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Sample records for prehydrolyzed soybean meal

  1. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  2. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  3. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae

  4. Performance of lambs fed alternative protein sources to soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Lins Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of alternative protein sources (castor bean cake, sunflower cake, and sunflower seed to soybean meal on the intake and performance of 40 lambs, initially weighing 19.8±1.84 kg, fed diets based on Tifton grass hay. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks. There were no differences in the nutrient intake of castor bean diets compared with soybean meal. The intake of nutrients in the sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets was decreased compared with soybean meal. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber of sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets were decreased compared with soybean meal. The average daily weight gain of animals fed the castor bean diet (0.190 kg was not different from that of the animals fed the soybean meal diet (0.217 kg. The sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets provided less weight gain (0.171 and 0.135 kg d-1, respectively than soybean meal due to the lower nutrient intake. The hot carcass yield and true yield were not affected by the protein sources. The neck, ribs, and ham weights were similar in lambs fed soybean meal and castor bean cake diets. It is recommended to use castor bean as an alternative protein source in the diet of lambs.

  5. Fermentation of soybean meal with Aspergillus usamii improves zinc availability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, M; Matsui, T; Yano, H

    1998-02-01

    Soybean meal was fermented with Aspergillus usamii to improve zinc availability through the degradation of phytic acid. Rats fed a diet containing fermented soybean meal showed greater femoral zinc than did animals fed a diet containing regular soybean meal. Zinc solubility in the small intestine was higher in the rats fed fermented soybean meal than in the rats fed regular soybean meal. These results suggested that fermentation with Aspergillus usamii improved zinc availability in dietary soybean meal, which was induced by the increase of zinc solubility in the small intestine. Adding the same amount of phytate that was contained in the regular soybean meal-based diet did not affect the amount of zinc present in rats fed a fermented soybean meal-based diet with sodium phytate. Phytase activity was found in fermented soybean meal, and this activity may degrade added phytate in fermented soybean meal-based diet.

  6. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  7. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  8. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  9. Suitability of Soybean Meal from Insect-Resistant Soybeans for Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, María A; Davis, Adam J; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-03-23

    Benning(M) and Benning(MGH) are near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the soybean cultivar Benning, which contain insect-resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from the soybean accession PI 229358. Benning(M) contains QTL-M, which confers antibiosis and antixenosis. In addition to QTL-M, Benning(MGH) contains QTL-G, which confers antibiosis, and QTL-H, which confers antixenosis. Soybean meal was produced from Benning and the NILs. Nutritional composition, digestible amino acid content, and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEN) were equivalent among soybean meals. A 21-day broiler feeding trial was carried out to determine if the QTLs affect soybean meal quality. Weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio were evaluated. No biologically significant differences were detected for broilers fed Benning, Benning(M), and Benning(MGH). This demonstrates that soybean meal produced from the insect-resistant NILs is equivalent to soybean meal produced from their non-insect-resistant parent cultivar for broiler weight gain.

  10. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids.

  11. Enzymatic extractability of soybean meal proteins and carbohydrates : heat and humidity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.; Kofod, L.V.; Schols, H.A.; Piersma, S.R.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    To study the incomplete enzymatic extractability of proteins and carbohydrates of thermally treated soybean meals, one unheated and three heat-treated soybean meals were produced. To obtain truly enzyme-resistant material, the meals were extracted by a repeated hydrolysis procedure using excessive

  12. Replacement of soybean meal with babassu meal in rations for broilers from 22 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Calixto da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal in rations to broiler from 22 to 42 days old. It was used 80 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with four treatments (0, 10, 20 e 30% substituition of soybean meal by babassu meal and five repetitions of four broilers each. Were evaluated the performance (weight dain, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts, organ biometry, feed cost per kilogram body weight and gross margin. To verify the relationship of cost of replacing soybean meal with pie babassu, inequalities were established. The substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal had no influence (P>0,05 any of the performance characteristics, wich showed the technical viability of substituting up to 30%. Similarly, there was no affect on carcass yield, cuts weight and organ biometry. The cust less with feed per kg for chicken produced and the higher gross margin were obtained from chickens fed diets with 0% babassu meal. The increased of substitution level soybean meal by babassu meal in ration for broilers from 22 to 42 days old proved unviable economically, however, the inequalities produced can be useful in practical situations.

  13. Chemical, physical and nutritional changes in soybean meal as a result of toasting and extrusion cooking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, G.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of soybean meal extrusion and the development of shear forces during single-screw extrusion was compared with the toasting process of soybean meal. Attention was focused on chemical, physical and nutritional changes during these thermo-mechanical treatments.Monitoring target parameters we

  14. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  15. Potential and utilization of Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal as soybean meal substitution in laying hen diets

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    Rizki Palupi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the potential of Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal to substitute soybean meal in poultry diet. One hundred and sixty laying hens of Isa Brown strain, at 30 weeks old were used in this study and kept in individual cages. A Randomized Completely Design was applied with four treatments and four replications. The treatments were four levels of soybean meal protein substitution by Indigofera sp shoot meal protein in the diets: The level were 0% (R0, 15% (R1, 30% (R2 and 45% (R3. Eggs were collected daily and were evaluated on: weight, shell, albumen, yolk, intensity of yolk and haugh unit. Results showed that the nutrients content of Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal were crude protein 28.98%, crude fat 3.30%, crude fiber 8.49%, calcium 0.52% and phosphorus content was 0.34%. Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal contained a complete amino acids. The vitamin A and ß-carotene were high, i.e 3828.79 IU/100g and 507.6 mg/kg, respectively. It is concluded that Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal is potential to be used as an alternative source of protein. Substitute 45% soybean meal protein with Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal in laying hen diets increase egg quality and increase intensity of yolk colour to 55.88%.

  16. Substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the dry season

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    Román Maza Ortega

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements on the nutritional characteristics and performance of beef heifers in their postweaning phase on Brachiaria decumbens pastures during the dry season. Twenty-four Nellore beef heifers (average initial age and weight of 8 mo and 210±6 kg, respectively were used. The design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates. Supplements contained approximately 30% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal (0, 50 and 100%. The control animals received only a mineral mixture ad libitum, and those on the other treatments received supplementation at 1.0 kg/animal/day. No differences were found in ADG between supplemented and control animals (P>0.10. Supplementation increased crude protein (CP intake only (P<0.10. The level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal did not affect (P>0.10 the intake of supplemented animals. Supplementation elevated the apparent digestibility coefficients (P<0.10 of OM, CP, NFC and TDN, but not EE or NDFap (P>0.10. A positive linear effect (P<0.10 of the level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed cake was observed on the digestibility of OM, NFC and TDN. Supplementation and the level of substitution had an effect (P<0.10 on the serum urea nitrogen and urine urea nitrogen contents. Supplementation or substitution level had no effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen to the intestine (MICN or efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS (P>0.10. Substitution caused a decreasing linear effect (P<0.10 on microbial nitrogen/nitrogen intake ratio (MICNR. In conclusion, substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements during the dry season does not impair the productive performance of beef heifers.

  17. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  18. Blood biochemical parameters of broilers fed differently thermal processed soybean meal

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    Mojgan Nahavandinejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A 42-days feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the influences of differently thermal processed soybean meal on the broilers blood biochemical parameters. Materials and methods. A total of 200 male birds of Ross strain were allocated into five different diets formulated using differently heat-treated soybean meals, with ten birds per treatment and per replicate. Diets contained: raw soybean (controls, autoclaved for a short (121°C, 20 min; Aut1 group or medium length period (121°C, 30 min; Aut2 group soybean meal, micro-waved soybean meal (46°C, 540 Watt, 7 min; McW group and browned soybean meal (120°C, 20 min; Brn group. Results. Blood serum metabolites showed that all treated diets presented lower lipid metabolism makers and higher protein metabolism markers. Broilers showed increased final body weight when fed heat-treated meals compared with control. Results suggested that thermal treatments altered the lipid metabolism in broilers that might originate a decrease in abdominal fat deposition. Conclusions. Comparison of the results for all the treated groups showed the Aut2 treatment is the most suitable method for soybean thermal treatment processing; in contrast, the Aut1 treatment had the closest results to the control group.

  19. Quality Control of Fermented Soybean Meal%发酵豆粕的品质控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯纪网; 陈晓旭; 黄海龙; 梁勇

    2014-01-01

    Fermented soybean meal was more and more gotten attention of people. A new type of fermentation dry-ing equipment and its technology for fermented soybean meal quality control method were introduced.%发酵豆粕越来越受人们的关注,本文介绍了一种新型发酵烘干设备(工艺)对发酵豆粕品质的控制方法。

  20. Production of Bioactive Peptides from Soybean Meal by Solid State Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Protease

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    Naifu Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soybean meal was first solid state fermented with different strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB. Among the strains used, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6 was selected for further studies because of its highest Degree of Hydrolysis (DH of protein (2.49±0.08% in soybean meal after 72 h fermentation. Soybean meal fermented with L. plantarum Lp6 can also improve its DPPH radical scavenging and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities. The addition of protease into soybean meal during the fermentation resulted in lowered IC50 of DPPH radical scavenging and ACE inhibitory activities, indicating more bioactive peptides were produced during fermentation. Molecular weight distribution analysis revealed the Extracts from Fermented Soybean Meal (EFSM was mainly composed of oligopeptides. These results indicated that soybean meal fermented with L. plantarum Lp6 and protease could be an easy and cheap method to produce functional food.

  1. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  2. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Stein, H H

    2013-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of DE and ME and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal (SBM) mixture, and conventional SBM fed to weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 barrows (initial BW: 14.6 ± 2.2 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Six corn-based diets were formulated. The basal diet contained 98.1% corn (as-fed basis) and 5 diets contained corn and 11 to 16% chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, spent hen-SBM mixture, or SBM. All test ingredients were included in their respective diets at levels that were expected to result in similar concentrations of CP among diets. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d. The ME was 3,957, 3,816, 4,586, 4,298, 4,255, and 4,091 kcal/kg DM for corn, chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, the spent hen-SBM mixture, and SBM, respectively. The ME in poultry byproduct meal was greater (P poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, or the spent hen-SBM mixture. The SID of CP and all AA, except Trp and Pro, was greater (P poultry byproduct meal. However, with the exception of Val and Lys, there were no differences between chicken meal and poultry byproduct meal. In conclusion, the ME in hydrolyzed porcine intestines and the spent hen-SBM mixture is greater than in chicken meal, but not different from the ME of SBM. Poultry by product meal provides more ME than SBM, chicken meal, and the spent hen-SBM mixture, and the SID of most indispensable AA is greater in the spent hen-SBM mixture than in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, and hydrolyzed porcine intestines, but less than in SBM.

  3. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production.

  4. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  5. 豆粕与发酵豆粕中主要抗营养因子调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Main AFN in Soybean Meal and Fermented Soybean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉娟; 姚怡莎; 秦玉昌; 邱静; 李军国; 李俊; 谷旭

    2016-01-01

    Objective]Soybean meal is the main raw material of feed. However, various anti-nutritional factors (ANF) in soybean meal hinder the digestion, absorption and utilization for nutrients, which would have negative effects on animal growth and health. Studies have shown that soybean meal fermented by microorganism could decrease the undesirable effect of ANF. While, fermentation strains, soybean species, and manufacturers may have an effect in fermentation process. Moreover, seldom reports referred to the levels of ANF in soybean meal and fermented soybean meal. Based on this, 65 batches of available soybean meal and 54 batches of fermented soybean meal were collected in this study, followed by analysis of 6 kinds of ANF, including glycinin,β-conglycinin, trypsin inhibitors, raffinose, stachyose and urease, in order to investigate the actual levels of ANF in soybean meal and fermented soybean meal.[Method]In this study, glycinin,β-conglycinin and trypsin inhibitors were analyzed by Enzyme-link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Experimental procedures were conducted according to instructions which were sample pretreatment, plus, washing, adding enzymatic reagent, color reaction, and termination. The analysis method of raffinose and stachyose was HPLC after extracted by microwave. Analysis of urease refers to GB/T 8622-2006, and titration was utilized for analysis of urease activity.[Result]The average concentration of glycinin in soybean meal (129.3 mg·g-1) is 57.7% higher than fermented soybean meal (54.7 mg·g-1). The percentile method was used for analysis. The normal values in soybean meal and fermented soybean were 58.9-177.3 mg·g-1 and ND (Not Detected)-109.4 mg·g-1, respectively. Moreover, the fermented soybean meal (37.6 mg·g-1) is 63.2% lower than the concentration ofβ-conglycinin in soybean meal (102.2 mg·g-1). The normal values in soybean meal and fermented soybean were 42.8-147.2 mg·g-1and ND-61.8 mg·g-1, respectively. The average concentration

  6. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

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    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  7. Study on Lysine and Methionine Content Promotion of Soybean Meal by Probiotic Fermentation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhi-yong; Gao Xue-jun; Huang Jian-guo; Liu Rong; Liu Ying; Qiao Bin; Qiu You-wen

    2012-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is commonly used for livestock feeds, but its application in diets for livestock is limited due to some antinutritional factors. The contents of methionine and lysine of soybean meal were promoted by Bacillus natto and Leuconostoc mesenteroides fermentation, benefial for the livestock feeds. It was crude protein (CP) 56.8%, methionine 43.56 mg · g^-1, and lysine 74.87 mg · g^-1, cows fed a diet with FSBM milk yield raised 14.2%, the change in the milk protein, the lactose and the dry matter content had also obvious increase. This convenient technique offers helpful exploration for industrialization of soybean meal fermentation.

  8. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  9. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean in multiple supplements for beef heifers grazing Urochloa decumbens during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mageste de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soybean in multiple supplements on nutritional parameters, microbial efficiency and productive and reproductive performance of heifers grazing in Urochloa decumbens during the drought period. Were used 39 crossbred heifers of initial age and initial weight of 21 months and 309.5±7 kg, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments with eight replicates, and a control treatment with seven replications. Two treatments had soybean meal as the protein source and two treatments had soybean as the protein source, containing 25% and 40% crude protein. The amount of supplement offered was 1.0 kg/animal/day. The animals of the control group received only mineral salt ad libitum. The supplemented animals had higher average daily gain (ADG than control animals (P<0.10, and there was no difference in ADG among the supplements (P>0.10. There was an effect of supplementation (P <0.10 on intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDF. There were no differences (P>0.10 on intake of OM and DM grazing between the supplemented and non-supplemented. Supplementation improved DM digestibility and all constituents of the diet (P<0.10. It was found that the provision of multiple supplements optimizes the performance of heifers grazing during the dry season, and that the substitution of soybean meal by soybean did not improve productive performance of animals.

  10. Evaluation of Broiler Performance when fed insect-protected, control, or commercial varieties of dehulled Soybean Meal1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 35% soybean meal from insect-protected soybean containing Cry1Ac protein, or from a similar nontransgenic control, or from 7 reference commercial soybean varieties. The feeding trial lasted 41 d, and each treatment consiste

  11. Evaluation of Broiler Performance when fed insect-protected, control, or commercial varieties of dehulled Soybean Meal1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 35% soybean meal from insect-protected soybean containing Cry1Ac protein, or from a similar nontransgenic control, or from 7 reference commercial soybean varieties. The feeding trial lasted 41 d, and each treatment consiste

  12. compare quality in five varieties of soybean meals.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Proximate composition, In Vitro Relative Protein Digestibility of S varieties of soybean (glycine max), was done. ... Although proteins of plant origin offer a ... products of lipid oxidation followed by ... protein analysis using the automated.

  13. Peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal in the diet of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T Mariniello; de Medeiros, A Nunes; Oliveira, R Lopes; Gonzaga Neto, S; Ribeiro, M Divino; Bagaldo, A Regina; Ribeiro, O Lolato

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that peanut cake can substitute for soybean meal in the feed of ruminants on the basis of the intake, performance, digestion, and serum urea and glucose concentration in crossbred Boer × indigenous goat kids. Forty intact vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer × indigenous goat kids (average age = 5 mo, average BW = 15.6 ± 2.7 kg) were used. The goats were fed Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon) hay and concentrate mixes of corn bran, soybean meal, premix mineral, and peanut cake substituted for soybean meal at rates of 0.0%, 33.33%, 66.67%, and 100%. The animals were confined for 62 d, and the digestibility trial was performed from d 27 to 31 of confinement. Samples of orts and feces were quantified and collected from each animal during this period. On the d 32 of confinement, a blood sample was taken from animals to measure urea N and glucose. Data were analyzed with a regression model. Substitution of soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet of the animals resulted in a reduction in intake of DM (P = 0.02), CP (P = 0.03), NDF (P = 0.03), nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC; P = 0.01), and TDN (P = 0.02) and an increase in intake of ether extract (P cake is not a complete, equal substitute for soybean meal in goat feed. However, peanut cake may represent an eventual replacer able to reduce goat producers’ dependence on traditional ingredients in the feed of growing goat kids.

  14. Bromatological and mycotoxin analysis on soybean meal before and after the industrial process of micronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Daga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone take part of the most studied mycotoxin groups due to their toxic effects on animal and human health. This research evaluated samples of soybeans meal used in animal food industry. A hundred and twenty one soybean meal samples were analyzed, so that 66 were analyzed before the industrial processing of micronization and 55 after it. The bromatological average of samples before micronization showed the following answers: 12.4% moisture; 46.4% protein; 79.5% protein solubility; 5.9% ash content; 2.2% fat; 4.3% fiber and 0.02 (ΔpH of urease activity. The samples of micronization soybean meal showed 7.0% average values for moisture and 48.6% for crude protein. The mycotoxin levels were low in natura soybean meal; therefore, average values were 0.5μg kg-1, 29.6μg kg-1 and 56.8μg kg-1 for aflatoxin, zearelenone and fumonisin, respectively. After micronization, the average values for the studied samples were 1.3μg kg-1, 67.5μg kg-1 and 89.1μg kg-1, respectively for the same mycotoxins. The results for bromatological and mycotoxin analyses indicate similarity with the established patterns according to the Brazilian Compendium for Animal feed and reference literature. However, at least one of the three studied mycotoxin was detected in all of the analyzed samples and there was greater contamination of soybeans meal after the micronization process.

  15. Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Syah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diet on growth of humpback grouper. Fifteen cages of 1 x 1 x 1.2 m3 each stocked with 16 humpback grouper juveniles (61.3 ± 0.4 g/pc were set up randomly in seawater. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily for 112 days. The control diet contained 61.9% fishmeal (63.34% crude protein. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (4.7 kcal/g feed diets supplemented with commercial phytase “Rhonozyme-P” at 0.075% were formulated to contain different levels (8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% soybean meal (43.65% crude protein as a partial replacement for fishmeal. These diets contained total phosphorus levels between 3.6—4.5 (±0.4 % and 0.7—1.5 (±0.04 % available phosphorus. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal (8 to 32% replacement was not significantly different (P>0.05 to the control diet on daily growth rate (DGR, food conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and daily food consumption (DFC. However, the dietary levels of soybean meal significantly affected (P<0.05 whole body protein and phosphorus retention (Table 1. These data suggest that addition of phytase in diets could improve protein and phosphorus availability and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loading in the environment. Phytase can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly feed for humpback grouper. Based on P loading, supplementation of phytase enable up to 24% fishmeal replacement with soybean meal.

  16. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  17. True total-tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal for fifteen-kilogram pigs are additive in corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Adeola, O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the additivity of true total-tract P digestibility (TPD) in corn and soybean meal (SBM) for 15-kg pigs. Fifty-four barrows with an average initial BW of 14.7±1.6 kg were used in a randomized complete block design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of 6 diets. Three P sources included corn, SBM, and their mixture at a ratio of 2:1. Each P source was provided at low or high level. The diets were fed for a 5-d adjustment period followed by a total collection period of 7 d with ferric oxide as a marker to determine the initiation and termination of fecal collection. The results showed the high P level of each P source increased (P<0.001) P intake, fecal P output, and digested P compared with the low P level. The respective apparent total-tract digestibility of P were 35.66 and 40.57% for low and high P levels in corn, 35.72 and 38.04% for low and high P levels in SBM, and 41.85 and 38.53% for low and high P levels in the corn-soybean meal mixture without significant difference between P levels within P sources. Regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TPD was estimated at 40.53, 35.96, and 37.52% for corn, SBM, and their mixture, respectively. The expected TPD in corn and SBM mixture was calculated to be 37.92% based upon the P contribution coefficient calculated to be 0.428 for corn and 0.572 for SBM. The determined TPD (37.52%) in the mixture was not statistically different from the expected (37.92%). In conclusion, the TPD in corn and SBM are additive in corn-soybean meal diet for pigs.

  18. Intake, digestibility, and nitrogen retention by sheep supplemented with warm-season legume haylages or soybean meal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, J. L; Adesogan, A. T; Carter, J. N; Blount, A. R; Myer, R. O; Phatak, S. C

    2009-01-01

    .... This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass haylage ( Paspalum notatum Flügge cv. Tifton 9) with soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal or warm-season legume haylages affected the performance of lambs...

  19. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  20. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Solís, Camila J.; Alaurent, Trevor G. S.; Caruffo, Mario; Hernández, Adrián J.; Feijóo, Carmen G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF) into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM) or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5). The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1) were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection. PMID:27247950

  1. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar E. Ulloa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5. The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1 were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection.

  2. Corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy with the addition of exogenous enzymes for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRB Dourado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two metabolism assays were carried out to determine corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy when enzymes were added. In the first trial, 35 cockerels per studied feedstuff (corn and soybean meal were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments of seven replicates of one bird each. The evaluated treatments were: ingredient (corn and soybean meal with no enzyme addition, with the addition of an enzyme complex (xylanase, amylase, protease - XAP, xylanase, or phytase. Precise feeding method was used to determine true metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (TMEn. The use of enzymes did not result in any differences (p>0.05 in soybean meal TMEn, but phytase improved corn TMEn in 2.3% (p=0.004. In the second trial, 280 seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of corn with no enzyme addition or with the addition of amylase, xylanase, phytase, XAP complex, XAP+phytase combination, or xylanase/ pectinase/β-glucanase complex (XPBG. Corn was supplemented with macro and trace minerals. Total excreta collection was used to determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn. Differences were observed (p=0.08 in AMEn and dry matter metabolizability coefficient (p=0.03. The combination of the XAP complex with phytase promoted a 2.11% increase in corn AMEn values, and the remaining enzymes allowed increased between 0.86% and 1.66%.

  3. Soybean Meal Protein Assay -Cross lab tests and Kjeldhal vs Leco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqiang (Bill) Xiong; Zu Liya; Chang Biying; Xing Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction Accuracy/precision of crude protein assay (CP) iscritical for the trade of soybean meal (SBM) and feedformulation. Past experience indicated that the CPassay variation in China could be very large and farbeyond AFCO Analytical Variation (AV%, previouslyPermitted Analytical Variation or PAV%). On CP testprocedures recently there has been a saying that theLeco combustion method was more accurate than theclassical Kjeldahl procedure.

  4. Effect of replacing conventional soybean meal with low-oligosaccharide soybean meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wean-to-finish pigs1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangeni, D; Jendza, J A; Anil, L; Yang, X; Baidoo, S K

    2017-06-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the effect of replacing conventional soybean meal (CSBM) with low-oligosaccharide soybean meal (LOSBM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wean-to-finish pigs. A total of 432 crossbred pigs (19 d and 6.6 ± 1.2 kg BW) were blocked by sex and BW and assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) CSBM in all phases and fishmeal and spray-dried plasma protein (FM/SDPP) in phases 1 to 3, 2) CSBM in all phases but with no FM/SDPP, 3) LOSBM and FM/SDPP in phases 1 to 3 and CSBM in phases 4 to 6, 4) LOSBM in phases 1 to 3 and CSBM in phases 4 to 6, 5) LOSBM in phases 1 to 6 and FM/SDPP in phases 1 to 3, and 6) LOSBM in phases 1 to 6. The results showed that pig growth performance (ADG, ADFI, and G:F) during the overall period (phases 1 to 6) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percentage, fat depth, loin depth, and lean percentage) were not affected ( > 0.05) by dietary treatments. Moreover, replacing CSBM with LOSBM in phases 1 to 3 did not affect early phase growth performance in the absence of FM/SDPP but reduced ( ≤ 0.05) ADFI and increased ( finish period did not improve growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs.

  5. Exogenous enzyme complex prevents intestinal soybean meal-induced enteritis in Mugil liza (Valenciennes, 1836 juvenile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO R.V. RAMOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Four soybean meal-based diets containing increasing levels of an enzyme complex (E50, E100, E150 and E200 at 50, 100, 150 and 200 g ton-1, respectively and one soybean meal-based diet without the enzyme complex (E0 were fed in triplicate to M. liza juveniles in a semi-static flow system with 20 fish per tank for 75 days. There were no differences between the treatments for animal performance parameters, but fish fed the enzyme complex treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05 higher values of calcium bone retention compared with control fish. Although there was no relationship between bacterial counts in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract or enzyme levels, filamentous bacteria were increased in E50 compared with E150. All of the treatments resulted in higher bacterial counts in the stomach than in intestinal segments. Histological screening showed serious to moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, modification in villus morphology and necrosis in some cases in fish fed the E0 diet. In addition, fish from the E0 treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05 lower lipid deposition in the peritoneal cavity. Therefore, the use of low levels of exogenous enzyme is recommended in diets for M. liza when soybean meal is used as the main source of protein.

  6. Effectiveness of dietary xylo-oligosaccharides for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

  7. Fermented soybean meal improves the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and microbial flora in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase nutritive values of soybean meal (SBM, 3 species of microbes were used to ferment SBM. Through a 3 × 3 orthogonal design and parameter measurements of soybean peptide and anti-nutritional factor contents in the fermented soybean meal (FSBM, it was estimated that the best microbial proportion of Bacillus subtilis, Hansenula anomala and Lactobacillus casei was 2:1:2 for SBM fermentation (P  0.05. However, newly-weaned piglets (d 28–38 fed 10% FSBM and different levels of plasma protein obtained higher average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, compared with those without FSBM but with 6% plasma protein (P < 0.05. Piglets (d 38–68 fed diets supplemented with FSBM and soybean protein concentrate (SBPC at 3.75% and 7.5% respectively increased nutrient digestibility, fecal enzyme activity and lactic acid bacteria counts, and decreased fecal Escherichia coli counts (P < 0.05, compared with the control. These data indicated that FSBM had positive effects on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora for piglets.

  8. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, Van H.H.E.; Bikker, P.; Mollenhorst, H.; Meerburg, B.G.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content i

  9. 固体发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的复合菌筛选%Choose Complex Bacterium and Fungus as Fermentation Microform on Soybean Meal, Rapeseed Meal and Cottonseed Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓露芳; 范学珊; 王加启

    2012-01-01

    试验根据豆粕、菜粕和棉粕作为植物性蛋白饲料的营养特性,选择中性蛋白酶活较高的细菌和真菌作为发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的菌种以改善豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的蛋白质品质.通过细菌和真菌的两两组合生长试验,分别筛选出适合发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的最佳复合菌各一组.试验结果表明,发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的最佳菌株组合为BS-2和Ao、BS-natto和Ao、BS-natto和Ao.%Based on nutrition characters on soybean meal, rapeseed meal and cotton seed meal, high neutral enzyme production of bacteria and fungus were chose to inoculate in them to improve their protein quality as animal feed. Compounded one bacterium strain and one fungus strain cultured together, chose the best group to ferment the soybean meal, rapeseed meal and cotton seed meal. The results showed the best groups were BS-2 and Ao for soybean meal, BS-natto and Ao for rapeseed meal, and BS-natto and Ao for cotton seed meal.

  10. Prediction of digestible and metabolisable energy in soybean meals produced from soybeans of different origins fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongchao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Guo, Panpan; Liu, Ling; Piao, Xiangshu; Stein, Hans H; Li, Defa; Lai, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) in 22 sources of soybean meal (SBM) produced from soybeans from different countries and subsequently to establish equations for predicting the DE and ME in SBM based on their chemical composition. The 22 sources of SBM were all processed in Chinese crushing plants, but the soybeans used originated from China (n=6), the US (n=6), Brazil (n=7) or Argentina (n=3). The basal diet was a corn-based diet and 22 additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and 24.3% of each source of SBM. The average DE and ME in SBM from China, the US, Brazil and Argentina were 15.73, 15.93, 15.64 and 15.90 MJ/kg and 15.10, 15.31, 14.97 and 15.42 MJ/kg, respectively, and no differences among countries were observed. From a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were generated. The best-fit equations for SBM were DE=38.44-0.43 crude fibre -0.98 gross energy +0.11 acid detergent fibre (R2=0.67, psoybean sources used in this experiment. The DE and ME of SBM of different origin can be predicted based on their chemical composition when fed to growing pigs.

  11. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE, ME, and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 2 novel sources of yeast (C-yeast and S-yeast) and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. The 2 new sources of yeast are coproducts from the dry-grind ethanol industry. The concentrations of DM, GE, and P were 94.8%, 5,103 kcal/kg, and 1.07% in C-yeast; 94.4%, 4,926 kcal/kg, and 2.01% in S-yeast; 93.6%, 4,524 kcal/kg, and 1.40% in brewers' yeast; 91.4%, 4,461 kcal/kg, and 3.26% in fish meal; and 87.7%, 4,136 kcal/kg, and 0.70% in soybean meal, respectively. The DE and ME in each of the ingredients were determined using 42 growing barrows (28.9±2.18 kg BW). A corn-based basal diet and 5 diets containing corn and 24% to 40% of each test ingredient were formulated. The total collection method was used to collect feces and urine, and the difference procedure was used to calculate values for DE and ME in each ingredient. The concentrations of DE in corn, C-yeast, S-yeast, brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal were 4,004, 4,344, 4,537, 4,290, 4,544, and 4,362 kcal/kg DM (SEM=57), respectively, and the ME values were 3,879, 3,952, 4,255, 3,771, 4,224, and 4,007 kcal/kg DM (SEM=76), respectively. The ME in S-yeast and fish meal were greater (Pcorn and brewers' yeast, whereas the ME in C-yeast and soybean meal were not different from those of any of the other ingredients. The STTD of P in the 5 ingredients was determined using 42 barrows (28.3±7.21 kg BW) that were placed in metabolism cages. Five diets were formulated to contain each test ingredient as the sole source of P, and a P-free diet was used to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker method after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in brewers' yeast (85.2%) was greater (Pcorn, fish meal, and soybean meal, and the STTD of P in the 2 yeast products is not different from the STTD of P in fish meal.

  12. Enzyme effects on extruded diets for dogs with soybean meal as a substitute for poultry by-product meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortola, L; Souza, N G; Zaine, L; Gomes, M O S; Matheus, L F O; Vasconcellos, R S; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    The effects of exogenous enzymes supplementation on kibble diets for dogs formulated with soybean meal (SBM) as a substitute for poultry by-product meal (PM) was investigated on nutrient digestibility, fermentation products formation, post-prandial urea response and selected faecal bacteria counts. Two kibble diets with similar compositions were used in two trials: PM-based diet (28.9% of PM; soybean hulls as a fibre source) and SBM-based diet (29.9% of SBM). In experiment 1, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0, without enzyme addition; SBM-1, covered after extrusion with 7500 U protease/kg and 45 U cellulase/kg; and SBM-2, covered with 15,000 U protease/kg and 90 U cellulase/kg. In experiment 2, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0; SBM-1, covered with 140 U protease/kg; 8 U cellulase/kg, 800 U pectinase/kg, 60 U phytase/kg, 40 U betaglucanase/kg and 20 U xylanase/kg; and SMB-2, covered with 700 U protease/kg, 40 U cellulase/kg, 4000 U pectinase/kg, 300 U phytase/kg, 200 U betaglucanase/kg and 100 U xylanase/kg. Each experiment followed a block design with six dogs per diet. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by orthogonal and polynomial contrasts (p 0.05). SBM consumption resulted in increased faecal moisture and production (p product formation. Enzymes can increase the gut fermentation activity and improve the SBM proteic value. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  14. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly (p < 0.05) among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences (p < 0.05) being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter. PMID:28239492

  15. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Abd El-Hack, M E; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 7 meat and bone meal (MBM) and 3 soybean meal (SBM) samples in broilers (Ross 708) and laying hens (Hy-line W36). All 10 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21-d-old broiler chickens and 30- or 50-wk-old laying hens. Standardization was accomplished by correcting for basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses using a nitrogen-free diet. Broilers were reared in cages from d 0 to 16 on a standard broiler starter diet adequate in all nutrients and energy; thereafter, they were allotted to treatments using a randomized complete design with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds each. For the laying hens, 6 replicate cages of 6 birds each (542 cm(2)/bird) were used. Each treatment diet, which was fed for 5 d, was semipurified, with MBM or SBM being the sole source of amino acids in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were not different between broilers and the 2 groups of laying hens. Meat and bone meal from different locations varied widely in digestibility. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD in 4 of the 7 MBM samples. In 2 of the 3 SBM samples, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD for most of the nonessential amino acids. Generally, hens had 6.4 and 7.7% units less Met and Lys digestibility of all MBM samples after standardization. Dry matter digestibility values of the SBM samples were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Likewise, broilers had 4.1 and 1.5% units more Met and Lys digestibility of all the SBM samples evaluated compared with those from laying hens. The results of these experiments suggest that differences exist in the digestive capabilities of laying hens and broilers, which indicates that species-specific nutrient digestibility values or adjustments may be needed.

  16. Lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 on soybean and castorbean meals: optimization, immobilization, and application for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Milena M; Barbosa, Aneli M; Bofinger, Matheus R; Dekker, Robert F H; Messias, Josana M; Guedes, Carmen L B; Zaminelli, Tiago; de Oliveira, Bruno H; de Lima, Valéria M G; Dall'antonia, Luiz H

    2013-08-01

    The effects of soybean and castorbean meals were evaluated separately, and in combinations at different ratios, as substrates for lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 in submerged fermentation using only distilled water. The addition of glycerol analytical grade (AG) and glycerol crude (CG) to soybean and castorbean meals separately and in combination, were also examined for lipase production. Glycerol-AG increased enzyme production, whereas glycerol-CG decreased it. A 2(4) factorial design was developed to determine the best concentrations of soybean meal, castorbean meal, glycerol-AG, and KH2PO4 to optimize lipase production by B. ribis EC-01. Soybean meal and glycerol-AG had a significant effect on lipase production, whereas castorbean meal did not. A second treatment (2(2) factorial design central composite) was developed, and optimal lipase production (4,820 U/g of dry solids content (ds)) was obtained when B. ribis EC-01 was grown on 0.5 % (w/v) soybean meal and 5.2 % (v/v) glycerol in distilled water, which was in agreement with the predicted value (4,892 U/g ds) calculated by the model. The unitary cost of lipase production determined under the optimized conditions developed ranged from US$0.42 to 0.44 based on nutrient costs. The fungal lipase was immobilized onto Celite and showed high thermal stability and was used for transesterification of soybean oil in methanol (1:3) resulting in 36 % of fatty acyl alkyl ester content. The apparent K m and V max were determined and were 1.86 mM and 14.29 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively.

  17. Chemical evidence and risks associated with soybean and rapeseed meal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, A; Rella, R; Parvoli, G; Ferrara, D; Doretti, L

    2003-08-01

    The storage and transport of cereals and foodstuffs present recurrent problems. They may be attacked by insects or, under certain conditions, they may undergo spontaneous fermentation. Insect attack is normally avoided by fumigants, while fermentation, which depends on parameters such as temperature and humidity, is more difficult to stop and can produce chemical compounds which irremediably modify the nutritional and compositional properties of foodstuff. This paper describes the main chemical compounds produced by fermentation and self-ignition of soybean and rapeseed meal. Reported cases occurred in a storage site and during transport by ship, respectively.

  18. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, extruded canola seed-pea, feather meal, and poultry by-product meal for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandegan, A; Kiarie, E; Payne, R L; Crow, G H; Guenter, W; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-12-01

    Ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA) in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal (DESBM), co-extruded canola seed-pea blend (ECSP, 50:50 wt/wt basis), poultry by-product meal (PBPM), and feather meal (FM) were determined in broiler chicks. For each ingredient, 5 samples each collected on different occasions were evaluated. Birds (n = 180 for each sample) were fed a commercial starter diet from d 1 to 15 of age followed by the test diets from d 15 to 21. Dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, ECSP, PBPM, and FM were included in the test diets at 95.3, 95.3, 38.4, and 28.4%, respectively, as the sole source of AA and balanced for minerals and vitamins. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was included in all diets as a digestibility marker. Each diet (5 per ingredient) was randomly assigned to 6 replicate cages, each with 6 birds. On d 21, birds were killed to collect ileal digesta for determining the apparent ileal AA digestibility on cage basis. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values were calculated using ileal endogenous AA losses previously determined in our laboratory. The apparent ileal digestibility of AA ranged from 78 to 91%, 68 to 83%, 51 to 81%, and 39 to 74% for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively. The respective ranges for SID values were 83 to 96%, 72 to 85%, 58 to 86%, and 42 to 78%. Among the indispensable AA, the lowest SID was observed for Thr in all test ingredients, whereas the highest SID was observed for Phe except in ECSP in which Arg had the highest SID. The SID of Lys (CV) were 91% (2.8%), 79% (2.0%), 78% (7.4%), and 60% (10%) for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively, whereas the SID of TSAA (CV) were 88% (4.5%), 77% (2.4%), 74% (9.0%), and 55% (18%), respectively. These SID AA data will help nutritionists to formulate broiler diets that more closely match the birds' requirements and minimize nutrient excess.

  19. Performance and carcass characteristics of young cattle fed with soybean meal treated with tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Rafael; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Barbosa, Marcília Medrado; da Silva Martins, Taiane; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Dos Santos Monnerat, João Paulo Ismério

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with soybean meal treated with tannin (SBMT) on the intake, digestibility, performance and characteristics of the carcasses of young cattle fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-two Nellore bulls with body weight of 244.5 ± 4.99 kg were used. Diets had the inclusion of 7.5% SBM, with a proportion of that SBM (0, 33, 66 or 100%) replaced for SBMT; and other treatment (SBMT + urea) just with 2.5% of SBM which was treated with tannins. Seven animals were randomly selected and slaughtered, and the remaining animals were distributed on treatments and remained for 112 days. After, all animals were slaughtered. There was a linear decline in dry matter intake (P = 0.026) when SBM was replaced with SBMT. No decrease in carcass weight (P > 0.05) was observed. The efficiency of carcass weight gain showed a quadratic function effect (P = 0.049). There were changes in carcass gain composition when SBMT was added (P < 0.05), with an increase in muscle and reduction in fat deposition. The use of SBMT in place of SBM causes changes in body gain composition in animals and reduces DM intake by the animals, achieving a better feed conversion efficiency.

  20. Evaluation of various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs to replace soybean meal in diets for pond-raised channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in earthen ponds to evaluate the use of combinations of two or three alternative protein sources to replace soybean meal in diets for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Six 28% protein diets containing various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs including cottonse...

  1. Growth response and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 juveniles fed graded levels of boiled Senna obtusifolia l. seed meal as a replacement for soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullateef Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Materials and methods: Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated. The diest were- control diet (with 0% inclusion level boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal i.e., 100% soybean meal, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% inclusion level (total replacement of soya bean meal. The feeds were fed to C. gariepinus juveniles at 5% of their body weight for 84 days in an indoor partial flow through system. Weight and standard length of C. gariepinus juveniles were taken every fortnight and water quality parameters were monitored weekly. Results: Experimental fish fed diets with 0 and 25% inclusion level of boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal gave the best results in terms of Mean Weight Gain (MWG (20.22 and 19.79 g, respectively, Specific Growth Rate (1.82 and 1.83 respectively, Protein Efficiency Ratio (2.75 and 2.00, respectively and the Lowest Feed Conversion Ratio (1.29 and 1.39 respectively. The lowest growth and feed utilization were observed in fish fed 100% inclusion level. The weight gain of fish decreased with increase in replacement level above 25%. There was no significant difference between control diet 0 and 25% inclusion level (P and #8805;0.05. Conclusion: Boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal is a nutritive source of plant protein and a good replacement for soybean meal at 25% inclusion level of boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal in formulating catfish feed for C. gariepinus juveniles without any deleterious effect. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 345-352

  2. Effect of particle size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation in incubated maize and soybean meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    by 88% in maize, 84% in maize–SBM and 75% in SBM after 2 h of incubation (Pmodel was fitted to the feeds with microbial phytase to analyse the effect......The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of screen size (1, 2 and 3 mm) and microbial phytase (0 and 1000 FTU/kg as-fed) on phytate degradation in maize (100% maize), soybean meal (100% SBM) and maize–SBM (75% maize and 25% SBM) incubated in water for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h at 38°C...... reduced APS by 48% in maize, 30% in SBM and 26% in maize–SBM. No interaction between screen size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation was observed, but the interaction between microbial phytase and incubation time was significant (P

  3. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  4. Estimation of growth and financial analysis through the application of Ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal as supplements to soybean and fish meal in the diet of juvenile monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zamal, Hossain; Barua, Prabal; Uddin, Belal

    2009-01-01

    Among plant protein ingredients,ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leafmeal (ILLM) is considered the most nutritive plant protein source after soybean meal in aquatic feeds. That was proven in a 21-day experiment conducted to assess the response of juvenile Monosex Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with four iso-nitrogenous formulated diets: One control diet was formulated based on fishmeal, one on soybean meal and one on rice bran, ipil ipil leafmeal was also included in experimental d...

  5. Guangzhou Chemical Industry%Study on Extraction Conditions of Isolated Soybean Protein in Microbial Fermentation Soybean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙楠; 杜娜; 王霆

    2016-01-01

    采用碱提酸沉法对微生物发酵法制备的豆粕中提取大豆分离蛋白,并用凯氏定氮法测算大豆分离蛋白含量。研究碱提温度、液固比和碱提pH值及酸沉温度、时间和pH值对大豆分离蛋白提取率的影响。结果表明碱提的最佳工艺条件为:温度50℃、时间50 min、液固比10:1、 pH=9.0。酸沉的工艺参数为:温度45℃、时间40 min、 pH=4.5。所得大豆分离蛋白最高提取率为79.29%。%Alkaline extractionandacid precipitation were used to extract isolated protein from soybean meal produced by microbial fermentation. The content of isolated protein was calculated by kjeldahl method. Meanwhile, the extraction conditions of the isolated protein were studied. The optimum conditions of alkaline extractions were as follow: the temperature of extraction was 50℃, extracting time was 50 min, the ratio of liquidand solid was 10:1and pH was 9. 0. The optimum conditions of acid depositions were as follows:the temperature was 45 ℃,acid deposition time was 40 minand pH was 4. 5. The highest extraction yield of isolated protein was 79. 29%.

  6. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  7. Soybean meal substitution with a yeast-derived microbial protein source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbia, J A; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Gehman, A M; Tricarico, J M

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects substituting soybean meal with a yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on rumen and blood metabolites, dry matter intake, and milk production of high-producing dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (12 multiparous and 4 primiparous), 93 ± 37 DIM (mean ± SD) at the beginning of the experiment, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four 28-d periods. Cows were blocked by parity and production, with 1 square consisting of 4 animals fitted with rumen cannulas. Basal diets, formulated for 16.1% crude protein and 1.56 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, contained 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix. During each period, cows were fed 1 of 4 treatment diets corresponding to YMP (DEMP; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) concentrations of 0, 1.14, 2.28, and 3.41% DM. Soybean meal (44% CP) was replaced by YMP to attain isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Dietary treatments had no effect on pH and on most ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations, with the exception of isovalerate, which decreased linearly with the addition of YMP. Rumen ammonia concentration decreased linearly, whereas free amino acids, total amino acid nitrogen, and soluble proteins weighing more than 10 kDa showed a cubic response on rumen N fractionation. A quadratic response was observed in oligopeptides that weighed between 3 and 10 kDa and peptides under 3kDa when expressed as percentages of total amino acids and total nitrogen. Although nonesterified fatty acid concentration in blood did not differ between treatments, β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma glucose increased linearly as YMP increased. Dry matter intake showed a cubic effect, where cows fed 1.14, and 3.41% YMP had the highest intake. Milk production was not affected by YMP, whereas a trend was observed for a quadratic increase for 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid concentrations in milk increased quadratically

  8. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, palm kernel meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, B L; Sulabo, R C; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-06-01

    Sixty-six barrows (initial BW: 27.4 ± 2.8 kg) were used to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in copra meal (CM), palm kernel expellers from Indonesia (PKE-IN), palm kernel expellers from Costa Rica (PKE-CR), palm kernel meal from Costa Rica (PKM), and soybean meal (SBM) without or with exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism cages and allotted to 11 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet in a generalized randomized block design. Five diets were formulated by mixing cornstarch and sugar with CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, or SBM. Five additional diets, which were identical to the initial 5 diets but supplemented with 800 units of phytase, were also formulated. A P-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of P by the pigs. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker approach after a 5-d adaptation period. Analyzed total P in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM was 0.52, 0.51, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.67%, respectively. Phytate P was 0.22, 0.35, 0.38, 0.32, and 0.44% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively. Addition of phytase increased (P < 0.05) the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P from 60.6 to 80.8, 27.3 to 56.5, 32.6 to 59.9, 48.9 to 64.1, and 41.1 to 72.2% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively. The ATTD of P in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in any of the other ingredients. The ATTD of P in SBM and PKM was greater (P < 0.05) than in PKE-IN, with PKE-CR being intermediate. The STTD of P increased (P < 0.05) from 70.6 to 90.3, 37.6 to 66.4, 43.2 to 69.9, 57.9 to 73.5, and 49.6 to 81.1% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively, when microbial phytase was added to the diets. When expressed as a percentage of total P, phytate P concentration in the ingredient negatively affected (P < 0.05) the ATTD of P (107.09 - 1.0564 × % phytate P; R(2) = 87.1) and the STTD of P (116.3 - 1.0487 × % phytate P; R(2) = 89.4). In conclusion, microbial phytase increased P

  9. Production of Hypoallergenic Antibacterial Peptides from Defatted Soybean Meal in Membrane Bioreactor: A Bioprocess Engineering Study with Comprehensive Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arij it Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoallergenic antibacterial low-molecular-mass peptides were produced from defatted soybean meal in a membrane bioreactor. In the fi rst step, soybean meal proteins were digested with trypsin in the bioreactor, operated in batch mode. For the tryptic digestion of soybean meal protein, optimum initial soybean meal concentration of 75 g/L, temperature of 40 °C and pH=9.0 were determined. Aft er enzymatic digestion, low-molecular-mass peptides were purifi ed with cross-fl ow fl at sheet membrane (pore size 100 μm and then with tubular ceramic ultrafi ltration membrane (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa. Eff ects of transmembrane pressure and the use of a static turbulence promoter to reduce the concentration polarization near the ultrafi ltration membrane surface were examined and their positive eff ects were proven. For the fi ltration with ultrafi ltration membrane, transmembrane pressure of 3•105 Pa with 3-stage discontinuous diafi ltration was found optimal. The molecular mass distribution of purifi ed peptides using ultrafi ltration membrane was determined by a liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-fl ight mass spectrometry setup. More than 96 % of the peptides (calculated as relative frequency from the ultrafi ltration membrane permeate had the molecular mass M≤1.7 kDa and the highest molecular mass was found to be 3.1 kDa. The decrease of allergenic property due to the tryptic digestion and membrane fi ltration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and it was found to exceed 99.9 %. It was also found that the peptides purifi ed in the ultrafi ltration membrane promoted the growth of Pediococcus acidilactici HA6111-2 and they possessed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus.

  10. Detection of Melamine in Soybean Meal Using Near-Infrared Microscopy Imaging with Pure Component Spectra as the Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengling Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean meal was adulterated with melamine with the purpose of boosting the protein content for unlawful interests. In recent years, the near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy technique has been widely used for guaranteeing food and feed security for its fast, nondestructive, and pollution-free characteristics. However, there are problems with using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy for detecting samples with low contaminant concentration because of instrument noise and sampling issues. In addition, methods based on NIR are indirect and depend on calibration models. NIR microscopy imaging offers the opportunity to investigate the chemical species present in food and feed at the microscale level (the minimum spot size is a few micrometers, thus avoiding the problem of the spectral features of contaminants being diluted by scanning. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using NIR microscopy imaging to identify melamine particles in soybean meal using only the pure component spectrum. The results presented indicate that using the classical least squares (CLS algorithm with the nonnegative least squares (NNLS algorithm, without needing first to develop a calibration model, could identify soybean meal that is both uncontaminated and contaminated with melamine particles at as low a level as 50 mg kg−1.

  11. Estudo das isotermas de equilíbrio do farelo de soja Study of the equilibrium isotherms of soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianini R. Luz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar o comportamento das isotermas de equilíbrio do farelo de soja. Para tanto, foram realizados experimentos utilizando-se o método estático com soluções salinas saturadas a 50, 60 e 70ºC. Os dados obtidos foram ajustados às equações existentes na literatura, utilizando-se o software Statistica 6.0®. Os resultados indicam que a temperatura não exerce influência significativa sobre os valores da umidade de equilíbrio do farelo de soja na faixa de condições experimentais exploradas e que os modelos de HALSEY e de LUIKOV podem ser utilizados para prever a umidade de equilíbrio do farelo soja.This work has as aim to study the behavior of the isotherms of the soybean meal. Therefore, experiments had been carried out by using the static method with saturated salt solution at 50, 60 and 70ºC. The data had been adjusted to the equations of the literature, using Statistica software 6.0®. The results indicated that the temperature does not affect significantly the moisture equilibrium values of the soybean meal in the range of temperatures studied and that the LUIKOV and the HALSEY models can be used to foresee the moisture equilibrium of the soybean meal.

  12. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P vannamei.

  13. 脱脂豆粕预处理对大豆球蛋白功能性质的影响%Effect of pretreatment of defatted soybean meal on functional property of soybean glycinin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 梁盈; 林亲录; 邓克权; 华欲飞

    2015-01-01

    以新鲜低温脱脂豆粕、两种预处理豆粕(干热处理脱脂豆粕和溶剂浸提脱脂豆粕)为原料制备大豆球蛋白,研究脱脂豆粕预处理方法对大豆球蛋白功能性质的影响。结果表明,干热处理可降低脱脂豆粕中脂肪氧合酶酶活,以干热处理脱脂豆粕为原料制备的大豆球蛋白的溶解性、持水性、持油性、乳化性、乳化稳定性、起泡性、泡沫稳定性以及凝胶性质变差;溶剂浸提可显著降低脱脂豆粕中残余脂质含量和脂肪氧合酶酶活,以溶剂浸提脱脂豆粕为原料制备的大豆球蛋白的溶解性、持水性、持油性、乳化性、乳化稳定性、起泡性、泡沫稳定性以及凝胶性质提高。%Fresh low-temperature defatted soybean meal,defatted soybean meal pretreated with dry heat-ing and defatted soybean meal pretreated with solvent extraction were used as raw materials to prepare soybean glycinin,and the effect of pretreatment method of defatted soybean meal on functional properties of soybean glycinin was investigated. The results showed that dry heating could reduce the activity of li-poxygenase in defatted soybean meal, and the solubility, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying property,emulsion stability,foamability,foam stability and gel properties of the soybean glyci-nin prepared from the defatted soybean meal pretreated with dry heating decreased;solvent extraction could decline the content of residual lipid and activity of lipoxygenase in defatted soybean meal dramatic-ally,and the solubility,water holding capacity,oil holding capacity,emulsifying property,emulsion stabili-ty,foamability,foam stability and gel properties of soybean glycinin prepared from the defatted soybean meal pretreated with solvent extraction improved.

  14. Prebiotic Supplementation Has Only Minimal Effects on Growth Efficiency, Intestinal Health and Disease Resistance of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi Fed 30% Soybean Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Sealey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi were fed a practical type formulation with 0 or 30% dietary soybean meal with or without the commercial prebiotic (Grobiotic-A prior to experimental exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (initial weight 7.8 g/fish ± standard deviation of 0.5 g were stocked at 30 fish/tank in 75 L tanks with six replicate tanks per diet and fed their respective diets for 20 weeks. Final weights of Westslope cutthroat trout were affected by neither dietary soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.9582 nor prebiotic inclusion (P=0.9348 and no interaction was observed (P=0.1242. Feed conversion ratios were similarly not affected by soybean meal level (P=0.4895, prebiotic inclusion (P=0.3258 or their interaction (P=0.1478. Histological examination of the distal intestine of Westslope cutthroat trout demonstrated increases in inflammation due to both increased soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.0038 and prebiotic inclusion (P=0.0327 without significant interaction (P=0.3370. Feeding dietary soybean meal level at 30% increased mortality of F.psychrophilum cohabitation challenged Westslope cutthroat trout (P=0.0345 while prebiotic inclusion tended to decrease mortality (P=0.0671. These results indicate that subclinical alterations in intestinal inflammation levels due to high dietary inclusion levels of soybean meal could predispose Westslope cutthroat trout to F.psychrophilum infection.

  15. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor, L.) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Piccolo, G; Gasco, L; Marono, S; Loponte, R; Vassalotti, G; Mastellone, V; Lombardi, P; Attia, Y A; Nizza, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) meal in broiler diets. A total of 80 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were divided into two groups fed on two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for protein source (SBM vs. TML). Up to 62 d of age, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and European efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated. At 62 d, blood samples were collected from 16 birds/group for evaluation of blood profiles. Feed intake was not different between groups considering the entire period of the trial. The FCR was more favourable in the TML than SBM group from 46 d of age and in the entire period of the trial (4.13 vs. 3.62). The PER was higher in the SBM than in the TML group (1.92 vs. 1.37) while the EEF was higher in broilers fed on the TML diet (132.6 vs. 156.2). Albumin-to-globulin ratio was higher in broilers fed on SBM than in the other group (0.44 vs. 0.30). aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in TML than SBM (195.1 vs. 178.6 U/l and 82.07 vs. 46.71 U/l, respectively). Uric acid was higher in broilers fed on SBM than TML (5.40 vs. 4.16 mg/dl). TML did not affect feed intake and growth rate of broilers from 30 to 62 d of age when compared to an isoproteic and isoenergetic SBM diet, but FCR of the TML group was more favourable than that of the SBM group. The lowest albumin-to-globulin ratio in broilers fed on TML suggests a higher immune response, probably due to the prebiotic effects of chitin.

  16. Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal as culture medium for the control of Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, André L A; Soccol, Carlos R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Nogueira, Miodeli

    2009-03-01

    Bioinsecticides are shown to be useful in control programs to prevent several diseases, based on their specificity and efficiency against insect vectors. In the current study a bioinsecticide based on Bacillus sphaericus was produced using a white soybean culture medium and applied to larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the susceptible species, and Aedes aegypti, the refractory species used as the negative control. Efficacy was compared with that of the product fermented with the Luria Bertani (LB) reference medium. The experiments showed that C. quinquefasciatus was highly susceptible to the product prepared with white soybean meal, reaching 100% larval mortality even at 10mg/L, while A. aegypti failed to reach 70% mortality at a concentration of 1g/L. By comparison with the reference medium, the proposed culture medium showed high larvicidal power, reaching a LD90 of 2.26 mg/L, while 4.37 mg/L was needed for the LB medium to achieve the same mortality rate. Cost comparison between the formulations favored the use of the bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal. After factoring in the LD90 value, the cost ratio favored the new raw material by nearly 1:220.

  17. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and productive performance of japanese quail in response to the replacement of soybean meal with canola meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Saki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluation the different levels canola meal (CM replacement by soybean meal (SBM in Japanese quails diets on productive performance, egg quality trails and blood parameters including blood protein, minerals concentration, liver enzymes and thyroid hormones. In this study, 160 of Japanese quails in second laying phase from 46 to 56 weeks of age were divided in four treatments with four replicates and 10 quail in each per replicate, on a completely randomized design (CRD.Treatments consisted:T1 control (without CM, T2, T3 and T4 replacing 30, 60 and 90% of SBM with CM respectively. The results were shown no significant variation in body weight between treatments in initial and end of the experiment (p > 0.05. There was significant decrease in feed intake by increasing level of CM (p 0.05. However, the egg shell thickness showed significantly decreased with increasing levels of canola meal in the diet  (p < 0.05. According to this study results, 30% replacement of SBM by CM in the diet (contained 10% CM has no adverse effect on quail’s performance.

  18. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310 on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Haghbayan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310 as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p < 0.05. Results suggested use of 50% HP310 in trout diet had a positive effect on growth performance (p < 0.05. All fish feed diets with HP310 had lower hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cells compared to the control group, but the differences between the control and the other treatments up to 75% HP310 replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05. However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p < 0.05. The fish fed with a diet totally replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05.

  19. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shola Gabriel Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer’s yeast slurry meal (DBYM based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58±0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer’s yeast and a control without dried brewer’s yeast (0% substitution were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly (p<0.05 among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences (p<0.05 being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.

  20. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  1. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddeseh Tousi Mojarrad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days. The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM, T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121ºC, 20 min, T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121ºC, 30 min, T4 (roasted SBM: 120ºC, 20 min and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46ºC, 540 watt, 7 min. Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW, body weight grain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion rate (FCR. Higher BW (p<0.05 and BWG (p<0.05 and lower FCR (p<0.05 were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers.

  2. Relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xiang; MA Xin-yan; LU Lin; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc (Zn) sulfate relative to Zn sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were randomly assigned by body weight of birds to one of seven treatments involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn kg–1) and two Zn sources (tribasic Zn sulfate and Zn sulfate) plus a control with no added Zn for an experimental phase of 14 d. Plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas metalothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed at 6 or 14 d of age post-hatching. The results showed that plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA increased linearly (P<0.002) as dietary Zn concentration increased at 6 or 14 d of age. The R2 for a linear model was greater on d 6 than on d 14 for the above 4 responsive criteria, and among these indices, the iftting of the tibia ash Zn concentration was the best (R2=0.99). Therefore, based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regressions of the above 4 indices of the birds at 6 d of age on daily intake of dietary Zn, the bioavailabilities of tribasic Zn sulfate relative to Zn sulfate (100%) were 95.6% (P=0.18), 83.5% (P=0.01), 87.9% (P=0.53), and 75.9% (P=0.38) for the tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, plasma Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA, respectively. The results indicated that generaly, Zn from tribasic Zn sulfate was as available as Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  3. Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-huan; Chen, Yi-sheng; Lee, Tzu-tai; Chang, Yu-chung; Yu, Bi

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215(T), was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced d-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215(T) had 98.74-99.60 % sequence similarity to the type strains of three species of the genus Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus farciminis BCRC 14043(T), Lactobacillus futsaii BCRC 80278(T) and Lactobacillus crustorum JCM 15951(T)). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215(T) was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that strain S215(T) had DNA related to the three type strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus (33-66 % relatedness). The DNA G+C content of strain S215(T) was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the d-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S215(T) ( = NBRC 109509(T) = BCRC 80582(T)).

  4. Substitution of Soybean Meal and Cornmeal to Moisture, pH, Bacterial Colony Forming and Shelf Life of Rejected Duck Meatballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Deni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of substitution of soybean meal with cornmeal to moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. This research material using duck meat Coast (Indian Runner salvage as much as 4000 grams were obtained from the Livestock Anduring Padang and soybean meal with Mungbean trademarks and cornmeal with cornstarch trademarks respectively of 600 grams were obtained at Raya Padang market. The research method used was experimental method with the random design, which consists of 5 treatments and 4 groups as replication. The treatment given in this study is the substitution of soybean meal and maize by A (100%: 0%, B (75%: 25%, C (50%: 50%, D (25%: 75% and E (0%: 100%. Variables measured were moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. The results of this study indicate that substitution of soybean meal and cornmeal significant effect on moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and shelf life. Substitution of soybean meal and cornmeal by 100%: 0% is the best to produce the rejected duck meatballs with 69.20% moisture, pH 6.44, bacterial colony forming 7.85 x 105 CFU / g, and the shelf life of 22.12 hours.

  5. Perkiraan Pasokan Nitrogen Mikrob pada Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (ESTIMATION OF MICROBIAL NITROGEN SUPPLY IN THIN-TAILED SHEEP FED WITH TANNIN PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnaeni .

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of soybean meal protection mangrove leaf tannin onpurine derivative (PD excretion, estimated microbial nitrogen (MN supply, and estimated efficiency MNsuplay based on DOMR in thin-tailed sheep. A total of 16 thin-tailed sheep aged eight months withaverage body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg, and were randomly fed with complete feed with tannin-protectedsoybean meal in different levels. The research was conducted according to completely randomized designwith four treatments and four replications. T0 (soybean meal without tannin, T1 (protected soybean meal0.5% tannin, T2 (protected soybean meal 1% tannin, and T3 (protected soybean meal 1.5% tannin.Research finding indicated that organic matter consumption (OMC, organic matter digestibility (OMD,and digestible organic matter in rumen (DOMR were not affected (P> 0.05 by the treatment, however thetreatment had significant effects (P<0.05 against PD, estimated MN supply, and estimatedMN supply based on DOMR. Purine derivative, estimated MN supply, and estimated MN supply basedDOMR markedly decreased in the treatment of soybean meal protection 1.5% tannins. It was concludedthat soybean meal protection with mangrove leaf tannins was not significant against OMC, OMD andDOMR thin-tailed sheep, but protected soybean meal with tannins 1.5% affected on decreasing purinederivative excretion, estimated MN supply and estimated MN supply based on DOMR.

  6. Requirement of Digestible Sulfur Amino Acids in Laying Hens Fed Sorghum- and Soybean Meal-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Gomez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were done to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of dietary digestible methionine (Met and Met:cysteine (Met:Cys ratio on the productivity of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets. In Exp. 1, 160 hens from 68 to 75 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary levels of digestible Met (0.20 0.24, 0.28 and 0.32%. The digestible total sulfur amino acids:Lysine (TSAA:Lys ratios were: 62, 68, 76 and 84%. In Exp. 2, 192 hens from 76-83 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios (160, 116.7, 85.7 and 62.5%. The digestible TSAA:Lys ratio was kept constant across diets (80%. Results were subjected to ANOVA and linear regression analyses. In Exp. 1, optimal egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency responses were observed at 0.30 and 0.50% of dietary digestible Met and TSAA, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. Live performance was maximized with digestible Met and TSAA in takes of 288 and 478 mg/hen/d, respectively. In Exp. 2, optimal egg production and feed efficiency responses were observed at 151 and 150% of dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. The digestible Met, Cys and TSAA intake to maximize egg production and feed efficiency were 313, 207 and 510 mg/hen/d, respectively. The requirements for sulfur AA in Hy-Line W-36 hens from 68 to 83 weeks of age fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets fell inside the range of the requirements previously estimated in hens fed corn-soybean meal based diets.

  7. Treatment of acidic dyes solutions by adsorption in soybean meal - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i1.10434

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Marcele Chiarello

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the potential use of a natural sorbent based on soybean meal from oil extraction in the treatment of solutions containing the acid dyes: yellow Erionyl RXL, navy blue Erionyl R and red Erionyl A-3B, used to dye polyamide fibers. To that end, adsorption studies were performed under different conditions of temperature, adsorbent concentrations, pH values, and color mixes (two- and three-color on dye solutions produced in laboratory. Soybean meal showed great ability to remove color, especially in solutions with pH 4 and 6 at 60°C and containing 10 g L-1 of adsorbent. Considering that values of adsorption efficiency ranged between 74 and 99%, depending on the dye and treatment conditions, soybean meal proved to be an alternative material for the adsorption of acidic dyes. 

  8. Predicting methionine and lysine contents in soybean meal and fish meal using a group method of data handling-type neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghitalab, M.; Nikkhah, N.; Darmani-Kuhi, H.; López, S.; France, J.

    2015-07-01

    Artificial neural network models offer an alternative to linear regression analysis for predicting the amino acid content of feeds from their chemical composition. A group method of data handling-type neural network (GMDH-type NN), with an evolutionary method of genetic algorithm, was used to predict methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) contents of soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) from their proximate analyses (i.e. crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture). A data set with 119 data lines for Met and 116 lines for Lys was used to develop GMDH-type NN models with two hidden layers. The data lines were divided into two groups to produce training and validation sets. The data sets were imported into the GEvoM software for training the networks. The predictive capability of the constructed models was evaluated by their abilities to estimate the validation data sets accurately. A quantitative examination of goodness of fit for the predictive models was made using a number of precision, concordance and bias statistics. The statistical performance of the models developed revealed close agreement between observed and predicted Met and Lys contents for SBM and FM. The results of this study clearly illustrate the validity of GMDH-type NN models to estimate accurately the amino acid content of poultry feed ingredients from their chemical composition . (Author)

  9. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  10. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  11. Dietary limitation of isoleucine and valine in diets based on maize, soybean meal, and meat and bone meal for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, A; Dozier, W A; Loar, R E; Kidd, M T; Tillman, P B

    2010-08-01

    1. The dietary limitation of isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) was evaluated in broilers. Common diets were given to all broilers from 0 to 28 d of age. Experimental diets were provided from 28 to 42 d of age. 2. The experimental test diet was based primarily on maize, soybean meal, and meat and bone meal, and formulated to satisfy all nutrient recommendations with the exception of Ile and Val. 3. Diets were supplemented with L-Ile and L-Val at either 0·5 or 1·0 g kg⁻¹ of diet, alone or in combination. A diet composed only of commercially available amino acids and formulated to satisfy all nutrient requirements served as a positive control. 4. Body weight gain was depressed by the test diet, but recovered to a weight similar to birds fed on the positive control when Val was added to the test diet either alone or in combination with Ile. Feed efficiency improved when Val and Ile were simultaneously supplemented. 5. Abdominal fat yield was reduced with the combined supplementation of Val and Ile. Breast meat yield appeared to be more sensitive to Ile supplementation than to Val. 6. The results suggest that live performance may be more sensitive to Val, while breast meat yield was maximised with Ile supplementation. However, their combination is required for optimised growth and meat yield.

  12. Growth and body composition of nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as replacements for fish meal, with and without supplemental lysine and methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantities of fishmeal (FM) have remained level for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in all animal production as a high quality protein source. Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely-used plant-protein ingredient for replacing various proportio...

  13. Raising experiment of Litopenaeus vannamei by fermented soybean meal and fermented mixed meal to substitute partial fish meal%发酵豆粕与发酵杂粕代替部分鱼粉饲养凡纳滨对虾的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵生; 徐金龙

    2012-01-01

    利用发酵豆粕和发酵杂粕来代替鱼粉进行凡纳滨对虾的养殖试验.在发酵豆粕等氮替代10%鱼粉的对虾养殖试验中,发酵豆粕组与高鱼粉含量的对照组相比,凡纳滨对虾的生长非常接近,无显著性差异.在养殖结束时,凡纳滨对虾体质量与体长的比值要高于对照组.在发酵杂粕等氮替代10%鱼粉的对虾养殖试验中,发酵杂柏组与对照组及豆粕组相比,凡纳滨对虾的生长均无显著性差异.实验结果表明,发酵豆粕和发酵杂粕能部分替代鱼粉用于凡纳滨对虾的养殖.%The fermented soybean meal and fermented mixed meal were used to replace fish meal in practical diets for raising experiment of Litopenaeus vannamei. In the experiment of raising Litopenaeus vannamei which used fermented soybean meal to replace 10% equal-nitrogen fish meal, the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei was no significant difference between fermented soybean meal group and control group which there was high fish meal content. The ratio of body weight and body length of fermented soy-bean meal group was higher than control group in the end of breeding. In the experiment of raising Litope-naeus vannamei which used fermented mixed meal to replace 10% equal-nitrogen fish meal, the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei was no significant difference among fermented mixed meal group, ferment soybean meal group and control group. The experiment results showed that the fermented soybean meal and the fermented mixed meal can be used to replace partial fish meal in the breeding of prawns.

  14. Effects of low-phytic acid corn, low-phytic acid soybean meal, and phytase on nutrient digestibility and excretion in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B E; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T

    2009-04-01

    Forty-eight grower pigs were used to evaluate the effects of feeding low phytic acid (LPA) corn, LPA soybean meal, normal corn (NC), normal soybean meal (NSBM), and phytase on nutrient digestibility and excretion. Barrows were blocked by BW (initial BW=45.3+/-1.6 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (6 pigs/treatment). Pigs were fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) at 3 times the ME requirement for maintenance. Phytase was added to the diet at 510 phytase units/kg of feed (where 1 phytase unit is the quantity of enzyme that liberates 1 mumol of inorganic P/min from 0.005 mol/L of sodium phytate at pH 5.5 and 37 degrees C), at the expense of corn starch, and all diets were formulated to provide 0.39% total P, 0.50% Ca, and 1.0% lysine with no supplemental inorganic P. Pigs were adapted to metabolism crates and dietary treatments for 7 d, followed by a 3-d total collection of urine and feces. Total fecal DM excreted, percentage of DM of feces, and percentage of DM digested were not different (P>0.53) among treatments. Fecal P excretion was reduced for pigs fed LPA corn vs. NC (2.85 vs. 3.24+/-0.119 g/d; P=0.024), for pigs fed LPA soybean meal vs. NSBM (2.79 vs. 3.30+/-0.119 g/d; P=0.007), for pigs fed phytase vs. nonphytase diets (2.80 vs. 3.29+/-0.119 g/d; P=0.009), and for pigs fed LPA corn, LPA soybean meal, and phytase vs. NC and NSBM without phytase (2.16 vs. 3.70+/-0.237 g/d; Psoybean meal, and phytase diet vs. the NC and soybean meal diet (60.1 vs. 34.1+/-4.5%; Psoybean meal vs. NSBM (47.2 vs. 41.1+/-2.27%; P=0.075). Corn type and soybean meal type had no effect (P>0.11) on water-soluble P excretion. However, pigs fed diets containing phytase tended to excrete less total water-soluble P than those without phytase inclusion (1.99 vs. 2.27+/-0.099 g/d; Psoybean meal, and phytase was additive, significantly improving P digestibility and dramatically decreasing P excretion to reduce the potential impacts of P

  15. The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Y; Yi, J Q; Piao, X S; Li, P F; Zeng, Z K; Wang, D; Liu, L; Wang, G Q; Han, X

    2013-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME) value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC) and fermented soybean meal (FSBM), and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW) of 14.2±1.4 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE) and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of 18.2±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of 5.6±0.9 kg) weaned at 21±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments' diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05). The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05). For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05). Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05) and better fecal score (p<0.05) than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC and

  16. Effect of fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 on the phytic acid, raffinose, and stachyose contents of soybean meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the impact of submerged fermentation procedures using Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker’s yeast strain PJ69-4a on degradation of phytic acid and the raffinosaccharides, raffinose, and stachyose, in soybean meal. The goal of the research was to identify a n...

  17. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  18. Nutritive values of corn, soybean meal, canola meal, and peas for broiler chickens as affected by a multicarbohydrase preparation of cell wall degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X; Slominski, B A

    2005-08-01

    The effect of a new multicarbohydrase supplement of cell wall degrading activities on the nutritive value of corn, soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), and peas for broiler chickens was investigated. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous corn (69% corn), SBM (30% SBM, 59% corn), CM (30% CM, 54% corn), and pea (30% peas, 52% corn) diets, without or with enzyme supplementation, were formulated to meet NRC specifications for broiler chickens (except for AME and CP, which were at 95 and 92% of NRC requirements, respectively). The enzyme supplement supplied 1,000 U of xylanase, 400 U of glucanase, 1,000 U of pectinase, 120 U of cellulase, 280 U of mannanase, and 180 U of galactanase per kilogram of diet. Each diet was fed in a mash form to 9 replicate pens of 5 broilers from 5 to 18 d. When compared with the control treatment, enzyme addition to the corn diet improved (P enzyme-supplemented corn diet. An improvement (P enzyme supplementation was observed for the SBM diet. However, nutrient digestibilities and AMEn of CM and pea diets were not affected (P > 0.05) by enzyme addition even though the NSP digestibilities increased significantly (P enzyme-supplemented diets. It would appear from this study that the nutrient utilization of corn-SBM diet by broilers could be enhanced by using an appropriate multicarbohydrase enzyme supplement. The nutrient encapsulating effect of cell wall polysaccharides in SBM, CM, and peas may not be the only factor responsible for incomplete nutrient utilization. The improvement in feed efficiency and starch availability in birds fed corn diet likely resulted from the cell wall degrading activity of the enzyme supplement.

  19. Effect of two microbial phytase preparations on phosphorus utilisation in broilers fed maize-soybean meal based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VALAJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the effect of two microbial phytases, Aspergillus niger (FINASEâ FP-500, 291 PU (phytase units/g and Trichoderma reesei phytase (FINASEâ P, 5880 PU/g on phosphorus (P and calcium (Ca utilisation and ileal P and Ca digestibility in broiler chickens fed diets based on maize and soybean meal. A total of 96 Ross broiler chickens housed four birds to a cage were used. Four dietary treatments consisted of a positive control supplemented with dicalcium phosphate (17 g/kg, a negative control without inorganic P, basal diet without inorganic P supplemented with Aspergillus niger phytase (2.6 g/kg and basal diet without inorganic P supplemented with Trichoderma reesei phytase (0.13 g/kg. Both phytases provided 750 PU/kg feed. P retention per unit intake was lowest and P excretion highest in birds fed the positive control diet with inorganic P (P

  20. Production Status of Fermented Soybean Meal and Its Product Quality Assessment%发酵豆粕的生产现状及产品质量评定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊春光; 尹清强; 王鹏; 孙俊伟; 王卫民

    2012-01-01

    The fermented soybean meal is the most widely used high - quality plant protein raw material in animal husbandry. This paper introduced the production technological process of the major fermented soybean meal manufacturers in China, and the assessment indexes and identification methods for the quality of fermented soybean meal products.%介绍了国内主要发酵豆粕厂家的生产工艺流程、产品质量评定指标及鉴别方法.

  1. Valor nutricional da casca do grão de soja, farelo de soja, milho moído e farelo de trigo para bovinos Nutritional value of soybean hulls, soybean meal, ground corn and wheat meal for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Toledo da Silva

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada análise bromatológica da casca do grão de soja (CGS, farelo de soja, milho moído e farelo de trigo; ensaio de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da parede celular (DIVPC dos referidos alimentos; e degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO e energia bruta (EB, da CGS moída (CSM ou peletizada (CSP. Para a determinação da DIVMS e DIVPC, foram realizadas três coletas de líquido ruminal, com intervalos de uma semana. Para a determinação da degradabilidade in situ da MS, MO e EB, foram utilizadas três vacas munidas de fistula ruminal. Os tempos de incubação foram: 3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas, sendo que o tempo zero foi realizado no laboratório. Foram determinadas as percentagens de degradação e das degradabilidades efetivas para MS, MO e EB. A partir dos resultados encontrados, conclui-se que a CGS pode ser utilizada como um alimento alternativo nas rações de bovinos.The experiment was divided into three parts: composition analysis of soybean hulls (SH, soybean meal, ground corn and wheat meal; in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDDM and cellular wall (IVDCW of the feeds mentioned above; in situ degradation of dry matter (ISDDM, organic matter (ISDOM and gross energy (ISDGE, of milled (MSH or pelleted (PSH soybean hulls. Three collections of rumen liquid were undertaken for IVDDM and IVDCW at weekly intervals. Three rumen fistulated cows were utilized for the estimates of ISDDM, ISDOM and ISDGE. Incubation periods were 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hours, whereas zero time was achieved in the laboratory. Degradation percentages and the percentages of real degradability for dry matter, organic matter and gross energy were reported. Results showed that SH could be used as an alternative food in cattle rations.

  2. Immunoreactivity reduction of soybean meal by fermentation, effect on amino acid composition and antigenicity of commercial soy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y-S; Frias, J; Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Vidal-Valdeverde, C; de Mejia, E Gonzalez

    2008-05-15

    Food allergy has become a public health problem that continues to challenge both the consumer and the food industry. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reduction of immunoreactivity by natural and induced fermentation of soybean meal (SBM) with Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Saccharomyces cereviseae, and to assess the effect on amino acid concentration. Immunoreactivity of commercially available fermented soybean products and ingredients was also evaluated. ELISA and western blot were used to measure IgE immunoreactivity using plasma from soy sensitive individuals. Commercial soy products included tempeh, miso and yogurt. Fermented SBM showed reduced immunoreactivity to human plasma, particularly if proteins were <20kDa. S. cereviseae and naturally fermented SBM showed the highest reduction in IgE immunoreactivity, up to 89% and 88%, respectively, against human pooled plasma. When SBM was subjected to fermentation with different microorganisms, most of the total amino acids increased significantly (p<0.05) and only few of them suffered a decrease depending on the type of fermentation. All commercial soy containing products tested showed very low immunoreactivity. Thus, fermentation can decrease soy immunoreactivity and can be optimized to develop nutritious hypoallergenic soy products. However, the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be determined by human challenge studies.

  3. Partial replacement of protein in soybean meal by moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera in bocourti’s catfish (Pangasius bocourti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of a dietary of moringa seed cake on digestibility, growth performance, blood chemistry and histopathologic of bocourti’s catfish. Fish were fed with diets formulated by 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 of moringa seed cake to replace protein in soybean meal. Fish with mean wet weights of 21.50± 0.25 g per fish were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Significant differences (p<0.05 in weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate were detected between bocourti’s catfish given the experimental diets. All fish grew normally and no significant difference was observed for survival rate and feed conversion ratio among fish fed tested diets. The highest FCR was generally observed that as moringa seed cake inclusion increased in the diets that were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance, feed utilization and pepsin digestibility tested. Blood chemistry and hepatosomatic index did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. No histopathological changes were found in distal intestines and liver. The study indicated that the dietary moringa seed cake contains ingredients that could be used for bocourti’s catfish diets possibly not over up to for 500 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth, digestibility and histology.

  4. EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN MEAL BASED DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEMOLYMPH BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF NARROW-CLAWED CRAYFISH (ASTACUS LEPTODACYLUS ESCHSCHOLTZ, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other crustaceans, narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodacylus Eschscholtz, 1823 can change its diet to the available food during varied life cycles. Diet alteration can affect different biological indices of this species, therefore this study aims at studying changes in growth indices, hemolymph biochemical parameters and biochemical quality of its carcasses, which might occur during diet change of crayfish. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of fish meal with soybean meal on growth performance, carcass quality and hemolymph biochemical parameters of narrow-clawed crayfish. 90 healthy adult narrow-clawed crayfish (W=35.50±4.05 g; TL=16.96±1.92 cm were randomly distributed into 9 fiberglass tanks (200 L and were fed for 45 days with three varied diets including: commercial shrimp diet, fishmeal-based diet (A and soybean meal-based diet (B. The results show that changing the diet from animal protein to plant protein caused a significant decrease in the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hemolymph, as well as carcass fat of the crayfish nourished with B diet when compared with the crayfish fed with A diet. No significant changes of hemolymph levels of glucose, AST and ALT were found between different treatments during this experimental period. In conclusion, it was found that though growth performance reduced, the increased rate of soybean meal in diet from 0.0% to 76% had no adverse effects on biochemical parameters.

  5. The efficacy of phytase in corn-soybean meal-based diets for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, van der J.D.; Versteegh, H.A.J.; Simons, P.C.M.; Kies, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial phytase hydrolyzes poorly degradable vegetable phytate P in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry; thereby increasing the availability of organic P to an extent that remains to be established. For this purpose, the P equivalency value of phytase in cornsoybean meal layer diets was assessed

  6. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed.

  7. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  8. Detoxification of corn stover prehydrolyzate by trialkylamine extraction to improve the ethanol production with Pichia stipitis CBS 5776.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Yong, Qiang; Xu, Yong; Yu, Shiyuan

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize the separated ethanol fermentation of glucose and xylose, prehydrolysis of corn stover with sulfuric acid at moderate temperature was applied, while inhibitors were produced inevitably. A complex extraction was adopted to detoxify the prehydrolyzate before fermentation to ethanol with Pichia stipitis CBS 5776. The best proportion of mixed extractant was 30% trialkylamine-50% n-octanol -20% kerosene. Detoxification results indicated that 73.3% of acetic acid, 45.7% of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 100% of furfural could be removed. Compared with the undetoxified prehydrolyzate, the fermentability of the detoxified prehydrolyzate was significantly improved. After 48 h fermentation of the detoxified prehydrolyzate containing 7.80 g/l of glucose and 52.8 g/l of xylose, the sugar utilization ratio was 93.2%; the ethanol concentration reached its peak value of 21.8 g/l, which was corresponding to 82.3% of the theoretical value.

  9. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  10. Application of Fermented Soybean Meal in Diets of Weaning Piglets%发酵豆粕在断奶仔猪生产中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓翠; 王浩; 李杰

    2011-01-01

    早期断奶仔猪的消化酶系统尚未发育完全,对于植物蛋白质的消化能力弱,且对抗营养因子较敏感,普通豆粕难以适应断奶仔猪饲养需要,而发酵豆粕作为一种新型的蛋白质饲料原料,基本不舍有抗营养因子,却富含多种小肽和益生素,因此近年来发酵豆粕被应用到仔猪的生产中,且收到较好的效果.本文就发酵豆粕的营养特性、在断奶仔猪生产中的应用效果及影响其在仔猪生产中应用效果的因素作一综述.%As a new type of protein ingredient, fermented soybean meal almost doesn' t contain any anti-nutritional factors and is rich in various kinds of small peptides and probiotics. Early-weaning piglets have not fully developed digestive enzyme systems, which lead to their weak digestion ability for vegetable protein and sensitive to anti-nutritional factors. So, regular soybean meal products are difficult to meet needs of weaning piglets. Fermented soybean meal has been applied in diets of weaning piglets in recent years and achieves good effects. In this paper, nutrition characteristics of fermented soybean meal and its' application effects in diets of weaning piglets, as well as the factors influencing on its' application effects were summarized. [Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011, 23(6) :919-923

  11. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M M

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2-3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7-1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  12. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  13. Effect of a multienzyme complex in wheat-soybean meal diet on digestibility of broiler chickens under different rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Hernández

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a multienzyme complex containing protease and carbohydrase enzymes on the performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens under different rearing conditions from 1 to 42 d of age. Two experimental starter and finisher wheat-soybean meal based diets were used in a two-phase feeding programme, as follows: control diet (C; control diet plus 0.05% multienzyme complex of protease and carbohydrase enzymes (Allzyme Vegpro (VP. At location 1, broilers were raised in battery cages located in an experimental pen, without contact with litter. At location 2, broilers were raised in floor pens built in a commercial farm, and had contact with litter. At location 3, broilers were raised in commercial farms. In general, no differences in growth performance, feed intake or feed conversion ratio were observed in broiler chickens fed on the different diets at location 1. Only, the average daily feed intake from 22 to 42 d was significantly higher in the VP group compared with the C treatment (P<0.01. In addition, the final body weight of the VP group was numerically greater than that of the birds fed with the control diet, although the inclusion of the multienzyme complex did not cause significant effects. However, the ileal digestibilities of dry matter and crude protein were enhanced (P<0.05 by VP in the case of broilers in floor pens (+2.5% and +2.7% for DM and CP, respectively and in the commercial farm (+4.4% and +6% for the DM and CP, respectively at 42 d of age, as well as faecal digestibity of the VP diet in experimental pen. It seemed that the effectiveness of the multienzyme complex on digestibility was higher when conditions of hygiene were poorer and stress was frequent. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that the multienzyme complex of protease and carbohydrase enzymes might be effective for improving nutrient digestibility in broilers fed with a wheat-soybean meal based diet under

  14. Soybean Meal and Soy Protein Concentrate in Early Diet Elicit Different Nutritional Programming Effects on Juvenile Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Erick; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    There is now strong evidence that early nutrition plays an important role in shaping later physiology. We assessed here whether soy protein concentrate (SPC) or soybean meal (SBM) in early diet would modify zebrafish responses to these products in later life. We fed zebrafish larvae with SPC-, SBM-, or a control-diet for the first 3 days of feeding and then grew all larvae on the control diet up to juveniles. Finally, we assessed the expression in juveniles of genes involved in inflammation/immunity, the breakdown of extracellular matrix, luminal digestion, and intestinal nutrient absorption/trafficking. First feeding SBM had wider, stronger, and more persistent effects on gene expression with respect to SPC. Juveniles fed with SPC at first feeding were more prone to inflammation after refeeding with SPC than fish that never experienced SPC before. Conversely, zebrafish that faced SBM at first feeding were later less responsive to refeeding with SBM through inflammation and had higher expression of markers of peptide absorption and fatty acid transport. Results indicate that some features of inflammation/remodeling, presumably at the intestine, and nutrient absorption/transport in fish can be programmed by early nutrition. These findings sustain the rationale of using zebrafish for depicting molecular mechanisms involved in nutritional programming.

  15. Relative bioavailability of zinc-methionine chelate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Haiqing; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Zhang, Xueyuan; Li, Hua; Lu, Yufei; Luo, Xugang

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the bioavailability of the organic Zn-methionine chelate relative to inorganic Zn source (ZnSO4•7H2O) for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to one of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn/kg) and two Zn sources (Zn-methionine chelate and Zn sulfate) plus a Zn-unsupplemented control diet containing 29.2 mg of Zn/kg by analysis for an experimental phase of 21 days. Bone and pancreas were collected for testing Zn concentrations and pancreas metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) level at 7 or 21 days of age. The results showed that bone and pancreas Zn concentrations and MT mRNA level in pancreas increased linearly (P chelate relative to ZnSO4•7H2O (100%) were 120 and 115%, respectively (P > 0.22). The results indicated that the Zn from the Zn-methionine chelate was just as bioavailable as the Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  16. Production of Biomass-Degrading Multienzyme Complexes under Solid-State Fermentation of Soybean Meal Using a Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitcosque, Gabriela L; Fonseca, Rafael F; Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-degrading enzymes are one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels. This work evaluates the effects of operational conditions on biomass-degrading multienzyme production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger. The fungus was cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean meal, using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The effects of air flow rate, inlet air relative humidity, and initial substrate moisture content on multienzyme (FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase) production were evaluated using a statistical design methodology. Highest production of FPase (0.55 IU/g), endoglucanase (35.1 IU/g), and xylanase (47.7 IU/g) was achieved using an initial substrate moisture content of 84%, an inlet air humidity of 70%, and a flow rate of 24 mL/min. The enzymatic complex was then used to hydrolyze a lignocellulosic biomass, releasing 4.4 g/L of glucose after 36 hours of saccharification of 50 g/L pretreated sugar cane bagasse. These results demonstrate the potential application of enzymes produced under SSF, thus contributing to generate the necessary technological advances to increase the efficiency of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source.

  17. Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Growth Performance in Calves%发酵豆粕对犊牛生长性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福慧; 李颖丽; 杨晓东; 王小平; 樊宏莉; 孙晓智; 王锋; 梁建光

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effects of fermented soybean meal on growth performance in calves, whether or not using in calf feed. A total of sixteen Holstein calves were randomly divided into two groups(eight for each group) based on body weight and birthday similarity.The control group fed original feed; the test group fed the fermented soybean meal. The result showed that average daily gain and the feed Conversion rate of test group increased by 0.1 kg/head and 0.04, respectively the production cost was decreased by 3.60 yuan/ton, the growth performance was improved, production input and production costs were reduced. Therefore, fermented soybean meal which could be used in calf feed has better effect than expanded soybean.%本文旨在研究发酵豆粕对犊牛生长性能的影响.选取16头健康荷斯坦犊牛,按照体重、出生日期相近原则随机分为试验组和对照组,每组各8头,分别饲喂发酵豆粕试验料和以膨化大豆为主要成分的牧场原有品牌犊牛料.结果显示,使用发酵豆粕能够使犊牛平均日增重提高0.1kg/头,饲料转化率提高0.04,降低配方成本3.60元/t.试验表明,发酵豆粕使用效果优于膨化大豆,能够提高犊牛生产性能、降低养殖投入和生产成本,能够在犊牛料中使用.

  18. Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal sourced from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotak-Peper, K M; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by growing pigs of AA in soybean meal (SBM) produced in different regions of the United States. Twenty-two growing barrows (25.5 ± 1.73 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula near the distal ileum and allotted to a 22 × 8 Youden square design. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from soybean crushing plants located throughout the United States. For analysis, the crushing plant locations were separated into the following 3 zones: 1) Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota ( = 4); 2) Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio ( = 11); and 3) Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska ( = 7). Dietary treatments included 22 diets based on a mixture of cornstarch, sucrose, and each source of SBM as the sole source of CP. Results indicated that the concentration of most indispensable and dispensable AA in SBM were not different among zones. However, SBM from zone 2 had a greater ( zone 3 and a greater ( zone 1. The concentration of Tyr in SBM from zone 2 was also greater ( zones 1 and 3. However, if concentrations of AA were calculated as a percent of CP, there were no differences in the concentrations of indispensable and dispensable AA among SBM from the 3 zones. Likewise, the AID of CP and the AID of indispensable and dispensable AA were not different among SBM from the 3 zones. The SID of CP and most AA was also not different among SBM from the 3 zones. However, SBM from zone 3 had a greater ( zone 2, and SBM from zone 1 had a greater ( zone 2. There was also a tendency ( zone 3 to have a greater SID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, and Tyr than SBM from zone 2. If the concentrations of SID CP and AA were calculated as grams per kilogram, SBM among the 3 zones were not different with the exception that there was a tendency ( = 0.07) for SBM from zone 2 to contain more SID Thr and SID Tyr than SBM from zone 3. In conclusion, only a few differences in concentrations and

  19. Maximizing the use of supplemental amino acids in corn-soybean meal diets for 20- to 45-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, M L; Donsbough, A L; Waguespack, A M; Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2011-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the Lys requirement, the maximum amount of supplemental Lys that does not decrease growth performance, and to determine the order of limiting AA beyond Lys, Thr, Trp, and Met in a corn-soybean meal diet for 20- to 45-kg pigs. All experiments were conducted for 27 to 28 d with purebred or crossbred barrows and gilts, which were blocked by initial BW. Treatments were replicated with 4 to 6 pens of 4 to 6 pigs per pen. In all experiments, pigs and feeders were weighed on d 0, 14, and 27 or 28. At the beginning and end of all experiments, blood samples were obtained from all pigs to determine plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations. In Exp. 1, 0.830, 0.872, 0.913, and 0.955% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys was fed, whereas 0.747, 0.788, 0.830, 0.872, and 0.913% SID Lys was fed in Exp. 2. Broken-line analysis requirement estimates could not be estimated from any response variable in Exp. 1, but in Exp. 2, using ADG and PUN, the estimated SID Lys requirement was 0.83%. In Exp. 3, 0, 0.118, 0.191, 0.264, and 0.335% supplemental Lys was added to achieve 0.83% SID Lys in all diets, and Thr, Trp, and Met were supplemented to maintain Thr:Lys, Trp:Lys, and TSAA:Lys of 0.65, 0.18, and 0.60, respectively. Based on ADG, ADFI, and G:F, up to 0.23% supplemental Lys can be added along with supplemental Thr, Trp, and Met without negatively affecting growth performance; PUN was linearly decreased (P 0.10) ADG or G:F compared with the NC. The combined addition of Val + Ile resulted in ADG that was intermediate between the PC and NC diets but not different from either diet (P > 0.10); G:F was not improved (P > 0.10) to that observed in pigs fed the PC diet. The PUN was not different (P > 0.10) among pigs fed diets with supplemental AA but less (P < 0.10) than pigs fed the PC. The results of this research indicate that the Lys requirement for 20- to 45-kg pigs is 0.83% SID Lys, up to 0.23% supplemental Lys (0.29% l-Lys·HCl or 0.45% l

  20. Isoleucine requirement of 80- to 120-kilogram barrows fed corn-soybean meal or corn-blood cell diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D W; Southern, L L; Kerr, B J; Bidner, T D

    2005-11-01

    Six experiments were conducted to validate an Ile-deficient diet and determine the Ile requirement of 80- to 120-kg barrows. Experiment 1 had five replications, and Exp. 2 through 6 had four replications per treatment; all pen replicates had four crossbred barrows each (initial BW were 93, 83, 85, 81, 81, and 88 kg, respectively). All dietary additions were on an as-fed basis. In Exp. 1, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet (C-SBM) or a corn-5% blood cell (BC) diet with or without 0.26% supplemental Ile (C-BC or C-BC+Ile) in a 28-d growth assay. On d 14, pigs receiving the C-BC diet were taken off experiment as a result of a severe decrease in ADFI. Growth performance did not differ for pigs fed C-SBM or C-BC + Ile (P = 0.36) over the 28-d experiment. In Exp. 2, pigs were fed the C-BC diet containing 0.24, 0.26, 0.28, 0.30, or 0.32% true ileal digestible (TD) Ile for 7 d in an attempt to estimate the Ile requirement using plasma urea N (PUN) as the response variable. Because of incremental increases in ADFI as TD Ile increased, PUN could not be used to estimate the Ile requirement. In Exp. 3, pigs were fed the C-BC diet containing 0.28, 0.30, 0.32, 0.34, or 0.36% TD Ile. Daily gain, ADFI, and G:F increased linearly (P kilograms of lean increased linearly (P kilograms of lean is not < 0.34% in a C-BC diet, but may be as low as 0.24% in a C-SBM diet.

  1. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sahlmann

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph. Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight.

  2. Effects of corn and soybean meal types on rumen fermentation, nitrogen metabolism and productivity in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J S; Song, L J; Sun, H Z; Wang, B; Chai, Z; Chacher, B; Liu, J X

    2015-03-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM) types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC]) and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM) with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM) and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution.

  3. Effect of biostimulation using sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw on oil degradation and bacterial community composition in a contaminated desert soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya eAl-Kindi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities more than the addition of soybean meal. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7 to 1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥ 90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes were measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences of acquired sequences from the original soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R=0.66, P=0.0001. The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences belonging to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  4. 酵母菌单菌固态发酵豆粕的研究%Single Strain Yeast Solid- State Fermentation of Soybean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜华; 李吕木; 张邦辉; 韩景华

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to improve the feeding quality of soybean meal, a high - efficient yeast strain was selected from 12 yeast strains and was used on ordinary raw soybean meal to study the effect of fermentation on the contents of trypsin in-hibitors (TI) and small peptides of soybean meal. The fermentation conditions were optimized by a L25(56) orthogonal ex-periment. Results show the optimization fermentation conditions are as follows: inoculum size 6.0%, material to liquid ra-tio 1 : 0.9, ventilation capacity 45 g/500 mL, pH nature, fermentation temperature 30 ℃ and fermentation time 48 h. With the fermentation, TI decreases from 42.35 mg/g(d.b. ) to 18.63 mg/g (d.b.), and small peptide content increases from 1.65 % to 8.7 %. The fermentation leads the raw soybean meal becoming into a more nutritive protein feed.%为了选育能够提高豆粕饲用品质的高效菌株,从12株酵母菌中筛选出一株优质酵母菌,以普通生豆粕为原料,通过L25(56)的正交试验,研究其对豆粕中胰蛋白酶抑制因子和小肽含量的影响,并对其发酵条件进行优化.结果表明,最优发酵条件为:6%的接种量,料水比为1:0.9,通气量为45 g/500 mL,在自然pH,30 ℃下发酵48 h;胰蛋白酶抑制因子含量显著下降,降解率达56.2%(42.53~18.63 mg/g),小肽含量提高了4.3倍(1.65%~8.7%).微生物发酵生豆粕能明显降解抗营养因子,从而改善其饲用品质.

  5. An optimal dietary non-phytate phosphorus level of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 4 to 6 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Lu, L; Li, S F; Wang, L; Zhang, L Y; Liu, S B; Luo, X G

    2016-10-01

    It is imperative to evaluate precise nutrient requirements of animals in order to optimize productivity and minimize feed cost and nutrient excretions. The current non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) recommendation for broilers is based on the papers published 30 years ago. However, today's commercial birds are quite different from those before 30 years. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted with growing male broiler chickens to evaluate an optimal dietary NPP level of broiler chickens fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The 1-day-old chicks were fed corn-soybean meal diet containing 0.39% NPP from 1 to 3 weeks of age. At 22 days of age, 360 birds were selected and randomly allotted by BW to one of 10 dietary treatments with six replicate cages of six birds per cage for each treatment. Birds were fed the P-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with inorganic P as CaHPO4·H2O ranging from 0.00% to 0.45% with 0.05% increment from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The dietary NPP levels were 0.09%, 0.14%, 0.20%, 0.24%, 0.30%, 0.34%, 0.38%, 0.45%, 0.49% and 0.54%, respectively, and the dietary Ca level was fixed at 0.90% for all treatments. The results showed that average daily gain, serum inorganic P concentration, tibia bone strength, tibia ash percentage and P percentage, tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), middle toe ash percentage and P percentage, middle toe BMC, total body BMC and BMD were affected (P<0.0001) by dietary NPP level, and increased linearly (P<0.0001) and quadratically (P<0.003) as dietary NPP levels increased. Optimal dietary NPP levels estimated based on fitted broken-line models (P<0.0001) of the above indices are 0.21%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.31%, 0.29%, 0.30%, 0.27%, 0.29% and 0.28%, respectively. It is suggested that the total body BMC and BMD, and middle toe ash P and BMC might be new, sensitive and non-invasive criteria to evaluate the dietary NPP requirements

  6. 豆粕中大豆异黄酮含量快速测定方法的研究%Soybean Isoflavone Content in Soybean Meal Fast Determination Method of Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍会梅

    2016-01-01

    To explorethe optimal methods of soybean isoflavones determination of soybean meal in objective, the use of HPLC determination of 3 Soybean Isoflavones of daidzin, daidzein, genistein in soybean meal and op-timize the detection conditions. daidzin, daidzein, genistein content were 194.92, 14.20, 15.42 μg/g; RSD were less than 0.30%;the average recovery of daidzin, daidzein, genistein was respectively 99.55%, 99.65%, 99.11%, detection, mobile phase of methanol∶water∶acetic acid(40∶60∶1,volume ratio);column temperature was 40℃;the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min.%探究豆粕中大豆异黄酮测定的最优方法。使用高效液相色谱法测定豆粕中大豆苷、大豆苷元、染料木素3种大豆异黄酮的含量并优化其检测条件。结果表明,大豆苷、大豆苷元、染料木素含量分别为194.92、14.20、15.42μg/g;RSD都小于0.30%;大豆苷、大豆苷元、染料木素的平均回收率分别为99.55%、99.65%、99.11%,检测时,流动相为甲醇∶水∶醋酸(40∶60∶1,体积比);柱温为40℃;流速为1.0 mL/min。

  7. DOUBLE -LOW RAPESEED MEAL TO REPLACE SOYBEAN MEAL IN THE DIETS OF PREGNANT SOWS%双低菜籽粕在妊娠母猪日粮中适宜添加量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青杉; 杨波

    2011-01-01

    Selected primiparous pregnant sows (Landrace ( ♂ ) and Bamei ( ♀ ) hybrid generation sows) 40, were randomly divided into four groups for the feeding experiment, the experimental group diets respectively 6%, 9% and 12% Double - low rapeseed meal replaced soybean meal diet, and with sueh energy, such as soybean protein diet as control. The results showed that: With 12% of the double - low rapeseed meal to re- place soybean meal protein fed pregnant sows, pregnant sows on litter size and piglet birth weight measurement, the experimental group was not significant (P 〉 0.05 ); and through the blood alanine aminotransferase (ATL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ; thyroid hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and three iodine a gland of the original acid (T3) measured with each test group was not significant (P 〉 0.05 ). Shows 12% of preg- nant sow diet used double - low rapeseed meal completely replace soybean meal protein, the production of the pregnant sows are not affected.%选初产妊娠母猪(长白(♂)与八眉猪(♀)杂交一代母猪)40头,随机分四组进行饲养试验,试验组日粮中分别用6%、9%和12%的双低菜籽粕取代日粮中的豆粕,并与等能量、等蛋白的豆粕日粮作对照。结果表明:用12%双低菜籽粕取代豆粕蛋白饲喂妊娠母猪,对妊娠母猪产仔数和仔猪初生重测定,试验组间差异不显著(P〉0.05);并通过对血液中谷丙转氨酶(ATL)、谷草转氨酶(AST);甲状腺激素(TSH)、甲状腺素(T4)和三碘甲腺原氨酸(T3)指标测定,各试验组间差异不显著(P〉0.05)。说明妊娠母猪日粮中用12%双低菜籽粕完全取代豆粕蛋白,对妊娠母猪生产不受影响。

  8. 混菌固态发酵法生产大豆多肽饲料的研究%Research on preparing soybean opypeptide from soybean meal by solid-state fermentation with manifold strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓艳; 杨国力; 国立东; 孟丹; 连莲; 王文侠

    2012-01-01

    The soybean peptide was produced by manifold strains through solid-state fermentation using Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein in soybean meal was degraded by various protease produced by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae into peptides. Starch and cellulose in soybean meal were degraded by various cellulase produced by Aspergillus oryzae into the mono-,oligosaccharides. The mono-,oligosaccharide was degraded by various enzymes produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae into alcohols flavor compounds.The effects of the composition of fermentation medium, ratio of inoculating strains, quantity of inoculation, fermentation temperature and fermentation time on the production rate of peptides from fermented soybean meal were researched. The optimum conditions were as follows: soybean meal / wheat bran 8:1, ratio of inoculating manifold strains 5:1:1 (V : V : V)(Bacillus subtilis/Aspergillus oryzae/Saccharomyces cerevisiae), added water level 120%, quantity of inoculation 25%, temperature 34℃, fermentation period 96 h. The production rate of peptides in the fermented soybean meal could reach 54.89%, the content of peptides was 21.47%(dry substance).%采用枯草芽孢杆菌、米曲霉和酿酒酵母混合菌株固态发酵法生产大豆多肽饲料.利用枯草芽孢杆菌和米曲霉分泌蛋白酶降解基料中的蛋白质,使其分解成小肽;利用米曲霉将淀粉和纤维素降解为简单糖类物质;利用酿酒酵母分解糖类,产生醇香味,增加多肽饲料的适口性.以高温豆粕为原料,研究了发酵培养基组成、接种菌配比、接种量、发酵温度和发酵时间对发酵豆粕中多肽得率的影响,得到了最佳工艺条件:豆麸比为8:1(m:m),加蜜量为2%,混菌菌种比(枯草芽孢杆菌、米曲霉、酿酒酵母)为5:1:1(V:V:V),加水量为120%,接种量为25%,发酵温度为34℃,发酵时间为96 h.最终发酵物中多肽得率达54.89%,发

  9. Twin- or single-screw extrusion of raw soybeans and preconditioned soybean meal and corn as individual ingredients or as corn-soybean product blends in diets for weanling swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Serrano, X; Hsieh, F H

    2017-03-01

    Two 28-d experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of extrusion of ground yellow corn, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM), and cracked whole soybeans (CWS) individually or as corn-soybean product blends on growth performance of weanling pigs. For Exp. 1, ground corn, SBM, and the corn-SBM blend were extruded at 137.5°C, 131.5°C, and 135.0°C, respectively, in a twin-screw extruder. Transit time was 60 s. Water was injected at 125 gmin during extrusion. The 5 treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with extruded (EX) corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, and the EX-blend of corn-SBM. Ninety crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 5.98 kg were allotted to 9 treatment replications with a barrow and gilt per pen. For Exp. 2, ground corn was preconditioned with water (10.0% of corn weight), and SBM was preconditioned with water and soybean oil (each at 20.0% of SBM weight) before extrusion. Raw CWS were not preconditioned. The corn, SBM, CWS, corn-SBM blend, and corn-CWS blend were extruded at 113.0°C, 132.0°C, 132.0°C, 88.0°C, and 102°C, respectively, with a single-screw extruder. Transit time was 30 s. The 8 isocaloric treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with EX-corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, the EX-blend of corn-SBM, EX-CWS + corn, EX-CWS + EX-corn, and the EX-blend of corn-CWS. A total of 296 crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 6.56 kg were allotted to 10 treatment replications. Sex and pigs per pen (3 or 4) were equalized within replication. Results for both experiments indicate that single- or twin-screw extrusion of ground corn or SBM as individual ingredients or as corn-SBM blends in diets for weanling pigs did not improve 28-d growth performance. However, for Exp. 2 weanling pigs fed the diets with EX-CWS + corn and EX-CWS + EX-corn had greater ( < 0.01) ADG and G:F, respectively, than pigs fed the corn-SBM control diet. The extrusion temperature of 102°C for the corn

  10. Effect of Soybean Meal and Soluble Starch on Biogenic Amine Production and Microbial Diversity Using Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Dae Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean meal (SM and soluble starch (SS on biogenic amine production and microbial diversity using in vitro ruminal fermentation. Treatments comprised of incubation of 2 g of mixture (expressed as 10 parts containing different ratios of SM to SS as: 0:0, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, or 0:10. In vitro ruminal fermentation parameters were determined at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h of incubation while the biogenic amine and microbial diversity were determined at 48 h of incubation. Treatment with highest proportion of SM had higher (p<0.05 gas production than those with higher proportions of SS. Samples with higher proportion of SS resulted in lower pH than those with higher proportion of SM after 48 h of incubation. The largest change in NH3-N concentration from 0 to 48 h was observed on all SM while the smallest was observed on exclusive SS. Similarly, exclusive SS had the lowest NH3-N concentration among all groups after 24 h of incubation. Increasing methane (CH4 concentrations were observed with time, and CH4 concentrations were higher (p<0.05 with greater proportions of SM than SS. Balanced proportion of SM and SS had the highest (p<0.05 total volatile fatty acid (TVFA while propionate was found highest in higher proportion of SS. Moreover, biogenic amine (BA was higher (p<0.05 in samples containing greater proportions of SM. Histamines, amine index and total amines were highest in exclusive SM followed in sequence mixtures with increasing proportion of SS (and lowered proportion of SM at 48 h of incubation. Nine dominant bands were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and their identity ranged from 87% to 100% which were mostly isolated from rumen and feces. Bands R2 (uncultured bacterium clone RB-5E1 and R4 (uncultured rumen bacterium clone L7A_C10 bands were found in samples with higher proportions of SM while R3 (uncultured Firmicutes bacterium clone NI_52, R7 (Selenomonas sp

  11. Effect of Phytogenic Feed Additives in Soybean Meal on Swine Fermentation for Odor Reduction and Bacterial Community Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Alam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different phytogenic feed additives on reducing odorous compounds in swine was investigated using in vitro fermentation and analyzed their microbial communities. Soybean meal (1% added with 0.1% different phytogenic feed additives (FA were in vitro fermented using swine fecal slurries and anaerobically incubated for 12 and 24 h. The phytogenic FAs used were red ginseng barn powder (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, FA1, persimmon leaf powder (Diospyros virginiana L., FA2, ginkgo leaf powder (Ginkgo biloba L., FA3, and oregano lippia seed oil extract (Lippia graveolens Kunth, OL, FA4. Total gas production, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, nitrite-nitrogen (NO2−-N, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N, sulfate (SO4−−, volatile fatty acids (VFA and other metabolites concentration were determined. Microbial communities were also analyzed using 16S rRNA DGGE. Results showed that the pH values on all treatments increased as incubation time became longer except for FA4 where it decreased. Moreover, FA4 incubated for 12 and 24 h was not detected in NH3-N and H2S. Addition of FAs decreased (p<0.05 propionate production but increased (p<0.05 the total VFA production. Ten 16S rRNA DGGE bands were identified which ranged from 96 to 100% identity which were mostly isolated from the intestine. Similarity index showed three clearly different clusters: I (FA2 and FA3, II (Con and FA1, and III (FA4. Dominant bands which were identified closest to Eubacterium limosum (ATCC 8486T, Uncultured bacterium clone PF6641 and Streptococcus lutetiensis (CIP 106849T were present only in the FA4 treatment group and were not found in other groups. FA4 had a different bacterial diversity compared to control and other treatments and thus explains having lowest odorous compounds. Addition of FA4 to an enriched protein feed source for growing swine may effectively reduce odorous compounds which are typically associated with swine production.

  12. Influence of substituting dietary soybean for air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal on egg production and steroid hormones in early-phase laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Nahashon, S N; Introna, M; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-02-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least-cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air-classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20-week-old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air-classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air-classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p hormones levels were affected by dietary treatment (p < 0.01). From our findings, it could be effective to include air-classified SFM in early-phase laying hen diets as an alternative protein source substituting SBM, without negative influence on productive performance and egg traits, reducing also the production costs.

  13. Effect of replacing ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake on the performance, digestibility, nitrogen metabolism and ingestive behavior in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A C; Vieira, J F; Barbosa, A M; Silva, T M; Bezerra, L R; Nascimento, N G; de Freitas, J E; Jaeger, S M P L; Oliveira, P de A; Oliveira, R L

    2017-05-02

    Licuri (Syagrus coronate) cake is a biodiesel by-product used in ruminant feed as a beneficial energy source for supplementation in managed pastures. The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, ingestive behavior and diet profitability of eight crossbred Holstein (3/4)×Gyr (5/8) multiparous cows (480±25 kg BW and 100 days milking) grazing and supplemented with licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg in dry matter (DM)), distributed in an experimental duplicated 4×4 Latin square design. Licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal increased (Pmeal in concentrate did not affect the intake; fecal, urinary and mammary excretions; N balance; and triglycerides concentrations. However, the blood urea nitrogen (P=0.04) concentration decreased with the licuri cakes inclusion in cow supplementation. There was an increasing trend for serum creatinine (P=0.07). Licuri cake inclusion did not affect body condition score, production, yield, protein, lactose, total solids and solid non-fat contents of milk and Minas frescal cheese. There was a linear decrease in average daily weight gain (g/day). The milk fat concentration and cheese fat production (Pmeal with licuri cakes. The addition of licuri cake did not alter the time spent feeding, ruminating or idling. There was an increasing trend in NDF feeding efficiency (P=0.09). The replacing of ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake up to 600 g/kg decreased the concentrate cost by US$0.45/cow per day. Licuri cake replacing corn and soybeans (400 g/kg) in concentrate promoted a profit of US$0.07/animal per day. Licuri cake is indicated to concentrate the supplementation of dairy cows with average productions of 10 kg/day at levels up to 400 g/kg in the concentrate supplement because it provides an additional profit of US$0.07/animal per day and increased milk and Minas frescal cheese fat

  14. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K M; Stein, H H

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine AA digestibility and the concentration of DE and ME in 5 sources of soybean meal (SBM). The 5 sources included hexane-extracted SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (SBM-HP) and conventional soybeans (SBM-CONV), and mechanically extruded-expelled SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (EE-SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide soybeans (EE-SBM-LO), and conventional soybeans (EE-SBM-CONV). Five diets that each contained 1 source of SBM and a N-free diet were used in Exp. 1 to determine AA digestibility in each meal. Twelve growing barrows (initial BW: 67.7 +/- 1.34 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 6 periods and 6 diets in each square. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results of the experiment showed that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of all AA except Trp was similar for SBM-HP and SBM-CONV, but EE-SBM-HP and EE-SBM-LO had greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val than EE-SBM-CONV. The SID of all indispensable AA in EE-SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-HP. The SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, and Phe in EE-SBM-CONV was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-CONV, but the SID of Trp was also greater (P < 0.05) in SBM-CONV than in EE-SBM-CONV. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure DE and ME in the same 5 sources of SBM as used in Exp. 1. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 38.6 +/- 3.46 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicates per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets based on a mixture of corn and each source of SBM were formulated. Urine and feces were collected during a 5-d collection period, and values for DE and ME in each source of SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results showed that the ME in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in SBM-CONV (4,074 vs. 3,672 kcal/kg of DM). The ME in EE-SBM-HP also tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in EE-SBM-CONV and

  15. Konsentrasi Asam Lemak Terbang dan Glukosa Darah Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCENTRATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE ON THIN-TAILED SHEEP GIVEN WITH TANINE-PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraliah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of tannin-protected protein source feed to livestock productivitybased on its influence on methane production, Volatile fatty acids (VFA production, and blood glucose inthe use of tannin-protected protein on complete feed in thin-tailed ram. The study uses thin-tailed ramaged about 8 months, as many as 16 rams with body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg. The researchusesa completerandomized design(CRD withfour treatmentsandfourreplications. The treatments areP0:15% soybeanmeals without tannin protection in complete feed, P1:15% soybean meals with 0.5% tannin protection incomplete feed, P2:15% soybean meals with 1% tannin protection in complete feed and P3:15% soybeanmeals with 1.5% tannin protection in complete feed. The results indicates that administration of tanninsin soybean meal in complete feed showed significant effect (P <0.05 on blood glucose, the production ofpropionic acid in the 3rd hour, but the VFA production at hour 0, hour 6, as well as methane productionshowed no significant effect (P> 0.05. The conclusion is that 15% protected soybean meal with 1% oftannin in the complete feed is able to contribute to the proportion of propionate and contribute to increasedblood glucose on a thin-tailed ram but can not to reduce methane production.

  16. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, Ilias; Bonos, Eleftherios; Anestis, Vasileios; Filioussis, Georgios; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Bartzanas, Thomas; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot) was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P≤0.010) for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P≤0.05) were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P≤0.001) were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No

  17. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonos, Eleftherios; Anestis, Vasileios; Filioussis, Georgios; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Bartzanas, Thomas; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot) was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P≤0.010) for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P≤0.05) were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P≤0.001) were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No

  18. 木瓜蛋白酶水解发酵豆粕优化工艺研究%Optimization of hydrolysis process of fermented soybean meal with papain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓梦琴; 徐嘉颖; 谢茜怡; 宋贤良

    2015-01-01

    豆粕是饲料工业中应用最为广泛的植物性蛋白原料,本试验以微生物固态发酵豆粕粉为原料,以蛋白质增加量、游离氨基酸增加量和水解度为品质指标,探讨了酶解初始pH值、料液比、酶用量和酶解时间对木瓜蛋白酶酶解发酵豆粕的影响。在单因素实验基础上,采用 L9(34)正交试验进行优化,结果表明酶解的最佳工艺条件为:酶解初始pH6.5,酶用量3%,料液比1∶10,酶解时间1 h。在该条件下,酶解豆粕中蛋白质增加量为75.633 m g/g ,游离氨基酸增加量为121.932μg/g ,水解度为0.033%。%Soybean meal is the most widely used raw material of vegetable protein in feed industry .The effects of initial pH of enzyme solution ,solid‐liquid ratio ,enzyme concentration and hydrolyzing time on soybean meal hydrolysis with papain were studied ,and the experiments were carried out using microbial solid fermentation soybean meal as raw materials ,with addition of protein and free amino acids ,degree of hydrolysis as quality indexes .On the basis of single factor experiments ,the orthogo‐nal experiment was used to optimize the factors level .The results showed that :the optimum hydrolysis conditions were as fol‐low s :initial pH of enzyme solution of 6 .5 ,enzyme concentration of 3% ,solid‐liquid ratio of 1∶10 and hydrolysis time of 1 h . It demonstrated that the addition of protein ,free amino acids and degree of hydrolysis were 75 .633 mg/g ,121 .932μg/g ,and 0 .033% ,respectively .

  19. Extraction and analysis of residual lipids in soybean meal%豆粕中残余脂质的提取与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩冉; 孔祥珍; 华欲飞

    2012-01-01

    豆粕中含有部分正己烷未能去除的残余脂质,采用体积比为2∶1的氯仿-甲醇溶液及水饱和正丁醇从豆粕中提取残余脂质,并对残余脂质成分进行了分析.传统的氯仿-甲醇溶液法可以将豆粕中大部分脂质提取出来,而与蛋白结合能力较强的极性脂需要进一步通过强极性的水饱和正丁醇提取.研究结果显示,豆粕中总脂质含量为2.10%,其中中性脂占25.24%,极性脂占74.76%,中性脂主要包括甘油三酯、FFA、甘油二酯;极性脂主要包括磷脂酰胆碱(PC)、磷脂酰肌醇(PI)、磷脂酰乙醇胺(PE)、磷脂酸(PA).%Soybean meal has residual lipids which can not be extracted by n - hexane. The meal was extracted consecutively by two solvents of chloroform - methanol (2:1 of volume ratio) and water - saturated butanol, and the obtained lipids were analyzed. Chloroform - methanol regarded as conventional solvent could extract most of lipid from the meal, and the polar lipid interacted with protein more closely should be extracted by water - saturated butanol. The results indicated that the soybean meal contained 2. 10% total lipids which was composed of 25. 24% neutral lipids and 74. 76% polar lipids, the polar lipids were mainly consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidic acid, while the neutral lipids mainly included triglycerides, FFA and diglycerides.

  20. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion.

  1. Structural characterization and physicochemical properties of protein extracted from soybean meal assisted by steam flash-explosion with dilute acid soaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanpeng; Yang, Ruijin; Zhang, Weinong; Hu, Zhixiong; Zhao, Wei

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of steam flash-explosion (SFE) with dilute acid soaking pretreatment on the structural characteristics and physiochemical properties of protein from soybean meal (SBM). The pretreatment led to depolymerisation of soy protein isolate (SPI) and formation of new protein aggregation through non-disulfide covalent bonds, which resulted in broader MW distribution of SPI. The analysis of CD spectroscopy showed that the SFE treatment induced minor changes in secondary structure, however, the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence revealed that acid soaking and SFE treatment pronouncedly altered the tertiary structure of SPI. The protein zeta potential was shown to be increased after SFE treatment attributed to the changes in protein structure and the covalent coupling between carbohydrate and protein. These results contribute to clarifying the mechanisms of the effect of pretreatment on SPI structure, thus moving further toward implementing SFE in the processing chain of SPI.

  2. L-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei fermentation with corn steep liquor-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Ding, Shaofeng; Li, Zhaopeng; Tan, Tianwei

    2006-12-01

    Batch and fed-batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potential of corn steep liquor (CSL)-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal (AHSM) as an alternative to yeast extract (YE) for the production of L-lactic acid by Lactobacillus casei LA-04-1. The CSL-supplemented AHSM gave an outstanding result in supporting L-lactic acid production from glucose. In the exponential fed-batch fermentation, the concentration, yield and productivity of L-lactic acid were 162.5 g/L, 89.7% and 1.69 g/L per h, respectively, which were lower than those with 20 g/L YE (180 g/L, 90.3%, 2.14 g/L per h) after 96 h of fermentation. However, the raw material cost of the nitrogen resource was estimated as only 25% of that using the YE.

  3. The relative merit of ruminal undegradable protein from soybean meal or soluble fiber from beet pulp to improve nitrogen utilization in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki Castro, S I; Phillip, L E; Lapierre, H; Jardon, P W; Berthiaume, R

    2008-10-01

    Early lactating dairy cows were used to determine whether the replacement of solvent-extracted soybean meal [SSBM; a source of rumen-degradable protein (RDP)] with expeller soybean meal (ESBM; a source of rumen-undegradable protein), or the replacement of high-moisture shelled corn (HMSC) with beet pulp (a source of soluble fiber) would be effective in improving efficiency of N usage for milk production. The study was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were fed, ad libitum, the following diets, which were based on alfalfa silage and HMSC, and formulated to be isocaloric: 1) basal diet without a protein supplement (negative control diet: NC); 2) NC supplemented with solvent-extracted SBM (diet SSBM); 3) NC supplemented with expeller SBM (diet ESBM); 4) SSBM in which unmolassed dried beet pulp replaced half of the HMSC (diet SSBMBP). Compared with diet NC, protein supplementation increased intake of organic matter and dry matter. Milk and milk protein yields were lower with NC but this diet resulted in the greatest efficiency of N usage for milk production (30% milk N/N intake). Supplementation with ESBM, a proven source of RUP, increased plasma concentrations of histidine and branched-chain amino acids, and reduced milk urea N concentration, but failed to improve the yields of milk or milk protein. Milk fat yield tended to decrease with RUP supplementation. Replacing part of HMSC with soluble fiber from beet pulp (SSBMBP) tended to decrease milk production compared with SSBM; the effect was due to a reduction in dry matter intake. There were no differences among diets SSBM, ESBM, or SSBMBP in urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Neither substitution of ESBM for SSBM nor partial replacement of HMSC with beet pulp altered the efficiency of N usage for milk production or manure N excretion.

  4. The effects of whole grains on nutrient digestibilities, growth performance, and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in young chicks fed ground corn-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, P; Parsons, C M

    2009-09-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of whole wheat, whole sorghum, or whole barley on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations when supplemented primarily at the expense of corn in ground corn-soybean meal control diets. The first 4 experiments utilized New Hampshire x Columbian male chicks. In the first 2 experiments, feeding 5, 10, 15, or 20% whole wheat had no effect on growth performance at 21 d when compared with chicks fed the control diet. The third experiment tested 20, 35, and 50% whole wheat fed from 0 to 21 d of age and showed that a 50% whole wheat diet decreased (Pwhole sorghum reduced (Pwhole barley had similar weight gains to chicks fed a ground corn-soybean meal diet. The fifth experiment with commercial Ross x Ross male broiler chicks evaluated 10 and 20% whole sorghum or whole barley and 20 and 35% whole wheat. Growth at 21 d was unaffected by any dietary treatment. Feed efficiency was decreased (Pwhole wheat and improved (Pwhole barley. Feeding whole grains to chicks resulted in an increase in gizzard weight, even as early as 7 d, in all experiments. Chicks fed diets containing 10 to 20% whole wheat generally had increased MEn values at 3 to 4, 7, 14, and 21 d and also had increased amino acid digestibility at 21 d in one experiment. At 21 d, cecal pH and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in all experiments were unaffected by feeding whole grains to chicks. The results of this study indicated that feeding whole wheat, sorghum, or barley increased gizzard weight, and feeding 10 to 20% whole wheat may increase ME and amino acid digestibility.

  5. SUBSTITUIÇÃO DE FARELO DE SOJA POR SOJA INTEGRAL EM RAÇÕES EXTRUSADAS PARA AQÜICULTURA REPLACEMENT OF SOYBEAN MEAL BY FULL FAT SOYBEAN IN EXTRUDED FEEDS FOR AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kil Chang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A soja (Glycine max não é utilizada na sua forma integral, em grãos, pelas empresas produtoras de rações extrusadas para aqüicultura. Este trabalho investigou o efeito das variáveis de extrusão sobre a capacidade de flutuação, perdas por lixiviação na água e dureza das rações, sob níveis de substituição do farelo de soja pela soja integral da ordem de 0%, 48% e 100%. Foram realizados onze tratamentos para cada nível de substituição, usando um extrusor Werner & Pfleiderer ZSK-30, de dupla rosca. Utilizou-se um delineamento fatorial 2x2x2, com mais três repetições no ponto central. As variáveis independentes foram: temperatura de extrusão, velocidade de alimentação e umidade. Usou-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar o efeito combinado das variáveis independentes sobre as variáveis-resposta, e a análise de variância para testar a adequação dos modelos. A capacidade de flutuação e as perdas por lixiviação da ração diminuíram com a redução da temperatura de extrusão, aumento da umidade e do nível de substituição do farelo de soja pela soja integral. A dureza da ração aumentou somente com a elevação da umidade e do nível de substituição.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ração; soja; extrusão; dupla rosca; peixe.

    Full fat soybean (Glycine max is not used by producers of extruded feed for aquaculture. This study investigated the effect of extrusion variables on the physical characteristics of the feed with increasing replacement levels of soybean meal for full fat soybean: 0%, 48% and 100%. Eleven treatments were set up for each replacement level, using a twin-screw extruder (Werner & Pfleiderer ZSK-30, according to a 2x2x2 factorial design with more three replications of the central

  6. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( phytase was used and were greater ( phytase and fiber increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal, but inclusion of soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the digestibility in practical corn-based diets.

  7. Replacement of soybean meal by linseed meal in diets for piava (Leporinus obtusidensSubstituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de linhaça em dietas para a piava (Leporinus obtusidens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirleise Pianesso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the replacement of soybean meal by linseed meal on growth of piava juveniles. The experiment was carried on fish farming laboratory of UFSM/CESNORS, on March to April, 2011. They were used 360 fish, (initial weight = 9.0 ± 2.5 g, which placed in a water re-use system composed by 15 tanks (250L, with mean temperature in the morning = 20.3 ± 1.62ºC and in the afternoon = 21.4 ± 1.42ºC, during 30 days. It were testes five diets with volumetric levels of soybean meal replace (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. The use of the linseed meal provided same performance to the fish. The weight, total length, standard length, relative weight gain, condition factor and specific growth rate of the piavas were not affected by treatments (P > 0.05. Similarly, the plasmatic glucose, body protein deposition and chymotrypsin enzyme no showed differences. The body lipid deposition was best expressed by the cubic polynomial regression model (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição do farelo de soja pelo de linhaça no crescimento de juvenis de piava. O experimento foi realizado no laboratório de piscicultura da UFSM/CESNORS, no período de março a abril de 2011. Foram utilizados 360 peixes (peso inicial = 9,0 ± 2,5 g, sendo estes acondicionados em um sistema de recirculação de água composto por 15 tanques (250L, com temperatura média da manhã = 20,3 ± 1,62ºC e da tarde = 21,4 ± 1,42ºC, durante 30 dias. Foram testadas cinco dietas, com níveis volumétricos de substituição do farelo de soja (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. A utilização de farelo de linhaça como fonte proteica proporcionou aos peixes o mesmo desempenho. O peso, comprimento total, comprimento padrão, ganho em peso relativo, fator de condição e taxa de crescimento específico das piavas não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos (P > 0,05. Da mesma forma, a glicose plasmática, deposição de proteína corporal e a enzima quimiotripsina n

  8. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  9. Effects of replacement of dietary fish meal by four kinds of soybean meal on growth,antioxidant and antibacterial ability of Pseudosciaena crocea R.%4种豆粕替代鱼粉对大黄鱼生长、抗氧化及抗菌能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴钊; 陈乃松; 华雪铭; 黄旭雄; 陈晓明; 王坛; 王刚; 朱伟星; 孔纯

    2016-01-01

    分别用9种等氮等能的饲料投喂初始体质量为(34.72±0.28)g 的大黄鱼(Pseudosciaena crocea)。其中1组投喂对照饲料(含50%鱼粉,不含豆粕),另外8个试验组分别投饲由去皮豆粕(DSM)、酶解豆粕(ESM)、发酵豆粕Ⅰ(FSMⅠ)和发酵豆粕Ⅱ(FSMⅡ)替代20%和40%的鱼粉的饲料,9组分别命名为 FM、DSM20、DSM40、ESM20、ESM40、FSMⅠ20、FSMⅠ40、FSMⅡ20、FSMⅡ40。在海水浮式网箱中进行7周的养殖实验后,评定4种豆粕替代鱼粉的可行性及适宜替代水平。结果显示,试验组与对照组鱼存活率和特定生长率无显著差异(P >0.05)。血清生化指标显示,FM组和 FSMⅡ20组超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性显著高于其它试验组(P <0.05),FM、DSM20、FSMⅠ40、FSMⅡ20组过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著高于 DSM40、ESM20、ESM40及 FSMⅠ20组(P <0.05),不同试验组的丙二醛(MDA)含量均不同程度高于对照组。酶解豆粕替代40%鱼粉导致实验鱼的血清对哈维氏弧菌的抵抗能力下降,去皮豆粕替代20%鱼粉导致血清对溶藻弧菌抵抗能力下降;但发酵豆粕不影响血清及黏液对3种菌的抵抗能力。研究表明,以特定生长率、饲料转化率和抗菌能力为评价指标,发酵豆粕是鱼粉的最佳替代源,发酵豆粕Ⅰ和Ⅱ均能替代20%~40%的鱼粉,但存在抗氧化能力下降的风险,尤其是发酵豆粕Ⅰ40%替代组;去皮豆粕和酶解豆粕替代鱼粉在抗菌能力和抗氧化能力方面无优势。%Due to the high protein content and rich essential amino acids for aquatic animals,fish meal has been widely used in aquaculture feed industry.However the worldwide fish meal supply can not meet the growing demand for aquaculture,it is necessary to look for alternative sources for fish meal.Soybean meal is easily digested and absorbed by aquatic animals,so it is one of

  10. Optimized Study on Fermentation Conditions for Reduction of Antinutritional Factors in Soybean Meal by Rumen Microorganism%瘤胃微生物降解豆粕抗营养因子的发酵条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩燕; 钱国英; 汪财生; 朱秋华

    2011-01-01

    豆粕是一种优质的植物蛋白源,可作为畜牧水产饲料中鱼粉的替代物.但豆粕中抗营养因子的存在限制了其广泛应用.本试验利用瘤胃液中的混合微生物对豆粕进行微生物发酵处理,旨在降解其中的胰蛋白酶抑制因子和植酸等物质.通过单因素和正交试验,对发酵条件进行研究,得到了试验室最佳发酵条件:即接种量为5%(体积分数),料水比为1∶1,发酵温度为39℃,非蛋白氮添加量为0.5 g,发酵时间为72 h.发酵豆粕中主要抗营养因子得到有效去除.%Soybean meal,a by-product obtained after the extraction of soybean oil,is an important high-quality plant protein source. However, the trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid and other antinutritional factors contained in soybean meal inhibit the application in aquaculture industry. In this study, rumen micro- organisms (rumen fluid) was used on the microbiological fermentation of soybean meal processing, aimed at eliminating one of the trypsin inhibitors and phytic acid. In the present study ,fermentation period, inoculation quantity, the ratio of material to water, fermentation temperature, and non-protein nitrogen content were evaluated by using single-factor and orthogonal experiments. The optimum laboratory fermentation conditions were determined as follows: quantity of inoculation 5% (ratio of rumen fluid to total mixed fermentation volume), the ratio of material to water 1: 1 (ratio of soybean meal weight to total mixed fermentation volume), fermentation temperature 39 ℃, non - protein nitrogen 0.5 g, and fermentation period 72 h. The main antinutritional factors contained in soybean meal could be removed effectively.

  11. Effect of fermented soybean meal and plant essential oil on the performance of weaning piglets%发酵豆粕和植物精油对断奶仔猪生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如水; 付瑞珍; 魏凤仙

    2014-01-01

    本试验探讨了在日粮中使用发酵豆粕替代普通豆粕并添加植物精油对仔猪生产性能的影响,为发酵豆粕和植物精油在仔猪日粮中的利用提供科学依据。结果表明,日粮中添加发酵豆粕和植物精油,仔猪末重和平均日增重分别提高14.81%和19.51%,提高仔猪平均日采食量6.84%,而降低料重比和单位增重成本分别为10.71%和7.67%;有效降低仔猪腹泻率50.67%。%The experiment investigated the use of fermented soybean meal instead of normal soy-bean meal and the administration of plant essential oils on the growth performance of waning pig-lets, and provided a scientific basis for the use of fermented soybean meal and plant essential oil in the diets of piglets. The results showed that diets supplemented with fermented soybean meal and plant essential oil increased the bodyweight of the piglets and the average daily gain by 14.81% and 19.51% respectively. The average daily feed intake was increased by 6.84%, while the feed conversion ratio and unit weight cost were decreased by 10.71% and 7.67% respectively, mean-while, the rate of 50.67% diarrhea were effectively reduced.

  12. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean ( var. minor as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05 of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05 and water-holding capacity (p<0.05 than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05 and cholesterol (p<0.01, and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01. Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  13. Acabamento de bovinos em pastagens no período da seca, utilizando-se milho inteiro e soja integral ou milho moído e farelo de soja Steer finishing on dry-season pastures, using whole grain corn and soybean or ground corn and soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Regina Alcalde

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar suplementos compostos por 75% de milho de grão inteiro e 25% de soja integral (MGSI ou 75% de milho moído e 25% de farelo de soja (MMFS, utilizando-se 50 garrotes, divididos em cinco categorias (raça e/ou peso vivo, em pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu, em dois períodos de 28 dias, na época seca. O consumo de suplemento foi de 7,20kg/animal/dia. Houve interação (P 0,05 entre os períodos. O ganho médio diário do período total com suplemento milho moído mais farelo de soja foi maior (P The aim of this experiment was to compare 75% whole grain corn and 25% soybean supplement with 75% ground corn and 25% soybean meal supplement, using 50 steers, grouped in five categories (breed and/or live weight, on Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu pasture, for two dry-season periods of 28 days. The supplement consumption was 7.2kg/animal/day. An interaction (P < 0.05 between supplements and periods was observed. The supplement with ground corn and soybean meal resulted in a higher gain in the first period (1.59kg/day than in the second period (0.83kg/day and the supplement with whole grain corn and soybean resulted in a higher weight gain in the second period (1.03kg/day than in the first (0.97kg/day. The average final gain with ground corn and soybean meal supplementation was 1.21kg/day, differing (P < 0.05 from whole grain and soybean supplementation with resulted in 1.00kg/day gain. Processed grains provided a better performance than whole grains.

  14. Lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 on soybean meal supplemented with amino acids, and some physicochemical properties of the enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Martins Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The amino acids that form the chemical structure of several lipase catalytic triads (serine, histidine, glutamic or aspartic acid, as well as glycine, were added to soybean meal in distilled water as nutrient for Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 to produce lipase under submerged fermentation. The addition of glutamic acid at 0.01% concentration increased lipase activity by 60% (2,684 U/gss, while at 0.1% the increase was 80% (3,039 U/gss by comparison with the control (1,690 U/gss. Glycine also stimulated lipase production on this medium increasing the enzyme production by 31 % (25 UmL-1 by comparison to the control (19 UmL-1. The optimal pH of this lipase was 8.0 in phosphate buffer, and was stable in the pH range (3–10, while the optimal temperature was 55°C. The fungal lipase remained active in methanol, ethanol and glycerol at concentrations of 25, 10 and 50% (v/v, respectively. The addition of the cations Ba2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ increased lipase activity, while Fe3, Cu2+ and Hg2+ partially inhibited the enzyme. Some kinetic properties demonstrated that B. ribis EC-01 lipase was a true lipase preferring long chain fatty acyl esters as substrates. These properties make B. ribis EC-01 lipase attractive for use in the production of biodiesel.

  15. Ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in low quality soybean meal sources treated with β-mannanase for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, S D; Park, J W; Lee, J H; Kim, I H

    2016-07-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy, dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and amino acids and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in low quality soybean meals with different CP concentration (SBM 44% CP and SBM 48% CP) with or without 400 U β-mannanase/kg supplementation were evaluated in 20 cannulated barrows ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc) with an average BW of 25.08±3.42 kg. A N-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of amino acids. The supplementation of β-mannanase improved (P0.05) AID of N and energy. The type of SBM (SBM 44% CP v. SBM 48% CP) had no effect on AID of DM, N and energy. β-mannanase improved (Pamino acids, arginine, histidine, lysine, valine and glycine. The SID of lysine was higher (Pamino acids except for lysine. The low nutrient digestibility of the SBM sources used in the present experiment might have favoured the positive effect of β-mannanase supplementation.

  16. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 160 Hisex Brown laying hens to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of faba bean (FB and enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality parameters. The experimental diets consisted of five levels of FB: 0% (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, substituting soybean meal (SBM, and two levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 250 mg/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate groups and the experiment lasted 22 weeks. A positive relationship (P  0.05. The main effect of FB levels replacing for SBM affected (P < 0.05 yolk and shell percentages, yolk index, yolk to albumen ratio, shell thickness and egg shape index. It can be concluded that FB and enzyme supplementation could be included in hens diet at less than 50% instead of SBM to support egg productive performance, however higher raw FB levels negatively affected egg production indices and quality.

  17. Cause analysis of the effects of acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover prehydrolyzate on ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis CBS 5776.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lingling; Yong, Qiang; Xu, Yong; Li, Xin; Yu, Shiyuan

    2014-11-01

    The prehydrolyzate obtained from acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) mainly contains xylose and a number of inhibitory compounds that inhibit ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis. In this study, the effects of the ASC prehydrolyzate, specifically those of the carbohydrate-degradation products, lignin-degradation products (which were extracted from ASC prehydrolyzate using ethyl acetate), and six major phenolic compounds (added to pure-sugar media individually or in combination), on ethanol fermentation were investigated. Results indicate that the effects of the carbohydrate-degradation products were negligible (10 h delayed) compared with those of pure-sugar fermentation, whereas the effects of the lignin-degradation products were significant (52 h delayed). Meanwhile, the inhibitory effects of the major phenolic compounds were not caused by certain types of inhibitors, but were due to the synergistic effects of various inhibitors.

  18. Replacing moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera partially by protein replacement in soybean meal of fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

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    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics.The leaves are the protein source with an adequate profile of amino acids. The present study was undertaken in orderto determine the effect of a dietary of moringa leaves on digestibility and growth performance of fancy carp. Fish were fedwith diets containing isonitrogenouse and isoenergetic formulated by 20 and 50 g kg-1 of moringa leaves to replace protein insoybean. Fish were distributed in 500-liter tanks with flow-through water. Every fish was weighed and after the terminalexperiment, all groups’ livers and distal intestines were sampled. All fish grew normally (p>0.05 but fish fed with proteinreplacingmoringa leaves at 50 g kg-1 were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance and feed utilization. The studyindicated that the tested moringa leaf diet contains ingredients that could be used for fancy carp diets with possibly notover up to 20 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth and digestibility.

  19. Optimization of scanning conditions on near-infrared microscopic imaging for melamine detection in soybean meal%豆粕中三聚氰胺显微近红外成像检测的扫描条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎静; 韩鲁佳※; 杨增玲

    2013-01-01

      为了确定豆粕中三聚氰胺显微近红外成像检测的最佳扫描条件,该文研究了扫描条件对显微近红外光谱图像质量、采集效率和豆粕中三聚氰胺检测效果的影响。针对不同光谱分辨率和扫描次数对光谱图像均方根噪声(RMS)的影响进行了单因素方差分析试验,对干涉仪动镜移动速度(1、2.2 cm/s)、空间分辨率(25、50μm)、光谱分辨率(8、16、32 cm-1)和扫描次数(4、8、16次)进行了多因素正交试验方差分析,结果得出光谱分辨率对 RMS 有显著性影响,而且采用不同扫描条件时显微近红外图像采集时间相差很大。根据图像质量、采集效率和豆粕中三聚氰胺检测效果分别得出优选扫描条件,综合考虑上述3个方面,最终推荐采用的扫描条件为空间分辨率为25μm,干涉仪动镜移动速度为1 cm/s,光谱分辨率为32 cm-1,扫描次数为4次。该研究同时表明显微近红外成像技术可应用于豆粕中三聚氰胺的检测。%  Melamine is used as a non-protein nitrogen adulterant in soybean meal to increase the protein content, and it is harmful to the animals. The existing conventional detecting techniques have the shortcomings of complex pretreatment, high cost, and cannot achieve online detection. Near-infrared microscopic (NIRM) imaging technology combines the spectral and imaging technology. It can detect the material compositions and visualize the position. However, different scanning condition will affect the NIRM image quality and the detecting effect. In this article, a Spotlight 400 NIRM imaging system was used to acquire the NIRM images of the samples. The influence of the scanning condition on NIRM image quality and detection performance of the melamine in soybean meal was studied, and the scanning condition of melamine detection in soybean meal by NIRM imaging was optimized. At first, 10 samples in which the melamine particles

  20. Virginiamycin improves phosphorus digestibility and utilization by growing-finishing pigs fed a phosphorus-deficient, corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, J H; Lindemann, M D; Cromwell, G L; Newman, M C; Nimmo, R D

    2007-09-01

    Evaluations of the nutritional effect of antibiotics have largely centered on effects related to the digestibility and utilization of protein and energy. The current study evaluated the potential effect of virginiamycin (VIR) on P digestibility in swine. A total of 70 barrows (mean initial BW = 51 to 64 kg) were used in 4 nutrient-balance experiments. A basal, corn-soybean meal diet that was not supplemented with any inorganic source of P was used in each experiment. In Exp. 1, two diets were tested: basal vs. basal plus 11 mg/kg of VIR. In Exp. 2, four diets were used with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of 0 and 11 mg/kg of VIR and 0 and 750 phytase (PHY) units/kg of diet (PU/kg). Experiments 3 and 4 were the same as Exp. 2, except PHY was reduced to 300 PU/kg. For all experiments, VIR improved P digestibility (32.71 to 37.72%, P < 0.001) and Ca digestibility (54.99 to 58.30%, P = 0.002). The addition of PHY improved both P and Ca digestibility (P < 0.001); 750 PU/kg increased P digestibility 27.3% (from 34.6 to 61.9%, P < 0.001), whereas 300 PU increased it 13.8% (from 33.4 to 47.2%, P < 0.001). In an experiment conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of VIR on gut microbial profile, pigs (24 gilts and 8 barrows; mean BW = 29.1 +/- 0.50 kg) were fed a simple corn-soybean meal diet for 16 wk with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of VIR (0 and 11 mg/kg) addition and 0.15% dicalcium phosphate deletion. The long-term feeding of VIR in both the control diet and the diet with a marginally reduced P level resulted in a change in ileal microbial profile. A positive numerical increment in the number of phytate-utilizing bacteria was observed in both the normal and P-deleted diets (log unit increments of 12.4 and 17.2% over the respective controls, P = 0.13) when VIR was added. The addition of VIR also tended to affect lactobacilli populations (main effect, P = 0.11; interaction, P = 0.02); VIR decreased lactobacilli in the normal-P diet but did not affect this bacterial

  1. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Polyorach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a, potential degradability (a+b and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM linearly (p<0.01 increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b and rate of degradation (c. In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials.

  2. EFFECT OF REPLACING CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL WITH BREWERS RICE AND DRIED DISTILLERS BREWERS YEAST ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS

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    Ondieki Gekara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing corn and Soybean Meal (SBM with Brewers Rice (BR and Dried Distillers Brewers Yeast (DDBY, respectively, on ADG, G:F, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility (ATTD, fecal DM output and fecal loss of N and P of growing-finishing pigs. Sixty four Yorkshire x Duroc x Hampshire crosses (BW = 73±5.7 kg were randomly assigned to corn/SBM (CSM, BR/SBM (RSM, corn/DDBY (CBY or BR/DDBY (RBY diets. Compared with pigs finished on corn based diets, pigs fed BR based diets gained faster (0.868 vs. 0.730 kg.pig-1; p<0.01 and had better gain to feed ratio (0.30 vs. 0.25; p<0.01. Pigs finished on RBY diet had the least fecal DM output (0.245, 0.352, 0.575, 0.639 kg.pig-1; p<0.001 and greatest ATTD (91.5, 87.8, 80.0, 77.9%; p<0.001 followed by RSM, CBY and CSM pigs, respectively. Pigs finished on RBY diet lost the least (p<0.001 amount of N (0.010, 0.013, 0.019, 0.021 kg.pig-1 and P (0.010, 0.014, 0.016, 0.019 kg.pig-1 in the feces followed by pigs finished on RSM, CBY and CSM, respectively. In conclusion, BR and DDBY can replace all corn and SBM in swine diets with no negative effects on performance of growing-finishing pigs.

  3. Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno-competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravej, Hoseein; Alahyari-Shahrasb, Majid; Kiani, Ali; Bagherirad, Mona; Shivazad, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VP) reduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days) on performance, immuno-competence, and characteristics of leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatment groups (0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP), with nine replicates per treatment group. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCB) at 34 and 42 days of ages. At 33, 38 and 43 days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughtered and bone parameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at -80 ˚C. The results showed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisher period did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones. Results of TBARS showed that lipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP was significantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisher broilers' diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing.

  4. Research on the production of compound protein powder by mixed strain fermentation of soybean meal%混合菌株发酵豆粕生产复合蛋白粉研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 崔青曼; 袁春营; 王英光

    2012-01-01

    Six experimental groups were designed with shrimp shell fermentation liquid and soybean as raw materials according to several factors affecting fermentation effect,fermentation effect of different treatment groups were compared by measuring the range of indicators, the results showed that: fermented soybean meal (compound protein powder )compared with raw meal,the former had wine, sensory good, strong acid flavor, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid content decreased significantly(P<0.05), soluble protein, free amino acid, peptide content increased significantly (P<0.05), protein content increased significantly (P<0.05), it was illustrated that nutritional value of soybean meal had been greatly improved by mixed fermentation. The fifth experimental group was the best in all the experimental groups, fermentation parameters of the group: fermented liquor pH value was 6.5, added the non-sterilized soybean meal, solid-liquid ratio was 1 : 1.8, yeast inoculation quantity was 15% of soybean meal quality,10% glucose of soybean meal quality was added after 12 h fermentation,fermentation temperature was 35 t,fermentation time was 48 h.%以虾壳发酵液和豆粕为原料,根据影响发酵效果的几个因素,设计6组实验,通过测定系列指标,比较不同处理组豆粕的发酵效果.结果表明,发酵豆粕(复合蛋白粉)与原料豆粕相比,感官良好,带有酒香的浓郁酸香味,胰蛋白酶抑制因子和植酸含量显著降低(P<0.05),酸溶蛋白、游离氨基酸、小肽含量显著升高(P<0.05),蛋白质含量显著升高(P<0.05),说明经过混菌发酵,豆粕的营养价值得到极大提高.在各实验组中,以实验5组效果最佳,该组的发酵参数是:发酵原液·pH值6.5,添加未灭菌豆粕,料液比为1:1.8,酿酒酵母接菌量为豆粕质量的15%,发酵后12 h添加豆粕质量10%的葡萄糖,发酵温度35℃,发酵时间48 h.

  5. Efeito da granulometria do milho e do farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de codornas japonesas Effect of corn and soybean meal particle size on performance of japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes granulometrias de milho moído e de farelo de soja na ração, 384 codornas japonesas em postura com 13 semanas de idade foram alojadas em baterias metálicas. Os tratamentos foram diferenciados a partir do grau de moagem do milho (M e do farelo de soja (FS, em que o milho foi triturado em moinho de martelos com peneiras 1/8, 2/8 polegadas ou 6 mm (DGM de 1420; 1161 e 1047 mm, respectivamente, enquanto o farelo de soja foi utilizado sem moagem ou passado uma vez no moinho de martelos (DGM de 1811 e 700 mm. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2 (níveis de moagem do milho x níveis de moagem do FS com quatro repetições de 16 aves cada. A granulometria do FS foi determinante na variação dos DGM das rações experimentais (DGM variando de 1,737 a 1,153 mm. Em todos os ciclos estudados, a produção de ovos, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar (kg/kg e kg/dz de ovos e o peso médio dos ovos não diferiram entre as diferentes granulometrias testadas. Assim, entre a granulometrias analisadas, deve-se optar por aquela cujo processamento seja de menor custo.To evaluate the use of rations with different corn and soybean meal eparticle size in productive performance, 384 Japanese quails in laying period with 13 weeks of age were allotted to laying cages. The traits consisted of different particle size of diets according to grinding size of corn (C and soybean meal (SBM, with the use of sieve diameter of 1/8, 2/8 inches or 6 mm resulting in a GMD of 1420, 1161 and 1047 mm, respectively, and for soybean meal with no grinder passage and one time passage, resulting in a 1,181 and 700 mm of GMD. The completely randomized design was used, in a factorial scheme 3 x 2 (grinding levels of corn x grinding levels of soybean meal, four replications with 16 birds each. The particle size of soybean meal influenced the GMD of the experimental rations that ranged

  6. 固态发酵大豆粕工艺研究现状及其工业应用%Research status of solid-state fermented soybean meal technology and application in industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 孙世军; 赵巧义

    2013-01-01

    Soybean meal is an important source of high quality protein feed,containing anti–nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor,antibody protein,phytic acid et al. Its feeding value was restricted greatly. Solid–state fermentation technology by micro–organisms can increase the protein content of the soybean meal,polypeptides and amino acids generated by the decomposition can digested and absorbed easier by animals. A part or all of the anti–nutritional factors can be eliminated,and a variety of useful active factor generated,which improved the feeding value of the product. Research status on solid–state fermentation process of soybean meal and industrial applications were described.%  大豆粕是优质蛋白饲料重要来源;但因含有胰蛋白酶抑制剂、抗体蛋白、植酸等抗营养因子,使其饲用价值受到很大限制。微生物固态发酵技术不仅可提高大豆粕蛋白含量,分解产生多肽类及氨基酸更易被动物所消化吸收,且能部分或全部消除其中抗营养因子,并生成多种有益活性因子,提高产品饲用价值。该文对固态发酵大豆粕工艺目前研究现状及在工业应用上进行阐述。

  7. Farelo de soja na alimentação de tilápias-do-nilo durante o período de reversão sexual Soybean meal in Nile tilapia diets during the sexual reversion period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Meurer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 800 larvas com 2 dias de idade com o objetivo de testar o uso de farelo de soja em rações para tilápias-do-nilo durante o período de reversão sexual (30 dias. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, no qual um tanque-rede com 50 larvas correspondeu a uma unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas (38,6% de proteína digestível e 3.800 kcal/kg de energia digestível com 0, 16, 34 ou 42% de farelo de soja. O aumento no nível de farelo de soja teve efeito linear positivo sobre os valores de peso e comprimento finais médios, mas não afetou a condição corporal e os índices de sobrevivência. Recomenda-se incluir o farelo de soja em níveis de até 42% na ração de tilápias-do-nilo na fase de reversão.Eight hundred Nile tilapia larvae with two days old were used to evaluate the inclusion of soybean meal in diets fed Nile tilapia during the sex reversion period (30 days. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized blocks, with four treatments and four replications. A net tank with 50 larvae was considered an experimental unit. The treatments were formulated to be isoprotein and isonitrogenous (38.6% of digestible protein and 3,800 kcal/kg of digestible energy, with increasing levels of soybean meal inclusion 0, 16, 34 and 42%. Average final weight and length linearly increased as the dietary soybean meal levels increased. No treatment effect on survival and body condition was observed. It is recommend to include up to 42% of soybean meal in Nile tilapia diets in the sexual reversion phase.

  8. Study on in-vitro Enzymolysis of Xylan in Wheat-Corn-Soybean Meal Diet%小麦-玉米-豆粕型日粮中木聚糖体外酶解的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽芳; 朱海; 王世琼; 乔家运; 王志祥

    2014-01-01

    By using the method of simulating the gastrointestinal environment of piglets in vitro , replacing the corn in corn -soybean meal (65∶25) diet with different proportions (0%~100%) of wheat, and adding various levels (0~10000 U/kg) of xy-lanase into the mixed diet , the author studied the in -vitro enzymolysis of xylan in wheat -corn-soybean meal diet .The results in-dicated that:among 3 kinds of feedstuff , wheat contained the most soluble xylan , followed by soybean meal , and corn contained the least one;when the proportion of wheat for replacing corn in the mixed diet increased , the soluble xylan content and total xylan con-tent in the diet all increased gradually;the suitable adding level of xylanase into various mixed diets all was 6000 U/kg;the effect of 1/4 corn-3/4 wheat-soybean meal was better .%采用体外模拟仔猪胃肠道环境的方法,用不同比例(0%~100%)的小麦替代玉米-豆粕(65∶25)型日粮中的玉米,并添加不同水平(0~10000 U/kg)的木聚糖酶,研究了小麦-玉米-豆粕型日粮中木聚糖的体外酶解。结果表明:在3种饲料原料中,小麦可溶性木聚糖含量最高,豆粕次之,玉米最低;随着日粮组合中小麦替代玉米比例的增加,日粮中可溶性木聚糖含量和总木聚糖含量均逐渐增加;各日粮组合中适宜的木聚糖酶添加水平均为6000 U/kg;以1/4玉米-3/4小麦-豆粕日粮组合较佳。

  9. Substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Substitution of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in dairy goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Pego de Macedo

    2003-08-01

    the effect of substitution of soybean meal (SM protein by the protein from the corn gluten flour (CGF, in the milk production, milk composition, voluntary intake and plasmatic urea. The experimental design was the triple Latin square 4x4, with four periods of 21 days, being 14 days of adaptation to the diet and seven days for samples collection. The goats were fed and milked in the morning and afternoon. The substitution levels studied were: 0, 10, 30 and 50% of CGF (based in the crude protein. The substitution of the soybean meal by CGM did not affect the intake (kg/day and %BW of dry matter, crude protein and acid detergent fiber, but there was quadratic effect for neutral detergent fiber intake (kg/day and %BW. There was effect on the levels of plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN, where the smallest values were in the intermediate levels of substitution, being the biggest values for the treatment with only SM. The milk production decreased lineally with the inclusion of CGM. The substitution levels resulted in lineal decrease in the fat production (kg/day, in the milk fat content (% and milk total solids content (%. There was quadratic effect for lactose production, being the smallest value for 31.6% of substitution level. It was no effect on in crude protein in the milk, which average was .083 kg/day. The crude protein content, lactose and total solids did not suffer effect of the substitution levels, being the average values of 2.98, 4.35 and 11.51%, respectively.

  10. Comparison of soybean meal/sorghum grain, alfalfa hay and dehydrated alfalfa pellets as supplemental protein sources for beef cattle consuming dormant tallgrass-prairie forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelCurto, T; Cochran, R C; Nagaraja, T G; Corah, L R; Beharka, A A; Vanzant, E S

    1990-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare soybean meal/sorghum grain (SBM/SG), alfalfa hay or dehydrated alfalfa pellets (DEHY) as supplemental protein sources for beef cattle grazing dormant range forage. In Exp. 1 (35-d digestion study), 16 ruminally cannulated steers were stratified by weight (average BW 259 kg) and assigned randomly within stratification to: 1) control, no supplement; 2) SBM/SG (25% CP) fed at .48% BW; 3) alfalfa hay (17% CP) fed at .70% BW; or 4) DEHY (17.4% CP) fed at .67% BW. Steers receiving protein supplements displayed at least a twofold increase in forage intake (P less than .10). In addition, steers supplemented with DEHY consumed approximately 15% more forage (P less than .10) than SBM/SG- or alfalfa hay-supplemented steers. Digestible DM intake (kg/d), however, was similar between alfalfa hay- and DEHY-supplemented steers and 20% greater (P less than .10) than for SBM/SG-supplemented steers. In Exp. 2, 82 mature, nonlactating Hereford x Angus cows (average BW 489 kg) were assigned randomly to SBM/SG, alfalfa hay or DEHY supplement treatments, which were replicated in three pastures. Cows supplemented with DEHY gained more weight (P less than .05) during the first 84 d of supplementation and displayed the least amount of weight loss at calving (d 127; P less than .05) and just prior to breeding (P less than .10). In contrast, calving interval (361 d) and pregnancy rate (94%) were unaffected (P greater than .10) by dam's previous supplemental treatment. In Exp. 3, one block (pasture) of cows from Exp. 2 was selected at random and grazing behavior was monitored during week-long periods in January and February. A treatment X time interaction (P less than .05) occurred for total time spent grazing; treatments did not differ in January, but cows supplemented with alfalfa hay spent less time grazing in the February grazing period. In conclusion, DEHY and alfalfa hay appear to be at least as effective as SBM/SG as a supplemental protein

  11. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (PDiet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (PDiet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (PDiet 2, but no differences were observed for G : F among pigs fed diets containing autoclaved

  12. Effects of dietary soybean meal concentration on growth and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Alexander, L S; Rocha, G C; Van Alstine, W G; Boyd, R D; Pettigrew, J E; Dilger, R N

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM) concentration on the growth performance and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Four experimental treatments included a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 dietary SBM concentrations, 17.5% (LSBM) or 29% (HSBM), and 2 levels of PRRSV infection, uninfected sham or PRRSV infected. Sixty-four weanling pigs of split sex (21 d of age, 7.14 ± 0.54 kg) were individually housed in disease containment chambers. Pigs were provided a common diet for 1 wk postweaning before being equalized for BW and sex and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 16 replicate pigs per group. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 1 wk before receiving either a sham inoculation (sterile PBS) or a 1 × 10 50% tissue culture infective dose of PRRSV at 35 d of age (0 d postinoculation, DPI). Pig BW and feed intake were recorded weekly, and rectal temperatures were measured daily beginning on 0 DPI. Blood was collected on 0, 3, 7, and 14 DPI for determination of serum PRRSV load, differential complete blood cell counts, and haptoglobin and cytokine concentrations. Infection with PRRSV increased (P pigs throughout the infection period, with no influence of dietary SBM concentration. Pigs in the PRRSV-infected group had lower (P pigs. In the PRRSV-infected group, pigs fed HSBM tended to have improved ADG (P = 0.06) compared with pigs fed LSBM, whereas there was no influence of SBM concentration on growth of pigs in the uninfected group. At 14 DPI, PRRSV-infected pigs fed HSBM had a lower serum PRRSV load (P pigs fed LSBM. Serum haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations of PRRSV-infected pigs were lower (P pigs fed HSBM at 3 and 14 DPI, respectively, than in pigs fed LSBM. Overall, increasing the dietary SBM concentration modulated the immune response and tended to improve the growth of nursery pigs during a PRRSV infection.

  13. Dietary soybean meal on growth and intestinal morphology of South American catfish, Rhamdia quelen, larvae Farelo de soja em dietas para larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen sobre o crescimento e morfologia intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roque Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the replacement of bread yeast by soybean meal in diets for Rhamdia quelen larvae on growth, survival, and intestinal morphology were analysed. Larvae were fed for 20 days with five diets: a control diet formulated with 57% of bread yeast, and other four diets in which soybean meal at concentrations of 14.25, 28.5, 42.75 and 57% was added to obtain 25, 50, 75 and 100% of bread yeast replacement. Growth and survival parameters were negatively affected by dietary soybean meal inclusion. Larvae fed control diet showed significantly higher mean weight, specific growth rate, final biomass, and survival rate than larvae from other treatments. Enterocyte height and fold width of the posterior intestine showed highest values in the control group, and an inverse linear relationship with the level of dietary soybean meal inclusion was observed, however, in the anterior intestine the morphology parameters were not affected by the diet. These results indicate that inclusion of soybean meal in diets for R. quelen larvae negatively affects growth and survival, as well as the capacity for digestion and absorption of nutrients, mainly in the posterior intestine.Neste estudo, foi analisado o efeito da substituição de levedura de pão por farelo de soja em dietas para larvas de Rhamdia quelen no crescimento, sobrevivência e morfologia intestinal. As larvas foram alimentadas durante 20 dias com cinco dietas experimentais: uma dieta controle formulada com 57% de levedura de pão e quatro dietas em que o farelo de soja foi adicionado em 14,25, 28,5, 42,75 e 57% para obter 25, 50, 75 e 100% de substituição de levedura de pão. As variáveis de crescimento e sobrevivência foram negativamente afetadas pela inclusão da soja na dieta. As larvas alimentadas com a dieta controle apresentaram maior peso médio, taxa de crescimento específico, biomassa final e sobrevivência, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. A altura dos enter

  14. Study on Mixed Fermentation of Soybean Meal By the Complex Flora from Crusted Tea and Bacillus subtilis%陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌复合发酵豆粕的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚勇芳; 赵祥杰; 廖延智; 陈小凤; 李平凡

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌复合发酵生料豆粕。以酸溶性蛋白含量为主要检测指标,研究陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌不同培养条件对豆粕固态发酵的影响。结果表明:1)陈香茶菌适宜培养条件为,称取0.5 g陈香茶粉接入装有100 mL马铃薯葡萄糖培养基三角瓶中,28℃静置培养24 h。2)豆粕固态发酵最佳工艺为,10%枯草芽孢杆菌发酵液+10%陈香茶菌培养液+10%糖蜜+10%水+55%豆粕,在37℃密闭条件下培养3~6 d。通过陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌复合发酵,能显著改善生料豆粕营养价值,有一定的应用价值。%The study was conducted to investigate the mixed fermentation of soybean meal by the complex flora from crusted tea and Bacillus subtilis. Making the acid soluble protein content as the main index, the different culture conditions of the complex flora from crusted tea and Bacillus subtilis fermentation factors were studied. The research results showed as follows:1) the optimal culture conditions of the complex flora from crusted tea was:0.5 g crusted tea powder into triangle bottle with 100 mL potato dextrose agar was stationarily cultured for 24 h under the condition of 28 ℃. 2) The optimum process for soybean meal by solid state fermentation was:10% Bacillus subtilis fermentation liquid+10% culture liquid of the complex flora from crusted tea+10% mo-lasses+10% water+55% soybean meal, at 37 ℃ under airtight condition cultured for 3 to 6 days. The mixed fermentation by the complex flora from crusted tea and Bacillus subtilis can significantly improve the nutritional value of raw meal and have certain application value.

  15. 多菌种固态发酵对豆粕、棉籽粕和花生粕组成的混合蛋白原料的影响%Effect of multi-strain solid state fermentation on mixed protein feed composed of soybean meal, cottonseed meal and peanut meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旺军; 方华; 夏佳吉; 王玲; 季春源

    2011-01-01

    The active bacteria number and nutrient substances were analyzed during mixed culture solid state fermentation by Bacillus subitilis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus ,? With soybean meal, cottonseed meal and peanut meal as mixed solid protein feed. The Results showed that the colony formation unit (cfu) of Bacillus subitilis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus were 3. 1×108 and 4. 45×108 in fermented products, respectively. The content of lactate was 1. 98% {Meanwhile, the large molecular weight of proteins was nearly degraded after fermentation. Compared to the unfermented protein feed,the content of crude protein increased by 7. 89%,and the contents of oligo-peptide increased by 129. 36%. The anti-nutritional factors (stachyose and raffi-nose) almost completely degraded, as well as producing a certain amount of reducing sugar.%以枯草芽孢杆菌和保加利亚乳杆菌为试验菌株,对豆粕、棉籽粕和花生粕组成的混合蛋白原料样品进行多菌种发酵处理,检测发酵过程中的活菌数和营养物质的变化.结果表明:发酵结束后混合蛋白原料样品中枯草芽孢杆菌活菌数为3.1×108 cfu/g,保加利亚乳杆菌活菌数为4.45×108 cfu/g,乳酸含量为1.98%,大分子蛋白几乎完全分解成小分子蛋白,粗蛋白质含量比发酵前提高了7.89%,寡肽含量比发酵前提高了129.36%,抗营养因子(水苏糖和棉籽糖)几乎完全降解,同时产生了一定量的还原糖.

  16. Assessment of Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Availability of Soybean Meals in Laying Hens%评定蛋鸡豆粕代谢能和氨基酸可利用率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超胜; 贾刚; 张克英; 丁雪梅; 吴秀群; 赵华; 陈小玲; 吴彩梅; 刘光芒

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在评定罗曼蛋鸡对不同来源豆粕表观代谢能( AME )和氨基酸可利用率( AAA),并用傅里叶近红外光谱( NIRS)分析技术建立其预测模型。选择248只体重(1.60±0.10) kg、产蛋率85%的36周龄罗曼蛋鸡,按单因素完全随机设计,分为31组,每组8个重复,每个重复1只鸡。在训饲的基础上,采用全收粪法评定30种不同来源豆粕和1种基础饲粮的AME和AAA,然后用NIRS技术建立其生物效价的预测模型。结果如下:1)不同来源的30种豆粕AME在11.95~14.87 MJ/kg 之间,平均值为(13.24±0.67) MJ/kg;总氨基酸可利用率(TAAA)在89.99%~94.96%之间,平均值为(93.73±1.23)%。2)豆粕AME的NIRS预测模型的校正决定系数(Rcal2)、交叉验证系数(Rcv2)、外部验证系数(Rval2)分别为99.24%、83.79%、80.73%,外部验证标准差( RMSEP)为0.22 MJ/kg;TAAA的NIRS预测模型的 Rcal2、Rcv2、Rval2范围分别为94.20%~99.97%、76.38%~97.32%、61.80%~99.42%, RMSEP 范围为0.06%~1.00%。结果表明:1)不同来源豆粕的AME、AAA在罗曼蛋鸡上有较大差异;2)利用NIRS分析技术可建立罗曼蛋鸡豆粕的AME、AAA预测模型,模型的Rcal2及预测的RMSEP较好。%The study was conducted to investigate apparent metabolizable energy ( AME) and amino acids a-vailability ( AAA) of different soybean meal samples, and explore feasibility of establishing prediction for the AME and AAA using Fourier near infrared spectroscopy ( NIRS) . A completely randomized design was used with a total of two hundred and forty six 36-week-old Lohmann laying hens with initial body weight of (1.60± 0.10) kg and laying rate of 85%. Hens were divided into 31 groups with 8 replicates per group and 1 hen per replicate. The experiment was conducted to use the method of trained feeding and total excreta collection. Addi-tionally, the near infrared spectroscopy ( NIRS) calibrations were established to predict AME and AAA of soy-bean meal for laying hens feeds. The

  17. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lounaouci-Ouyed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF] or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15% of soybean meal, alfalfa and maize (SBM15 diet; g/kg as fed: 161 CP and 267 NDF and 2 experimental diets based on 26% of field bean (FB26 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 250 NDF or 30% of pea (P30 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 255 NDF as main protein source, and completed with hard wheat bran (34 and 40%, respectively for FB26 and P30 diets partly replacing alfalfa and maize. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 3 groups of 40 mixed-sex growing rabbits of Algerian white population, placed in collective cages (4 rabbits/cage from weaning (28 d, mean weight: 614±112 g until 77 d of age (slaughter. Faecal digestibility was measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 7 rabbits/group. Gross energy and crude protein digestibility coefficients were similar for SBM15 and FB26 diets (78.6 and 86.4%, respectively and lower for P30 diet (75.1 and 83.6%, respectively; P≤0.03. Treatments had no effect (P=0.12 on mortality rate, which was on av. 9.2%. Treatments did not affect growth performance from 28 to 77 d of age (30.8 g/d or feed intake (mean 94.6 g/d, but feed conversion ratio was higher for rabbits fed FB26 and P30 diets compared to those fed SBM15 diet (3.13 vs. 2.94; P=0.006. The dressing out percentages (mean 66.6% and the muscle/bone ratio (6.8 were similar for the 3 groups of rabbits. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran, without methionine supplementation, does not seem to affect

  18. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, P E; Stein, H H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the digestibility of AA, energy, and fiber, on the fermentation of fiber, and on the first appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and in the feces of growing pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Sixteen pigs (initial BW = 38.0 +/- 1.6 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and a T-cannula in the cecum and allotted to 2 treatments. In period 1, all pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet. In periods 2, 3, and 4, pigs were fed the control diet or a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS. First appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and over the entire intestinal tract was measured at the end of period 4. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were measured, and the concentration of VFA was analyzed in ileal, cecal, and fecal samples. The AID of Lys (74.1%) in the DDGS diet was less (P dietary fiber (TDF) were not different between the 2 diets. The ATTD of GE (81.0%), NDF (57.2%), TDF (55.5%), and DM (81.7%) were less (P pigs fed the 2 diets. The pH of ileal and cecal digesta from pigs fed the DDGS diet (6.3 and 5.5) was greater (P pigs fed the control diet (5.8 and 5.3). The ATTD of DM, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF did not change with collection period, but the AID of ADF, NDF, and TDF increased (P pigs fed the diet containing DDGS had less digestibility of Lys, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF than pigs fed the control diet. The digestibility of DM and GE was not influenced by collection period, but the concentration of VFA in cecal digesta and feces increased with the length of time pigs received the diets.

  19. Effects of low soybean meal diets on the production performance and egg quality of laying hens%低豆粕日粮对产蛋鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲玲; 李志明; 赵瑞霞; 孙国庆; 乌仁图雅; 乌艳红

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of low soybean meal diets on the production performance and egg quality of laying hens,one thousand and six hundred roman egg breeding hens with 33 week old were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates.The results showed that the amino acid balanced diets of low soybean meals had no significant effects on the laying rate, hatchable egg rate, chicks healthy chick rate, egg shape index, egg specific gravity, shell thickness and haugh unit(P>0.05),but the daily egg weight, daily feed intake,fertilization rate and hatching rate were decreased (P0.05).The test guop 1 decreased the feed cost and improved the culture benefit,Therefore, the amino acid balanced diets of low soybean meals had practical significance for the poultry industry .%试验选用1600只生产性能相同、体况良好的33周龄罗曼蛋种鸡,随机分为4组,在总蛋白质含量相同和满足必需氨基酸需要量的情况下,用价格较低的蛋白饲料取代蛋鸡日粮中豆粕,研究氨基酸平衡的低豆粕日粮对蛋种鸡生产性能和蛋品质的影响.结果表明:氨基酸平衡的低豆粕日粮对蛋鸡产蛋率、种蛋合格率、健雏率、蛋形指数、蛋比重、蛋壳厚度、哈氏单位等指标无显著影响(P>0.05),但当日粮中的豆粕含量降低8~15个百分点时,蛋种鸡的日平均蛋重、日采食量、受精率、孵化率等显著低于正常豆粕日粮(P<0.05),而考虑综合因素日粮中的豆粕含量降低8个百分点的第1组,与正常豆粕日粮相比,差异不显著(P>0.05),而且能降低饲料成本,可以提高蛋鸡养殖效益,具有实际意义.

  20. Treatment of acidic dyes solutions by adsorption in soybean meal=Tratamento de soluções de corantes ácidos por adsorção em farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Eduardo Roza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the potential use of a natural sorbent based on soybean meal from oil extraction in the treatment of solutions containing the acid dyes: yellow Erionyl RXL, navy blue Erionyl R and red Erionyl A-3B, used to dye polyamide fibers. To that end, adsorption studies were performed under different conditions of temperature, adsorbent concentrations, pH values, and color mixes (two- and three-color on dye solutions produced in laboratory. Soybean meal showed great ability to remove color, especially in solutions with pH 4 and 6 at 60°C and containing 10 g L-1 of adsorbent. Considering that values of adsorption efficiency ranged between 74 and 99%, depending on the dye and treatment conditions, soybean meal proved to be an alternative material for the adsorption of acidic dyes.Neste trabalho, testou-se o potencial emprego do adsorvente natural à base de farelo de soja, proveniente da extração de óleo vegetal, no tratamento de soluções contendo os corantes ácidos: amarelo Erionyl RXL, marinho Erionyl R e vermelho Erionyl A-3B, empregados no tingimento de fibras poliamídicas. Para tanto, foram realizados estudos de adsorção em diferentes condições de temperatura, concentração de adsorvente, pH e mistura de cores (bicromia e tricromia em soluções de corantes produzidas em laboratório. O farelo de soja mostrou uma ótima capacidade de remoção de cor, principalmente nas soluções de corantes com pH’s 4 e 6 à 60ºC contendo 10 g L-1. Considerando que os valores de eficiência na adsorção ficaram entre 74 e 99%, dependendo do corante e das condições de tratamento, o farelo de soja mostrou-se um material alternativo para a adsorção dos corantes ácidos.

  1. Replacing soybean meal by high energy cottonseed meal in diets for dairy cattle: milk composition and economic viability Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de algodão de alta energia em dietas para vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcino Francisco de Paula

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of including increasing levels of high-energy cottonseed meal (zero, 8.7, 17.4, 26.1 and 34.8% of dry matter in replacement to soybean meal in concentrate for cows on third-end lactation, composition and economic viability. Five Holstein-Zebu lactating cows were distributed in Latin square 5x5 design, with five periods of 18 days. Diets were isonitrogenous, with 60% of corn silage and 40% of concentrate, as total mixed ration. Milk fat content and yield, and milk protein content were not influenced by the different protein sources. The inclusion of cottonseed meal high in energy to about 35% in the concentrate did not change the milk composition , and within the market situation in which they conducted the experiment to replace the soybean meal by cottonseed meal in high-energy diets cows average yield potential (+/- 15 kg/animal/day can increase the profitability.No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de níveis crescentes do farelo de algodão de alta energia (zero; 8,7; 17,4; 26,1 e 34,8% da matéria seca em substituição ao farelo de soja no concentrado para vacas no terço final de lactação, sobre a composição do leite e viabilidade econômica. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas mestiças Holandês-Gir, em um delineamento em quadrado latino (5x5, com cinco períodos de 18 dias. As dietas foram calculadas para serem isonitrogenadas (14% proteína bruta, com 60% de silagem de milho e 40% de concentrado, misturadas diretamente no cocho. O teor e a produção de gordura e proteína do leite não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de farelo de algodão na dieta. O teor de proteína do leite esteve acima da média relatada na literatura. A inclusão de farelo de algodão de alta energia no concentrado para vacas com produção média diária de 14 kg/dia de leite proporcionou maior rentabilidade econômica.

  2. 饲粮蛋白质水平和棉籽粕取代豆粕对肉牛育肥的影响%Effects of Dietary Protein Level and Replacing Soybean Meal with Cottonseed Meal on Fattening of Beef Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆元强; 宋恩亮; 成海建; 刘晓牧; 赵红波; 刘桂芬; 谭秀文; 杨维仁; 万发春

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effects of protein level and replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal on fattening of beef cattle, diets with different protein levels and costs were prepared by replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal based on meeting nutrient requirement of beef cattle. Forty healthy first-filial generation beef cattle (Japanese black cattle ♂×Luxi yellow cattle 9 ) with similar age (average age was 28-month-old) and body weight [average body weight was (678 ±122) kg] were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups with 10 beef steers per group. The adjustment period lasted for 15 days, and the experimental period lasted for 240 days. The results showed as follows; compared with the group with the diet containing 12. 8% protein, the daily gain of beef cattle in the group with the diet containing 14. 8% protein was increased by 18. 57% (P >0. 05). The dressing percentage, meat percentage, rib fat thickness and backfat thickness of beef cattle fed 14.8% protein diet were significantly increased than those of beef cattle fed 12. 8% protein diet(P 0. 05). Under the same protein level, partial or whole replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal had no effect on the daily gain and carcass traits of beef cattle (P >0. 05) , but the unit price of diets and costs of per kilogram of weight gain in cottonseed meal group were lower than those in soybean meal group. In conclusion, using cottonseed meal instead of soybean meal in the later stage of fattening of beef cattle is viable to reduce feeding costs. The demand of protein level for beef cattle recommend by current Feeding Standard of Fattening of Beef Cattle (2004) is lower than that for first-filial generation cattle (Japanese black cattle ♂ × Luxi yellow cattle 9 ) in this experiment.%本试验在满足肉牛营养需要的基础上,采用棉籽粕替代饲粮中的豆粕,形成不同蛋白质水平和成本的饲粮,旨在探讨饲粮蛋白质水平和棉籽粕替代豆粕对肉牛育肥的影

  3. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  4. Tolerance of Broiler to Dietary Soybean Antinutritional Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Raw, heat treated soybean meal and diets made from soybeans extruded at varying temperature were compared to examine dietary threshold levels of the major soybean antinutritional factors (ANF)for broilers.Whole full-fat soybeans were extruded at 90,100,110,120,130,or 140 C. An in vivo nutritional evaluation of the extruded soybean meals was carried out using 224 Arbor Acres broilers allotted to seven treatments with four replicates of eight birds per pen. As extrusion cooking temperature increased,the urease activity,TI activity,lectin content and PDI decreased. Extruding at 120 C reduced the urease actvity to 0.11 units.the TI activity to 7.20 mg@ g-1 ,and lectin content to zero. Raw soybean meal significantly depressed the growth rate of broiler chickens. Remaining ANF obviously reduced feed intake and dietary nitrogen metabolism. The performance of broilers was improved as extrusion temperature increased. Extruding at 110 C produced an effect equal to that of conventional soybean meal. The weight of the pancreas of the birds fed the raw soybean or 90C-extruded soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group and in the higher temperature-extruded soyean groups. The same tendency was found from 3 to 7 wk of age. The weights of duodenum and ileum of the broilers fed the raw soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group. Extending the feeding of raw soybean or low temperature-extruded soybean to 7-wk-old hroilers significantly increased the fresh weights of proventriculus,jejunum and ileum and dry weights of jejunum and ileum. The villi of birds fed raw soybean meal and low-temperature-extruded soybean meals were shot tened and damaged. Broilers grew well on the diets containing soybean trypsin inhitory activity as high as 3.74 mg @ g-1 without showing any negative effect on the weights of organs and alimentary tracts.

  5. Effect of whole-crop pea (Pisum sativum L.) silages differing in condensed tannin content as a substitute for grass silage and soybean meal on the performance, metabolism, and carcass characteristics of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K J; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Huntington, J A

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of whole-crop pea (WCP) silages, differing in condensed tannin content, as a substitute for grass silage (GS) and soybean meal on lamb metabolism, performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In both experiments lambs were offered either solely GS or a 50:50 mix on a DM basis of GS with either low-tannin (LTPS) or high-tannin (HTPS) pea silage ad libitum. Each forage mix was fed with either 400 g/d of low-protein (LP) concentrate or 400 g/d of LP with an additional 200 g/d of pelletized soybean meal (HP), resulting in 6 dietary treatments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the diets on metabolism, digestibility, and N balance using 6 lambs in 4 periods of 21 d in an incomplete crossover design. Experiment 2 used 48 lambs and examined the effects of the diets on ADG, plasma metabolites, and carcass characteristics over 56 d. Both experiments were analyzed using a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 1, lambs offered the LTPS diets had a greater (P silages had an increased (P 0.05) of forage type on intake, slaughter BW, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). However, lambs offered the LTPS had a greater (P 0.05) on carcass composition except for fat depth, which was greater (P silage. Diets containing the HP increased (P < 0.05) carcass weight, hind leg circumference, chop dimensions, and kidney weight. It was concluded that lambs offered LTPS performed better than those offered GS and that LTPS has a concentrate sparing effect. Additionally, the increased tannin concentration in HTPS did not increase performance over lambs offered either GS or LTPS.

  6. Effects on growth and body composition in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as total replacement of fish meal without amino acid supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish meal (FM) is the main protein source in numerous aquaculture diets due to its palatability and quality. Quantities of FM have remained constant for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in diets used for the global aquaculture industry. Ther...

  7. 发酵豆粕对樱桃谷肉鸭生长性能和屠宰性能的影响%Effects of fermented soybean meal on growth and slaughter performance of cherry valley ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艺伟; 王全溪; 陈文忠; 林丽花; 林俊英; 王长康

    2012-01-01

    800 1-day-old cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into five groups (4 replications per group, 40 ducks per replication) to determine the effects of fermented soybean meal on growth performance and slaughter performance. Antibiotic group was fed with the basic diet supplemented with 30 mg · kg-1 zinc bacitracin and 6 mg · kg-1 colistinsulfate, the control group was fed with basic diet, the experimental groups were respectively fed with basic diet supplemented with 3% , 6% , 9% fermented soybean meal, and the nutrients of all groups were regulated to the same level. The experimental results showed that the average feed intake of antibiotic group was significantly higher than the control group, 3% , 6% fermented soybean meal group (P 0.05 ). The average weight gain of the treatment groups and antibiotic group was significantly higher than control group (P 0.05). The percentage of breast muscle of 3% , 6% fermented soybean meal group was significantly higher than control group ( P < 0.05 ) , but the leg muscle of 9% fermented soybean meal group was significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05 ). Economic benefits in other groups were dramatically increased when compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that 6% fermented soybean meal added with basic diet could significantly reduce the feed conversion rates of cherry valley duck, and significantly increase the weight gain and the percentage of breast muscle, and increase economic benefit.%将800只1日龄樱桃谷肉鸭随机分为5组,每组4个重复,每个重复40只.抗生素组在基础日粮中添加30 mg·kg-1杆菌肽锌和6 mg·kg-1硫酸粘杆菌素,空白对照组饲喂基础日粮,3%、6%、9%发酵豆粕组分别用3%、6%、9%发酵豆粕替代基础日粮中的普通豆粕,并将日粮营养水平调为一致,试验期42 d,研究日粮中添加发酵豆粕对樱桃谷肉鸭生产性能和屠宰性能的影响.结果表明:樱桃谷肉鸭的采食量以抗生

  8. Study on Application of Soybean Expansion Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXuede; ZhangBaichun; LiuYulan; LiuGuoqin; ZhouZikuan; LuoShenming; XuZhaoyong; WangDeyuan; WangXuewu

    2002-01-01

    The soybean expanding and exacting have obvious superiority in the oil process compared with soybean extracting directly.Production capacity improves by 40%,the power consumption reduces by 30%,the steam consumption reduces by 15%,refinery rate by 0.5%,the urea enzyme activity of soybean meal is steady.Oil and soybean quality can be improved.The market latent capacity is hopeful.

  9. 豆粕替代鱼粉对日本黄姑鱼生长、饲料利用及体成分影响的研究%The Influence of Replacing Fish Meal Partially in the Diet with Soybean Meal on Growth, Body Composition and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Giant Croaker Nibea japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骥腾; 韩涛; 胡水鑫; 姜宇栋; 李莉; 林黑着

    2011-01-01

    开展了为期63d的饲养试验以评价豆粕替代鱼粉对日本黄姑鱼生长、体组成和饲料利用率的影响。配制了3种等氮饲料,以豆粕蛋白分别替代0%、20%和40%的鱼粉蛋白,饲养初始重大约5.67~5.77g/尾的幼鱼。结果显示,各组间的增重率和特定生长率值没有显著差异性存在(P〉0.05)。然而添加豆粕的D2和D3组的摄食率和FCR值显著地高于鱼粉组,PER的值显著地低于鱼粉组(P〈0.05)。日本黄姑鱼的内脏比、肠脂比和丰满度的值在各组之间无显著性差异存在(P〉0.05),但高水平豆粕添加组(D3)的肝体比最低,且显著地低于D2组(P〈0.05)。不同饲料处理对日本黄姑鱼体成分和背肌组织成分组成没有显著性影响(P〉0.05)。总之,在本实验条件下,豆粕可以替代40%的饲料鱼粉蛋白而没有引起日本黄姑鱼生长的下降。%A 63-day growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partially replacing fish meal (FM) with soybean meal (SBM) on growth, feed efficiency and body composition of giant croaker (Nibeajaponica). Three isonitrogenous diets containing SBM at protein replacement levels of 0, 20% and 40% were offered by hand twice daily. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 18 fish per aquarium (5.67-5.77 g on average). Specific growth rate and Growth rate were not significantly different between fish fed the FM and SBM diets, ranged from 142 9.38 to 173 1.78% and 4.32 to 4.61% day-1, respectively. But fish fed FM diet had significantly (P〈0.05) lower FCR (0.7) and higher PER (3.13) than fish fed with the other diets. Fish fed the SBM diets had a higher feed intake (84.68-86.70) than those fed the FM diet (56.99). The final biometric parameters were not affected by the diets, except that the hepatosomatic index in fish fed with 40% SBM pro- tein diet was significantly lower

  10. Evaluation of millet residue meal based diets as feed for the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Karikari,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nutritive value of millet residue meal with fish meal, soybean meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 as protein source. The treatments were labelled according to protein source as fish meal diet, soybean meal diet and fish-soybean meal diet. Thirty nulliparous mixed-breed rabbits of an initial mean (±SD body weight of 1852.6±122.7 g were used in a completely randomised design with 10 rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were allowed four weeks to adjust to the experimental diets before breeding was initiated. The feed intake during gestation and the reproductive data of the rabbits were assessed over two reproductive cycles. Does on the fish meal diet had poorer (P<0.05 DMI, daily growth rate and FCR than those on the soybean meal diet during the pre-breeding period. Does on the fish meal diet delivered less (P<0.05 number of kits at birth and weaned less kits compared to those on the soybean meal diet. Those on the soybean meal diet were heaviest (P<0.05 at mating and at kindling. They out-performed does on the fish meal diet in most of the parameters measured. Parity did not affect reproductive performance, but growth rate of the does had a positive linear relationship with DMI (r= 0.77; P<0.01 and a negative linear relationship with FCR (r= -0.83; P<0.01 during the pre-breeding period. It was concluded that millet residue meal may be a better feed source for rabbit does if soybean meal rather than fish meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 is used to improve the protein content.

  11. Replacement of soybean meal by treated castor meal in supplements for grazing heifer during the dry-rainy season period Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de mamona tratado em suplementos para novilhas em pastejo no período de transição seca-águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplement with different levels of castor meal (Ricinus communis L. treated with calcium oxide on intake, on the total apparent digestibility of dietary components, on the efficiency of microbial synthesis and on the performance of beef heifers grazing Brachiaria decumbens during the dry-rainy transition period. The experimental area was composed of five 2.5-ha paddocks with availability of potentially digestible dry matter of 2,858.4 kg/ha. It was used 25 Nellore heifers and 10 crossbred with predominance of Zebu breed heifers at 13 months of age and body weight of 210 ± 0.8 kg in a completely randomized experimental design. Supplements contained approximately 25% of crude protein (CP and they were formulated with 0; 33; 67 and 100% of castor meal replacing soybean meal. Daily weight gain was 366.1 g for animals in the control group and 439.7; 478.9; 556.3; and 493.9, respectively for those fed supplements with 100% of soybean meal and 33, 67 and 100% castor meal. There was no effect of treated castor meal levels on daily weight gain of the animals, which was higher in those animals fed supplements. Levels of castor meal had decreasing linear effect on intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, digested dry matter and digestible neutral detergent fiver and on the intake of total digestible nutrients. Coefficients of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE and non-fibrous carbohydrates were greater for animals under supplementation. Microbial efficiency, expressed in g of crude protein per kg of consumed TDN, did not differ among groups. Replacement of soybean meal by castor meal treated with calcium oxide does not harm animal performance.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de suplementos múltiplos com diferentes níveis de farelo de mamona (Ricinus communis L. tratado com óxido de cálcio sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente total de componentes da

  12. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Marcia Dias; Vinicio Araujo Nascimento; Débora Andréa Evangelista Façanha; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control); raw soybean (RaS); roasted soybean (RoS) and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU). The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples ...

  13. FARELO DE SOJA EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO À UREIA EM DIETAS PARA BOVINOS DE CORTE EM CRESCIMENTO SOYBEAN MEAL AS A REPLACEMENT FOR UREA ON GROWING BEEF STEERS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano José de Resende Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar se novilhos machos não castrados destinados à engorda em regime de confinamento durante a fase de crescimento responderiam ao incremento de proteína metabolizável calculado pelo NCR (1996, Nível I, por meio da adição de farelo de soja à dieta, em substituição parcial ou total à ureia. Utilizaram-se vinte e quatro novilhos da raça Nelore e doze da raça Canchim, com peso vivo inicial médio de 230 kg e idade inicial média de quinze meses. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso. Formularam-se as dietas de modo a se obter um balanço de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR positivo e energia metabolizável suficiente para ganho de peso diário de 1,3 kg/animal/dia em todos os tratamentos, sendo: ureia (U, farelo de soja + ureia (FSU e farelo de soja (FS. Não se detectou diferença no consumo de matéria seca (MS entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. O ganho de peso médio diário (GPD no tratamento U (1,14 kg/animal/dia foi menor (P<0,05 que os observados para nos tratamentos FSU (1,26 kg/animal/dia e FS (1,28 kg/animal/dia. Apesar da diferença entre os valores preditos pelo NRC (1996, Nível I e os efetivamente observados em relação ao GPD, concluiu-se que há necessidade da inclusão de fonte suplementar de proteína verdadeira na dieta de bovinos machos não castrados em fase crescimento.

    PALAVRAS- CHAVES: Canchim, desempenho animal, Nelore, novilhos, proteína. The aim of this trial was to evaluate if non-castrated growing beef steers in feedlot systems would respond to increasing levels of metabolizable protein in the diet estimated by NRC (1996, Level I, through the addition of soybean meal in substitution of urea. Thirty-six steers (24 Nelore and 12 Canchim with liveweight of 230 kg and 15 months of age were assigned in a completely randomized block design. Diets were formulated according to NRC (1996, Level I in order to obtain a positive rumen degradable protein

  14. Liquid state fermentation of soybean meal with mixed strains for seed strain preparation%豆粕混菌液体发酵制种技术试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 马海乐; 何荣海; 刘斌; 耿静静

    2012-01-01

    Candida tropicalis and Bacillus subtilis mixed in liquid state fermentation was used for the seed strain preparation. The results showed that the growth rates of the strains had a relatively consistent trend with inoculation amount , soybean meal content and cultural temperature; The number of Candida tropicalis increased first and then decreased, and Bacillus subtilis down first and then increased as culture time increasing. Candida tropicalis at pH3, 5 had the largest number, pH rang of appropriative growth of Bacillus subtilis was from 4, 5 to 7. 5. It was obtained that both 10 % of two strains were added into liquid culture medium with soybean meal of 15%(W/W), glucose of 1% and initial pH of 9. 0, cultured at 28℃ for 5 days with rotation speed of 160 r/min, the number of Candida tropicalis and Bacillus subtilis bacteria could reach maximum, being 752. 5×106 cfu/ml and 264. 2×107 cfu/ml, respectively.%利用热带假丝酵母和枯草芽孢杆菌混菌发酵进行液体制种.结果表明:受接种量、豆粕含量和培养温度的影响,两株菌种菌数的增长速度具有相对一致的变化趋势;受培养时间的影响,热带假丝酵母菌先增后降,枯草芽孢杆菌先降后增;热带假丝酵母在pH3.5时菌数最大,枯草芽孢杆菌在pH4.5~7.5范围内适宜生长.在豆柏质量分数15%、葡萄糖质量分数1%、初始pH4.5的液体培养基上,两菌分别接种10%,在发酵温度28℃、摇床转速160 r/min条件下培养5d,热带假丝酵母菌和枯草芽孢杆菌菌数达到最大,分别为752.5×106和264.2×107 cfu/ml.

  15. Avaliação do desempenho de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição parcial ou total ao farelo de soja Evaluation of the performance of female rabbits fed on canola meal in partial and total substitution of crude protein by soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial and total substitution of soybean meal crude protein (SBM by canola meal (CM on live weight (LW, daily weight gain (DWG, daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion (FC in female rabbits are provided. Rabbits were evaluated from weaning period (43 days of age to adult life when they are capable of reproduction (150 days of age. Forty-eight White New Zealand females were used and distributed in four treatments. SBM was substituted at 00%, 33%, 66% and 100% levels by CM. The partial or total substitution of SBM by CM did not change (P > 0.05 the LW after 70 days old. Dunnett’s test showed that, independently of substitution level, FC of animals fed on meal with 33% SBM substitution by CM from age 43 to 90 days and 43 to 150 days was worse than that of animals fed on reference meal. LW120, DWG of 43 – 120-day-old animals receiving 33% SBM substitution by CM and LW150 and DWG of 43 – 150-day-old animals receiving meal with SBM substitution by 33% and 66% of CM were lower than those for animals that received reference meal. Excluding the reference meal, SBM substitution by CM during the periods in which animals were 43 - 120 days old and 43 - 150 days old caused an increase of DFI. Independently of level of inclusion as a substitute for SBM, results show that CM worsened the animals’ performance.Objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos da substiuição parcial e total do farelo de soja pelo farelo de canola sobre o peso, ganho médio diário (GMD, ingestão de alimentos (IA e conversão alimentar (CA em coelhas do desmame (43 dias até a idade de reprodução (150 dias, quarente e oito coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia, foram distribuídas, inteiramente ao acaso, em um experimento com quatro tratamentos e doze repetições. O farelo de soja foi substituído em 00, 33, 66 e 100% pelo farelo de canola. A substituição parcial ou total do farelo de soja não alterarou o peso após os 70 dias de idade. Por meio do uso do teste de

  16. Digestibilidade dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de soja e gérmen integral de milho em galos e frangos de corte cecectomizados Digestibility of amino acids from corn, soybean meal and corn germ meal in cecectomized roosters and broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa de Brito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a digestibilidade dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de soja e gérmen integral de milho em galos e frangos de corte cecectomizados. Foram utilizados 16 galos Lohmann-LSL com 45 semanas de idade, 40 frangos de corte machos AgRoss 508, sendo 20 com 21 dias de idade e outros 20 com 42 dias de idade, todos cecectomizados. Adotou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três categorias animais (galos; frangos aos 21 dias; e frangos aos 42 dias de idade para cada alimento avaliado e cada ave considerada uma unidade experimental. O ensaio durou 84 horas: nas 36 horas iniciais, as aves foram submetidas a jejum e nas 48 horas subsequentes, à ingestão forçada dos alimentos, feita com sonda esofágica introduzida diretamente no inglúvio das aves. As excretas produzidas foram colhidas duas vezes ao dia nas 48 horas subseqüentes. Os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros determinados para o milho e gérmen integral de milho determinados com frangos submetidos ao procedimento experimental aos 21 dias de idade foram inferiores aos do grupo controle (galos. Contudo, os mesmos resultados não foram observados para o farelo de soja. O aproveitamento de aminoácidos foi maior nos frangos submetidos ao procedimento experimental aos 42 dias de idade em comparação aos do grupo controle (galos adultos, independentemente do alimento avaliado. O teor de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros totais obtidos foi de 7,24; 6,25 e 7,33% para o milho, 9,66; 9,14 e 9,91% para o gérmen integral de milho e 41,82; 41,78 e 42,02% para o farelo de soja, valores determinados com galos, frangos aos 21 e aos 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. Observou-se que, com o amadurecimento do trato digestório, aumenta o aproveitamento proteico em aves que consomem milho e gérmen integral de milho.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the digestibility of the amino acids from corn, soybean meal and corn germ meal in

  17. Substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991 Replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeisson Emerson Casimiro Ferrari

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 5 tratamentos 0%; 25%; 50%; 75% e 100% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, com 4 repetições. Os níveis adotados corresponderam a 11,75%; 23%; 35,78% e 47,28% de inclusão de glúten de milho nas rações, as quais foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas em proteína digestível (PD, isocalóricas em energia digestível (ED e com a mesma quantidade de fibra bruta, lisina e metionina. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos com peso médio de 7,47±1,61g, distribuídos em 20 aquários (250L, em sistema de recirculação de água dotado de controle de temperatura. Foi observado efeito quadrático para o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo os respectivos valores ótimos estimados em 30,69%; 48% e 46,25% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, para o consumo de ração, foi verificado efeito linear. Em função da média referente aos valores estimados para os diferentes parâmetros avaliados, pôde-se concluir que a proteína do glúten de milho pode substituir até 42% (19,82% de inclusão na ração da proteína do farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The research was carried out aiming to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae diets. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of replacement of soybean protein by corn gluten meal protein and 4 replicates. The used levels corresponded to 11.75%, 23%, 35.78% and 42.28% of corn gluten meal inclusion in diets, formulated to be

  18. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  19. A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka; Yi, Young-Joo; Yoo, Jaehong; Kang, Nam Kyu; Heo, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the published data on the canola meal and its suitability for duck as an alternative plant-origin protein source to soybean meal. Canola meal is a legume origin protein source containing comparable amino acid profile to soybean meal and rich in essential minerals and vitamins. Nonetheless, it is known to contain less in energy content than soybean meal. Factors like field conditions and processing methods creates compositional variations among canola meal. Presence of anti-nutritional factors such as phenolic substances, phytate and glucosinolates which are known to reduce growth performance in livestock animals, are the major drawbacks for canola meal to be a competitive plant-origin protein source in the feed industry. This review is focused to address i) nutritional characteristics and feeding value of canola meal for ducks and ii) impacts of feeding canola meal on performances of ducks.

  20. Replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal in diets based on spineless cactus for lactating cows Substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas em lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal in the diet of dairy cows fed diets based on spineless cactus. Five Girolando lactating cows were used, with average live weight of 490 kg and average production of 11.5 kg of milk/day, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design (5 animals, 5 treatments and 5 experimental periods. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, 10 days being for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 5 days for data collection. The experimental diet consisted of spineless cactus (53%, sorghum silage (32% and concentrate (15%. The cottonseed meal replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of soybean meal in the concentrate. The intake, milk yield and composition were evaluated. The nutrients intake and digestibility were not affected by the treatments, with an average of 15.55 and 56.05; 13.8 and 59.31, 0.37 and 49.40, 5.32 and 30.95, 1.79 and 48.14; 9.94 and 54.31, 4.43 kg/day and 80.99%, for the dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, total carbohydrates and non-fibrous carbohydrates, respectively. The total digestible nutrients were not affected (average of 8.30 kg/day. Similarly, the milk yield and composition, fat corrected milk yield (4%, lactose, total solids, fat and protein were not affected by replacement (11.56, 11.41 kg milk/day and 4.45, 12.75, 3.95 and 3.42%, respectively. Recommended the replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal for low production dairy cows.Objetivou-se avaliar a substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Girolando (peso vivo médio de 490 kg e produção média de 11,5 kg de leite/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 × 5, composto de cinco animais, cinco níveis de farelo de algodão (0; 25; 50; 75 e 100% em substituição ao farelo de soja e cinco períodos experimentais, cada

  1. Valores energéticos de sojas integrais e de farelos de soja, determinados com galos adultos e por equações de predição Energetics values of processed whole soybean and soybean meals determined with adult roosters and by prediction equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ost

    2005-04-01

    valores de EMVn, portanto, não são seguras para utilização na prática.A metabolism trial was conducted with the objective to determine the values of apparent metabolizable (EMA, corrected apparent (EMAn, true (EMV and corrected true energy (EMVn of toasted whole soybean, micronized whole soybean and five brands of soybean meal through the forced feeding method with adult roosters and afterwards, from the experimental results obtained, it was also validate equations to predict EMVn as related with chemical composition of the feeds. The forced feeding method was utilized, by using 24 adult Leghorn roosters with means 2.35 ± 165 g. The rooster was considered as an experimental unit and each feed was given to 6 roosters (6 replicates, two replicates in each time. Simultaneously, 6 roosters were kept in fasting for determination of the endogenous and metabolic losses. Before the experimental period, each rooster was maintained without any feed for 24 hours for emptying of the digestive tract and then forced to ingest 30 grams of the test feed. For that reason, four collections of excreta were done every 12 hours, to avoid fermentation. At the end of this period, the feeds and also the excreta were homogenized for analysis of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy and then calculated the values of energy. The values of EMVn calculated were then contrasted with values of EMVn estimated from the prediction equations presented in the national literature for groups of feeds similar to those of the present work. The values of EMVn of the soybean meals ranged from 2531 to 2730 Kcal/kg of DM and those of toasted and micronized whole soybean were 3732 and 4027 Kcal/kg of DM, respectively. For the whole soybeans and soybean meals, the equation which best estimated the values of energy were TMEn = 2690.62 - 40.87ADF + 19.96NDF + 63.09EE. In general, the equations tested in the present work shown not good estimates of the values of EMVn, so, they are not adequate to be utilized as a

  2. Desempenho de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com proteína de soja sólida ou líquida Performance of Holstein calves fed soybean meal protein in solid or liquid form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição de metade do total de proteína da dieta na forma sólida (farelo de soja por proteína na forma líquida (leite de soja, com relações sólidos:líquidos de 100,0:0%; 87,5:12,5%; e 75,0:25,0%. Utilizaram-se 24 bezerros machos da raça Holandesa com 60 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três dietas à base de concentrado (80% e feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (20%, balanceadas para nitrogênio e energia. Nas dietas com partes líquidas, o intuito foi manter o reflexo de formação da goteira esofagiana no período experimental de 10 meses, no qual os animais foram mantidos em confinamento, sendo abatidos ao atingirem pesos corporais superiores a 400 kg. Em alguns dos animais, dotados de cânulas de rúmen, foi possível detectar neste órgão apenas pequenas quantidades do leite de soja ingerido, confirmando sucesso na formação da goteira esofagiana. Os ganhos de peso diários apresentaram redução linear (1,399; 1,341; e 1,191 kg à medida que foram fornecidas maiores quantidades de leite de soja. As conversões de matéria seca e proteína bruta em ganhos de peso, durante os últimos 60 dias experimentais, pioraram conforme aumentaram as quantidades de proteína na forma líquida. O fornecimento de proteína na forma líquida na dieta não altera os rendimentos de carcaça em bezerros holandeses.The effects were assessed of substituting half the total diet protein in solid form (soybean meal with liquid form (soybean milk at solid:liquid ratios of: 100.0:0% L; 87.5:12.5% L; 75.0:25.0% L. Twenty-four Holstein breed 60-d male calf steers were assigned to a randomized block design, with three concentrate (80% diets and 20% coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon hay, balanced for nitrogen and energy. In the diets with liquid parts, the intention was to keep the functional reflex of the esophageal groove throughout the 10 months of the experimental period, in which

  3. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  4. Study on Application of Soybean Expansion Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuede; Zhang Baichun; Liu Yulan; Liu Guoqin; Zhou Zikuan; Luo Shenming; Xu Zhaoyong; Wang Deyuan; Wang Xuewu

    2002-01-01

    The soybean expanding andexacting have obvious superiority n the oilprocess compared with soybean extractingdirectly. Production capacity improves by 40%,the power consumption reduces by 30%, thesteam consumption reduces by 15%, refineryrate by 0.5%, the urea enzyme activity ofsoybean meal is steady. Oil and soybeanquality can be improved. The market latentcapacity is hopeful.

  5. 饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉及添加牛磺酸对翘嘴鲌生长及若干生理指标的影响%Effect of dietary replacement of fishmeal by soybean meal and taurine on growth performance and some physiological indices of juvenile topmouth culter, Culter alburnus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汝鹏; 樊启学; 全德文; 赵忠波; 何辉; 胡伟华; 吴巧婉; 汪帆; 张诚明

    2015-01-01

    为研究豆粕替代鱼粉和添加牛磺酸及其交互作用对翘嘴鲌( Culter alburnus)幼鱼生长等指标的影响, 试验设计豆粕替代鱼粉水平为0. 00%、 20. 00%、 35. 00%、 50. 00%, 牛磺酸水平为0. 00%、 1. 00% , 采用4 × 2双因素试验, 配置了D1~D8共8个等氮(45. 43% ± 0. 80%)、 等脂(9. 2% ± 0. 44%)的饲料处理组. 结果显示, 饲料中添加豆粕及牛磺酸对翘嘴鲌幼鱼生长性能无显著影响; 随豆粕替代比例的增加, 鱼体粗蛋白、 粗脂肪含量显著降低(P0. 05). Regardless of taurine, higher replace-ment of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal led to lower body protein contents, body lipid contents significantly (P<0. 05). The levels of alanine aminotransferase ( ALT) , aspartate aminotransferase ( AST) , alkaline phosphatase ( AKP) and tria-cylglyceride ( TG) in serum obviously increased with the increase of replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal ( P<0. 05), while the change of total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterin (HDL-C) and low density lipopro-tein cholesterin showed an opposite trend. Compared with the nonsupplemented groups, taurine significantly decreased body lipid contents (P<0. 05) and led to obviously lower levels of AST, ALT, AKP, TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C (P<0. 05). Significant interactions between replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal and taurine were found on the condition factor (CF), IPF, Visceerosomatic index (VSI), AST, AKP, TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C (P<0. 05). As a result, in the experiments, the most suitable replacement level of fish meal by soybean meal was 35%. The growth per-formance of juvenile topmouth culter were improved by adding 1% taurine.

  6. Efeito da suplementação enzimática em rações com farelo de soja e soja integral extrusada sobre a digestibilidade de nutrientes, o fluxo de nutrientes na digesta ileal e o desempenho de frangos Enzymatic supplementation on soybean meal and full fat extruded soybean based diet on the digestibility of nutrients, ileal digest flow and broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Regina de Moraes Garcia

    2000-10-01

    enzymatic supplementation of corn and soybean based diets on performance (Trial 1, nutrients digestibility (Trial 2, performance and nutrient flow in the ileal digesta (Trial 3 in broiler chickens. In Trial 1, for experimental diet formulation, the chemical composition of soybean meal (SM and full fat extruded soybean (ES were overestimated in 7% for ME and CP, and 5% for Met, Met+Cys and Lys (Treatment C, D, and E and 9% for ME, 7% for CP and 5% for Met, Met+Cys and Lys (Treatments F, G e H when there was enzymes addition (Allzyme Vegproâ e Allzyme Lipaseâ. It was concluded that ME, CP and amino acids (Met, Met+Cys and Lys values can be overestimated in 9, 7 and 5%, respectively, when there was the addition of enzymatic complex to the broilers diets (1-42 days, without reducing bird performance. Treatments used on trials 2 and 3 were: A and B - diets based on soybean meal (SBM with and without addition of multienzymatic complex (Allzyme Vegproâ and C and D - diets based on soybean meal (SBM and full fat extruded soybean (ES with and without addition of multienzymatic complex (Allzyme Vegproâ. In Trial 2 differences were not observed among treatments for coefficients of apparent metabolization of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and AMEn. In trial 3, for initial period (1-21 days, growth period (22-42 days and total period (1-42 days differences were not observed in feed intake, weight gain and feed: gain among birds fed with diets supplemented with enzymes. In the determination of nutrient flow in ileal digesta, differences among studied treatments were not observed, for 21 and 42 days age.

  7. Energetic values and performace of broilers feeding sorghum and soybean meal based diets supplemented with B-glucanase and B-xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.

  8. Sulfur concentration in diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles does not affect feed preference or growth performance of weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Zhang, Y; Stein, H H

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and dietary S on feed preference and performance of pigs. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 1), 48 barrows (20.1 ± 2.2 kg of BW) were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal, a DDGS diet containing 20% DDGS, and a DDGS-sulfur (DDGS-S) diet were prepared. The DDGS-S diet was similar to the DDGS diet with the exception that 0.74% CaSO(4) was added to the diet. Two diets were provided in separate feeders in each pen: 1) the control diet and the DDGS diet, 2) the control diet and the DDGS-S diet, or 3) the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. Preference for the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet vs. the control diet was 35.2 and 32.6%, respectively (P diet and the DDGS-S diet. In Exp. 2, a total of 90 barrows (10.3 ± 1.4 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatments, with 10 replicate pens and 3 pigs per pen, and were fed the diets used in Exp. 1 for 28 d, but only 1 diet was provided per pen. Pigs fed the control diet gained more BW (497 vs. 423 and 416 g/d; P diet, but no differences between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets were observed. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 3), 30 barrows (49.6 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 10 replicates per group. The experimental procedures were the same as in Exp. 1, except that 30% DDGS was included in the DDGS and DDGS-S diets and 1.10% CaSO(4) was added to the DDGS-S diet. Feed preference for the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets, compared with the control diet, was 29.8 and 32.9%, respectively (P diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were fed grower diets for 42 d and finisher diets for 42 d. Diets were formulated as in Exp. 3. Pigs on the control diets gained more BW (1,021 vs. 912 and 907 g/d; P diet, respectively, but no differences between pigs fed the DDGS and the DDGS

  9. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate enhances intestinal growth and heat shock protein-70 expression in weanling pigs fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Yunling; Yin, Yulong; Zhou, Xihong; Wang, Lei; Geng, Meimei; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-08-01

    This study determined effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on intestinal health and growth in early-weaned pigs. Eighty-four Landrace x Yorkshire pigs (average body weight of 5.56+/-0.07 kg; weaned at 21 days of age) were fed for 7 days one of the three isonitrogenous diets: (1) a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (CSM), (2) CSM+0.08% NCG (0.08%), and (3) CSM+0.6% Arg. There were four pens of pigs per diet (7 pigs/pen). At the end of a 7-day feeding period, six piglets were randomly selected from each treatment for tissue collections. Compared with the control group, Arg or NCG supplementation increased (P<0.05): (1) Arg concentrations in plasma, (2) small-intestinal growth, (3) villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, (4) crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, (5) goblet cell counts in intestinal mucosae, and (6) whole-body weight gain in pigs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that both mRNA and protein levels for heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) were higher (P<0.05) in the intestinal mucosae of Arg- or NCG-supplemented pigs than in the control group. Furthermore, the incidence of diarrhea in the NCG group was 18% lower (P<0.01) than that in the control group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0.6% Arg or 0.08% NCG enhances intestinal HSP70 gene expression, intestinal growth and integrity, and the availability of dietary nutrients for whole-body weight gain in postweaning pigs fed a CSM-based diet. Thus, Arg or NCG is a functional ingredient in the weaning diet to improve nutrition, health, and growth performance of these neonates.

  10. The effect of protease, amylase, and nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and growth performance of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, S A; Rogiewicz, A; Mogielnicka, M; Rutkowski, A; Jones, R O; Slominski, B A

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine if amylase and protease addition would improve nutrient digestion during the first 2 wk of growth. The experimental treatments included a control corn-soybean meal-based diet and diets supplemented with either amylase or amylase plus protease. No effect of enzyme supplementation was observed on BW gain and feed conversion ratio. This was corroborated by similar ileal starch and protein digestibility values, which averaged 96.8, 96.8, and 96.9% and 83.9, 80.1, and 79.6%, respectively, for the control and for the amylase or amylase plus protease supplemented diets. Total tract digestibility of starch averaged 97.8, 97.7 and 97.7% for the 3 diets and was followed by a similar diet with AMEn values of 3,129, 3,129, and 3,106 kcal/kg. In another study, a 2(3) factorial arrangement of 8 dietary treatments was used to evaluate the effect of corn particle size (conventional or coarse vs. fine) and the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme, amylase, or both on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Chickens fed a diet containing a conventionally ground corn (geometric mean diameter of 736 µm) showed higher (P starch digestion in the upper gut. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharide enzymes was effective for both diets, with the most pronounced effects observed in feed conversion ratio for the conventional corn-containing diet (1.27 vs. 1.23) and BW gain (750 vs. 789 g/bird) for the fine corn-containing diet. This was followed by the same magnitude of difference in diet AMEn content, which increased from 2,972 to 3,042 and 2,852 to 3,009 kcal/kg following enzyme addition.

  11. Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Pittman, Karin A.; Custódio, Marco; Campo, Aurora; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg−1 dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced

  12. MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES AND ENZYMES IN CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL BASED-DIETS FOR BROILERS MANANOLIGOSSACARÍDEOS E ENZIMAS EM DIETAS À BASE DE MILHO E FARELO DE SOJA PARA AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Mannan oligosaccharides, as an alternative to an-tibiotics, show promising results related to bird perfor-mance, immunity stimulus and improvement of intestinal mucosa. Enzyme inclusion in diets containing mannan oli-gosaccharides could improve these results. Poultry diets consist of corn and soybean meal, and approximately 30% of the phosphorus (P in these ingredients is bound to phytic acid. Phytase is capable of release not only the P but also other nutrients that can be better used by the birds while corn is relatively free of viscosous nonstarch poly-saccharides (NSP, soybean has about 20% of NSP, whose digestibility is almost null. NSP`s insoluble component of corn and soybean encapsulate nutrients and are responsive to exogenous enzymes. Negative environmental and nutri-tional consequences of dietary phytic acid are reduced by phytase inclusion in monogastric diets. Additionally, the enzymatic complex supplementation improves the nutri-tional value of feedstuffs through higher digestibility in birds. Finally, the use of exogenous enzymes allows re-duction in feed costs.

    KEY-WORDS: Animal nutrition, enzymatic supplementation, prebiotic.

    Os mananoligossacarídeos, como alternativa aos antibióticos, têm apresentado resultados promissores no que se refere tanto ao desempenho das aves quanto ao estímulo da imunidade e à melhora da mucosa intestinal. A inclusão de enzimas nas dietas contendo mananoligossacarídeos poderia melhorar ainda mais esses resultados. As dietas para aves são compostas de milho e farelo de soja, principalmente, e cerca de 30% do fósforo (P desses in-gredientes estão ligados ao ácido fítico. A fitase libera não só o P, mas também outros nutrientes para que sejam me-lhor utilizados pelas aves. O milho é relativamente isento de polissacarídeos não-amiláceos (PNAs viscosos e a soja apresenta cerca de 20% de PNAs, com digestibilidade praticamente nula. Os componentes insolúveis dos PNAs do

  13. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced that allows the design of meal solutions (such as chilled and frozen ready meals, menu choices in catering and food service) based on empirical assessments of fit between meal centres and side components. The necessary input data are collected by means of a consumer...... and beer or spirits), a ‘‘Sunday roast’’ segment (shoulder, gammon roast, collar roast or medallions served with potatoes and sauce, combined with beans, carrots or cabbage), a ‘‘Bolognese’’ segment (minced meat with pasta), a ‘‘lean cuisine’’ segment (tenderloin or small cuts combined served with rice...

  14. Effect of liquid enzymolysis and fermented soybean meal on growth performance and partial nutriment in feces excreta of growing pigs%液态酶解发酵豆粕对生长育肥猪生产性能及部分营养物质粪排泄量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏金涛; 李绍章; 杨雪海; 赵娜; 郭万正; 严念东; 黄少文; 张巍

    2012-01-01

    将豆粕加入木瓜蛋白酶和酵母菌在40℃条件下进行液态酶解发酵处理24h制备液态酶解发酵豆粕并进行营养成分分析。72头体质量(31.25±0.22)kg健康阉公猪,随机分为3组,每组4个重复,每个重复6头猪,分别为对照料、添加10%液态酶解发酵豆粕和添加20%液态酶解发酵豆粕组,预饲期7d,正试期28d。结果表明,豆粕经过液态酶解发酵后粗蛋白含量有所提高,但是差异不显著(P〉0.05),钙和磷的含量均没有显著变化(P〉0.05),水溶性蛋白、小肽、小分子蛋白含量显著提高(P〈0.05),大分子蛋白含量显著降低(P〈0.05),脲酶活性显著降低(P〈0.05)。饲养试验表明,添加10%液态酶解发酵豆粕和20%液态酶解发酵豆粕的试验组和对照组相比平均日采食量分别提高了12.14%和20.81%(P〈0.05),平均日增重分别提高了11.33%和22.29%(P〈0.05);粪中氮的排泄量分别降低了11.11%和8.80%(P〈0.05);粪中磷的排泄量分别降低了3.59%(P〉0.05)和23.95%(P〈0.05),粪中铜的排泄量分别降低了2.22%(P〉0.05)和7.52%(P〉0.05),粪中锌的排泄量3个组之间均没有显著性差异(P〉0.05)。综上,豆粕经木瓜蛋白酶和酵母菌酶解发酵后蛋白质成分有所改善,饲喂生长育肥猪可以提高生产性能,降低粪中部分营养物质的排泄量。%A study was conducted to investigate the effect of liquid enzymolysis and fermented soybean meal on growth performance and partial nutriment feces excreta in growing pigs.Papain and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were added in soybean meal for liquid enzymolysis and fermention at 40℃ for 24 h.72 crossbred growing pigs(Duroc × Landrace ×Yorkshire) with an average initial weight of(31.25±0.22) kg were allotted to 3 dietary treatments on the basis of weight,according to a randomized complete block design.Four replications with six pigs each were used for each treatment

  15. Soja integral processada (fermentada e extrusada e farelo de soja em substituição ao leite em pó em dieta de leitões desmamados aos 14 dias de idade Whole processed (fermented and extruded soybean and soybean meal in replacement of dried milk in diet of piglets weaned at 14 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Soares

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da utilização de soja integral fermentada (SIF, soja integral extrusada (SIE e farelo de soja (FS, em substituição ao leite em pó (LP da dieta, sobre desempenho e alterações morfológicas do sistema digestivo de leitões dos 14 aos 35 dias e dos 14 aos 56 dias e o seu efeito residual dos 36 aos 56 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 96 leitões machos, mestiços (Landrace x Large White, desmamados aos 14 dias de idade, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, quatro repetições e seis animais por unidade experimental. A fonte de proteína influenciou o desempenho dos leitões dos 14 aos 35 e dos 14 aos 56 dias de idade. Os animais que receberam dieta com LP apresentaram maior ganho de peso nas três primeiras semanas após o desmame e no período total. No entanto, no período de 36 aos 56 dias, não se observou influência dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho dos animais. Verificou-se efeito da fonte de proteína na altura de vilosidade (AV, na relação vilosidade: cripta dos leitões abatidos aos 21 dias de idade e na AV dos animais abatidos com 35 dias de idade. Os animais que receberam dieta com LP apresentaram maior AV que os dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o LP pode ser substituído pela SIE e pelo FS nas dietas de leitões desmamados aos 14 dias de idade e os altos níveis de fatores antitripsina na SIF comprometeram os resultados.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the use of whole fermented soybean (WFS, whole extruded soybean (WES and soybean meal (SBM in replacement to the dried milk (MD of the diet on the performance, feed intake and morphological alterations on the digestive system of piglets from 14 to 35 day and from 14 to 56 days, and its residual effects from 36 to 56 days of age. Ninety-six crossbreed (Landrace x Large White piglets weaned at 14 days of age were allotted to a completely randomized experimental design with

  16. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  17. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T-cannula or a ......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T.......05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P ... meal, rapeseed cake, and especially lupine, although all tested feedstuffs seem appropriate for inclusion in diets for organic pigs....

  18. 水解条件对挤压膨化高温豆粕酶解物免疫活性的影响%Effect of Hydrolysis Conditions on Immunoactivity of Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Extruded High-temperature Soybean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智宇; 朱秀清; 任为聪

    2011-01-01

    研究合理的水解工艺以有效提高高温豆粕的免疫活性。采用二次旋转回归法优化水解条件,以水解温度、酶添加量、底物添加量、酶解时间为影响因素,以淋巴细胞增殖指数(SI)为检测指标,运用SPSS13.0软件分析,最终用Design Expert 7.0.0软件优化出最优的水解条件。最优的工艺条件为:胰蛋白酶添加量7999.97U/g,酶解温度55.14℃,水解时间4.34h,底物添加量(底物与加水量之比)4.41%,经MTT法测定,此条件下酶解物对ConA诱导的小鼠脾淋巴细胞的免疫刺激指数最高,为1.1894。%In order to improve the immunoactivity of enzymatic hydrolysates from extruded high-temperature soybean meal,the hydrolysis of the substrate by trypsin was optimized using central composite rotary design.Spleen lymphocyte proliferation(expressed as the stimulation index,SI) was investigated with respect to four variables including hydrolysis temperature,enzyme amount,substrate concentration and hydrolysis time.Using SPSS 13.0 and Design Expert 7.0.0,the experimental data were analyzed to determine the optimal hydrolysis conditions as follows: enzyme amount of 7999.97 U/g,hydrolysis temperature of 55.14 ℃,hydrolysis time of 4.34 h,and substrate concentration of 4.41%.Under the optimal hydrolysis conditions,the ConA-induced spleen lymphocyte stimulation index was determined by MTT method to be 1.1894.

  19. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P pigs fed corn and SBM-based diets.

  20. Effect of dietary protein level (as substitution of maize with soybean meal on growth rate and feed efficiency of the Cinta Senese pig in the growing-fattening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Franci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide first indications on the protein requirement of Cinta Senese pigs. The effect of various dietary protein contents on in vita performance was tested. Sixty Cinta Senese pigs were equally distributed in four dietary groups, balanced for sex (barrow and gilt and live weight. At the start of the trial, pigs were approximately 130 d old and weighed an average 46.6 kg. Groups were fed four diets with different protein content (approximately 8, 10, 13 and 16%, named 8% P, 10% P, 13% P, 16% P, respectively, obtained by using different maize/soybean meal ratios. Diets were administered to pigs during the entire growing-fattening period in a controlled dose of 90 g/kg W0.75, until a maximum of 2.5 kg/d pro capite. Feed distributed per pen was recorded daily and individual weight and ultrasonic backfat thickness were periodically recorded. The trial lasted approximately 250 d and finished when animals reached the target slaughter weight of 145 kg. The 8% P diet determined a lower growth rate than the other diets; after 250 d, pigs receiving this diet were 20 kg lighter than those receiving the other diets. The 10% P diet determined body weights always lower than the 13% P and 16% P diets, but the difference decreased in the middle of the trial period. The pigs fed 13% P and 16% P diets showed the same growth rate. Moreover, through the whole growth period, the 8% P diet produced higher fat thickness than the other three diets, which showed similar results. The 8% P diet determined the highest FCIs. The 16% P diet showed the best feed conversion until approximately 70 kg of l.w., but after this weight it became progressively less efficient than the 10% P and 13% P diets. Consequently, the cumulative intake of that diet was the lowest only for the first 60 kg of gain. The 10% P diet gave the best FCI starting from 80 kg of l.w. In consideration of the cost of protein feed and the need to reduce N pollution, the 10% P diet could be

  1. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on the total tract digestibility of innate and supplemental organic and inorganic microminerals in a corn-soybean meal based diet of grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, J S; Mahan, D C

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and micromineral sources on mineral digestibility were evaluated in growing pigs. Treatments consisted of 2 levels of CaP and 3 trace mineral (TM) treatments arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicates. The CaP levels evaluated were: 1) 0.65% Ca and 0.55% P [standard CaP (Std CaP)], and 2) 1.00% Ca and 0.85% P (High CaP). The TM treatments were: 1) Basal, without supplemental TM, 2) Basal supplemented with organic TM, and 3) Basal supplemented with inorganic TM. Both organic and inorganic TM premixes added 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn/kg diet. Diets were formulated using corn soybean meal with a Ca to P ratio of 1.18 in both CaP treatments. Barrows with an initial BW of 45 kg were acclimated to stainless steel metabolism crates where diets were fed for 14 d before a 10-d collection period. Pigs within replicates were fed equivalent amounts of feed at 0800 and 1600 h each day with water provided free choice. Total feces, urine, and feed orts were collected daily. Essential macro- and microminerals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma analysis. Increasing dietary CaP decreased the digestibility of Ca and Zn. Phosphorus digestibility did not change when the P inclusion level increased from 0.55 to 0.85% Ptotal. The High CaP level resulted in a lower urinary excretion of most minerals, particularly Cu (P dietary CaP level increased but the others were not statistically significant. A summary of the ATTD for each of the experimental variables was statistically analyzed and averaged for the experiment. Although there were few statistical differences with individual minerals, they generally demonstrated a decline in digestibility when the High CaP was fed, averaging a 3% lower digestibility consistently than when the Std CaP level was fed. Organic TM averaged an approximately 5% greater digestibility than the average inorganic microminerals with the difference

  2. Bt-maize (MON810 and non-GM soybean meal in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. juveniles--impact on survival, growth performance, development, digestive function, and transcriptional expression of intestinal immune and stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinni Gu

    Full Text Available Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. juveniles (fry fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810 expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize. One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level, with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile

  3. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  4. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P  0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P time per feeding activity and on the chewing periods. Substitution of soybean meal for detoxified CSM reduces the DM intake but does not change the ingestive behavior.

  5. 转基因豆粕对崂山奶山羊生长性能、肌肉营养成分及组织器官中外源基因转移的影响%Effects of Genetically Modified Soybean Meal on Growth Performance, Meat Nutrient Composition, and Exogenous Gene Transformation to Tissues and Organs of Laoshan Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 秦志华; 黄娟; 张廷荣; 刘文达; 王述柏

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the effects of genetically modified soybean meal on growth performance, meat nutrient composition, and exogenous gene transformation to tissues and organs of Laoshan dairy goats, thirty 50-day-old Laoshan dairy goats were randomly divided into two groups with three replicates in each group and five goats per replicate. Goats in different groups were fed concentrates containing non-genetically modified soybean meal and genetically modified soybean meal ( MON89788 and GTS40-3-2 ) , respectively, and were fed the same roughage ( Chinese wildrye) . The experiment lasted for 150 days. The results showed as fol-lows: average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed to gain ratio in the two groups were not signifi-cantly different (P>0. 05); the contents of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, ash, calcium and phos-phorus in muscle of dairy goats were not significantly different either ( P >0 . 05 ) . Moreover, no gene rag-ments of genetically modified soybean meal were detected from muscle, liver, pancreas, kidney, spleen, thy-mus, lung, heart, abomasum and small intestine of dairy goats by real-time quantification PCR. The results suggest that genetically modified soybean meal ( MON89788 and GTS40-3-2 ) had no significant effects on growth performance and muscle quality of Laoshan dairy goats, and no genetic horizontal transformation is ob-served in tissues and organs.%本试验旨在研究转基因豆粕对崂山奶山羊生长性能、肌肉营养成分及组织器官中外源基因转移的影响。选取30只50日龄崂山奶山羊随机分为2组,每组3个重复,每个重复5只。精饲料分别以非转基因豆粕和转基因豆粕( MON89788和GTS40-3-2)配制,粗饲料均为干草。试验期150 d。结果表明:2组奶山羊平均日采食量、平均日增重和料重比均无显著差异( P >0.05);奶山羊肌肉的干物质、粗脂肪、粗蛋白质、粗灰分、钙、磷含量2组间亦均无显著差异( P>0

  6. Protein fractionation byproduct from canola meal for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heendeniya, R G; Christensen, D A; Maenz, D D; McKinnon, J J; Yu, P

    2012-08-01

    Fiber-protein is a byproduct arising from a process for fractionating high-quality protein from canola meal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fiber-protein fraction by examining the chemical profiles, rumen degradation, and intestinal digestive characteristics and determining the nutritive value of the fiber-protein fraction as dietary components for dairy cattle in comparison with commercial canola meal and soybean meal. Available energy values were estimated based on National Research Council guidelines, whereas total true protein content potentially absorbable in the small intestine (DVE) were predicted using the predicted DVE/degraded protein balance (OEB) model. The results show that fiber-protein was a highly fibrous material [neutral detergent fiber (NDF): 556; acid detergent fiber (ADF): 463; acid detergent lignin: 241 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] compared with canola meal (NDF: 254; ADF: 212; acid detergent lignin: 90 g/kg of DM) due to the presence of a higher level of seed hulls in fiber-protein. Compared with canola meal, fiber-protein contained 90 g/kg of DM less crude protein (CP), 25% of which consisted of undegradable acid detergent-insoluble CP. Most of the ruminally undegradable nutrient components present in canola meal appeared to be concentrated into fiber-protein during the manufacturing process and, as a result, fiber-protein showed a consistently lower effective degradability of DM, organic matter, CP, NDF, and ADF compared with both canola meal and soybean meal. Available energy content in fiber-protein contained two-thirds of that of canola meal. The DVE was one-third that of soybean meal and one-fifth that of canola meal [DVE value: 58 vs. 180 (soybean) and 291 g/kg of DM (canola meal)]. The OEB value of fiber protein was positive and about half of that of soybean and canola meal [OEB value: 74 vs. 162 (soybean) and 137 g/kg of DM (canola meal)]. Fiber-protein can be considered as a secondary source of protein in ruminant feed.

  7. Identification of a new soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor mutation and its effect on Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor content in soybean seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean seeds possess anti-nutritional compounds which inactivate digestive proteases, principally corresponding to two families: Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitors (KTi) and Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBI). High levels of raw soybeans/soybean meal in feed mixtures can cause poor weight gain and pancreatic abno...

  8. Performance and economic effects of partially replacing soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and economic effects of partially replacing soybean meal with palm kernel ... to determine the optimal level of inclusion for maximum production in broilers. ... while no PKC was used in treatment I, which also served as the control.

  9. Substituição parcial e total da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína dos farelos de canola e algodão em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 Partial and total replacement of soybean meal protein by canola or cottonseed meal protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC e farelo de algodão (FA, em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, realizou-se um experimento com duração de 60 dias, utilizando-se 300 alevinos, com peso inicial médio de 0,10 g distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As dietas isoprotéicas foram formuladas de forma a terem o FS, FC, FA, FS+FC, FS+FA e FC+FA como fonte protéica. Os alevinos, alimentados com dietas contendo FS e FS+FA, apresentaram valores de peso final e taxa de eficiência protéica superiores (p 0,05 pelo uso das diferentes dietas. Observou-se redução linear dos valores de peso final, da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear (p The effects of soybean meal (SB protein replacement by canola meal (CN or cottonseed meal (CT protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae fingerlings are provided. Assay was carried out during 60 days. Three hundred fingerlings with mean initial weight of 1.00g were distributed in a block randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. Isoprotein diets contained SB, CN, CT, SB+CN, SB+CT and CN+CT as protein source. Fingerlings fed on diets with SB, SB+CN, SB+CT showed better final mean weight and protein efficiency rate values (p 0.05 by different diets linear reduction (p macrocephalus fingerlings, replacing 50.00% of SB protein.

  10. Variações em metabólitos no plasma e hormônios no soro sangüíneo de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradual ao farelo de soja Changes in metabolic plasma and serum hormones in female rabbits fed on diets with canola meal gradually replacing soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as possíveis variações dos níveis plasmáticos de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, uréia e os níveis do soro sanguíneo de estradiol, progesterona, insulina, T3 e T4 em coelhas alimentadas com dietas em que o farelo de canola substituiu em 00%, 33%, 66% e 100% o farelo de soja, no período de 43 aos 225 dias de idade (final da primeira lactação. Foram utilizadas quarenta coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 4 tratamentos e 10 repetições. As coelhas foram cobertas aos 150 dias de idade. Aos 43, 80, 150, 184 e 225 dias, foram realizadas as coletas de sangue por punção cardíaca. Os níveis plasmáticos de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total e uréia não foram alterados pelos níveis de substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de canola. No entanto, houve efeito quadrático em relação à idade dos animais. Os níveis no soro sanguíneo de estradiol, progesterona, insulina, T3 e T4 não apresentaram efeito de tratamento. Os níveis de progesterona e T4 apresentaram efeito quadrático em relação à idade das coelhas. As variações encontradas em função da idade dos animais poderiam ser atribuídas às variações ambientais ou fisiológicas durante o período de realização do experimento.Possible changes in plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, urea, serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, insulin, T3 and T4 in female rabbits are evaluated. Rabbits were fed on soybean meal in a gradual substitution (00%, 33%, 66% and 100% by canola meal. Rabbits aged 43 to 225 days, on completing first pregnancy and lactation. Forty White New Zealand rabbits female were used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and 10 replications. At 43, 80, 150, 184 and 225 days old the animals underwent heart puncture for blood collection. Females were mated at 150 days. Levels of glucose plasma

  11. Histological analysis of ovaries of female rabbits fed on canola meal gradually substituting soybean meal Análises histológicas do ovário de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa ao farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A histological study of New Zealand White female rabbits’ ovaries was undertaken. Rabbits were fed on canola meal as an increasing substitute (00, 33, 66 and 100% for soybean meal so that the tissue’s general aspects could be verified and the number of ovarian follicles from each experimental group could be obtained. Forty-eight female rabbits were slaughtered at 43, 150 and 225 days of age and their ovaries were fixed in Bouin’s liquid, washed and conserved in 70% ethanol and embedded in paraffin. 5µm-thick histological sections were undertaken and stained by HE and Azan techniques. The ovaries were bound by a predominantly simple cubic epithelium followed by the tunica albuginea. Ovarian follicles were observed in different stages of development in the cortical tissue. Interstitial gland cells, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves were observed in the medullar tissue. Small cysts were also reported. Histological preparations didn’t show any change between groups either in the general morphology of the tissue or in follicle number. This fact suggests that the use of canola as a food of rabbits didn’t interfere in reproduction.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a histologia de ovário de coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca. As coelhas foram alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa (00, 33, 66 e 100% ao farelo de soja. Foram estudados os aspectos histológicos gerais dos ovários, assim como a contagem de folículos. Um grupo de 48 coelhas foi dividido ao acaso e abatido aos 43, 150 e 225 dias de idade, e os ovários foram fixados em Bouin, lavados e conservados em solução de etanol a 70% e embebidos em parafina. Cortes histológicos foram realizados com 5µm de espessura e corados com HE e técnica de Azan. Os ovários apresentavam predominantemente epitélio simples cúbico seguidos de túnica albugínea. Os folículos foram observados em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento no estroma cortical. C

  12. EFFECT OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL PROTEIN BY SOYBEAN MEAL PROTEIN ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, METABOLISM AND IMMUNITY OF GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白对异育银鲫生长、代谢及免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇; 雷武; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 韩冬

    2009-01-01

    本实验评价了饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白后对异育银鲫的生长、饲料利用、氮代谢和鱼体免疫力等的影响.实验设计4种等氮等能的饲料,每种3个重复,分别以豆粕替代饲料中鱼粉蛋白的0(对照,D1)、20%(D2)、80%(D3)和100%(D4).实验在半循环水养殖系统持续16周.鱼的初重约2.32g,实验期间水温23-30℃.结果表明,随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高,摄食率显著升高(p<0.05).特定生长率、饲料转化效率、蛋白沉积率和能量沉积率显著降低(p<0.05);蛋白表观消化率显著升高,干物质和能量表观消化率则显著降低(p<0.05);总氮摄入量、表观氮摄入量、粪氮排出量、非粪氮排泄量、总氮沉积率均随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高呈显著降低的趋势(p<0.05),生产每千克鱼的氮排放量则随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高显著升高(p<0.05);血清葡萄糖和甘油三酯的含量显著升高,而胆固醇的含量显著降低(p<0.05);血清的溶菌酶显著降低,超氧化物歧化酶逐渐升高(p<0.05).%A 16-weeks growth was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal on growth performance, feed utilization, nitrogen metabolism and immunity in gibel carp. Four isonitrogenous and isoealoric diets were formulated. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish with the initial weight at about 2. 32 g. Soybean meal was used to replace 0 (Control, D1), 20% (D2), 80% (D3) and 100% (D4) of dietary fishmeal protein. The fish was reared in a semi-recirculating system. During the experiment, water temperature was 23--30℃, photoperiod was 12D: 12L with the light period from 08 : 00 to 20 : 00, dissolved oxygen was above 5 mg/L, ammonia-N (NH4+ -N plus NH3-N) was less than 0. 5 mg/L, pH was about 6. 4. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily (9:00 and 15:00). At the beginning of the experiment, healthy fish (initial body weight about 2. 32 g) were batch weighed after 24h feed

  13. Efeito da combinação de dietas contendo milho ou triticale e farelo de soja ou levedura sobre o desempenho de novilhas nelore terminadas em confinamento Effect of diet synchronization based on ground corn or triticale and soybean meal or yeast on feedlot Nelore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Takae Iwayama

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para comparar o efeito da combinação de quatro dietas contendo silagem de sorgo, milho ou triticale e farelo de soja ou levedura, em 48 novilhas nelore com peso médio de 235kg e idade aproximada de 18 meses, confinadas durante 84 dias, divididos em 3 períodos (PI, PII, PIII de 28 dias. Avaliaram-se o ganho médio diário (GMD, rendimento de carcaça (RC, conversão alimentar e consumo (ingestão para cada 100kg de peso vivo de MS, PB, MO, EB, FDN e FDA. Não houve interação (p > 0,05 entre os alimentos. O GMD das rações com levedura no PI foi superior (p 0,05 no GMD entre rações com levedura e farelo de soja. Por outro lado, não foram observadas diferenças (p > 0,05 para o GMD, nos PI e PII entre as rações à base de triticale e milho. No entanto, no PIII e na média geral, o triticale promoveu maior (p 0,05 entre os alimentos. O consumo de PB foi maior (p The aim of this work was to compare the effect of diet synchronization based on sorghum silage, ground corn or triticale and soybean meal and yeast on the performance of 48 18-month-old Nelore heifers with 235 kg average weight, stabled for 84 days, divided into three periods (PI, PII and PIII of 28 days. The average daily weight gain (ADG, carcass yield (CY, feed intake and conversion (intake ratio to 100 kg live weight of DM, CP, OM, GE, NDF and ADF were evaluated. There was no interaction (p > 0.05 between diets. The ADG of yeast in PI was higher (p 0.05 in ADG between yeast and soybean meal. There were no differences observed (p > 0.05 as for ADG in PI and PII between triticale and ground corn. However in PIII and in final average period triticale presented a higher (p 0.05 between diets. Conversion of CP was higher (p < 0.05 for diets with triticale than with corn and for diets with soybean meal than with yeast.

  14. Desempenho de leitões submetidos a diferentes níveis de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do ovo desidratado = Performance of piglets submitted to different replacement levels of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína de Cássia Braga Arruda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar de suínos em fase inicial (15 a 30 kg de peso alimentados com quatro diferentes níveis de substituição (0, 3, 6 e 9% da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do ovo desidratado. Foram utilizados 32 suínos (16 machos castrados e 16 fêmeas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições cada, em que a unidade experimental foi composta por um macho e uma fêmea. Os tratamentos foram 0, 3, 6 e 9% de proteína do ovo desidratado em substituição à proteína do farelo de soja. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à regressão linear para os níveis de 3, 6 e 9% de ovo desidratado, e o tratamento-testemunha (0% foi comparado com os demais aplicando o teste Dunnet a 5% de probabilidade. Os níveis de substituição da proteína do farelo de sojapela proteína do ovo desidratado não influenciaram as variáveis de desempenho dos animais na fase inicial, até 9%. Entretanto, avaliando a relação custo-benefício, o tratamentocontrole foi o mais rentável.This study aimed to determine the average daily weight gain, daily feed intake and the feed conversion ratio of pigs in initialphase (15 to 30 kg of weight fed with four different levels of substitution (0, 3, 6 and 9% of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein. Thirty-two pigs (16 castrated males and 16 females were used in a completely randomized blocks statistical design, with fourtreatments and four repetitions each; the experimental unit was composed by a male and a female. The treatments were 0, 3, 6 and 9% of dehydrated egg protein in replacement of soybean meal protein. The data obtained were subjected to linear regression for the levels 3,6 and 9% of dehydrated egg; the witness (0% was compared with the other treatments applying Dunnett’s test at 5% probability. The replacement levels of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein did not influence

  15. Composição química, avaliação físico-química e nutricional e efeito da expansão do milho e do farelo de soja para suínos em crescimento Chemical composition, physical-chemical and nutritional evaluation and effect of expanded corn and soybean meal on growing swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.F. Veloso

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se a composição química e as propriedades físico-químicas, a digestibilidade fecal dos nutrientes e os valores energéticos do milho, do milho expandido, do farelo de soja e do farelo de soja expandido, em suínos em crescimento. Foram feitas análises de rotina (análise proximal e de energia bruta e análises específicas, como gelatinização do amido, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido, atividade ureática, solubilidade protéica em KOH 0,2% e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Na determinação da digestibilidade, usaram-se 20 leitões machos castrados, com peso inicial médio de 33,630±1,011kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições por tratamento. Uma dieta basal foi substituída por 40% dos alimentos energéticos ou por 20% dos protéicos. Nos alimentos expandidos, houve modificações no perfil químico e nas propriedades físico-químicas que influenciaram a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, em relação aos alimentos in natura. Ocorreu gelatinização do amido, incrementando (P0,05. O processo da expansão atuou diferentemente nas avaliações de laboratório e de digestibilidade dos nutrientes do milho e do farelo de soja expandidos.Growing pigs were used in a trial to evaluate chemical composition, physical-chemical properties, fecal digestibility of nutrients and energetic values for corn, expanded corn, soybean meal and expanded soybean meal. Proximate analyses, crude energy and specific analyses, as starch gelatinization, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, urea activity, 0.2% KOH protein solubility and scanning electronic microscopy were performed. Twenty growing castrated pigs averaging 33.630±1.011kg of live weight were used in a digestibility assay. The pigs were allotted to different metabolic cages, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates. The energetic feed substituted 40% and the proteic

  16. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  17. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  18. Dieta hiperlipídica com farinha de soja como fonte proteica: utilização na seleção de ratos propensos e resistentes à obesidade High-fat diet using soybean meal as protein source: use for selecting rats prone and resistant to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludimila Canuto Cabeço

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma dieta hiperlipídica de baixo custo, tendo farinha de soja como fonte proteica, que seja eficiente na seleção de ratos propensos e resistentes à obesidade e que permita alcançar fenótipo obeso nos animais propensos. Além desses requisitos, a dieta deve ser palatável e não rejeitada a curto prazo pelo animal. MÉTODOS: A dieta proposta foi obtida misturando-se leite condensado (15,5%, amendoim (18,5%, farinha de soja (20,0%, óleo de milho (6,0%, ração Bio Tec (30,0% e bolacha wafer de chocolate (10,0%. A mistura foi peletizada e submetida à análise bromatológica. A dieta foi ofertada a ratos Wistar durante uma semana; posteriormente, os animais foram divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o ganho de peso. O terço superior foi considerado propenso à obesidade e o terço inferior, resistente à obesidade. Após 80 dias de oferta da dieta, os animais foram sacrificados e foram quantificados o peso corpóreo, consumo alimentar, gorduras retroperitoneal, periepididimal, de carcaça e gorduras totais. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que a dieta apresentava 5,31kcal/g, com a seguinte composição: 22,3% de gordura, 22,2% de proteína, 15,9% de fibra, estimando-se 35,7% de carboidrato. Ratos propensos à obesidade, alimentados por 87 dias com a dieta hipercalórica, apresentaram peso corpóreo, gorduras retroperitoneal, periepididimal e totais significativamente maiores do que animais resistentes à obesidade (pOBJECTIVE: The objective was to develop a high-fat, low cost diet, using soybean meal as protein source. This diet should effectively discriminate between rats prone and resistant to obesity and allow the obese phenotype to be achieved in the animals that are prone to obesity. Furthermore, the diet must be palatable and not be rejected by the animal in the short run. METHODS: The chow was obtained by mixing the following ingredients: condensed milk (15.5%, peanuts (18.5%, soybean meal (20.0%, corn oil (6

  19. Effects of diets with soybean meal on the growth, digestibility, Phosphorus and Nitrogen excretion of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Efectos de dietas con harina de soya en el crecimiento, digestibilidad, excreción de fósforo y nitrógeno de juveniles de trucha arco iris Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Agustín Cruz Castro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the inclusion of high levels of soybean meal as a substitute for fishmeal in diets for juvenile rainbowtrout and determine the phosphorus and nitrogen excretion. Fishmeal was replaced with soybean meal at levels of 50,75 and 100 % with an inclusion of 0.8 g of phytase per kg of diet (g kg-1, whereas a diet with 100% substitution was used without phytase. A commercial diet and one with 100% of fishmeal were used as controls. Diets were fed to triplicate groups of juveniles (4.12 ± 0.7 g, mean + standard deviation for a period of 50 days, and growth performance, P and N excretion and protein digestibility were determined at the end of this period. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The results showed that fish growth decreased when 100% of substitution was used, but diet with 75% of soybean meal did not affect growth. In addition, excretion values of P and N at this level of substitution were lowerthan those of the fish fed the control diets. The data suggest that diet with 75% soybean meal and 25% fishmeal might be used under practical conditions, as the growth performance observed on the juveniles fed such diet was similarto those offish fed the commercial diet and the nutrient loading was reduced.Se realizó una prueba de alimentación para evaluar la inclusión de altos niveles de harina de soya como sustituto de la harina de pescado en dietas para juveniles de trucha arco iris y determinar la excreción de fósforo y nitrógeno. La harina de pescado se sustituyó en niveles de 50, 75 y 100% con la inclusión de 0.8 g de fitasa por kg de dieta (g kg-1, así como una dieta con 100% de sustitución sin fitasa fue utilizada. Una dieta comercial y una con 100% de harina de pescado se utilizaron como controles. Las dietas se ofrecieron a grupos de juveniles portriplicado de juveniles (4.12 ± 0.7 g, promedio + desviación estándar por un periodo de 50 días. Al finalizar este periodo, se determinó el

  20. Balanço de nitrogênio em fêmeas leiteiras em confinamento alimentadas com concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão Nitrogen use efficiency of growing dairy heifers fed concentrate rations based on soybean or cottonseed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do fornecimento de concentrados à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão em dietas com silagem de milho sobre o balanço de nitrogênio e a produção de proteína microbiana em fêmeas leiteiras em crescimento. As dietas foram constituídas da combinação de dois níveis de concentrado (1 ou 2 kg e duas fontes proteicas (farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão. Os animais que consumiram concentrado na quantidade de 2 kg/dia apresentaram maior consumo de nitrogênio total, entretanto não houve efeito significativo sobre o N-fecal, N-urinário e o balanço de nitrogênio. A interação entre o nível de concentrado e a fonte proteica influenciou o nitrogênio ureico na urina (N-urina, mas não alterou os níveis de nitrogênio ureico no plasma. Os níveis de concentrado e as fontes proteicas não afetaram as concentrações de purinas totais e alantoína na urina, a porcentagem de alantoína em relação às purinas totais, os níveis de ácido úrico na urina e nitrogênio microbiano nem a eficiência microbiana. O fornecimento de 1 ou 2 kg de concentrado contendo farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão como fontes proteicas para novilhas leiteiras em crescimento não afeta a eficiência microbiana, entretanto o fornecimento de 2 kg de concentrado aumenta a excreção de nitrogênio nas fezes.The objective of this work was to evaluate effect of based-soybean or cottonseed meal concentrate rations in diets with corn silage on nitrogen balance (NB and microbial protein production in growing dairy females. diets consisted of the combination of two levels of concentrate ration, 1 or 2 kg, and two protein sources, soybean meal or cottonseed meal. The animals that consumed 2 kg of concentrate ration showed greater total nitrogen intake, however, there was no significant effect on fecal-N, urine-N and nitrogen balance. The interaction among the concentrade levels and the protein source affected the urine uric N (N-urine but

  1. Chinese Soybean Industry:Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DachuanLiu; ShaojunTian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybean resources and their industry development in China.Due to the high demand in domestic market,it is necessary to expand the cultivation area and improve the production yields.Meanwhile,to increase the export of soybeans from overseas is also important.China has a long history in producing traditional soybean foods.After recent fifty years,the development of Chinese soybean industry has reached to a reasonable level.The current status of Chinese soybean industry has been included in the paper.It has been expected that in next five years,there will be a rapid increase in the processing of soybeans;it will become more reasonable in the scale and distribution of soybean oil factories.Emphasis will be put on the improvement of the functionalities of soybean products.Different kinds of functional soybean foods,especially the soybean proteins for particular uses will be developed by the use of modification technologies.Concern is also given to the multi-utilization of soybean resources,which not only covers the extraction of oil from soybean seeds and the processing of protein products from the meal;but also includes the recovery of the natural phyto-chemicals from soybeans which could then be exploited to novel products with more profits.

  2. Analytical strategies for the early quality and safety assurance in the global feed chain. Approaches for nitrogen adulterants in soybean meal and mineral and transformer oils in vegetable oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacob; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, several major food safety crises originated from problems with feed. Consequently, there is an urgent need for early detection of fraudulent adulteration and contamination in the feed chain. Strategies are presented for two specific cases, viz. adulterations of (i) soybean

  3. Analytical strategies for the early quality and safety assurance in the global feed chain. Approaches for nitrogen adulterants in soybean meal and mineral and transformer oils in vegetable oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacob; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, several major food safety crises originated from problems with feed. Consequently, there is an urgent need for early detection of fraudulent adulteration and contamination in the feed chain. Strategies are presented for two specific cases, viz. adulterations of (i) soybean mea

  4. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da adição de enzimas digestivas exógenas em dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte, conduziu-se este experimento. Foram utilizados 819 pintos Hubbard em DIC e esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 (enzimas, proteínas, níveis de energia e um tratamento testemunha com 3 repetições de 21 aves por parcela. Os níveis de enzimas foram 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 g/kg de dieta, e os de proteína foram normais (21,18, 19,95 e 19,43% PB e reduzidos (20,54, 19,35 e 18,46% PB; os de energia também foram normais (3000, 3100 e 3200 kcal/kg de EM e reduzidos (2910, 3007 e 3040 kcal/kg de EM, respectivamente, para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final da criação, e para o testemunha, a ração continha níveis normais de EM e PB, sem enzimas. Os fatores avaliados foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e fator europeu de produção. Pelos resultados, verificou-se manutenção do desempenho zootécnico das aves em razão da aplicação de enzimas, constatado pela não significância desses fatores aos 42 dias de idade e pela melhora na conversão alimentar, redução do consumo de ração e maior fator europeu de produção aos 21 dias de idade. O estudo da interação dos níveis de enzima x proteína mostrou que a adição de 0,5 g/kg de enzima na dieta com nível de proteína reduzido resultou em maior ganho de peso das aves. Conclui-se que é viável o uso de enzimas exógenas adicionadas em rações para frangos de corte.The objective of the experiment was verify the effect of the addition of exogen digestive enzymes in corn and soybean meal based diets on performance of broiler chickens. Were used 819 Hubbard chickens in completely randomized design, and 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 check factorial (enzyme, protein and energy levels and one treatment check with 3 replications, of the 21 birds by replicate. Enzyme levels were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg of diet, energy levels were

  5. Substituição parcial do milho e farelo de soja por sorgo e farelo de caroço de algodão extrusado em rações de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.217 Partial substitution of the corn and soybean for sorghum and expander cottonseed meal in broilers’ rations - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.217

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vitor Ludke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a utilização do sorgo (50% e do farelo de caroço de algodão extrusado (0; 13,33; 26,66 e 39,99% em substituição ao milho e à proteína do farelo de soja em rações de frangos de corte. Foi conduzido um experimento utilizando 300 pintos de corte, machos, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições de 12 aves por parcela. As variáveis analisadas foram consumo de ração (CR, ganho de peso (GP, conversão alimentar (CA e características de carcaça. Para CR e GP, não houve diferenças estatísticas (p > 0,05 entre o tratamento controle e o segundo tratamento com exceção para CA no período de 22 a 42 dias. Com o resultado para GP houve diferenças significativas (p 0,05 para todos os parâmetros avaliados. Tanto o sorgo quanto o farelo de caroço de algodão extrusado em substituição ao milho e o farelo de soja é possível até 13,31%, melhorando a conversão alimentar.Partial substitution of the corn and soybean for sorghum and expander cottonseed meal in broilers’ rations. The experiment aimed to evaluate the use of sorghum (50% and the expander cottonseed meal (0; 13.33; 26.66; 39.99% in substitution to the corn and the protein of the soybean meal in broilers’ rations. An experiment was carried out using 300 male broiler chicks, distributed in a randomized arrangement with five treatments and five repetitions of 12 birds per parcel. The analyzed variables were ration consumption (RC, weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC and characteristics of carcass. RC and WG did not present any statistical differences (p > 0.05 between the controlled treatment and the second treatment, except for FC during the period of 22 to 42 days. As for WG, significant statistical differences were found (p 0.05 for all the evaluated parameters. Both sorghum and the expander cottonseed meal in substitution to the corn and the soybean meal are possible, up

  6. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  7. Desempenho de novilhos Nelore alimentados com casca de soja ou farelo de gérmen de milho em substituição parcial ao milho moído Effects of partial replacement of ground corn with soybean hulls or corn germ meal on production of Nellore steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar a substituição parcial (70% do milho moído pela casca de soja ou pelo farelo de gérmen de milho em dietas contendo farelo de girassol e uréia (fontes nitrogenadas e silagem de milho (volumoso para novilhos Nelore em confinamento. Avaliaram-se o consumo, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça de 21 animais (25 meses de idade e peso inicial de 343 kg alimentados com as dietas-teste, fornecidas na proporção 60:40 volumoso:concentrado. O período de avaliação do consumo e do ganho de peso foi de 97 dias. Os consumos de MS (10,78; 9,73 e 10,62 kg/dia, PB (1,40; 1,22 e 1,41 kg/dia e FDN (3,41; 3,89 e 3,60 kg/dia não foram influenciados pelas dietas com milho moído, casca de soja e farelo de gérmen de milho, respectivamente. O consumo de FDA (0,56; 0,71 e 0,55% PV apresentou efeito significativo, observando-se maior valor quando a casca de soja substituiu 70% do milho moído. O ganho de peso não foi influenciado pelas dietas, registrando-se valores de 1,35; 1,29 e 1,32 kg/dia para as dietas contendo milho moído, casca de soja e farelo de gérmen de milho, respectivamente. Não houve efeito, também, sobre a conversão alimentar (7,88 kg de MS ingerida/kg ganho, a eficiência alimentar (0,12 kg ganho/kg MS ingerida e o rendimento de carcaça (54,52%. A substituição parcial do milho moído pela casca de soja e pelo farelo de gérmen de milho em dietas para novilhos em confinamento não afeta o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça.The objective of this trial was to study the partial replacement of ground corn with soybean hulls or corn germ meal in diets containing sunflower meal and urea as nitrogen sources and corn silage as forage for confined Nellore steers. Twenty-one steers averaging 25 months of age and 343 kg of initial body weight were assigned to diets containing a forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40. The period for measurements of intake and weight gain lasted 97

  8. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  9. Soybean Shortcomings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Before the Spring Festival,which falls on February 7 this year,the most important festival for the Chinese, counters selling soybean oil in a supermar- ket in Beijing’s Chaoyang District were especially crowded."Since September 2007,soybean oil has sold very well,"Li Ping,a sales assistant of the supermarket, told Beijing Review,"More than 1,000 bottles are sold every day."

  10. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  11. Desempenho produtivo de fêmeas leiteiras alimentadas com silagem de milho e concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão Productive performance of growing dairy heifers fed corn silage and soybean or cottonseed meal based concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas dietas com silagem de milho e concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão para fêmeas leiteiras. Quatro dietas experimentais foram constituídas da combinação de dois níveis de concentrado (1 ou 2 kg e duas fontes proteicas (farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão. Observou-se efeito da interação nível de concentrado × fonte proteica no consumo de matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e no consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. A quantidade de concentrado influenciou os consumos de proteína bruta (PB, FDN, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos nãofibrosos (CNF, matéria orgânica (MO e de PB por kg de NDT. Não houve efeito nas digestibilidades da MS, FDN, MO e para NDT, porém a fonte proteica influenciou as digestibilidades de PB, EE e CNF. Houve efeito da quantidade de concentrado sobre o ganho de peso (GP e da interação quantidade de concentrado × fonte proteica sobre o ganho de peso por cm de ganho em altura da cernelha. A dieta com 1 kg de concentrado à base de farelo de algodão foi insuficiente para ganho de peso de 800 g/dia, enquanto as dietas com 2 kg de concentrado propiciaram o maior ganho de peso. Entretanto, a dieta constituída de 2 kg de concentrado à base de farelo de soja foi mais eficiente, pois propiciou maior crescimento linear das novilhas, com ganho médio de 820 g por dia. Equações de predição do peso corporal com base no perímetro torácico apresentam maior acurácia em relação a equações baseadas em outras medidas lineares.Diets for dairy heifers were assessed with corn silage and soybean or cotton seed based concentrate. Four experimental diets consisting of the combination of two concentrate levels, 1 or 2 kg, and two protein sources, soybean meal or cotton seed meal. The effect of the interaction was observed for intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF in % live weight and total digestible nutrient intake (TDN. The quantity of

  12. Níveis de bagaço de cana e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento Sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in the growing dairy cattle diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brandão Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de bagaço e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento, dois experimentos foram realizados. No primeiro, 20 bezerros mestiços Holandês x Zebu foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os animais receberam dietas à base de palma forrageira e bagaço de cana em níveis de 5,5; 14,4; 24,4 e 34% da matéria seca total. O ganho de peso diminuiu, enquanto a conversão alimentar, e os consumos de FDN e FDA aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão de bagaço. O consumo máximo de MS foi estimado em 2,73% do peso vivo com 30% de bagaço de cana. No segundo experimento foi avaliada a substituição do farelo de soja (FS por uréia mais milho moído (UM, em dietas à base de palma forrageira, sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu. Vinte animais foram alimentados de acordo com os níveis de substituição do FS por UM (0, 20, 40 e 60% distribuídos em blocos ao acaso. Não houve efeito da substituição parcial do farelo de soja por milho e uréia sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças.In order to evaluate different levels of sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in growing dairy cattle diets, two trials were conducted. In the first, twenty crossbreed bull calves (Holstein x Zebu were allotted in a completely randomized design with four treatments. The animals were fed forage cactus based diets, containing levels of 5.5, 14.4, 24.4 and 34% of sugar cane bagasse on the dry matter basis. The liveweight gain decreased while the feed: gain ratio, FDN and FDA intakes increased linearly in function of the increased level of sugar cane bagasse. The maximum daily dry matter intake of 2.73% of LW was estimated with 30% of sugar cane bagasse in the diet. In the second, was evaluated the partial replacement of soybean meal (SM by urea plus corn cracked (UC in forage cactus based diets on the

  13. Substituição do farelo de soja pela mistura raspa de mandioca e uréia em dietas para vacas mestiças em lactação Replacement of soybean meal with urea plus cassava scrapings in diets for crossbred lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pimentel Ramalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da substituição do farelo de soja pela mistura raspa de mandioca+uréia sobre o desempenho, o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill e silagem de sorgo, oito vacas mestiças Holandês:Gir (60±30 dias em lactação e 491 kg de PV inicial foram distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 × 4. A mistura raspa de mandioca+uréia substituiu 0, 33, 67 e 100% do farelo de soja nas dietas. Os consumos de matéria seca (expressos em kg/dia, % do PV, g/kg0,75 do PV, MO, PB, EE, FDN e CHOT diminuíram linearmente com a inclusão da raspa de mandioca. As ingestões de FDN (%PV, FDA, CNF e NDT não foram afetadas pelos níveis de raspa de mandioca+uréia nas dietas. A inclusão de raspa de mandioca+uréia influenciou a digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes, sendo descrita por função quadrática. A produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigida para 4,0% de gordura e a produção de gordura diminuíram linearmente em 30, 20 e 0,8 g/dia, respectivamente, enquanto o teor de gordura e a eficiência alimentar, em kg de leite corrigido para 4,0% de gordura/kg de MS, não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de substituição do farelo de soja na dieta.This trial was conducted to investigate the replacement of soybean meal with a mixture of urea plus cassava scrapings on nutrient intake, digestibility, and production of crossbred lactating cows fed diets containing forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, sorghum silage, and concentrate. Eight crossbred holstein:zebu cows averaging 60±30 days in milk and initial body weight (BW of 491 kg were randomly assigned to two replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares and were fed diets with increasing levels of urea plus cassava scrapings: 0, 33, 67 or 100%. Replacing soybean meal with urea plus cassava scrapings linearly decreased the intakes of DM (kg, % BW and g/BW kg0.75, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and TC. However

  14. Efeito da substituição do farelo de soja pela amiréia 150S no consumo, produção e composição do leite Effect of the substitution of the soybean meal for the starea 150S in the intake, production and composition of the milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Garcia Vilela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Doze vacas leiteiras (³/4 Holandês x ¹/4 Gir foram utilizadas em um delineamento em quadrado latino, nas dependências da Fazenda Raposo - Nepomuceno, MG, entre novembro de 2001 e abril de 2002 para comparar o efeito da substituição parcial e total do farelo de soja pela amiréia na produção e composição do leite. Os animais apresentavam peso médio de 443 kg e estavam na quarta lactação. A amiréia substituiu o farelo de soja nas seguintes proporções: 0 - 0% de amiréia 150 S; 33 - 33% de amiréia 150 S; 66 - 66% de amiréia 150 S e 100 - 100% de amiréia 150 S, sendo que todos tratamentos foram isoenergéticos e isoprotéicos. Utilizou-se a cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. como volumoso "ad libitum". Cada período experimental teve duração de 15 dias, 9 dias para adaptação e 6 dias para coleta de dados. A produção de leite de cada vaca foi pesada nas duas ordenhas (manhã e tarde e as amostras enviadas para análise de gordura, proteína, lactose, sólidos totais e uréia, pelo processo de infravermelho, junto à Clínica do Leite do Departamento de Produção Animal da ESALQ/USP. A gordura e sólidos totais do leite não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos (P>0,05. A produção de leite, a proteína, a lactose e a uréia do leite diferiram entre os tratamentos (PTwelve dairy cows (³/4 Hoslten x ¹/4 Gir were used in a desing in Latin square, at Fazenda Raposo's dependences in Nepomuceno, MG, between November of 2001 and April of 2002 to compare the effect of the partial and total substitution of soybean meal for starea in the production and composition of milk. The medium weight of the animals was 443 kg and they were in the fourth nursing. The starea substituted soybean meal in the following proportions: 0 - 0% of starea 150 S; 33 - 33¨% of starea 150 S; 66 - 66% of starea 150 S and 100 - 100% of starea 150 S, and every treatments were isoenergetics and isoproteics. Sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L. was

  15. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  16. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (i...

  17. 豆粕和小麦粉挤出物的制曲工艺参数对淀粉酶活力的影响%Inlfuence of Parameters of Koji-Making with Extruded Mixture of Soybean Meal and Wheat Flour to Amylase Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马成业; 何媛媛; 白兴达; 李宏军

    2016-01-01

    The paper used extruded mixture of soybean meal and wheat flour as material to make koji for soybean sauce. The amylase activity was taken as the indexes. The method of the quadratic orthogonal rotating combination design of four factors (the temperature, the proportion of bran, the moisture and the time of making koji) and five levels was used. The optimized parameters of making koji was abtained by SAS 9.1. The temperature was 30.0℃, the proportion of bran was 30.0%, the moisture was 100.0%and the time of making koji was 60.0 h. The amylase activity was 587 U/g.%以豆粕和小麦粉的挤出物为原料,以淀粉酶活力为考察指标,以制曲温度、麸皮比例、润水量和制曲时间为制曲参数,采用四因素进行五水平二次旋转正交试验,使用SAS9.1软件进行试验数据处理,得出最佳制曲工艺参数为:制曲温度30.0℃,麸皮比例30.0%,润水量100.0%,制曲时间60.0 h。在此条件下豆粕和小麦粉挤压膨化物种曲的淀粉酶活力为587 U/g。

  18. Learning through school meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica

    2014-07-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at evaluating the effects of free school meal interventions on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment in schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offering free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school individual and focus group interviews were conducted with students in grades 5 to 7 and grades 8 to 9. Furthermore, students were observed during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The purpose of the article is to explore the learning potentials of school meals. The cross-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competences in relation to food, meals and health, as well as their involvement in the school meal project. The analysis indicates that the pupils have developed knowledge and skills related to novel foods and dishes, and that school meals can contribute to pupils' learning, whether this learning is planned or not. However, if school meals are to be further developed as an arena for learning, greater consideration must be given to the interaction between pupil, school meal and teacher than in the school meal projects presented in this study, and the potentials for learning through school meals clarified and discussed in the schools. Studying the school meal projects raises a number of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis in the analysis of soybean proteins and peptides in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz, José María; Marina, María Luisa

    2007-03-01

    The increasing interest in functional and healthy food products has promoted the use of soybean in the manufacture of foods for human consumption. Soybean basic products (soybeans, textured soybean, soybean flour, soybean protein concentrate and soybean protein isolate) as well as soybean derivatives (soybean dairy-like products, soybean drinks with fruits, meat analogues, etc.) are commercially available. In addition, due to the interesting nutritional and functional properties of soybean proteins, they are usually employed as ingredient in the elaboration of a large number of food products such as bakery or meat products among others. In spite of the good characteristics of soybean proteins, their addition to some products is forbidden or allowed up to a certain limit. Therefore, analytical methodologies to achieve the determination of soybean proteins in foods are necessary in order to make possible adequate quality control and to prove that legal regulations controlling their addition are accomplished. However, this is not an easy task due to the diversity and complexity of the food matrices and the technological treatments to which some of these foods are submitted during their elaboration. This article presents for the first time a comprehensive review on the analytical methodologies developed using HPLC and CE to characterize soybeans and to analyse soybean proteins in meals. Moreover, the use of HPLC and CE in the characterization of soybean protein fractions and their hydrolyzates, and a study of their relationships to nutritional, functional and biomedical properties are included. Finally, the application of proteomic methodologies in soybean food technology is also reviewed.

  20. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  1. Processed soybean in diets for pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Stech

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in development and in physiological parameters of fingerlings of the pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus fed on diets with high levels of integral crude, extruded, toasted soybean and soybean meal were assessed. The products were evaluated in practical diets for pacu, initially weighing 70 ± 2.19 g, during 82 days. Nine treatments were studied in a 2 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme which corresponded to two fish meal protein replacement levels (50 and 100% and four soybean products, plus control (100% of fish meal - FM. Development, organosomatic indexes and physiological parameters were evaluated. No differences were reported with regard to weight gain, food intake, food conversion, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. A significant interaction was registered for plasma protein between the evaluated ingredients and replacement percentage of fish meal protein. Results showed that the ingredients assessed did not affect the development of the pacu when compared to fish fed on control diet. Protein retention was favored when toasted soybean and when 50% of the diet’s protein fraction from fish meal were employed.

  2. Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal as culture medium for the control of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Avaliação do bioinseticida de Bacillus sphaericus, produzido com meio de cultivo de farelo branco de soja no controle de Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. A. Melo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioinsecticides are shown to be useful in control programs to prevent several diseases, based on their specificity and efficiency against insect vectors. In the current study a bioinsecticide based on Bacillus sphaericus was produced using a white soybean culture medium and applied to larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the susceptible species, and Aedes aegypti, the refractory species used as the negative control. Efficacy was compared with that of the product fermented with the Luria Bertani (LB reference medium. The experiments showed that C. quinquefasciatus was highly susceptible to the product prepared with white soybean meal, reaching 100% larval mortality even at 10mg/L, while A. aegypti failed to reach 70% mortality at a concentration of 1g/L. By comparison with the reference medium, the proposed culture medium showed high larvicidal power, reaching a LD90 of 2.26mg/L, while 4.37mg/L was needed for the LB medium to achieve the same mortality rate. Cost comparison between the formulations favored the use of the bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal. After factoring in the LD90 value, the cost ratio favored the new raw material by nearly 1:220.A utilização de bioinseticidas tem se mostrado útil aos programas de prevenção de diversas enfermidades devido a sua especificidade e eficiência contra insetos vetores. No presente trabalho, o bioinseticida de Bacillus sphaericus foi produzido com um meio de cultivo composto de farelo branco de soja e aplicado em larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus, espécie susce-tível, e Aedes aegypti, espécie refratária, usada como controle negativo. O desempenho foi comparado com o do produto fermentado com o meio referência Luria Bertani (LB. Os experimentos constataram que C. quinquefasciatus apresentou uma alta suscetibilidade ao produto produzido com farelo branco de soja, alcançando mortalidade de 100% mesmo na diluição de 10mg/L, enquanto A. aegypti não atingiu 70% na concentração de 1

  3. Soybean seed compostion and quality: interactions of enviroment genotype and management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein, oil, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and minerals for human and animal nutrition. Soybean seed contains approximately 40% protein, 20% oil, and 33% carbohydrates, 9% crude fiber. About one-third of the world's edible oils and two-thirds of its protein meal are ...

  4. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...... of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals....

  5. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Soybean-Based Biodiesel in Argentina for Export

    OpenAIRE

    Panichelli, Luis; Dauriat, Arnaud; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim and scope. Regional specificities are a key factor when analyzing the environmental impact of a biofuel pathway through a life cycle assessment (LCA). Due to different energy mixes, transport distances, agricultural practices and land use changes, results can significantly vary from one country to another. The Republic of Argentina is the first exporter of soybean oil and meal and the third largest soybean producer in the world, and therefore, soybean-based biodiesel producti...

  7. Extruded Soybean Samples for Mechnical Oil Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaFu-go; WuFeng-zhi; 等

    1999-01-01

    Soybean is generally recognized as a source of edible and the deoiled meal is seen as a source of protein in animal feed.In recent years.However,more interest has been directed toward using soy meal as a protein souce for human consumption.Extrusion-expelling of soybean provides an opportunity in this direction.The main focus of this study was to maximize the oil recovery from extruded soybean processed using three different kinds of extrudates and processing conditions.These extruded samples were later pressed uniaxially in a specifically designed test-cell and the oil recovery was recorded over time.The effects of process variables,including applied pressure,pressing temperature and sample height,were investigated.Results indicated that over 90% of the available oil could be recovered from pressing of extruded soy samples.The information generated is likedly to be useful in interpreting the effect of precess variables and extruding equipment for pretreatment of soybean for subsequent mechanical oil expression.

  8. Extruded Soybean Samples for Mechnical Oil Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Soybean is generally recognized as a source of edible and the deoiled meal is seen as a source of protein in animal feed. In recent years. However,more interest has been directed toward using soy meal as a protein souce for human consumption. Extrusion-expelling of soybean provides an opportunity in this direction. The main focus of this study was to maximize the oil recovery from extruded soybean processed using three differ- ent kinds of extrudates and processing conditions. These extruded samples were later pressed uniaxially in a specifically designed test-cell and the oil recovery was recorded over time. The effects of process variables ,in- cluding applied pressure, pressing temperature and sample height, were investigated. Results indicated that over90% of the available oil could be recovered from pressing of extruded soy samples. The information gen- erated is likedly to be useful in interpreting the effect of precess variables and extruding equipment for pre- treatment of soybean for subsequent mechanical oil expression.

  9. Hedging with futures contracts in the Brazilian soybean complex: BM&F vs. CBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Regina O. da Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the effectiveness of hedging Brazilian soy oil, soy meal, and soybeans in the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT and in the Brazilian Commodities and Futures Exchange (BM&F to reduce the risk of financial loss due to commodity price fluctuations. The econometric results show that a cross-hedging strategy using the BM&F soybean futures contract is an instrument of low effectiveness for managing soy oil and soy meal price risk. Despite low effectiveness, the estimates demonstrate total advantage for soy meal hedging operations using CBOT soy meal futures contracts rather than cross-hedging using BM&F soybean futures contracts. With some exceptions, the results are also more favorable for hedging soy oil with soy oil futures contracts at the CBOT rather than cross hedging with soybeans at the BM&F. Conversely, Brazilian traders hedging soybeans receive more effective risk protection by trading soybean futures contracts at the BM&F than by trading soybean futures contracts at the CBOT.

  10. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz; Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas; Regina Patrícia de Souza Xavier; Danilo Rodrigues Fernandes; Germano Augusto Gerônimo Nascimento; Pedro Henrique Watanabe

    2015-01-01

    The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM) has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying ...

  11. 发酵豆粕对肉鸭生产性能、肌肉成分、肉品质及血清指标的影响%Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on the Growth Performance Muscle Contents Muscle Quality and Serum Parameters of Cherry Valley Ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫兵; 章竹岩; 祝溢锴; 温超; 周岩民

    2012-01-01

    A total of 360 1 -day -old Cherry valley ducks,with average weight (50.75 ±0.54) g.were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments, that were fed a basal diet ( control group) , and the same basal diets added with 2% fermented soybean meal ( FSBM ) instead of soybean meal ( FSBM group). The results showed that compared with the control group,the daily gain of FSBM group of finishing period and entire period increased by 2. 18% and 1.46%. Average daily gain ( ADG) increased by 1.04% ,1.65% and 1.44% ,Food conversion (F/G) decreased by 1. 20% , 1.29% and 1.44% for starter period,finishing period and entire period, and a decreasing trend was observed in F/G during starter period (P =0.093) ;FSBM increased the crude protein (CP) content of the breast and thigh muscle by 1.52% and 1.90% ,as for ether extract (EE) were 1. 17% and 2.67% higher than that control group; The pH of thigh muscle of ducks fed FSBM diet decreased significantly (P 0.05) respectively. These results implied that FSBM can increase growth performance of Cherry valley ducks and improve meat quality and the retention of CP and EE in muscle.%选用体重(50.75±0.54)g的1日龄樱桃谷肉鸭360只,随机分为2组,每组设6重复,每重复30只,分别饲喂基础日粮(对照组),以及以2% FSBM替代基础日粮中豆粕的试验日粮(FSBM组).结果表明:与对照组相比,添加发酵豆粕( FSBM)使肉鸭后期和全期日采食量(ADFI)分别增加2.18%和1.46%,日增重(ADG)分别增加1.04%、1.65%和1.44%,F/G降低1.20%、1.29%和1.44%,其中前期料重比(F/G)有显著降低的趋势(P =0.093);使肉鸭胸肌和腿肌粗蛋白(CP)质量分数分别增加1.52%和1.90%,粗脂肪(EE)质量分数分别增加1.17%和2.67%;腿肌pH值显著降低(P<0.05),胸肌24h和48 h滴水损失分别降低11.26%和8.21%;血氨(BUN)含量降低11.36%,血糖(GLU)含量增加1.96%,白球比(A/G)升高4.22%(P>0.05).说明FSBM对樱桃谷肉鸭的生产性能、

  12. Limiting factors for the enzymatic accessibility of soybean protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Soy is a commonly used ingredient is food and animal feed. With particular focus on the in-soluble fractions, this thesis deals with the effects of proteases and carbohydrate degrading enzymes on different soybean meals subjected to different extent of heating. The primary aim is to improve the unde

  13. Feasibility of wood pulping black liquor for treatment of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... treatments of soybean meal (SBM) on in situ rumen degradability characteristics in cow and its proteins ... Ørskov, 1977) and thus cloud visualize waste with xylose ..... of wood and paper factory waste and is hazardous to the.

  14. Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urán Carmona, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of soybean meal (SBM), especially in the diet of Atlantic salmon, induces an inflammatory response of the distal intestinal mucosa, known as SBM-induced enteritis. A semi-quantitative scoring system was developed to assess the extent of the morphological changes observed in this study.

  15. RP-HPLC测定作为红霉素发酵生产氮源的黄豆饼粉中的B族维生素%Determination of the vitamin B group in soybean cake meal as the nitrogen source in fermentation for erythrocin production by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘必成; 刘刚; 宓女; 付水林; 宫衡

    2012-01-01

      A RP-HPLC method was established for the determination of the vitamin B group in soybean cake meal. A C18 column was used with the mobile phase of methanol-water(30:70, aqueous solution contained 5mmol/L PIC-B6, 1%glacial acetic acid, pH was adjusted by triethylamine). The UV detection wavelength was 275nm. Benzoic acid was used as the internal standard. The average recoveries of the four vitamins(Vb1、Vb2、Vb6、and folic acid)were 98.95%-100.03%and the RSDs were 0.42%-1.08%. This method is rapid, convenient and accurate for the simultaneous determination of the four vitamins[1].%  建立了黄豆饼粉中B族维生素的RP-HPLC测定方法,采用C18柱,流动相为甲醇:水(30:70,水相含5mmol/L的PIC-B6,冰醋酸1%,三乙胺调pH),检测波长为275nm,苯甲酸为内标物,4种维生素(Vb1、Vb2、Vb6、叶酸)的平均回收率在99.35%-100.03%;RSD在0.42%-1.08%.本方法同时测定四种维生素具有快速、简便、准确的特点[1].

  16. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P Phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei enhanced ileal digestibility of N and several AA in growing pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. Meals for the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  18. Fatty acid profile and CLA content in milk from cows fed different soybean sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonetto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The soybean meal is the main protein source in the ruminant diets and the EU consumption is about 27 million t/year (Brookes, 2000. However, problems have been recently risen by the use of GM soybean and derivates in animal feeding. The GM soybeans can be incorporated in the animal feeds and/or diets, especially if the seed or derivates are imported from extra-UE countries. In addition, the use of soybean meal is forbidden by the regulation of the organic livestock farming and/or the production of some typical foods. To this purpose the use of non-GM soybean, produced and treated directly in the farm, could be encouraged in the animal feeding.......

  19. Chinese Soybean Industry: Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachuan Liu; Shaojun Tian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybeanresources and their industry development inChina. Due to the high demand in domesticmarket, it is necessary to expand the cultivationarea and improve the production yields.Meanwhile, to inc e the export of soybeansfrom overseas is also important. China has along history in producing traditional soyfoods. After recent fifty years, the developmentof Chinese soybean industry has reached to areasonable level. The current status of Chinesesoybean industry has been included in thepaper. It has been expected that in next fiveyears, there will be a rapid increase in theprocessing of soybeans; it will become morereasonable in the scale and distribution ofsoybean oil factories. Emphasis will be put onthe improvement of the functionalities ofsoybean products. Different kinds of functionalsoybean foods, especially the soybean proteinsfor particular uses will be developed by the useof modification technologies. Concern is alsogiven to the multi -utilizn of soybeanresources, which not only the extractionof oil from soybean and the processingof protein products from the meal; but alsoincludes the recovery of the naturalchemicals from soybeans which could then beexploited to novel products with more profits.

  20. Enzymatic solubilisation and degradation of soybean fibre demonstrated by viscosity, fibre analysis and microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jonas Laukkonen; Martens, Helle Juel; Pettersson, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a commercial multienzyme product obtained by fermentation from Aspergillus aculeatus on soybean and soybean meal was investigated using viscosity measurements, dietary fibre component analysis and different microscopy techniques utilizing histochemical dyes and antibody labelling...... and hemicellulose components of soybean cell wall were also used to visualize several enzyme activities in the commercial enzyme preparation The challenges of using commercial antibodies elicited from a given plant source to detect similar epitiopes on another plant source are also discussed. Non...... soybean cell wall components as part of the undesirable antinutrients in animal feed....

  1. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  2. Beta-conglycinin and gut histology of sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-GM soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is reported that the soybean protein (Beta-conglycinin) might cause inflammation of the distal intestine and stimulate endogenous cholecystokinin release that suppresses food intake in fish. We are studying the effects of meals made from new strains of non-GMO soybeans with high protein and redu...

  3. Effect of storage and heating on good mature and green immature soybean and soybean dehulling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Mature and immature soybeans were stored for 6 months. Every month, soybeans were analysed for oil content, moisture percentage, acid value, peroxide value, fatty acid analysis, meal protein and urease activity in soybean meal. In addition, soybean samples were heated to different temperatures and times and the effect of heating on dehulling was studied. Finally control charts of acid and peroxide values were constructed and discussed.

    Soja madura e inmadura se almacenó durante seis meses. Mensualmente, la soja fue analizada por su contenido en aceite, porcentaje de humedad, índice de acidez, índice de peróxido, análisis de ácidos grasos y, proteína y actividad ureásica en la harina de soja. Además, las muestras de soja se calentaron a diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, estudiándose el efecto del calentamiento sobre el descascarado. Finalmente, se construyeron y discutieron gráficas controles de índices de acidez y peróxido.

  4. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  5. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  6. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  7. Substituição do farelo de soja por levedura de cana-de-açúcar em rações para frangos de corte¹ Replacing soybean meal by yeast sugar cane in broiler-chicken diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela da levedura de cana-de-açúcar (LEV em rações de frangos contendo farelo da castanha de caju (FCC. O total de 325 pintos machos com um dia de idade foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco rações e cinco repetições de treze aves. Foram testadas cinco rações contendo 20% de FCC e os níveis de 0; 5; 10; 15 e 20% de substituição da proteína do FS pela da LEV. Conforme análise de regressão, houve efeito quadrático da substituição da proteína do FS pela da LE V sobre o consumo de ração e conversão alimentar e linear sobre o ganho de peso, na fase inicial (1 a 21 dias. Contudo, a substituição em níveis de até 20% não prejudicou significativamente o desempenho nas diferentes fases de criação e não alterou as características de carcaça em relação ao controle. Pelo estudo econômico, a substituição da proteína do FS pela da LEV se mostrou viável até o nível de 20%. Pode-se concluir que, em rações para frangos de corte, contendo 20% de FCC, a proteína do FS pode ser substituída pela da LEV em até 20%.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of substituting the protein from soybean meal (SM by yeast sugar cane (YSC in broiler-chicken diets containing cashew nut meal (CNM. A total of 325 male chicks at one day old, were distributed completely randomly among five feeds with five replications of thirteen birds each. We tested five diets containing 20% CNM each and the levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% protein replacement of SM by YSC. According to regression analysis, there was a quadratic effect on feed intake and feed conversion by the protein replacement of SM by the YSC, and a linear effect on weight gain in the initial phase (1-21 days. However, substitution at levels up to 20% did not significantly impair performance at any of the different stages, and did not affect the carcass

  8. Desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com complexos enzimáticos Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed corn soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymatic complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Carrera de Carvalho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da suplementação de complexos enzimáticos à dieta sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte de ambos os sexos. Avaliaram-se cinco dietas: controle positivo - à base de milho e farelo de soja com farinha de carne e ossos, sem enzima; controle negativo - formulada com 3% menos de energia metabolizável; controle negativo + 0,05% do complexo A (xilanase, 600 U/g; amilase, 8.000 U/g; e protease, 800 U/g; controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B (α-amilase, 200 kNU/g; e β-glucanase, 350 FBG/g; e controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B + 0,01% da enzima C (xilanase, 1.000 FXU/g. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho das aves no período de 1 a 7 dias de idade. Na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade, os machos consumiram mais ração e as dietas com o complexo B resultaram em maior ganho de peso. Os melhores resultados de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. No período total, o consumo de ração foi menor entre as aves (machos e fêmeas mantidas com a dieta controle positivo, enquanto o maior ganho de peso nos machos foi obtido com a dieta controle negativo contendo 0,04% do complexo B. Quanto à conversão alimentar, os machos apresentaram as melhores conversões com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre os rendimentos de carcaça, peito e gordura abdominal. Quando fornecidas dietas com redução de 3% da energia metabolizável, o uso dos complexos enzimáticos é efetivo na recuperação do desempenho das aves.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of enzymatic complexes on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from both sexes. Five diets were evaluated: positive control diet based on corn and soybean meal with meat and bone meal without enzyme; negative control diet formulated with 3% less of metabolizable energy; negative control + 0

  9. Níveis de inclusão do resíduo do milho (mazoferm, em substituição ao farelo de soja para vacas em lactação = Inclusion levels of maize residue in substitution of soybean meal for lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josilaine Matos dos Santos Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar níveis (0,0; 3,5; 7,0; 10,5 e 14,0% de resíduo da maceração do milho em substituição ao farelo de soja sobre o consumo, digestibilidade e produção de leite em vacas mestiças em lactação. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino (5x5. Foi observada uma diminuição dos consumos de matéria seca (16,27 kg dia-1, 3,57% PV e 159,60 g kg-0,75. As demais variáveis acompanharam seu comportamento, exceto o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais(11,46 kg dia-1 que não sofreu alteração. Observou-se que os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes não foram alterados. A produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigido para o teor de gordura e a percentagem de gordura do leite foram de 14,08 kg dia-1; 14,05 kg dia-1 e 3,99%, respectivamente. A inclusão do resíduo diminuiu o consumo, contudo, a digestibilidade dos ingredientes, a produção de leite e o teor de gordura não foram alterados.The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating levels (0.0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14.0% of maize maceration residue in substitution of soybean meal on the consumption, digestibility and production of crossbred lactating cows. The experimental design chosen was the Latin square (5x5. A reduction was observed in theconsumption of dry matter (16.27 kg day-1, 3.57% LW and 159.60 g kg-0.75. The other nutrients followed this behavior, except the consumption of total digestible nutrients (11.46 kg day-1, which was not altered. It was observed that the coefficients of apparentdigestibility of all nutrients were not modified. Milk production, milk production corrected for fat levels and the percentage of milk fat were 14.08 kg day-1, 14.05 kg day-1 and 3.99%, respectively. The inclusion of the residue diminished the consumption; however, thedigestibility of the ingredients, milk production and fat levels were not altered.

  10. Market Power of the Japanese Non-GM Soybean Import Market: The U.S. Exporters VS. Japanese Importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Yamaura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM soybean acreage has rapidly increased in the world in the past decade and globally the majority of countries now use GM soybeans to produce oil and meal for livestock and human consumption. Japan, however, uses only Non-GM soybeans as widely recognized high quality goods in vertically differentiated import soybeans in Japan, for direct human consumption of which more than 80% are imported from the U.S., Canada, and China. This research used the inverse residual demand model to estimate a U.S.-Japan partial equilibrium trade model to test the existence of market power in the Japanese Non-GM soybean import market. The U.S.-Japan partial equilibrium trade model incorporated the U.S. residual Non-GM soybean supply for Japan, the Japanese residual demand for U.S. Non-GM soybeans, and the equilibrium condition, where the U.S. residual Non-GM soybean supply equals the Japanese residual Non-GM soybean demand. Monthly data from January 2003 to December 2007 were used for the analysis. Empirical results indicated that U.S. Non-GM soybean exporters have stronger market power than Japanese Non-GM soybean importers. The results are different from other countries empirical studies and indicate that Japanese consumers are willing to pay higher prices for soybeans, tofu, natto, miso, and other all soy food products using Non-GM soybeans.

  11. REFRACTOMETRIC METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF SOYBEAN PROTEIN SOLUBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIŢĂ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacture of soybean meal a quick control is essential, so that simple and rapid methods, to enable an immediate decision to be made, are of value A simple and rapid method for estimating soybean protein solubility on the basis of changes in the refractive index of dilute potassium hydroxide solution extracts was tested and we found to be highly correlated with the usual protein solubility test in KOH (r = 0.9382. Determination of biophysical parameters instead of chemical indices has two great advantages: the methods are nonpolluting since they don’t use chemical substances, and the methods are very rapid.

  12. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (pducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  13. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home......Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  14. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    . This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20......Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home...

  15. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  16. Determination of degradability of treated soybean meal and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of different treated SBM samples. SBM were treated ..... (Langan, 1972). In addition, electrostatic and hydrophobic ... This research was carried out as Ph.D. thesis in Animal. Sciences at the ...

  17. The traceability of animal meals in layer diets as detected by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Denadai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to trace the inclusion of animal meals in layer diets by analyzing eggs and their fractions (yolk and albumen using the technique of carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Two-hundred and eighty-eight (288 73-week-old Shaver White layers, never fed animal ingredients, were randomly distributed in six treatments with six replicates each. The treatments were: control - corn and soybean meal based diet and five other experimental diets including bovine meat and bone meal (MBM; poultry offal meal (POM; feather meal (FM; feather meal and poultry offal meal (OFM, and poultry offal meal, feather meal, and meat and bone meal (MBOFM. The isotopic results were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance. Ellipses were determined through an error matrix (95% confidence to identify differences between treatments and the control group. In the albumen and yolk of all experimental treatments were significantly different from the control diet (p < 0.05. In summary, the stable isotope technique is able to trace the animal meals included in layer feeds in the final product under these experimental conditions.

  18. Organically Grown Soybean Production in the USA: Constraints and Management of Pathogens and Insect Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen L. Hartman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most produced and consumed oil seed crop worldwide. In 2013, 226 million metric tons were produced in over 70 countries. Organically produced soybean represents less than 0.1% of total world production. In the USA, the certified organic soybean crop was grown on 53 thousand ha or 0.17% of the total soybean acreage in the USA (32 million ha in 2011. A gradual increase in production of organically grown soybean has occurred since the inception of organic labeling due to increased human consumption of soy products and increased demand for organic soybean meal to produce organic animal products. Production constraints caused by pathogens and insect pests are often similar in organic and non-organic soybean production, but management between the two systems often differs. In general, the non-organic, grain-type soybean crop are genetically modified higher-yielding cultivars, often with disease and pest resistance, and are grown with the use of synthetic pesticides. The higher value of organically produced soybean makes production of the crop an attractive option to some farmers. This article reviews production and uses of organically grown soybean in the USA, potential constraints to production caused by pathogens and insect pests, and management practices used to reduce the impact of these constraints.

  19. Enzymatic complex in feed containing defatted corn germ meal for pigs during growth and finish phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Abércio da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the use of defatted corn germ meal (DCGM with an enzymatic complex (EC in feed for pigs in growing and finishing phases on the performance, digestibility, carcass, meat quality and economic efficiency characteristics. A total of 50 pigs (Agroceres PIC, 25 castrated male and 25 female, with initial average weight of 41.14 ± 2.95 kg, were used The animals were submitted to 5 treatments: T1- control feed (corn + soya meal, T2- ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM (isonutrient and isoenergetic compared to T1, T3- ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM and CE (isonutrient and isoenergetic compared to T1, T4 - ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM without EC (formulated equal T3, without considering the nutritional matrix of CE, with lower nutritional and energetic levels than T1, T5-ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM and EC (formulated equal T2, with EC added in on top form, presenting higher nutritional and energetic levels than T1. The experimental design was in random blocks, with 5 treatments and 5 repetitions per treatment, being each pen with two animals of different genders considered an experimental unit. Significant difference was verified for average weight gain when was considered the entire experimental period, with advantages for T5 and worst results for T4. For feed conversion, the worst result was verified in T4 (P<0.05. The highest final pH values for meat were observed for T1, but influences from this parameter could not be verified (in any of the treatments on the quality of the meat. Economic evaluations have shown best results for T3. Adding the enzymatic complex to diets in growing and finishing pigs with 20% DCGM has improved the zoo-technical performance without compromising carcass characteristic neither meat quality, with an increase in economic feasibility.

  20. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean hulls (SBHs), a co-product of soybean meal milling, have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants contain...

  1. Market Power of The Japanese Non-GM Soybean Import Market: The U.S. Exporters vs. Japanese Importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Yamaura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM soybean acreage has rapidly increased in the world in the past decade and globally the majority of countries now use GM soybeans to produce oil and meal for livestock and human consumption. Japan,however, uses only Non-GM soybeans as widely recognized high quality goods in vertically differentiated import soybeans in Japan, for direct human consumption of which more than 80% are imported from the U.S., Canada, and China. This research used the inverse residual demand model to estimate a U.S.-Japan partial equilibrium trade model to test the existence of market power in the Japanese Non-GM soybean import market. The U.S.-Japan partial equilibrium trade model incorporated the U.S. residual Non-GM soybeansupply for Japan, the Japanese residual demand for U.S. Non-GM soybeans, and the equilibrium condition, where the U.S. residual Non-GM soybean supply equals the Japanese residual Non-GM soybean demand. Monthly data from January 2003 to December 2007 were used for the analysis. Empirical results indicated that U.S. Non-GM soybean exporters have stronger market power than Japanese Non-GM soybean importers. The results are different from other countries empirical studies and indicate that Japanese consumers are willing to pay higher prices for soybeans, tofu, natto, miso, and other all soy food products using Non-GM soybeans.

  2. Energy values of canola meal, cottonseed meal, bakery meal, and peanut flour meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Adeola, O

    2017-02-01

    The energy values of canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), bakery meal (BM), and peanut flour meal (PFM) for broiler chickens were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from d 21 to 28 posthatch. The birds were fed a standard broiler starter diet from d 0 to 21 posthatch. In each experiment, 320 birds were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 5 cages with 8 birds per cage and assigned to 5 diets. Each experiment used a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 4 test diets in which test ingredients partly replaced the energy sources in the reference diet. The test diets in Exp. 1 consisted of 125 g CM, 250 g CM, 100 g CSM, or 200 g CSM/kg. In Exp. 2, the test diets consisted of 200 g BM, 400 g BM, 100 g PFM, or 200 g PFM/kg. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) of all the test ingredients were determined by the regression method. The DM of CM, CSM, BM and PFM were 883, 878, 878, and 964 g/kg, respectively and the respective gross energies (GE) were 4,143, 4,237, 4,060, and 5,783 kcal/kg DM. In Exp. 1, the IDE were 2,132 and 2,197 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The ME were 2,286 and 2,568 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The MEn were 1,931 kcal/kg DM for CM and 2,078 kcal/ kg DM for CSM. In Exp. 2, IDE values were 3,412 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,801 kcal/kg DM for PFM; ME values were 3,176 and 4,601 kcal/kg DM for BM and PFM, respectively, and the MEn values were 3,093 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,112 kcal/kg DM for PFM. In conclusion, the current study showed that chickens can utilize a considerable amount of energy from these 4 ingredients, and also provided the energy values of CM, CSM, BM and PFM for broiler chickens.

  3. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  4. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wandelt, Christine; Contri, Daniela; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Kaspers, Uwe; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2012-03-01

    This subchronic duration feeding study evaluated the nutritional and health status of rats fed diets containing CV127 at incorporation levels of 11% and 33%. For control comparisons, rats were also exposed to similar incorporation levels of the near isogenic conventional soybean variety (Conquista) and two other conventional soybean varieties (Monsoy, Coodetec). In spite of phenotypic differences among these four soybean varieties, there were no quantitative differences in their respective proximate and other compositional properties, including proteins, amino acids, antinutrients and nutritional cofactors. All diets were prepared by blending the respective processed soybean meal with ground Kliba maintenance meal at high (33%) and low (11%) incorporation levels, and the blended diets were fed to Wistar rats for about 91 days. Although there were some isolated parameters indicating statistically significant changes, these lacked consistency and a plausible mechanism and were thus assessed to be incidental. The totality of results demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are similar with respect to their nutritional value and systemic effects as its near isogenic conventional counterpart, as well as other conventional soybean varieties. Hence, introduction of AHAS gene into soybeans does not substantially alter its compositional properties, nor adversely affect its nutritional or safety status to mammals.

  5. Distribution, antioxidant and characterisation of phenolic compounds in soybeans, flaxseed and olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Ereifej, Khalil; Alli, Inteaz

    2013-08-15

    The distribution of free and bound phenolic compounds present in soybean, flaxseed and olive were investigated. The phenolic compounds were fractionated on the basis on their solubility characteristics in water, alcohol, dilute base and dilute acid. Reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for identification of individual components of phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity (AA%) of free and bound phenolic compounds was measured using the linoleic acid/β-carotene assay. The water-soluble phenolic compound fractions represented 68-81%, 50-72% and 46-56% of the total phenolic compounds measured in full-fat soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Methanolic extraction of free phenolic compounds without heat, solubilised 21-56%, 42-62% and 34-51% of the total phenolic compounds measured in soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively; methanol extraction of free phenolic compounds with heat solubilised a further 24-34%, 31-37% and 36-37% of phenolic compounds from soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Further dilute alkali and dilute acid solubilised the remaining 10-40%, 1-21% and 12-29% of the total phenolic compounds from soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Results indicated that the full-fat meals of soybean, flaxseed and olive showed higher antioxidant activity compared to defatted meals. RP-HPLC and LC-MS/MS profil1 for soybean, flaxseed and olive indicate two classes of phenolic compounds designated as free and bound phenolic compounds.

  6. Solid-state Fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae Using Soybean Meal as a Substrate: Degradation of Phytate and Optimization of Fungal Biomass Growth%米曲霉固体发酵降解豆粕植酸及其生长条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高有领; 汪财生; 朱秋华; 钱国英

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimize the solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae to degrade phytic acid and increase Aspergillus oryzae biomass growth in soybean meal, and to investigate the correlation between phytic degradation and fungal biomass growth. The response surface methodology by Box-Be-hnken design was used to optimize the ratio of substrate to water, inoculum size and duration. A total of 17 runs including 5 fermentation conditions and 5 replicates at the center point were set in this experiment. Each fermentation condition consisted of 3 levels ( the ratios of substrate to water were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5, inoculum sizes were 4%, 8% and 12%, and durations were 72, 96 and 120 h). Ergosterol was used as a tool to estimate Aspergillus oryzae biomass. The results showed that the minimum phytic acid content was 2.38 mg/g dry matter (DM) when the ratio of substrate to water was 0.5, inoculum size was 4% and fermentation duration was 120 h. The maximum ergosterol content was 396.74 mg/kg DM when the ratio of substrate to water was 0. 5, inoculum size was 12% and duration was 120 h. In additoin, a significant negative correlation between phytic acid degradation and fungal biomass growth of substrate in solid-state fermentation was detected. In conclusion, the optimal conditions for phytic acid degration can be achieved when the ratio of substrate to water is 0.5, inoculum size is 4% and duration is 120 h, and the optimal conditions for Aspergillus oryzae growth can be achieved when the ratio of substrate to water is 0.5, inoculum size is 12% and duration is 120 h. Aspergillus oryzae is of high efficiency in phytic acid degradation, and shows a potential use in industry-scale solid-state fermentation. Ergosterol can be a good indicator for phytase generation or phyfic acid degradation in solid-state fermentation of soyban meal.%本试验旨在优化豆粕米曲霉(Aspergillus oryzae)固体发酵条件,使豆粕中的植酸降解到

  7. Ingestive behavior of finishing sheep fed detoxified castor bean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cézar da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Castor bean crops stand out in the Northeastern Brazil for oil production, producing coproducts with potential for animal diets. Thus, this work evaluated the effect on ingestive behavior when 0, 33, 67 and 100% of detoxified castor bean meal (DCBM were included to substitute soy bean meal in diets for sheep. The randomized blocks design was used with five sheep in each treatment. Dry matter intake and neutral detergent fiber intake were not affected (P > .05 by the inclusion of DCBM in the diet, with means of 1362.6 and 582.98 g/animal/day, respectively. Substitution of soybean meal by DCBM did not affect (P > .05 times of rumination, idle and total chewing, with averages of 181.33, 347.04 and 366.24 minute/12 h, respectively. A quadratic effect (P < .05 was found for feeding time, with minimum of 164.56 min/12 h, when 60% of DCBM was included in the diet. A quadratic effect (P < .05 was verified for eating efficiency with maximum of 4.43 g DM/minute and 2.08 g NDF/minute. Rumination efficiency in g DM and NDF/minute were not affected (P < .05, with means of 4.31 and 1.84, respectively. The substitution of soybean meal by DCBM decreases feeding time when 60% of it was used but does not influence the intake of DM and NDF, time spent in ruminating and idle, and total chewing time. The use of 60% of DCBM increases feeding efficiency of DM and NDF, and does not compromise the efficiency of rumination.

  8. Bioavailability of phosphorus in meat and bone meal for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, S L; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2005-05-01

    Meat and bone meal (MBM), when supplemented with tryptophan, is an excellent protein source for pigs. It is also a rich source of Ca and P, but some research has suggested that the bioavailability of P is variable. Experiment 1 further examined the bioavailability of P in MBM. The MBM was obtained directly from a plant and was processed to pass through a 10-mesh screen. It contained 50.7% CP, 2.26% lysine, 10.0% Ca, and 5.0% P (air-dry basis). Individually penned pigs (n = 35; 17 kg initial BW) were fed (ad libitum basis) a low-P, corn-soybean meal-basal diet (0.95% lysine, 0.70% Ca, 0.34% P; as-fed basis) or the basal with graded levels of added P (0.067, 0.133, 0.200%) from monosodium phosphate (MSP) or MBM for 40 d. The Ca level was 0.70% in all diets. Diets were fortified with salt, vitamins, and trace minerals. At termination, the third and fourth metacarpals and metatarsals and femurs were removed from all pigs. Growth rate and feed:gain improved linearly (P Bone strength and ash increased linearly (P meal or corn-soybean meal-MBM diets from 45 to 110 kg BW to evaluate MBM as the sole source of supplemental P. The MBM (54% CP, 2.3% lysine, 9.2% Ca, 4.4% P; air-dry basis) was substituted for corn and soybean meal on a lysine basis, and crystalline lysine was added to all diets at 0.15%. Tryptophan was included in diets containing MBM. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial with P source (dicalcium phosphate or MBM) and P level as the two factors. The two levels of P and Ca were at the NRC requirement or the NRC level plus 0.10% additional P and Ca. Performance, carcass traits, and bone strength were not affected by source of P and Ca, but bone strength was greater (P < 0.01) at the higher P and Ca level. These results indicate that the bioavailability of P in MBM, relative to that in MSP, is high (approximately 91%) for growing pigs, and MBM can serve as the sole source of supplemental P and Ca for finishing pigs.

  9. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  10. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  11. Substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, em dietas com alto teor de concentrado, sobre a amônia ruminal, os parâmetros sangüíneos e o metabolismo do nitrogênio em bovinos de corte Total replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in high grain diets on nitrogen metabolism, ruminal ammonia-N concentration and blood parameters in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seis novilhos da raça Nelore, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 420 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado, foram utilizados para avaliar a substituição total de uma fonte de proteína verdadeira (farelo de soja, em uma dieta deficiente em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR, por uréia ou amiréia (fontes de nitrogênio não protéico, ambas em uma dieta adequada em PDR. As dietas foram isoprotéicas (13,0% utilizando-se o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN como única fonte de volumoso (20% da MS. Foram avaliados: a concentração de amônia ruminal, nitrogênio uréico plasmático, glicose plasmática e o metabolismo do nitrogênio. Os tratamentos foram: 1 farelo de soja (FS; 2 uréia e 3 amiréia (A-150S. A concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal no fluido ruminal foi superior no tratamento com uréia, comparado ao tratamento com farelo de soja, sendo que o tratamento com amiréia não diferiu dos demais. O tratamento com amiréia apresentou maior perda de N urinário. A retenção de N (g/d e % do consumido e o valor biológico da proteína (N retido, % do N digerido foram superiores para o tratamento com uréia, comparado aos demais. A concentração de nitrogênio uréico no plasma e a concentração de glicose plasmática foram similares entre os tratamentos. A substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia, ajustando a PDR na dieta de bovinos de corte, demonstrou ser viável. A uréia na forma convencional apresentou vantagens em relação à amiréia.Six Nellore bulls, with initial body weight of 420 kg, were assigned to a duplicated 3x3 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of replacing a true protein source (soybean meal, of high biological value, in a rumen degradable protein (RDP deficient diet, by urea or starea (a supposedly slow release nonprotein nitrogen source, both in a RDP adjusted diet. In natura sugarcane bagasse as the only source of forage (20% of DM. Evaluated

  12. Levels of high energy cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing cattle: performance and economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the substitution levels of protein from soybean meal by high energy cottonseed (CS meal in multiple supplements for beef cattle grazing in the dry season on the average daily gain (ADG and economic viability. Twenty Nellore steers with initial body weight of 351.25±35.38 kg and average initial age of 24±0.8 months were used, divided into four paddocks of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with 1.6 ha each incompletely randomized design with four animals and five supplements to assess the following supplements: 0CS, 25CS and 50CS corresponding to the level of 0,25 and 50% high energy cottonseed meal to replace the meal soybean, provided the amount of 2 kg/animal/day, which were compared to mineral mixture (MM. The supplement 25CS provided higher (P<0.0001 ADG (0.75kg/animal/day-1 compared to supplement 50CS (0.60kg/animal/day-1. The ADG of animals supplemented with 0CS (0.53kg/animal/day-1 did not differ (P<0.0001 of the ADG of the bulls receiving supplementation with 25CS (0.75k /animal/day-1 and 50CS (0,60kg / animal / day-1. The 25CS supplement showed a higher economic return on invested capital in the period. The use of cottonseed meal high energy level of 25% replacement of soybean meal in multiple supplements provided greater weight gain of cattle and improved economic viability. 

  13. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy.......Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...

  14. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  15. Effect of partial replacement of soybean with grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L. on heavy pig performance: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Trombetta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ban of raw GMO materials for preparation of feedstuff (Law 422 29/12/00 has steered the animal productive system to find alternative grain of legumes to replace soybean meal as protein source for animal feeding. There are few research about performance of heavy pig fed with grasspea. In a review Hambury et al. (2000 reported that in pig’s diet the substitution rates is up to 30%. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of partial replacing soybean meal and barley with grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L. on fattening and slaughtering performance of pigs.........

  16. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The cost benefit arising from feeding Breadfruit meal based diets to 1000 Heterobranchus ... Diets containing 0 % breadfruit meal (diet A – control) were not easily stroked by fed ...

  17. Meal Elements - a Way of optimising ready to eat Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for improvement of the quality of food produced in large-scale kitchens. Using meal elements in large-scale kitchens in combination with production planning and over-all structuring of activities generally improves the quality of the meal prepared....

  18. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05. ii Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05. iii Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  19. Fermentation Characteristics and Nitrogen Retention of Madura Cattle Fed Complete Rations Containing Soybean Pod and By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Gede Wiryawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of complete rations containing soybean pod and soybean by-products (soybean meal and tofu waste on rumen microbial population, fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen retention of Madura cattle. Twelve Madura cattle of 1.5 years of age were given 4 feeding treatments in triplicates in randomized block design experiment. The treatments included T0 (100% native grass as a negative control, T1 (concentrate: grass (60:40 as a positive control, T2 (complete ration containing 15% soybean pods, and T3 (complete ration containing 30% soybean pods. The treatments were based on feeding practices commonly applied by farmers in the village. The results showed that the use of concentrate rations or complete rations containing soybean pod and by-product did not affect protozoa population, ammonia concentration, and total VFA production compared to cattle fed 100% native grass. In contrast, the use of concentrate rations or complete rations containing soybean pod and by-products reduced acetate and increased butyrate proportion compared to native grass. The use of a concentrate ration resulted the highest propionate proportion. Methane estimation increased with the use of concentrate ration or complete ration containing 15% soybean pod, but it decreased when the level of soybean pod was increased to 30%. It can be concluded that soybean pod has a potential to be used as a fiber source in beef cattle ration to substitute native grass.

  20. Desempenho de Frangos de Corte Alimentados com Dietas à Base de Milho e Farelo de Soja, com ou sem Adição de Enzimas Performance of Broilers Fed Corn Soybean Meal Based Diets, with or without Inclusion of Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geferson Fischer

    2002-01-01

    cocktail was added with the ration of 1 kg per 200 kg of soybean meal. Two thousand and forty female Ross chicks were distributed in eight treatments with seven replicates each. A split-plot experimental design was used. Treatments consisted of T1 -- control (no enzyme added, T2 -- diet five percent lower in energy, protein and amino acids, without enzyme addition. T3 -- control (no enzyme added up to 28 days and with enzyme from 29 to 35 days of age, T4 -- control (without enzyme up to 21 days and with enzyme from 22 to 35 days of age, T5 -- control (plus enzyme addition, T6 -- control (plus enzyme addition up to 28 days of age, and five percent lower in energy, protein and amino acids, with enzyme addition from 29 to 35 days of age. T7 -- control (with enzyme addition up 21 days of age and five percent lower in energy, protein and amino acids, with enzyme from 22 to 35 days of age, and T8 -- five percent lower in energy, protein and amino acids. During the first experimental period, except for T2, body weight, body weight gain and feed intake were not influenced by dietary treatments. Feed conversion and factor of production differed statistically. During the fourth week of experimental period, birds fed T2 were the only ones to differ in body weight and body weight gain. Feed intake, feed conversion and factor of production were not statistically different. During the last week of experimental period, most differences among treatments were observed. The results indicate that Vegpro enzymatic cocktail was not effective in growth performance improvement.

  1. Efeito da adição de enzimas em dietas de frangos de corte à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre a digestibilidade ileal de nutrientes Effect of enzymes supplementation in corn soybean meal broiler diets on ileal digestibility of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anel Atencio Tejedor

    2001-06-01

    digestibility coefficient (DC of dry mater (DM, crude protein (CP, energy (E, calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P in corn soybean meal diets with different level of Ca and available P (Pa. Chromic oxide (0,5% was added to the diets, as an indigestible marker, to estimate ileal digestibility. All chicks were killed at the end of the experiments (19 days to collect the ileal content. The first experiment was a factorial arrangement of 2 x 2, with six replicates (n=240, 10 chicks per unit. Diets were formulated to contain two levels of Ca and Pa normal (1%Ca/0.45%Pa and low (0.70%Ca/0.32%Pa x two level of phytase (Phy enzyme (0 and 1 kg/t of diet. The second experiment was a factorial arrangement of 2 x 3, six replicates (n=360, 10 chicks per unit. Diets were formulated with two levels of Ca and Pa normal (1%Ca/0.45%Pa and low (0.70%Ca/0.32%Pa x three combination of a multienzyme complex (MC. The combination were 0 kg/t for the control (C, 2 kg/t (MC and 2 kg/t of the MC plus 1 kg/t of phy (MC+phy. In the first experiment the diets with Phy had a higher digestibility for DM (5.2%, CP (2.4% and GE (3,8%. Phytase improve the digestibility of P and Ca in both levels of Ca and Pa. In the second experiment, the addition of the MC improved DC of CP, P and Ca in 3%; 4.7 and 7.8%, respectively. The association of MC + Phy improved Ca and P digestibility. Interaction was observed in the energy digestibility. The addition of the MC improved the digestibility in both Ca and P levels, however the addition of the CM+Phy improved energy DC only in the diets with low Ca and P levels.

  2. School meals: building blocks for healthy children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stallings, Virginia A; Suitor, Carol West; Taylor, Christine Lewis

    2010-01-01

    .... Various laws and regulations govern the operation of school meal programs. In 1995, Nutrition Standards and Meal Requirements were put in place to ensure that all meals offered would be high in nutritional quality...

  3. The meal as a performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NYBERG, MARIA; Olsson, Viktoria; ÖRTMAN, GERD

    2017-01-01

    . By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were...

  4. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe;

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The die......The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus......) was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion....

  5. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control; raw soybean (RaS; roasted soybean (RoS and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU. The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples of feces over a period of six consecutive days. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC did not differ among treatments. On the other hand, crude protein (CP intake was influenced by the diets, and the highest mean values of ether extract (EE were found with the RaS and RoS diets. The intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN was lower in the RaS and RoS diets compared to the control diet. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NDF digestibility were not affected by the different diets, while NFCs were reduced in the RoS diet and TDN decreased with both the RaS and RoS diets. There were also no differences observed across diets for total milk production, production corrected to 3.5% fat, diet efficiency, or milk per kilogram of dry matter and/or crude protein. We conclude that raw and roasted soybeans as well as concentrate plus 5% urea in dry matter may be used instead of soybean meal as feed for high-producing cows, without affecting milk production and composition. We also observed that the SMU diet was the least costly.

  6. Camelina meal and crude glycerin as feed supplements for developing replacement beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Nayigihugu, V; Cappellozza, B I; Gonçalves, E P; Krall, J M; Foulke, T; Cammack, K M; Hess, B W

    2011-12-01

    Angus × Gelbvieh rotationally crossbred yearling heifers (n = 99, yr 1; n = 105, yr 2) were used in a 2-yr randomized complete block design experiment with repeated measures to determine the effect of feeding camelina biodiesel coproducts (meal and crude glycerin) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose, as well as on growth and reproductive performance. Heifers were assigned to 1 of 15 pens, and pens were assigned initially to receive 7.03 k·•heifer(-1)·d(-1) of bromegrass hay plus 0.95 kg·heifer(-1)·d(-1) of 1 of 3 supplements for 60 d before breeding: 1) control (50% ground corn and 50% soybean meal, as-fed basis); 2) mechanically extracted camelina meal; or 3) crude glycerin (50% soybean meal, 33% ground corn, 15% crude glycerin, 2% corn gluten meal; as-fed basis). Preprandial blood samples were collected via the jugular vein on d 0, 30, and 60 of the feeding period. A 2-injection PGF(2α) protocol (d 60 and 70 of the study) was used to synchronize estrus. Heifers were artificially inseminated 12 h after estrus was first detected. Heifers not detected in estrus within 66 h received a GnRH injection and were artificially inseminated. Dietary treatment × sampling period interactions were not detected (P = 0.17 to 0.87). Dietary treatment did not affect BW (P = 0.44 to 0.59) or serum concentrations of thyroxine (P = 0.96), β-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.46), glucose (P = 0.59), or insulin (P = 0.44). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were greater (P = 0.05) in heifers fed camelina meal. Additionally, dietary treatment did not affect the percentage of heifers detected in estrus before timed AI (P = 0.83), first-service pregnancy rates of those heifers detected in estrus (P = 0.97), or overall first-service pregnancy rates (P = 0.58). Heifers fed camelina meal, however, had greater (P = 0.05) first-service pregnancy rates to timed AI than did heifers fed the control and crude glycerin supplements

  7. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.

  8. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.

  9. Effect of creatine addition in feeds containing animal meals on the performance and carcass yield of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMC Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed exclusively vegetable diets and diets containing animal meal with the addition of creatine or not after day 8. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with six replicates each. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated, to which animal meals and creatine were included or not. Diets were formulated to contain equal mineral (calcium, phosphorus and sodium and amino acid (available methionine + cystine, lysine and threonine levels. The following treatments were applied: A. control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. control + creatine (600g/ton; C. inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM, D. inclusion of 5% MBM + creatine (600g/ton, E. inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM, F. inclusion 5% BM + creatine (600g/ton. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass yield and viability were evaluated. At 42 days of age, BM dietary inclusion impaired weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The inclusion of MBM affected only feed conversion ratio. The addition of creatine ito the diet with BM improved weight gain when compared with the BM diet with no creatine. The addition of creatine to the diet containing 5% BM improved weight gain when compared with the same diet without the use of the additive.

  10. Hazelnut meal in diets for seawater farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss: effects on growth performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Bilen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-day feeding trial was designed in order to assess the effect of partial or total replacement of soybean meal by hazelnut meal (HNM on feed intake, growth performance, nutrient utilization and body composition of rainbow trout (initial mean body weight: 80.0±3.5 g in seawater conditions. A control and three experimental diets were formulated in which soybean meal level (25.5% in the control diet was replaced by hazelnut meal at 39.2 (HN 39, 78.4 (HN 78 and 100% (HN 100 to provide 44% crude protein and 20% crude lipid diets. Diets were fed to 125 rainbow trout to apparent satiation by hand twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours under natural photoperiod conditions. At the end of the feeding trial, fish of all groups almost tripled their body weight and no significant difference (P>0.05 was revealed in final weight or specific growth rate between treatments. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR of the HN100 group was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05. There was a slightly decreasing trend in protein efficiency ratio (PER and net protein utilization (NPU with increasing level of dietary hazelnut meal, but it was only significant in groups of fish fed HN100. All groups of fish displayed similar carcass and muscle compositions. According to the results of the present study, it can be stated that hazelnut meal can replace soybean meal at up to 200 g kg-1 in grow-out diets of rainbow trout without any detrimental effects on growth performance.

  11. Poultry offal meal in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outstanding feature of poultry production that provides animal protein yield for human feeding is its short production cycle. This characteristic has a linear relationship with waste production. Increasing the inclusion of this residue in diets in the near future is desirable in step with the growth of poultry production since it offers a better environmental and nutritional alternative to current methods. We evaluated the effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens produced by the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM in their feed. Treatments consisted of a control diet (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max and four diets with inclusion of 30, 60, 90 and 120 g kg-1 of POM. The diets were formulated based on the level of digestible amino acid once categorized as isocalcic, isophosphoric, isosodic, isoenergetic and isonutritive for protein, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine. The feed's electrolytes were corrected so that each diet had the same electrolytic balance. The variables analyzed were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body weight, carcass yield, chicken cut yield and abdominal fat. Feed intake was not affected by the quantities of POM added. The weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and noble cuts presented quadratic responses to the treatments. Abdominal fat increased linearly. The performance of the poultry, and carcass characteristics were maximized by the inclusion of 53 and 65 g kg-1, respectively, of POM in the diet, and the inclusion of 120 g kg-1 of POM provided greater disposition of abdominal fat.

  12. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  13. The quality of meal elements for professional prepared meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    Meal elements are convenience products which are partially prepared meal components to be used in professional kitchens. Examples are meat, vegetables or fish which are preprepared for example by heat-treatment before distribution to the professional kitchens. The pre-fried vegetables and meat can...... robust against freezing, thawing and reheating without excessive drip losses as observed from raw or blanched vegetables. The results show that the pre-fried vegetables have a potential to be used as meal elements for professional prepared meals....... for examples be used as ingredients in hot or cold dishes. We have evaluated the quality of several kinds of pre-fried vegetables. The vegetables were prepared in pilot plan using a continuous stir-frying process, frozen and analysis during the thawing period. The results show that the shelf life determined...

  14. Histopathological changes in some organs of Japanese quail after different levels of jojoba meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Hakim ,N.F. 1, Abou-Khashaba, H.A.2 and El-Sayed S. Atia2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work-The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of different jojoba meal as a replace of soybean protein and to detect the histopathological changes in some organs of Japanese quail (one week old for 5 weeks.Material and methods-The present study included two experiments, the first aimed to investigate the incorporation of treated jojoba meal seed (bentonite + autoclaving + fungus in Japanese quail diets as replacer to soybean meal protein and to detect the histopathological changes in some organs of the Japanese quail .The treated jojoba meal was incorporated in the experimental diets to replace 0 (control; 4 (T1; 8 (T2 and 12% (T3 of soybean meal protein. The second experiment, dietary treatment included the control diet (The same control of experiment I and groups 2 (UT1, 3(UT2, 4 (UT3, 5 (UT4, which were supplied with untreated jojoba meal at 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% levels, respectively Results- Observations of the present study showed that liver of T2 group revealed ruptured endothelial lining of the central vein, and T3 group showed elongated walls of the bile ducts. Ileum of T2 group showed highly thickened muscle layer and ileum of T3 group showed distorted tissue. Kidney of T2 group showed congested inters tubular spaces and T3 group showed normal convoluted tubules with congested and dilated blood vessels. Testis of T2 & T3 groups showed hypocellularity of cells of the spermatognic layers with absence of mature sperms. Ovary of T3 group showed somewhat normal mature ovum with reduced internal content.Results of experiment II showed that the liver tissue was normal.Ileum of birds of UT3 and UT4 groups showed somewhat normal appearance. Kidney of UT3 group showed that some cells of the convoluted tubules were faintly stained with hemorrhagic areas. Testis of UT3 and UT4 groups showed decreased Leydig cells with absence of mature sperms and increased number of primary spermatocytes. Ovary of UT3 group showed

  15. PARASITE MYCOPOPULATION OF SOYBEAN GRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jasenka Ćosić; Karolina Vrandečić; Draženka Jurković; Ivan Ereš; Jelena Poštić

    2008-01-01

    Disease appearance on soybean can influence quality and quantity of yield. Different spieces of saprophyte and parasite fungi can be isolated from stems, pods and grain of soybean. The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of important disease on natural soybean grain over the period of 4 years (2004-2007) of experiment held on the location Sopot-Vinkovci and included 9 cultivars of soybean. The following plant pathogenic fungi were identified: Peronospora, Sclerotinia, Cercospora...

  16. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest serving size or children's size. YOUR DIABETES CARE TEAM IS THERE TO HELP YOU In the beginning, meal planning may be overwhelming. But it will become easier as your knowledge grows about foods and their effects on your ...

  17. Fighting Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar eLangenbach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking Asian soybean rust (SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several resistance genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  18. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P meal, meat and bone meal, or poultry byproduct meal). Low- and high-crystalline AA diets contained 4.5 or 1% fish meal, 6 or 1.2% meat and bone meal, and 6 or 1% poultry byproduct meal, respectively. No AA × protein source interactions were observed. From d 0 to 14, no differences in growth performance among protein sources was found, whereas increasing

  19. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  20. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  1. Management Affects Soybean Nodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation may contribute 40 – 70% of the nitrogen required by soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] during the growing season. Therefore, sustaining nitrogen input is critical for profitable grain yield and sustaining long-term soil productivity. We evaluated management practices used...

  2. Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonwachai, Thasanee; Purivirojkul, Watchariya; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti; Velasco, Mario; Dhar, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used as the primary protein source; each formulation contained 33% crude protein and 8% lipid. Fish oil was completely substituted with 3% soybean oil and meals originating from single-celled heterotrophs rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were added at different concentrations. A commercial shrimp feed was used as the control diet. The final weights and survival rates of the shrimp were not significantly different among all treatments. However, shrimp raised on diets supplemented with marine algal meals rich in DHA and ARA showed significant improvement in immune parameters, such as total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and bactericidal activity. Additionally, the survival rate after challenge with Vibrio harveyi was increased. These findings demonstrated that substitution of thraustochytrid-derived meals as an alternative to fish-based ingredients in shrimp diets provided similar growth rates while increasing the immune parameters and providing vibriosis resistance.

  3. Introgression of leginsulin, a cysteine-rich protein, and high-protein trait from an Asian soybean plant introduction genotype into a North American experimental soybean line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kim, Won-Seok; Oehrle, Nathan W; Alaswad, Alaa A; Baxter, Ivan; Wiebold, William J; Nelson, Randall L

    2015-03-25

    Soybean is an important protein source for both humans and animals. However, soybean proteins are relatively poor in the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Improving the content of endogenous proteins rich in sulfur-containing amino acids could enhance the nutritive value of soybean meal. Leginsulin, a cysteine-rich peptide, predominantly accumulates in Asian soybean accessions but not in most North American cultivars. By screening diverse soybean accessions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection, we were able to identify one plant introduction, PI 427138, as a high-protein line with relatively high amounts of both elemental sulfur and leginsulin. We introgressed these desirable traits from PI 427138 into an experimental line with the aim of improving the overall protein content and quality of seed proteins. Biochemical characterization of inbred progenies from the cross of LD00-3309 with PI 427138 grown at six locations revealed stable ingression of high protein, high elemental sulfur, and high leginsulin accumulation. Comparison of soybean seed proteins resolved by high-resolution 2-D gel electrophoresis in combination with Delta2D image analysis software revealed preferential accumulation of a few glycinin subunits contributed to the increased protein content in the introgressed lines. Amino acid analysis revealed that even though the leginsulin introgressed lines had higher protein, leginsulin, and elemental sulfur, the overall concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids was not significantly altered when compared with the parental lines. The experimental soybean lines developed during this study (Leg-3, Leg-7, and Leg-8) lack A5, A4, and B3 glycinin subunits and could be utilized in breeding programs to develop high-quality tofu cultivars.

  4. Hospitality within hospital meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    Hospital meals and their role in nutritional care have been studied primarily from a life and natural science perspective. This article takes a different approach and explores the idea of hospitality inspired by Jacques Derrida’s work on the ontology of hospitality. By drawing on ethnographic...... fieldwork in a Danish hospital, hospitality practices were studied using a socio-material assemblage approach. The study showed that rethinking the meal event could change the wards into temporary “pop-up-restaurants,” transcending the hospital context and providing a scene for shifting host...... and management involved in hospital food service and in nutritional care to work more systematically with the environment for improved hospital meal experiences in the future...

  5. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  6. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  7. Meals, art, and artistic value

    OpenAIRE

    John, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The notion of a meal is explored in relation to questions of art status and artistic value. Meals are argued not to be works of art, but to have the capacity for artistic value. These claims are used to respond to Dominic Lopes?s arguments in Beyond Art that demote artistic value in favour of the values that emerge from specific kinds of art. A conception of artistic value that involves ?taking reflective charge? of the possibilities for goodness available in an activity is sketched.

  8. Cramble meal: evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein content which provides potential a

  9. Emotions associated to mealtimes: Memorable meals and typical evening meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the current interest in food-related emotions in eating occasions. Previous research has studied contextual influences on food-related emotions, but the food products used as stimuli were single food items (i.e., chocolate brownie, fruit, potato crisps) and not meals. In

  10. PARASITE MYCOPOPULATION OF SOYBEAN GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Disease appearance on soybean can influence quality and quantity of yield. Different spieces of saprophyte and parasite fungi can be isolated from stems, pods and grain of soybean. The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of important disease on natural soybean grain over the period of 4 years (2004-2007 of experiment held on the location Sopot-Vinkovci and included 9 cultivars of soybean. The following plant pathogenic fungi were identified: Peronospora, Sclerotinia, Cercospora, Fusarium and Diaporthe/Phomopsis. The most frequent fungi on soybean grains were: Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Epicoccum. The health condition of the natural soybean grains over the four years period on all cultivars was good.

  11. Intake, performance and estimated methane production of Nellore steers fed soybean grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Duarte Messana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrient intake, performance, estimated methane production and carcass characteristics of steers fed diets containing three different levels of soybean grain: 0, 120 and 230 g/kg on the dry matter (DM. The study was conducted on eighteen castrated Nellore males with an average initial body weight (BW of 370±12 kg in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six repetitions. Intake of dry matter (DMI, kg/day and crude protein tended to decrease linearly, and the intake of ether extract increased linearly in response to the soybean grain levels in the diet. Levels of soybean grain in the diet did not affect DMI (g/kg of BW, final average weight, average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and estimated methane production. Animals fed diets with different levels of soybean grain were not different with respect to carcass yield, loin eye area, subcutaneous fat thickness, or bone, muscle and fat ratios. Carcass characteristics and meat quality were also not significantly different. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean grain in the diet alters the intake of crude protein and ether extract but does not affect performance, estimates of methane production, or carcass characteristics of feedlot Nellore.

  12. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens.

  13. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  14. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from...

  15. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying hens 27 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet without CNM and others with the inclusion of this food at levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Upon regression analysis, a linear increase in nitrogen metabolism, crude energy and apparently metabolizable energy was seen. The dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy corrected for rations were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM. Feed intake and egg weight were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM; however, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and yolk color worsened linearly with inclusion of CNM. Compared to control diet, the inclusion of CNM worsened the egg mass and feed conversion from 15%, and yolk color from 20%. As a result, it is recommended the inclusion of the CNM in the diet of laying hens at a maximum level of 10%.

  16. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  17. Performance and histological responses of internal organs of broiler chickens fed raw, dehulled, and aqueous and dry-heated kidney bean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (Pkidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (Pkidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the internal organs.

  18. Experience from Soybean Industry Development of Main Soybean Producing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zenglin; GUO Xiangyu

    2009-01-01

    Soybean output and trade are mainly operated in America, Brazil, Argentina and China in recent years, especially in America. For China, the import output is number one, and the export output is the forth. For this reason, the soybean industry of China got a huge lash, and the soybean farmers got a large loss, it influenced the building of new countryside construction in China. Both U.S.A's soybean output and trade amout are the number one in the world, this achievement should be contributed to U.S.A's advanced production ability and its favorable subsidy policies. Contrary to U.S.A's large subsidy and cheap loan, Brazil and Argentina raise their soybean output and trade amount by high production technology and "untying" policies, such as abolishing some unreasonable rules and tax. So if we want to develop Chinese soybean industry and make sure our soybean industry's safety, it's necessary for us to experience soybean industry development of other countries' and improve ours.

  19. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  20. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  1. Evaluation of growth, nutrient retention, health, and resistance to bacterial challenge in sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of meals made from new strains of soybeans with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on hybrid striped bass ("Sunshine bass", Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) nutrient availability, growth rates, nutrient retention, gut histology, non-specific immune respo...

  2. Mothers and meals. The effects of mothers' meal planning and shopping motivations on children's participation in family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, William Alex; Kubena, Karen S; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley R; Jan, Jie-sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2010-12-01

    Participation in family meals has been associated with benefits for health and social development of children. The objective of the study was to identify the impact of mothers' work of caring through planning regularly scheduled meals, shopping and cooking, on children's participation in family meals. Parents of children aged 9-11 or 13-15 years from 300 Houston families were surveyed about parents' work, meal planning for and scheduling of meals, motivations for food purchases, importance of family meals, and children's frequency of eating dinner with their families. The children were interviewed about the importance of eating family meals. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis to calculate indirect and total effects of variables on the outcome variable of frequency of children eating dinner with their family. Mothers' belief in the importance of family meals increased likelihood of children eating dinner with families by increasing likelihood that mothers planned dinner and that dinners were regularly scheduled. Mothers' perception of time pressures on meal preparation had a negative, indirect effect on the frequency of children's participation in family dinners by reducing mothers' meal planning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  4. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Ptallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; Ptallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  5. Nutritive value of fish meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M.E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the variations in the chemical composition of different types of fish meal available in the metropolitan areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Fifteen different types of fish meal samples were collected from study areas. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extract (NFE, ether extract (EE and total ash (TA in the animal nutrition and poultry research and training centre (PRTC laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME was estimated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, DM, CP, NFE, EE, TA and ME content significantly differed (P0.05 variation was found in the CF contents of the samples. DM content varied from 86.7 to 96.7%, CP content varied from 31.3 to 61.2%, EE content varied from 0.8 to 23.5%, NFE content varied from 0.6 to 14.6%, Ash content varied from 13.3 to 36.7% and ME content varied from 1788.4 to 3478.8 kcal/kg. It could therefore be inferred that, the chemical composition of fish meal available in the local market are widely variable. Therefore, every sample needs to be analyzed before use for ration formulation.

  6. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  7. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  10. Effect of increasing dietary canola meal inclusion on lactation performance, milk composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, D E; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of increasing dietary canola meal in substitution for soybean meal in lactation sow diets. Forty-five sows with an average parity of 1.8 (SD = 0.83) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments ( = 15) consisting of a corn-based control diet and 2 diets with 15% and 30% canola meal formulated by replacing soybean meal with canola meal. Diets were formulated to be similar in standardized ileal digestible AA content and NE value and to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for lactating sows. Sows were moved to farrowing on d 111 of gestation and fed the experimental diets until weaning on d 21. Sows were fed 3.0 kg/d from d 111 of gestation until parturition. After farrowing, feed was gradually increased through d 6 after which the diets were offered on an ad libitum basis until weaning. Sows were weighed and backfat thickness measured on d 111 of gestation and also on d 0, 7, and 21 postfarrowing. Litters were weighed on d 0, 7, and 21. Weaning to estrus interval in sows was also recorded. Blood and milk samples were collected 2 h postfeeding from sows on d 0, 7, and 21 and analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and milk composition. Fecal samples were collected on d 10, 11, and 12 postfarrowing to determine energy and nutrient digestibility. There were no dietary effects on lactation feed intake, sow BW and backfat change, weaning to estrus interval, and milk fat, protein, lactose, and urea composition. Also, there were no dietary effects on piglet ADG ( 0.10). Sows fed diets containing 15% and 30% canola meal had lower (linear, sow and suckling piglet performance.

  11. Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to compare belly, bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics from pigs fed high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Soybean meal was replaced with 0 (control), 33, 66, or 100% of both types of canola meal. Left side bellies from 70 carcasses were randomly assigned to conventional or dry cure treatment and matching right side bellies were assigned the opposite treatment. Secondary objectives were to test the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics and fatty acid profiles of right and left side bellies originating from the same carcass. Bellies from pigs fed CM-HP were slightly lighter and thinner than bellies from pigs fed CM-CV, yet bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics were unaffected by dietary treatment and did not differ from the control. Furthermore, testing the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics revealed that bellies originating from the right side of the carcasses were slightly (P≤0.05) wider, thicker, heavier and firmer than bellies from the left side of the carcass.

  12. The nutritive value of poultry diets containing sunflower meal supplemented by enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sredanović Slavica A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international limitations imposed on the utilization of meat and bone meals in animal diets, together with the increasing demand for soybean meal, create a necessity to search for other protein sources to economically balance compound feeds. In this regard it is important to note that sunflower is the best adapted high-protein crop available in some European regions and that is useful to use it in poultry farming as the replacement of other protein sources. Protein and many other nutrients are “imprisoned” to variable degrees, inside sunflower meal fibrous structures, and remain less available for digestion by the poultry’s own proteases and other endogenous enzymes. Added exogenous enzymes (phytase, hemicellulase, cellulase, carbohydrase, protease, etc. offer a number of creative possibilities for breakdown and “liberation” of these nutrients, their easier digestion and absorption, and thus development of new nutritional standards and new diets formulation. Supplementation of poultry diets containing sunflower meal by different enzymes increasingly contribute to sustainable poultry farming by enhancing production efficiency, increasing the effectiveness of nutrient utilization and upgrading in environmental protection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  13. Molecular Studies on Soybean Mosaic Virus-Soybean Interations

    OpenAIRE

    Qusus, Saba J.

    1997-01-01

    In the U.S., soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is classified into seven strain groups, designated G1 to G7, based on their different responses on resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. These responses are: symptomless or resistant (R), necrotic (N), and mosaic or susceptible (S). The gene-for-gene model has been proposed for SMV-soybean interactions. In the majority of cultivars, a single dominant gene, Rsv1, confers both the R and N responses. In the first part of this study, the coa...

  14. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  15. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  16. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggblom Per

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6% and rape seed meal (10.0%. Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient, is imported from crushing plants of third countries usually with an unknown salmonella status.

  17. Effect of graded levels of ifber from alfalfa meal on apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids of growing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; LIU Li; DING Ze-ming; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ifber level from alfalfa meal and sampling time on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in growing pigs. A total of 24 ileal-can-nulated pigs (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace) with body weight (21.4±1.5) kg) were randomly alotted to 4 treatments. The pigs were provided a corn-soybean meal diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20% of alfalfa meal during two 10-d experimental periods. The AID of AA was measured. Six ileal-cannulated pigs were fed a protein-free diet in order to estimate the en-dogenous protein losses and SID of AA. Ileal AA digestibility was not affected by inclusion of 5 or 10% alfalfa meal in the diet (P>0.05). The AID of His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Val, Ala, Asp, Cys, Gly, Pro, Ser and Tyr reduced by 2.0–6.8% with the addition level of alfalfa meal (linear,P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both the soluble and insoluble ifber content in the diets, explained more than 36% of variation in SID of Ser and Thr (P<0.05). In conclusion, the corn-soybean meal diet containing 10% of alfalfa meal did not affect ileal AA digestion. The AID and SID of AA were similar between two sampling times. Increasing the concentration of total dietary ifber from 12.3 to 21.4% by adding graded levels of alfalfa meal (0–20%) to a corn-soybean meal control diet induced a linear reduction in AID and SID of most AA. Soluble and insoluble ifbers from alfalfa meal have differential roles in the AA digestion, which may help explain the variation observed in the SID of partial AA. These ifndings would provide important information for dietary ifber level and composition related to AA digestion.

  18. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  19. [Can family meals protect adolescents from obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the frequency of family meals and the body weight of 13-year-olds and its selected determinants. The study was conducted in 2008 as the last stage in a prospective cohort study of 605 children. Questionnaires containing questions about the frequency of family meals, the general regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and the number of hours spent watching television or at the computer were sent to 13-year-olds by mail. School nurses performed anthropometric measurements of the pupils' weight and height. Statistical analyses were performed, i.e. Pearson's correlations, the two-step cluster analysis and the logistic regression analysis. Most of the young people (80-90%) eat each of the main meals in the company of their parents at least once a week, 21% have breakfast with their parents every day, 41% - dinner, and 45% - supper. The frequency of family meals correlated negatively with the girls' BMI and the number of hours they spent watching television or at the computer, while positively with physical activity, regular meals and vegetable consumption in adolescents of both genders. The lowest mean values of BMI were found in a group of adolescents often eating family meals, the highest - in the group of young people who rarely ate family meals (over 20% of young people in this group were overweight), but the differences were statistically significant only for girls (p=0.025). The probability of less than 2 hours of sedentary behaviour daily, physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day and everyday vegetable and fruit consumption is twice as high in adolescents often consuming meals with their parents, and with the daily consumption of all the meals in this way - more than fourfold higher than in other groups. Family meals treated as a predictor of a healthy lifestyle can indirectly protect adolescents from overweight and obesity. Promoting family meals should be an important method of

  20. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  1. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal S. Borja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

  2. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  3. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    and red meat) greatly increase both sales and the market share of the healthy labeled meal. We conclude that a careful design of the healthy food supply may be efficient in encouraging healthier meal choices, e.g. supplying healthy labeled versions of popular conventional meals. We find no impact...

  4. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  5. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...... generates emissions of N2O. The large quantity of substances, sprayed by terrestrial and aerial means, has negative impacts on biodiversity, water, soil, and human and animal health. The intensive production of soybeans also leads to social impacts, including loss of livelihoods and food sovereignty...

  6. Soybean, a promising health source

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mateos-Aparicio, I; Redondo Cuenca, A; Villanueva-Suárez, M J; Zapata-Revilla, M A

    2008-01-01

    .... Many researches have been carried out into the benefits of legumes: chickpeas, beans, lentils and soy, among others, but characterization and positive health effects of soybeans have been recently studied...

  7. Assessment of nutritional quality, glycaemic index, antidiabetic and sensory properties of plantain (Musa paradisiaca)-based functional dough meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famakin, Opeyemi; Fatoyinbo, Akindele; Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition transition to high energy-dense foods has been implicated as the major causes of diet related diseases. Plantain-based dough meals supplemented with soybean cake and cassava fibre were developed by combining them in different proportions using response surface methodology. The flour blends were analyzed for the nutritional composition while the glycaemic index, antidiabetic potentials and protein digestibility of the dough meals were determined in wistar rats. The nutritional and essential amino acid contents of the flour blends were comparable to that of cerolina (a commercially available food product commonly recommended for diabetic patients). The rats fed with the formulated dough meals had lower glycaemic index and glycaemic load, and the blood glucose was significantly reduced compared to cerolina and metformin (a synthetic antidiabetic drug). All the plantain-based dough meals were comparable to cerolina and metformin in terms of nutritional quality and blood glycaemic control activities, respectively. Hence, the formulated plantain-based dough meals have potential to be used for the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Crambe meal in supplements for culling cows: animal performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennyson Alves de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed in concentrated supplement at proportions 0, 5, 10, 15%, on the performance and carcass traits of grazing cows is assessed. Within a completely randomized design, twenty Nellore cows, fed on Brachiaria humidicola, were supplemented during the rain-drought transition period and monitored with regard to weight and body conditions every 28 days. Total forage mass and percentages of leaf, stem and senescent material were quantified in loco. The estimation of forage quality consumed by animals was performed by the simulated grazing method. There were no significant differences between the levels of inclusion of crambe crushed on animal performance or carcass characteristics. Replacement did not affect weight, carcass yield, Brazilian commercial cuts, morphometric measures of carcass, characteristics of loins, thickness of carcass fat, perirenal-pelvic fat and total meat. Replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed up to 15% in the concentrated supplement does not affect performance and carcass characteristics of cows finished on pasture.

  9. Meal and Snacking Patterns of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nan; Rhoads, Dianne S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the responses of 3,309 Louisiana students was used to determine students' meal and snacking habits at the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. Student responses concerned: (1) where and why food was consumed; (2) vitamin supplements; (3) reasons meals were omitted; and (4) reaction to school lunches. (PP)

  10. The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits and meal enjoyment relate to young children's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict the quality of children's diets after controlling for indicators of maternal capital that influence both meal rituals and taste preferences. Eating the same food as parents is the aspect of family meals most strongly linked to better diets in children, highlighting the detrimental effect in the rise of 'children's food'. Although theoretical and empirical work pointed to the important health advantage in children eating together with parents, the results suggested that eating together was a far less important aspect of family meals. In evaluating the importance of the family meal, this article redirects attention away from issues of form and function towards issues of food choice. Policy implications and the importance for public health to recognise the way eating habits are defined by and reproduce social and cultural capital are discussed.

  11. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  12. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present article specifies and broadens our understanding of the concept of commensality by investigating what it means to ‘share a meal’. The study utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011/2012. It shows how different types of school meal arrangement influence...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  13. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conduct economic evaluation of a school meal programme based on principles of a New Nordic Diet (NND) by assessing the costs of the NND lunch, compared with packed lunch from home, and investigating potential effects of adjusting the NND principles...... underlying the school meals on the costs and on the rate of food waste.Design/methodology/approach - The analysis combines recipes, dietary records and food waste data from a school meal intervention with collected price data within an economic optimization framework.Findings - A New Nordic School meal...... programme consisting of a morning snack and a hot lunch based on fixed seasonal menu plans and with 75 per cent organic content is 37 per cent more expensive in terms of ingredient costs than corresponding packed school meals. This cost differential can be almost halved by introducing more flexible...

  14. Soja integral processada em dietas para codornas japonesas em postura Processed whole soybean in diets for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz de Toledo Barreto

    2010-09-01

    female quails at 29 weeks of age with an average weight of 186.1 ± 4.0 g distributed in a complete randomized experimental design, with 8 replicates, each one with 10 quails per experimental unit. Diets were isocaloric and isonutritives for crude protein, digestible lysine, digestible methionine + cystine, calcium, available phosphorus and sodium. Thus, it was evaluated a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, and three other diets with partial substitution of the soybean meal for roasted whole soybean, extruded or micronized, so the whole soybean supplied 50% of the crude protein provided by soybean meal in control diet. No differences were observed on egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, viability of the birds, percentage of commercial eggs, egg specific weight, percentage of yolk and albumen neither on egg shell percentage. Substitution of soybean meal for roasted whole soybean reduced feed intake. It was not observed any differences in the studied parameters when soybean meal was replaced by extruded whole soybean. Substitution of soybean meal for micronized whole soybean reduced body weight variation of the quails, resulting in weight loss of the birds. Soybean meal can be substituted, in 50% of the protein, by roasted or extruded whole soybean in diets for laying Japanese quails. However, substitution of the soybean meal for micronized whole soybean, in 50% of the protein, is not recommended, because it worsens the performance results, mainly causing weight loss of the birds.

  15. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  16. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  17. A High Throughput Soybean Gene Identification System Developed using Soybean Yellow Common Mosaic Virus (SYCMV)

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Eun–Young; Cho, Seunghee; Moon, Jae Sun; Gotoh, Takafumi; Goto, Takafumi; Kim, Hong Gi; Domier, Leslie L; Lim, Seungmo; Kim, Kil Hyun; Moon, Jung–Kyung; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun–Sub; Song, Ki Hak

    2015-01-01

    Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) was recently reported from Korea, and a subsequent survey of soybean fields found that SYCMV, Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV), and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) infections were widespread. SYCMV has recently been developed into a Virus Inducing Gene Silencing (VIGS) vector for use as a reverse genetics tool for soybean, and here we report a modified SYCMV VIGS vector containing a new restriction enzyme site in the 3’ non–coding region into wh...

  18. Soybean, a promising health source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Aparicio, I; Redondo Cuenca, A; Villanueva-Suárez, M J; Zapata-Revilla, M A

    2008-01-01

    Health properties and uses of soybean, as well as the different chemical and botanical characteristics of this legume are shown in this review. Soybean represents an excellent source of high quality protein, it has a low content in saturated fat, it contains a great amount of dietary fibre and its isoflavone content makes it singular among other legumes. Many researches have been carried out into the benefits of legumes: chickpeas, beans, lentils and soy, among others, but characterization and positive health effects of soybeans have been recently studied. The interest in this legume has increased because of its functional components. Most of the studies have been focused on soybean protein as a possible source of prevention against cardiovascular disease. This positive effect may be due to a decrease in serum cholesterol concentrations. In addition, there are many studies on isoflavones, non-nutritive substances, associated with prevention and treatment of different chronic diseases. Moreover, some studies have shown the health properties of soy dietary fibre. Therefore, it would be interesting to consider the replacement of animal based foods for soybean foods in order to obtain some nutritional benefits.

  19. The placemat protocol: Measuring preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas with pretend meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Peralta, Mericarmen; Jacobsohn, Gwen Costa; Grider, David T

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition instruction can lead to more healthful food choices among children, but little is known about preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas because there are few developmentally appropriate measures. This study validated the Placemat Protocol, a novel measure of preschooler healthy-meal schemas using realistic food models to assemble pretend meals. Preschoolers (N = 247, mean age 4 years 8 months) created 2 meals (preferred and healthy), completed measures of verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and were weighed and measured for BMI. Parents reported healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, and family demographics. Children used an average of 5.1 energy-dense (ED) and 3.4 nutrient-dense (ND) foods for their preferred meal, but reversed the ratio to 3.1 ED and 5.1 ND foods for their healthy meal. Healthy meals contained fewer estimated kcal, less fat, less sugar, and more fiber than preferred meals. Meal differences held for younger children, children with lower verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and child subgroups at higher risk for obesity. Placemat Protocol data correlated with parent healthy eating guidance and child obesogenic dietary intake as expected. The Placemat Protocol shows promise for assessing developing healthy-meal schemas before children can fully articulate their knowledge on verbal measures.

  20. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    2016-01-01

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal preparat......When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... in everyday life. Furthermore getting the appropriate and nutritious food will be a step in the right direction regarding prevention of malnutrition. The aim of this project is to develop a guide to increase the possibility for people with dementia to continue everyday life through participating in meal...... preparation. The guide includes ideas for constructing recipes, methods for planning and guiding the process and examples of utensils that can increase the ability to cook in the persons own home or in an institutionalized setting. This supports the person with dementia both nutritionally, cognitively...

  2. Vegetable soybean (Glycine max) tolerance to pyroxasulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    If registered for use on vegetable soybean, pyroxasulfone would fill an important gap in weed management systems in the crop. In order to determine the potential crop injury risk of pyroxasulfone on vegetable soybean, the objective of this work was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasu...

  3. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects of soybean agglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean agglutinin (SBA lectin, a protein present in raw soybean meals, can bind to and be extensively endocytosed by intestinal epithelial cells, being nutritionally toxic for most animals. In the present study we show that SBA (5-200 µg/cavity injected into different cavities of rats induced a typical inflammatory response characterized by dose-dependent exudation and neutrophil migration 4 h after injection. This effect was blocked by pretreatment with glucocorticoid (0.5 mg/kg or by co-injection of N-acetyl-galactosamine (100 x [M] lectin, but not of other sugars (100 x [M] lectin, suggesting an inflammatory response related to the lectin activity. Neutrophil accumulation was not dependent on a direct effect of SBA on the macrophage population since the effect was not altered when the number of peritoneal cells was increased or decreased in vivo. On the other hand, SBA showed chemotactic activity for human neutrophils in vitro. A slight increase in mononuclear cells was observed 48 h after ip injection of SBA. Phenotypic analysis of these cells showed an increase in the CD4+/CD8- lymphocyte population that returned to control levels after 15 days, suggesting the development of an immune response. SBA-stimulated macrophages presented an increase in the expression of CD11/CD18 surface molecules and showed some characteristics of activated cells. After intravenous administration, SBA increased the number of circulating neutrophils and inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the neutrophil migration induced by ip injection of carrageenan into peritoneal cavities. The co-injection of N-acetyl-galactosamine or mannose, but not glucose or fucose, inhibited these effects. The data indicate that soybean lectin is able to induce a local inflammatory reaction but has an anti-inflammatory effect when present in circulating blood

  4. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soybean and corn distillers grains products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjoun, K; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-09-01

    New fractionation and fermentation technologies in the ethanol industry have resulted in the production of different forms of distillers grains (DG). Such products are reduced-fat, high-protein, and "modified" wet feeds. Characterization of protein fractions of these co-products and other commonly used feedstuffs is important for the formulation of dairy cattle diets. In situ and in vitro techniques were conducted to compare crude protein (CP) availability in 4 DG products with commonly used soybean proteins. Soybean protein products included solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM; 44% CP), expeller soybean meal (ESBM), and extruded soybeans (ES). The DG products were conventional distillers dried grains with solubles, reduced-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (RFDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains, and modified wet distillers grains with solubles (MWDGS). Nylon bags containing 5 g of each feed were incubated in the rumen of 3 cannulated lactating cows for 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h. The rapidly degradable CP fraction varied from 8.1 to 37.2% for SBM and MWDGS, respectively. The slowly degradable CP fraction was greatest for SBM, ES, and high-protein distillers dried grains (88.0%+/-3.7), followed by ESBM, distillers dried grains with solubles, and RFDGS (76.8+/-4.1%). The MWDGS had the lowest slowly degradable CP fraction (61.1%). The rate of degradation of the slowly degradable CP fraction ranged from 11.8 for SBM to 2.7%/h for RFDGS. Rumen-undegradable protein varied widely (32.3 to 60.4%), with RFDGS having the greatest and SBM the lowest concentrations. Intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein (IDP) was estimated by pepsin-pancreatin digestion of ruminally preincubated (16 h) samples. The IDP was greatest for SBM, ESBM, and ES (97.7%+/-0.75), whereas IDP of DG products was 92.4%+/-0.87. Similarly, total digestible protein was greatest (99.0%) for soybean products, whereas DG products had a total digestible protein of 96.0%. Intestinal

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of soybean flowering genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chol-Hee Jung

    Full Text Available Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant

  6. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  7. Metabolizable energy value of meat and bone meal for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Adeola, O

    2005-11-01

    Metabolizable energy and N-corrected ME (MEn) values of 12 samples of meat and bone meal (MBM) were determined using 288 barrows with an average BW of 35 +/- 3.1 kg. For each of 12 MBM samples, diets were formulated by substituting 0, 50, or 100 g/kg MBM (as-fed basis) in a basal 170 g of CP/kg corn-soybean meal diet; corn and soybean meal were adjusted at the same ratio to account for the substitution. Each diet was fed to eight barrows in individual metabolism crates in metabolism studies that used a 5-d acclimation, which was followed by a 5-d period of total, but separate, collection of feces and urine. The GE, CP, crude fat (CF), ash, Ca, and P contents of the MBM samples, per kilogram (DM basis), ranged from 3,493 to 4,732 kcal, 496.7 to 619.1 g, 91.1 to 151.2 g, 200.3 to 381.9 g, 54.3 to 145.8 g, and 25.6 to 61.7 g, respectively. For each of the 12 MBM samples, MBM intake and MBM contribution to ME and MEn increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing level of MBM in the diets. The ME and MEn content of each of the MBM samples was calculated from the slope of the regression of MBM contribution (in kilocalories) to ME and MEn intake, respectively, against quantity (in kilograms) of MBM intake. The ME and MEn of the 12 MBM samples ranged from 1,569 to 3,308 kcal/kg DM and 1,474 to 3,361 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The variation in ME was described by the regression equation: ME = 6,982 + 0.283 GE (kcal/kg) - 6.26 CP (g/kg) - 3.75 CF (g/kg) + 129.47 P (g/kg) - 54.91 Ca (g/kg) - 6.57 ash (g/kg), with an R2 of 0.612 and SD of 376. For MEn, the corresponding equation was: MEn = 3,937 + 1.089 GE (kcal/kg) - 8.74 CP (g/kg) + 3.58 CF (g/kg) + 60.89 P (g/kg) - 15.92 Ca (g/kg) - 9.57 ash (g/kg), with an R2 of 0.811 and SD of 314. Simpler regression equations describing variation in ME or MEn were 9,254 - 7.41 CP (g/kg) - 9.41 ash (g/kg), with R2 of 0.504 and SD of 278; or 12,504 - 10.71 CP (g/kg) - 13.44 ash (g/kg), with R2 of 0.723 and SD of 249. Pearson correlation

  8. Degumming of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Degumming process was carried out on Factory grade crude soybean oil in fats and oils Department. Thirty two samples were treated with different concentrations of phosphoric acid and / or water at different temperatures and with different time of stirring. It was found that degumming 100 gm of oil with 3,5% water only and with 0,34 gm phosphoric acid in 5,8% water, at 75°C with stirring time of 30 minutes gave better results compared with other conditions. The analysis of variance of factorial experiments for illustrating the different effect and interaction between time of stirring and temperature during degumming process was recorded.

    El proceso de desgomado fue llevado a cabo en una fábrica de aceite crudo de soja en el departamento de aceites y grasas. Treinta y dos muestras fueron tratadas con concentraciones diferentes de ácido fosfórico y/o agua a temperaturas diferentes y con tiempo diferente de agitación. Se encontró que el desgomado de 100 g de aceite con solo 3,5% de agua y con 0,34 g de ácido fosfórico en 5,8% de agua a 75°C, con tiempo de agitación de 30 minutos, dio mejores resultados comparado con otras condiciones. Se realizó el análisis de varianza de experiencias factoriales para ilustrar el diferente efecto y la interacción entre el tiempo de agitación y la temperatura, durante el proceso de desgomado.

  9. Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents From the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) Knowing what to serve and ...

  10. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  11. Effect of Graded Levels of Fiber from Alfalfa Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Flow of Fattening Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2014-01-01

    The ifber level and composition have an important effect on nutrient digestibility of swine diets. Little information is known about the effects of ifber level and composition from alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility of fattening pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of alfalfa ifber on the growth performance, intestinal nutrient lfow and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in fattening pigs. 24 barrows (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace), body weight=(60.6±0.7) kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 1 pig per replicate. The pigs were provided a control diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20%of alfalfa meal during a 14-d experiment period. Average daily gain (ADG) and the ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent ifber (NDF), acid detergent ifber (ADF) and gross energy (GE) reduced linearly as the level of alfalfa meal in the diet increased (P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both soluble and insoluble ifber intake, explained approximately 70%of the variation in the ATTD of DM, OM, NDF, and GE (P<0.01). In conclusion, alfalfa meal should be limited to less than 5%of the diet in fattening pigs to maximize growth performance and nutrient digestion. Soluble and insoluble ifber from alfalfa meal has the differential roles in nutrient digestion, which may help explain the main variation observed in nutrient digestibility. These ifndings suggest that knowledge of speciifc ifber components is necessary to accurately predict the effects of dietary ifber on nutrient digestibility.

  12. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (Pdiets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (Pdiets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (Pdiets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (Pdiet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two experiments suggest that broiler growth performance was not affected by the dietary level of sorghum, millet or cottonseed meal. Nutrient digestion can, however, be affected by these feed ingredients.

  13. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  14. Development of Separator for Soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.C.P.; Rijpma, P.J.; Owaa, J.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple and effective separator for soybeans was developed for small-scale farmers in Uganda, to clean the seeds from foreign material, chaff, broken beans etc. as demanded by local and world markets. It will help to avoid losses during post-harvest time and to reduce human drudgery of cleaning the

  15. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  16. Hydration kinetics of transgenic soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Francielle Fracasso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic and experimental analyses of the hydration process of transgenic soybeans (BRS 225 RR are provided. The importance of the hydration process consists of the grain texture modifications which favor grinding and extraction of soybeans. The soaking isotherms were obtained for four different temperatures. Results showed that temperature affected transgenic soybeans´ hydration rate and time. Moisture content d.b. of the soybeans increased from 0.12 ± 0.01 kg kg-1 to 1.45 ± 0.19 kg kg-1 during 270 min. of process. Two models were used to fit the kinetic curves: an empirical model developed by Peleg (1988 and a phenomenological one, proposed by Omoto et al. (2009. The two models adequately represented the hydration kinetics. Peleg model was applied to the experimental data and the corresponding parameters were obtained and correlated to temperature. The model by Omoto et al. (2009 showed a better statistical fitting. Although Ks was affected by temperature (Ks = 0.38079 exp (-2289.3 T-1, the equilibrium concentration remained practically unchanged.

  17. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  19. Generation and characterization of two novel low phytate mutations in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng-Jie; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Ren, Xue-Liang; Zhu, Shen-Long; Fu, Xu-Jun; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2007-11-01

    Phytic acid (PA, myo-inositol 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hexakisphosphate) is important to the nutritional quality of soybean meal. Organic phosphorus (P) in PA is indigestible in humans and non-ruminant animals, which affects nutrition and causes P pollution of ground water from animal wastes. Two novel soybean [(Glycine max L. (Merr.)] low phytic acid (lpa) mutations were isolated and characterized. Gm-lpa-TW-1 had a phytic acid P (PA-P) reduction of 66.6% and a sixfold increase in inorganic P (Pi), and Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had a PA-P reduction of 46.3% and a 1.4-fold increase in Pi, compared with their respective non-mutant progenitor lines. The reduction of PA-P and increase of Pi in Gm-lpa-TW-1 were molar equivalent; the decrease of PA-P in Gm-lpa-ZC-2, however, was accompanied by the increase of both Pi and lower inositol phosphates. In both mutant lines, the total P content remained similar to their wild type parents. The two lpa mutations were both inherited in a single recessive gene model but were non-allelic. Sequence data and progeny analysis indicate that Gm-lpa-TW-1 lpa mutation resulted from a 2 bp deletion in the soybean D: -myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS1 EC 5.5.1.4) gene 1 (MIPS1). The lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was mapped on LG B2, closely linked with microsatellite loci Satt416 and Satt168, at genetic distances of approximately 4.63 and approximately 9.25 cM, respectively. Thus this mutation probably represents a novel soybean lpa locus. The seed emergence rate of Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was similar to its progenitor line and was not affected by seed source and its lpa mutation. However, Gm-lpa-TW-1 had a significantly reduced field emergence when seeds were produced in a subtropic environment. Field tests of the mutants and their progenies further demonstrated that the lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 does not negatively affect plant yield traits. These results will advance understanding of the genetic, biochemical and molecular control of PA synthesis in soybean. The

  20. Raffinose-Series Oligosaccharides in Soybean Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švejstil R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean foods forming a substantial part of Asian diet have still more expanded into European diet. Raffinose-series oligosaccharides (RSO are important constituents of soya beans and they can be found also in soybean products. These oligosaccharides can be considered potentially prebiotic for their capability of influencing the composition of the host’s intestinal microbiota. The aim of the present paper was to determine the oligosaccharide content in various soybean products. Enzymatic assay has been used for the determination of oligosaccharides. RSO have been found in all tested samples and their content varied from 0.66 g per 100 g in soybean beverage to 5.59 g per 100 g in first clear soybean flour. Generally, the highest content of RSO has been detected in soybean flour in the average amount of 4.83 g per 100 g. There was no statistically significant difference observed in the amount of oligosaccharides in all four types of soybean flour (P < 0.01. Considerably high amounts of RSO have been found in sweet soybean bars and textured soy protein. Foods as soybean flour and soybean bar ‘Sójový suk’ seem to be effective natural sources of prebiotic oligosaccharides for humans.

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  2. Protein digestibility of soybean, canola and sunflower meal, and its effect on growth performance and body

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothwa, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available composition of T. rendalli was also investigated. The experimental diets consisted of 69.7 percent reference diet and 29.3 percent test ingredient. Proximate composition of the experimental diets was determined and the diets were fed to triplicate groups of 14...

  3. Exogenous enzymes in pre-starter broiler diets based on corn and soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A fibrolytic enzyme complex was added to the pre-starter diet. Broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five treatments, consisting of a diet with no enzyme addition and four test diets supplemented with 100, 200, 300 and 400g/T of an enzyme complex. The dietary inclusion of the enzyme complex increased weight gain, and the dose of 300g/T improved weight gain and worsened feed conversion ratio.

  4. Replacement Value of Soybean Meal with Luffa cylindrical in Diet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    (P,0.05) decreases in growth and nutrient utilization parameters of fish fed different dietary treatments ... commonly used plant protein source in fish ... limited by increasing demand for human ... Specification: each kg contains: Vitamin A , 4,000,000IU; Vitamin B, 800,000IU; Vitamin E, .... iron supplementation on growth,.

  5. Use of multienzimatic mix on sorghum-soybean meal based ration on hen performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Rogelio Orozco-Hernández

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of individual enzymes in the diet of hens has shown an improvement in egg production, and mixtures are now being included to increase feed utilisation and impact on performance in hens. The objective of our study was to evaluate the use of an enzyme blend in a sorghum-soymeal-based ration (protein 17.5% and ME 2900 kcal/kg on performance. Hens of two lines: Hy-line (n=732 and Bovans white (n=365, aged eighteen weeks, were used to evaluated three treatments (control, Ronozyme blend or Cybenza. The birds were lodged in cages with a density of 485 cm2 per hen (four hens per cage. There were no differences (P>0.05 among enzymatic treatments or their interactions with the hen line on egg yield, egg mass, feed-to-egg ratio, or egg quality. However, the efficiency was higher with Hy-line (P0.05. Based on our results, we concluded that the use of a multi-enzyme mixture in a sorghum-soymeal-based hen feed has a minor effect on performance, regardless of hen genetics.

  6. Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulabo, R C; Mathai, J K; Usry, J L; Ratliff, B W; McKilligan, D M; Moline, J D; Xu, G; Stein, H H

    2013-06-01

    Dried fermentation biomass (DFB) and hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa are co-products of L-Lys • HCl production and heparin extraction, respectively. Three experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA (Exp. 1), concentration of DE and ME (Exp. 2), and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P (Exp. 3) in DFB and 2 hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), and compare these values with values for fish meal. In Exp. 1, 12 ileal cannulated barrows (BW = 11.5 ± 1.1 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. A N-free diet, diet based on soybean meal (SBM), and 4 diets based on a combination of SBM and DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were formulated. With the exception of Lys, there were no differences in SID of indispensable AA between DFB and fish meal. Except for Thr, no differences in SID of indispensable AA between PEP50 and fish meal were observed, but SID of all indispensable AA, except Lys and Trp, was less (P < 0.05) in PEP2+ than in the other ingredients. In Exp. 2, 40 barrows (BW = 12.8 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 5 diets with 8 pigs/diet. A basal diet containing 96.4% corn and 4 diets containing corn and DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were formulated. The DE (5,445 kcal/kg DM) and ME (5,236 kcal/kg DM) in DFB were greater (P < 0.01) than in PEP50 (4,758 and 4,512 kcal/kg DM for DE and ME, respectively) and fish meal (4,227 and 3,960 kcal/kg DM for DE and ME, respectively). Also, DE in DFB was greater (P < 0.01) than in PEP2+ (4,935 kcal/kg DM), but ME in DFB was not different from that in PEP2+ (4,617 kcal/kg DM). Furthermore, DE in PEP50 and PEP2+ were greater (P < 0.01) than in fish meal, but ME did not differ from that in fish meal. In Exp. 3, 40 barrows (BW = 12.4 ± 1.3 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 diets with 8 pigs/diet. A P-free diet and 4 diets in which the sole source of P was from DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were

  7. Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G.; Jung, H.J.G. [USDA, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-10-30

    A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what would happen if ALM was fed over long periods of time. Also, these results should not be interpreted to suggest either that ALM may used to replace all the hay in the diets or that ALM in meal form may be used to replace hay in the diets. Moreover, feed consumption by cows used in these experiments was rather high and somewhat atypical of most cows.

  8. Dehydration-anorexia derives from a reduction in meal size, but not meal number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christina N; Lorenzen, Sarah M; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G

    2012-01-18

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, makes dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable.

  9. Meal patterns and meal-induced metabolic changes in calves fed milk ad lib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, M; Gross-Lüem, S; Leuenberger, H; Langhans, W

    The feeding behavior of 11 calves fed milk ad lib was characterized and analyzed at the age of 5 weeks, and the short-term changes in the plasma concentrations of various metabolites (glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, triglycerides, beta-hydroxybutyrate) and insulin in relation to a representative spontaneous milk meal were measured during the following week. In a 6-day period, the calves consumed 287 (=86%) of a total of 335 milk meals during the light phase from 0500-2200 [on average, 4.4 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SEM) meals]. The meal size and duration during light were 2.0 +/- 0.3 kg and 5.3 +/- 0.3 min, respectively. However, only 0.7 +/- 0.1 milk meals of similar size and duration were consumed during the dark phase. The plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose increased in response to the spontaneous milk meal and remained elevated for at least 2 h after meal end. The plasma concentrations of triglycerides, free fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate also increased after meal termination, and remained elevated until 40 min (triglycerides, free fatty acids) and 60 min (beta-hydroxybutyrate) after meal end, respectively. The observed spontaneous milk intake patterns were similar to the natural suckling behavior described for calves, suggesting that the conditions of the present experiment did not disrupt the animals' natural feeding behavior. Some of the profound metabolic changes in relation to a spontaneous milk meal might contribute to the control of milk intake in calves, but further experiments are necessary to test this idea.

  10. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  11. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  12. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  13. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in the five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance in...

  14. Family meals during adolescence are associated with higher diet quality and healthful meal patterns during young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2007-09-01

    Cross-sectional research in adolescents has found that eating family meals is associated with better nutritional intake. To describe meal patterns of young adults and determine if family meal frequency during adolescence is associated with diet quality, meal frequency, social eating, and meal structure during young adulthood. Population-based, 5-year longitudinal study in Minnesota. Surveys and food frequency questionnaires were completed by 946 female students and 764 male students in high school classrooms at Time 1 (1998-1999; mean age 15.9 years) and by mail at Time 2 (2003-2004; mean age 20.4 years). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean levels of young adult outcomes from adolescent family meal frequency. Probability testing of trends in each outcome across ordered categories of family meal frequency used linear contrasts. Family meal frequency during adolescence predicted higher intakes of fruit (PFrequency of family meals also predicted more breakfast meals (Pdinner meals (Pfamily meals and Time 2 dietary outcomes were attenuated with adjustment for Time 1 outcomes but several associations were still statistically significant. Family meals during adolescence may have a lasting positive influence on dietary quality and meal patterns in young adulthood.

  15. Enhanced Productivity of Serine Alkaline Protease by Bacillus sp. Using Soybean as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth and protease production by Bacillus sp. (SBP-29 was examined for poultry processing industries. The maximum protease activity was 3028 U/mL using 1.5% (w/v of soybean meal as substrate. Soybean meal is an inexpensive and readily available, thus it can be used as the cost effective crude material for the production of an extracellular protease. Inorganic nitrogen sources proved to be less favorable, for protease production as strong catabolic repression was observed with ammonium ions. A maximum of 3208 U/mL of protease was produced in 18 h in a 10L bioreactor. The enzyme has temperature and pH optima of 60°C and 9.5 respectively. However, the temperature stability range is from 20-90 °C and pH stability range is from 6.0–12.0. The protease was completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF and diodopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP, with little increase (10-15% in the production of upon addition of Ca++ and Mg++.

  16. Quantitative conversion of phytate to inorganic phosphorus in soybean seeds expressing a bacterial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Kristin D; Zeng, Peiyu; Coello, Patricia; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Krishnan, Hari B; Bailey, April; Beuselinck, Paul R; Polacco, Joe C

    2008-02-01

    Phytic acid (PA) contains the major portion of the phosphorus in the soybean (Glycine max) seed and chelates divalent cations. During germination, both minerals and phosphate are released upon phytase-catalyzed degradation of PA. We generated a soybean line (CAPPA) in which an Escherichia coli periplasmic phytase, the product of the appA gene, was expressed in the cytoplasm of developing cotyledons. CAPPA exhibited high levels of phytase expression, >or=90% reduction in seed PA, and concomitant increases in total free phosphate. These traits were stable, and, although resulted in a trend for reduced emergence and a statistically significant reduction in germination rates, had no effect on the number of seeds per plant or seed weight. Because phytate is not digested by monogastric animals, untreated soymeal does not provide monogastrics with sufficient phosphorus and minerals, and PA in the waste stream leads to phosphorus runoff. The expression of a cytoplasmic phytase in the CAPPA line therefore improves phosphorus availability and surpasses gains achieved by other reported transgenic and mutational strategies by combining in seeds both high phytase expression and significant increases in available phosphorus. Thus, in addition to its value as a high-phosphate meal source, soymeal from CAPPA could be used to convert PA of admixed meals, such as cornmeal, directly to utilizable inorganic phosphorus.

  17. Measurement of inorganic phosphorus in soybeans with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, Stephen R; Pordesimo, Lester O; Scaboo, Andrew M; Pantalone, Vincent R

    2006-09-20

    This study explored the feasibility of near-infrared (NIR) quantitative and qualitative models for soybean inorganic phosphorus (Pi), which is complementary to phytic acid, a component of nutritional and environmental importance. Spectra, consisting of diffuse reflectance (1100-2500 nm) of ground meal and single-bean transmittance (600-1900 nm) of whole seed, were collected on 191 recombinant inbred soybean lines. Partial least-squares regression models were individually developed for soy meal diffuse reflectance, single-bean transmittance, and averaged (24 beans/line) whole seed transmittance data. The best performance was obtained with diffuse reflectance data, in which the standard errors (rmsd) were 263 and 248 mg/kg for cross-validation and validation sets, respectively. Model accuracy was lower for the 24-bean average transmittance spectra and still lower for single beans. Despite the overall poorer modeling ability of Pi with respect to the common macronutrient NIR regressions, such as those for protein and oil, this technique holds promise for use in breeding programs.

  18. Jojoba seed meal proteins associated with proteolytic and protease inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Madan K; Peri, Irena; Smirnoff, Patricia; Birk, Yehudith; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2002-09-25

    The jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, is a characteristic desert plant native to the Sonoran desert. The jojoba meal after oil extraction is rich in protein. The major jojoba proteins were albumins (79%) and globulins (21%), which have similar amino acid compositions and also showed a labile thrombin-inhibitory activity. SDS-PAGE showed two major proteins at 50 kDa and 25 kDa both in the albumins and in the globulins. The 25 kDa protein has trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitory activities. In vitro digestibility of the globulins and albumins resembled that of casein and soybean protein concentrates and was increased after heat treatment. The increased digestibility achieved by boiling may be attributed to inactivation of the protease inhibitors and denaturation of proteins.

  19. Soybean improvement: Achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of vegetable protein and oil in the world. Worldwide demand continues to be high and production has more than doubled in the past 20 years to a total of 264.2 million metric tons in 2011 (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2012. Much of this increase has been due to increased planting in Argentina and Brazil. But, there have been genetic gains as well. We now have powerful genetic tools and these will be useful in gene discovery and in developing selectable markers for those genes. But for traits that are quantitative and multigenic, marker assisted selection may not be practical. We are facing unprecedented changes in our climate which will require resourceful use of the new genetic tools along with standard plant breeding methodology to maintain soybean productivity and quality.

  20. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues.

  1. A STUDY ON WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TJITROSEMITO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments on weed control in soybeans were carried out at BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia from February to June, 1989. The critical period for weed control was found to be between 20 - 40 days after planting of soybean (c. v. Wilis grown at a planting distance of 40 x 10 cm. It did not coincide with the fastest growth in terms of trifoliate leaf number. Further studies were suggested to understand the physiological growth of soybean related to weed control. Pendimethalin at 660- 1320 g a.e./ha applied one day after sowing did not cause any phytotoxic effect to soybean and had good weed control performance.

  2. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  3. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed.

  4. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a......Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  5. Protein At All 3 Meals May Help Preserve Seniors' Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167595.html Protein at All 3 Meals May Help Preserve Seniors' ... 2017 THURSDAY, Aug. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Eating protein at all three daily meals, instead of just ...

  6. Classification of specialty seed meals from NIR reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify alternative seed meals proposed for food and feed formulations. Spectra were collected from cold pressed Camelina (Camelina sativa), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) meals. Additional spectra were collected ...

  7. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  8. Use of castor meal (Ricinus communis L. as a source of dietary protein in goats during the mating period: impact on reproductive and metabolic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Moreira Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the total substitution of soybean meal with castor meal, detoxified or non-detoxified, on the response to estrous synchronization, conception rate, early fetal development, presence of IgG, and metabolic-hormonal response. Sixty mixed goats were fed diets without castor meal (WCM, with detoxified castor meal (DCM, and with castor meal (CM during early pregnancy. The goats had their estrous synchronized and were then submitted to the mating season. The number of fetuses was determined by ultrasonography after 25 days of mating and their development was followed until 60 days of gestation. Plasma levels of progesterone (P4, liver enzymes, and urea were determined along with the evaluation of the immunological response. After 15 days of experimental feeding, immunoglobulin G (IgG was detected by western blotting only in goats that received non-detoxified castor meal. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of type of diet on response to estrous synchronization, plasma P4 levels, conception rate, or embryonic/fetal development. In pregnant goats, there was an effect of diet (p 0.05. In addition, plasma levels of LDH in WCM goats and of urea in all types of diet were higher in non-pregnant goats than pregnant goats. In conclusion, it can be inferred that the inclusion of 15% castor meal, whether or not it is detoxified, to the diet of goats does not affect the reproductive performance, embryonic and early fetal development, or blood metabolites.

  9. Pressurized water extraction of isoflavones by experimental design from soybean flour and Soybean Protein Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moras, Benjamin; Rey, Stéphane; Vilarem, Gérard; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    A Doehlert experimental design was conducted and surface response methodology was used to determine the effect of temperature, contact time and solid liquid ratio on isoflavone extraction from soybean flour or Soybean Protein Isolate in pressurized water system. The optimal conditions conducted gave an extraction yield of 85% from soybean flour. For Soybean Protein Isolate compared to soybean flour, the isoflavone extraction yield is 61%. This difference could be explained by higher aglycon content, while aglycon appears to be the least extracted isoflavone by pressurized water. The solid liquid ratio in the ASE cell was the overriding factor in obtaining high yields with both soybean products, while temperature has less influence. A high temperature causes conversion of the malonyls-glucosides and glucosides isoflavone derivatives into glucosides or aglycons forms. pressurized water extraction showed a high solubilization of protein material up to 95% of inserted Soybean Protein Isolate.

  10. Combinational Effects of Prebiotics and Soybean against Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Cancer In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Gourineni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic fructans are nondigestible carbohydrates with numerous health benefits. Soybean is a rich source of phytonutrients such as isoflavones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of prebiotics (Synergy1 and soybean meal (SM at 5% and 10% levels alone and in combination on azoxymethane- (AOM- induced colon carcinogenesis. After one wk of acclimatization, Fisher 344 male rats (N=90 were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n=10. Control rats (C were fed AIN-93G/M. Two s/c injections of AOM were administered to rats at 7 and 8 wk of age at 16 mg/kg body weight. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation at 45 wk. Tumor incidence (% in treatment groups ranged from 40 to 75 compared to 100 in C. Results indicate that feeding prebiotics and soybean in combination significantly reduced incidence of AOM-induced colon tumors with implications for food industry in the food-product development.

  11. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  12. Azolla as an Economic Substitute to Soybean Based Feed for Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Raj Paudel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on azolla as an economical substitute to soybean based poultry feed was conducted. The experiment consisted of four treatments laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with five replications. Each experimental unit consisted of three birds. For this purpose, eight-day old, unsexed Hubbard broiler chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to each treatment. Four different levels of azolla meal were incorporated in the starter and finisher ration at a level of 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% respectively. Body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were measured. The average cumulative weekly body weight for all weeks were found to be significantly different (P<0.05 for the various treatments. Maximum cumulative body weight (1360 g was found in broiler fed T2 ration in 5th week. Similar trend was also observed in 6th week showing highest cumulative weight (1882 g in control diet (T1 which was at par with T2 (1841 g. Significantly highest (420.3 g live weight gain was observed in T2 diet during 5th week. Overall mean of weekly feed consumption was recorded highest (784.33 g in T2 diet. The economic analysis of net income/kg live weight was the highest (Rs 18.86 in T1 which was at par with T2 (Rs 18.35. Likewise, cost of production/bird was highest (Rs 124.5 in T1 and lowest (Rs 112.2 in T4. The results show that azolla meal could be utilized to substitute up to 10% soybean meal from overall production and economic point of view.

  13. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme...

  14. Nutritional Risk among Oklahoma Congregate Meal Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Kimberly K.; Hermann, Janice R.; Warde, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine if there were differences by demographic variables in response rates to Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist statements reported by over 50% of Oklahoma Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) congregate meal participants categorized at high nutritional risk based on cumulative NSI Checklist scores. Design:…

  15. Zinc and iron bioavailability of genetically modified soybeans in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, H S D; Martin, B R; Weaver, C M; Bressan, J; Esteves, E A; Costa, N M B

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate zinc and iron bioavailability of UFV-116, a new variety without 2 lipoxygenases, with better taste and flavor than a commercial variety OCEPAR 19, containing all 3 isozymes. To evaluate zinc absorption using 65Zn whole body retention and femur 65Zn uptake, rats were given 3 g of a 65ZnCl2 labeled test meal (0.25 microCi). The 2 varieties were tested at the level of 9 and 30 ppm of zinc as defatted soy flour. Two other groups (control) received egg white as source of protein and ZnS04.H20 as the zinc source. To evaluate iron absorption, using 59Fe whole body retention, animals were given a 3 g 59FeCl3 labeled test meal (0.2 microCi). The 2 varieties were tested at 12 and 25 ppm iron as defatted soy flour. Whole fat soy flour of variety 1 (UFV-116) was higher (P phytic acid, and oxalate than variety 2 (OCEPAR-19). No difference was observed among the soybean varieties (P > 0.05) for femur 65Zn retention, at different levels of zinc. However, whole body retention was lower (P < 0.05) for UFV-116 than for OCEPAR-19. Femur 65Zn uptake was correlated with the whole body retention; however, whole body retention was more sensitive. Whole body 59Fe retention from UFV-116 was lower (P < 0.05) than from OCEPAR-19. Zinc and iron bioavailability was lower for UFV-116, possibly due to its higher content of antinutrient factors, especially phytate.

  16. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  17. Cafeteria Staff Perceptions of the New USDA School Meal Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Brenda; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of this study was to assess…

  18. Cafeteria Staff Perceptions of the New USDA School Meal Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Brenda; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of this study was to assess…

  19. 21 CFR 573.540 - Hydrolyzed leather meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrolyzed leather meal. 573.540 Section 573.540... Additive Listing § 573.540 Hydrolyzed leather meal. (a) Identity. Hydrolyzed leather meal is produced from leather scraps that are treated with steam for not less than 33 minutes at a pressure of not less than...

  20. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the alga...

  1. Productive performance of naked neck chickens that were fed leaf meal shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos M Herrera G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the productive performance of naked neck chickens (phases of initiation, growth and final that were fed meals Gliricidia sepium, Cajanus cajan and Morus alba leaves. Materials and methods. 192 chickens, 1-84 days of age were distributed in a randomized block design with three experimental groups (5% of shrub in the diet, 48 animals/ group, eight replicates/ treatment, six animals/ reply and three animals/ sex in each replicate were used. The control group consumed diet based on corn and soybeans. They were reared on floor. Weighed every seven days. Weight gain, voluntary intake, conversion, balance and efficiency of feed utilization were calculated. Results. The highest total feed intake and average daily gain in rearing were 37.43g 9509.96 g respectively for M. alba (p<0.05, which also presented the best efficiency of energy and protein. Meanwhile, G. sepium showed the lowest values. Conclusions. It is possible to replace 5% of corn and soy in the diet of naked neck chickens, with the inclusion of leaf meal M. alba and get a favorable productive behavior.

  2. Recent Developments of Genomic Research in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching Chan; Xinpeng Qi; Man-Wah Li; Fuk-Ling Wong; Hon-Ming Lam

    2012-01-01

    Soybean is an important cash crop with unique and important traits such as the high seed protein and oil contents,and the ability to perform symbiotic nitrogen fixation.A reference genome of cultivated soybeans was established in 2010,followed by whole-genome re-sequencing of wild and cultivated soybean accessions.These efforts revealed unique features of the soybean genome and helped to understand its evolution.Mapping of variations between wild and cultivated soybean genomes were performed.These genomic variations may be related to the process of domestication and human selection.Wild soybean germplasms exhibited high genomic diversity and hence may be an important source of novel genes/alleles.Accumulation of genomic data will help to refine genetic maps and expedite the identification of functional genes.In this review,we summarize the major findings from the whole-genome sequencing projects and discuss the possible impacts on soybean researches and breeding programs.Some emerging areas such as transcriptomic and epigenomic studies will be introduced.In addition,we also tabulated some useful bioinformatics tools that will help the mining of the soybean genomic data.

  3. Phosphorus reduction by sifting fish waste meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lima de Lima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish meal is widely included in animal feed because it contains ideal essential amino acids profile, it is rich in energy, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals and with >80% apparent protein digestibility in peneid shrimp. In human nutrition, studies are investigating the inclusion of fish meal in snacks, cakes, breads and cookies, as an enrichment in calcium, phosphorus, iron, protein and, especially, omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids reduces heart diseases and have antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties (eicosapentaenoic acid, and are essential to the formation of brain tissue and retina in infants and are important during pregnancy and lactation (docosahexaenoic acid. Fish meal produced from fish waste is rich in minerals (phosphorus, which may cause eutrophication and impair water quality in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to reduce phosphorus content from commercial fish meal produced from waste by sifting (0.60 - 1.00 - 1.18 - 1.40 - 2.36 and 3.35mm mesh sizes. Fish meal samples were collected monthly for 24 months. Proximate composition of subsamples per mesh size was compared to the unsieved sample. Results indicate that sifting through a 0.60mm sieve total phosphorus and ash contents were reduced up to 32% and 36%, respectively, further to increase protein content up to 20%. Average composition of the subsamples was 47.04% ash, 5.56% of total phosphorus and 39.45% protein, suggesting that the residue of the fractionation may be marketed as a mineral and protein supplement.

  4. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  5. Meta-analysis of the amino acid digestibility of oilseed meal in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messad, F; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Charbonneau, E; Sauvant, D; Guay, F

    2016-10-01

    Oilseed meal is an important source of essential amino acids (EAA) for livestock production. It is the second most important ingredient in pig feed after grains. Optimal use of these ingredients requires precise knowledge of amino acid standardized ileal digestibility (SID), which may vary depending on several factors including botanical variety or processing treatments. A meta-analysis was performed in order to derive models for predicting the SID of soybean, cotton and rapeseed meal EAA, based on chemical composition data such as CP, total concentration of each EAA and fibre (crude fibre, ADF and NDF) content. A database of 47 references (224 experimental treatments) was built. A model incorporating processing method of the meals (e.g. cold pressed, expeller pressed, solvent extracted), experimental surgical procedure (T-cannula, re-entrant cannula, post valve T-cannula and ileo-rectal anastomosis) and pig growth stage (BW⩽ or ⩾25 kg) was tested. Results indicated that neither processing nor BW affected EAA SID. NDF was the best predictor of SID (R 2=0.944, 0.836, 0.779, 0.899 and 0.814, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). The total EAA content was the best predictor of digestible content (g/kg diet) for each EAA (R 2=0.990, 0.985, 0.977, 0.985 and 0.978, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). This study shows that routine chemical analyses may be used to predict EAA digestibility with satisfactory accuracy.

  6. Nutritional and microbiological evaluation of meat and bone meal produced in the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartorelli SA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the chemical composition and metabolizable energy levels of ten meat and bone meals (MBM produced in Minas Gerais state (Experiment I and evaluated the growth performance of broilers fed with diets containing those MBM (Experiment II. In the first experiment, energy values (apparent metabolizable energy [AME] and corrected apparent metabolizable energy [AMEn] of ten different MBM were determined using the traditional method with total collection of excreta. Four hundred forty 21 day-old Hubbard broilers were used. A reference corn and soybean meal-based diet was replaced in 20% by the feed containing MBM to be tested. A completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven treatments (one reference diet and ten MBM, four repetitions per treatment and 10 birds per repetition (5 males and 5 females. In the second experiment, five MBMs from the ten analyzed in Experiment 1 were used as phosphorus source and compared to a diet containing bicalcium phosphate. The growth performance of the broilers fed with these diets was analyzed, considering two ages of the onset of MBM inclusion in the diet (1 or 7 days of age. One-day-old Hubbard broilers (1,320 birds were housed in 44 plots with 30 birds per experimental unit. The experiment consisted of 11 treatments in a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with five sources of MBM, two ages for the onset of inclusion, and a reference treatment without addition of MBM. The results obtained showed a great variation in the chemical composition and apparent metabolizable energy of the evaluated meals. No significant differences were found on the performance of broilers fed diets with different MBM or the diet with bicalcium phosphate as phosphorus source. The performance of broilers was not significantly influenced by the onset of MBM inclusion in the diets.

  7. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  9. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  10. ENDOPARASITIC NEMATODES OF THE GENUS PRATYLENCHUS ON SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Majić

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine susceptibility of soybean cultivars to root lesion nematodes (genus Pratylenchus), effect of intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization on penetration of endoparasitic nematodes in soybean roots, and trophic biodiversity of nematode community in soybean. In the period 2005 - 2007, investigations were conducted at experimental sites of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Seven soybean cultivars were included (Korana, ...

  11. Effect of refined coconut oil or copra meal on methane output and on intake and performance of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E; Lovett, D K; Monahan, F J; Callan, J; Flynn, B; O'Mara, F P

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish the effect of feeding either refined coconut oil (CO) or copra meal containing CO to beef heifers on DMI, animal performance, enteric CH4 emissions, diet digestibility, and the fatty acid profile of the resulting meat. Forty-one Charolais and Limousin crossbred beef heifers (474 +/- 29 kg; 661 +/- 89 d of age) were blocked by BW before being assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (n = 12) or to a pretrial slaughter group (n = 5) used to determine the initial carcass weight. The experimental period lasted for 93 d. Enteric CH4 output was recorded for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days from d 14 to 18 and from d 70 to 74. The 3 dietary treatments were 1) control, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 0 g of CO/ d; 2) RCO, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from refined coconut oil; and 3) CM, a copra meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from copra meal. Each diet had a 50:50 forage:concentrate using grass silage as the forage source. There was no effect of diet on DMI (P = 0.734) or GE intake (P = 0.486). The addition of RCO increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with the control treatment. The CM treatment decreased (P < 0.05) average daily carcass gain compared with the RCO treatment only. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in the digestibility of the DM, OM, CP, and GE fractions of the diet only with the CM treatment. Both the RCO and CM concentrates decreased (P < 0.001) daily enteric CH4 output when expressed in terms of liters per day, liters per kilogram of DMI, percentage of GE intake, liters per kilogram of ADG, and liters per kilogram of average daily carcass gain. The RCO treatment produced the greatest numerical response for all measures. Ruminal protozoa numbers on the RCO treatment were lower (P < 0.05) than on the control treatment. The concentrations of the fatty acid methyl esters, lauric (P < 0.001) and myristic (P < 0.002) acids, were

  12. Soybean aphid intrabiotype variability based on colonization of specific soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Michelle; Hill, Curtis B; Voegtlin, David J; Hartman, Glen L

    2015-12-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the most destructive insect pests on soybeans in the United States. One method for managing this pest is through host plant resistance. Since its arrival in 2000, 4 aphid biotypes have been identified that are able to overcome soybean aphid resistance (Rag) genes. A soybean aphid isolate collected from Moline, Illinois readily colonized soybean plants with the soybean aphid resistance gene Rag2, unlike biotypes 1 and 2, but similar to soybean aphid biotype 3. Two no-choice experiments compared the virulence of the Moline isolate with biotype 3. In both experiments, differences in aphid population counts were not significant (P > 0.05) on soybean genotypes LD08-12957a (Rag2) and LD11-5413a (Rag2), but the aphid counts for the Moline isolate were significantly (P soybean genotypes Dowling (Rag1), LD05-16611 (Rag1), LD11-4576a (Rag1), and PI 567598B (rag1b and rag3). The Moline isolate was a variant of aphid biotype 3, which is the first report showing that soybean aphid isolates classified as the same biotype, based on virulence against specific Rag genes, can differ in aggressiveness or ability to colonize specific host genotypes.

  13. Nutritional Assessment of Free Meal Programs in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Lopez, Andrea; Seligman, Hilary K.

    2013-01-01

    Free meals often serve as a primary food source for adults living in poverty, particularly the homeless. We conducted a nutritional analysis of 22 meals from 6 free meal sites in San Francisco to determine macronutrient and micronutrient content. Meals provided too little fiber and too much fat but appropriate levels of cholesterol. They were also below target for potassium, calcium, and vitamins A and E. These findings may inform development of nutritional content standards for free meals, particularly for vulnerable patients who might have, or be at risk of developing, a chronic illness. PMID:23721791

  14. Apparent metabolizable energy value of meat and bone meal for white pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Adeola, O

    2005-10-01

    Apparent metabolizable energy and AMEn values of 12 samples of meat and bone meal (MBM) were determined using 288 ducks with an average weight of 3.4 kg. Diets were formulated for each of the 12 MBM samples by substituting 0, 5, or 10% MBM in a basal c