic approaches and transcriptome analysis in the Arabidopsis root tip. We used the developmental gradient at the maize leaf base as a model to study this transition, because it allows a direct comparison between endogenous hormone concentrations and the transitions between dividing, expanding, and mature tissue. Concentrations of auxin and cytokinins are highest in dividing tissues, whereas bioactive gibberellins (GAs) show a peak at the transition zone between the division and expansion zone. Combined metabolic and transcriptomic profiling revealed that this GA maximum is established by GA biosynthesis in the division zone (DZ) and active GA catabolism at the onset of the expansion zone. Mutants defective in GA synthesis and signaling, and transgenic plants overproducing GAs, demonstrate that altering GA levels specifically affects the size of the DZ, resulting in proportional changes in organ growth rates. This work thereby provides a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of the transition from cell division to expansion that controls organ growth and size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety analysis and inventory control of transuranic and low-level waste in common storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Bonner, A.L.; Joyce, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed For the inventory control of low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, when both are stored in the same location, and both contribute to an inventory constrained by safety considerations. Development of the method arose from the necessity to make safety analysis calculations for the addition of LLW, in quantities greater than existing inventory limits would allow when stored with TRU waste, in the Hanford Central Waste Complex (CWC)-Ensuring that the dose consequences of credible releases are maintained at low-hazard limits or less, was used to allow greater than Type A quantities of LLW into the CWC. Basically, what happens is the original limited amount of TRU allowed is reduced by some equivalent amount of LLW introduced. The total quantity of TRU, and LLW in excess of Type A quantities, must be administratively maintained via curie equivalency Factors to ensure operation as a low-hazard Facility. The ''equivalency'' between TRU and LLW proposed here is specific only to the CWC, but the methodology can be used for other specific applications, such as TRU and LLW storage or handling facilities where inventory limits must be enforced or where a simplified inventory system is required

  19. The importance of haemoglobin level and effect of transfusion in HNSCC patients treated with radiotherapy - Results from the randomized DAHANCA 5 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, Camilla Molich; Hansen, Hanne Sand; Overgaard, Marie; Grau, Cai; Johansen, Jorgen; Bentzen, Jens; Overgaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and a low level of haemoglobin (Hb) often have a poor response to radiation which may be related to hypoxia induced radioresistance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of low Hb level and its modification by transfusion in HNSCC patients treated with radiotherapy. The study was performed as a subrandomization in the DAHANCA 5 trial. Material and methods: Patients were randomized to treatment with the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole or placebo, and in addition, patients with 'low' pre-irradiation Hb values (females < 13 g/dL; males < 14.5 g/dL) were subrandomized to plus or minus transfusion. Transfusion was given with packed red blood cells with the aim to achieve a Hb level in the 'high' value range. Results: A total of 414 patients were included, 243 patients had high Hb levels and 171 patients had low Hb levels. Of the low Hb patients, 82 were randomized to receive transfusion and 89 not to receive transfusion. The treatment arms were well balanced. In the majority of patients, transfusion resulted in increased Hb levels although this tended to decline throughout treatment. Patients with high Hb levels had a significantly better probability of locoregional control, disease-specific survival and overall survival compared to 'low Hb no transfusion' patients. In the low Hb group, transfusion did not improve the outcome in locoregional control, disease-specific survival or overall survival. In multivariate analyses, T and N classifications were significant for all outcome