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Sample records for prehistoric archeological sites

  1. The earliest well-dated archeological site in the hyper-arid Tarim Basin and its implications for prehistoric human migration and climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, WenXia; Yu, LuPeng; Lai, ZhongPing; Madsen, David; Yang, Shengli

    2014-07-01

    The routes and timing of human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are crucial for understanding the evolution of Tibetan populations and associated paleoclimatic conditions. Many archeological sites have been found in/around the Tarim Basin, on the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Unfortunately, most of these sites are surface sites and cannot be directly dated. Their ages can only be estimated based on imprecise artifact comparisons. We recently found and dated an archeological site on a terrace along the Keriya River. Our ages indicate that the site was occupied at ~ 7.0-7.6 ka, making it the earliest well-dated archeological site yet identified in the Tarim Basin. This suggests that early human foragers migrated into this region prior to ~ 7.0-7.6 ka during the early to mid-Holocene climatic optimum, which may have provided the impetus for populating the region. We hypothesize that the Keriya River, together with the other rivers originating from the TP, may have served as access routes onto the TP for early human foragers. These rivers may also have served as stepping stones for migration further west into the now hyper-arid regions of the Tarim Basin, leading ultimately to the development of the Silk Road.

  2. Prehistoric disasters at Lajia Site, Qinghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoyan; XIA Zhengkai; YE Maolin

    2003-01-01

    Lajia Site, located near the upper reaches of the Yellow River and theborder of Qinghai Province and Gansu Province, is a large-scale site of the Qijia Culture. In 2000 and 2001, archaeologists excavated an unusual scene of prehistoric dramatic and miserable disasters. Lots of geologic-geographic evidences revealed that the Lajia Site was ruined by coinstantaneous disasters, mainly floods from the Yellow River and earthquakes, accompanying mountainous torrents. Study on these disasters and their driven forces could provide us not only the knowledge on the palaeoenvironment of the area, but also offer us a valuable site toassess the influence of the natural disasters on human civilization development.

  3. A GIS approach for predicting prehistoric site locations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. A.; Wescott, K. L.

    1999-08-04

    Use of geographic information system (GIS)-based predictive mapping to locate areas of high potential for prehistoric archaeological sites is becoming increasingly popular among archaeologists. Knowledge of the environmental variables influencing activities of original inhabitants is used to produce GIS layers representing the spatial distribution of those variables. The GIS layers are then analyzed to identify locations where combinations of environmental variables match patterns observed at known prehistoric sites. Presented are the results of a study to locate high-potential areas for prehistoric sites in a largely unsurveyed area of 39,000 acres in the Upper Chesapeake Bay region, including details of the analysis process. The project used environmental data from over 500 known sites in other parts of the region and the results corresponded well with known sites in the study area.

  4. Perge Archeological Site, its Landscape Features and Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmas ERDOĞAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Settlements as built environments are the living spaces/habitats of human beings. Cities that developed according to the needs of the communities are the physical reflections of cultures showing nature, human and space interrelationships as urban formations. So, many different settlement patterns were developed through history due to the environmental and the socio-cultural factors. On the other hand, archeological sites having the traces of different periods are the evidences of life styles, cultural, technological and social formations of various civilizations. In this article, the development of Perge antique settlement through history, the buildings forming the settlement and its landscape properties were presented. Then, the potentials and problems of the area and its near environs were evaluated. At the final stage, the existing situation of the archeological site was set and conservation issues of Perge antique settlement were discussed.

  5. Archeological Excavations at Two Prehistoric Campsites Near Keystone Dam, El Paso, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-19

    the use of computer mapping techniques and multivariate statisticai procedures. At both sites, art tact associations, density distributions and feature...of the Rio Grande Valley between t-l’ Rio Coiichio and modern day San Marcial , New Mexico (Everitt 19//). On the other hand, hunter and gatherer hands...collected from the site 3o samples versus 141 microflakes from Site 37. If, for the purposes of comparison, these figures art combined with the assemblages

  6. A possible bedrock source for obsidian found in archeological sites in northwestern alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, W W; Miller, T P

    1970-08-21

    Recently discovered deposits of obsidian in the Koyukuk valley may be the long-sought-for source of obsidian found in archeological sites in northwestern Alaska. Obsidian from these deposits compares favorably in physical characteristics and sodium-manganese ratio with the archeological obsidian, and there is evidence that the deposits have been "mined" in the past.

  7. Exploratory Archeology at the Scott's Lake Site (38CR1) Santee Indian Mound - Ft. Watson Summer 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a published report that contains a review of the Institute of Archeology and Anthropology's work relating to the Scott's Lake Site. Exploratory archeological...

  8. High-resolution topography and geomorphology of select archeological sites in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Corbett, Skye C.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    Along the Colorado River corridor between Glen Canyon Dam and Lees Ferry, Arizona, located some 25 km downstream from the dam, archaeological sites dating from 8,000 years before present through the modern era are located within and on top of fluvial and alluvial terraces of the prehistorically undammed river. These terraces are known to have undergone significant erosion and retreat since emplacement of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Land managers and policy makers associated with managing the flow of the Colorado River are interested in understanding how the operations of Glen Canyon Dam have affected the archeological sites associated with these terraces and how dam-controlled flows currently interact with other landscape-shaping processes. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a research project in Glen Canyon to study the types and causes of erosion of the terraces. This report provides the first step towards this understanding by presenting comparative analyses on several types of high-resolution topographic data (airborne lidar, terrestrial lidar, and airborne photogrammetry) that can be used in the future to document and analyze changes to terrace-based archaeological sites. Herein, we present topographic and geomorphologic data of four archaeological sites within a 14 km segment of Glen Canyon using each of the three data sources. In addition to comparing each method’s suitability for adequately representing the topography of the sites, we also analyze the data within each site’s context and describe the geomorphological processes responsible for erosion. Our results show that each method has its own strengths and weaknesses, and that terrestrial and airborne lidar are essentially interchangeable for many important topographic characterization and monitoring purposes. However, whereas terrestrial lidar provides enhanced capacity for feature recognition and gully morphology delineation, airborne methods (whether by way of laser or optical sensors) are

  9. Topographic change detection at select archeological sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Minasian, Diane L.; Kayen, Robert; Dealy, Timothy P.; Bedford, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Human occupation in Grand Canyon, Arizona, dates from at least 11,000 years before present to the modern era. For most of this period, the only evidence of human occupation in this iconic landscape is provided by archeological sites. Because of the dynamic nature of this environment, many archeological sites are subject to relatively rapid topographic change. Quantifying the extent, magnitude, and cause of such change is important for monitoring and managing these archeological sites. Such quantification is necessary to help inform the continuing debate on whether and how controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of Grand Canyon National Park, are affecting site erosion rates, artifact transport, and archeological resource preservation along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Although long-term topographic change resulting from a variety of natural processes is inherent in the Grand Canyon region, continued erosion of archeological sites threatens both the archeological resources and our future ability to study evidence of past cultural habitation. Thus, this subject is of considerable interest to National Park Service managers and other stakeholders in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Understanding the causes and effects of archeological site erosion requires a knowledge of several factors, including the location, timing, and magnitude of the changes occurring in relation to archeological resources, the rates of change, and the relative contribution of potential causes. These potential causes include sediment depletion associated with managed flows from Glen Canyon Dam, site-specific weather and overland flow patterns, visitor impacts, and long-term regional climate change. To obtain this information, highly accurate, spatially specific data are needed from sites undergoing change. Using terrestrial lidar techniques, and building upon three previous surveys of archeological sites performed in 2006 and 2007, we

  10. Topographic Change Detection at Select Archeological Sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Minasian, Diane L.; Kayen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Topographic change of archeological sites within the Colorado River corridor of Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is a subject of interest to National Park Service managers and other stakeholders in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Although long-term topographic change resulting from a variety of natural processes is typical in the Grand Canyon region, a continuing debate exists on whether and how controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of GCNP, are impacting rates of site erosion, artifact transport, and the preservation of archeological resources. Continued erosion of archeological sites threatens both the archeological resources and our future ability to study evidence of past cultural habitation. Understanding the causes and effects of archaeological site erosion requires a knowledge of several factors including the location and magnitude of the changes occurring in relation to archeological resources, the rate of the changes, and the relative contribution of several potential causes, including sediment depletion associated with managed flows from Glen Canyon Dam, site-specific weather patterns, visitor impacts, and long-term climate change. To obtain this information, highly accurate, spatially specific data are needed from sites undergoing change. Using terrestrial lidar data collection techniques and novel TIN- and GRID-based change-detection post-processing methods, we analyzed topographic data for nine archeological sites. The data were collected using three separate data collection efforts spanning 16 months (May 2006 to September 2007). Our results documented positive evidence of erosion, deposition, or both at six of the nine sites investigated during this time interval. In addition, we observed possible signs of change at two of the other sites. Erosion was concentrated in established gully drainages and averaged 12 cm to 17 cm in depth with maximum depths of 50 cm. Deposition was concentrated at specific

  11. A site for all seasons? Prehistoric coastal subsistence in northwest Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mannino

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been much debate about the role of marine resources, including shellfish, in prehistoric human diets, but there have been few studies that combine archaeological and present-day ecological investigations of coastal sites. This dual approach is being applied in a new field- and laboratory-based project that focuses on a group of coastal sites in northwest Sicily.

  12. Age of a prehistoric "Rodedian" cult site constrained by sediment and rock surface luminescence dating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Porat, N.

    2015-01-01

    The construction age of a pavement in a “Rodedian” prehistoric cult site in Negev desert, Israel, is established by determining the burial age of (i) a cobble used in the pavement, and (ii) the underlying sediment. The quartz OSL age and the K-feldspar corrected IR50 age from the sediment and the...

  13. On the remains of some Carnivora found in a prehistoric site at Vlaardingen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1961-01-01

    The excavation of a prehistoric site at Vlaardingen, about 10 km W. of Rotterdam, yielded among ceramics and other man-made objects, many remains of zoological origin (GLASBERGEN, 1960). Mr. P. J. VAN DER FEEN and Miss M. R. WALVIUS, who were in charge of the zoological material found at

  14. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua

    2016-05-17

    This study examined links among fluvial, aeolian, and hillslope geomorphic processes that affect archeological sites and surrounding landscapes in the Colorado River corridor downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. We assessed the potential for Colorado River sediment to enhance the preservation of river-corridor archeological resources through aeolian sand deposition or mitigation of gully erosion. By identifying locally prevailing wind directions, locations of modern sandbars, and likely aeolian-transport barriers, we determined that relatively few archeological sites are now ideally situated to receive aeolian sand supply from sandbars deposited by recent controlled floods. Whereas three-fourths of the 358 river-corridor archeological sites we examined include Colorado River sediment as an integral component of their geomorphic context, only 32 sites currently appear to have a high degree of connectivity (coupled interactions) between modern fluvial sandbars and sand-dominated landscapes downwind. This represents a substantial decrease from past decades, as determined by aerial-photograph analysis. Thus, we infer that recent controlled floods have had a limited, and declining, influence on archeological-site preservation.

  15. The seasonal factor at the prehistoric site of Shag River Mouth, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, T.F.G. [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    This paper addresses moa hunters` seasonality at the Shag River Mouth site. A two meters section in layer 4 of the SM/C: Dune site was left as a baulk in 1988 to enable the stratigraphic profile ({approx}2m) to be more carefully investigated. Within the baulk, detailed lensing and microstrata could be identified. Claassen (1991) has suggested that one of the most important variables in determining seasonal and prehistoric shell-bearing site formation more accurately is emphasizing finer stratigraphic resolution and more rigorous attention to retrieving midden components. At Shag River Mouth, seven sub-layers, or spits, were excavated within the 2m baulk to refine the precision of subsequent seasonal analyses and enable a detailed assessment of the components of each and their season of deposition. A variety of seasonal methods were utilised including {sup 18}O analysis of blue mussel shell carbonate and growth ring analysis of estuarine bivalves. In addition, sagital otoliths of red cod excavated from the site were sectioned and the annual and seasonal growth rings formed during the fishes` life were analysed for seasonal information. This has enabled a detailed analysis of the seasonality of this discrete area of the Shag River Mouth site. The significance of the results for understanding the prehistoric seasonal round of activities within the site and its wider orbit is presented. Paper no.40; Extended abstract. 6 refs.

  16. The Simulation of Prehistoric Hunting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses use of computer simulation as an archeological tool for research and teaching involving the remains of prehistoric game animals to aid in understanding effects of various strategies of prehistoric hunters on populations of game animals. A simulation involving possible vicuna hunting strategies is described. (MBR)

  17. An archaeological site survey and inventory for the Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska 1972: A report submitted to the Wilderness Studies Branch, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a 1972 voyage in the Aleutian archipelago to locate prehistoric and historic archeological sites. The report centers on the problems...

  18. Three thousand years of flank and central vent eruptions of the San Salvador volcanic complex (El Salvador) and their effects on El Cambio archeological site: a review based on tephrostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado Granados, H.; Hernández, W.; Pullinger, C.; Chávez, H.; Castillo Taracena, C. R.; Cañas-Dinarte, C.

    2011-09-01

    The volcanic events of the last 3,000 years at San Salvador volcanic complex are reviewed using detailed stratigraphic records exposed in new excavations between 2005 and 2007, at El Cambio archeological site (Zapotitán Valley, El Salvador), and in other outcrops on the northern and northwestern sectors of the complex. The sequences that overlie Tierra Blanca Joven (cal. 429 ± 107 ad), from the Ilopango caldera, comprise the Loma Caldera (cal. 590 ± 90 ad) and El Playón (1658-1671) deposits and the San Andrés Tuff (cal. 1031 ± 29 ad), related to El Boquerón Volcano. The surge deposits within the El Playón, San Andrés Tuff and overlying Talpetate II sequences indicate the significance of phreatomagmatic phases in both central vent and flank eruptions during the last 1,600 years. Newly identified volcanic deposits underlying Tierra Blanca Joven at El Cambio extend the stratigraphic record of the area to 3,000 years bp. Paleosols interstratified with those deposits contain cultural artifacts which could be associated with the Middle Preclassic period (900-400 bc). If correct, human occupation of the site during the Preclassic period was more intense than previously known and volcanic eruptions must have affected prehistoric settlements. The archeological findings provide information on how prehistoric populations dealt with volcanic hazards, thousands of years ago in the eastern Zapotitán Valley, where several housing projects are currently being developed. The new stratigraphic and volcanological data can be used as a basis for local and regional hazard assessment related to future secondary vent activity in the San Salvador Volcanic Complex.

  19. Evaluation of Terrestrial LIDAR for Monitoring Geomorphic Change at Archeological Sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Brown, Kristin M.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of terrestrial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) for monitoring geomorphic change at archeological sites located within Grand Canyon National Park, Ariz. Traditionally, topographic change-detection studies have used total station methods for the collection of data related to key measurable features of site erosion such as the location of thalwegs and knickpoints of gullies that traverse archeological sites (for example, Pederson and others, 2003). Total station methods require survey teams to walk within and on the features of interest within the archeological sites to take accurate measurements. As a result, site impacts may develop such as trailing, damage to cryptogamic crusts, and surface compaction that can exacerbate future erosion of the sites. National Park Service (NPS) resource managers have become increasingly concerned that repeated surveys for research and monitoring purposes may have a detrimental impact on the resources that researchers are trying to study and protect. Beginning in 2006, the Sociocultural Program of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) initiated an evaluation of terrestrial LIDAR as a new monitoring tool that might enhance data quality and reduce site impacts. This evaluation was conducted as one part of an ongoing study to develop objective, replicable, quantifiable monitoring protocols for tracking the status and trend of variables affecting archeological site condition along the Colorado River corridor. The overall study consists of two elements: (1) an evaluation of the methodology through direct comparison to geomorphologic metrics already being collected by total station methods (this report) and (2) an evaluation of terrestrial LIDAR's ability to detect topographic change through the collection of temporally different datasets (a report on this portion of the study is anticipated early in 2009). The main goals of the first

  20. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of cave deposits at the Xiaogushan prehistoric site, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Fu; Huang, Wei-Wen; Yuan, Bao-Yin; Fu, Ren-Yi; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2010-11-01

    The Xiaogushan cave site is one of the most important prehistoric sites in North China. The stone and bone artifacts found in the cave are similar to European contemporaneous artifacts. Cave deposits consist of five layers that have been dated from 46,353 ± 1179 to 4229 ± 135 cal. yr BP, using radiocarbon dating techniques on charcoal and bone samples collected from Layers 2-5. In this paper, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques were applied to date six samples taken from Layers 1-3. The luminescence properties of the fine-grained and coarse-grained quartz extracts indicate that the materials are suitable for OSL dating using a single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol. The OSL ages obtained are broadly consistent with the stratigraphy and the associated calibrated radiocarbon ages. The dating results show that the cave was first occupied by humans about 70 ka. The human occupation of the cave may be related to climate change. An occupation hiatus is inferred to between ∼ 17 to ∼ 10 ka. The stone and bone artifacts found in Layers 2 and 3 may indicate the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transitions in the region.

  1. Ochres from rituals of prehistoric human funerals at the Toca do Enoque site, Piaui, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Cavalcante, Luis Carlos, E-mail: cavalcanteufpi@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Luz, Maria de Fatima da; Guidon, Niede [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano (Brazil); Domingos Fabris, Jose [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Domingos Ardisson, Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The archaeological site known as Toca do Enoque (geographical coordinates, 09 Degree-Sign 14 Prime 65.3 Double-Prime S 43 Degree-Sign 55 Prime 62.5 Double-Prime W) is a rock shelter located in the Serra das Andorinhas (Serra das Confusoes National Park), rural area of the city of Guaribas, state of Piaui, Brazil. Several rupestrian paintings (anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs along with some pure graphisms), predominantly in red, are found on the sandstone walls. Charcoals, lithic materials, necklaces with teeth, animal bones, gastropod shells, ochres and human skeletons (dated from 6,220 {+-} 40 to 6,610 {+-} 40 years before present, BP) were identified in recent excavations in this shelter. Red and yellow ochre samples were collected from prehistoric funeral structures and analyzed with powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 57}Fe transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 80 K. Moessbauer data indicate that the red ochre do contain predominantly hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) whereas goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) is the major mineral in the yellow ochre.

  2. Pre-excavation studies of prehistoric cave sites by magnetic prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkis., Sonia; Matskevich, Zinovii; Meshveliani, Tengiz

    2014-05-01

    Detailed magnetic survey was performed for caves study in Israel (1995-1996) within the framework of the Beit Shemesh Regional Project (Judean Shephelah). The experience accumulated in Israel we applied later (2010) in two Georgian prehistoric cave sites: Cherula and Kotias-Klde. The magnetic method is based on the contrast in magnetic properties between a target object (e.g., buried archaeological feature) and the host medium (i.e, the surrounding bedrock and soil). The feasibility of the magnetic method for cave revealing was evaluated by magnetic susceptibility (κ) measurements of surrounding soil and rocks, and archaeological features: stones making up the walls, ceramic fragments and cave fill. According to data obtained, the κ of soil within caves (cave fill) is higher than that of surrounding soil. The enhancement of cave fill κ occurs because processes associated with human habitation: repeated heating and accumulation of organic debris. Both these processes provide good conditions for the conversion of the iron oxide found within the soil to a strongly ferromagnetic form (Mullins, 1977; Maher, 1986; Dalan and Banerjee, 1998, Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1999; Itkis, 2003) The presence of highly magnetic ceramics in caves also enhances magnetic contrast between practically non-magnetic bed rock (chalk in Ramat Beit Shemesh Site (Israel) and limestone (Georgian sites) and the cave fill, increasing the potential of the magnetic method to reveal caves (Itkis, 2011). Based on magnetic survey results, an excavation revealed a cave with a large amount of well preserved pottery and finds typical of the Early Bronze Age. Both studied cave sites in Georgia were located in Chiatura region of Imeretia province. Cherula site is a karstic rockshelter with a single chamber, ca 100 sq. m. The site was briefly tested in 1970s'. The area excavated in 2010 went to the depth of 60 cm below the present day surface; the limestone bedrock was not reached. The excavation revealed

  3. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations in the archeological site of Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Paglia, Luca; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; De Nigris, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The "Major Project Pompeii" (MPP) is a great collective commitment of different institututions and people to set about solving the serious problem of conservation of the largest archeological sites in the world. The ancient city of Pompeii with its 66 hectares, 44 of which are excaveted, is divided into 9 regiones (district), subdivided in 118 insulae (blocks) and almost 1500 domus (houses), and is Unesco site since 1996. The Italian Ministry for Heritage and Cultural Activities and Tourism (MiBACT) and Finmeccanica Group have sealed an agreement whereby the Finmeccanica Group will donate innovative technologies and services for monitoring and protecting the archaeological site of Pompeii. Moreover, the Italian Institute for Environment Protection and Research (ISPRA) - Geological Survey of Italy, was also involved to support the ground based analysis and interpretation of the measurements provided by the industrial team, in order to promote an interdisciplinary approach. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on their interpretation. The satellite monitoring service is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-Geos proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry method characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artifacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses showed that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. By means of the COSMO-SkyMed PSP SAR interferometry processing, a historical analysis of the ground and structure deformations occurred over the entire archaeological site of Pompeii in the

  4. New finds from the prehistoric sites in the surrounding of Leskovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Milorad Č.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New finds, mainly pottery, provide a more complete picture of cultural development in the Leskovac region, during the prehistoric period (localities Kale in Grdelica, Jeremište in Lipovica, Pusto Semče in Semče Sastanci in Bobište, Hisar-plateau in Leskovac, Gornji Guberevac and Grkinje. The pottery from the Aeneolithic period at the site Sastanci in Bobište, indicate that the Leskovac valley developed in the same way during the Copper Age as the nearby Niš valley. This site, for the time being, is the most southerly in the Morava valley where the Kostolac pottery can be found. It is characteristic that at every newly discovered Metal Age site in this region, pottery of the Vatin type, numerous and varied pottery of the Brnjica culture group, pottery of the phase Lanište II - Basarabi, as well as Greek type pottery and that of the Early Iron Age, is found. Among the pottery which is published in this study (Grdelica and Semče, the most typical autochthon pottery of Iron Age III from the Morava valley, east Serbia and the Serbian Danube valley, downstream from Novi Sad, is also included. New locations of the Brnjica cultural group in the Leskovac valley point to the population density in one of the regions of this community and its territorial organization. On the bases of number disposition and topography of the localities it is possible to presume not only the size of population, but its territorial organization as well. Namely, it is obvious that the people of the Brnjica cultural group based their defense on elevated settlements, like those on the plateaus of Hisar in Leskovac, Skobaljić Grad in Vučje, Kale in Grdelica, Pusto Semče in Semče and other similar sites, while the settlements like those in Bobište Lipovac, Gornji Grabovac and others in the valley, had an obvious agricultural character. Numerous sites in Gornja Jablanica, near one of the biggest mines of gold and other metals in the Lece area, where slag has been found

  5. GPR study of a prehistoric archaeological site near Point Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R. B.; Jensen, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) study was performed on the prehistoric Thule cemetery site near Point Barrow, Alaska. The goals of this study were (a) to test this technology in this type of polar environment, and (b) to search for burials and other archaeological features in a location in imminent danger from ocean erosion. The Nuvuk site is currently eroding at an average rate measured at over 6 m/year. Prior archaeological work at the site had recovered over 80 burials with nearly 100 individuals represented, all of which were less than 1 m below surface, and detectable with small test pits. In addition, the first coastal Ipiutak occupation known north of Point Hope had been recently discovered, at a depth of nearly 2m below surface, in the erosion face. The occupation appeared to have been terminated by a large storm which overwashed the site, leaving a strandline immediately superimposed on the living surface. After that, approximately 1.5 m of sterile gravels had been deposited before the surface on which the Thule people were living formed. Both occupations are of considerable scientific interest. The matrix at the site consists of unconsolidated beach gravels, which necessitates opening large surface areas or use of shoring to test even small units to the depths of the Ipiutak deposit (approximately 8m x 8m at the surface to test 1m x 1m at 2m depth). Such excavations promote erosion, and are very costly in terms of time and labor, so a means to detect features buried at depths greater than those exposed by shovel test pits was desirable. GPR seemed a likely candidate, but it had not been used in such conditions before, and thus it was necessary to test it thoroughly prior to relying on GPR to eliminate areas from physical testing. The GPR imaged the subsurface to a depth of 3 meters at a frequency of 500MHz. Meter-deep test pits were placed at 2-meter intervals in the survey area in a grid pattern since the efficacy of the technology had yet to be shown

  6. The Apame Project: Archeo-Paleoseismology for the Protection of Archeological Sites and Cultural Heritage in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    APAME Working Group

    2007-12-01

    The APAME EC project (Contract ICA3-CT-2002-10024) consists of multidisciplinary studies of seismically active regions along the Dead Sea Fault. Several medieval cities, citadels, fortresses and known archeological sites of the Middle East suffered of severe earthquake damage in the past. A repetition of similar seismic events nowadays will cause tremendous damage and destruction mainly due to the last century increase in population and modern constructions. In the APAME project, we combine historical, archeo-paleoseismological and earthquake hazard studies and provide an integrated analysis of their consequent seismic hazard. The results are: 1) An inventory with maps of archeological and cultural sites affected by past earthquakes and detailed archeoseismological and paleoseismological studies of some specific sites using precise dating techniques. 2) An analysis of damage distribution based on the historical archives, new documents and field investigations and preparation of updated sesimicity catalogue of past earthquakes. 3) Investigations of man-made constructions and building practices for each site with a comparison between heavily damaged and undamaged buildings. Striking results are ~ 40 m fault offset of a Tell site in the Amik Basin (Turkey), the severe earthquake damage in the remaining "lost villages" and ~ 13.6 m offset of a Roman Aqueduct in northern Syria, the trace of the 1837 and 1759 earthquake fault ruptures in southern Lebanon, and the constraint of fault slip rate using offset streams and paleoclimatic reconstructions along the Jordan Valley Fault. A fault segmentation is obtained from the compiled instrumental and historical earthquake catalogue and related damage distribution. The rich historical seismicity catalogue and fault segmentation combined with the tectonic and geodetic strain pattern along the DSF contribute to the characterization of rupture zones with a potential for a future large earthquake.

  7. Archeological/Environmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Landsat/Seasat remote sensing was used by Ames Research Center to evaluate environmental influence on ancient Mayan civilization. Over 35 archeological sites were imaged and valuable information concerning Maya settlement patterns, environment, and resource usage resulted. The imagery was also used by Mexican authorities to develop coastal management plans, establish Biosphere Reserves and assess damage from the 1988 Hurricane Gilbert. Imagery showed evidence of ancient coastlines, changes in sea level, an ancient river plain and Mayan canal systems. Previously unknown Mayan reservoirs were discovered. The project is considered a pioneering effort combining remote sensing, environmental studies and archeology.

  8. SOILS IN RELATION TO ARCHEOLOGY AT THE TELL SITE OF UIVAR IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Rogobete

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of soils and how they develop is crucial for explaining why the archeological deposits are located in particular places. This is because the interaction of many soil-forming factors, including climate, topography, vegetation, and parental materials werealso important consideration to humans in deciding where habitation and other site types were established. Soil chemistry is being utilized for paleo-environmental reconstruction. Elements commonly enriched in soil due to human activity include carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and calcium, potassium and to a lesser degree sulfur, copper and zinc. The geomorphologic survey revealed significant changes of the alluvial landscape around the Late Neolithic/Early Copper Age, tell site of Uivar. Neolithic tell evolution started assoon as fluvial aggradation ceased ~ 6.5 Ka ago at the beginning of the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Basal parts of the colluvium of the tell site date at earliest 4-3.5 ka. The youngest colluvium in foot-slope position may date to the medieval period ~ 1 ka ago.The study showed that the mound is from bottom to the top made up by antrophogenic sediments. The tell site buries a fossil calcaric Fluvisols and at surface an Urbic –Humic – Anthropic –Regosol with an excessive content of mobile phosphorus (650 ppm and mobilepotasium (840 ppm.

  9. Remote Visualization and Navigation of 3d Models of Archeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callieri, M.; Dellepiane, M.; Scopigno, R.

    2015-02-01

    The remote visualization and navigation of 3D data directly inside the web browser is becoming a viable option, due to the recent efforts in standardizing the components for 3D rendering on the web platform. Nevertheless, handling complex models may be a challenge, especially when a more generic solution is needed to handle different cases. In particular, archeological and architectural models are usually hard to handle, since their navigation can be managed in several ways, and a completely free navigation may be misleading and not realistic. In this paper we present a solution for the remote navigation of these dataset in a WebGL component. The navigation has two possible modes: the "bird's eye" mode, where the user is able to see the model from above, and the "first person" mode, where the user can move inside the structure. The two modalities are linked by a point of interest, that helps the user to control the navigation in an intuitive fashion. Since the terrain may not be flat, and the architecture may be complex, it's necessary to handle these issues, possibly without implementing complex mesh-based collision mechanisms. Hence, a complete navigation is obtained by storing the height and collision information in an image, which provides a very simple source of data. Moreover, the same image-based approach can be used to store additional information that could enhance the navigation experience. The method has been tested in two complex test cases, showing that a simple yet powerful interaction can be obtained with limited pre-processing of data.

  10. Analysis of clay smoking pipes from archeological sites in the region of the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) by FT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P.; Ribeiro, Iohanna M.; Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Ana L.; Silva, Mariane L.; Felix, Valter S.; Ferreira, Douglas S.; Coelho, Felipe A.; Gaspar, Maria D.; Pimenta, André R.; Medeiros, Elanio A.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, twenty samples of clay smoking pipes excavated in an 18 km2 area between the Macacu and Caceribu rivers, in the municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were analyzed by FT-IR technique. The samples, excavated in different archeological sites of the region, are dated between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries and are part of the material culture left by Africans and African descendants that lived in the complex. FT-IR analyses and complementary SEM-EDS studies showed that the clay paste used in the manufacture of smoking pipes, mostly handcrafted, is composed of quartz, feldspar, phyllosilicates and iron oxides. Multivariate statistical tests (PCA) were applied to FT-IR data to assess the interactions between the archeological sites. The results indicated that one archeological site - Macacu IV - is greatly related to the other sites. The results obtained have helped archeologists and anthropologists in better understanding the manufacturing process employed in ancient ceramic artifacts produced during the period of colonial Brazil.

  11. Ecological Mapping for the Preventive Conservation of Prehistoric Mural Paintings in Rock Habitats: the Site of Filiano (Basilicata, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Caneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodeterioration phenomena are of great relevance in rock settlements, due to favourable environmental conditions, such as the infiltration of rainwaters, condensation phenomena and abundance of salts and organic nutrients. Rinaldi’s rock shelter in Filiano, which is located in a natural forest of mixed oaks is of great value due to the important traces of prehistoric paintings. It is an emblematic case of the delicate balance, achieved throughout the centuries, between the environment and artwork. During the plurimillenarian history of the site, a portion of the ceiling that covered the shelter collapsed, leaving signs that are still visible today, together with traces of blackening left by the fires of ancient settlements. Several of the biodeteriogens typical of rocky habitats have already been detected and include algae, cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, vascular plants and fungi, which form macroscopic communities.Each community has an ecological preference and the mapping of their distribution is a suitable tool for understanding variations in the environmental factors that most affect them. Relating ecological data to the taxonomical characterization of the species and to the spatial distribution of each community, a site map of the humidity and of the nutrients was obtained. Among the various communities, microcolonial fungi (MCF, which appear as little black spots, here, represent the most critical risk factor, due to their low water needs. An evaluation of the biological risk for the possible future attack of such a biological community was made, suggesting indirect mitigation measures, through modification of the microclimatic and local ventilation conditions.

  12. Ochres from rituals of prehistoric human funerals at the Toca do Enoque site, Piauí, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte; da Luz, Maria De Fátima; Guidon, Niéde; Fabris, José Domingos; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    The archaeological site known as Toca do Enoque (geographical coordinates, 09° 14' 65.3″ S 43° 55' 62.5″ W) is a rock shelter located in the Serra das Andorinhas (Serra das Confusões National Park), rural area of the city of Guaribas, state of Piauí, Brazil. Several rupestrian paintings (anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs along with some pure graphisms), predominantly in red, are found on the sandstone walls. Charcoals, lithic materials, necklaces with teeth, animal bones, gastropod shells, ochres and human skeletons (dated from 6,220 ± 40 to 6,610 ± 40 years before present, BP) were identified in recent excavations in this shelter. Red and yellow ochre samples were collected from prehistoric funeral structures and analyzed with powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 80 K. Mössbauer data indicate that the red ochre do contain predominantly hematite ( α-Fe2O3) whereas goethite ( α-FeOOH) is the major mineral in the yellow ochre.

  13. Prehistoric Human Adaptation to Tibetan Plateau Environment indicated by 151 site in the Qinghai Lake Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui; Wang, Qianqian; Ren, Xiaoyan; Chen, Fahu

    2017-04-01

    Current study indicates that Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP) is one of the first widely occupied places by prehistory people on the Tibetan Plateau, which makes NETP very important to understand the human history on the plateau and human adaptation to high elevation environment. Hence, 151 site, a paleo- to Epi-Paleolithic site in the Qinghai Lake basin on NETP, is chosen to excavate. Thousands pieces of animal bones, hundreds pieces of stone artifacts and several possible hearths were unearthed and obtained during two excavation seasons. Carefully redating of the site shows that it was first occupied shortly around 15 ka BP, then reoccupied from 9000-6000 a BP more intensely. Preliminary study of the site suggest that the first appearance of human in Qinghai Lake basin is closely related to the amelioration of the Last Deglaciation and the prevalence of microlithic technology in North China, which may enlighten the study of early human migration on to whole plateau; however, the latter more intense human occupation in 151 site is not only closely related to the warm and stable early-mid Holocene climate but also provoked by early millet agriculture in neighbor low-elevation Loess plateau.

  14. Archeological glass from the Ciutadella de Roses site (Empordà, Girona, NE Spain): chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M.; Puig, A. M.; Gimeno, D.; Aulinas, M.

    2012-04-01

    The town of Roses is placed in the homonymous bay some 15 km north of the greek-roman city of Emporium, in the Empordà Country (Catalonia, NE Spain). The north sector of the Empordà constitutes a fertile river plain located within the Pyrenees Range and the Montgrí calcareous block that has been extensively occupied at least since Neolitic times. The Roses fortress is a space of more than 130.000 m2 of renaissance style built in 1543 that constitutes one of the rare fort places preserved in Catalonia after the Succession War (1701-1714). The archaeological excavations conducted in the area of the Ciutadella have shown the rests of the Greek city of Rhode, founded at 776 B.C. by Rhodian people; the Hellenistic quartier (especially important at IV-III centuries B.C.; a roman villa (occupied between centuries II B.C. and VI D.C.); a romain-lombard monastery (Santa Maria, century XI), and a series of rests till century XIX. The excavations conducted in the period 1993-1996 provided glass remnants of several ages in a number of strata at several places within the Ciutadella walls. A number of 25 samples were chosen and cleaned in order to characterize its main chemistry by EMPA. Samples were mounted on a epoxy resin, cut and polished, and external sectors with surface alteration were avoided during analysis. The major constituents Si, Al, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Ti and P were analysed, as well as a number of trace elements (metals) that give indication on the colour of glass: Co, Cu, Cr, Sb and Pb. The archaeological data allow dating the concerned strata in several periods: end of VI century-beginning of VII (3 samples) and from middle XVI century to XVIII century. The scope of this work is to provide a first characterization of the glass chemical composition variation along time since late roman times in a near to permanent occupied site. All the studied glass fragments show a sodic-lime composition, being the ones corresponding to VI-VII of low magnesia and

  15. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  16. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Can; Sun, Guoping; Zheng, Yunfei

    2016-05-01

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may provide further evidence for the reliability of phytolith dating. We present an improved method for extracting phytoliths from soils. We compared the dating of phytoliths and other materials (e.g., charcoal and plant seeds) recovered at the same depth from seven pits at six archaeological sites in China. The estimated ages of the phytoliths and other materials were generally consistent, except for one outlier. We attribute this inconsistency to the post-depositional processes of phytoliths in soil, rather than to the uptake of old carbon from the soil. Our results clearly show the potential for phytolith carbon dating at archaeological sites in the absence of other dating materials.

  17. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Can; Sun, Guoping; Zheng, Yunfei

    2016-05-26

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may provide further evidence for the reliability of phytolith dating. We present an improved method for extracting phytoliths from soils. We compared the dating of phytoliths and other materials (e.g., charcoal and plant seeds) recovered at the same depth from seven pits at six archaeological sites in China. The estimated ages of the phytoliths and other materials were generally consistent, except for one outlier. We attribute this inconsistency to the post-depositional processes of phytoliths in soil, rather than to the uptake of old carbon from the soil. Our results clearly show the potential for phytolith carbon dating at archaeological sites in the absence of other dating materials.

  18. Combined Rock Magnetic and Dielectric studies applied to stratigraphic and archeological problems in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.

    2007-05-01

    In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar in Caracas (Venezuela), has undertaken combined studies of rock magnetism (e.g. natural magnetic remanence, magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters etc.) and dielectric properties (maximum current depolarization temperatures and average activation energies) in Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary sequences from eastern and western Venezuela. Our main goal has been to find new ways of defining physical markers, in fossil- poor sedimentary rocks, for stratigraphic correlations. Magneto/dielectric characterizations of these rocks have proved also useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently these two-fold technique have been extended to archeological materials (potsherds) from a series of Venezuelan islands, in order to track down clay sources and find out about different stages of pottery craftsmanship. Magneto/Dielectric characterization of archeological potsherds seems to allow the tracing of their provenance from various mainland prehistoric settlements of distinct Venezuelan amerindian groups. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of this research applied to a contact between two sedimentary formations in eastern Venezuela (Cretaceous Chimana/Querecual) and a number of pottery samples with diverse stylistic features excavated in a single archeological site from Los Roques islands.

  19. The Role of Eolian Sediment in the Preservation of Archeologic Sites Along the Colorado River Corridor in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the natural hydrologic and sedimentary systems along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon reach have changed substantially (see, for example, Andrews, 1986; Johnson and Carothers, 1987; Webb and others, 1999b; Rubin and others, 2002; Topping and others, 2003; Wright and others, 2005; Hazel and others, 2006b). The dam has reduced the fluvial sediment supply at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park by about 95 percent. Regulation of river discharge by dam operations has important implications for the storage and redistribution of sediment in the Colorado River corridor. In the absence of floods, sediment is not deposited at elevations that regularly received sediment before dam closure. Riparian vegetation has colonized areas at lower elevations than in predam time when annual floods removed young vegetation (Turner and Karpiscak, 1980). Together, these factors have caused a systemwide decrease in the size and number of subaerially exposed fluvial sand deposits since the 1960s, punctuated by episodic aggradation during the exceptional high-flow intervals in 1983-84, 1996, and 2004 and by sediment input from occasional tributary floods (Beus and others, 1985; Schmidt and Graf, 1987; Kearsley and others, 1994; Hazel and others, 1999; Schmidt and others, 2004; Wright and others, 2005). When the Bureau of Reclamation sponsored the creation of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES) research initiative in 1982, research objectives included physical and biologic resources, whereas the effects of dam operations on cultural resources were not addressed (Fairley and others, 1994; Fairley, 2003). In the early 1980s, it was widely believed that because few archeologic sites were preserved within the river's annual-flood zone, cultural features would not be greatly affected by dam operations. Recent studies, however, indicate that alterations in the flow and sediment load of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam

  20. A Model for Predicting Late Prehistoric Architectural Sites at the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site in Southeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Archaic. This suggests that vegetal materials, possibly including maize, and other cultigens probably constituted larger portions of the human diet ...placement of rock art has been demonstrated in Upper Paleolithic sites of Europe, as well as in North America (Waller 1993). Open-air sites near canyons

  1. Archeological Data Recovery of the Camino Site (16JE223), A Spanish Colonial Period Site Near New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    appears to belong to the sedge family ( Cyperaceae ), closely resembling members of the genus Carer. The five seeds from the Camino site are faintly...Alternanthera philoxeroides), sedge (CCyperus odo- ratus), cat-tail (Typha spp.), water millet (Echinochloa walteri), water hyssop (Bacopa mon- nieri...season, they eat leaves, stems, flowers of grasses, herbs, and sedges . They are most active at night and during the early morning. Swamp. Aquatic animals

  2. A Programmatic Approach to Determine Eligibility of Prehistoric Sites in the San Diego Subregion, Southern Coast Archeological Region, California, for the National Register of Historic Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    ground stone fragment revealed the tool might have been used to process Chenopodium, Amaranthus, or possibly Poaceae seeds (Cummings 1993). Many of...mainland coast. Similarly, technological details related to changes in the morphology of bedrock milling have been tied closely to specific types of plant...4. Can the relationship between bedrock milling features and resources utilized be defined? True (1966) asserted that the morphology of bedrock

  3. Stockton Lake Wimmer Collections. Analysis of Prehistoric Artifacts Collected by Howard R. Wimmer from Archeological Sites in the Stockton Lake Project, Cedar and Dade Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Part 4, Mississippian System. Missouri Geological Survey Report of Investigations No. 70. Rolla. Tringham, Ruth, Glenn Cooper, Barbara Votek and Anne...proximal (Stone Squre 1 5.5 Stemmed var.) Bifacial knife proximal (Mantall-Pke) 1 7.6 Broken horizontaly and vertically. Bif.cial end • carper 1 7.3 A

  4. Is interstellar archeology possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Richard A.

    2012-09-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres is an interesting alternative to conventional radio SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archeology or sometimes cosmic archeology. A variety of interstellar archeology signatures is discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar, and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is reviewed in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is introduced. With few exceptions interstellar archeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  5. 青海民和喇家史前遗址的发掘%Excavation of the Prehistoric Lajia Site in Minhe,Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所; 青海省文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    The excavation of the Lajia site in Minhe, Qinghai, preliminarily revealed a lot of previously-unknown phenomena. The results include the discovery of wide ditches, a small-sized square, and human sacrifices and victims, the ascertainment of the existence of a settlement consisting of cave dwellings, and the revelation of vestiges of the disasters caused by an earthquake and flood happening 4,000 years ago. These aspects combine to bring to light links of prehistoric disasters with a settlement of that time, which constitutes an unprecedented achievement. Providing new material for researching into the origin of ancient civilization, the work marks a great breakthrough in the study of the Qijia culture in the upper Yellow River valley, and calls for furthering multidisciplinary study in archaeology.

  6. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Hays Army Ammunition Plant, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-07

    Society of Professional Archeologists in field, collections, and archival research; administration; museology ; teaching; and historical archeology...evidence of broad regional cultural interactions throughout the prehistoric Paloo-Indian, Archaic, and Woodland tra- ditions. As discussed in 2.1.1...available in draft for consultation by Hays AAP facility personnel (Stephanie Rodeffer, personal co=nuication 1983). In addition, the Carnegie Museum has

  7. The Tres Tabernae archeological site (Cisterna di Latina, Italy: new evidence revealed through an integrated geophysical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Cafarella

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available «Mercator» (Medocc, INTERREG IIIB is a European project that is aimed at a detailed investigation of the historical and archeological heritage of the Mediterranean area. Within this project, broad research is being financed regarding the importance of the development of the main ancient merchant routes in this region. These various tasks include this integrated geophysical survey at the Tres Tabernae site, an ancient statio along the Appian way (close to Latina, central Italy. This was carried out using several techniques that are focused on the identification of buried archeological remains. The main goal of this investigation was to cover the area surrounding this partially excavated site to obtain a quick, but meaningful, result relating to the presence of interesting buried features. For this, the geophysical techniques involved were frequency-domain electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, and magnetometry. To obtain the best results, these methods were optimized, taking into account the kind of structures involved and their relation to the environmental context. The combination of these different geophysical techniques shows good results, indicating the possible presence of new buried structures, such as walls, floors and a lead pipe.

  1. An archeological perspective on methylmercury exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeland, G.; Ponce, R.; Middaugh, J. [Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Anchorage, AK (United States). Section of Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Hair analyses of remains identified in Arctic archeological sites show that some individuals living in pre-industrial times would fall near or above current acceptable levels of MeHg exposure. For example, total mercury in hair was 4.8 ppm in the mummy of a 25 year-old found in Barrow, Alaska; in Greenland, the mean total hair Hg level of 15th century mummies was 3.1 ppm among six adults and 10 ppm among 2 children. In contrast, FDA`s recommended limit for MeHg in blood would translate to hair MeHg levels of 5 ppm. What are the methodological issues pertinent in interpreting these data and what are the implications of these data for current-day risk assessment and risk management related to the consumption of subsistence foods in the Arctic? How can archeological data help answer questions of relevance for subsistence populations of today? A program to examine pre-industrial MeHg levels in Alaska using human hair and animal fur from existing archeological collections has been initiated. Methodological issues will be discussed.

  2. Prehistoric land use and Neolithisation in Europe in the context of regional climate events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, C.; Wirtz, K. W.; Gronenborn, D.

    2009-04-01

    We present a simple, adaptation-driven, spatially explicit model of pre-Bronze age socio-technological change, called the Global Land Use and Technological Evolution Simulator (GLUES). The socio-technological realm is described by three characteristic traits: available technology, subsistence style ratio, and economic diversity. Human population and culture develop in the context of global paleoclimate and regional paleoclimate events. Global paleoclimate is derived from CLIMBER-2 Earth System Model anomalies superimposed on the IIASA temperature and precipitation database. Regional a forcing is provided by abrupt climate deteriorations from a compilation of 138 long-term high-resolution climate proxy time series from mostly terrestrial and near-shore archives. The GLUES simulator provides for a novel way to explore the interplay between climate, climate change, and cultural evolution both on the Holocene timescale as well as for short-term extreme event periods. We sucessfully simulate the migration of people and the diffusion of Neolithic technology from the Near East into Europe in the period 12000-4000 a BP. We find good agreement with recent archeological compilations of Western Eurasian Neolithic sites. No causal relationship between climate events and cultural evolution could be identified, but the speed of cultural development is found to be modulated by the frequency of climate events. From the demographic evolution and regional ressource consumption, we estimate regional land use change and prehistoric greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. The prehistoric mines of Gavà: an example of a comprehensive approach to the study and public presentation of an archaeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco, Mònica

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prehistoric Mines of Gavà used to provide variscite about 6000 years ago. This mineral was used for decorative purposes! For the last ten years, the Gavà Museum has been implementing a comprehensive intervention (research, conservation and information dissemination campaign for the mines. This programme is financed by many different institutions, such as the city hall, the Generalitat de Cataluña (the Catalan Government, the Diputación de Barcelona (the city council and lNEM (employment office. The museum leads and coordinates an interdisciplinary team and has established cooperation agreements with some universities. The Prehistoric Mines can be visited since 1993, and meet the visitors´ safety, mobility and understanding requirements, without affecting their conservation and scientific rigor Visits are guided and their goal is to make people experience emotions. Although they have got a varied target group, they are especially aimed at students. Thus, there is a number of activities planned only for them. The visits to the Prehistoric Mines have been considered an accepted educational resource in Barcelona and its metropolitan area. The main future project of the museum is the Archaeological Park of the Prehistoric Mines. It will be a centre aimed at interpreting the Neolithic period and the origin of the mining industry. Its objectives are to maintain intervention and to attract the cultural tourism in Barcelona.

    Las Minas Prehistóricas de Gavá proporcionaron variscita, un material ornamental, hace 6000 años. Desde hace diez años el Museo de Gavá impulsa una intervención integral (investigación, conservación y difusión, financiada por diversas instituciones (Ayuntamiento, Generalitat de Cataluña, Diputación de Barcelona e INEM, lidera y coordina un equipo interdisciplinar y mantiene convenios de colaboración con diferentes universidades. Las minas están abiertas al público desde 1993 y

  4. Reading of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR Images of Prehistoric Flint Mine; Case Study from Krzemionki Opatowskie Archaeological Site In Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welc Fabian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical surveys conducted in order to map tunnels and vertical shafts at the Neolithic chert mining field Krzemionki used a ground-penetrating radar(GPR to test hypotheses regarding orientation, depth and subsurface complexity of these voids.Using two-dimensional reflection profiles the vertical shafts, now mostly filled with lithic debris, were easily visible. Amplitude mapping visualized debris at shaft margins as well as a collapsed material inside the voids. Some shallower horizontal tunnels were also visible as sub-horizontal planar reflections generated from both ceiling and floors of these void spaces. Extension of these interpretations to un-mapped areas of the ancient mining district and complexity of these prehistoric mining features could be examined to determine excavation intensity and exploitation techniques used during the Neolithic.

  5. Archeological Test Excavations at The Lake Acworth Site (9Co45) and The Butler Creek (9Co46) Sites: Two Prehistric Settlements in the Piedmont Uplands, Allatoona Lake, Cobb County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-31

    the complicated stamped pottery can be aportioned in a manner reflective of the relative contributions of the purely Etjwah and purely Wilbanks types...edited by Stephen J. Williams, pp. 135-151. Harvard University, Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology No. 58. Cambridge. Watson ...subjected to machine-assisted water separation in a scaled-down version of the Shell Mound Archeological Project (SMAP) flotation device described by Watson

  6. Stockton Lake Survey and Assessment. National Register Assessment of Prehistoric Archeological Sites 23DA407 and 23DA408 and Historic Properties Survey in the Stockton Lake Project, Cedar and Dade Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    conducted at the Stockton, Truman and Pomme de Terre reservoirs, principal investigators generally agree that the culture history and chronology of the...1992 Archaeological Survey at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes: Cedar, Dade, Hickory and Polk Counties, Missouri. Report of Investigations, No. 33...Conservation Program, Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Haynes, C. Vance 1976 Late Quaternary Geology of the Lower Pomme de Terre Valley. In

  7. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  8. Trip report and recommendations concerning cultural resource sites on Fish Springs NWR - May 2-6, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses findings from an archeological investigation at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Significant prehistoric resources exist on the Refuge;...

  9. Archeological Reconnaissance of The Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, Accomack County, Virginia and Worcester County, Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This archeological investigation was undertaken by R. Christopher Goodwin four sites appear to have integrity, and may possess the quality of significance as...

  10. [The mystery of prehistoric trepanations: Is neurosurgery the world eldest profession?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, D; Sainte-Rose, C; Boch, A-L

    2010-10-01

    Trepanation is known to be the first surgical procedure ever performed. Its origins date from the Neolithic Age in Europe and the operation was particularly performed in South America at the Pre-Colombian era, a few thousand years later. Based on many archeological studies on trepanned skulls, we compare the differences and similarities of these two periods through epidemiological, topographical, and technical approaches. Signs of bony regeneration are assessed in an attempt to understand the postoperative survival of trepanned patients. The literature in surgery and archeology does not mention the possible relation between trepanations and growing skull fractures. However, it is reasonable to think that these cranial holes, occurring after a pediatric skull fracture, could mimic real trepanation orifices. The possible connections between these two entities are discussed. The etiological hypotheses on prehistoric trepanation are reviewed.

  11. An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for site taphonomy in coastal shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological

  12. Between Two Levees: Archeological Testing and Evaluation of the National Register Eligibility of the Bayou Goula Landing Site, Iberville Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-20

    G.P. Putman , New York. Brown, Ian W. 1976 A Reexamination of the Houses of the Bayou Goula Site, Iberville Parish, Louisiana. Louisiana Archaeology 3...Historical Quarterly 27: 343-478. Worthy, Linda H. 1982 Classification and Interpretation of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Ceramics In

  13. New Archeointensities from Mid Holocene Archeological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapper, K.; Donadini, F.; Hirt, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Paleointensity variation determined from mid Holocene archeomagnetic samples can improve the understanding of Earth's magnetic field and how it has changed during the past 10 000 years. It is important for models of Earth's magnetic field to fill gaps in archeomagnetic data records prior 1000 BC, which are prevalent in European data sets. New data help to complement regional reference curves, which are useful for dating of archeologic artifacts, e.g., pottery or displaced objects such as tiles, if the paleointensity of the object is known. Due to small temporal resolution and uncertainties in data records, the maximum intensity and maximum rate of change of the geomagnetic field is poorly understood. Stacks of intensity records are assumed to smooth out high frequency features in the secular variation curve such as archeomagnetic jerks and geomagnetic spikes. In previous studies it was shown that archeointensities could be measured from various archeological materials, if they were heated and obtain a pure thermoremanent magnetization. Ceramics or potsherds were the first materials to be used to measure the geomagnetic field intensity. They are usually heated to high temperatures and are abundant. In more recent years it was shown that copper slags can be used as well for archeointensity determinations. These are widespread in Europe, Asia and Africa from about 5000 BC onwards, carry a strong magnetization, and charcoal is usually close by or even embedded in the slag and can be used for radiocarbon dating. Samples from burned soils of archeological fires or hearth remains can have accurate archeointensities, provided that the samples carry a pure thermoremanent magnetization, which usually can be found in the center of the fireplace. But for some sites the center is difficult to locate, and relatively loose material may easily suffer from disturbances. In this study we report on results from archeointensity measurements on 91 specimens made of ceramics, slags, and

  14. Cultural Resources Survey of Smithville Lake, Missouri. Volume 1: Archeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    seeds from plants of the goosefoot family. Clinkers — a pumice-like stone which erodes from the South Dakota area and is carried (it floats) down the...Excavation of the Moore Site, Yampa, Colorado. 1973 Non-metric analysis work in South and East Africa and Israel. 1974 Director of Kansas State...PROGRAM ELEMENT NO. PROJECT NO. TASK NO. WORK UNIT ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) VOLUME 1: ARCHEOLOGY

  15. An Archeological Survey of the San Diego River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-27

    Indian populations and to arable landa and water, Father Serra moved Mission San Diego de Aleala ------ to the site of Nipoguay, an Indian village located...NN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SRE OF THE ~i7 SAN DIEGORIE I If SAN DIEGO STATE UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, CORPS OF ENGINEERS kSAN DIEGO STATE...the San Diego River Archeological Survey A. PERFORMING ORG.ý REPORT NUM§ER na 7. AUTHOR(s) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(*) - I- PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  16. Archeological Test Excavations at Eight Sites in the Lake Sharpe Project Area of Hughes, Lyman, and Stanley Counties, South Dakota 1987. Appendixes A-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    Chenooodiulum Ooosefoot seed I Cloomo oarruloto Boowood 5eed 19 Cyperaceae or Poaceae Sedge or Grass Family stem 2 He]lanthus Type 2 Sunflower seed 3 1 Physalis ...Ountia Prickly Pear spine 3 (con’t) Physalis Groundcherry seed 8 Poaceae Type I Grass Family seed 3 Poaceae Type 2 Grass FamIly seed 4 Poaceae Type 3...the Travis I site (Haberman 1982:508). 29/485 Physalis (Groundcherrv) The 20 groundcherry seeds are associated with both of the flotation samples and

  17. Culturological Reinterpretation of Xi'an Yangguanzhai Archaeological Site (Part Ⅱ):On the “Negation of Negation” Development of Chinese Contemporary Archeology Cultural Thoughts%西安杨官寨遗址考古的文化学再解读(下)--兼论中国当代考古文化学思潮“否定之否定”式发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡义成

    2015-01-01

    Only the excavated material clearly marked with Yellow Emperor's“word”,“pattern”, or confirmed through other evi-dence, otherwise, linking the Xi'an Yangguanzhai site to the Yellow Emperor is an “analogy”, and is not scientific.It doesn't understand Godel's“incompleteness theorem” and Arrow's“dictatorship theorem” which reveal the limitations of archeology .The“human face raspberry -shaped hollow” (“upside down flower pot”) unearthed in Youngguanzhai was used as the worship ves-sels for the prehistoric “big witch” Yellow Emperor ( or his relatives and close courtiers ) and is a “national treasure” artifact.“Tao Zu” is the evidence of “institutionalized worship” during the process of the prehistoric Longshan period replacing the Yang-shao period, showing the progress of the feminist substituted by the patriarchal society .As being the “Yellow Emperor ancient capital” 5000 years ago, Yangguanzhai site has been excavated for nearly 10 years, however, except for the “archaeological re-port”, there has rarely seen any significant archaeological research finding .In this regard, Chinese archeology should face the re-grets of Su Bingqi , Zhang Guangzhi and other predecessors who were the advocates of “the origin of Chinese civilization plural-ism” but did not know the Yang and other newly discovered sites , take the“negation of negation” and confirm the “flower core”effect of the central plains region in the origin of Chinese civilization .%只有考古出土物上明确标着黄帝时期“字样”“图样”,或可通过别的旁证确认其为黄帝时期物件,否则,把西安杨官寨遗址与黄帝时期挂钩就是一种“比附”,这种看法并不科学,它至少不了解哥德尔“不完备性定理”和阿罗“独裁定理”从形式系统角度对传统考古学局限性的揭示。杨官寨遗址出土的“镂空人面覆盆形器”(“倒扣花盆”),即史前作为

  18. Archeology and evolution of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, A

    2016-01-01

    These are excerpts from the closing talk at the "XIIth Conference on Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum", which took place last Summer in Thessaloniki --an excellent place to enjoy an interest in archeology. A more complete personal view of the early days of QCD and the rest of the Standard Model is given in [1]. Here I discuss a few of the points which --to my judgement-- illustrate well the QCD evolution (in time), both from a scientific and a sociological point of view.

  19. Specialized Processing of Aquatic Resources in Prehistoric Alaskan Pottery? : A Lipid-Residue Analysis of Ceramic Sherds from the Thule-Period Site of Nunalleq, Alaska

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farrell, Thomas; Jordan, Peter; Tache, Karine; Lucquin, Alexandre; Gibbs, Kevin; Jorge, Ana; Britton, Kate; Craig, Oliver; Knecht, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Largely missing from the debate surrounding the use of pottery among arctic and sub-arctic hunter-gatherers are site-based biomolecular studies of vessel contents. This study used lipid-residue analysis to elucidate vessel function at Nunalleq (GDN-248), a late Thule-period coastal village

  20. Integrating paleobiology, archeology, and history to inform biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Torben C; Lockwood, Rowan

    2013-02-01

    The search for novel approaches to establishing ecological baselines (reference conditions) is constrained by the fact that most ecological studies span the past few decades, at most, and investigate ecosystems that have been substantially altered by human activities for decades, centuries, or more. Paleobiology, archeology, and history provide historical ecological context for biological conservation, remediation, and restoration. We argue that linking historical ecology explicitly with conservation can help unify related disciplines of conservation paleobiology, conservation archeobiology, and environmental history. Differences in the spatial and temporal resolution and extent (scale) of prehistoric, historic, and modern ecological data remain obstacles to integrating historical ecology and conservation biology, but the prolonged temporal extents of historical ecological data can help establish more complete baselines for restoration, document a historical range of ecological variability, and assist in determining desired future conditions. We used the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) fishery of the Chesapeake Bay (U.S.A.) to demonstrate the utility of historical ecological data for elucidating oyster conservation and the need for an approach to conservation that transcends disciplinary boundaries. Historical ecological studies from the Chesapeake have documented dramatic declines (as much as 99%) in oyster abundance since the early to mid-1800 s, changes in oyster size in response to different nutrient levels from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries, and substantial reductions in oyster accretion rates (from 10 mm/year to effectively 0 mm/year) from the Late Holocene to modern times. Better integration of different historical ecological data sets and increased collaboration between paleobiologists, geologists, archeologists, environmental historians, and ecologists to create standardized research designs and methodologies will help unify prehistoric

  1. Perspectives on Archeological Site Protection and Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    selected ( Keown and Dardeau 1980). This insures that groundwater may pass through the filter fabric, but most of the sediments are held in place. The side...stabilization projects in California, and generously guided me on a tour of some of these projects. Martin Mayer of Golden Gate National Recreation Area...Atlanta. Keown , Malcolm P., and Dardeau, Elba A., Jr. 1980. "Utilization of Filter Fabric for Streambank Protection Applications," Technical Report HL-80

  2. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E

    1966-12-16

    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  3. Design Archeology: Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg, Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Design Archeology combines communication design with archeological methods for evaluating material culture to produce new forms of graphic identity. It is a research methodology for examining cultural practices and activities of the moment in order to create a “snapshot” of a community’s identity from its material culture. Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg Berlin is a graphic identity developed from ephemera (receipts, tickets, posters and flyers) collected from the streets of Kreuzberg, B...

  4. Design Archeology: Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg, Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Design Archeology combines communication design with archeological methods for evaluating material culture to produce new forms of graphic identity. It is a research methodology for examining cultural practices and activities of the moment in order to create a “snapshot” of a community’s identity from its material culture. Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg Berlin is a graphic identity developed from ephemera (receipts, tickets, posters and flyers) collected from the streets of Kreuzberg, B...

  5. Mössbauer studies of prehistoric Cherokee pottery sherds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, K. M.; McKenzie, K. P.

    1994-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy is a very useful tool in the examination and characterization of ancient pottery sherds. In this study, Mössbauer spectra for sherds and clay from the Warren Wilson Site, a prehistoric Native American (Cherokee) settlement in western North Carolina, were measured. Data from one sherd and samples from two clay beds indicate that the sherd was not made from local clays and was originally fired to 350 ‡C.

  6. Methods for the examination of cattle, sheep and goat dung in prehistoric wetland settlements with examples of the sites Alleshausen-Täschenwiesen and Alleshausen-Grundwiesen (around cal 2900 BC) at Lake Federsee, south-west Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, Marlu; Maier, Ursula; Herbig, Christoph; Ismail-Meyer, Kristin; Le Bailly,Matthieu; Wick, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    There has been evidence of dung in lakeside and moorland settlements since the beginning of wetland archaeology in the 19th century. While evidence has been found for the easily discernible faecal pellets of sheep and goats, recognition of cattle dung has proven to be considerably more difficult. In this study, we give an overview of evidence for dung remains in prehistoric wetland settlements in Germany, Switzerland and eastern France. Various methods for the analysis of uncharred dung remai...

  7. 2D-3D μXRF elemental mapping of archeological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampai, D.; Liedl, A.; Cappuccio, G.; Capitolo, E.; Iannarelli, M.; Massussi, M.; Tucci, S.; Sardella, R.; Sciancalepore, A.; Polese, C.; Dabagov, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Recently opened for users at LNF XLab-Frascati a μ XRF station, named ;Rainbow X-ray; - RXR, has been optimized for most of X-ray analytical research fields. The basic principle of the station is in the use of various geometrical combinations of polycapillary optics for X-ray beam shaping (focusing/collimation) at specially designed laboratory unit. In this work we have presented the results of archaeological studies on the artifacts of Paleolithic period and Iron Age (9th century BC to the midway of the 8th BC). The elemental analysis of these artifacts has been first performed by compact laboratory setup. Superficial (2D) and bulk (3D) micro-fluorescence mapping provides useful informations for the geologists in order to identify the possible artifacts provenience and origin. The results presented in this work are a part of wider anthropological/archeological investigations aimed at the understanding of social and economical relations of prehistorical communities.

  8. Culturological Reinterpretation of Xi'an Yangguanzhai Archaeological Site (Part Ⅰ):On the “Negation of Negation” Development of Chinese Contemporary Archeology Cultural Thoughts%西安杨官寨遗址考古的文化学再解读(上)--兼论中国当代考古文化学思潮“否定之否定”式发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡义成

    2015-01-01

    只有考古出土物上明确标着黄帝时期“字样”“图样”,或可通过别的旁证确认其为黄帝时期物件,否则,把西安杨官寨遗址与黄帝时期挂钩就是一种“比附”,这种看法并不科学,至少不了解哥德尔“不完备性定理”和阿罗“独裁定理”从形式系统角度对传统考古学局限性的揭示。杨官寨遗址出土的“镂空人面覆盆形器”(“倒扣花盆”),即史前作为“大巫”的黄帝(或其亲属近臣)之祭器,应属“国宝”级文物;“陶祖”则是史前龙山时期代替仰韶时期过程中“制度化祭祖”的证据,显示出当时男权社会取代女权的进步。作为5000年前的“黄帝故都”,杨官寨遗址发掘近10年,除《考古报告》外,少见有分量的考古研究成果。对此,中国考古学应当直面“中国文明起源多元论”的倡导者苏秉琦、张光直等前辈当时不知杨址等新发现的缺憾,否定“中国文明起源多元论”缺乏“中国文明起源‘花芯’论”补充表述的不足,走向“否定之否定”,确认中原地区在中国文明起源中具有“花芯”即文明带头作用。%Only the excavated material clearly marked with Yellow Emperor's“word”,“pattern”, or confirmed through other evi-dence, otherwise, linking the Xi'an Yangguanzhai site to the Yellow Emperor is an “analogy”, and is not scientific.It doesn't understand Godel's“incompleteness theorem” and Arrow's“dictatorship theorem” which reveal the limitations of archeology.The“human face raspberry-shaped hollow” (“upside down flower pot”) unearthed in Youngguanzhai was used as the worship ves-sels for the prehistoric“big witch” Yellow Emperor ( or his relatives and close courtiers) and is a “national treasure” artifact.“Tao Zu” is the evidence of“institutionalized worship” during the process of the prehistoric Longshan period replacing the

  9. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability.

  10. Prospects for using sonar for underwater archeology on the Yenisei: surveying a 19th century shipwreck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2016-11-01

    Current progress in underwater archeology is based on a rich arsenal of high-tech appliances, among which sonar technology plays a key role; it enables scientists not only to detect submerged archeological objects, but to examine them in high definition without having to conduct diving operations or use expensive underwater unmanned vehicles. While the majority of sensational scientific discoveries using sonar have been made in saltwater environments, freshwater ones, rivers in particular, have seen limited activity. The river Yenisei in central Siberia contains an unrecorded number of shipwrecks that await being discovered and studied. In this article we focus on the peculiarities of using sonar for detecting archeological sites on the Yenisei. This article is based on the results of the 2016 expedition, which has determined the location of Thames, a 19th century British steam schooner which was wrecked on the Yenisei.

  11. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  12. Ancient jades map 3,000 years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiao-Chun; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Bellwood, Peter; Nguyen, Kim Dung; Bellina, Bérénice; Silapanth, Praon; Dizon, Eusebio; Santiago, Rey; Datan, Ipoi; Manton, Jonathan H

    2007-12-11

    We have used electron probe microanalysis to examine Southeast Asian nephrite (jade) artifacts, many archeologically excavated, dating from 3000 B.C. through the first millennium A.D. The research has revealed the existence of one of the most extensive sea-based trade networks of a single geological material in the prehistoric world. Green nephrite from a source in eastern Taiwan was used to make two very specific forms of ear pendant that were distributed, between 500 B.C. and 500 A.D., through the Philippines, East Malaysia, southern Vietnam, and peninsular Thailand, forming a 3,000-km-diameter halo around the southern and eastern coastlines of the South China Sea. Other Taiwan nephrite artifacts, especially beads and bracelets, were distributed earlier during Neolithic times throughout Taiwan and from Taiwan into the Philippines.

  13. 36 CFR 34.8 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preservation of natural... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.8 Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. In addition to the provisions of § 2.1 of this chapter, the...

  14. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the St. Louis Area Support Center, Madison County, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    archival research; administration; museology ; teaching; and historical archeology. He has held administrative positions since 1951 with federal, state...investigations of Mississippian sites are critical in the understanding of a large socio-policito-religious unit and interactions with smaller...River Terrace. Illinois State Museum Reports of Investigations 21. Nassany, Michael S., Neal H. Lopinot, Brian M. Butler, and Richard W. Jeffries. 1983

  15. Phytolith analysis of archeological soils: evidence for maize cultivation in formative ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, D M

    1978-01-13

    Soil samples from the archeological sites of Real Alto and OGCh-20, Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador, show the presence of cross-shaped silica bodies identifiable as maize (Zea mays L.) phytoliths by size comparison with known wild grass and maize phytoliths. These results support arguments for the cultivation of maize at 2450 B.C. in coastal Ecuador.

  16. ANÁLISE ARQUEOMÉTRICA DE PINTURAS RUPESTRES PRÉ-HISTÓRICAS DO SÍTIO TAMBORIL, BARRAS, PIAUÍ, BRASIL (Archaeometric Analysis of Prehistoric Rock Paintings from the Tamboril Site, Barras, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O sítio arqueológico Tamboril, localizado na área rural do município de Barras, estado do Piauí, Brasil, é um bloco arenítico que apresenta um nicho decorado com pinturas rupestres, principalmente grafismos puros, motivos zoomórficos e carimbos de mãos humanas, pintados em diferentes tonalidades de vermelho. A conservação das pinturas é afetada por eflorescências salinas, resíduos decorrentes da atividade de insetos (como cupins e vespas e impacto humano (visitação sem acompanhamento de guias e atividade agrícola nas proximidades. A análise arqueométrica de pigmentos dessas pinturas rupestres foi realizada no laboratório com fluorescência de raios X por dispersão de energia e espectroscopia Mössbauer do 57Fe em geometria de retroespalhamento de raios γ à temperatura ambiente. Os teores de Fe (como Fe2O3 encontrados nas pinturas variam de 2,953(1 massa% a 17,23(1 massa%. Os parâmetros hiperfinos Mössbauer revelaram que o pigmento vermelho-escuro das pinturas rupestres é composto de hematita (αFe2O3 e de um Fe3+ (superparamagnético. Os teores de P (como P2O5 variam de 21,70(1 massa% a 25,92(1 massa% e foram atribuídos às eflorescências salinas e aos resíduos orgânicos de atividades de insetos que cobrem as inscrições pré-históricas. ENGLISH: The archaeological site known as Tamboril, located in the rural area of the municipality of Barras, Piauí State, Brazil, is a sandstone block that contains a niche decorated with rock paintings. These paintings are mainly composed of pure graphisms, zoomorphic motifs, and human handprints, painted in different tonalities of red. Their conservation has been affected by saline efflorescences, residues of insect activities (such as wasps and termites and human impact (unguided visitors and nearby agricultural activity. The archaeometric analysis of pigments from these rock paintings was performed in the laboratory with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and room

  17. Using Archeological Data to Model Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, H. Bahadir; Kurz, Terri L.; Memis, Yasin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to describe an implementation of a modeling task using mock data from an ancient archeological find. Students discover the relationship between the height of a person and his or her stride length. Qualitative data from student discussions document thinking and reasoning.

  18. Feasibility of using backscattered muons for archeological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Use of nondestructive methods to accurately locate and characterize underground objects such as rooms and tools found at archeological sites is ideal to preserve these historic sites. High-energy cosmic ray muons are very sensitive to density variation and have been used to image volcanoes and archeological sites such as the Egyptian and Mayan pyramids. Muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere that penetrate the earth's crust up to few kilometers. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale making it useful for this type of work. However, the muon detector must be placed below the target of interest. For imaging volcanoes, the upper portion is imaged when the detector is placed on the earth's surface at the volcano's base. For sites of interest beneath the ground surface, the muon detector would need to be placed below the site in a tunnel or borehole. Placing the detector underground can be costly and may disturb the historical site. We will assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upward traveling muons, to eliminate the current constraint of positioning the detector below the target. This work consists of three parts 1) determine the backscattered flux rate from theory, 2) distinguish backscattered from forward scattered muons at the detector, and 3) validate the theoretical results with field experimentation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  20. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V N Misra

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar–Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500–1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide

  1. Archaeological sites at Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with their contents enhanced by the use of ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucio da Rocha, Paul L.; da Silva Cezar, Glroia; Buarque, Angela; da Costa, Ariovaldo

    2000-04-01

    This presentation refers to the application of the Ground Penetrating Radar on two archaeological sites: Serrano and Morro Grande, situated at Araruama County, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the purpose of contributing to the knowledge concerning a prehistoric indigenous culture, associated with the 'Tupinamba' that inhabited the region at prehistoric times. This research is being realized with the partnership of the Anthropology Department of the National Museum and the Geology Department, both departments pertaining to the Rio de Janeiro Federal University. The archaeological remains of the study area are mainly characterized by pottery appliance for several uses, including funeral urns, which were buried within layers of sand and clay. Several profiles were made, using a RAMAC device, with a 200 MHz frequency antenna, surrounding some partially exposed potters, in the sand quarry, at the Serrano site. The resultant radargrams conceived a response model for the archaeological and soil characteristics of the area. These radargrams are being used as correlative models for the interpretation of profiles performed at the Morro Grande site, which presents similar characteristics of the Serrano site. The generated models are intended to guide the future excavations in the archeological sites of Ri de Janeiro.

  2. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  3. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  4. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  5. Mythological and Prehistorical Origins of Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Filis, Andreas; Kalakoti, Piyush

    2016-05-01

    Mythology has a cultural appeal, and the description of some neurosurgical procedures in the Hindu, Greek, Egyptian, and Chinese mythology has a bearing to the origins of our professions. The traces to some of our modern-day practices also can be linked back to the ancient prehistoric eras of the Siberian, Persian, and the Andean region. In this historical perspective, we briefly dwell into individual accounts through the prism of different cultures to highlight the development of neurosurgery in mythology and prehistoric era.

  6. FAZENDINHA I: DESCOBERTA DE UM NOVO SÍTIO PRÉ-HISTÓRICO E DESCRIÇÃO PRELIMINAR DE SUAS INSCRIÇÕES RUPESTRES E PROBLEMAS DE CONSERVAÇÃO (Fazendinha I: Discovery of a New Prehistoric Site, Preliminary Description from its Rock Inscriptions, and Conservation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O sítio arqueológico conhecido como Fazendinha I, descoberto em 2010, é um abrigo de arenito com inscrições pré-históricas, localizado na área rural de Piripiri, estado do Piauí, Brasil. O abrigo sob-rocha contém uma coleção excepcional de 141 pinturas rupestres e 65 gravuras rupestres. As pinturas rupestres consistem de grafismos geométricos abstratos, carimbos de mãos humanas, zoomorfos (lagartos e ornitomorfos, antropomorfos e fitomorfos, pintados predominantemente em diferentes tonalidades de vermelho, mas também em preto, alaranjado, vinho, púrpura-escuro e marrom-alaranjado. As gravuras rupestres (feitas por picotagem; algumas com acabamento por abrasão representam principalmente cúpules, mas também figuras abstratas e um lagarto (único animal gravado conhecido em todos os sítios pré-históricos da região arqueológica de Piripiri. A vasta maioria das gravuras foi também pintada. Além da elevada densidade de inscrições rupestres, há sobreposições e recorrências dos motivos pintados e gravados. Vegetação, fauna e estado de conservação das inscrições pré-históricas e do abrigo sob-rocha, são mencionados. ENGLISH: The archaeological site known as Fazendinha I, discovered in 2010, is a sandstone shelter with prehistoric inscriptions located in the rural area of Piripiri, in the state of Piauí, Brazil. The rockshelter contains an exceptional collection of 141 rock paintings and 65 rock engravings. The rock paintings consist of abstract geometric graphisms, human handprints, zoomorphs (lizards and ornithomorphs, anthropomorphs and phytomorphs, painted predominantly in different tonalities of red, but also in black, orangish, wine, dark-purple, and orangish brown. The rock engravings (made by pecking; some finished by abrading represent mainly cupules, but also abstract figures and a lizard (the only engraved animal known in all prehistoric sites of the archaeological region from Piripiri. The vast

  7. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui

    2017-04-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By studying hand- and footprints in Chusang, Meyer et al. (2016) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene without the help of agriculture. However, we think the limited hand- and footprints evidence found in Chusang could indicate no more than prehistoric hunter-gatherers presence on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene. In addition, by reviewing all the published archaeological data, we propose that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) when human adapted to the high altitude environment and climate change with different strategies and techniques. Particularly, the prevail of microlithic technology in North China provoked hunter-gatherers' first visit to the NETP in relatively ameliorated last Deglacial period, and the the quick development of millet farming and subsequent mixed barley-wheat farming and sheep herding facilitated farmers and herders permanently settled in Tibetan Plateau, even above 3000 masl, during mid- and late Holocene. References: Chen et al., 2015. Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. Science, 347: 248-250. Meyer et al., 2016

  8. Visualizing a monumental past: Archeology, Nasser's Egypt, and the early Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, William

    2017-09-01

    This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies. The dig took place as a result of an Egyptian-American collaboration designed to institute the possibility of archeology taking place along the lines of the Point Four modernization program promoted by the United States. The article discusses how this situation not only engendered contention surrounding the role of the international 'experts' appointed to run this excavation work, but also - and as a result - helped to constitute the monumental visual and material shape that archeological evidence relating to the Egyptian past could now take. Egypt's revolution sat within wider Cold War political struggles, yet the 'ground-up' realities of this relationship helped to constitute the sort of past (and future) monumentality proposed by Nasser's government.

  9. Trajectories and temporalities of later prehistoric embanked field systems in Northwestern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette; Arnoldussen, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers the first systematic account of the development of late prehistoric landscape enclosure, in Northwestern Europe. The study provides groundbreaking core research in that it builds on an exceptionally large amount of dated sites as well as highly detailed micro scale evidence, com...

  10. Archeological insights into hominin cognitive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2016-07-01

    How did the human mind evolve? How and when did we come to think in the ways we do? The last thirty years have seen an explosion in research related to the brain and cognition. This research has encompassed a range of biological and social sciences, from epigenetics and cognitive neuroscience to social and developmental psychology. Following naturally on this efflorescence has been a heightened interest in the evolution of the brain and cognition. Evolutionary scholars, including paleoanthropologists, have deployed the standard array of evolutionary methods. Ethological and experimental evidence has added significantly to our understanding of nonhuman brains and cognition, especially those of nonhuman primates. Studies of fossil brains through endocasts and sophisticated imaging techniques have revealed evolutionary changes in gross neural anatomy. Psychologists have also gotten into the game through application of reverse engineering to experimentally based descriptions of cognitive functions. For hominin evolution, there is another rich source of evidence of cognition, the archeological record. Using the methods of Paleolithic archeology and the theories and models of cognitive science, evolutionary cognitive archeology documents developments in the hominin mind that would otherwise be inaccessible. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Remote Sensing Archeology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China is a country noted for its vast territory and time-honored civilization. Cultural sites can be found across the country, including the famous Silk Road, which was started in the 2nd century BC and served as terrestrial and maritime outlets for the cultural exchanges between China and the rest of the world. So understanding these legacies of human development is of great significance in exploration of the history both Chinese and worldwide.

  12. Archeological Monitoring Plan for Four Floodwall Projects in the City of New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-29

    subdivision. This became the Faubourg Nuns. Three years later, in 1813, Marguerite Wiltz, the widow of Joseph Milhet and Jacinto Panis, subdivided...the New Orleans area (Samuel Wilson, Jr., personal communication 1984), and because one such example, the Rodriguez house, recently has been tested...Historic Remains from Archeological Testing at the Site of the Rodriguez House, Chalmette National Historic Park. Submitted to the National Park Service

  13. Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Plog, Stephen; George, Richard J.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Watson, Adam S.; Skoglund, Pontus; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Stewardson, Kristin; Kistler, Logan; LeBlanc, Steven A.; Whiteley, Peter M.; Reich, David; Perry, George H.

    2017-01-01

    For societies with writing systems, hereditary leadership is documented as one of the hallmarks of early political complexity and governance. In contrast, it is unknown whether hereditary succession played a role in the early formation of prehistoric complex societies that lacked writing. Here we use an archaeogenomic approach to identify an elite matriline that persisted between 800 and 1130 CE in Chaco Canyon, the centre of an expansive prehistoric complex society in the Southwestern United States. We show that nine individuals buried in an elite crypt at Pueblo Bonito, the largest structure in the canyon, have identical mitochondrial genomes. Analyses of nuclear genome data from six samples with the highest DNA preservation demonstrate mother–daughter and grandmother–grandson relationships, evidence for a multigenerational matrilineal descent group. Together, these results demonstrate the persistence of an elite matriline in Chaco for ∼330 years. PMID:28221340

  14. Prehistoric iconography and dance: preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudenzio Ragazzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The oldest documentation on the dance consists of images produced with various techniques on a wide range of material supports (rock, ceramic, metal. Due to the nature of the document, in the search for the origins of the dance, the choreutic competence must proceed to the iconographic. The figurative language of prehistoric images is highly formalized, and expresses the limits imposed by the ritual to the rules of communication. Moreover, precisely to the value attributed to the sacral support, to represent an action, as a dance, rather than plowing, or something else, means to activate a mechanism that perpetually produces the effects for which the representation was produced. This mechanism reveals that there is a strong relationship between the representations of prehistoric dance and the cosmological context.

  15. Augmented Reality in Architecture: Rebuilding Archeological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Prieto, J.; Castaño Perea, E.; Labrador Arroyo, F.

    2017-02-01

    With the development in recent years of augmented reality and the appearance of new mobile terminals and storage bases on-line, we find the possibility of using a powerful tool for transmitting architecture. This paper analyzes the relationship between Augmented Reality and Architecture. Firstly, connects the theoretical framework of both disciplines through the Representation concept. Secondly, describes the milestones and possibilities of Augmented Reality in the particular field of archaeological reconstruction. And lastly, once recognized the technology developed, we face the same analysis from a critical point of view, assessing their suitability to the discipline that concerns us is the architecture and within archeology.

  16. Beyond Virtual Replicas: 3D Modeling and Maltese Prehistoric Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Stanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, computer graphics have become strategic for the development of projects aimed at the interpretation of archaeological evidence and the dissemination of scientific results to the public. Among all the solutions available, the use of 3D models is particularly relevant for the reconstruction of poorly preserved sites and monuments destroyed by natural causes or human actions. These digital replicas are, at the same time, a virtual environment that can be used as a tool for the interpretative hypotheses of archaeologists and as an effective medium for a visual description of the cultural heritage. In this paper, the innovative methodology and aims and outcomes of a virtual reconstruction of the Borg in-Nadur megalithic temple, carried out by Archeomatica Project of the University of Catania, are offered as a case study for a virtual archaeology of prehistoric Malta.

  17. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  18. Teeth size reduction in the prehistoric populations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajević Tina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anthropological studies show craniofacial changes with a reduction in teeth size during evolution of the human population. Objective. The objective was to measure and compare the sizes of teeth in the population of the Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Iron Gate Gorge and the population from the Early Bronze Age site of Mokrin. Methods. The study included teeth without advanced wear near the pulp. The material was divided according to the site of the skeletal population in two groups. Group 1 comprised 107 teeth from the Mesolithic-Neolithic sites Lepenski Vir and Vlasac. Group 2 included 158 teeth from the Mokrin graveyard dated in the Early Bronze Age. The mesio-distal diameter was measured in all teeth, while the vestibulo-oral diameter was measured in the molars only. Using the two-factor analysis of variance, the influence of sex, site and their interaction on the size of the teeth were investigated. Results. The vestibulo-oral diameter of the upper third molar was significantly higher in males compared to females. The comparison between the groups showed that the vestibulooral diameter of the lower first molar was significantly higher in group 1. Conclusion. The present difference in teeth size indicates the existence of reduction during the prehistoric times. However, the time period between the populations studied is probably too short to be manifested on a large number of teeth.

  19. Capo Mannu Project 2011 - Prehistoric Pottery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giandaniele Castangia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present the results of a study carried out on the prehistoric pottery from the 2011 survey of the Capo Mannu Project, central-western Sardinia. The chrono-typological analysis of ceramics clearly indicates the presence of different chronological phases of occupation of the area prior to the seventh century BC: Final Neolithic or Ozieri phase, Early, Middle and Recent Bronze Age. This confirms old reports, such as those concerning the presence of a Neolithic settlement on the hill of Monte Benei, but it also raises some important questions that will be investigated in the next campaigns.

  20. Facile residue analysis of recent and prehistoric cook-stones using handheld Raman spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Laura; Cao, Bin; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Joshi, Amitabh; Scully, Rob; Sanders, Virgil; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    We performed food residue analysis of cook-stones from experimental and prehistoric earth ovens using a handheld Raman spectrometry. Progress in modern optical technology provides a facile means of rapid non-destructive identification of residue artifacts from archaeological sites. For this study spectral signatures were obtained on sotol (Dasylirion spp.) experimentally baked in an earth oven as well as sotol residue on an experimentally used processing tool. Inulin was the major residue component. The portable handheld Raman spectrometer also detected traces of inulin on boiling stones used to boil commercially obtained inulin. The Raman spectra of inulin and sotol may be useful as signatures of wild plant residues in archaeology. Spectroscopic analysis of millennia-old cook-stones from prehistoric archaeological sites in Fort Hood, TX revealed the presence of residues whose further identification requires improvement of current optical methods.

  1. Archeological survey of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents information from an archeological reconnaissance which was conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge on April 17 - 24, 1961. The...

  2. The archeology of the living and the dead

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cape Newenham archeological and ethnological expedition of Washington State University to the Kuskokwim Bay area of Southwestern Alaska was an outgrowth of...

  3. 青藏高原边缘地区史前遗址2009年调查试掘报告%A Preliminary Report on Investigations in 2009 of Some Prehistoric Sites in the Tibetan Plateau Marginal Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪明洁; 高星; 张晓凌; 孙永娟; P.Jeffrey Brantingham; David B.Madsen; David Rhode

    2011-01-01

    2009年6月-7月,在青藏高原边缘地区调查、试掘了6处遗址,获得一批石制品、动物骨骼残片、火塘等材料.石制品多数个体较小,类型包括石核、石片、工具、断块、细石核、细石叶等.通过对比出土材料及部分遗址测年数据判断,6处遗址的年代处于13ka BP左右的晚更新世至全新世.此次调查试掘,丰富了该区域人类活动的证据,对研究青藏高原环境变化、古人类的适应生存过程及技术交流有一定意义.%During a systematic archaeological investigation from June to July 2009, six sites were discovered in the Tibetan Plateau marginal region.A large number of archaeological remains such as stone artifacts, broken animal bones, hearths, and charcoal was unearthed.The stone artifacts consisted of cores, flakes, chunks, microblade cores, microblades, and retouched tools.Some of the scrapers were retouched in great detail.The stone assemblage of this region shows that the flake industry and microblade industry were used synchronously at the majority of sites.Some charcoal collected from the hearths yielded radiocarbon dates.For example, the age of Yantaidong (also called "Ten Hearths") was about 10360 ± 60 BP, and Baifosi (also called "White Buddha Temple") was dated to 4280±40BP.Based on evidence from the sites discovered in this region, we suggest that humans move into Tibetan Plateau 8radually.This region provided humans with an extensive and broad spectrum of foodstuffs, opportunities for toolmaking technology, access to natural resources and warm and wet conditions during the interglacial stage.Between 40- 25ka BP (last interglacial), the climate was moist and warm, which gave humans the opportunity to move into the region.There is some archaeological evidence that clearly showed a human presence in this region around 30ka BP, in the form of seasonal resources.The Lenghu Locality 1 and Xiao Qaidam Lake are possible sites dating to this time but there still

  4. Analyzing the Nature of the Carved Signs of Prehistoric Pottery from Bengbu Shuangdun Site%从蚌埠双墩遗址陶符看史前陶器刻划符号的性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖

    2013-01-01

    The carved symbols and pictograms or pictographs on pottery unearthed in Shuangdun site can prove that the graphics or symbols were produced in Pei Ligang,qingliangang and Yangshao culture periods,although they w ere still not mature Chinese characters,but these and later Chinese characters form a complementary structure,and they should be the source of the Chinese characters and the incubation period.They can be referred to as the"literal symbols"and"pictographs."Geo-metrical carved symbols on pottery unearthed in Shuangdun site can be referred to as the"non text symbols"and they have no relation with later Chinese characters.Quantities of carved signs on pot-tery of Shuangdun site provide very favorable conditions for us to examine the nature of carved signs on Neolithic pottery.%双墩遗址陶符中象形类的刻划符号以及“文字画”类陶符,可以证明文字性的图形或符号产生于裴李岗、青莲岗与仰韶文化时期,虽还不是成熟的汉字,但这些与后来汉字形体结构一脉相承,应该就是汉字的源头和孕育期,可称之为“文字性符号”和“文字画”。双墩遗址陶符中的几何类的刻划符号,可称之为“非文字性符号”,与后来汉字没有什么关系。数量甚多的双墩遗址陶符对我们检视新石器时代陶器刻划符号的性质提供了十分有利的条件。

  5. Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Catrine L; Larsen, Thomas; Hunt, Terry; Lipo, Carl; Solsvik, Reidar; Wallsgrove, Natalie; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie; Close, Hilary G; Popp, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment. Results of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ(15) N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment. Our results suggest highly elevated δ(15) N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mapping prehistoric ghosts in the synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, N.P.; Wogelius, R.A. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bergmann, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Linac Coherent Light Source, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Larson, P. [Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Inc., Hill City, SD (United States); Sellers, W.I. [University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Manning, P.L. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The detailed chemical analysis of fossils has the potential to reveal great insight to the composition, preservation and biochemistry of ancient life. Such analyses would ideally identify, quantify, and spatially resolve the chemical composition of preserved bone and soft tissue structures, but also the embedding matrix. Mapping the chemistry of a fossil in situ can place constraints on mass transfer between the enclosing matrix and the preserved organism(s), and therefore aid in distinguishing taphonomic processes from original chemical zonation remnant within the fossils themselves. Conventional analytical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) have serious limitations in this case, primarily, an inability to provide large (i.e., decimeter) scale chemical maps. Additionally, vacuum chamber size and the need for destructive sampling preclude analysis of large and precious fossil specimens. However, the recent development of Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) allows the non-destructive chemical analysis and imaging of major, minor, and trace element concentrations of large paleontological and archeological specimens in rapid scanning times. Here we present elemental maps of a fossil reptile produced using the new SRS-XRF method. Our results unequivocally show that preserved biological structures are not simply impressions or carbonized remains, but possess a remnant of the original organismal biochemistry. We show that SRS-XRF is a powerful new tool for the study of paleontological and archaeological samples. (orig.)

  7. Ageing of low-firing prehistoric ceramics in hydrothermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zemenová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Remains of a prehistoric ceramic object, a moon-shaped idol from the Bronze Age found in archaeological site Zdiby near Prague in the Czech Republic, were studied especially in terms of the firing temperature. Archaeological ceramics was usually fired at temperatures below 1000 °C. It contained unstable non-crystalline products, residua after calcination of clay components of a ceramic material. These products as metakaolinite can undergo a reverse rehydration to a structure close to kaolinite. The aim of this work was to prove whether the identified kaolinite in archaeological ceramics is a product of rehydration. The model compound containing high amount of kaolinite was prepared in order to follow its changes during calcination and hydrothermal treatment. Archaeological ceramics and the model compound were treated by hydrothermal ageing and studied by XRF, XRD and IR analyses. It was proved that the presence of kaolinite in the border-parts of the archaeological object was not a product of rehydration, but that it originated from the raw materials.

  8. Archaeology and Anthropology Sites, The Maryland Historical Trust, the Maryland SHPO, has created a vector layer of the approximate locations of the archeological sites recorded in the state of Maryland. Sites are confidential and are protected from release under state law., Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Historical Trust (SHPO)/Maryland Department of Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Archaeology and Anthropology Sites dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It...

  9. Ethnic Identity and Cultural Achievement: Popular Mythology and Archeological Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ron

    The difficulties faced by ethnic groups today are related not only to widespread unfamiliarity with the cultural evolution of specific groups, but to an inadequate popular understanding of the processes of cultural evolution itself, i.e., man's prehistory. Archeology can make significant contributions in this regard by counteracting the…

  10. Radiocarbon dates from Wairau Bar and their implications for the prehistoric colonisation of New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, T.F.G. [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand); Anderson, A.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A set of thirteen moa eggshell samples from burial features at the Wairau Bar site were used for dating. The samples were obtained from the Canterbury Museum in Christchurch where they have been displayed as part of a permanent exhibition.Three marine shell samples were also analysed. Radiocarbon dating of the samples was carried out using conventional and AMS techniques. The results will be presented and the archaeological implications for the prehistoric colonization of New Zealand will be discussed. Paper no. 39; Extended abstract. 7 refs.

  11. Site Jabuti, in Bragança, State of Pará, in the archaeological scenario of the Amazonian coastal landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Imazio da Silveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty years after completing the archaeological investigations in the Salgado region, northeastern Pará, researchers have returned to the site to study prehistoric human occupations in the northern coastal regions of Brazil near the Amazon estuary. This article presents the first results of archaeological research at the site Jabuti, located in the Caeté-Taperuçu Marine Extractive Reserve in the municipality of Bragança. This is an open-air residential site with anthropogenic dark earths ('terra preta de índio' and ceramic remains. The archeological remains consist mostly of fragments of pottery, as well as some flaked stone tools and dye residues. The sole C14 date obtained indicates that the site was occupied at least 2,900 years BP. According to this timing, the occupation occurred in the second stage of the model established by Pedro Walfir Martins Souza Filho and collaborators, in a paper published in 2009, for the geological evolution of the Bragança zone along the Salgado coast. Thus the site was situated on the largest soil-bearing island near the mainland. The ceramic material of this site belongs to the Mina tradition. Initially two hypotheses are proposed: 1 the Mina pottery indicates contact between shell midden groups and other ceramic-making groups, or 2 shell midden groups have begun a shift in their subsistence pattern towards cultivation.

  12. Test methods of underwater archeology on the example of shipwrecks found off the coast of Languedoc and Provence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Góralczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the archaeological works carried out on land and under water is to maximise the amount of information on the objects which have been recovered. Both land and underwater archeology are based on a similar research methodology, but they differ in the sets of tools used, as well as in working and environmental conditions. It is naturally caused by the limited capacity of the human body, which is not designed for long stay under water without sustaining serious damages to the health and functioning of the different human senses. It also generates higher costs of excavation than on land. Wrecks do not remain intact, but at all times they are subject to destruction caused by physical, chemical and biological factors, as well as by the activity of the local flora and fauna (at small and medium depths the process of destruction is faster than at large ones, which determines a faster pace of work. Currently used methods of underwater exploration have not changed since the seventies. With the rapid pace of technological development observed in the early eighties and the introduction of modern, small submarines, robots and tracking systems utilising satellite data, there was an increase in the number of offshore archeological sites in the eighties and early nineties. The future of underwater archeology is bound with the study of large and great depths and the development of cybernetics and computer science.

  13. X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescent Analyses of Prehistoric Pottery Shards from Ulu Kelantan

    OpenAIRE

    Zuliskandar Ramli; Nik H.S.N. Abdul Rahman; Adnan Jusoh; Yunus Sauman

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF) were used in order to obtain mineralogical and elemental composition of seven pottery shards that have been unearthed during the excavation at Peraling Cave and Cha Cave in Ulu Kelantan, Malaysia. Approach: Peraling Cave and Cha Cave were prehistoric sites dating from 10, 000 BC which were inhabited by Hoabinhian people and then continuously used by people of Neolithic culture around 3000 BC. Results: Mineralogical and ele...

  14. The role of changing childhood diets in the prehistoric evolution of food production: An isotopic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Mark R; Powell, Mary Lucas

    2005-03-01

    Earlier weaning has often been suggested as a cause for population growth after the evolution of food production. However, evidence for weaning-time reduction is largely circumstantial. Collagen stable nitrogen- and carbon-isotope ratios from juvenile and adult burials from four sites in eastern North America were measured to estimate weaning onsets and durations before and after the appearance of intensive food production. Two preagricultural Late Archaic sites (Indian Knoll and Carlston Annis) are compared with two highly agricultural Middle Mississippian sites (Angel and Tinsley Hill). Isotopic data and paleodemographic measures of birth rates provide no evidence for changes in weaning behavior or fertility with the development of food production in the prehistoric Lower Ohio Valley. Birth rates and weaning behavior appear to have been roughly the same at all four sites. These results indicate that models attributing population growth after the appearance of food production to earlier weaning are not universally applicable.

  15. Shirataki obsidian exploitation and circulation in prehistoric northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Yakushige

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the total number of archaeological obsidian sources in Japan is more than 80, and among them, 21 are in Hokkaido, northern part of the Japanese archipelago (Izuho and Sato 2007. Obsidian was the dominant of lithic raw material in the Upper Paleolithic Hokkaido (35-10 ka cal BP. Out of 21 archaeological obsidian sources in Hokkaido, 4 sources: Shirataki, Oketo, Tokachi, and Akaigawa are the major obsidian sources and the others are minor sources. Shirataki is one of the largest obsidian sources in Northeast Asia and it is well known that Shirataki obsidian was transported outside Hokkaido to Sakhalin and the Paleo-Honshu Island from the Late Upper Paleolithic period.We compiled data of obsidian source analyses conducted to artefacts from Paleolithic sites in Hokkaido, and it became clear that the ratio of Shirataki obsidian in all analyzed materials is more than half (Sato and Yakushige in press.We examined how far Shirataki obsidian was transported in each period: the Early Upper Paleolithic (35-25 ka cal BP and the Late Upper Paleolithic (25-10 ka cal BP. The Late Upper Paleolithic is divided into three stage, the early Early Microblade Industry (Stage 1: 25-21 ka cal BP, the late Early Microblade Industry (Stage 2: 19-16 ka cal BP, and the Late Microblade Industry (Stage 3: 16-10 ka cal BP. As a result, it is revealed that the distribution areas of Shirataki obsidian did not expand gradually over time, but are different in different lithic industries. In the background of this situation lay the difference of ecological adaptation strategies adopted by the prehistoric people of the time and their movement behavioral strategies.

  16. Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Greger; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Perri, Angela

    2012-01-01

    , and New Guinea Singing Dogs) come from regions outside the natural range of Canis lupus (the dog's wild ancestor) and where dogs were introduced more than 10,000 y after domestication. These results demonstrate that the unifying characteristic among all genetically distinct so-called ancient breeds......The dog was the first domesticated animal but it remains uncertain when the domestication process began and whether it occurred just once or multiple times across the Northern Hemisphere. To ascertain the value of modern genetic data to elucidate the origins of dog domestication, we analyzed 49......,024 autosomal SNPs in 1,375 dogs (representing 35 breeds) and 19 wolves. After combining our data with previously published data, we contrasted the genetic signatures of 121 breeds with a worldwide archeological assessment of the earliest dog remains. Correlating the earliest archeological dogs...

  17. Archeological Survey and Cultural Resources Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Archaeological field survey within the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, Clarendon County, South Carolinais summarized. Five archaeological sites were discovered, and...

  18. Neutron resonance capture applied to some prehistoric bronze axes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, H.; Butler, J. J.; Schillebeeckx, P.; van Eijk, C. W. E.

    2007-01-01

    The elemental analysis of materials and objects on the basis of neutron resonance capture by nuclei as a function of neutron energy is briefly explained. The feasibility of neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) is demonstrated with five prehistoric '' bronze '' axes of different kinds and comple

  19. 3D DOCUMENTATION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL REMAINS IN THE UNDERWATER PARK OF BAIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some experimentations, which have been conducted in the submerged archeological Park of Baiae, aimed to identify the problems related to the underwater 3D documentation process. The first test has been addressed to verify if a dense stereo mapping technique, usually employed in terrestrial and aerial applications, might be employed in critical underwater conditions by assessing the influence of different factors on the results. In the second test, the accuracy of the 3D model obtained through this technique has been evaluated. The third test deals with the geo-localization of the 3D models, conducted by merging the optical and acoustic data, through a multi-resolution bathymetric map of the site as a reference.

  20. Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D O

    1994-07-15

    Research in the mountains of southern Jordan resulted in the discovery of 109 archaeological sites that are from the Lower Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic period [150 to 6 thousand years ago (ka)]. Beginning with the Middle Paleolithic (70 ka) two site types (long-term and ephemeral camps) are recognized. Long-term sites have larger areas, thicker deposits, higher artifact densities, and more abundant archaeological features than ephemeral sites. Their natural settings (elevation and exposure) and associated seasonal evidence (phytolith and cementum increment data) indicate that long-term sites were occupied during the winter, wet season and ephemeral sites during the warm, dry season. These differences in site use and seasonality likely reflect an adaptive strategy of transhumance that persisted to modern Bedouin times. At the end of the Pleistocene, the onset of warmer, drier conditions induced a shift of the long-term winter camps from relatively low (800 to 1000 meters above sea level) to high (1000 to 1250 meters above sea level) elevations and largely reversed the earlier transhumant pattern.

  1. Approaching prehistoric skills: experimental drilling in the context of bead manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gurova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From the very Early Neolithic in the Balkans two categories of objects are recognized as having been involved in prehistoric drilling activities. The first is beads and other decorative and prestigious items made of bone, shell, pottery and various minerals. The second comprises toolkits of micro-perforators/borers found among the flint assemblages of several sites. This paper presents experiments in drilling different materials with the aim of testing several practical issues. A series of micro-borers were produced and used for manual and mechanical drilling (with a pump drill. Various samples (mainly prepared thin plates of minerals and rocks were used, ranging in hardness (on Mohs scale from 3 (marble, limestone, calcite to 6.5 (amazonite, nephrite. Biominerals were also used: aragonite (shells and apatite (bones. Actual bead production was approached by manufacturing 16 delicate beads of 5 different materials using fine sand and water abrasion. Though not conclusive, the experimental work was instructive in many of the parameters, procedures and technical details of prehistoric drilling.

  2. New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last three years of archaeological investigations at the site Ru`ana in Banjsko Polje, in the immediate vicinity of Bor, have provided new evidence regarding the role of non-ferrous metallurgy in the economy of the prehistoric communities of north-eastern Serbia. The remains of metallurgical furnaces and a large amount of metallic slags at two neighbouring sites in the mentioned settlement reveal that locations with many installations for the thermal processing of copper ore existed in the Bronze Age. We believe, judging by the finds of material culture, that metallurgical activities in this area also continued into the Iron Age and, possibly, into the 4th century AD. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177020: Archaeology of Serbia: Cultural identity, integration factors, technological processes and the role of the central Balkans in the development of European prehistory

  3. Combining ER and GPR surveys for evidence of prehistoric landscape construction: case study at Mound City, Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B. B.; Mandel, R. D.; Tsoflias, G. P.; De Vore, S. L.; Lynott, M.

    2016-06-01

    Mound City, located at the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park in south-central Ohio, USA, is a prehistoric earthwork (200 BC-500 AD) that consists of 24 mounds enclosed in a square embankment wall and is surrounded by eight pits. Recent excavation of two of these pits resulted in the discovery of a clay loam liner that appears to have been placed on the floor of the pits by a prehistoric society known as the Hopewell. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial pattern of this liner in one of the pits using non-invasive geophysical techniques, specifically electrical resistivity and ground-penetrating radar. Minimally invasive soil augers and a test trench yielded information that was used to corroborate interpretations of the geophysical data. The geophysical methods proved to be useful in locating and defining the remnants of the prehistoric clay loam liner, and the results of our investigation indicate that almost 50% of the liner still remains in the pit today. This discovery supports a new interpretation that the Hopewell excavated and preserved the pits at the Mound City site because they served as cultural landscape features.

  4. Recovering prehistoric woodworking skills using spatial analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.

    2015-08-01

    Recovering of ancient woodworking skills can be achieved by the simultaneous documentation and analysis of the tangible evidences such as the geometry parameters of prehistoric hand tools or the fine morphological characteristics of well preserved wooden archaeological finds. During this study, altogether 10 different hand tool forms and over 60 hand tool impressions were investigated for the better understanding of the Bronze Age woodworking efficiency. Two archaeological experiments were also designed in this methodology and unknown prehistoric adzes could be reconstructed by the results of these studies and by the spatial analysis of the Bronze Age tool marks. Finally, the trimming efficiency of these objects were also implied and these woodworking skills could be quantified in the case of a Bronze Age wooden construction from Austria. The proposed GIS-based tool mark segmentation and comparison can offer an objective, user-independent technique for the related intangible heritage interpretations in the future.

  5. 32 CFR 643.30 - Policy-Construction projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; protection of historical and archeological data. 643.30 Section 643.30 National Defense Department of Defense... projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data. The Archeological and Historical... data on all Federal or Federally-assisted construction projects or in connection with any...

  6. Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Karlsson, Elinor K; Perri, Angela; Webster, Matthew T; Ho, Simon Y W; Peters, Joris; Stahl, Peter W; Piper, Philip J; Lingaas, Frode; Fredholm, Merete; Comstock, Kenine E; Modiano, Jaime F; Schelling, Claude; Agoulnik, Alexander I; Leegwater, Peter A; Dobney, Keith; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Vilà, Carles; Andersson, Leif; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-06-05

    The dog was the first domesticated animal but it remains uncertain when the domestication process began and whether it occurred just once or multiple times across the Northern Hemisphere. To ascertain the value of modern genetic data to elucidate the origins of dog domestication, we analyzed 49,024 autosomal SNPs in 1,375 dogs (representing 35 breeds) and 19 wolves. After combining our data with previously published data, we contrasted the genetic signatures of 121 breeds with a worldwide archeological assessment of the earliest dog remains. Correlating the earliest archeological dogs with the geographic locations of 14 so-called "ancient" breeds (defined by their genetic differentiation) resulted in a counterintuitive pattern. First, none of the ancient breeds derive from regions where the oldest archeological remains have been found. Second, three of the ancient breeds (Basenjis, Dingoes, and New Guinea Singing Dogs) come from regions outside the natural range of Canis lupus (the dog's wild ancestor) and where dogs were introduced more than 10,000 y after domestication. These results demonstrate that the unifying characteristic among all genetically distinct so-called ancient breeds is a lack of recent admixture with other breeds likely facilitated by geographic and cultural isolation. Furthermore, these genetically distinct ancient breeds only appear so because of their relative isolation, suggesting that studies of modern breeds have yet to shed light on dog origins. We conclude by assessing the limitations of past studies and how next-generation sequencing of modern and ancient individuals may unravel the history of dog domestication.

  7. Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Perri, Angela; Webster, Matthew T.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Peters, Joris; Stahl, Peter W.; Piper, Philip J.; Lingaas, Frode; Fredholm, Merete; Comstock, Kenine E.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Schelling, Claude; Agoulnik, Alexander I.; Leegwater, Peter A.; Dobney, Keith; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Vilà, Carles; Andersson, Leif; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The dog was the first domesticated animal but it remains uncertain when the domestication process began and whether it occurred just once or multiple times across the Northern Hemisphere. To ascertain the value of modern genetic data to elucidate the origins of dog domestication, we analyzed 49,024 autosomal SNPs in 1,375 dogs (representing 35 breeds) and 19 wolves. After combining our data with previously published data, we contrasted the genetic signatures of 121 breeds with a worldwide archeological assessment of the earliest dog remains. Correlating the earliest archeological dogs with the geographic locations of 14 so-called “ancient” breeds (defined by their genetic differentiation) resulted in a counterintuitive pattern. First, none of the ancient breeds derive from regions where the oldest archeological remains have been found. Second, three of the ancient breeds (Basenjis, Dingoes, and New Guinea Singing Dogs) come from regions outside the natural range of Canis lupus (the dog’s wild ancestor) and where dogs were introduced more than 10,000 y after domestication. These results demonstrate that the unifying characteristic among all genetically distinct so-called ancient breeds is a lack of recent admixture with other breeds likely facilitated by geographic and cultural isolation. Furthermore, these genetically distinct ancient breeds only appear so because of their relative isolation, suggesting that studies of modern breeds have yet to shed light on dog origins. We conclude by assessing the limitations of past studies and how next-generation sequencing of modern and ancient individuals may unravel the history of dog domestication. PMID:22615366

  8. Modelling prehistoric populations : the case of Neolithic Brittany.

    OpenAIRE

    Scarre, Chris

    2001-01-01

    The study of prehistoric demography draws inevitably on evidence both imperfect and incomplete, yet is essential for a satisfactory understanding of past communities. It is particularly valuable in addressing controversial questions such as the nature of early farming communities in western Europe, in the period between the adoption of domestic plants and animals and the establishment, centuries or millennia later, of permanent villages and regular field systems. In this article the demograph...

  9. The Talking Neanderthals: What Do Fossils, Genetics, and Archeology Say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker Johansson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Did Neanderthals have language? This issue has been debated back and forth for decades, without resolution. But in recent years new evidence has become available. New fossils and archeological finds cast light on relevant Neanderthal anatomy and behavior. New DNA evidence, both fossil and modern, provides clues both to the relationship between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, and to the genetics of language. In this paper, I review and evaluate the available evidence. My conclusion is that the preponderance of the evidence supports the presence of some form of language in Neanderthals.

  10. Plasma cleaning and analysis of archeological artefacts from Sipan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saettone, E A O [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Matta, J A S da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Alva, W [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Chubaci, J F O [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Fantini, M C A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Galvao, R M O [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Kiyohara, P [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Tabacniks, M H [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2003-04-07

    A novel procedure using plasma sputtering in an electron-cyclotron-resonance device has been applied to clean archeological MOCHE artefacts, unearthed at the Royal Tombs of Sipan. After successful cleaning, the pieces were analysed by a variety of complementary techniques, namely proton-induced x-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With these techniques, it has been possible to not only determine the profiles of the gold and silver surface layers, but also to detect elements that may be relevant to explain the gilding techniques skillfully developed by the metal smiths of the MOCHE culture.

  11. Modeling deamidation in sheep α-keratin peptides and application to archeological wool textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, Caroline; Wilson, Julie; Dyer, Jolon M; Clerens, Stefan; Plowman, Jeffrey E; von Holstein, Isabella; Walton Rogers, Penelope; Peacock, Elizabeth E; Collins, Matthew J

    2014-01-07

    Deamidation of glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N) has been recognized as a marker of degradation and aging in ancient proteins. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to study deamidation in wool textiles, we identified eight peptides from α-keratin proteins in sheep wool that could potentially be used to assess the level of degradation. For each chosen peptide, the extent of deamidation was determined by comparing the calculated theoretical distribution with the measured distribution using a genetic algorithm that gives the best fit to the measured distribution. Variations in the levels of deamidation were observed between peptides and in modern wool samples buried for up to 8 years in which deamidation levels were relatively low under short-term burial. In contrast, deamidation was higher in archeological textile fragments from medieval sites ranging from the 9th to 13th century in York (United Kingdom) and Newcastle (United Kingdom) and from the 13th to 16th century in Reykholt (Iceland). Major differences were observed between the British and the Icelandic samples, showing a negative correlation between age of samples and levels of deamidation, but highlighting the effect of local environment. In addition, nanoscale liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS) data indicated that deamidation in wool's α-keratin was influenced by primary and higher-order structures. Predominance of deamidation on glutamine rather than asparagine in the archeological samples was attributed to a higher abundance of Q in the α-helical core domain of keratins, neighboring residues and steric hindrance preventing deamidation of N.

  12. 76 FR 7226 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Characterization Activities; Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... (including geophysical, geotechnical, archeological and biological surveys), and reasonably foreseeable site...., geological and geophysical surveys and core samples), a lessee must submit the results of such surveys before... on the environmental effects of reasonably foreseeable site characterization surveys that may...

  13. Prehistoric tuberculosis in America: adding comments to a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Gómez i Prat

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a prehistoric American human disease. This paper reviews the literature and discusses hypotheses for origins and epidemiological patterns of prehistoric tuberculosis. From the last decades, 24 papers about prehistoric tuberculosis were published and 133 cases were reviewed. In South America most are isolated case studies, contrary to North America where more skeletal series were analyzed. Disease was usually located at the deserts of Chile and Peru, Central Plains in USA, and Lake Ontario in Canada. Skeletal remains represent most of the cases, but 16 mummies have also been described. Thirty individuals had lung disease, 19 of them diagnosed by the ribs. More then 100 individuals had osseous tuberculosis and 26 also had it in other organs. As today, transmission of the infection and establishment of the disease were favored by cultural and life-style changes such as sedentarization, crowding, undernutrition, use of dark and insulated houses, and by the frequency of interpersonal contacts. The papers confirm that despite previous perceptions, tuberculosis seems to have occured in America for millennia. It only had epidemiological expression when special conditions favored its expansion. Occurring as epidemic bursts or low endemic disease, it had differential impact on groups or social segments in America for at least two millennia.

  14. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl

    2012-01-01

    . These are hunter/fisher/gatherer sites located in coastal or riverine setting and correspond to some of the earliest pottery bearing sites in this region. We have chosen to radiocarbon date different fractions on the pottery including “foodcrusts” (charred deposits from the inner surface of sherds), “soot......” (charred deposits from the outer side of sherds), plant remains from inside the clay matrix, and lipids extracted from the ceramic matrix. All of these are potentially problematic media for AMS dating: ‘Foodcrusts’ and absorbed lipids can appear too old because of the marine or freshwater reservoir effect......, such as when aquatic products have been prepared in the pottery. Soot can derive from old wood that was used for the hearth fire, or from (potentially aquatic) food that boiled over. Plant remains may have been present in the clay for a long time before manufacture of the pottery. Post...

  15. New Development in the Study of Pre-Qin Seismological Archaeology and Its Inspiration to Prehistoric Seismological Archaeology in the Longmen Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian

    2013-01-01

    In recent years , China has a-chieved series of new findings and new understand-ing about seismological archaeology in the prehis-toric and Shang Zhou periods .These findings pro-vide an important theoretical and methodological base, and a reference for the archaeological re-search on prehistoric seismology in the Longmen mountain area -an area , which has many earth-quake faults and a high rate of earthquakes .The archaeological research on prehistoric seismology in the area of the Longmen mountains should avoid the predicament of “liangzhangpi” or “two pieces of leather” ( meaning that although something re-fers to the same thing or same phenomenon , it nonetheless , can be s interpreted by two on more representations ) .Hence , field work and integrated research require multi -disciplinary participation and integration , including archaeology and geolo-gy.The scientific wisdom in settlement -site se-lection made by our prehistoric ancestors in the Longmen mountain areas is worthy of our learning and we can take them as a model today .

  16. Sea level, paleogeography, and archeology on California's Northern Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder-Myers, Leslie; Erlandson, Jon M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Rick, Torben C.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene inundated nearshore areas in many parts of the world, producing drastic changes in local ecosystems and obscuring significant portions of the archeological record. Although global forces are at play, the effects of sea-level rise are highly localized due to variability in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects. Interpretations of coastal paleoecology and archeology require reliable estimates of ancient shorelines that account for GIA effects. Here we build on previous models for California's Northern Channel Islands, producing more accurate late Pleistocene and Holocene paleogeographic reconstructions adjusted for regional GIA variability. This region has contributed significantly to our understanding of early New World coastal foragers. Sea level that was about 80–85 m lower than present at the time of the first known human occupation brought about a landscape and ecology substantially different than today. During the late Pleistocene, large tracts of coastal lowlands were exposed, while a colder, wetter climate and fluctuating marine conditions interacted with rapidly evolving littoral environments. At the close of the Pleistocene and start of the Holocene, people in coastal California faced shrinking land, intertidal, and subtidal zones, with important implications for resource availability and distribution.

  17. Discoveries from La Manche: Five Years of Early Prehistoric Research in the Channel Island of Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Pope

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a new field project drawn from major UK institutions including the UCL Institute of Archaeology, has focused research on the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic record of the Channel Island of Jersey. In this retrospective of five years of research the history of the project to date, its focus on the Middle Palaeolithic site of La Cotte de St Brelade and its growth into an international research team is charted. The formation of the La Manche Prehistorique research network in 2015 marks a new chapter in the development of this project. With its wider focus, but continued commitment to research in the Channel Islands, the research group are working towards a unified early prehistoric research framework for the English Channel region.

  18. Prehistorical and historical declines in Caribbean coral reef accretion rates driven by loss of parrotfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L.; O'Dea, Aaron; Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Norris, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over recent decades, but the mechanisms of change are unresolved due to a lack of quantitative ecological data before large-scale human impacts. To understand the role of reduced herbivory in recent coral declines, we produce a high-resolution 3,000 year record of reef accretion rate and herbivore (parrotfish and urchin) abundance from the analysis of sediments and fish, coral and urchin subfossils within cores from Caribbean Panama. At each site, declines in accretion rates and parrotfish abundance were initiated in the prehistorical or historical period. Statistical tests of direct cause and effect relationships using convergent cross mapping reveal that accretion rates are driven by parrotfish abundance (but not vice versa) but are not affected by total urchin abundance. These results confirm the critical role of parrotfish in maintaining coral-dominated reef habitat and the urgent need for restoration of parrotfish populations to enable reef persistence.

  19. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl;

    2012-01-01

    , such as when aquatic products have been prepared in the pottery. Soot can derive from old wood that was used for the hearth fire, or from (potentially aquatic) food that boiled over. Plant remains may have been present in the clay for a long time before manufacture of the pottery. Post......Direct dating of the pottery is an important goal in archaeological research and many attempts have been made using radiocarbon. One important goal has been to date the earliest pottery in a region to assess the origin and dispersal of ceramic technology. Also with the increasing application...... of organic residue analysis to study pottery use, it has become important to combine residue data with direct dates on the artefact being investigated. In this study we have radiocarbon dated different organic materials associated with archaeological potsherds from three Ertebølle sites in Northern Germany...

  20. Oxiuríase e migrações pré-históricas Oxyuriasis and prehistoric migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araújo

    1995-06-01

    hosts in ancient times. These findings allow us to re-examine theories proposed at the beginning of the century concerning transpacific contacts that Asian populations may have had with South America. This has been the case, for example, with hookworm eggs found in archeological material dating up to 7,000 years before present. Because of the increase in scientific production in this area, it has now become necessary to undertake syntheses that assess the state of the art and propose workable paleoepidemological models of the prehistoric dispersion of human parasitoses. Based on findings of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in archeological material in the Americas, the present study is an effort in this direction. Unlike the hookworm, the pinworm does not require a soil cycle in order to be transmitted from one host to another, thereby meaning that its persistence in a given human population does not depend on climatic conditions. Thus, it could have been brought from the old to the new continent, possibly by human migrations across the Bering Strait. This may explain the greater geographical dispersion and dissemination of these findings in North America from 10,000 yrs B.P. till today. In South America, on the other hand, archeological findings have only confirmed existence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs within the Andean region, with findings located specifically in Chile and northern Argentina. Although a large number of samples have been examined, no such eggs have been found in coprolites in Brazil. The paper discusses models that account for the known distribution of this parasitosis in prehistoric populations.

  1. Using Stochastically Downscaled Climate Models and Multiproxy Lake Sediment Data to Connect Climatic Variations Over the Past 1000 Years and the History of Prehistoric Maize Farming in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. J.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We are investigating the relationship between climatic variations over the past 1000 years and the history of prehistoric maize farming expansion and decline in the American Southwest, with a focus on Utah. We are examining both the downscaled climate models and high resolution analyses of lake cores and dendrochronological data matched with occupation information. We are testing the specific utility of stochastically downscaled general circulation models (viz. ECHO-G) to reconstruct local conditions for sites with documented prehistoric dryland farming through the so-called Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and transition to the Little Ice Age (LIA). We are testing our model-based reconstructions with proxies of temperature and aridity from three subalpine lake sediment cores transecting Utah. We compare the patterns of climate change from the downscaled models and the paleoclimate records to a database of 837 radiocarbon dates over 169 locations of archaeological Native American maize-farmer site occupations in Utah.

  2. Applying galactic archeology to massive galaxies using deep imaging surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2014-01-01

    Various programs aimed at exploring the still largely unknown low surface brightness Universe with deep imaging optical surveys have recently started. They open a new window for studies of galaxy evolution, pushing the technique of galactic archeology outside the Local Group (LG). The method, based on the detection and analysis of the diffuse light emitted by collisional debris or extended stellar halos (rather than on stellar counts as done for LG systems), faces however a number of technical difficulties, like the contamination of the images by reflection halos and Galactic cirrus. I review here the on-going efforts to address them and highlight the preliminary promising results obtained with a systematic survey with MegaCam on the CFHT of nearby massive early-type galaxies done as part of the Atlas3D, NGVS and MATLAS collaborations.

  3. Elemental analysis of materials in an underwater archeological shipwreck using a novel remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, Salvador; Fortes, Francisco J; Laserna, J Javier

    2015-05-01

    LIBS analysis of submerged materials in an underwater archeological site has been performed for the first time. A fiber-optics-based remote instrument was designed for the recognition and identification of archeological assets in the wreck of the Bucentaure (Bay of Cadiz, South of Spain). The LIBS prototype featured both single-pulse (SP-LIBS) and multi-pulse excitation (MP-LIBS). The use of multi-pulse excitation allowed an increased laser beam energy (up to 95 mJ) transmitted through the optical fiber. This excitation mode results in an improved performance of the equipment in terms of extended range of analysis (to a depth of 50 m) and a broader variety of samples to be analyzed (i.e., rocks, marble, ceramics and concrete). Compared to single-pulse, an intensity enhancement factor of 15× was observed at the same irradiance value, 1.89 GW/cm(2). Thus, a longer pulse duration promotes the heating and melting of the sample, resulting in a greater mass ablated. As a consequence of the optimization of experimental conditions performed in laboratory, underwater characterization of ancient pottery was achieved.

  4. Prehistoric Archaeology and Poetic Wisdom%史前考古学与诗性智慧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    户晓辉

    2001-01-01

    Archaeological remains of the prehistoric times are the results of poetic wisdom of the prehistoric people. They are spiritual rather than material remains. Thus archaeological studies need not only giving explanations on the materials but also understanding them in a multidiscipline background.

  5. A civilização maia: contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica The Mayan Civilization: historiographic and archeological contextualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Guida Navarro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo versa sobre a contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica da civilização maia. O intuito é traçar um perfil das primeiras explorações nos sítios arqueológicos, observar a construção do conhecimento criada acerca das primeiras informações obtidas pela Arqueologia, além das diversas vinculações das pesquisas empreendidas em relação aos contextos históricos de sua época e as teorias utilizadas atualmente pelos maístas.This article deals with the historiographic and archeological contextualization of the Mayan civilization. Its purpose is to trace the profile of the first explorations into archeological sites, the construction of the knowledge created around the first information obtained by Archeology, as well as the diverse research links undertaken in relation to the historical contexts of its time, and the theories used at present by the Mayanists.

  6. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  7. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  8. Results of the archeological investigations of settlement Zarechenskoe 1 in 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnichek Vladimir A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the archeological investigations of the Zarechenskoe 1 settlement site (territory of Zarechnyi town, Penza oblast, Russian Federation in 2013 and 2014 are represented in the article. Household items, subjects of craft, weapons, jewelry and clothing elements were discovered at the site. The authors date the resource by the 8th – early 11th centuries and conclude that the settlement was abandoned by the Mordva people. The finds directly associated with the first trading contacts of the native population and the Volga Bulgars at the turn of the 10th–11th centuries are of considerable interest. These contacts are dating back to. As a result of Bulgar expansion in the early 11th century, a part of the native Mordva population was forced to leave the Upper Sura area and settle the Moksha River area. The rest of the Mordva population took part in the construction of the Bulgar fortresses and castles, and were engaged in crafts and agriculture under the governance of Bulgar landchiefs.

  9. Archeological investigations on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, S. W. Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on the archeological investigation on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. This report specifically examines the native people's cultural heritage. The...

  10. The Historical Development of Italian Prehistoric Archaeology: A Brief Outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allesandro Guidi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five years ago Marcel Desittere, a Belgian prehistorian who works and lives in northern Italy, published the first important monograph about the origins of Italian prehistoric archaeology (Desittere 1985. Beginning with the history of one of the main prehistory museums, Reggio Emilia, created in the second half of the nineteenth century, Desittere tried to reconstruct a socio-political and intellectual biography of the pioneers of the discipline. Over the following years since 1985, many scholars have dedicated monographs, articles, papers in congress proceedings and exhibition catalogues, to the subject of the history of Italian prehistoric archaeology (see, among others: Bernabò and Mutti 1994; Cuomo Di Caprio 1986; Desittere 1988, 1996; Del Lucchese 2008; Guidi 1987, 1988, 1996a, 1996b, 2000, 2008, forthcoming; Peroni 1992; Skeates 2000; Tarantini 1998–2000, 2000, 2000–2001, 2002a, 2002b, 2004, 2005. All of these works contributed to the profile of a discipline that, in our country, comprises some peculiar characteristics.

  11. 'A Sea of Small Boats': places and practices on the prehistoric seascape of western Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Robinson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years landscape archaeology in Britain has developed in many directions, providing increasingly sophisticated understandings of prehistoric people's sense of place. In contrast to the growing body of work considering landscape, little attention has been given to the sea. Some archaeologists have noted the significance of the sea to the settings of monuments, where the sea is interpreted as a symbolic or metaphorical backdrop to life, and death, on the land. But prehistoric coastal, and island communities did not just gaze across the sea, but physically engaged with it, through the daily practices of seafaring and fishing. This article argues that the sea was not merely a neutral backdrop for human action, but was an active medium through which prehistoric communities lived, experienced and ordered their world. It will be argued that a consideration of the social construction of prehistoric seascapes is central to an understanding of the archaeological record of island and coastal communities in British Prehistory. The article draws upon recent studies within landscape archaeology, maritime archaeology and maritime anthropology in order to construct a framework for exploring prehistoric seascapes. The archaeological evidence for the prehistoric use of the sea will be summarised for Western Britain and Ireland and key themes for further study identified. These themes will be examined through a detailed case study exploring the prehistoric archaeology of the Isles of Scilly. The case study will consider how we might begin to study the seascape and journeys made within it and how such journeys might be linked to the prehistoric archaeology of island and coastal landscapes. The social and symbolic meanings of the archaeological record will be investigated through an examination of their distribution, configuration and relationship to marine and terrestrial topography. It will be shown that the construction of the archaeological record

  12. [Portable antiquities: transporation, ruins, and communications in nineteenth-century archeology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The article addresses an issue in nineteenth-century archeology: the transformation of ancient American ruins into scientific evidence. It focuses specifically on the case of Palenque, a city discovered in the jungle in the late eighteenth century. The archeological exploration of this find, which occurred shortly after Central American and Mexican independence, entailed efforts to make these ruins portable. The article analyzes some of the means devised and used in their transportation.

  13. Explosive and Phreatomagmatic Activity from San Salvador Volcanic Complex (El Salvador) and Their Effects on El Cambio Archaeological Site: a Review of the Last 3000 yrs. Based on Volcanic Stratigraphy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado, H.; Pullinger, C.; Castillo, R.; Chávez, H. I.

    2007-05-01

    El Cambio archeological site (ECAS; Zapotitán Valley), 4 km NW from the San Salvador Volcanic Complex comprises 3000 yrs. of pyroclastic record. Sheets (1983) identified different levels rich in cultural remains intercalated within the volcanic deposits, indicating that different prehistoric settings were affected by San Salvador volcano eruptions, and giving information on the reoccupation frequency in the area. Accordingly, ECAS was occupied since the Late Pre-Classic period until before the last plinian eruption of Ilopango Caldera (425AD) reference, that originated the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ), pyroclastic deposits generally used as key-layer in stratigraphic reconstructions. Within the next two centuries, there is no evidence of human occupation at ECAS until the end of Late Classic which was a period of maximum splendor in the valley. During this time the area was affected by at least 3 eruptions from the San Salvador volcanic complex that produced the: Laguna Caldera volcanic fall deposits (which affected Joya de Cerén archeological site in 625AD), "Talpetate" surge deposits or Toba de San Andrés (600-900AD), and fall deposits of El Playón volcano (1658). We report new data on volcanic stratigraphy and archeological history including the following: a) the phreatomagmatic nature of eruptions that affected the area, the new excavations allowed the detailed study of surge deposits indicating magma-water interaction at Laguna Caldera and El Playón, previously considered strombolian eruptions; b)document the occupation of ECAS during Middle Pre-Classic period, new surge deposits below TBJ have been identified (with Middle Pre-Classic artifacts and pottery), that had not been documented before, extending the historic record up to 3000 yrs. BP. and c) detailed study of the "Talpetate" deposits, this sequence consists of fall, pyroclastic flow and surge deposits, present in the rim and slopes of San Salvador Volcano, which can be correlated with surge deposits

  14. Archeological Testing at Four Sites on the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The control unit was placed in the northeast comer. The 7.24 North-facing South Wall 100.64 in clevation KEN ’ M Stratum S Rock ’.\\ Soil Sample Bedrock...West Wall 98358 M CICVatIOD West-facing. East Wall 98.58 mt clc-afon KEN ’ Scale Rocki I FD StratUrn Centimeters OD Soil Sample 11F Structural Stone E N...swimmers ( Wilber and Weidenbacher 1961:372), and most do not live longer than three years (Fitzgerald et al. 1994:358). Skunks den in various places

  15. Penultimate predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Aceh, Sumatra: Stratigraphic, archeological, and historical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Kerry; Daly, Patrick; Edwards McKinnon, E.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Horton, Benjamin; Rubin, Charles M.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Ismail, Nazli; Vane, Christopher H.; Feener, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present stratigraphic, archeological and historical evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami on the northern coast of Aceh, northern Sumatra. This is the first direct evidence that a tsunami played a role in a fifteenth century cultural hiatus along the northern Sumatran portion of the maritime silk route. One seacliff exposure on the eastern side of the Lambaro headlands reveals two beds of tsunamigenic coral rubble within a small alluvial fan. Radiocarbon and Uranium-Thorium disequilibrium dates indicate emplacement of the coral rubble after 1344 ± 3 C.E. Another seacliff exposure, on the western side of the peninsula, contains evidence of nearly continuous settlement from 1240 C.E. to soon after 1366 ± 3 C.E., terminated by tsunami destruction. At both sites, the tsunamis are likely coincident with sudden uplift of coral reefs above the Sunda megathrust 1394 ± 2 C.E., evidence for which has been published previously. The tsunami (or tsunami pair) appears to have destroyed a vibrant port community and led to the temporary recentering of marine trade dominance to more protected locations farther east. The reestablishment of vibrant communities along the devastated coast by about 1500 CE set the stage for the 2004 disaster.

  16. Prehistoric Rock Structures of the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R Pace

    2007-04-01

    Over the past 13,500 years, human populations have lived in and productively utilized the natural resources offered by the cold desert environment of the northeastern Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho. Within an overall framework of hunting and gathering, groups relied on an intimate familiarity with the natural world and developed a variety of technologies to extract the resources that they needed to survive. Useful items were abundant and found everywhere on the landscape. Even the basaltic terrain and the rocks, themselves, were put to productive use. This paper presents a preliminary classification scheme for rock structures built on the Idaho National Laboratory landscape by prehistoric aboriginal populations, including discussions of the overall architecture of the structures, associated artifact assemblages, and topographic placement. Adopting an ecological perspective, the paper concludes with a discussion of the possible functions of these unique resources for the desert populations that once called the INL home.

  17. Prehistoric Packrats Piled Up Clues to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and Northern Arizona University studying climate change in the Southwestern United States are getting a helping hand?or would that be paw??from prehistoric packrats. By hoarding parts of animals and plants, including seeds and leaves, in garbage piles or ?middens,? these bushy-tailed rodents preserved crucial ecological and environmental information about the past. From these middens, scientists are able to reconstruct plant communities and natural systems from as long ago as 50,000 years. The contents of middens allow scientists to understand how ecosystems responded to rapid, large-scale climate changes of the past. The insights gained from midden research could offer clues to future changes driven by rapid climate shifts.

  18. Prehistoric Rock Structures of the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R Pace

    2007-04-01

    Over the past 13,500 years, human populations have lived in and productively utilized the natural resources offered by the cold desert environment of the northeastern Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho. Within an overall framework of hunting and gathering, groups relied on an intimate familiarity with the natural world and developed a variety of technologies to extract the resources that they needed to survive. Useful items were abundant and found everywhere on the landscape. Even the basaltic terrain and the rocks, themselves, were put to productive use. This paper presents a preliminary classification scheme for rock structures built on the Idaho National Laboratory landscape by prehistoric aboriginal populations, including discussions of the overall architecture of the structures, associated artifact assemblages, and topographic placement. Adopting an ecological perspective, the paper concludes with a discussion of the possible functions of these unique resources for the desert populations that once called the INL home.

  19. MagIC: Geomagnetic Applications from Earth History to Archeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A.; Minnett, R.; Jarboe, N.

    2016-12-01

    Major scientific challenges increasingly require an interdisciplinary approach, and highlight the need for open archives, incorporating visualization and analysis tools that are flexible enough to address novel research problems. Increasingly modern standards for publication are (or should be) demanding direct links to data, data citations, and adequate documentation that allow other researchers direct access to the fundamental measurements and analyses producing the results. Carefully documented metadata are essential and data models may need considerable complexity to accommodate re-use of observations originally collected with a different purpose in mind. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) provides an online home for all kinds of paleo-, archeo-magnetic, rock, and environmental magnetic data, from documentation of fieldwork, through lab protocols, to interpretations in terms of geomagnetic history. Examples of their application to understanding geomagnetic field behavior, archeological dating, and voyages of exploration to discover America will be used to highlight best practices and illustrate unexpected benefits of data archived using best practices with the goal of maintaining high standards for reproducibility.

  20. Chemical Analysis of Pottery Demonstrates Prehistoric Origin for High-Altitude Alpine Dairying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Francesco; Colonese, André Carlo; Lucquin, Alexandre; Petersen Guedes, Eduardo; Thompson, Anu; Walsh, Kevin; Reitmaier, Thomas; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-01-01

    The European high Alps are internationally renowned for their dairy produce, which are of huge cultural and economic significance to the region. Although the recent history of alpine dairying has been well studied, virtually nothing is known regarding the origins of this practice. This is due to poor preservation of high altitude archaeological sites and the ephemeral nature of transhumance economic practices. Archaeologists have suggested that stone structures that appear around 3,000 years ago are associated with more intense seasonal occupation of the high Alps and perhaps the establishment of new economic strategies. Here, we report on organic residue analysis of small fragments of pottery sherds that are occasionally preserved both at these sites and earlier prehistoric rock-shelters. Based mainly on isotopic criteria, dairy lipids could only be identified on ceramics from the stone structures, which date to the Iron Age (ca. 3,000-2,500 BP), providing the earliest evidence of this practice in the high Alps. Dairy production in such a marginal environment implies a high degree of risk even by today's standards. We postulate that this practice was driven by population increase and climate deterioration that put pressure on lowland agropastoral systems and the establishment of more extensive trade networks, leading to greater demand for highly nutritious and transportable dairy products.

  1. 3D Recording methodology applied to the Grotta Scritta Prehistoric Rock-Shelter in Olmeta-Di-Capocorso (Corsica, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussenmeyer, P.; Burens, A.; Guillemin, S.; Alby, E.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Marchetti, M.-L.

    2015-08-01

    The Grotta Scritta I prehistoric site is located on the west side of Cap Corse, in the territory of the municipality of Olmeta-di- Capocorso (Haute-Corse, France). This rock shelter is located on a western spur of the mountains La Serra, at 412 m height above sea level. In the regional context of a broad set of megalithic burial sites (regions Nebbiu and Agriates) and a rich insular prehistoric rock art with several engraved patterns (mainly geometric), the Grotta Scritta is the only site with painted depictions of Corsica. Around twenty parietal depictions are arranged in the upper part of the rock-shelter and takes advantage of the microtopography of the wall. Today, the Grotta Scritta is a vulnerable site, made fragile by the action of time and man. The 3D scanning of the rockshelter and paintings of the Grotta Scritta was carried out by surveyors and archaeologists from INSA Strasbourg and from UMR 5602 GEODE (Toulouse), by combining accurate terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques. These techniques are based on a full 3D documentation without contact of the rock-shelter paintings. The paper presents the data acquisition methodology followed by an overview of data processing solutions based on both imaging and laser scanning. Several deliverables as point clouds, meshed models, textured models and orthoimages are proposed for the documentation. Beyond their usefulness in terms of valorization, communication and virtual restitution, the proposed models also provide support tools for the analysis and perception of the complexity of the volumes of the shelter (namely for the folded forms of the dome housing the paintings) as well as for the accuracy of the painted depictions recorded on the orthophotos processed from the 3D model.

  2. 'A Sea of Small Boats': places and practices on the prehistoric seascape of western Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Robinson

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years landscape archaeology in Britain has developed in many directions, providing increasingly sophisticated understandings of prehistoric people's sense of place. In contrast to the growing body of work considering landscape, little attention has been given to the sea. Some archaeologists have noted the significance of the sea to the settings of monuments, where the sea is interpreted as a symbolic or metaphorical backdrop to life, and death, on the land. But prehistoric coas...

  3. The Problems of Dating Prehistoric Axe Factories and Neolithisation in Turkish Thrace:

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogu, Burçin

    2000-01-01

    Prehistoric axe factories or manufacturing areas have been found in the Sarköy region of turkish Thrace. So far, they are unique in the prehistoric record of the Balkans and Anatolia. A typological and petrological analysis of the stone axe factories and investigations of their distributions are in progress. Earlyresults show that all the axes are manufactured from the same rock - metabsit. The source of metabasite is the Western outcrops of Ganos Mountain. At the early neolithic settlement o...

  4. Pollen diagrams and prehistoric fields: the case of Bronze Age Haarlem, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakels

    2000-05-01

    The excavation of a Bronze Age field surrounded by peat in the vicinity of the Dutch town of Haarlem afforded a good opportunity to study the pollen rain released by such prehistoric fields. Pollen analysis of a core obtained from a peat deposit at a distance of 10m from the field's border revealed only a weak signal of a possible field. The conclusion is that the presence of prehistoric fields is difficult to detect by means of pollen analysis alone.

  5. Landscape Archeology: Remote Sensing Investigation of the Ancient Maya in the Peten Rainforest of Northern Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Thomas L.; Irwin, Daniel E.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Through the use of airborne and satellite imagery we are improving our ability to investigate ancient Maya settlement, subsistence, and landscape modification in this dense forest region. Today the area is threatened by encroaching settlement and deforestation. However, it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons in the 9th century AD. At the time of their collapse they had attained one of the highest population densities in human history. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not well understood at this time. A NASA-funded project used remote sensing technology to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this preliminary research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Microenvironmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetation associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), one-meter IKONOS satellite imagery, as well as high resolution airborne STAR-3i radar imagery--2.5 meter backscatter/10 meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM)--are opening new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karat topographic landscape. This understanding is critical for the current population that is currently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through

  6. Primitive environment control for preservation of pit relics in archeology museums of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhaolin; Luo, Xilian; Meng, Xiangzhao; Wang, Zanshe; Ma, Tao; Yu, Chuck; Rong, Bo; Li, Ku; Li, Wenwu; Tan, Ying

    2013-02-01

    Immovable historical relics in some archeology museums of China suffer deterioration due to their improper preservation environment. The existing environmental control systems used in archeology museums are often designed for the amenities of visitors, and these manipulated environments are often inappropriate for the conservation of abiotic relics. This paper points out that the large open space of the existing archeology museum could be a cause of deterioration of the relics from the point of view of indoor air convective flow. The paper illustrates the need to introduce a local pit environmental control, which could reintegrate a pit primitive environment for the preservation of the historical relics by using an air curtain system, orientated to isolate the unearthed relics, semiexposed in pits to the large gallery open space of the exhibition hall.

  7. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  8. Basalt Pb isotope analysis and the prehistoric settlement of Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisler, M I; Woodhead, J D

    1995-03-14

    The prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Ocean has intrigued scholars and stimulated anthropological debate for the past two centuries. Colonized over a few millennia during the mid to late Holocene, the islands of the Pacific--displaying a wide diversity of geological and biotic variability--provided the stage for endless "natural experiments" in human adaptation. Crucial to understanding the evolution and transformation of island societies is documenting the relative degree of interisland contacts after island colonization. In the western Pacific, ideal materials for archaeologically documenting interisland contact--obsidian, pottery, and shell ornaments--are absent or of limited geographic distribution in Polynesia. Consequently, archaeologists have relied increasingly on fine-grained basalt artifacts as a means for documenting colonization routes and subsequent interisland contacts. Routinely used x-ray fluorescence characterization of oceanic island basalt has some problems for discriminating source rocks and artifacts in provenance studies. The variation in trace and major element abundances is largely controlled by near-surface magma-chamber processes and is broadly similar between most oceanic islands. We demonstrate that Pb isotope analysis accurately discriminates rock source and is an excellent technique for charting the scale, frequency, and temporal span of imported fine-grained basalt artifacts found throughout Polynesia. The technique adds another tool for addressing evolutionary models of interaction, isolation, and cultural divergence in the eastern Pacific.

  9. A Prehistorical Record of Cultural Eutrophication from Crawford Lake, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, E J; Teranes, J; Guilderson, T; Turton, C L; McAndrews, J H; Wittkop, C A; Stoermer, E F

    2004-08-05

    Cultural eutrophication--the process by which human activities increase nutrient input rates to aquatic ecosystems and thereby cause undesirable changes in surface-water quality--is generally thought to have begun with the start of the industrial era. The prehistoric dimension of human impacts on aquatic ecosystems remains relatively undescribed, particularly in North America. Here we present fossil plankton data (diatoms and rotifers), organic and inorganic carbon accumulations, and carbon isotope ratios from a 1000-yr sediment core record from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. The data documents increased nutrient input to Crawford Lake caused by Iroquoian horticultural activity from A.D. 1268 to 1486 and shows how this increased nutrient input elevated lake productivity, caused bottom-water anoxia, and irreversibly altered diatom community structure within just a few years. Iroquoian settlement in the region declined in the fifteenth century, yet diatom communities and lake circulation never recovered to the predisturbance state. A second phase of cultural eutrophication starting in A.D. 1867, initiated by Canadian agricultural disturbance, increased lake productivity but had comparatively less of an impact on diatom assemblages and carbon-storage pathways than the initial Iroquoian disturbance. This study deepens our understanding of the impact of cultural eutrophication on lake systems, highlights the lasting influence of initial environmental perturbation, and contributes to the debate on the ecological impacts of density and agricultural practices of native North American inhabitants.

  10. Diet adaptation in dog reflects spread of prehistoric agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, M; Cairns, K M; Ballard, J W O; Savolainen, P; Axelsson, E

    2016-11-01

    Adaptations allowing dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, including a significant AMY2B copy number gain, constituted a crucial step in the evolution of the dog from the wolf. It is however not clear whether this change was associated with the initial domestication, or represents a secondary shift related to the subsequent development of agriculture. Previous efforts to study this process were based on geographically limited data sets and low-resolution methods, and it is therefore not known to what extent the diet adaptations are universal among dogs and whether there are regional differences associated with alternative human subsistence strategies. Here we use droplet PCR to investigate worldwide AMY2B copy number diversity among indigenous as well as breed dogs and wolves to elucidate how a change in dog diet was associated with the domestication process and subsequent shifts in human subsistence. We find that AMY2B copy numbers are bimodally distributed with high copy numbers (median 2nAMY2B=11) in a majority of dogs but no, or few, duplications (median 2nAMY2B=3) in a small group of dogs originating mostly in Australia and the Arctic. We show that this pattern correlates geographically to the spread of prehistoric agriculture and conclude that the diet change may not have been associated with initial domestication but rather the subsequent development and spread of agriculture to most, but not all regions of the globe.

  11. Some thoughts on the beginning of prehistoric archery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Ibáñez, Francisco Javier

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the possible origin of prehistoric archery during the Upper Solutrean in Mediterranean Iberia. From analysis of the light arrowheads of the Extracantabrian Solutrean (barbed and tanged point and the shouldered points of Mediterranean type are established the ballistics characteristic of this type of tool kit. These characteristics permit us to establish some hypothesis on the function in relation to their mounting and propulsion.

    En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen de la arquería prehistórica durante el Solutrense Superior en la vertiente mediterránea de la Península Ibérica. A partir del análisis de las puntas ligeras de proyectil del Solutrense Extracantábrico (punta de aletas y pedúnculo y punta de muesca de tipo mediterráneo se establecen las características balísticas de este tipo de utillaje. Estas características permiten establecer algunas hipótesis sobre su funcionalidad en relación a los sistemas de engaste y propulsión.

  12. Application of soil magnetometry on peat-bogs and soils in areas affected by historical and prehistoric ore mining and smelting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Mendakiewicz, Maria; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Chrost, Leszak

    2015-04-01

    The valleys of upper Brynica and Stoła located in northern part of Upper Silesia were areas of historical human activities since prehistoric times. Historically confirmed mining and smelting of iron, silver and lead ores on this areas has been dated back to early Middle Ages, however recently some geochemical and radiometric analyses suggest even prehistoric time of such activities. The aim of this study was to check if it is possible to find any magnetic signal suggesting such activities in peat-bogs and soils of this area. This magnetic properties would be a result of presence of historical Technogenic Magnetic Particles (TMPs) arisen during the primitive smelting processes in the past. Many different types of TMPs were separated from the depth of 15-30 cm of soil profiles and also were present in deeper parts of peat-bogs accompanied by fine charcoal particles. The peat-bog horizons dated by radiocarbon (C14) for 2000 BC were contaminated by some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb, Mn, Fe, Sr, Sc) and slightly increased magnetic susceptibility signal was also observed. On the base of soil surface magnetic measurement using MS2D Bartington sensor complemented by magnetic gradiometer system Grad 601-02 for the deeper soil penetration, some local magnetic anomalies were detected. In areas of local 'hot spots', the vertical cores up to 30 cm in depth were collected using the HUMAX core sampler. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along the cores was measured in the laboratory using the MS2C Bartington core sensor. The core section with increased susceptibility values were analyzed and TMPs were separated using a hand magnet. The separation of fine fraction of TMPs was carried out in an ultrasonic bath from the fine soil material suspended in isopropanol to avoid their coagulation. Irregular ceramic particles, ash and ore particles, as well as strong magnetic particles of metallic iron; all with diameter up to 10 mm and almost regular shape and rounded

  13. Stature in archeological samples from central Italy: methodological issues and diachronic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannecchini, Monica; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2008-03-01

    Stature reconstructions from skeletal remains are usually obtained through regression equations based on the relationship between height and limb bone length. Different equations have been employed to reconstruct stature in skeletal samples, but this is the first study to provide a systematic analysis of the reliability of the different methods for Italian historical samples. Aims of this article are: 1) to analyze the reliability of different regression methods to estimate stature for populations living in Central Italy from the Iron Age to Medieval times; 2) to search for trends in stature over this time period by applying the most reliable regression method. Long bone measurements were collected from 1,021 individuals (560 males, 461 females), from 66 archeological sites for males and 54 for females. Three time periods were identified: Iron Age, Roman period, and Medieval period. To determine the most appropriate equation to reconstruct stature the Delta parameter of Gini (Memorie di metodologia statistica. Milano: Giuffre A. 1939), in which stature estimates derived from different limb bones are compared, was employed. The equations proposed by Pearson (Philos Trans R Soc London 192 (1899) 169-244) and Trotter and Gleser for Afro-Americans (Am J Phys Anthropol 10 (1952) 463-514; Am J Phys Anthropol 47 (1977) 355-356) provided the most consistent estimates when applied to our sample. We then used the equation by Pearson for further analyses. Results indicate a reduction in stature in the transition from the Iron Age to the Roman period, and a subsequent increase in the transition from the Roman period to the Medieval period. Changes of limb lengths over time were more pronounced in the distal than in the proximal elements in both limbs.

  14. “3D·CoD”: A New Methodology for the Design of Virtual Reality-Mediated Experiences in Digital Archeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Pujol-Tost

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the capacity of virtual reality (VR to recreate and enhance real and virtual worlds, many applications in Archeology aim at the photorealistic depiction of architectural spaces. On the other hand, little is known about their real communicational effectiveness. In this context, the EU-funded project {LEAP] proposed the concept of Cultural Presence as the theoretical and methodological foundation for a new kind of VR-mediated experience, and the UNESCO World Heritage Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük (Turkey was chosen as case of application. During this process, a survey of design pipelines in Digital Archeology indicated that, to build such experiences, a new design and evaluation method may need to be adopted. This paper presents the process of building and testing “3D⋅CoD,” a new methodology for the design of VR-mediated experiences. Initially, different archeologists working at Çatalhöyük were engaged in a first workshop, aimed at establishing a specific instantiation of Cultural Presence and how to depict it by means of VR. To that end, observation, questionnaires, multimodal, and statistical analyses were used. The results of this field work were translated into a codesign hands-on methodology (“3D⋅CoD”, which was tested in a second workshop, with a different group of archeologists. In this case, observation and debriefing were used. The results of this evaluation suggest that codesign strategies are suitable for the creation of VR-mediated experiences, but that equally important is (1 to consider the codesigners’ concept of Archeology and (2 to think in terms, not of 3D models, but of Cultural Heritage goals and human experiences.

  15. The Study of Prehistoric Artefacts in National Context: Belgian Archaeologists and the Problem of Ancient Stone Implements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Goodrum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the early nineteenth century European archaeologists were formulating new ideas about the significance of ancient stone artefacts. Some, such as Christian Thomsen in Copenhagen, believed that in Scandinavia, a Stone Age had preceded the Bronze and Iron Ages. In France some excavations had retrieved stone artefacts from deep levels of peat and cave deposits that suggested that these objects were of very great antiquity. While the collection and study of stone artefacts occurred across much of Europe, there were regional variations in their interpretation. Assisted by local institutions and motivated by patriotism, Belgian archaeologists who participated in this research, had much in common with their colleagues elsewhere in Europe, but the nature of local archaeological sites and the ideas of local researchers had an impact on the development and contributions of Belgian prehistoric archaeology.

  16. New geophysical electromagnetic method of archeological object research in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, O. A.; Khachay, O. Yu.; Attia, Magdi.

    2009-04-01

    its center. Thus we change over layered model to a block-layered model. Then, gathering the values of thicknesses and resistances for all points of observation, located on one and the same profile we obtain the file of an average cross-section along the profile.The next step is combining the neighboring blocks with close-range values of resistance to one block. That operation is made according to the fixed scale of resistance. The second stage of interpretation is used to define the geometrical characteristics of conductive inclusions and their equivalent moments, which are proportional to the ratio of the conductivity difference in the host rock and in the inclusion to the conductivity in the host rock. Here the approximation principle is used for alternating electromagnetic fields. The initial model of the inclusion is a current line of fixed length. That approximation construction is used for fitting of the average parameter of geoelectrical heterogeneity, which is calculated and located to each point of the profile (Hachay O.A. et all. 2002).The first problem: to found the tomb of Ptolemey in Alexandria. That work is provided by NRIAG together with the Aphine University. The historical and archeological work was provided during a long time. In that moment when we had been asked to do our research on that object it must be needed to show more precisely the place of that tomb on the territory of the ancient royal garden in Alexandria. NRIAG had developed electro prospecting works using radar and vertical electric soundings. With use of our results on the archeological object it had been choose a more precise place for the borehole and for next excavation. The results of drilling showed, as it was forecasted, that from the depth 7m on the showed picket of the observed profile it had been revealed stone objects which differ from the limestones sandstones. The drilling was achieved on 20-th of april 2008.

  17. 36 CFR 2.1 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preservation of natural... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.1 Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the...

  18. Archeological Data Recovery at Darrow (16AN54), Ascension Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    192 feet (59.08m) when used as a lineal measure or about 5/6 of an acre when used as a square measure.) After Darrow’s death, Gibson bought Darrow’s...also that old ones should be constantly challenged and discarded with no regrets when they are conclusively shown not to work. 130 Archeological

  19. The Li(f)e of the Self: Missing Persons and Auto/Archeological Excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Jake

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and enacts a process of autobiographical inquiry, auto/archeology, which seeks to address problematic confluences of memory and identity in reconstructing one's historical narrative. Drawing on curriculum theory and Lacanian psychoanalysis, the author describes a process of excavation in which understandings of a prior…

  20. Crafting a new science: defining paleoanthropology and its relationship to prehistoric archaeology, 1860-1890.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2014-12-01

    Paleoanthropology emerged as a science during the late nineteenth century. The discovery of prehistoric artifacts in Pleistocene deposits soon led to the excavation of fossilized human bones. The archaeologists and geologists who unearthed them were primarily concerned with determining whether the human fossils and the artifacts found with them actually dated from the Pleistocene, thus offering evidence for the geological antiquity of humans. Prehistoric archaeologists reconstructed the way of life of prehistoric peoples through the artifacts found, while anthropologists examined the human fossils. They wanted primarily to identify the races of prehistoric humans. It was within this context that French anthropologists began to use the term "paléo-anthropologie" to refer to a new scientific discipline devoted to the study of prehistoric human races and human paleontology. This essay examines how paleoanthropology was defined as a science during the 1870s and 1880s. It shows that a tension existed between the objectives and methods of archaeologists and anthropologists. Paul Topinard criticized archaeologists and argued that a new type of scientist; the paleoanthropologist trained in anatomy or zoology, was needed to study human fossils properly.

  1. [Dietary habits and the state of the human oral cavity in the prehistoric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C D

    1990-06-01

    This is an age-by-age summation of literature on over 100 sites (of more than 250 excavated prehistoric ruins on the Korean Peninsula: about 160 places in South Korea--Paleolithic Age 15, Neolithic Age 21, Bronze Age 90 and Iron Age 35--and about 90 places in North Korea) which produced dietary-habit-related devices such as hunting tools, fishing instruments, farming equipments, tools of daily life, and human bones and teeth. 1) Various dietary-habit-related Old Stone-Age tools, instruments and other items were found. Among them were stone axes, stone hand axes, fish spears and hooks made of bone or horn, stone blades, stone scrapers and stone drills believed to have been used in daily life, and charcoal and sites of furnaces used for cooking. Furthermore, it was found that there were severe dental abrasions and dental caries among the inhabitants of the Korean Peninsula in the Old Stone Age. 2) Some evidences were found which lead us to believe that hunting was practiced with stone arrowheads in the New Stone Age. Stone net sinkers, which is the evidence of the use of fish nets, were also found. In addition, farming stone tools and charred cereals, both of which date back to the latter part of this period, were unearthed. Millstones, which began to be used in this age, and livestock bones were found. Where these items were discovered, 23 maxillae and mandibles with teeth and a total of 231 separate teeth of Neolithic period human beings were reported. However, there are no records indicating dental caries, but some records describe severe abrasion.

  2. Magnetic properties of cherts from the Basque-Cantabrian basin and surrounding regions: archeological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cruz Larrasoaña

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the first rock magnetic study of archeologically-relevant chert samples from the Basque-Cantabrian basin (BCB and surrounding regions, which was conducted in order to test the usefulness of non-destructive magnetic properties for assessing chert quality, distinguishing source areas, and identifying heated samples in the archeological record. Our results indicate that the studied BCB cherts are diamagnetic and have very low amounts of magnetic minerals. The only exception is the chert of Artxilondo, which has a mean positive magnetic susceptibility associated with larger concentrations of magnetic minerals. But even in this case, the magnetic susceptibility is within the lower range of other archeologically-relevant cherts elsewhere, which indicates that the studied BCB cherts can be considered as flint. The similar mean values for all magnetic properties, along with their associated large standard deviations, indicates that rock magnetic methods are of limited use for sourcing different types of flint except in some specific contexts involving the Artxilondo flint. With regards to the identification of chert heating in the archeological record, our results indicate only a minor magnetic enhancement of BCB natural flint samples upon heating, which we attribute to the low amount of non-silica impurities. In any case, the diamagnetic behavior of most BCB natural flints, along with the local use only of the Artxilondo type, suggests that any flint tool within the core of the BCB with positive magnetic susceptibility values is likely to have been subjected to heating for improving its knapping properties. Further studies are necessary to better identify the type, origin and grain size of magnetic minerals in BCB natural flints, and to apply non-destructive magnetic properties to flint tools in order to identify the use of heat treatment in the BCB archeological record.

  3. Barometry of lavas from the 1951 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands: Implications for historic and prehistoric magma plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildner, Elliot; Klügel, Andreas; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2012-03-01

    Fogo is one of the most active oceanic volcanoes in the world. The island was affected by a prehistoric giant lateral collapse that decapitated the summit of the former Monte Amarelo volcano. Subsequent volcanism has partly filled the collapse scar and built up the present-day Cha das Caldeiras plain and the Pico do Fogo stratovolcano. We have conducted a thermobarometric study of historic and prehistoric, basanitic to tephritic rocks in order to gain insight into Fogo's magma plumbing system and the impact of the collapse event on fractionation depths. A main focus was the penultimate 1951 eruption, which produced basanites to tephrites (5.0-8.2 wt.% MgO) at two sites south and northwest of Pico do Fogo. Clinopyroxene-melt barometry of phenocrysts yields a well-confined pressure range of 480-650 MPa for the final crystallization level. Microthermometric data of CO2-dominated fluid inclusions in olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts yield systematically lower pressures of 250-430 MPa. Inclusions in cumulate xenoliths yield pressures of 100-290 MPa. The combined data indicate pre-eruptive magma storage in the uppermost mantle between 17 and 22 km depth and syn-eruptive short-term magma stalling within the lower crust at 8-13 km depth. The lower pressures revealed by fluid inclusions in xenoliths may indicate that they originate from pre-1951 magma pulses that stalled and crystallized at variable levels in the crust. There is, however, no petrologic evidence for persistent crustal magma chambers. Clinopyroxene-melt barometric data of other historic and prehistoric eruptions indicate that magma storage and differentiation occurred in the uppermost mantle at pressures between 420 and 870 MPa (15-30 km depth) throughout the subaerial evolution of Fogo. Our data indicate that fractionation depths decreased significantly during a period of about 100 ka representing a strong growth phase of Fogo edifice leading up to the giant Monte Amarelo flank collapse at 123-62 ka

  4. EL REGISTRO ARQUEOLÓGICO EN EL SITIO LA OLLA (SAN RAFAEL, MENDOZA: IMPLICACIONES PARA LAS OCUPACIONES HUMANAS EN EL VALLE MEDIO DEL RÍO ATUEL / Archeological record of “La Olla” site (San Rafael, Mendoza: Implications for the human occupations in the mi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Giardina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el registro arqueológico recuperado en el sitio La Olla, el cual comprende materiales cerámicos, líticos, arqueobotánicos, zooarqueológicos y bioantropológicos. Dicho sitio se encuentra localizado en el valle del río Atuel (Mendoza, Argentina. El trabajo intenta ajustar el conocimiento de la dispersión agrícola prehispánica utilizando información en sectores no estudiado previamente. Se definen dos pulsos discontinuos en el depósito de La Olla, el más antiguo en torno a 1900 años 14C AP y el otro entre 700 y 400 años 14C AP. El análisis confirma una estabilidad en la subsistencia y dieta humana basada en recursos de bajo retorno energético compuesta entre otros por algarrobo y animales pequeños como peces y dasipódidos. Por otra parte, se evidencian cambios en la organización tecnológica que son interpretados en términos de movilidad y rangos de acción. De este modo, el sitio La Olla muestra cómo se manifestarían ocupaciones penecontemporáneas y espacialmente cercanas a los Contextos Atuel I y Atuel II. Abstract  This paper presents the archaeological record of La Olla site, located in the Atuel river valley (Mendoza, Argentina. Materials found and analyzed include lithics, ceramics, archaeobotanical, zooarchaeological and human remains. The paper attempts to adjust the state of knowledge of the pre-Hispanic agricultural dispersal using new information. Two discontinuous temporal pulses were recorded in La Olla, the former around 1900 RCYBP and the later between 700 and 400 years RCYBP. The archaeological analysis confirms stability in human subsistence and human diet based on low rank resources which included carob (mesquite and small animals such as fish and armadillo. Changes in the technological organization were also recorded, which are interpreted in terms of mobility and action ranges. The archaeological record of La Olla site shows a different perspective about the human occupation to the classic

  5. Radiocarbon-dating and ancient DNA reveal rapid replacement of extinct prehistoric penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Perry, George L. W.; Smith, Ian W. G.; Scofield, R. Paul; Tennyson, Alan J. D.; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2015-03-01

    Prehistoric faunal extinctions dramatically reshaped biological assemblages around the world. However, the timing of such biotic shifts is often obscured by the fragmentary nature and limited temporal resolution of fossil records. We use radiocarbon-dating and ancient-DNA analysis of prehistoric (ca A.D. 1450-1834) Megadyptes penguin specimens to assess the time-frame of biological turnover in coastal New Zealand following human settlement. These data suggest that the final extirpation of the endemic Megadyptes waitaha, and subsequent replacement by the previously sub-Antarctic-limited Megadyptes antipodes, likely occurred within a narrow temporal window (e.g. a century or less). This transition represents one of the most rapid prehistoric faunal turnover events documented, and is likely linked to human demographic and cultural transitions during the 15th Century. Our results suggest that anthropogenic forces can trigger rapid biogeographic shifts.

  6. Prehistoric genomes reveal the genetic foundation and cost of horse domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Jáónsson, Hákon; Chang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Significance The domestication of the horse revolutionized warfare, trade, and the exchange of people and ideas. This at least 5,500-y-long process, which ultimately transformed wild horses into the hundreds of breeds living today, is difficult to reconstruct from archeological data and modern ge...

  7. Stable Isotopic Shifts in Fish Bones from Multiple Archeological Coastal Middens in Penobscot Bay, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C.; Johnson, B.; Ambrose, W. G.; Bourque, B.; Dostie, P.; Crowley, E.

    2010-12-01

    The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions of collagen extracted from well-preserved archeological fish bones has the potential to provide useful information on fish diets and food web dynamics over time. Previous work on the Turner Farm archaeological site in Penobscot Bay, Gulf of Maine, reveals significant shifts in fish diets have occurred since European colonization (post 1620’s). The objective of the present study was to analyze samples from other archaeological sites within Penobscot Bay to characterize the spatial extent of the isotopic shift measured at Turner Farm. Stratified cod, flounder, and sculpin bones were analyzed from eight coastal middens located approximately 50km apart from one another within Penobscot Bay. The bones were sampled from three time horizons (0kya, 0.5-1kya, and 2.2-2.4kya). All bone samples were demineralized in 0.2M HCl at 4°C for 2 to 7 days and then extracted in 0.25M NaOH at 4°C for 1 to 2 hours. After freeze-drying, the bulk isotopic composition of each sample was analyzed using the EA-IRMS. In all stratigraphic horizons analyzed, cod were more enriched in δ13C and δ15N than sculpin, and flounder were the most depleted in δ13C and δ15N . However, the isotopic offsets between the fish species decreased from 2.4kya to the present. The nitrogen isotope composition was relatively constant over time and space for all species, implying that trophic levels for the fishes analyzed have not changed significantly in Penobscot Bay for the last 2,400 years. The carbon isotope composition also appears to be constant spatially in Penobscot Bay, however, the modern signal was more depleted than the paleo signal in all three species. The difference between the modern and paleo δ13C is ~5‰ for cod and flounder, and ~9‰ for sculpin. These shifts may, in part, be explained by decreases in both primary producer and prey species diversity, as kelp forests replace eelgrass beds in the Gulf of Maine.

  8. Southwestern Alaska archeological survey, Kagati Lake, Kisarilik-Kwethluk Rivers: A final research report to the National Geographic Society

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Discusses archeological survey of the east of Kagati Lake to Nenevok Lake, north to Trail Creek and Kwethluk River valleys, west along the Kwethluk and Kisaralik...

  9. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  10. Data Related to Late Quaternary Surface Faulting on the Sangre de Cristo Fault, Rito Seco Site, Costilla County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Mahan, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we present detailed maps of the trenches and a compilation of field and laboratory data used to support our interpretation of the history of four (PE1-PE4) prehistoric surface-faulting earthquakes at this site.

  11. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Bossier and Webster Parishes, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-06

    Ammunition Plant .... ............ .. 1-5 1.4 The Sociocultural Context of the Archeological Resources on the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant...PLAN FOR THE LOUISIANA ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT ..... ................ 6-1 6.1 Facility Master Plans and Proposed Impacts ....... . 6-1 6.2 Appropriate...maintained by the Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism , Division of Archeology and Historic Preservation (State Archeologist’s Office), Baton Rouge

  12. Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2003-01-01

    A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

  13. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Salomon, H.; Lahlil, S.; Lebon, M.; Odin, G. P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L.

    2012-02-01

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave "La grotte du Renne" in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000-34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe-K or Mn-K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  14. Prehistoric (Chalcolithic) Eastern Mediterranean tsunami deposit identified offshore central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyuleneva, Natalia; Braun, Yael; Suchkov, Igor; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2017-04-01

    The shallow shelf area ( 15-30 m water depth) offshore Israel, bears great potential for paleo-tsunami studies. It was shown in the course of previous research that in these offshore marine deposits, tsunami generated sedimentary layers can be well preserved and readily identified; unlike in onshore sedimentary sequences, which experience continuous exogenous natural and anthropogenic influence. A sediment core, 219 cm long, was obtained from 15.3 m water depth, in about 4 km north of Caesarea. Grain size at 1 cm interval as well as XRD and XRF analyses at coarser resolution were performed. Previously carried out research allowed correlation of two anomalous layers in this core with well described sediment sequences offshore Caesarea. These two events correspond best with the proposed events of 749 AD and 1500 BC. Identified unusual layers in this core bear certain set of proxies that are characteristic for tsunami generated deposits and easily distinguished from the local normal marine setting. The latter is characterized by three dominating mineralogical components, such as carbonaceous sand derived either from biogenic material, namely shell fragments or from eroded limestones and dolomites that outcrop the mountains to the east; siliciclastic quartz for the sand fraction and mineral smectite for the clays. The supply of the two latter terrigenous sedimentary components comes from the Nile River, which has been a stable and predominant source of sediments for the past 8 ka. The aim of this study is to characterize the earliest unusual sedimentary layer found down core between 191 and 211 cm. This layer was attributed to a tsunami-generated sedimentary sequence in the studied core. Absolute age determination based on 14C gave the time frame from 5.6 to 6 ka BP, making this event the oldest identified in the Eastern Mediterranean to date. This tsunami corresponds to the Chalcolithic ('Copper Age') cultural period of the region. Prehistoric age of these sediments

  15. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Saginaw Army Aircraft Plant, Tarrant County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-28

    Frank. 1975. Texas Plants - A Checklist and Ecological Suhmary. College Station: The Texas A & M University System, The Texas * -’.’Agriculture...the University of Texas Bulletin 3232. Simpson, G. G. 1941. Large Pleistocene Felines of North America. American Museum Noviatiates, No. 1136:19-27...Alternative View of Their Environment and Ecology . In Contemyorary Archeology, edited by Mark P. Leone, pp. 206-291. Carbondale, Edwardsville: Southern

  16. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Lima Army Tank Plant, Allen County, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-11

    and archival research; administration; museology ; teaching; and historical archeology. He has held administrative positions since 1951 with federal...social differentiation, and the effects of the Hopewell Interaction Sphere *. during the Middle Woodland; and the supposed increase of egalitarianism, yet...Archaic Hunters of the Upper Ohio Valley. Carnegie Museum Annals XXmV:139-246. 1963. Mounds for the Dead: An Analysis of the Adena Culture. Annals of

  17. Bacterial Deposition of Gold on Hair: Archeological, Forensic and Toxicological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Genevieve Phillips; Frank Reith; Clifford Qualls; Abdul-Mehdi Ali; Mike Spilde; Otto Appenzeller

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trace metal analyses in hair are used in archeological, forensic and toxicological investigations as proxies for metabolic processes. We show metallophilic bacteria mediating the deposition of gold (Au), used as tracer for microbial activity in hair post mortem after burial, affecting results of such analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human hair was incubated for up to six months in auriferous soils, in natural soil columns (Experiment 1), soils amended with mobile Au(III)-...

  18. 3D DOCUMENTATION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL REMAINS IN THE UNDERWATER PARK OF BAIAE

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, F; A. Lagudi; Gallo, A.; M. Muzzupappa; Davidde Petriaggi, B.; S. Passaro

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents some experimentations, which have been conducted in the submerged archeological Park of Baiae, aimed to identify the problems related to the underwater 3D documentation process. The first test has been addressed to verify if a dense stereo mapping technique, usually employed in terrestrial and aerial applications, might be employed in critical underwater conditions by assessing the influence of different factors on the results. In the second test, the accuracy of the 3D mo...

  19. Mundane two-dimensions on Coke side of life: an archeological photoethnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Societies are rebuilding themselves systemically in the symbolic universe generated by the integration of the processes of globalization. The context, coupled with mass culture, promoted brands the complex cultural symbols. Inspired by Foucault’s archeology, this photoethnographic study revealed ordering the discursive field of a global brand presence in everyday practices. The discursive formations are pointed governed by two general rules: rhetoric and dialectic.

  20. The rehydroxylation dating of archeological baked-clay artifacts for determination paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Georgii; Gareev, Bulat; Nourgaliev, Danis; Fedorchenko, Diana

    2016-04-01

    If confirmed, the rehydroxylation dating method proposed by Wilson et al. would be a major achievement for archeological and geological sciences. This method would indeed make it possible to date potentially all fired-clay artifacts (fragments of pottery or of architectural bricks) unearthed in excavation contexts and/or recovered from old buildings, offering to archeologists exceptional time constraints that are at the basis of most archeological issues. Together with that, determination of magnetic characteristics of fired-clay artifacts allows to build paleosecular variations. We present new results obtained from thermo-gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry measurements coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to identify rehydroxylation water and link it with age of ceramic. A variety of archeological artifacts was collected from different excavations conducted on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. Magnetic measurements include thermomagnetic analysis, coercitive spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility measurement versus temperature. Paleomagnetic studies include measurement of paleointensity. The main aim of paleomagnetic investigations is to reconstruct magnetic field behavior during last centuries and made paleosecular variations (PSV) for Volga region.

  1. Archeological Testing at at the Fairchild Site (LA 45732) Otero County, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-11

    granitic, technically they are Monzonites, and contain more Plagio - clase Feldspar than Quartz. Therefore these rocks are mineralogically different...poorly developed Microperthite may be present. Rock #1 is rhyolitic and consists of anhedral Quartz and some Plagio - clase in an altered...quartzite. Rock #2 is andesitic and consists of Plagio - clase microlites with interstitial opaques. The Microperthite in this slide is heavily altered

  2. Spatial Variability of Soil Properties in Archeological Dark Earth Sites under Cacao Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Marcelo Pinheiro da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soils with an A horizon formed by human activity, an anthropogenic A horizon, are found in the Amazon Region. Few studies have examined the spatial distribution of the properties of these soils. We mapped the spatial variability of some soil properties in an area of Archaeological Dark Earth (ADE in the Brazilian Amazon. A sampling grid was defined over an area of 42 × 88 m under cacao cultivation in which sampling points were established at a spacing of 6 × 8 m, for a total of 88 points. Samples were collected from the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m depth layers. Soil texture, aggregate stability, and organic carbon (OC analyses were performed on disturbed soil samples. Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil macroporosity (Macro, microporosity (Micro, total porosity (TP, and soil resistance to penetration (RP. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistic, Pearson correlation (p<0.01, and geostatistics. Soil bulk density, total pore volume, and geometric mean diameter are dependent on the total amount of OC in the ADE area. Increased soil bulk density and RP are proportional to a decrease in OC content and lower Micro and TP. Moreover, soil resistance to penetration is influenced by soil water and clay content with depth.

  3. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fernandes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde, a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Although neither parasite burden nor prevalence rates could be measured, the abundance of human intestinal parasite eggs indicated a high infection rate in the village residents, reflecting very poor sanitation.

  4. Regional Analysis of Historic Farmstead Archeological Site Characteristics on DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    small timbers were built into worm - or snake-like fencing around the workspace or agricultural fields. ERDC/CERL TR-14-11 55 Because fences were...diameter 10. Depression or hole – no bottom discernible with equipment available at the time, 50 cm in diameter 11. Berm – 1 m tall, 1.5 x 2 m in...excavations. There were, however, no piles of dirt (fresh or eroded) near these holes and depressions that would indicate that the excavation had

  5. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Fernandes; Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves; Françoise Bouchet; Carlos Henrique Klein; Takumi Iguchi; Luciana Sianto; Adauto Araujo

    2005-01-01

    Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde), a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Althou...

  6. Archeological Testing of Sites 32CS42 and 32CS44, Cass County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Montgomery 1908). Noted North Dakota historian Orin G. Libby mapped burial mounds on the Forest River in the extreme eastern portion of the state at the...assessment. Journal of the North5 Dakota Archaeological Association 1:136-166. Thompson, Ralph S. 1983 The Edgar L. Bayley Collection. North Dakota

  7. Archeological and Historical Investigations Old Forsyth Site (23TA41) Taney County, Missouri,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    various of the soldiers ( Dornbusch 1961, 1962; Ware 1907: 229-43; Osborne 1952-53: 110-13; Stanley 1917: 70-72; and DuBois 1966: 454-56), and memoirs...Bulletin of the Oklahna Anthropological Society 29:103-142. Dornbusch , C.E. 1961- Regiimental Publications & Personal Narratives of the Civil War; A 62

  8. 3D reconstruction and digitalization of an archeological site, Itanos, Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Ercek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The city of Itanos is situated in the North-East of Crete. Between 1994 and 2005, the French School of Archaeology at Athens (Efa and the Center for Mediterranean Studies in Rethymnon carried out excavation campaigns during which a necropolis and an Archaic building have been explored by a team of the CReA. A very close collaboration between archeologists, engineers and computer graphic designers allowed the 3D reconstruction of these remains. The archeologist was able to directly verify his hypotheses during the reconstruction process. In summer 2007 and 2008, a 3D digitalization of Itanos was made in order to insert the 3D reconstructions into the actual landscape.

  9. Archeological Survey of the New House Site, Harlem Plantation, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-05

    Margaretta Smith, Mary Blake, Helen Maria , and Theodora Wederstrandt, who were noted as all being under the age of puberty at that time. In addition...York: Tudor - Publishing Company. Ray, Marcia 1974 Collectible Ceramics. Crown Publishers, Inc., New York. Roland, Charles P. 1957 Difficulties of Civil

  10. Ancient DNA from nomads in 2500-year-old archeological sites of Pengyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Li, Hong-Jie; Cai, Da-Wei; Li, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Quan-Chao; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2010-04-01

    Six human remains (dating approximately 2500 years ago) were excavated from Pengyang, China, an area occupied by both ancient nomadic and farming people. The funerary objects found with these remains suggested they were nomads. To further confirm their ancestry, we analyzed both the maternal lineages and paternal lineages of the ancient DNA. From the mitochondrial DNA, six haplotypes were identified as three haplogroups: C, D4 and M10. The haplotype-sharing populations and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these individuals were closely associated with the ancient Xiongnu and modern northern Asians. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of Y chromosomes from four male samples that were typed as haplogroup Q indicated that these people had originated in Siberia. These results show that these ancient people from Pengyang present a close genetic affinity to nomadic people, indicating that northern nomads had reached the Central Plain area of China nearly 2500 years ago.

  11. Geologic evidence for age of deposits at Hueyatlaco archeological site, Vasequillo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-McIntyre, Virginia; Fryxell, Roald; Malde, Harold E.

    1981-07-01

    Direct tracing of beds during excavation in May 1973, confirmed that the artifact-bearing layers at Hueyatlaco underlie 10 m of fine-grained, water-laid deposits that constitute part of the wide-spread Valsequillo gravels. Dissection of these deposits by the adjacent Río Atoyac has reached a depth of 50 m. The stratigraphic section at Hueyatlaco includes four distinctive tephra units. The oldest one occupies a small channel in a series of cut-and-fill stream deposits that have yielded bifacial tools. It lies more than a meter above flat-lying, fine-grained beds from which edge-retouched tools have been recovered. The three other tephra units occur higher in the section. Fission-track ages on zircon phenocrysts from two of the younger tephra layers (370,000 ± 200,000 and 600,000 ± 340,000 yr, 2σ) agree with concordant uranium-series dates for a camel pelvis that was found associated with bifacial tools at Hueyatlaco (245,000 ± 40,000 yr by 230Th and > 180,000 yr by 231Pa). These dates are compatible with the depth of burial and subsequent dissection of the Hueyatlaco deposits, as well as with the degree of hydration of volcanic glass shards and with the extent of etching of heavy-mineral phenocrysts from within the tephra layers. These findings suggest to us that further search for archaeological remains in deposits as old as those at Hueyatlaco would be warranted.

  12. A Reassessment of Certain Archeological Sites in the Candy Lake Area, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Differences 108 10. LITHIC ANALYSIS OF Os-155 - Ill Functional Analysis 112 Typological Tool Classes 112 Edge Damage 112 Flake Type — 119...138 Summary of Lithic Analysis 139 n Chapter Page 11. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS by Charles D. Cheek 140 Os-149 and Os-153 140 Os-155 140...source of raw material and not to the form of flake detachment. I I Summary of Lithic Analysis The analysis of the lithics from Os-155 has explored

  13. X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescent Analyses of Prehistoric Pottery Shards from Ulu Kelantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF were used in order to obtain mineralogical and elemental composition of seven pottery shards that have been unearthed during the excavation at Peraling Cave and Cha Cave in Ulu Kelantan, Malaysia. Approach: Peraling Cave and Cha Cave were prehistoric sites dating from 10, 000 BC which were inhabited by Hoabinhian people and then continuously used by people of Neolithic culture around 3000 BC. Results: Mineralogical and elemental analyses were carried out to determine whether the pottery found in the archaeological sites was locally made or trading items. Several clay samples from rivers in Ulu Kelantan such as Perias River, Chai River, Peralon River, Nenggiri River, Betis River and Jenera River were taken to be analysed. Conclusion/Recommendations: Mineralogical and elemental content of the pottery shards showed that the pottery shards did not originate from the Ulu Kelantan area and one of the samples contained clinochlore mineral. Clinochlore forms from the metamorphic and hydrothermal alterations of other iron and magnesium silicate minerals and is usually found in igneus rock and metamorphic rock formation.

  14. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R. (ed.)

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites. (DLC)

  15. Pine Mountain Revisited: An Archeological Study in the Arkansas Ozarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    which show growth rings indicative of mortality peaks in those seasons. Again this problem may be based on an incorrect presumption, and it probably...subsistence (such as seeds and small animal remains). Shell remains and fish bones could be subjected to mortality /seasonality analyses. Some of these data...site forms, National i i Register forms, data analysisi I forms, maps (final form) and f preparation of material for ! cura tion. ; { Report

  16. The Border Star 85 Survey: Toward an Archeology of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-12

    selected because All samples were powdered prior to XRF analysis to ho- it is capable of classifying unknown observations into known mogenize them and...their concomitant XRF values. In ad- populations by considering all known variables and their dition. powdering provides a relatively uniform target...Revised Edition). New 1968 Test Excavations at the Nopal Terrace Site: Val Mexico State Planning Office, Santa Fe. Verde County Texas. Papers of the

  17. Archeological Testing Fort Hood: 1994-1995, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    adjacent to the city of Killeen (Figure 2.1) and Basin subsided in the Miocene, severe, extensive encompasses an area of approximately 878 km2 stresses ...Mesquite ( Prosopis glandulosa), typical of areas to the west of the * fort, also occurs in relatively low numbers. • Riparian habitats support a...not further mapped or were partially mapped. plastic bag with an acid-free, archivally stable tag On each site, a 5/8-inch iron rod was established as

  18. Archaeological Inventory and Testing of Prehistoric Habitation Sites, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    10 S 7 44 11 10 9 71 12 9 8 57 13 8 6 38 45-OK-244 1 5 4 16 2 6 4 19 LC -- 4 05 4 1 3 5 4 16 4 -OK-245 17633 .\\ 45-OK-246 1 12 8 75 -. 2 11 6 52 45-OK...48.0 16.0 V max 260.0 78.0 6.0 170.0 121.0 196.0 1900 106.0 133.0 0.0 68.0 20.0 n 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2mea 2.0 41.0 41.0 63.0 43.0 148.0 146.0

  19. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xinxin Zuo; Houyuan Lu; Jianping Zhang; Can Wang; Guoping Sun; Yunfei Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may prov...

  20. New evidence for the catastrophic demise of a prehistoric settlement (the Lajia Ruins) in the Guanting Basin, upper Yellow River, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Chun Chang; Zheng, Zixing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Yuzhu; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The Lajia Ruins in the Guanting Basin, NW China, are a product of the prehistoric Qijia Culture. Like Pompeii, they are a rare example of an archaeological site preserved by a natural disaster and are therefore important in archaeology, anthropology and geology. However, the nature of the disaster(s) responsible for the destruction of the site remains controversial. Most studies have focused on an earthquake and a red clay layer directly overlying the site and a detailed stratigraphic study of the mid-Holocene sedimentary strata combined with other intervals of red clay deposition (hence possible disasters) is lacking. We identified a mid-Holocene paleosol sequence (the Shanglajia section) at the site which contains two layers of red clay, dated to 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, intercalated within the mid-Holocene paleosol (S0). Subsequent multi-proxy analysis indicated that the characteristics of the two red clay layers resemble those of typical Tertiary red clay deposits and the modern gully deposit at the foot of the Great Red Hills, but are distinctly different from those of the slackwater deposits of the Yellow River and the mid-Holocene paleosol. Our results suggest that, at 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, two large-scale rainstorm-induced mudflow events, originating from the gullies to the north, flooded the Lajia area on the second terrace of the Yellow River, devastating and burying the human settlements. We infer that the intensified erosion and mass wasting were caused by human activity; in addition, natural factors such as rainstorms and earthquakes, may also have played an important role in triggering catastrophic mudflow events in the Tertiary Red Clay deposits. Overall, our results provide further insights into prehistoric man-land relationships in this environmentally sensitive region which may have implications for modern land use in this region of China and elsewhere.

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2017-03-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2016-05-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  3. Phytoliths in pottery reveal the use of spice in European prehistoric cuisine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Saul

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb Cavara & Grande. As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste.

  4. Phytoliths in pottery reveal the use of spice in European prehistoric cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Hayley; Madella, Marco; Fischer, Anders; Glykou, Aikaterini; Hartz, Sönke; Craig, Oliver E

    2013-01-01

    Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste.

  5. The Lost Worlds of Messmore & Damon: Science, Spectacle & Prehistoric Monsters in early-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2016-09-01

    In 1924, the model-making company Messmore & Damon, Inc. of New York unleashed their masterpiece: the Amphibious Dinosaurus Brontosaurus, a moving, breathing, roaring animatronic dinosaur, based on displays in the American Museum of Natural History. Over the 1920s and 1930s, this became the focus of an ever-increasing publicity campaign, as Messmore & Damon exhibited prehistoric automata in department stores, the media, and the Chicago World Fair of 1933-34. These displays were hugely popular and widely discussed, drawing from the increasing public appeal of paleontology. Mixing commercial entertainment with invocations of scientific value, Messmore & Damon's prehistoric creations offer a window into the meaning and popularity of the deep time sciences in early-twentieth century America, and the links between science and spectacle in this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of prehistoric cooking practices on paleoenvironmental proxies in shell midden constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Peter; Staudigel, Philip; Murray, Sean T.; Westphal, Hildegard; Swart, Peter K.

    2016-04-01

    Paleoenvironmental proxy records such as oxygen isotopes of calcareous skeletal structures like fish otoliths or mollusk shells provide highest-resolution information about environmental conditions experienced by the organism. Accumulations of such skeletal structures by ancient coastal populations in so called "shell midden" deposits provide us with sub-seasonally resolved paleoclimate records covering time spans up to several millennia. Given their high temporal resolution, these deposits are increasingly used for paleoclimate reconstructions and complement our understanding of ancient climate changes. However, gathered as comestibles, most of these skeletal remains were subject to prehistoric cooking methods prior to deposition. The associated alteration of the chemical proxy signatures as well as the subsequent error for paleoenvironmental reconstructions remained almost entirely neglected so far. Here, we present clumped isotope, conventional oxygen and carbon isotopes as well as element:Ca ratios measured in modern bivalve shells after exposing them to different prehistoric cooking methods. Our data show that most cooking methods considerably alter commonly used paleoclimate proxy systems which can lead to substantial misinterpretations of ancient climate conditions. Since the magnitude of chemical alteration is not distinguishable from natural temperature variability in most coastal settings, the alteration of shell midden constituents by prehistoric cooking remains likely unnoticed in most cases. Thus, depending on the cooking method, pre-depositional heating might have introduced considerable errors into previous paleoclimate studies. However, our data also show that clumped isotope thermometry represents a suitable diagnostic tool to detect such pre-depositional cooking events and also allows differentiating between the most commonly applied prehistoric cooking methods.

  7. GIS based reconstruction of the prehistoric communities' territories of the northern and central Velebit Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedrana Glavaš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for reconstructing prehistoric territories implementing the geographic information systems (GIS is presented in this article. We focused our research on Iron Age communities of northern and central Velebit Mountain (Croatia, but traces of their territorial extent are very scarce or nonexistent. Territories of the communities in question were modeled using GIS according to the relief characteristics and the time scale of a two-hour walk from the central hill forts using Tobler’s Hiking Equation.

  8. Craniometric variation and homogeneity in prehistoric/protohistoric Rapa Nui (Easter Island) regional populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V H

    1999-12-01

    Discrete cranial morphological traits of prehistoric/protohistoric Rapa Nui (Easter Island) inhabitants have been examined and have illustrated distinct regional or tribal differences; however, craniometric traits have not been as extensively evaluated to determine if similar regional population differences exist. This study examines the range of variability of Rapa Nui craniometrics and utilizes population genetic techniques to evaluate the level of homogeneity/heterogeneity within the island populations. The data consist of 50 cranio-facial measurements of Rapanui (Easter Islanders) skeletal material from the Late Prehistoric (1680-1722) and Protohistoric (1722-1868) periods. The sample was divided into five tribal regions: North, Northeast, South, Southwest, and West. General linear models (GLM) statistical analyses revealed one variable significant for males and 10 for females across tribal regions, totaling 11 regionally significant variables. Discriminant function analyses utilizing crossvalidation provided classification error rates of 55.8% males and 59.0% for females when utilizing those eleven significant variables. Minimum F(ST) values for males (0.06378) and females (0.09409) were calculated from unbiased Mahalanobis D(2) values. These values indicate that males have greater between-group homogeneity than females. The determinant ratio for the Northeast tribal region was the only significant ratio, yet all but one of the regional determinant ratios displayed a pattern of greater male than female mobility. These results indicate that significant craniometric differences between the tribal regions did not exist in prehistoric/protohistoric Rapa Nui populations, supporting the findings of previous research which has documented the homogeneity of the craniometrics of those tribal populations. The calculated minimum F(ST) values indicate the existence of different levels of heterogeneity between the male and female Rapa Nui regional populations resulting

  9. A Dynamical Analysis of the Suitability of Prehistoric Spheroids from the Cave of Hearths as Thrown Projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew D; Zhu, Qin; Barham, Lawrence; Stanistreet, Ian; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-10

    Spheroids are ball-shaped stone objects found in African archaeological sites dating from 1.8 million years ago (Early Stone Age) to at least 70,000 years ago (Middle Stone Age). Spheroids are either fabricated or naturally shaped stones selected and transported to places of use making them one of the longest-used technologies on record. Most hypotheses about their use suggest they were percussive tools for shaping or grinding other materials. However, their size and spherical shape make them potentially useful as projectile weapons, a property that, uniquely, humans have been specialised to exploit for millions of years. Here we show (using simulations of projectile motions resulting from human throwing) that 81% of a sample of spheroids from the late Acheulean (Bed 3) at the Cave of Hearths, South Africa afford being thrown so as to inflict worthwhile damage to a medium-sized animal over distances up to 25 m. Most of the objects have weights that produce optimal levels of damage from throwing, rather than simply being as heavy as possible (as would suit other functions). Our results show that these objects were eminently suitable for throwing, and demonstrate how empirical research on behavioural tasks can inform and constrain our theories about prehistoric artefacts.

  10. Small scattered fragments do not a dwarf make: biological and archaeological data indicate that prehistoric inhabitants of Palau were normal sized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Current archaeological evidence from Palau in western Micronesia indicates that the archipelago was settled around 3000-3300 BP by normal sized populations; contrary to recent claims, they did not succumb to insular dwarfism. BACKGROUND: Previous and ongoing archaeological research of both human burial and occupation sites throughout the Palauan archipelago during the last 50 years has produced a robust data set to test hypotheses regarding initial colonization and subsequent adaptations over the past three millennia. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Close examination of human burials at the early (ca. 3000 BP and stratified site of Chelechol ra Orrak indicates that these were normal sized individuals. This is contrary to the recent claim of contemporaneous "small-bodied" individuals found at two cave sites by Berger et al. (2008. As we argue, their analyses are flawed on a number of different analytical levels. First, their sample size is too small and fragmentary to adequately address the variation inherent in modern humans within and outside of Palau. Second, the size and stature of all other prehistoric (both older and contemporaneous skeletal assemblages found in Palau fall within the normal parameters of modern human variation in the region, indicating this was not a case of insular dwarfism or a separate migratory group. Third, measurements taken on several skeletal elements by Berger et al. may appear to be from smaller-bodied individuals, but the sizes of these people compares well with samples from Chelechol ra Orrak. Last, archaeological, linguistic, and historical evidence demonstrates a great deal of cultural continuity in Palau through time as expected if the same population was inhabiting the archipelago. CONCLUSIONS: Prehistoric Palauan populations were normal sized and exhibit traits that fall within the normal variation for Homo sapiens-they do not support the claims by Berger et al. (2008 that there were smaller

  11. Investigations at Site 32 (41EP325), Keystone Dam Project. A Multicomponent Archeological Site in Western El Paso County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Component 3 Component 3 refers to occupations which postdate the accumulation of the dense trac - tured rock scatters in Units I and 2 and predate the...illor I m )t I ŕ 1oi ca Il vtt ’ I’rna cIc, e1qe-rtc-cl ",1 1- t a -i , tir IM,𔄁ta’. tc- I 4 e op T-d Il- 3>. however, (_)( I-t~-vrll’ -I it’ j S. -it

  12. Cultural Resources Reconnaissance in Dewey County, South Dakota from Below the Moreau River to the Forest City Recreation Area. Volume 2: Support Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Activity areas Lithic analysis Paleoenvironment Stratified deposits Trade NATIONAL REGISTER ELIGIBILITY ’N’ ’P’ ’E’ ’R’ NOT KNOWN LITHICS DEBITAGE...specifically Clovis], historic Native American cultures of the Plains, and lithic analysis . Hannus has accomplished cultural and archeological...in the field of prehistoric archeology - including stone circle sites and lithic analysis . Edward J. Lueck - Co-Project Director Lueck has petformed

  13. Post-invasion demography of prehistoric humans in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Amy; Mychajliw, Alexis M; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-14

    As the last habitable continent colonized by humans, the site of multiple domestication hotspots, and the location of the largest Pleistocene megafaunal extinction, South America is central to human prehistory. Yet remarkably little is known about human population dynamics during colonization, subsequent expansions, and domestication. Here we reconstruct the spatiotemporal patterns of human population growth in South America using a newly aggregated database of 1,147 archaeological sites and 5,464 calibrated radiocarbon dates spanning fourteen thousand to two thousand years ago (ka). We demonstrate that, rather than a steady exponential expansion, the demographic history of South Americans is characterized by two distinct phases. First, humans spread rapidly throughout the continent, but remained at low population sizes for 8,000 years, including a 4,000-year period of 'boom-and-bust' oscillations with no net growth. Supplementation of hunting with domesticated crops and animals had a minimal impact on population carrying capacity. Only with widespread sedentism, beginning ~5 ka, did a second demographic phase begin, with evidence for exponential population growth in cultural hotspots, characteristic of the Neolithic transition worldwide. The unique extent of humanity's ability to modify its environment to markedly increase carrying capacity in South America is therefore an unexpectedly recent phenomenon.

  14. Cooperation, collective action, and the archeology of large-scale societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, David M; Feinman, Gary M

    2016-11-01

    Archeologists investigating the emergence of large-scale societies in the past have renewed interest in examining the dynamics of cooperation as a means of understanding societal change and organizational variability within human groups over time. Unlike earlier approaches to these issues, which used models designated voluntaristic or managerial, contemporary research articulates more explicitly with frameworks for cooperation and collective action used in other fields, thereby facilitating empirical testing through better definition of the costs, benefits, and social mechanisms associated with success or failure in coordinated group action. Current scholarship is nevertheless bifurcated along lines of epistemology and scale, which is understandable but problematic for forging a broader, more transdisciplinary field of cooperation studies. Here, we point to some areas of potential overlap by reviewing archeological research that places the dynamics of social cooperation and competition in the foreground of the emergence of large-scale societies, which we define as those having larger populations, greater concentrations of political power, and higher degrees of social inequality. We focus on key issues involving the communal-resource management of subsistence and other economic goods, as well as the revenue flows that undergird political institutions. Drawing on archeological cases from across the globe, with greater detail from our area of expertise in Mesoamerica, we offer suggestions for strengthening analytical methods and generating more transdisciplinary research programs that address human societies across scalar and temporal spectra. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Approaches and new data on the interpretation of prehistoric landscapes from the River Tagus sector of Extremadura (Spain: the Alconétar area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique CERRILLO CUENCA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement of the inner area of Tagus at Extremadura region (Spain was often defined by the megalithic tombs spread along the region. In the present time some statements about the territorial behaviour of prehistoric societies are being revised, and consequently the landscape dimension of megalithic sites. In this context we present the preliminary results of a research project focused on the surface survey of the margins of Tagus River, where we have been working in two different, but near, sectors. In this paper we present an assessment of the first results of the surveys, that have varied the picture of an area just defined by the presence of megalithic tombs.

  16. Accelerator radiocarbon dating of evidence for prehistoric horticulture in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, N. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Anthropology; Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Asch, D.L.; Asch, N.B. (Center for American Archeology, Kampsville, ILL (USA). Archeobotanical Lab.)

    1984-03-29

    The authors have now used direct detection radiocarbon dating (which uses an accelerator as part of a highly selective mass spectrometer) to date small samples of carbonized, cultivated plant remains from archaeological sites in Illinois. The results, reported here, establish (1) that squash was introduced by 7,000 yr ago, 2,500 yr before eastern North American records previously reported; (2) that horticulture involving indigenous plants had begun by 4,000 BP in eastern North American with domestication of Iva annua, a small-seeded annual; (3) that anomalous discoveries of Archaic period maize represent contaminants; and (4) that introduction of maize by initial Middle Woodland times (approx. 2,000 BP) is questionable.

  17. Accelerator radiocarbon dating of evidence for prehistoric horticulture in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, N.; Asch, D.L.; Asch, N.B.; Elmore, D.; Gove, H.; Rubin, M.; Brown, J.A.; Wiant, M.D.; Farnsworth, K.B.; Cook, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of direct detection radiocarbon dating, which uses an accelerator as part of a highly selective mass spectrometer, it is now possible to determine the age of milligram samples of organic materials1-5. One application of accelerator dating is in evaluating scanty, sometimes controversial evidence for early horticulture throughout the world. We have now used the technique to date small samples of carbonized, cultivated plant remains from archaeological sites in Illinois. The results, reported here, establish (1) that squash was introduced by 7,000 yr ago, 2,500 yr before eastern North American records previously reported; (2) that horticulture involving indigenous plants had begun by 4,000 BP in eastern North America with domestication of Iva annua, a small-seeded annual; (3) that anomalous discoveries of Archaic period maize represent contaminants; and (4) that introduction of maize by initial Middle Woodland times (~2,000 BP) is questionable.

  18. The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the phenomenon of pits with special deposits, i.e. ritual pits, seems to have, once again, attracted attention both in Europe and in the Balkans. In the central Balkans, scientific literature related to this topic is still deficient, hence one of the objectives of this paper is to change the current state and rekindle interest in the study of this form of manifestation of the spiritual culture of prehistoric man. It appears that one of the oldest reasons for sacrificial offerings is primal, instinctive fear. The fear of the transience of life or of death compelled our ancient ancestors to make some sort of “agreement” with the surrounding forces, bestowing particular sacrifices onto them. Sacrifice represents one of the rituals of prehistoric communities which could have been performed in a number of ways and in different circumstances. One of these are offerings placed in pits, in the form of specific objects, food, drink or living beings sacrificed to higher powers and accompanied by certain symbolic actions, for the purpose of gaining their favour or help. When interpreting pits, what should further be considered is that the fundamental difference between a discarded object and an object used for a ritual purpose lies in the fact that the object of ritual character is still meaningful to man, performing a symbolic function, unlike the former, whose role is lost after being disposed of. Aritual object, an item or a living being sacrificed in a pit, is no longer of common, worldly significance (food, drink, tools, etc., but rather possesses a symbolic, sacral meaning, intended for higher powers, to propitiate and appease them, that is to create some form of the oldest religious communication. Not only is it difficult to identify the pits used for ritual purposes in the course of fieldwork, but it is even more challenging to interpret them and practically impossible to accurately reconstruct the actions performed during the

  19. Obsidian hydration rate for the klamath basin of california and Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L

    1969-09-26

    A hydration rate for obsidian of 3.5(4) microns squared per 1000 radio-carbon years has been established at the Nightfire Island archeological site in northern California and provides a means to date other prehistoric Klamath Basin sites. The new rate follows the form of the hydration equation formulated by Friedman and helps to refute claims made for other hydration equations.

  20. Evaluative Testing of 5LA3421: A Multicomponent Prehistoric and Historic Site, Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    thistle), Brassicaceae (Mustard Family), Cyperaceae ( Sedge Family), Ephedra (joint fir), Eriogonum (desert buckwheat), Fabaceae (Bean Family...Family Cheno-Am Goosefoot, Pigweed Cyperaceae Sedge Family Ephedra nevadensis-type Joint Fir, Mormon Tea Ephedra torreyana-type Joint Fir, Mormon Tea...sping Asteraceae, Cyperaceae , Eriogonum, Fabaceae, Platyopuntia, Polygonaceae, Typha and Yucca, while arboreal taxa are represented by Picea, Quercus, and

  1. Porphyrins as Theranostic Agents from Prehistoric to Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiao Zhang, Jonathan F. Lovell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long before humans roamed the planet, porphyrins in blood were serving not only as indispensable oxygen carriers, but also as the bright red contrast agent that unmistakably indicates injury sites. They have proven valuable as whole body imaging modalities have emerged, with endogenous hemoglobin porphyrins being used for new approaches such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and photoacoustic imaging. With the capability for both near infrared fluorescence imaging and phototherapy, porphyrins were the first exogenous agents that were employed with intrinsic multimodal theranostic character. Porphyrins have been used as tumor-specific diagnostic fluorescence imaging agents since 1924, as positron emission agents since 1951, and as magnetic resonance (MR contrast agents since 1987. Exogenous porphyrins remain in clinical use for photodynamic therapy. Because they can chelate a wide range of metals, exogenous porphyrins have demonstrated potential for use in radiotherapy and multimodal imaging modalities. Going forward, intrinsic porphyrin biocompatibility and multimodality will keep new applications of this class of molecules at the forefront of theranostic research.

  2. Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in highland New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Simon G

    2007-02-28

    In the highlands of New Guinea, the development of agriculture as an indigenous innovation during the Early Holocene is considered to have resulted in rapid loss of forest cover, a decrease in forest biodiversity and increased land degradation over thousands of years. But how important is human activity in shaping the diversity of vegetation communities over millennial time-scales? An evaluation of the change in biodiversity of forest habitats through the Late Glacial transition to the present in five palaeoecological sites from highland valleys, where intensive agriculture is practised today, is presented. A detailed analysis of the longest and most continuous record from Papua New Guinea is also presented using available biodiversity indices (palynological richness and biodiversity indicator taxa) as a means of identifying changes in diversity. The analysis shows that the collapse of key forest habitats in the highland valleys is evident during the Mid - Late Holocene. These changes are best explained by the adoption of new land management practices and altered disturbance regimes associated with agricultural activity, though climate change may also play a role. The implications of these findings for ecosystem conservation and sustainability of agriculture in New Guinea are discussed.

  3. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  4. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clio Der Sarkissian

    Full Text Available North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present. We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a, a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population

  5. Investigating the Spatial Extent of a Barely Prehistoric Earthquake on the Bear River Normal Fault, Wyoming and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, S.; Schwartz, D. P.; Cinti, F. R.; Civico, R.; West, M. W.; Stoller, A. R.; DeLong, S.; Pickering, A.

    2016-12-01

    To better constrain the length of a young prehistoric (significantly post-AD 1630) surface-rupturing earthquake recently discovered near the south end of the Bear River normal fault in Utah (Hecker and Schwartz, 2015), we excavated a trench on a strand of the fault 25 km to the north in Wyoming, where previous work had found clear evidence of two older late Holocene events (West, 1993). These two events, which have been identified to the south as well, were interpreted as comprising the entire history of this very young fault. The new trench across the 5-m-high scarp at the northern site exposed a 6-m-wide zone of faulting and two packages of colluvial-wedge deposits, each tabular and 0.5-1 m thick. The colluvial deposits, which bury Pleistocene alluvial deposits that in turn overlie Eocene bedrock, appear correlative with West's two-event stratigraphy. In the latest trench, however, both wedges are faulted, with strands extending to the ground surface, evidence of a third, younger event. The amount of displacement in the most recent event (MRE) in the trench is small (few 10s of cm at most) and distributed and has resulted in only minor colluviation. The event record is complicated by a shallow slope failure in the soil A-horizon on the scarp that we interpret as possibly occurring during the MRE. The slide formed a head scarp at a location underlain by MRE faulting and built a low bench at least 100 m long on the surface below the scarp. We sampled buried in-place soil below the slide for radiocarbon analysis, which should allow age comparison with the earthquake identified farther south. Ultra-high-resolution topography from balloon photography and terrestrial lidar enable detailed morphologic study of surface processes and deformation at the site.

  6. Study of Evolution of Ball Game in Ancient China and Origin of Chuiwan--- Analysis of Archeology Data%中国古代球类活动演进与捶丸起源研究--兼具考古学资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔乐泉

    2016-01-01

    The history of ball game can date back to prehistoric times in the history of Chinese ancient sports .With the development of history and the progress of society ,many forms of ball games ,which evolve and expand from the stone ball in prehistoric times ,become the main members in the family of Chinese ancient sports .By analyzing the relevant archeology materials and historical documents ,this paper preliminarily studies the evolution of the main ball games ’ forms in Chinese ancient times ,and on this basis ,the paper overall researches the historical background and evolution process of the origin of Chuiwan .The author thinks that the stone ball in prehistoric times is the origin of ball games’ forms in Chinese ancient times ;Jiju ,which evolve from Cuju ,is the beginning of Chuiwan game’s form ;Budaqiu and Bangjiqiu ,which de-rived from Jiju ,are respectively the predecessor and rudiment of Chuiwan .%在中国古代体育史中,球类活动的历史可以追溯到史前时期。随着历史发展和社会进步,由史前石球演进和拓展而来的众多球类运动形式,成为了中国古代体育大家族的主体成员。通过对相关考古文物资料的分析,结合历史文献记载,对中国古代主要球类运动形式的演进进行了初步分析,并在此基础上对捶丸活动起源的历史背景和演进过程做出了整体探究。认为,史前时代的石球是古代球类运动形式之源;而由石球到蹴鞠直到演变而来的击鞠,则是捶丸活动形式之祖;由击鞠蜕变而成的步打球和棒击球,当为捶丸活动的前身和雏形。

  7. Human migration patterns in Yemen and implications for reconstructing prehistoric population movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida T Miró-Herrans

    Full Text Available Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102 and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing

  8. Human migration patterns in Yemen and implications for reconstructing prehistoric population movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Herrans, Aida T; Al-Meeri, Ali; Mulligan, Connie J

    2014-01-01

    Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation) or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102) and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km) for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing country and these

  9. Human Migration Patterns in Yemen and Implications for Reconstructing Prehistoric Population Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Herrans, Aida T.; Al-Meeri, Ali; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2014-01-01

    Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation) or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102) and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km) for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing country and these

  10. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves and Down-Hole Tests in the Archeological "Palatine Hill" Area (Rome, Italy): Evaluation and Influence of 2D Effects on the Shear Wave Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, V.; Cavuoto, G.; Tarallo, D.; Punzo, M.; Evangelista, L.

    2016-05-01

    A joint analysis of down-hole (DH) and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) measurements offers a complete evaluation of shear wave velocity profiles, especially for sites where a strong lateral variability is expected, such as archeological sites. In this complex stratigraphic setting, the high "subsoil anisotropy" (i.e., sharp lithological changes due to the presence of anthropogenic backfill deposits and/or buried man-made structures) implies a different role for DH and MASW tests. This paper discusses some results of a broad experimental program conducted on the Palatine Hill, one of the most ancient areas of the city of Rome (Italy). The experiments were part of a project on seismic microzoning and consisted of 20 MASW and 11 DH tests. The main objective of this study was to examine the difficulties related to the interpretation of the DH and MASW tests and the reliability limits inherent in the application of the noninvasive method in complex stratigraphic settings. As is well known, DH tests provide good determinations of shear wave velocities (Vs) for different lithologies and man-made materials, whereas MASW tests provide average values for the subsoil volume investigated. The data obtained from each method with blind tests were compared and were correlated to site-specific subsurface conditions, including lateral variability. Differences between punctual (DH) and global (MASW) Vs measurements are discussed, quantifying the errors by synthetic comparison and by site response analyses. This study demonstrates that, for archeological sites, VS profiles obtained from the DH and MASW methods differ by more than 15 %. However, the local site effect showed comparable results in terms of natural frequencies, whereas the resolution of the inverted shear wave velocity was influenced by the fundamental mode of propagation.

  11. Moroccan mitochondrial genetic background suggests prehistoric human migrations across the Gibraltar Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouda, Taha; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Gómez-Durán, Aurora; Elmtili, Noureddine; Idaomar, Mouhamed; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Montoya, Julio; López-Pérez, Manuel José; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2009-11-01

    Migrations into Africa from the Levant have greatly determined the mitochondrial genetic landscape of North Africa. After analyzing samples from North Morocco to Spain, we show that three fourths of the Moroccan individuals belong to Western Eurasian haplogroups and the frequencies of these are much more similar to those of the Iberian Peninsula than to those of the Middle East. This is particularly true for the mitochondrial haplogroups H1, H3 and V, which experienced a late-glacial expansion from this region, that repopulated much of Central and Northern Europe. Iberian Peninsula was also a source for prehistoric migrations to North Africa.

  12. Undersea archeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.R.

    Recent undersea archaeological studies carried out along the Indian Coasts are described. The major discovery elaborated is the submerged city of Dwaraka, a famous city of Mahabharata age. The author also expresses an opinion based on his discovery...

  13. Dating of prehistoric caves sediments and flints using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al in quartz from Tabun Cave (Israel): Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaretto, E. E-mail: elisa@wis.weizmann.ac.il; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hui, S.K.; Kaufman, A.; Paul, M.; Weiner, S

    2000-10-01

    There is an important need to develop additional dating methods beyond the {sup 14}C limit and independent of thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We propose to apply the method of burial dating to prehistoric sites using the decay of in situ produced radioisotopes {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al. The Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel (Israel) has a sedimentary sequence which represents the type section for about the last 800,000 years in the Levant. The sediments in the cave are mainly of aeolian origin and are rich in quartz. Flint tools are also found in the sediments. Sediment samples and flint tools were selected from the same layer. Physical and chemical procedures to extract {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al atoms from the quartz fraction of the sediments and from the flint samples were developed, while measuring the natural Al levels as a monitor of the atmospheric component of the cosmogenic nuclides. AMS measurements were performed at the 14UD Pelletron Koffler Accelerator Laboratory, Weizmann Institute, and sensitivities of the order of 1x10{sup -14}, in isotopic abundances for both {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al respectively (corresponding to {approx}5 x 10{sup 5} atoms) were obtained. First, measurements of a number of Tabun Cave sediment samples and flints show that {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al analyses have the potential for dating prehistoric cave sediments, provided problems relating to the presence of relatively large amounts of stable Al can be solved, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the burial history of the flints prior to being brought into the cave.

  14. Dating of prehistoric caves sediments and flints using 10Be and 26Al in quartz from Tabun Cave (Israel): Progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaretto, E.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hui, S. K.; Kaufman, A.; Paul, M.; Weiner, S.

    2000-10-01

    There is an important need to develop additional dating methods beyond the 14C limit and independent of thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We propose to apply the method of burial dating to prehistoric sites using the decay of in situ produced radioisotopes 10Be and 26Al. The Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel (Israel) has a sedimentary sequence which represents the type section for about the last 800,000 years in the Levant. The sediments in the cave are mainly of aeolian origin and are rich in quartz. Flint tools are also found in the sediments. Sediment samples and flint tools were selected from the same layer. Physical and chemical procedures to extract 10Be and 26Al atoms from the quartz fraction of the sediments and from the flint samples were developed, while measuring the natural Al levels as a monitor of the atmospheric component of the cosmogenic nuclides. AMS measurements were performed at the 14UD Pelletron Koffler Accelerator Laboratory, Weizmann Institute, and sensitivities of the order of 1×10 -14, in isotopic abundances for both 10Be and 26Al respectively (corresponding to ˜5 × 10 5 atoms) were obtained. First, measurements of a number of Tabun Cave sediment samples and flints show that 10Be and 26Al analyses have the potential for dating prehistoric cave sediments, provided problems relating to the presence of relatively large amounts of stable Al can be solved, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the burial history of the flints prior to being brought into the cave.

  15. Use of THz Reflectometry for Roughness Estimations of Archeological Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Siano, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    In this work, using a time domain spectrometer, we have investigated the reflection of terahertz (THz) pulses from surfaces that exhibit a variable degree of roughness. The study was mainly aimed at assessing the influence of the surface texture on the amplitude and the shape of the pulses reflected by stratified materials and at exploring the potential of this technique for achieving quantitative information on the roughness of the material interfaces hit by the THz beam. The behavior of the reflected THz pulses was investigated by considering angular measurements on a set of suitable mock-ups. Measurements were carried out on an authentic archeological Roman coin that exhibited different corrosion situations. An electromagnetic model was used for estimating the roughness of outer and inner surfaces. The comparison of the results with those provided by other techniques made it possible to parameterize the surface texture such as the traditional contact micro-profilometry and the more recently used 3D digital microscopy.

  16. Use of THz Reflectometry for Roughness Estimations of Archeological Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Siano, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    In this work, using a time domain spectrometer, we have investigated the reflection of terahertz (THz) pulses from surfaces that exhibit a variable degree of roughness. The study was mainly aimed at assessing the influence of the surface texture on the amplitude and the shape of the pulses reflected by stratified materials and at exploring the potential of this technique for achieving quantitative information on the roughness of the material interfaces hit by the THz beam. The behavior of the reflected THz pulses was investigated by considering angular measurements on a set of suitable mock-ups. Measurements were carried out on an authentic archeological Roman coin that exhibited different corrosion situations. An electromagnetic model was used for estimating the roughness of outer and inner surfaces. The comparison of the results with those provided by other techniques made it possible to parameterize the surface texture such as the traditional contact micro-profilometry and the more recently used 3D digital microscopy.

  17. Correlations between radiometric analysis of Quaternary deposits and the chronology of prehistoric settlements from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, T.A. [Departamento de Antropologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/no, Sao Cristovao, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Fernandes, P.J.F.; Vezzone, M.; Bastos, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of sand deposits were carried out in order to study the chronology of prehistoric colonization of the Brazilian coast during the Holocene. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the geological provenance of Quaternary deposits, where artificial shellmounds are found. The so-called sambaquis are archaeological settlements, characteristic of fisher-gatherers, specialized in the exploitation of shellfish. Our results show a considerable positive correlation between the formation of coastal deposits, based on cross plots of eTh/eU and eTh/K, and the antiquity of its prehistoric human occupation.

  18. Bacterial deposition of gold on hair: archeological, forensic and toxicological implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trace metal analyses in hair are used in archeological, forensic and toxicological investigations as proxies for metabolic processes. We show metallophilic bacteria mediating the deposition of gold (Au, used as tracer for microbial activity in hair post mortem after burial, affecting results of such analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human hair was incubated for up to six months in auriferous soils, in natural soil columns (Experiment 1, soils amended with mobile Au(III-complexes (Experiment 2 and the Au-precipitating bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans (Experiment 3, in peptone-meat-extract (PME medium in a culture of C. metallidurans amended with Au(III-complexes (Experiment 4, and in non-auriferous soil (Experiment 5. Hair samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In Experiments 1-4 the Au content increased with time (P = 0.038. The largest increase was observed in Experiment 4 vs. Experiment 1 (mean = 1188 vs. 161 microg kg(-1, Fisher's least significance 0.001. The sulfur content, a proxy for hair metabolism, remained unchanged. Notably, the ratios of Au-to-S increased with time (linear trend P = 0.02 and with added Au and bacteria (linear trend, P = 0.005, demonstrating that larger populations of Au-precipitating bacteria and increased availability of Au increased the deposition of Au on the hair. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Interactions of soil biota with hair post mortem may distort results of hair analyses, implying that metal content, microbial activities and the duration of burial must be considered in the interpretation of results of archeological, forensic and toxicological hair analyses, which have hitherto been proxies for pre-mortem metabolic processes.

  19. Study of decorated archeological ceramics by micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, D. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Technological Educational Institute of Kavala, Department of Science, Agios Loukas, 654 04 Kavala (Greece); Sakalis, A. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)], E-mail: asakalis@ceti.gr; Merousis, N. [Hellenic Open University, Kyzikou 25-27, 55133 Kalamaria, Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2007-09-21

    Micro-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) spectrometry is an analytical technique that is especially suitable for the study of archeological findings since it is non-destructive, rapid, universal, versatile and multi-elemental. In the present work a compact portable {mu}-XRF spectrometer was used to characterize decorated sherds of Neolithic pottery from Polyplatanos, North Greece. The sherds were divided into four decorative groups (crusted, classic Dimini, cream on red, and black on red) and the characterization was focused on the determination of certain major, minor and trace elements (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) on the decorated surface and in the clay body. The aim of this characterization was to supplement and confirm archeological information regarding the origin of the artifacts and the manufacturing techniques used for their production. The most predominant chemical elements were determined, and representative ratios (Ca/K, Fe/Mn) were calculated and compared for each individual sample group. The crusted samples and the cream on red samples showed higher concentrations of Ca in the white-crusted surface in comparison with the clay body while Fe was the predominant element in the red decorated surface. The analysis of the samples of classic Dimini, revealed higher concentrations of Mn in the black painted surfaces and higher Ca content in the light-coloured clay bodies. Finally, most samples of the black on red group present high concentrations of Mn in their decoration surface. Zn and Ni were also detected in this group in contrast with the remaining groups.

  20. Study of decorated archeological ceramics by micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Sakalis, A.; Merousis, N.; Tsirliganis, N. C.

    2007-09-01

    Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry is an analytical technique that is especially suitable for the study of archeological findings since it is non-destructive, rapid, universal, versatile and multi-elemental. In the present work a compact portable μ-XRF spectrometer was used to characterize decorated sherds of Neolithic pottery from Polyplatanos, North Greece. The sherds were divided into four decorative groups (crusted, classic Dimini, cream on red, and black on red) and the characterization was focused on the determination of certain major, minor and trace elements (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) on the decorated surface and in the clay body. The aim of this characterization was to supplement and confirm archeological information regarding the origin of the artifacts and the manufacturing techniques used for their production. The most predominant chemical elements were determined, and representative ratios (Ca/K, Fe/Mn) were calculated and compared for each individual sample group. The crusted samples and the cream on red samples showed higher concentrations of Ca in the white-crusted surface in comparison with the clay body while Fe was the predominant element in the red decorated surface. The analysis of the samples of classic Dimini, revealed higher concentrations of Mn in the black painted surfaces and higher Ca content in the light-coloured clay bodies. Finally, most samples of the black on red group present high concentrations of Mn in their decoration surface. Zn and Ni were also detected in this group in contrast with the remaining groups.

  1. Petrology of the prehistoric lavas and dyke of the Barren Island, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Alam; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; B Capaccioni; P Manetti; P B Santo

    2004-12-01

    Although Barren Island (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean) witnessed several volcanic eruptions during historic times, the eruptions that led to the formation of this volcanic island occurred mainly during prehistoric times. It is still active and currently in the fumarolic stage. Its volcanic evolution appears to be characterized by a constructive phase with the piling up of lava flows and scoria deposits and Strombolian activities, followed by a sudden collapse of the main cone. Deposits of a possible caldera-forming eruption were not recognized earlier. After a period of peri-calderic hydromagmatic activity, whose deposits presently mantle inner and outer caldera walls, a new phase of intracalderic Vulcanian activities took place. A prominent dyke in the SE inner side of the caldera wall was recognized. Petrographically the lava flows and dyke are similar but they differ in their chemical composition (viz., SiO2, MgO, Ni, Cr) significantly. Similarity in major, minor and trace element composition (viz., K/La, K/Nb, K/Rb, K/Ti ratios) of these rocks together with Chondrite normalized trace element (Rb, Ba, Sr, P, Zr, Ti and Nb) and REE (La, Ce, Nd and Y) patterns of the Barren Island prehistoric lava flows and dyke and low-K lavas of Sunda Arc indicates that Barren Island must have evolved from a source similar to that of Sunda Arc lavas during the Quaternary Period.

  2. [Bilateral SLAC (scapholunate advanced collapse) wrist: an unusual entity. Apropos of a 7000-year-old prehistoric case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmejean, E; Dutour, O; Touam, C; Oberlin, C

    1997-01-01

    SLAC (Scapho-Lunate Advanced Collapse) wrist is the most common form of osteoarthritis of the wrist. The main aetiology is ligamentous rotary subluxation of the scaphoid. The authors report on a case of bilateral SLAC wrist, identified on a prehistoric skeleton derived from the Hassi-el-Abiod site in the malian Sahara (Dutour, 1989). The paleopathological study consisted of macroscopic examination and radiological examination. Radiocarbon dating situated this human occupation to 7 thousand years ago. The diseases observed included bilateral radiocarpal lesions in an adult male individual. The degree of preservation of the carpal skeleton was 90%. Lesions were bilateral, but predominantly affected the right side. The radial styloid processes presented a lateral osteophytic cuff, giving a tapered "pen-nib" appearance. The scaphoid has a normal shape, but presented posterior and lateral osteophytes. The scaphoid surfaces of the two distal extremities of the radius and the corresponding parts of the scaphoid showed characteristic polishing. X-rays showed a band of condensation corresponding to the ivory region on the articular surfaces. In this case, the bilateral nature and the absence of any obvious macrotraumatic aetiology suggest that the only aetiology was progressive and bilateral ligamentous distension, due to repeated microtrauma analogous to that observed in sports disease (volley-ball) or in occupational diseases (jackhammer). The manufacture of stone tools (carved or polished) can be incriminated in the pathogenesis of these lesions. These lesions are therefore useful markers of repeated microtraumatic activities or "activity markers". The is the first paleopathological description and the oldest known case of bilateral SLAC wrist.

  3. Archeological Investigations in Cochiti Reservoir, New Mexico. Volume 4. Adaptive Change in the Northern Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    spherical inclusions up to 0.5 m in dia - prehistorically as a pigment and for ground stone orna- meter. Obsidian fragments up to 10 or 12 em are...del Muerto were tempered mainly ,with soda 8th Ceramic Conference on Rio Grande Glazes (1967). One diorite and concluded that it was a local material

  4. Archeological Survey of Selected Fish and Wildlife Management Areas at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes, Dade, Hickory, and Polk Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Selected Fish and Wildlife Management Areas at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes, Dade, Hickory, and Polk Counties, Missouri Contract No. DACW41-81-C...Jackson _________________________56 1989 907 0J) O . ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SELECTED FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS AT POMME DE TERRE AND...NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Securrty Classification) Archeological Survey of Selected Fish and Wildlife Management Areas at Pomme de Terre

  5. Validating Prehistoric and Current Social Phenomena Upon the Landscape of the Peten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1997-01-01

    The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation on a scale that can only result in soil loss and regional degradation. In view of the current deforestation trends, the question emerges as to how millions of ancient Maya lived successfully in the area for centuries when relatively fewer occupants today threaten the sustainability of the landscape with current agricultural practices. The use of remote sensing technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

  6. Heathland and the palynology of prehistoric barrows. Reflections on the interrelation between soil formation and pollen infiltration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman-van Waateringe, W; Spek, Mattheus

    2016-01-01

    In the sandy areas of the Netherlands, heather (Calluna vulgaris) played an important role in the construction of prehistoric barrows, although, as will be shown in this paper, not in all periods as was recently asserted by Doorenbosch (2013). Since the mineralogical composition and the texture of t

  7. 3D modeling of buildings outstanding sites

    CERN Document Server

    Héno, Rapha?le

    2014-01-01

    Conventional topographic databases, obtained by capture on aerial or spatial images provide a simplified 3D modeling of our urban environment, answering the needs of numerous applications (development, risk prevention, mobility management, etc.). However, when we have to represent and analyze more complex sites (monuments, civil engineering works, archeological sites, etc.), these models no longer suffice and other acquisition and processing means have to be implemented. This book focuses on the study of adapted lifting means for "notable buildings". The methods tackled in this book cover las

  8. Escavando a "comunidade internacional": por uma arqueologia do conhecimento metafórico Excavating "international community": toward a metaphorical archeology of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Onuf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, argumento que metáfora e conceito são nomes para o mesmo tipo de coisa. E, se isso é assim, metáfora é uma metáfora para conceito; conceito é uma metáfora para metáfora. Se assim o é, então o conhecimento é, em geral, metafórico. Uma arqueologia do conhecimento metafórico é uma expressão metafórica para um conjunto de reivindicações e procedimentos concebidos para expor os pressupostos e as associações enterrados, constituindo (e, por meio da constituição, regulando o que pensamos que sabemos. As ressonâncias afetivas e normativas das metáforas relacionadas a "comunidade" se remetem a um profundo anseio em um mundo onde as comunidades não mais se assemelham ao que um dia foram. "Comunidade internacional" é um sítio arqueológico situado na superfície da terra, tão proeminente quanto inexplorado. Sua escavação pode nos conduzir a algum distante passado, somente para nos trazer de volta ao próprio mundo que vivemos.In this paper, I claim that metaphor and concept are names for the same kind of thing. And if this is so, metaphor is a metaphor for concept; concept is a metaphor for metaphor. An archeology of metaphorical knowledge is a metaphorical expression for a set of claims and procedures designed to expose the buried assumptions and associations constituting (and by constituting, regulating what we think we know. The affective and normative resonances of metaphors related to "community" speak to a deep yearning in a world where communities no longer resemble what they once did. "International community" is an above-ground archeological site, as prominent as it is unexplored. Its excavation may take us to some distant past only to bring us back to the very world we live in.

  9. From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-Year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Earth observing satellites provide a 21st century capability to detect unrecorded archeological sites that are often invisible to the naked eye. This information can be used to understand issues in human settlement, environmental interaction, and the impact of climate change to past cultures. Archeologists want to know how ancient people successfully adapted to their environment and what factors may have led to their collapse or disappearance. Some cultures overextended the capacity of their landscape, causing destructive environmental effects which led to their demise. To avoid repeating mistakes of the past and adapt to challenges today, NASA and the US Agency for International Development (USAID)-- in partnership with leading regional organizations around the world--have implemented SERVIR. SERVIR is a joint development initiative to help countries use information provided by Earth observing satellites and geospatial technologies for managing climate risks and land use. SERVIR is improving awareness, increasing access to information, and supporting analysis to help people in Africa, Hindu Kush-Himalaya, Lower Mekong, and Mesoamerica manage challenges in the areas of food security, water resources, land use change, and natural disasters.

  10. Ancient mitochondrial genome reveals trace of prehistoric migration in the east Pamir by pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Chao; Gao, Shizhu; Deng, Boping; Zheng, Hongxiang; Wei, Dong; Lv, Haoze; Li, Hongjie; Song, Li; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Hui; Cui, Yinqiu

    2016-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of one 700-year-old individual found in Tashkurgan, Xinjiang was target enriched and sequenced in order to shed light on the population history of Tashkurgan and determine the phylogenetic relationship of haplogroup U5a. The ancient sample was assigned to a subclade of haplogroup U5a2a1, which is defined by two rare and stable transversions at 16114A and 13928C. Phylogenetic analysis shows a distribution pattern for U5a2a that is indicative of an origin in the Volga-Ural region and exhibits a clear eastward geographical expansion that correlates with the pastoral culture also entering the Eurasian steppe. The haplogroup U5a2a present in the ancient Tashkurgan individual reveals prehistoric migration in the East Pamir by pastoralists. This study shows that studying an ancient mitochondrial genome is a useful approach for studying the evolutionary process and population history of Eastern Pamir.

  11. Growth and Stability Among Complex Societies in Prehistoric Lingnan, Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Allard

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available One significant advance in the field of Chinese archaeology over past decades has been the identification of numerous prehistoric societies characterized by unequal access to status and wealth (henceforth referred to a 'complex societies' in areas peripheral to the Yellow River valley, a region traditionally regarded as the cradle of Chinese civilization. Lingnan, an area which comprises the two modern provinces of Guangdong and Guanxi in Southeast China, also witnessed the emergence of small-scale complex societies prior to its incorporation into the unified Qin and Han states during the last centuries of the pre-Christian era (Allard 1995. This paper examines the circumstances and features of five instances of complex socio-political development in Lingnan over a period from the late Neolithic to the early Iron Age (ca. 3000-200 B.C. with each of these trajectories tested against recent models dealing with the issues of societal types, complexity, growth and stability.

  12. [The evolutionist fallacy of early visitors. Analogies between 'primitive peoples' and prehistoric man in medical historiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchhausen, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Accounts of 'prehistoric medicine' and 'ethnomedicine' have sometimes led to conclusions by analogy in medical historiography that are seen as highly problematic in modern cultural anthropology. However, this review of medical historical writings of the last three centuries shows that evolutionist identifications of early with foreign medicine were not a permanent trait of medical historiography. This approach flourished mainly in the climate of certain movements or periods that were characterised by fanatical belief in progress and by social utopias: the French Revolution, Darwinism and the period of industrial expansion in Germany, and National Socialism. Medical historiography shared this problematic approach with contemporary (social and cultural) anthropology, and - despite this methodological misuse - both acknowledged the legitimacy or even requirement of studying also similarities in the development of different periods and cultures.

  13. 青海东部史前人口数量分析——以民和、乐都为例%Population estimation to the prehistoric culture of Eastern Qinghai province——A case of Minhe and Ledu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小浩; 侯光良; 王小梅; 王鹏程

    2012-01-01

    Prehistoric population estimation has a significant meaning for understanding the development of human society.Prehistoric cultural sites are rather rich in eastern Qinghai,and with an intact sequence.According to archaeological data and GIS tools,we built the tombs and ruins' dimension models to calculate the population distribution in core areas and dense areas of prehistoric culture in east Qinghai,and proposed different method results mainly supported by social and environmental considerations in comprehensive population estimate model to study the changes of regional prehistoric population.The results showed that the population hed reached more than 7,600 people at the very beginning of the Neolithic.The population reached its maximum of 36,000 at the late Neolithic.The sharp drop of the population came just after 4000 aBP.When it steped into Bronze Age,the population showed a slight recovery,and reached about 12,000;Environmental change should be one of the important driving forces to evolution of the population in this area.%史前人口的估算对于了解人类社会发展具有重要意义。青海东部史前文化遗迹丰富、序列完整。文中根据考古资料和GIS工具,构建墓葬和遗址面积两种模式来计算青海东部史前人类分布的密集区和核心区人口数量,提出以不同方法计算结果为主,辅之以社会与环境因素的考量综合人口估算模式,来研究区域史前人口变化。结果表明:研究区人口在新石器伊始就具一定规模,达到7600余人;新石器晚期人口达到最大值,当时人口约为36000人,4000aBP以后人口数量锐减,进入青铜时代,人口规模略有恢复,达到12000人左右;环境变化应该是本区人口演变的重要驱动力之一。

  14. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jones

    Full Text Available Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C. bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C., their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC. We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt. Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  15. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F G; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P; Buckley, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  16. A methodological proposal to study the prehistorical metallurgy: the case of Gorny in the Kargaly Region (Orenburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovira, Salvador

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological field-work realised at the site of Gorny (occupied from 1700 to 1400 BC has furnished an important collection of materials related to metallurgical activities (ores, slags, by-products and copper objects. These have been analyzed by a variety of instrumental techniques (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and metallography. The results show that metallurgy was a primitive one that worked oxidised copper ores by a non-slagging smelting process. Cast objects were finished by cold hammering and, on some occasions, annealing. A replication of the prehistoric technology has been achieved by means of on-site smelting experiments. Thus, economic variables such as the efficiency of copper recovery and charcoal consumption have been evaluated and, using them, theoretical models of copper production and its behavioural impact have been constructed.

    Los trabajos arqueológicos de campo en el sitio de Gorny (habitado durante los siglos XVII-XV AC han proporcionado una importante colección de materiales relacionados con actividades metalúrgicas (minerales, escorias, restos de fundición y objetos metálicos. En su estudio analítico se han empleado diversas técnicas de laboratorio (microscopía electrónica de barrido, espectrometría por fluorescencia de rayos x, metalografía cuyos resultados caracterizan una metalurgia de rasgos primitivos que parte de la fundición directa de minerales oxídicos de cobre. Los objetos de metal, fundidos en molde, eran terminados mediante trabajos de forja y aplicación, en ocasiones, de tratamientos térmicos. Con la ayuda de experimentos de fundición in situ se ha reproducido el proceso prehistórico, permitiendo de ese modo establecer variables económicas tales como el rendimiento en cobre de las fundiciones y el consumo de combustible, a partir de las cuales se elaboran modelos teóricos estimativos de la producción metalúrgica y su impacto en el medio

  17. Effects of tidal amplitude on intertidal resource availability and dispersal pressure in prehistoric human coastal populations: the Mediterranean Atlantic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Darren Andrew

    2008-11-01

    In this paper I argue that there is a growing body of evidence supporting an increasingly central position of coastal environments in human evolution and dispersals, rather than as merely peripheral habitats. Eustatic fluctuations during glacial cycles have meant that most prehistoric coastlines are now underwater, and lack of evidence to date of a close relationship between people and the coast can be most plausibly ascribed to the limited studies so far on submerged sites. Coastal environments provide high diversity in food resources, consisting of multiple ecotones in close proximity, which reduces the need to forage widely. One of the richest and most easily exploited coastal resources by human populations living on the coast are molluscs from marine rocky intertidal communities, which recent evidence has highlighted as important as far back as the Middle Palaeolithic. However, the density of these resources is limited by a number of factors, and this varies geographically. One of the main large-scale factors limiting rocky intertidal mollusc densities is tidal amplitude, beyond which smaller-scale local factors such as exposure to wave action and shore aspect, further affect species distributions. The area around the Strait of Gibraltar is used as a case study of an area, which is affected by large variations in tidal amplitudes thus allowing for quantitative comparisons between taxonomically and climatically similar regions. Shorelines along the Mediterranean coast, with reduced tidal amplitudes, exhibit compressed zonations and harbour fewer macro-mollusc individuals, with the reverse being the case along the Atlantic coast, which has significantly larger tides. Data from Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites along the Strait are used to establish harvested species and present-day data are used to model the potential distributions and associated variables such as calorific returns of key food species. An optimal foraging model is used to explore the effects of

  18. The Rehydroxylation Dating of Archeological Baked-Clay Artifacts for Determination Paleomagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, G. A.; Gareev, B. I.; Nourgaliev, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    If confirmed, the rehydroxylation dating method proposed by Wilson et al. would be a major achievement forarcheological and geological sciences. This method would indeed make it possible to date potentially all fired-clayartifacts (fragments of pottery or of architectural bricks) unearthed in excavation contexts and/or recovered fromold buildings, offering to archeologists exceptional time constraints that are at the basis of most archeologicalissues. Together with that, determination of magnetic characteristics of fired-clay artifacts allows to build paleosecularvariations.We present new results obtained from thermo-gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry measurements coupledwith mass spectrometry analyses to identify rehydroxylation water and link it with age of ceramic. A varietyof archeological artifacts was collected from different excavations conducted on the territory of the Republic ofTatarstan, Russia.Magnetic measurements include thermomagnetic analysis, coercitive spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility measurementversus temperature. Paleomagnetic studies include measurement of paleointensity. The main aim of paleomagneticinvestigations is to reconstruct magnetic field behavior during last centuries and made paleosecularvariations (PSV) for Volga region.

  19. Investigating the archaeointensity determination success of prehistoric ceramics through a multidisciplinary approach: new and re-evaluated data from Greek collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondopoulou, D.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Aidona, E.; Rathossi, Ch.; Carvallo, C.; Tema, E.; Efthimiadis, K. G.; Polymeris, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    The Balkan area provides an almost continuous record of the geomagnetic field variations during the last eight millennia but important data dispersion and chronological gaps are still observed. In order to improve this pattern, we oriented our research towards the study of Greek prehistoric ceramics and pottery collections. We present here new archaeointensity and mineralogical results from pottery and ceramics collected in two Bronze Age sites in Northern Greece, corresponding to the middle third and middle second millennium BC. Thermal demagnetization experiments, thermomagnetic curves, thermal demagnetization measurements of three axes composite isothermal magnetization and first-order reversal curves (FORC) diagrams were performed in order to define the main magnetic carriers and select the most promising samples for archaeointensity determination. The results suggest that the majority of the studied materials are dominated by a mixture of superparamagnetic and stable single domain grains, with very little magnetic interactions. In almost all samples the main magnetic carrier observed is a low coercivity mineral, most probably magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite. Classical Thellier experiments, including both the thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate corrections were performed on the selected samples. Two new archaeointensities were obtained and compared with previous data available for Greece and neighbouring countries and with global geomagnetic field models results. In order to investigate the causes of the high rate of failure observed in our archaeointensity experiments, we re-examined the results obtained from the study of four collections already published by better characterizing the magnetic and mineralogical properties of the studied fragments. Specific hysteresis curves performed at different layers of ceramic fragments reveal an important degree of inhomogeneity. Mineralogical analysis of selected samples from the totality of six Greek

  20. Human induced prehistoric and historical soil erosion and landscape development in Southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Ivester, Andrew H.; Hanson, Paul R.; Daniel, Larsen; Dye, David H.; Foster, Thomas H., II

    2015-04-01

    The significance of soil erosion due to pre-historic land use and possible feedback mechanisms had been hardly recognized in the Southeastern USA. Here, the agricultural practices only began in the second half of the Holocene. Sedentary hunters and gatherers started to domesticate squash and sunflowers. Associated with the expansion of maize cultivation in the Mississippian period between AD 800 and 1100, significant forest clearings took place on the river floodplains. During this time, central settlements with up to 30,000 residences existed and the surrounding ridge and furrow fields extended to up to 30 ha. It is still open to question why these groups already declined in the 14/15th centuries already before the arrival of the Europeans. However, around AD 1540 the conquistador de Soto still reports extended fields with intensive cultivation of maize in the uplands of Northern Mississippi. Despite of this intensive land use by Native Americans, current research gives no indication that these activities had any significant impact on river channel form. Also, no clear evidence exists for distinct channel change occurring in response to any sort of middle Holocene Hypsithermal, Medieval warm period, or the Little Ice Age. We will present results of a project which aims to explore erosion forms, colluvial sediments and buried soils in selected 0-order and 1st-order watersheds in the southeastern USA in order to gain, solidify, and evaluate general data on soil erosion during the Native American land use period and its respective long-term effects on the environment. This will be achieved by 1) recording the stratigraphy of colluvial and alluvial sediments and buried soils, 2) mapping the extent of erosional and colluvial forms, 3) analyzing chemical and physical soil and sediment properties, 4) establishing chronological control using various dating techniques including radiocarbon and OSL dating, and 5) quantifying soil erosion using hillslope sediments. The

  1. Organic fertilization and sufficient nutrient status in prehistoric agriculture?--Indications from multi-proxy analyses of archaeological topsoil relicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Lauer

    Full Text Available Neolithic and Bronze Age topsoil relicts revealed enhanced extractable phosphorus (P and plant available inorganic P fractions, thus raising the question whether there was targeted soil amelioration in prehistoric times. This study aimed (i at assessing the overall nutrient status and the soil organic matter content of these arable topsoil relicts, and (ii at tracing ancient soil fertilizing practices by respective stable isotope and biomarker analyses. Prehistoric arable topsoils were preserved in archaeological pit fillings, whereas adjacent subsoils served as controls. One Early Weichselian humic zone represented the soil status before the introduction of agriculture. Recent topsoils served as an additional reference. The applied multi-proxy approach comprised total P and micronutrient contents, stable N isotope ratios, amino acid, steroid, and black carbon analyses as well as soil color measurements. Total contents of P and selected micronutrients (I, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn of the arable soil relicts were above the limits for which nutrient deficiencies could be assumed. All pit fillings exhibited elevated δ15N values close to those of recent topsoils (δ15N>6 to 7‰, giving first hints for prehistoric organic N-input. Ancient legume cultivation as a potential source for N input could not be verified by means of amino acid analysis. In contrast, bile acids as markers for faecal input exhibited larger concentrations in the pit fillings compared with the reference and control soils indicating faeces (i.e. manure input to Neolithic arable topsoils. Also black carbon contents were elevated, amounting up to 38% of soil organic carbon, therewith explaining the dark soil color in the pit fillings and pointing to inputs of burned biomass. The combination of different geochemical analyses revealed a sufficient nutrient status of prehistoric arable soils, as well as signs of amelioration (inputs of organic material like charcoal and faeces

  2. Organic fertilization and sufficient nutrient status in prehistoric agriculture?--Indications from multi-proxy analyses of archaeological topsoil relicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Franziska; Prost, Katharina; Gerlach, Renate; Pätzold, Stefan; Wolf, Mareike; Urmersbach, Sarah; Lehndorff, Eva; Eckmeier, Eileen; Amelung, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Neolithic and Bronze Age topsoil relicts revealed enhanced extractable phosphorus (P) and plant available inorganic P fractions, thus raising the question whether there was targeted soil amelioration in prehistoric times. This study aimed (i) at assessing the overall nutrient status and the soil organic matter content of these arable topsoil relicts, and (ii) at tracing ancient soil fertilizing practices by respective stable isotope and biomarker analyses. Prehistoric arable topsoils were preserved in archaeological pit fillings, whereas adjacent subsoils served as controls. One Early Weichselian humic zone represented the soil status before the introduction of agriculture. Recent topsoils served as an additional reference. The applied multi-proxy approach comprised total P and micronutrient contents, stable N isotope ratios, amino acid, steroid, and black carbon analyses as well as soil color measurements. Total contents of P and selected micronutrients (I, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn) of the arable soil relicts were above the limits for which nutrient deficiencies could be assumed. All pit fillings exhibited elevated δ15N values close to those of recent topsoils (δ15N>6 to 7‰), giving first hints for prehistoric organic N-input. Ancient legume cultivation as a potential source for N input could not be verified by means of amino acid analysis. In contrast, bile acids as markers for faecal input exhibited larger concentrations in the pit fillings compared with the reference and control soils indicating faeces (i.e. manure) input to Neolithic arable topsoils. Also black carbon contents were elevated, amounting up to 38% of soil organic carbon, therewith explaining the dark soil color in the pit fillings and pointing to inputs of burned biomass. The combination of different geochemical analyses revealed a sufficient nutrient status of prehistoric arable soils, as well as signs of amelioration (inputs of organic material like charcoal and faeces-containing manure).

  3. Pre-historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Acosta Navarro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre-historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant-based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region

  4. Recognizing and dating prehistoric liquefaction features: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.P.; Schweig, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ), which experienced severe liquefaction during the great New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes of 1811 and 1812 as well as during several prehistoric earthquakes, is a superb laboratory for the study of world-class, arthquake-induced liquefaction features and their use in paleoseismology. In seismically active regions like the NMSZ, frequent large earthquakes can produce a complex record of liquefaction events that is difficult to interpret. Lessons learned studying liquefaction features in the NMSZ may help to unravel the paleoseismic record in other seismically active regions. Soil characteristics of liquefaction features, as well as their structural and sratigraphic relations to Native American occupation horizons and other cultural features, an help to distinguish prehistoric liquefaction features from historic features. In addition, analyses of artifact assemblages and botanical content of cultural horizons can help to narrow the age ranges of liquefaction features. Future research should focus on methods for defining source areas and estimating magnitudes of prehistoric earthquakes from liquefaction features. Also, new methods for dating liquefaction features are needed.

  5. Predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Inferences Based on Historical, Archeological and Geological Evidence From the Indian Coast and the Andaman-Nicobar Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.; Machado, T.

    2007-12-01

    The 2004 tsunami is an unprecedented event in the Indian Ocean. Never in the recent or distant history of the region has such a transoceanic event of devastating proportion is known to have been reported. Obviously, apparent lack of historical references in the culturally ancient Southeast Asian region suggests rarity of such events. Therefore, a major question that has been posed since the 2004 tsunami is whether similar events have occurred in the region in the past. If there are predecessors, what is the frequency of such events? Resolving this question is of crucial importance in developing the recurrence history of megathrust earthquakes and assessing the tsunami hazard of the region. Our strategy has been to tackle this problem using historical and archeological data, combined with geological investigations in the affected regions of the Indian coast, including the Andaman- Nicobar Islands. Citations from south India on ancient tsunami include classic Tamil texts, which mention about a devastating sea surge around A.D. 950 in the southeastern coast of India. Our studies were focused on two ancient port cities on the east coast of India: Mammallapuram and Kaveripattinam, the latter being a major township during the first millennium. The 2004 tsunami had scoured Mammallapuram beach exposing the basements of older temples. We have identified a discordant sand deposit sandwiched between two bricklayers at a site where the ruins of different generations of temples have been excavated. The radiocarbon dates suggest that this was deposited during 955+/-30 yr B.P., close to the historically documented period of devastation of this site by a sea surge. Excavations at Kaveripattinam, located 200 km to the south, revealed a widely distributed occupation horizon of A.D. 8-10 century, marked by a superjacent sand layer. We suspect that this layer represents the A.D. 950- sea incursion mentioned in the in the classic Tamil texts, also in line with the archeological

  6. Arqueologia da escravidão em fazendas jesuíticas: primeiras notícias da pesquisa The archeology of slavery on Jesuit fazendas: first research notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio P. Symanski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesta nota de pesquisa apresentamos questões teóricas e metodológicas sobre uma investigação em arqueologia histórica iniciada recentemente, que visa analisar o cotidiano da escravidão, regimes demográficos, práticas culturais etc. Um levantamento de sítios arqueológicos em antigas senzalas e fazendas escravistas do Vale do Paraíba e norte fluminense está sendo realizado. Com a cooperação de historiadores, arqueólogos e antropólogos, registros da cultura material de populações escravas de origem indígena e depois africana estão sendo localizados nas escavações iniciadas na fazenda jesuítica do Colégio em Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ, administrada por religiosos e depois leigos nos séculos XVII, XVIII e XIX.These preliminary research notes present theoretical and methodological questions regarding a recently inaugurated investigation in historical archeology that intends to analyze daily life under slavery, demographic regimes, cultural practices, and so on. A survey of archeological sites on former 'senzalas' (slave quarters and slave-owning fazendas in the Paraíba Valley and northern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro is currently in progress. With the cooperation of historians, archeologists, and anthropologists, records of the material culture of slave populations, which originally comprised indigenes and later Africans, are being located at excavations underway on the fazenda that is part of the Jesuit school in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, first run by the clergy and later by members of the laity in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries.

  7. Time and space in the middle paleolithic: Spatial structure and occupation dynamics of seven open-air sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy E

    2016-05-06

    The spatial structure of archeological sites can help reconstruct the settlement dynamics of hunter-gatherers by providing information on the number and length of occupations. This study seeks to access this information through a comparison of seven sites. These sites are open-air and were all excavated over large spatial areas, up to 2,000 m(2) , and are therefore ideal for spatial analysis, which was done using two complementary methods, lithic refitting and density zones. Both methods were assessed statistically using confidence intervals. The statistically significant results from each site were then compiled to evaluate trends that occur across the seven sites. These results were used to assess the "spatial consistency" of each assemblage and, through that, the number and duration of occupations. This study demonstrates that spatial analysis can be a powerful tool in research on occupation dynamics and can help disentangle the many occupations that often make up an archeological assemblage.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric rock paintings by selective oxidation of organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, J.; Hyman, M.; Shafer, H.J.; Rowe, M.W. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA))

    1990-12-27

    Dating of prehistoric rock paintings (pictographs) has traditionally relied on indirect evidence. This includes inferences based on the archaeological context, such as superpositions of pictorial styles and the depiction of images that constrain their ages, as well as dating of deposits that either cover the art in situ or contain separated fragments of the painted surface. Migration of ions between the bulk rock and the natural coatings that form on a newly exposed surface has also been exploited to date petroglyphs (rock carvings) in desert regions. Until recently, however, direct dating (by radiocarbon techniques) of pictographs has not been possible, mainly because of the problem of separating inorganic carbon from the organic material in the pigments. Here we report on a new technique which allows this separation to be effected by using a low-temperature, low-pressure oxygen plasma to oxidize selectively the organic component; this may then be analysed using standard {sup 14}C methods. We have applied this technique to a portion of a pictograph from the Lower Pecos region of southwest Texas. The date obtained, 3,865{plus minus}100 yr BP (before present) is consistent with that expected on the basis of archaeological inference. As organic carbon is a ubiquitous component of pictograph paints, this technique should be applicable to rock paintings throughout the world. (author).

  9. Breast cancer surgery: an historical narrative. Part I. From prehistoric times to Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorafas, George H; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Cancer was known as a disease since prehistoric times. Management of breast cancer evolved slowly through centuries in the ancient world up to the Renaissance. This period is marked by the absence of any scientifically verifiable understanding of the true nature of cancer and its natural history and consequently by a lack of effective treatment. Breast has been considered as a symbol of femininity, fertility and beauty. Hippocrates proposed that breast cancer, among other neoplasms, was a 'systemic disease' caused by an excess of black bile. The humoral theory was further supported by Galen and dominated for centuries in medicine. Fulguration and breast amputation by using various instruments to achieve a rapid operation were widely used up to the 18th century. The Renaissance was a revolutionary period, since it stimulated medical practice; at that time physicians started to scientifically study medicine. Vesalius greatly contributed in the advancement of surgery, and he vigorously opposed Galen's doctrines. Many great surgeons of that time (including Paré, Cabrol, Servetto, Scultetus, Tulp, Fabry von Hilded, etc.) advanced the science of surgery. Interestingly, Bartoleny Gabrol (1590) in Montpellier advocated radical mastectomy, which was popularised by Halsted, 300 years later. However, the lack of anaesthesia and the problem of wound infections (due to the lack of the aseptic techniques) generated significance and often problems for the surgeons of that time. Surgery was often 'heroic' but primitive and even inhumane by current standards. Therapeutic nihilism was the prevailing altitude regarding breast cancer, at least among the vast majority of surgeons.

  10. Environmental productivity predicts migration, demographic, and linguistic patterns in prehistoric California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codding, Brian F; Jones, Terry L

    2013-09-03

    Global patterns of ethnolinguistic diversity vary tremendously. Some regions show very little variation even across vast expanses, whereas others exhibit dense mosaics of different languages spoken alongside one another. Compared with the rest of Native North America, prehistoric California exemplified the latter. Decades of linguistic, genetic, and archaeological research have produced detailed accounts of the migrations that aggregated to build California's diverse ethnolinguistic mosaic, but there have been few have attempts to explain the process underpinning these migrations and why such a mosaic did not develop elsewhere. Here we show that environmental productivity predicts both the order of migration events and the population density recorded at contact. The earliest colonizers occupied the most suitable habitats along the coast, whereas subsequent Mid-Late Holocene migrants settled in more marginal habitats. Other Late Holocene patterns diverge from this trend, reflecting altered dynamics linked to food storage and increased sedentism. Through repeated migration events, incoming populations replaced resident populations occurring at lower densities in lower-productivity habitats, thereby resulting in the fragmentation of earlier groups and the development of one of the most diverse ethnolinguistic patterns in the Americas. Such a process may account for the distribution of ethnolinguistic diversity worldwide.

  11. Direct radiocarbon dates for prehistoric paintings at the Altamira, El Castillo and Niaux caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladas, H.; Cachier, H.; Maurice, P.; Arnold, M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Quiros, F.B. de (Universidad de Leon (Spain). Area de Prehistoria); Clottes, J. (Ministere de la Culture et de la Communication, Foix (France)); Valdes, V.C. (UNED, Madrid (Spain). Departmento de Prehistoria e Historia Antigua); Uzquiano, P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 34 -Montpellier (France). Laboratoire de Paleobotanique)

    1992-05-07

    Among things that most strikingly distinguish modern humans from other hominids and the rest of the animal kingdom is the ability to represent things and events pictorially. Complex paintings of the type discovered in the Altamira, El Castillo, Niaux and Lascaux caves represent an important stepping stone in the cultural evolution of humankind. Until now dates were derived from style or dated remains left by prehistoric visitors and could be biased by prolonged occupation or visits unrelated to painting activity. Here we report the first radiocarbon dates for the charcoal used to draw stylistically similar bisons in these caves: 14,000 {+-} 400 yr BP in the Spanish caves of Altamira, 12,990 {+-} 200 yr BP in El Castillo, and 12,890 {+-} 160 yr BP for a bison of different style in the French Pyrenean cave of Niaux. Our results demonstrate the imprecise nature of stylistic dating and show that painting dates derived from remains of human activities should be used with caution. (Author).

  12. The Impact of Rapid Climate Change on Prehistoric Societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Weninger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the impact of Rapid Climate Change (RCC on prehistoric communities in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early and Middle Holocene. Our focus is on the social implications of the four major climate cold anomalies that have recently been identified as key time-windows for global RCC (Mayewski et al. 2004. These cooling anomalies are well-dated, with Greenland ice-core resolution, due to synchronicity between warm/cold foraminifera ratios in Mediterranean core LC21 as a proxy for surface water temperature, and Greenland GISP2 non sea-salt (nss [K+] ions as a proxy for the intensification of the Siberian High and for polar air outbreaks in the northeast Mediterranean (Rohling et al. 2002. Building on these synchronisms, the GISP2 agemodel supplies the following precise time-intervals for archaeological RCC research: (i 8.6–8.0 ka, (ii 6.0–5.2 ka, (iii 4.2–4.0 ka and (iv 3.1–2.9 ka calBP. For each of these RCC time intervals, based on detailed 14C-based chronological studies, we investigate contemporaneous cultural developments. From our studies it follows that RCC-related climatic deterioration is a major factor underlying social change, although always at work within a wide spectrum of social, cultural, economic and religious factors.

  13. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  14. The relative stability of prehistorical geographic environment in China's tropics on the basis of archaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to archaeological data from about sixty samples the relative stability ofphysical and human geographical environment in the tropical zone of China is discussed in thispaper. Because of the superior natural environment, sufficient food resources and a sparsepopulation resulting in the absence of social requirement to transform the productive forces, theadvancement of economy and society was stagnated during prehistorical period in China's tropics.Compared with northern China, the appearance of ground stone tool stagnated about 3,000 years,the beginning of Bronze Age, about 1,000 years, and the agriculture, 2,500-3,000 years. The noceramics age continued till the early Neolithic Age and the appearance of colour or white ceramicswas 2,000 years later than that in northern China. The life form of migration to gather and to huntcontinued till the middle Neolithic Age, and the fixed settlement based on agriculture 1,000-2,000years stagnated. The clan commune just appeared at the end of the Neolithic Age which was 2,000-3,000 years later than that in northern China.

  15. Using seafaring simulations and shortest-hop trajectories to model the prehistoric colonization of Remote Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Álvaro; Callaghan, Richard T; Fitzpatrick, Scott M

    2016-10-24

    The prehistoric colonization of islands in Remote Oceania that began ∼3400 B.P. represents what was arguably the most expansive and ambitious maritime dispersal of humans across any of the world's seas or oceans. Though archaeological evidence has provided a relatively clear picture of when many of the major island groups were colonized, there is still considerable debate as to where these settlers originated from and their strategies/trajectories used to reach habitable land that other datasets (genetic, linguistic) are also still trying to resolve. To address these issues, we have harnessed the power of high-resolution climatic and oceanographic datasets in multiple seafaring simulation platforms to examine major pulses of colonization in the region. Our analysis, which takes into consideration currents, land distribution, wind periodicity, the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and "shortest-hop" trajectories, demonstrate that (i) seasonal and semiannual climatic changes were highly influential in structuring ancient Pacific voyaging; (ii) western Micronesia was likely settled from somewhere around the Maluku (Molucca) Islands; (iii) Samoa was the most probable staging area for the colonization of East Polynesia; and (iv) although there are major differences in success rates depending on time of year and the occurrence of ENSO events, settlement of Hawai'i and New Zealand is possible from the Marquesas or Society Islands, the same being the case for settlement of Easter Island from Mangareva or the Marquesas.

  16. Lake sediments record prehistoric lead pollution related to early copper production in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeani, David P; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron A; Bain, Daniel J

    2013-06-04

    The mining and use of copper by prehistoric people on Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is one of the oldest examples of metalworking. We analyzed the concentration of lead, titanium, magnesium, iron, and organic matter in sediment cores recovered from three lakes located near mine pits to investigate the timing, location, and magnitude of ancient copper mining pollution. Lead concentrations were normalized to lithogenic metals and organic matter to account for processes that can influence natural (or background) lead delivery. Nearly simultaneous lead enrichments occurred at Lake Manganese and Copper Falls Lake ∼8000 and 7000 years before present (yr BP), indicating that copper extraction occurred concurrently in at least two locations on the peninsula. The poor temporal coherence among the lead enrichments from ∼6300 to 5000 yr BP at each lake suggests that the focus of copper mining and annealing shifted through time. In sediment younger than ∼5000 yr BP, lead concentrations remain at background levels at all three lakes, excluding historic lead increases starting ∼150 yr BP. Our work demonstrates that lead emissions associated with both the historic and Old Copper Complex tradition are detectable and can be used to determine the temporal and geographic pattern of metal pollution.

  17. THE SMALL MAMMALS (INSECTIVORES, BATS AND RODENTS FROM THE HOLOCENE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF VALLONE INFERNO (SCILLATO, LOWER IMERA VALLEY, NORTHWESTERN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MANUEL LÓPEZ-GARCÍA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Vallone Inferno rock-shelter is an archeological site located at 770 m a.s.l. in the Madonie massif in Sicily. This massif is modeled into the Triassic and Oligocene sedimentary rocks of the Imerese Basin. Thearchaeological excavations conducted since 2008 have provided a long prehistoric and historic sequence from the Neolithic to the medieval period. From the four sedimentary complexes identified, only levels 3.4 to 3.1 from complex 3 and 4.2 from complex 4 have yielded small-mammal material. Level 4.2 is poor in remains and as yet without cultural ascription, though it has a radiocarbon age of 9450±50 years BP. Level 3.4 has yielded fragments of ceramic characteristic of the Middle Neolithic-Bronze Age period, with a radiocarbon age between 3948±35 and3244±42 years BP. Levels 3.3 to 3.1 have provided ceramic fragments ascribed to the Late Roman-Byzantine period, with a radiocarbon age between1332±26 and 1260±34 years BP.The small-mammal assemblages recovered from the sieving-washing of all the sediment from the excavation campaigns include a total of at least 14 taxa (three insectivores, four chiropterans and seven rodents. The materials from this locality provide the first mention in the fossil record of Sicily for Suncus etruscus, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus and Rattus norvegicus, as well as the last occurrence for Arvicola amphibius. The scarcity of the remains recovered from stratigraphic levels 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 4.2 makes it difficult to undertake a palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatical interpretation of them. However, the richness in small mammal contents from level 3.4 allow us to show that this level is dominated by dry meadows and woodland areas with a temperature and precipitation range that lies within the current values for the surrounding area, coinciding with the dry and temperate phase detected previously by marine surveys and pollen and microcharcoal studies. 

  18. Alteration causes and processes in the stone material from the pavement in Baelo Claudia archeological site, Cadiz/Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyos, M.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the alteration causes in the stone material used in buildings and pavements from the ancient roman town of Baelo Claudia (Cádiz, South Spain was carried out to establish their degree of conservation. Slabs from the pavement of the Forum showed in general a high and irreversible degree of degradation. In order to palliate the action of processes of degradation in subaerial conditions, in this work some measures are proposed to try to preserve the slabs in better conditions.

    En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de un estudio detallado sobre el estado de conservación de los materiales pétreos usados en construcciones y pavimentos de la antigua ciudad romana de Baelo Claudia (Cádiz, Sur de España. En especial, las losas del pavimento del Foro romano mostraron, en general, un alto e irreversible grado de alteración. En este estudio, se proponen medidas correctoras para una mejor preservación de las losas, amortiguando la acción de los procesos de degradación propios de condiciones subaéreas.

  19. Archeological Testing at Two Sites Near White Castle, Iberville Parish, Louisiana: 16 IV 147 and 16 IV 149

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-26

    added to imitate the bluish cast of Chinese porcelains. The development of an English ’bone china’ gradually decreased the desirability of Chinese...Besides the obvious furniture elements, this group included flower pots, mirror glass, figurines, and other miscellaneous decorative household items

  20. Evaluative Archeological Investigations at Four Sites Along the Right Bank of Lake Francis Case, Lyman County, South Dakota. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    extremes of summer heat and winter cold, with rapid fluctuations common. Summer highs reach 40 degrees C (104 degrees Farenheit ) or higher, while winter...lows of -12 degrees C (10 degrees Farenheit ) are frequent. Cold stretches may last longer than a week (Van Bruggen 1976). The average growing season...maxilla 489 maxilla 490 cranial fragment 479 incisor 450 incisor 451 incisor 491 unidentified molar 452 thoracic vertebra 471 rib proximal end 476

  1. Rice Agriculture in the River Parishes: The Historical Archeology of the Vacherie Site (16 SJ 40), St. James Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Bore and the Haitian planter Morin developed processes for granulating sugar from cane in commercial quantities. -The introduction of the cotton gin...the sale was $28,000.00 ( Edgar Grima, February 10, 1877, NONA). The sale included the buildings, sugar mill, mules, cattle, stock, carts, ploughs and...James Parish Courthouse, Convent, Louisiana. St. James Parish Tax Rolls, 1989, Ward 6, St. James Parish Courthouse, Convent, Louisiana. Tobin, Edgar

  2. Harlan County Lake, Nebraska; Intensive Archeological Survey and Site Testing for the National Register of Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    hunting of now- extinct Pleistocene megafauna, probably utilizing worked-stone tools of the types known as Folsom and Clovis . The Archaic period which...uplands in Section F. Cultura " material was found on an abandoned grassy road in an area surrounded by heavy grass at an elevation of 2030 ..s.l. The

  3. Color enhanced pipelines for reality-based 3D modeling of on site medium sized archeological artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio I. Apollonio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a color enhanced processing system - applied as case study on an artifact of the Pompeii archaeological area - developed in order to enhance different techniques for reality-based 3D models construction and visualization of archaeological artifacts. This processing allows rendering reflectance properties with perceptual fidelity on a consumer display and presents two main improvements over existing techniques: a. the color definition of the archaeological artifacts; b. the comparison between the range-based and photogrammetry-based pipelines to understand the limits of use and suitability to specific objects.

  4. Archaeological Data Recovery at the Mary Ann Cole Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    become very narrow and specific in the varieties of food 41 stuffs exploited ( Asch , Ford, and Asch 1972). Thus, it seems that prehistoric groups, at...of the Late Archaic, as described by Webb in his work on Indian Knoll and other Green River sites (Webb 1946 , 1950a, 1950b). One example of these...Winters (1967). The first or "Early Phase" is typified by grit tempered ceramics such as Sugar Hill Cordmarked and Crab Orchard Fabric Impressed . The

  5. Prehistoric genomes reveal the genetic foundation and cost of horse domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Jónsson, Hákon; Chang, Dan; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Albrechtsen, Anders; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Foucal, Adrien; Petersen, Bent; Fumagalli, Matteo; Raghavan, Maanasa; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Stenderup, Jesper; Hoover, Cindi A; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; MacHugh, David E; Kalbfleisch, Ted; MacLeod, James N; Rubin, Edward M; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Andersson, Leif; Hofreiter, Michael; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Nielsen, Rasmus; Excoffier, Laurent; Willerslev, Eske; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

    2014-12-30

    The domestication of the horse ∼ 5.5 kya and the emergence of mounted riding, chariotry, and cavalry dramatically transformed human civilization. However, the genetics underlying horse domestication are difficult to reconstruct, given the near extinction of wild horses. We therefore sequenced two ancient horse genomes from Taymyr, Russia (at 7.4- and 24.3-fold coverage), both predating the earliest archeological evidence of domestication. We compared these genomes with genomes of domesticated horses and the wild Przewalski's horse and found genetic structure within Eurasia in the Late Pleistocene, with the ancient population contributing significantly to the genetic variation of domesticated breeds. We furthermore identified a conservative set of 125 potential domestication targets using four complementary scans for genes that have undergone positive selection. One group of genes is involved in muscular and limb development, articular junctions, and the cardiac system, and may represent physiological adaptations to human utilization. A second group consists of genes with cognitive functions, including social behavior, learning capabilities, fear response, and agreeableness, which may have been key for taming horses. We also found that domestication is associated with inbreeding and an excess of deleterious mutations. This genetic load is in line with the "cost of domestication" hypothesis also reported for rice, tomatoes, and dogs, and it is generally attributed to the relaxation of purifying selection resulting from the strong demographic bottlenecks accompanying domestication. Our work demonstrates the power of ancient genomes to reconstruct the complex genetic changes that transformed wild animals into their domesticated forms, and the population context in which this process took place.

  6. Evolution of tonal organization in music mirrors symbolic representation of perceptual reality. Part-1: Prehistoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. The evidence from music theory, ethnography, archeology, organology, anthropology, psychoacoustics, and evolutionary biology is plotted against experimental evidence. Much of the methodology for this investigation comes from studies conducted within the territory of the former USSR. To date, this methodology has remained solely confined to Russian speaking scholars. A brief overview of pitch-set theory demonstrates the need to distinguish between vertical and horizontal harmony, laying out the framework for virtual music space that operates according to the perceptual laws of tonal gravity. Brought to life by bifurcation of music and speech, tonal gravity passed through eleven discrete stages of development until the onset of tonality in the seventeenth century. Each stage presents its own method of integration of separate musical tones into an auditory-cognitive unity. The theory of "melodic intonation" is set forth as a counterpart to harmonic theory of chords. Notions of tonality, modality, key, diatonicity, chromaticism, alteration, and modulation are defined in terms of their perception, and categorized according to the way in which they have developed historically. Tonal organization in music, and perspective organization in fine arts are explained as products of the same underlying mental process. Music seems to act as a unique medium of symbolic representation of reality through the concept of pitch. Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture of thinking, adopted as a standard within a community of music users. Tonal organization might be a naturally formed system of optimizing individual perception of reality within a social group and its immediate environment, setting conventional standards of intellectual and emotional

  7. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Mirrors Symbolic Representation of Perceptual Reality. Part-1: Prehistoric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey eNikolsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation.The evidence from music theory, ethnography, archeology, organology, anthropology, psychoacoustics, and evolutionary biology is plotted against experimental evidence. Much of the methodology for this investigation comes from studies conducted within the territory of the former USSR. To date, this methodology has remained solely confined to Russian speaking scholars. A brief overview of pitch-set theory demonstrates the need to distinguish between vertical and horizontal harmony, laying out the framework for virtual music space that operates according to the perceptual laws of tonal gravity. Brought to life by bifurcation of music and speech, tonal gravity passed through eleven discrete stages of development until the onset of tonality in the 17th century. Each stage presents its own method of integration of separate musical tones into an auditory-cognitive unity.The theory of melodic intonation is set forth as a counterpart to harmonic theory of chords. Notions of tonality, modality, key, diatonicity, chromaticism, alteration, and modulation are defined in terms of their perception, and categorized according to the way in which they have developed historically. Tonal organization in music, and perspective organization in fine arts are explained as products of the same underlying mental process. Music seems to act as a unique medium of symbolic representation of reality through the concept of pitch. Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture of thinking, adopted as a standard within a community of music users. Tonal organization might be a naturally formed system of optimizing individual perception of reality within a social group and its immediate environment, setting conventional standards of intellectual and emotional

  8. On the reading of the structural behavior of old masonry: The issue of the seismic assessment of archeological ruins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonti, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses the problem of assessing the resistance of ancient Roman structures to normal lateral forces. This subject was examined by applying theoretical models, especially for historical masonry. Procedure Guidelines for the Assessment and Reduction of Seismic Risk of Cultural Heritage [1] were followed here. A lack of information exists within the models for seismic safety assessment. They are restricted to four main categories, which do not mention structures that lack integrity (FIGURE 1, a). Archeological findings, such as masonry elements, often lack integrity and suffer from instability of isolated parties under seismic actions. Nevertheless, a realistic assessment of their safety level is crucial for their survival, especially in regions prone to earthquakes. The attainment of the necessary safety targets is difficult to achieve without reinforcement. The practice of strengthening archeological assets avoids possible collapses. Contrarily, it is responsible for irreversible changes to their historical features regardless of their historical value. However, selecting an appropriate level of building knowledge and design life can avoid the usage of extensive strengthening techniques. An illustrative example is reported in this paper.

  9. HPLC-MS of anthraquinoids, flavonoids, and their degradation products in analysis of natural dyes in archeological objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Szostek, Bogdan; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2007-08-01

    LC with MS detection was optimized for sensitive and selective analysis of main classes of natural dyes used in ancient times for dyeing textiles -- red anthraquinoids, yellow flavonoids, and known degradation products of flavonols -- hydroxybenzoic acids. Fragmentation patterns of both negative and positive molecular ions for the above mentioned compounds were investigated. Three acquisition modes of MS analysis: scanning, SIM, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in both positive and negative ion modes were optimized and compared with each other and with the UV-Vis diode-array detection. Even though in the applied chromatographic system formic acid was used in the mobile phase, SIM in the negative ion mode was the most selective and sensitive detection for all the investigated compounds when both mixtures of standards and analysis of extracts from archeological samples were concerned, with one exception -- alizarin, for which MS detection in positive ion mode was more sensitive. Detection limits obtained with MS detection for all investigated compounds except quinizarin were lower than the ones obtained with the diode-array UV-Vis detection, making MS detection the most suitable tool for the analysis of natural dyes and their degradation products in extracts from archeological samples.

  10. Archaeological Investigations in the Clinton Lake Project Area, Northeastern Kansas, National Register Evaluation of 27 Prehistoric Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    he offered valuable advice during the labor - atory analysis phase of the project. Most of the figures in this report are the result of the... clima - tic fluctuations and attendant changes in the composition of prairie-forest communities and their associated faunas are emphasized. It is...It has been demonstrated that globally synchronous clima - tic shifts have occurred throughout the Holocene (Bryson et al. 1970) and that these may

  11. Phase II Testing at a Prehistoric Site (32BA418) at Lake Ashtabula (Sheyenne River) Barnes County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    55 K LITHIC ANALYSIS Chipped Stone. .. .......................... 61 Artifacts. .. ........................... 61 Waste Flakes... Lithic analysis was conducted by Richard A. Fox. Others involved in analysis and preparation of the report included Michael L. Gregg, Sarah Moore, Bob...sample. **- 60 ,..;. . . . ... J. LITHIC ANALYSIS by Richard A. Fox The purpose of the lithic analysis was fourfold. First was the desire to determine the

  12. Heterogeneity of Taiwan's indigenous population: possible relation to prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M; Chu, C C; Lee, H L; Chang, S L; Ohashi, J; Tokunaga, K; Akaza, T; Juji, T

    2000-01-01

    Taiwan's 9 indigenous tribes (Tsou, Bunun, Paiwan, Rukai, Atayal, Saisiat, Ami, Puyuma, Yami) are highly homogeneous within each tribe, but diversified among the different tribes due to long-term isolation, most probably since Taiwan became an island about 12,000 years ago. Homogeneity of each tribe is evidenced by many HLA-A,B,C alleles having the world's highest ever reported frequencies, e.g. A24 (86.3%), A26 (18.8%), Cw10 (36.8%), Cw7 (66%), Cw8 (32.1%), B13 (27.9%), B62 (37.4%), B75 (18%), B39 (53.5%), B60 (33.3%), and B48 (24%). Also, all of these tribes have HLA class I haplotype frequencies greater than 10%, with A24-Cw7-B39 in Saisiat (44.5%) being the highest, suggesting Taiwan's indigenous tribes are probably the most homogeneous ( the "purest") population in the world. A24-Cw8-B48, A24-Cw10-B60 and A24-Cw9-B61 found common to many Taiwan indigenous tribes, have also been observed in Maori, Papua New Guinea Highlanders, Orochons, Mongolians, Inuit, Japanese, Man, Buryat, Yakut, Tlingit, Tibetans and Thais. These findings suggest Taiwan's indigenous groups are more or less genetically related to both northern and southern Asians. Principal component analysis and the phylogenetic tree (using the neighbor-joining method) showed close relationship between the indigenous groups and Oceanians. This relationship supports the hypothesis that Taiwan was probably on the route of prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals that most likely took place along the coastal lowland of the Asian continent (which is under the sea today). Cultural anthropology also suggests a relationship between Taiwan's indigenous tribes and southern Asians and to a lesser extent, northern Asians. However, the indigenous groups show little genetic relationship to current southern and northern Han Chinese.

  13. Historical and Technical Notes on Aqueducts from Prehistoric to Medieval Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Feo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of aqueduct technologies through the millennia, from prehistoric to medieval times. These hydraulic works were used by several civilizations to collect water from springs and to transport it to settlements, sanctuaries and other targets. Several civilizations, in China and the Americas, developed water transport systems independently, and brought these to high levels of sophistication. For the Mediterranean civilizations, one of the salient characteristics of cultural development, since the Minoan Era (ca. 3200–1100 BC, is the architectural and hydraulic function of aqueducts used for the water supply in palaces and other settlements. The Minoan hydrologists and engineers were aware of some of the basic principles of water sciences and the construction and operation of aqueducts. These technologies were further developed by subsequent civilizations. Advanced aqueducts were constructed by the Hellenes and, especially, by the Romans, who dramatically increased the application scale of these structures, in order to provide the extended quantities of water necessary for the Roman lifestyle of frequent bathing. The ancient practices and techniques were not improved but survived through Byzantine and early medieval times. Later, the Ottomans adapted older techniques, reintroducing large-scale aqueducts to supply their emerging towns with adequate water for religious and social needs. The scientific approach to engineering matters during the Renaissance further improved aqueduct technology. Some of these improvements were apparently also implemented in Ottoman waterworks. Finally the industrial revolution established mechanized techniques in water acquisition. Water is a common need of mankind, and several ancient civilizations developed simple but practical techniques from which we can still learn. Their experience and knowledge could still play an important role for sustainable water supply

  14. An Exploration of the Effectiveness of Product Archeology in an Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum: What Can a Five-Hour Curriculum Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudan Kremer, Gül E.; Simpson, Timothy W.; Ashour, Omar M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present our efforts in embedding product archeology inspired curricula into two engineering courses along with assessment results. The assessment focuses on the effectiveness of the embedded curricula in enhancing students' understanding on the global, societal, environmental, and economic (GSEE) implications of engineering…

  15. Identification of oil residues in Roman amphorae (Monte Testaccio, Rome): a comparative FTIR spectroscopic study of archeological and artificially aged samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Gabriele; Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Campanella, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to the analysis of oil residues in fragments of archeological amphorae (3rd century A.D.) from Monte Testaccio (Rome, Italy) is reported. In order to check the possibility to reveal the presence of oil residues in archeological pottery using microinvasive and\\or not invasive techniques, different approaches have been followed: firstly, FTIR spectroscopy was used to study oil residues extracted from roman amphorae. Secondly, the presence of oil residues was ascertained analyzing microamounts of archeological fragments with the Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, the external reflection analysis of the ancient shards was performed without preliminary treatments evidencing the possibility to detect oil traces through the observation of the most intense features of its spectrum. Incidentally, the existence of carboxylate salts of fatty acids was also observed in DRIFT and Reflectance spectra of archeological samples supporting the roman habit of spreading lime over the spoil heaps. The data collected in all steps were always compared with results obtained on purposely made replicas.

  16. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Obata

    Full Text Available Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots. are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  17. Archaeology Through Computational Linguistics: Inscription Statistics Predict Excavation Sites of Indus Valley Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Gabriel L; Louwerse, Max M

    2016-11-01

    Computational techniques comparing co-occurrences of city names in texts allow the relative longitudes and latitudes of cities to be estimated algorithmically. However, these techniques have not been applied to estimate the provenance of artifacts with unknown origins. Here, we estimate the geographic origin of artifacts from the Indus Valley Civilization, applying methods commonly used in cognitive science to the Indus script. We show that these methods can accurately predict the relative locations of archeological sites on the basis of artifacts of known provenance, and we further apply these techniques to determine the most probable excavation sites of four sealings of unknown provenance. These findings suggest that inscription statistics reflect historical interactions among locations in the Indus Valley region, and they illustrate how computational methods can help localize inscribed archeological artifacts of unknown origin. The success of this method offers opportunities for the cognitive sciences in general and for computational anthropology specifically.

  18. An Archeological Survey of Selected Federal Lands on the West Bank of the Big Bend/Lake Sharpe Project Area, Lyman and Stanley Counties, South Dakota, 1983: Supporting Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    MOUND, VILG , HBTIO, ET.) Buried Prehiatorie & Artifa-t- cartter CULTURAL AFFILIATIONS Unknown Prehistoric: Plains Villa~ Poe-otq -ole LOCATION SF)h...TYPE OF URAINS NO, VILG , HBTIO, EC)Artifact scatter CULTURAL AFFILIATIONS Unknown Prehistoric LOCATION NWh N NW~ NI& j SECTION__g_.. TOMNSHIP 4N

  19. Erratics and Re-cycled Stone: scholarly irrelevancies or fundamental utilities to lithic studies in prehistoric Britain and beyond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stephen Briggs

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many theories explaining later prehistoric 'trade' and 'exchange systems' in stone artefacts. Evidence matching the petrographic information of transported implements with the country rock (local bedrock where 'factories' produced flaked stone axes is felt to be compelling. Consequently, across Europe it is widely believed that the only way 'factory' rock could have reached the places where artefacts have been found was by human carriage. The discovery of implement working floors, or 'factories' in montane areas (c. 1900-1970 on primary exposures of stone, lithologically almost identical to polished axes found considerable distances from them, has led to a belief in the industrial, economic or social processing and carriage of finished products. There are caveats to this proof of evidence, however. Natural processes constantly redistribute incalculable numbers of durable erratic pebble- to boulder-sized clasts, so why could these not have been used for making prehistoric artefacts? There is abundant evidence in the archaeological record that artefacts were crafted from such material. And although there is now an archive of petrographic thin-sections available to help to identify the origins of the artefacts, no comparable data are available on re-cycled stone. Implement provenancing is therefore unlikely to be of lasting scientific value until investigative programmes have accumulated far more accurate petrographic data on pebbles and erratics from superficial deposits. Comparisons between some British-Irish implement distribution patterns with those of glacial erratics suggests the available evidence already better fits an interpretation of deterministic and opportunistic stone procurement rather than one involving long-distance travel by prehistoric peoples. Extensive, long-term sampling and provenancing programmes are now needed to address this requirement.

  20. Bone trace element pattern in an 18th century population sample of Tenerife (Canary Islands): comparison with a prehistoric one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Barros-Lopez, N; Galindo-Martin, L

    1998-10-01

    We have determined bone strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), and zinc (Zn) content in 24 samples belonging to adult individuals who died toward the end of the 18th century and were interred in a church's floor on the island of Tenerife, comparing the results with those obtained in 14 prehistoric samples of the same island and also with those of 7 modern controls. No differences were observed between the two ancient groups, which showed higher bone strontium and barium than the modern sample, and a slightly lower Ba/Sr ratio, thus pointing to consumption of marine sources.

  1. X-ray fluorescence analysis with micro glass beads using milligram-scale siliceous samples for archeology and geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Shintaro, E-mail: sichi@meiji.ac.jp [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Properties, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshihiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    A micro glass bead technique was developed to assay precious siliceous samples for geochemical and archeological analyses. The micro-sized (approximately 3.5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in height) glass beads were prepared by mixing and fusing 1.1 mg of the powdered sample and 11.0 mg of the alkali lithium tetraborate flux for wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence determination of major oxides (Na{sub 2}O, MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, MnO, and total Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The preparation parameters, including temperature and agitation during the fusing process, were optimized for the use of a commercial platinum crucible rather than a custom-made crucible. The procedure allows preparation of minute sample amounts of siliceous samples using conventional fusing equipment. Synthetic calibration standards were prepared by compounding chemical reagents such as oxides, carbonates, and diphosphates. Calibration curves showed good linearity with r values > 0.997, and the lower limits of detection were in the 10s to 100s of μg g{sup −1} range (e.g., 140 μg g{sup −1} for Na{sub 2}O, 31 μg g{sup −1} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 8.9 μg g{sup −1} for MnO). Using the present method, we determined ten major oxides in igneous rocks, stream sediments, ancient potteries, and obsidian. This was applicable to siliceous samples with various compositions, because of the excellent agreement between the analytical and recommended values of six geochemical references. This minimal-scale analysis may be available for precious and limited siliceous samples (e.g., rock, sand, soil, sediment, clay, and archeological ceramics) in many fields such as archeology and geochemistry. - Highlights: • X-ray fluorescence determination of major oxides was performed using 1.1 mg of sample. • Preparation and measurement techniques of the XRF micro glass bead specimen were optimized. • Calibration curves using synthetic standards showed good

  2. Briefly on the Periodization of the Xinjin Baodun Site%略论新津宝墩遗址的分期

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明斌

    2001-01-01

    Baodun is a typical site among prehistorical walled sites in the. Chengdu Plains. Based on strategraphy and typology this article divides the site into three phases, which dated to the early phase of the Longshan culture (4500—4200BP) and belonged to the Baodun sub-type of Phase I of the Baodun culture (Baodun type) . The confirmation of Phase I of the site is significant to further research of the Baodun culture.

  3. Radiocarbon Dates Link Marine Incursion and Neoglacial Ice Terminus Advance With Tlingit Ethnohistory and Archeology in Lower Glacier Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C. L.; Monteith, D.; Howell, W.; Strevelar, G.; Leirer, M.

    2004-12-01

    Radiocarbon dates from wood, organic sediments, and marine shells were collected from eroded beach terraces and upper beach sediments in the Beardslee Islands and Berg Bay in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. These provide a timetable for the the outwash plain construction and final advance of the Late Neoglacial glacier front over this outwash plain into lower Glacier Bay. On Kidney Island in the central Beardslee Islands, marine sediments containing Macoma baltica shells were deposited 4310 +/- 40 years BP. Outwash from advancing up-bay glaciers, buried these sediments and created terrestrial substrates upon which forests existed by 1630 +/- 60 BP and 1300 +/- 50 yrs BP. Final ice advance over this forested outwash plain occurred after 430 +/- 60 BP (1430 to 1510 AD) on Kidney Island. This ice arrived at the southern edge of Lester Island in Bartlett Cove after 370 +/- 50 BP (1440 to 1520 AD); preceding the arrival of George Vancouver in 1794 AD. In nearby Icy Straits, archeological investigations have yielded some of the oldest dates of human occupation in the region at 10,180 +/- 800 uncorrected years BP (Ackerman, 1968). In Glacier Bay's ethno-historically rich areas of Bartlett Cove, the Beardslee Islands and Berg Bay the Huna people have names for places and narratives that describe late Neoglacial landscapes. S'é Shuyee is the "area at the end of the glacial mud", L'awsha Shakee Aan "town on top of the glacial sand dunes". There are accounts of villages overrun by surging glaciers, and a name for the bay Sit' eeti Geeyi that translates as "bay in place of the glacier". These dates provide linkage between the geological, archeological, and ethnohistorical evidence that chronicles the history of the Huna people in this dynamic glacier marine environment.

  4. From Stone Graves to Churchyards. Burial traditions in the Late Prehistoric and Early Medieval Island of Saaremaa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Mägi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though pre-historic burials have been the favourite topic of research of Estonian archaeologists at least for the past century, the focus has been on their appearance, chronology, ethnic context and objects discovered in them. Burial tradition, as it reflects in the archaeological remnants, has hardly been studied. Research in the field over the past few years, as well as osteological analysis of bone material, which was first carried out in the 1990s, has introduced new findings in the funeral customs of our ancestors. The article examines funeral customs on the island of Saaremaa, and the ideology behind it. The main focus is on the final centuries of the prehistoric period and the beginning of the Middle Ages – more specifically, on changes brought along by Christianity, although the study also provides an overview of earlier customs. A separate chapter discusses the partial distribution of bones and objects in graves, objects determining the boundaries of graves, and traces of funeral rituals. This evidently reflects a set of traditions, and thus also conceptions about the otherworld, composed of multiple layers and differing considerably from the modern funeral tradition. Christianisation of the population of Saaremaa in the 13th century changed these conceptions beyond recognition over a very short period of time.

  5. Berber genealogy and the politics of prehistoric archaeology and craniology in French Algeria (1860s-1880s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effros, Bonnie

    2017-03-01

    Following the conquest of Algiers and its surrounding territory by the French army in 1830, officers noted an abundance of standing stones in this region of North Africa. Although they attracted considerably less attention among their cohort than more familiar Roman monuments such as triumphal arches and bridges, these prehistoric remains were similar to formations found in Brittany and other parts of France. The first effort to document these remains occurred in 1863, when Laurent-Charles Féraud, a French army interpreter, recorded thousands of dolmens and stone formations south-west of Constantine. Alleging that these constructions were Gallic, Féraud hypothesized the close affinity of the French, who claimed descent from the ancient Gauls, with the early inhabitants of North Africa. After Féraud's claims met with scepticism among many prehistorians, French scholars argued that these remains were constructed by the ancestors of the Berbers (Kabyles in contemporary parlance), whom they hypothesized had been dominated by a blond race of European origin. Using craniometric statistics of human remains found in the vicinity of the standing stones to propose a genealogy of the Kabyles, French administrators in Algeria thereafter suggested that their mixed origins allowed them to adapt more easily than the Arab population to French colonial governance. This case study at the intersection of prehistoric archaeology, ancient history and craniology exposes how genealogical (and racial) classification made signal contributions to French colonial ideology and policy between the 1860s and 1880s.

  6. Archeology, biology, anthropology: human evolution according to Gabriel de Mortillet and John Lubbock (France, England c. 1860-1870).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    This essay compares the first evolutionary syntheses on human prehistory formulated by John Lubbock (1865) in Britain and Gabriel de Mortillet (1869-1883) in France, which both brought the question of human evolution in multidisciplinary light by borrowing tools from archaeology and ethnology rather than from biology. This paper shows that these syntheses displayed similarities as well as differences, and intends to give a comparative assessment of some intellectual and social characteristics of British and French nineteenth-century prehistoric archaeology. Lubbock's and Mortillet's syntheses relied heavily on archaeological collections but these were of different content and status. They stressed progress but they were also organized in accordance to different visions of evolution. Both were articulated from political and religious standpoints, but these standpoints were different in their content and tone.

  7. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Review Starlab Site On Antigua; Phase II Archeological Surveys of Proposed Ground Calibration Sites on Antigua, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    3, the crew via an umbilical connection (i.e., egress tunnel) accesses the Spacelab module, located forward of the pallet. Primary tasks of the...been observed offshore , near the southeastern end of Antigua (Sect 3.4.3). Although this species could be present in the general area during spring

  8. Oil-rich seeds from prehistoric contextsin southern Scandinavia – reflections on archaeobotanical records of fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, and corn spurrey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Plant oils are essential for human nutrition, as their seeds contain high concentrations of valuable fatty acids. Since prehistoric times plant oils have been used for many more purposes, such as lighting, medicines, and as a binding agent for cosmetics, colours, and putty, amongst other things...

  9. Searching for long-term trends in prehistoric manuring practice. δ15N analyses of charred cereal grains from the 4th to the 1st millennium BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Marie; Holst, M.K.; Jensen, Peter Mose

    2014-01-01

    investigation of long term trends in δ15N values of charred cereal grains, which previous research have proposed as an indicator for prehistoric manuring practice. Our study suggests a long-term (3900–500 BC) decrease of manuring intensity in emmer cropping. Conversely the long-term (2300 BC – AD 1) trend...

  10. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus by A. Bernard Knapp involves us in a highly creative reading. This is due mainly to the fact that the author engages in a holistic synthesis of Cyprus in the Bronze Age, not by emphasizing the events and descriptions of the material remains, but by concentrating upon the difficult question of the identity of the islanders of this period and the processes by which it was formed. The author's teaching of Mediterranean prehistory at the University of Glasgow fully accounts for his need to produce a comprehensive theoretical work of this kind: the basic questions asked by students give rise to theoretical concerns for any teacher aiming to 'distil' the essential synthesis that forms the starting point for any further detailed archaeological description. This essential answer seems to have troubled Knapp for some time, judging by the long list of his writings seeking to synthesize aspects of Cypriot economy, cult and society; the present book is thus the highly interesting outcome of the mature thinking of an experienced fieldworker as much as a theoretical archaeologist and teacher. What, then, is the essential question that Knapp seeks to answer through this book? His question focuses on the identity of the islanders of Cyprus during the 'most formative periods, from the village based culture to the international, town-centred, even state-level polity' (p. 1), the way in which this identity was formed, and how it is reflected in both any recorded event and the material culture of the island in this specific period. Moreover, he also explores more fully what the distinctive features of island identity in general are, how they are constituted and how they influence the material culture of any island population. In seeking the answers, the author avoids a number of the usual approaches to Cypriot archaeology and turns, instead, to new interpretive directions. The approaches he avoids are the citing of events of Cypriot prehistory, the

  11. Archeological Data Recovery at Site 16SJB29, Near Willow Bend, St. John The Baptist Parish, Louisiana with a Discussion of Regional Archeological Expectations and Priorities Along the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Orleans from Saint Domingue. During the early 1750s, Claude Joseph Villars Dubreuil, illustrious builder, inventor, planter, and commander of the...later Mendez who purchased the Solis plantation, grew the cane and produced the tafia to distill rum. It was Mendez’s sugar maker, chemist Antoine Morin

  12. An Archeological Survey in the Gypsum Breaks on the Elm Fork of the Red River,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Hughes (1973). One of the known sites was reported by James Shaeffer in 1960. The Hughes survey was based on an earlier plan to dam Fish Creek, and he...limits. Artifacts recovered include Trinity, Ensor , Darl, Ellis, Gary, Meserve, Frio, and Abasolo projectile points, Clear Fork gouges, burins and...Marcos, Ensor , Palmillas and Trinity. From the material of these four sites an estimated range of dates was proposed at 2000 B.C. to 1000 A.D. Eight

  13. Earthquake catalog for estimation of maximum earthquake magnitude, Central and Eastern United States: Part A, Prehistoric earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Computation of probabilistic earthquake hazard requires an estimate of Mmax, the maximum earthquake magnitude thought to be possible within a specified geographic region. This report is Part A of an Open-File Report that describes the construction of a global catalog of moderate to large earthquakes, from which one can estimate Mmax for most of the Central and Eastern United States and adjacent Canada. The catalog and Mmax estimates derived from it were used in the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey national seismic-hazard maps. This Part A discusses prehistoric earthquakes that occurred in eastern North America, northwestern Europe, and Australia, whereas a separate Part B deals with historical events.

  14. Prehistoric and Historic Cultural Resources of Selected Sites at Harlan County Lake, Harlan County, Nebraska: Test Excavations and Determination of Significance for 28 Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    429 91 Freshwater mussels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 92 Fauna from 25HN36 . ........... . 435 93 Preferred habitats of fauna from...Unit I Picea Qlauca white spruce, numerous needles, twigs and a few cones bryophytes mosses insects MNI percentage Gastocopta rmife mollusc 20 0.67...to be extinct bison (B. occidentalis). While bison occured in a variety of Pleistocene habitats , nobel marten was somewhat more restricted in its

  15. Mitochondrial genome diversity at the Bering Strait area highlights prehistoric human migrations from Siberia to northern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryomov, Stanislav V; Nazhmidenova, Azhar M; Shalaurova, Sophia A; Morozov, Igor V; Tabarev, Andrei V; Starikovskaya, Elena B; Sukernik, Rem I

    2015-10-01

    The patterns of prehistoric migrations across the Bering Land Bridge are far from being completely understood: there still exists a significant gap in our knowledge of the population history of former Beringia. Here, through comprehensive survey of mitochondrial DNA genomes retained in 'relic' populations, the Maritime Chukchi, Siberian Eskimos, and Commander Aleuts, we explore genetic contribution of prehistoric Siberians/Asians to northwestern Native Americans. Overall, 201 complete mitochondrial sequences (52 new and 149 published) were selected in the reconstruction of trees encompassing mtDNA lineages that are restricted to Coastal Chukotka and Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and the Aleutian chain. Phylogeography of the resulting mtDNA genomes (mitogenomes) considerably extends the range and intrinsic diversity of haplogroups (eg, A2a, A2b, D2a, and D4b1a2a1) that emerged and diversified in postglacial central Beringia, defining independent origins of Neo-Eskimos versus Paleo-Eskimos, Aleuts, and Tlingit (Na-Dene). Specifically, Neo-Eskimos, ancestral to modern Inuit, not only appear to be of the High Arctic origin but also to harbor Altai/Sayan-related ancestry. The occurrence of the haplogroup D2a1b haplotypes in Chukotka (Sireniki) introduces the possibility that the traces of Paleo-Eskimos have not been fully erased by spread of the Neo-Eskimos or their descendants. Our findings are consistent with the recurrent gene flow model of multiple streams of expansions to northern North America from northeastern Eurasia in late Pleistocene-early Holocene.

  16. Alloy characterization of a 7th Century BC archeological bronze vase — Overcoming patina constraints using Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manso, M. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Fisica da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologias, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte da Caparica (Portugal); Faculdade de Belas-Artes da Universidade de Lisboa, Largo da Academia Nacional de Belas-Artes, 1249-058 Lisboa (Portugal); Schiavon, N. [Hercules Laboratory, University of Évora, Palácio do Vimioso,Largo Marquês de Marialva 8, 7000-809 Évora Portugal (Portugal); Queralt, I. [Laboratory of X-ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera, CSIC, Solé Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Arruda, A.M. [Centro de Arqueologia da Universidade de Lisboa (UNIARQ), Alameda da Universidade, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal); Sampaio, J.M. [BioISI — Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Brunetti, A., E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it [Department of Political Science and Communication, University of Sassari, Via Piandanna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    In this work we evaluate the composition of a bronze alloy using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. For this purpose, a 7th Century BC archeological vase from the SW Iberian Peninsula, displaying a well formed corrosion patina was analyzed by means of a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Realistic MC simulations of the experimental setup were performed with the XRMC code package which is based on an intensive use of variance-reduction techniques and uses XRAYLIB a constantly updated X-ray library of atomic data. A single layer model was applied for simulating XRF of polished/pristine bronze whereas a two-or-three-layer model was developed for bronze covered respectively by a corrosion patina alone or coupled with a superficial soil derived crust. These simulations took into account corrosion (cerussite (PbCO{sub 3}), cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O), malachite (Cu{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}), litharge (PbO)) and soil derived products (goethite (FeO(OH)) and quartz (SiO{sub 2})) identified by means of X-ray diffraction and Raman micro analytical techniques. Results confirm previous research indicating that the XRF/Monte Carlo protocol is well suited when a two-layered model is considered, whereas in areas where the patina + soil derived products' crust is too thick, X-rays from the alloy substrate are not able to exit the sample. Quantitative results based on MC simulations indicate that the vase is made of a lead–bronze alloy: Mn (0.2%), Fe (1.0%), Cu (81.8%), As (0.5%), Ag (0.6%), Sn (8.0%) and Pb (8.0%). - Highlights: • We study an archeological bronze vase with patina corrosion using XRF spectrometry. • The experimental setup is modeled using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. • Combining MC simulations with XRF it is possible to derive concentrations. • We demonstrated that this is possible without removing the patina.

  17. The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Mammalia: Rodentia, found at the archaeological site SC PRV 02, Santa Catarina Island, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Simões-Lopes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina Island possesses dozens of archeological sites where the skeletal remains of a great array of animals can be found. The goal of this study was to quantify the skeletal remains of capybaras found at the archeological site SC PRV 02 (1067 to 1735 BP, located in the northern part of the island, along the shores of Lagoa da Conceição, a saltwater lagoon. Thirty-seven skeletal fragments of at least 12 different individuals were identified. The anatomic regions of the capybaras most sought-after by pre-colonial inhabitants were the anterior and posterior limbs. About 40% of the skeletal fragments did not show any epiphyseal fusion with the shaft. Approximately 48% of the fragments found presented evidence of human activity. Our analyses suggest that capybaras played an important role in the diet of these inhabitants and that they were also used for the confection of different functional goods. We diagnosed the manipulation techniques used to obtain these goods, such as percussion and transversal section. The evidence of carbonization and superficial incisions indicates dismembering, preparation, and consumption of capybaras for feeding. Similar techniques were found at other archeological sites of the same age, suggesting that even though pre-colonial inhabitants of the island were considered to be fishermen, capybaras represented a well-appreciated resource.

  18. Blue Mountain Lake; An Archeological Survey and an Experimental Study of Inundation Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    extending back from the bank to the treeline which marks the lake boundary, this site is a very thin scatter of chipped stone. Much of the area was... treeline and river bank. Material Collected: 13 flakes of novaculite and chert, 1 biface fragment. Chronological Position: Unknown 3LO54 Description...AND TYPE Plus Y 12 DIREC- T NEGATIVE N0. DATE TION SIATI DESCRIPTION NUMBER !"ue Nountain Lak e from site 9 1-2-77 SI’ area 74 10 1-2-77 V, Climatic

  19. Archeological Investigations in Cochiti Reservoir, New Mexico. Volume 2. Excavation and Analysis 1975 Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    fill. floor fill, and floor an unsuccessful test pit on the south side of the room- contact and peel off the designated layers. As fate would blocks...site, although a few mano fragments may indicate maize processing. Preparation of The possibility thus exists that the inhabitants of flour or meal

  20. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for Rotterdam Housing Areas Numbers 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    1900:142). Beauchamp (1900:142) indicated that he does not place much stock in Macauley’s statement. Parker (1920:692) described a village site within... scarlet and scrub oak in almost pure stands. These adjoin the Northern Hardwood types such as maple, birch and beech. Pure stands of oak generally occur

  1. A Review of Magneto/Dielectric Techniques Applied to the Study of Venezuelan Stratigraphic and Archeological Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.

    2008-05-01

    In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar (Caracas, Venezuela), has combined rock magnetic and dielectric properties (thermally stimulated depolarization currents or TSDC) of fossil- poor sedimentary rocks (eastern and western Venezuela) in order to set up new physical markers that could be used as alternative means for stratigraphic correlations. These magneto/dielectric characterizations have also proven useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently, this two-fold technique has been applied to archeological materials (potsherds) to track down clay sources and find out about different methods of pottery craftsmanship. Rock magnetic characterizations include the measurement of bulk properties that provide information about nature, concentration and granulometries of magnetic minerals. Rock dielectric characterizations examine the thermal relaxation to equilibrium of electrically polarizable entities that are affected by their molecular surroundings and therefore by the type of material analyzed. Thermal remanent magnetic acquisitions and TSDC analyses are based on two distinct physical properties albeit similar process of polarization and thermal relaxation to equilibrium.

  2. Documentation of cultural heritage sites using the INSPIRE directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkadolou, Eleni; Prastacos, Poulicos

    2016-08-01

    The INSPIRE directive, adopted by the EC in 2007 provides the guidelines for the organization of all geographic data and is the basis for establishing a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). Documentation of cultural heritage sites such as archeological areas, historic places and others is not a thematic area addressed in the directive. However, as discussed in this paper the directive can be extended to cover the documentation of these sites as well. The location of an archaeological area and its monuments, its legal status, the surrounding physical environment (NATURA protected areas), the protection zones around the site and the permitted development can be documented following the INSPIRE directive. Additionally, results of research carried out in these sites such as geophysical surveys, use of satellite images or topographical surveys can be also organized using the INSPIRE guidelines.

  3. Filtering Techniques on Analysis of Archeology Areas Using RADARSAT Images: Case Study of Lembah Bujang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norzailawati, M. N.; Akma, R. S.; Alias, A.; Zuraini, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Speckle noise present in radar imagery caused by interaction of out -of-phase waves with a target, the objective of this paper is attempt to test filtering techniques consist of Lee, Frost and Gamma Map to identify a potential shrines area in Lembah Bujang using RADARSAT imageries. The multi-temporal images of RADARSAT for years 2003 and 2014 have been used filtering techniques in identifying potential shrines consist of have been used and tested to selected study areas with using processing software of ENVI 4.8 and ArcGIS 10.2. Based on mathematical morphology, the speckles in these images were reduced, once the reduction is achieved, the enhancement of archaeological sites is accomplished. The finding shows that Local Adaptive Filtering on GAMMA Map filter is the best techniques in identifying potential shrines areas at once as guidance to pursuing an area as official gazette historical site in Malaysia context.

  4. An Archeological Survey at Fort Devens, Massachusetts and Its Off-Base Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Valley was famous for its rifles, machinery, axes, waffle irons, augers, and bits, all of which found their way to a national market (LeBlanc 1969:73...testing method Is illustrated in Table 13; sampling densities are given In the cells for each level of sensitivity and disturbance among the columns ...Plate 22. Facility 1, Area G, Fort Devens, Mass. Old building site at the northern end of area G. The concrete slab on which this building was built is

  5. Archeological Investigations in Cochiti Reservoir, New Mexico. Volume 3. 1976-1977 Field Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    En Medio phase), Anasazi (Pueblo II, Pueblo and it would extend from the Santa Fe River, in the south, IV), and Historic (Spanish Colonial...significance with respect to specific *Plate H), it appeared that sites situated below 5400 feet research problems. These problem areas or orientations ...Reservoir. Within the reservoir and organized into systems of adaptive behavior. Using these immediate environs, only late Archaic Armijo-En Medio two

  6. Cultural Resources Survey, Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir Project, Missouri. Volume 4. The Archeological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    River Sac River Pomme de Terre River Grand River Deepwater Creek Tebo Creek IO. ABBTHACT (T-tmUmn mm f<mrmm «M» M n««»«t««y aarf Idtullr...hematite, ceramics, and projectile points. Volume VI consists of an interpretation of the Euro-American settlement of the lower Pomme de Terre River...valley. Volume VI1 is a study of the re- sults of preliminary testing at several sites in the lower Pomme de Terre River valley

  7. Different types of multiethnic societies and different patterns of development and change in the prehistoric Near East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangipane, Marcella

    2015-07-28

    After briefly examining the forms of cultural contact in pre- and protohistoric societies in relation to the problem of the varying perception of territories and their "borders" as well as of "membership" in those societies, and after a brief reconsideration of the concept of culture and ethnicity in such archaic contexts, this paper then examines three examples of multiethnic societies in the Near East, and specifically in Upper Mesopotamia and Southeast Anatolia, in the fifth, fourth, and at the beginning of the third millennia before the common era (BCE), respectively. These examples are dealt with as emblematic cases of different models of society, types of interaction with alien groups, levels of integration, and development dynamics. Each of these cases is examined with respect to its socioeconomic context, the archeological evidence of "multiethnicity," the types of interaction between different components, the degree of cultural integration achieved, and the effects on the dynamics of change and the development of the societies examined. By analyzing and comparing these examples, the paper aims to show how interethnic contact impacted differently on different societies according to their types, the reasons and purposes of the interaction, and the degree of integration achieved.

  8. Preliminary dielectric and rock magnetic results for a set of prehistoric Amerindian pottery samples from different Venezuelan Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Suárez, N.; Aldana, M.; Hernández, M. C.; Campos, C.

    2006-10-01

    Potsherds from 7 Venezuelan islands have been studied using a two-fold magneto/dielectric technique in order to identify clay sources and characterize different stages of pottery craftsmanship. This is the first study of archeological material using this technique. Petrographic analyses appear to agree with the clusters of data identified in scatter plots of initial magnetic susceptibility versus saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), and natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Thus, these magnetic parameters appear to be suitable for describing clay source characteristics. Effective magnetic grain sizes, investigated via stability analyses of SIRM and anystheretic remanent magnetization (ARM) upon alternating field (AF) demagnetization, and SIRM acquisition and AF demagnetization crossover plots, seem to be related to different steps of pottery craftsmanship, namely clay preparation, finishing and firing. Thermomagnetic curves might also provide valuable information about original firing conditions. A scatter plot of SIRMs intersections versus maximum current depolarization temperatures and average activation energies, shows a coarse correlation due perhaps to the fact that these rock magnetic and dielectric data are both associated to pore-related features.

  9. The Toqua site, 40MR6: A late Mississippian, Dallas phase town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, J.; Polhemus, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Archaeological work in the Little Tennessee River Valley was very much affected by the fluctuations in the Tellico Reservoir scheduling and funding. Stated project goals were: ''Questions regarding Cherokee origins, culture change and acculturation, and the length of time during which the valley was inhabited by man will be among the major ones to be considered.'' From the project inception, the principal research commitment was to the eighteenth century Overhill Cherokee occupation of the valley. By 1967, the inundation date was set for 1971. Four main research problems were identified: (1) a complete survey of the reservoir area to locate all prehistoric and historic sites that will be inundated; (2) a thorough testing of the eighteenth century Cherokee towns to determine the effects of acculturation; (3) to determine how long the Overhill Cherokee have occupied the Little Tennessee Valley by excavating a late prehistoric Mississippian village or an early Historic Cherokee village to discover by (sic) continuities between the prehistoric Mississippian complexes and the Historic Cherokee; and (4) to test intensively occupied sites in depth to find earlier Woodland and Archaic complexes in stratigraphic succession (Guthe, 1967). This report describes the results of these investigations.

  10. Romans and Ostrogoths between integration and separation. The contribution of archeology to a historical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aimone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with issues of integration between the Roman population and new immigrants, known from the sources with the collective name of “Ostrogoths”, in the Italian kingdom of Theoderic. Earlier scholarship has focused mostly on the written sources, leading to conflicting conclusions. In this study the material evidence takes the forefront as main data to reconstruct trends of contacts and acculturation among natives and immigrants. The survey of the extant sites showing the possible presence of Ostrogothic groups around the end of the fifth century CE is here limited to modern Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta. The emerging picture is quite complex:  while it is possible to identify interrelations and exchanges between the two groups at different levels of the social life, there are also clear signs of exclusions and separation attesting to a social and economic milieu in rapid transformation.

  11. Application of new technologies in archeology of the Civil War: The Yesares, Pinto (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Díaz Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The surveys carried out in the municipality of Pinto (Madrid have enabled us to locate various structural remains linked to the military operations that took place around the capital during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939. In order to identify and record them, surveys were complemented with the use of GPS and air photographs from different time periods. Afterwards, and in collaboration with researchers from various universities, further methods aimed at generating a complete special representation of the area were applied directly to one of the sites which produced the best results, known as "los Yesares". These methods include topographic mapping that resulted in cartographic material at different scales, the photographic recording with flying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, and the use of land scanners and GPS-corrected photogrammetrics with which to obtain 3D models.

  12. FCJ-183 iHootenanny: A Folk Archeology of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Adam Svec

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper excavates two models of communication that can be found littered across the intertwining histories of folk revivalism and digital culture in the United States. First I examine the Hootenanny, initially a form of rent party made popular in New York City in the 1940s by the group the Almanac Singers, which constituted a complex site of convergence of a range interests, styles, media, and performance genres. Second, I explore how the utopian vision of a community joined in song has been taken up recently by ‘social music’ iPhone apps made by the developer Smule. I will ultimately consider how the mediation idealised by the Almanacs has trickled down to a narcissistic will-to-be-‘in touch’ in mainstream digital culture, making the Hootenanny a virtual path untaken in the history of mobile communication.

  13. Very-to-barely remote sensing of prehistoric features under tephra in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Payson D.

    1991-01-01

    A wide variety of remote sensing instruments have been utilized to attempt to detect archaeological features under volcanic ash in Central America. Some techniques have not been successful, such as seismic refraction, for reasons that are not difficult to understand. Others have been very successful and provide optimism for archaeologists witnessing the destruction of unburied sites throughout Central America. The sudden burial of buildings, gardens, and footpaths by volcanic ash can preserve them extremely well providing a rich data base for understanding human life and culture at certain points in time.

  14. Astronomy and landscape at the prehistoric settlement Villaggio dei Faraglioni, Ustica, Sicily

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Franco Foresta

    2016-01-01

    The placement of the Middle Bronze Age settlement Villaggio dei Faraglioni on the Ustica island is analyzed from a cognitive point of view, taking into account archaeoastronomy and landscape archaeology aspects. It turns out that the place might have been selected because of its privileged position with respect to the landscape, better than conforming to utilitarian/defensive considerations, as occurs for contemporary, for instance Mycenaean, sites. From the village it was indeed possible to follow the rising and setting of the sun in the months close to the winter solstice on the two elevated peaks existing on the opposite side of the island, and in a symmetric way. As a consequence, the inhabitants could obtain a relatively good determination of the solstice day. A possible astronomical orientation of the urban layout is also analyzed.

  15. Differences in coastal subsidence in southern Oregon (USA) during at least six prehistoric megathrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milker, Yvonne; Nelson, Alan R.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Witter, Robert C.

    2016-06-01

    Stratigraphic, sedimentologic (including CT 3D X-ray tomography scans), foraminiferal, and radiocarbon analyses show that at least six of seven abrupt peat-to-mud contacts in cores from a tidal marsh at Talbot Creek (South Slough, Coos Bay), record sudden subsidence (relative sea-level rise) during great megathrust earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zone. Data for one contact are insufficient to infer whether or not it records a great earthquake-it may also have formed through local, non-seismic, hydrographic processes. To estimate the amount of subsidence marked by each contact, we expanded a previous regional modern foraminiferal dataset to 174 samples from six Oregon estuaries. Using a transfer function derived from the new dataset, estimates of coseismic subsidence across the six earthquake contacts vary from 0.31 m to 0.75 m. Comparison of subsidence estimates for three contacts in adjacent cores shows within-site differences of ≤0.10 m, about half the ±0.22 m error, although some estimates may be minimums due to uncertain ecological preferences for Balticammina pseudomacrescens in brackish environments and almost monospecific assemblages of Miliammina fusca on tidal flats. We also account for the influence of taphonomic processes, such as infiltration of mud with mixed foraminiferal assemblages into peat, on subsidence estimates. Comparisons of our subsidence estimates with values for correlative contacts at other Oregon sites suggest that some of our estimates are minimums and that Cascadia's megathrust earthquake ruptures have been heterogeneous over the past 3500 years.

  16. Yours ever... or who was Katherine Brown? Investigations of prehistoric Vinča and British influences during and after World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Vujović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the 110th anniversary of the beginning of the excavations at Vinča is nearing, the question arises as to how much we really know about the role and motives of a number of British subjects who in various ways played decisive roles in the research and the international affirmation of this important Late Neolithic site. It is possible, on the basis of archives and personal correspondence of Miloje M. Vasić, to view the investigations of Vinča in the wider context of political and military relations, influencing the general situation in the Kingdom of The Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later Yugoslavia. John Lynton Myres was a professor at the universities in Oxford and Liverpool, the founder and editor of the Journal Man and the director of the British Archaeological School in Athens. During the World War I, between 1916 and 1919, he was an officer of the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve, first in the Navy Intelligence Service, and then in Military Control Office in Athens. The Browns, Alec and Catherine, also played an important role. Alec Brown, a left-oriented writer, translator and correspondent, arrived to Serbia as a Cambridge graduate, aiming at the post of an English language teacher in high schools. In the period from 1929 to 1931 he took part in the excavations at Vinča, taking this setting as the base for the plot of one of his books. His wife, Elsie Catherine Brown, whose life is very poorly documented, served in the British Embassy in Belgrade between the wars. Vasić dedicated the third volume of Prehistoric Vinča to her, for her devoted work in the British medical mission and the care she took of the Serbian soldiers near Thessalonica, but also for her part played in the establishment of the initial contact with Sir Charles Hyde. The life of Catherine Brown may be seen as one of the many exceptional stories about the noble British ladies, celebrated in Serbia for over a century. However, one should bear in mind that the events and

  17. Recent environmental change and prehistoric human activity in Egypt and Northern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Kathleen

    2004-03-01

    This paper reviews the various Late Quaternary records that are available from western Egypt and northern Sudan, which includes more than 500 published radiocarbon dates and various sedimentary archives from local landscape components, including palaeolakes, soils, drainages (wadis), and archaeological sites. This palaeoenvironmental compilation frames the spatial and temporal context of local cultural activities when the region was most hospitable ˜9000-6000 BP; at this time, monsoonal weather influenced the portion of the African continental interior, creating enough convective rainfall for occasional surface water storage. In this part of the modern Sahara, rapid hydroclimatic changes play a key role in geomorphic evolution and resource availability. As 'watering holes' formed and dried up in the Early to Middle Holocene, Neolithic people developed various subsistence strategies, including opportunistic hunting of small animals (e.g. gazelle and hare), and food-related (e.g. wild sorghum, millet, and legumes) activities: gathering, plant cultivation and livestock-rearing. During its wettest phases during the 'monsoonal maximum,' the area was drought-prone, sustaining a meager steppe-shrub desert flora. Further desertification and aeolian deflation during the Middle and Late Holocene fostered technological innovation, migration and settlement, as well as the further development of agrarian communities and complex culture.

  18. Oral health in prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama oases, Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R E; Neves, W A

    2015-12-01

    After almost 2000 years of local development, including limited trading with neighboring ethnic groups, the societies that occupied the oases of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile, became part of the trade web of the Tiwanaku empire, between 500 and 1000 CE. Archaeological evidence tends to support the idea that the period under the influence of the altiplano (high plane) empire was very affluent. Here we investigate the possibility that this affluence had a positive impact on the health status of the Atacameneans, using the oral health as an indirect indicator of quality of life. Dental decay, dental abscess, dental wear, linear enamel hypoplasia, periodontal disease and dental calculus were analyzed on 371 skeletons from 12 sites from San Pedro de Atacama oases. We believe that if, indeed, there were better biological conditions during the altiplano influence, this could have been caused by the access to a more diversified food intake promoted by the intensification of the trading network established by Tiwanaku in the central-south Andes, of which San Pedro de Atacama became an important node.

  19. An integrated approach to the taxonomic identification of prehistoric shell ornaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Demarchi

    Full Text Available Shell beads appear to have been one of the earliest examples of personal adornments. Marine shells identified far from the shore evidence long-distance transport and imply networks of exchange and negotiation. However, worked beads lose taxonomic clues to identification, and this may be compounded by taphonomic alteration. Consequently, the significance of this key early artefact may be underestimated. We report the use of bulk amino acid composition of the stable intra-crystalline proteins preserved in shell biominerals and the application of pattern recognition methods to a large dataset (777 samples to demonstrate that taxonomic identification can be achieved at genus level. Amino acid analyses are fast (<2 hours per sample and micro-destructive (sample size <2 mg. Their integration with non-destructive techniques provides a valuable and affordable tool, which can be used by archaeologists and museum curators to gain insight into early exploitation of natural resources by humans. Here we combine amino acid analyses, macro- and microstructural observations (by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to try to identify the raw material used for beads discovered at the Early Bronze Age site of Great Cornard (UK. Our results show that at least two shell taxa were used and we hypothesise that these were sourced locally.

  20. An integrated approach to the Taxonomic identification of prehistoric shell ornaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarchi, Beatrice; O'Connor, Sonia; Ponzoni, Andre de Lima; Ponzoni, Raquel de Almeida Roch; Sheridan, Alison; Penkman, Kirsty; Hancock, Y.; Wilson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Shell beads appear to have been one of the earliest examples of personal adornments. Marine shells identified far from the shore evidence long-distance transport and imply networks of exchange and negotiation. However, worked beads lose taxonomic clues to identification, and this may be compounded by taphonomic alteration. Consequently, the significance of this key early artefact may be underestimated. We report the use of bulk amino acid composition of the stable intra-crystalline proteins preserved in shell biominerals and the application of pattern recognition methods to a large dataset (777 samples) to demonstrate that taxonomic identification can be achieved at genus level. Amino acid analyses are fast (<2 hours per sample) and micro-destructive (sample size <2 mg). Their integration with non-destructive techniques provides a valuable and affordable tool, which can be used by archaeologists and museum curators to gain insight into early exploitation of natural resources by humans. Here we combine amino acid analyses, macro- and microstructural observations (by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and Raman spectroscopy to try to identify the raw material used for beads discovered at the Early Bronze Age site of Great Cornard (UK). Our results show that at least two shell taxa were used and we hypothesise that these were sourced locally.

  1. Detect, map, and preserve Bronze & Iron Age monuments along the pre-historic Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Timo; Caspari, Gino; Fu, Bihong

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia is rich in cultural heritage generated by thousands of years of human occupation. Aiming for a better understanding of Central Asia’s archaeology and how this unique heritage can be protected, the region should be studied as a whole with regard to its cultural ties with China and combined efforts should be undertaken in shielding the archaeological monuments from destruction. So far, international research campaigns have focused predominantly on single-sites or small-scale surveys, mainly due to the bureaucratic and security related issues involved in cross-border research. This is why we created the Dzungaria Landscape Project. Since 2013, we have worked on collecting remote sensing data of Xinjiang including IKONOS, WorldView-2, and TerraSAR-X data. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of larger grave mound structures in optical and SAR data. Gravemounds are typically spatially clustered and the detection of larger mound structures is a sufficient hint towards areas of high archaeological interest in a region. A meticulous remote sensing survey is the best planning tool for subsequent ground surveys and excavation. In summer 2015, we undertook a survey in the Chinese Altai in order to establish ground-truth in the Hailiutan valley. We categorized over 1000 monuments in just three weeks thanks to the previous detection and classification work using remote sensing data. Creating accurate maps of the cemeteries in northern Xinjiang is a crucial step to preserving the cultural heritage of the region since graves in remote areas are especially prone to looting. We will continue our efforts with the ultimate aim to map and monitor all large gravemounds in Dzungaria and potentially neighbouring eastern Kazakhstan.

  2. Knowledge and Valorization of Historical Sites Through 3d Documentation and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farella, E.; Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.; Morabito, D.; Remondino, F.; Campi, M.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the first results of an interdisciplinary project related to the 3D documentation, dissemination, valorization and digital access of archeological sites. Beside the mere 3D documentation aim, the project has two goals: (i) to easily explore and share via web references and results of the interdisciplinary work, including the interpretative process and the final reconstruction of the remains; (ii) to promote and valorize archaeological areas using reality-based 3D data and Virtual Reality devices. This method has been verified on the ruins of the archeological site of Pausilypon, a maritime villa of Roman period (Naples, Italy). Using Unity3D, the virtual tour of the heritage site was integrated and enriched with the surveyed 3D data, text documents, CAAD reconstruction hypotheses, drawings, photos, etc. In this way, starting from the actual appearance of the ruins (panoramic images), passing through the 3D digital surveying models and several other historical information, the user is able to access virtual contents and reconstructed scenarios, all in a single virtual, interactive and immersive environment. These contents and scenarios allow to derive documentation and geometrical information, understand the site, perform analyses, see interpretative processes, communicate historical information and valorize the heritage location.

  3. Change of PAHs with evolution of paddy soils from prehistoric to present over the last six millennia in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Cornelia, Mueller-Niggemann [Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Wang, Minyan, E-mail: jz.zafu@gmail.com [Tianmu College of Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 252 Yijin Str.of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Cao, Zhihong [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Rd., Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Xiping, E-mail: luoxpzj@yahoo.com.cn [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Wong, Minghung [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, 224 Waterloo Rd., Kln., Hong Kong (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Ecology and Evolution, Frankfurt University, Max-Von-Laue Str. 13, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydroponics management on soil organic components with evolution of paddy soil over the last six millennia, PAHs, as a biomarker, as well as total organic carbon content were used to explore changes of paddy soil organic carbon in two entirely buried ancient paddy soil profiles. The results showed that hydroponics management can cause organic carbon deposition in rice paddy. The changing of total PAH concentrations was not always in accordance with the changing of total organic carbon contents in layers of the buried ancient paddy soils. The PAHs in 6280 BP prehistoric paddy soil layer was 3-ring > 5-ring > 4-ring > 6-ring, while in layers of the present paddy soil and the prehistoric upland were 3-ring > 4-ring > 5-ring > 6-ring. The contribution of phenanthrene to total PAHs in two profiles and the increasing ratio of phenanthrene to alkylated PAHs from parent material/6280 BP prehistoric upland to 6280 BP paddy suggested substantial increase of the anthropogenic influence of hydroponics management on rice paddy soil. And in view of the {sup 14}C age and bioremains in the two profiles, it was only possible for PAHs to be derived from hydroponics management with evolution of the paddy soils form the Neolithic age. Cadalene could be used as an indicator for biological sources of PAHs released by rice plant residues, and benzo[g,h,i]fluoranthene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene for pyrogenic sources released by field vegetation fires. - Highlights: ► Soil hydroponics management can cause SOC deposition in rice paddy. ► PAHs in buried ancient paddy soil profiles were mainly derived from anthropogenic hydroponics management. ► PAH, as a biomarker, was not suitable for tracing SOC change with evolution of paddy soil from the Neolithic age.

  4. Present messages from the past: Archaeology didactics at the Museum of Prehistoric Art of Mação (Central Portugal and the example of the Andakatu Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heritage education, although still often set aside, has assumed an increasing role in current mindsets, regardless of the different realities in terms of geography and socio-cultural frame. The Andakatu Project based at the Museum of Prehistoric Art of Mação (Portugal is aimed at wide audience and presents a programme, activities and contents arising from multiple archaeological research programmes conducted at the Museum and its partners (namely universities and research centres. Archaeology, being the starting point, is intertwined with various scientific and artistic aspects in order to encourage questioning, learning and citizenship through a communication based on interactive experimentation.

  5. Historic and pre-historic tsunamis in the Mediterranean and its connected seas: a review on documentation, geological signatures, generation mechanisms and coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Urgeles, Roger; Sallares, Valenti; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; González, Mauricio; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Mascle, Jean; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Salamon, Amos; Tinti, Stefano; Fokaefs, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Novikova, Tatyana; Papageorgiou, Antonia

    2013-04-01

    The origin of tsunamis in the Mediterranean region and its connected seas is reviewed. A variety of historical documentary sources combined with evidence from on-shore and off-shore geological signatures, geomorphological imprints, observations from selected coastal archaeological sites, as well as from instrumental records, clearly indicate that seismic and non-seismic (e.g. volcanism, landslides) tsunami sources can be found in all the seas of the region. Local, regional and basin-wide tsunamis have been documented. An improved map of 22 tsunamigenic zones and their relative potential for tsunami generation is presented. From west to east, the most tsunamigenic zones are situated offshore SW Iberia, in North Algeria, in the Tyrrhenian Calabria and Messina Straits, in the western and eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc, in Corinth Gulf (Central Greece), in the Levantine Sea off-shore the Dead Sea Transform Fault and in the eastern Marmara Sea. The mean recurrence of large (intensity≥8) tsunamis in the entire region is ~90 yrs and in the Mediterranean basin ~102 yrs. However, for most of the historical events it is still doubtful which one was the causative seismic fault and if the tsunami was caused by co-seismic fault dislocation or by earthquake-triggered submarine landslides or by a combined source mechanism (e.g. Lisbon 1755). Instrumentally recorded seismic tsunamis (e.g. Messina 1908, S. Aegean 1956) are still with debatable sources. Calculation of seismic slip slowness factor does not indicate that the 1908 and 1956 events were "tsunami earthquakes". In pre-historical times large tsunamis were caused by volcanic processes in Thera and Etna. A tsunami was supposedly generated in the Holocene by the so-called BIG'95 large submarine landslide in W. Mediterranean. The AD 1650 eruption of the submarine Columbo volcano, off-shore Thera, caused an important tsunami but very little is known about its source mechanism. We concluded that investigating further the

  6. An Archeology of Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald L. Bruns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a short (fragmentary history of fragmentary writing from the German Romantics (F. W. Schlegel, Friedrich Hölderlin to modern and contemporary concrete or visual poetry. Such writing is (often deliberately a critique of the logic of subsumption that tries to assimilate whatever is singular and irreducible into totalities of various categorical or systematic sorts. Arguably, the fragment (parataxis is the distinctive feature of literary Modernism, which is a rejection, not of what precedes it, but of what Max Weber called “the rationalization of the world” (or Modernity whose aim is to keep everything, including all that is written, under surveillance and control.

  7. An Archeological Survey, Initial Site Testing and Geomorphic Study of Ditches 7, 13 and Lower Buffalo Creek in Craighead, Mississippi and Poinsett Counties, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    the Buffalo Island area until 1898, when Monette was established (Town Crier 6-17-76:4B). Thomas Varner, a surgeon who accompanied the Cherokee to...Mountains, U.S.A. Ecologia Nediteranea, In press. 272 Delcourt, H. R., and P. A. Delcourt 1985 Quaternary Palynology and Vegetational History of the...Engineers, Memphis District, Contract No. DACW66-76-C-0006. Myers, J. Thomas 1970 Chert Resources of the Lower Illinois Valley: A Study of Chert Raw

  8. Phase I Marine Archeological Remote Sensing Survey of the Proposed Mississippi River Sand Borrow Sites for the Louisiana Coastal Area Barrier Shoreline Restoration Project, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    artificial levees. Natural levee deposits vary in thickness from 10.0 ft (3.0 m) to less than 5.0 ft (1.5 m) and typically overlie marsh deposits measuring...are absent from the Early Archaic Period assemblages (Chapman 1977; Lentz 1986). Living floors associated with hearths , shallow pit features, and

  9. Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Physical-Chemical-Biological Processes Affecting Archeological Sites Held in College Station, Texas on May 27-29, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    of fungi will attack plant or animal materials , depending on the chemical constitution of the material . The hyphae form a network called mycelium ...128 Characteristics of Frequently Analyzed Carbon Sample Materials ...135 Expected Changes and Effects on Archaeological Materials During Burial or

  10. Archeological Testing of the North Bend Site (16SMY132) and Survey of the Todd Area Levee, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    the mill, fed into the roller mill, and pressed twice to extract the juice. The residual fiber , called bagasse , was "carried out to a huge brick chimney...National Register Criteria, 36 CFR Section 60.4 (d), which states, properties that "have yielded or may be likely to yield information important in...Geomorphic Region ............... 19 Figure 10. Diagrammatic cross section of the natural levee of Bayou Sale ......... 23 Figure 11. Map showing the property

  11. Sharpley’s Bottom Historic Sites Interdisciplinary Investigations, Tombigbee River Multi-Resource District, Alabama and Mississippi. Phase II. Archeological Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    patterns of concoidal fracture and also 125 lk tend to grade into and include the so-called hotel china wares which exhibit a semivitreous or porcelaneous...Tombigbee River systems.) 22M0997 ,4 FlA Cattle 1 pc. 106.Og (Butchered right innominate. The series of saw- cut margins about the acetabulum

  12. Prehistory of the Middle Cahttahoochee River Valley. Findings of the 1989-1990 West Point Lake Archeological Survey and Site Testing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    and it was during this period that mortuary practices began to significantly change with cremated and non- cremated burials being placed in earthen...Gromwell 4 * Milkweed 1 * Peppervine 14 1 Sassafras 1 * Silky Cornel 2 * Straw 3 * Three Seeded Mercury 1 * Total: 63 Cultigaens and Possible Cultigens

  13. A civilização maia: contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica The Mayan Civilization: historiographic and archeological contextualization

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Guida Navarro

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo versa sobre a contextualização historiográfica e arqueológica da civilização maia. O intuito é traçar um perfil das primeiras explorações nos sítios arqueológicos, observar a construção do conhecimento criada acerca das primeiras informações obtidas pela Arqueologia, além das diversas vinculações das pesquisas empreendidas em relação aos contextos históricos de sua época e as teorias utilizadas atualmente pelos maístas.This article deals with the historiographic and archeological ...

  14. Excavation of the Gantuoyan Site in Napo County, Guangxi%广西那坡县感驮岩遗址发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    广西壮族自治区文物工作队; 那坡县博物馆

    2003-01-01

    The Gantuoyan site is the cave site nearest to the continent of Southeast Asia recorded so far in Guangxi. The prehistoric cultural deposits yielded plenty of objects and fall into two phases. Thefirst phase belongs to the late Neolithic Age and dates from about 5000BP. Its cultural relics include pottery, stone and bone artifacts. Among the prevailing pottery utensils are round-based and three-legged vessels and spindle-whorls, with bo bowls occurring frequently and jars often shaped like a cup largelywith three legs or furnished with a high neck. The vessel surface is decorated with incised design variedin form. The second phase corresponds roughly to the Shang period, dating from about 3000-2800BP.The unearthed objects include pottery articles, stone tools and bone artifacts. There prevailed ring-foot vessels and spindle whorls. The former belong to the types of jar, high-necked jar, gui-basin-shapedvessel, large-mouthed fu cauldron, outturned-rimmed fu, pot, basin and bo bowl. They are decoratedwith incised geometrical motifs, painted patterns, and incised-stamped-painted designs. Among the im portant finds are stone yue battle-axes and molds and serrated zhang tablets. The site is of great value to establishing a sequence of cultural development for prehistoric southwestern Guangxi and to researching into the relationship of the prehistoric culture in Guangxi with those in Southeast Asia.

  15. Feasibility determination of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites: Mousam River Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites along the Mousam River in southeastern Maine was studied. The following areas were investigated: determination of available energy; development of restoration concepts; environmental studies; historical and archeological studies; assessment of civil construction requirements; geotechnical and geologic assessment of existing dams; assessment of turbine alternatives; assessment of generator and utility interface alternatives; economic analysis; and restoration concept evaluation and selection. The results of the hydropower evaluation showed that: of the seven sites evaluated, only four can be considered economically feasible for refurbishment at this time; the use of used and/or rebuilt equipment is more economically attractive than new equipment; the cost of equipment at each site was of the same order as the cost of the dam reconstruction; and the cost of fuel prices will be the determining feature of whether the sites should be reconstructed.

  16. Discovery of Prehistoric Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshtein, A. A.

    1995-12-01

    It was Charles Francois Dupui, of France, who two centuries ago in his twelve-volume "Origine de tous les cults" (1795) worked out a proposition that all the different religious customs, stories, and dogmas will be found upon examination to have a cradle as one or another aspect of the natural, mainly, astronomical phenomena. It is absolutely correct but he and his spirited followers failed to develop a basic scientific quantitative argument focused on astronomy - chronological distribution of events. It is the first time that a combination of the up-to-date knowledge in archaic symbology and the professional astronomical data for precession and other regular astronomical events constitutes conditions for an absolutely new approach. An astronomical reconstruction of the evolution of the Zodiacal constellations was made, based on the Indo-european and Sumero-Akkadian religio-cultural data, including artifacts such as cult statuettes, cuneiform tablets, cylinder seals and boundary stones. It was argued that the development of 12 houses of the Zodiac in 3 groups of 4 over some six millennia was dictated by the changes made by precession in the positions of the vernal and autumnal equinoxes and the summer and winter solstices. The first quartet of the Zodiacal constellations (Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces) was recognized by the first agriculturists from the Fertile Crescent to learn the four most important Sun positions and to predict the ongoing seasons; it was done as far back as 5,600 B.C. (with a formal error of this determination about +/- 150 years). The second one (Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius) was introduced in 2,700 +/- 250 years B.C. by Egyptians with their own animal symbolism that was the etymological root for the term the Zodiac (a circle of animals). This event was followed with the acquaintance of the new calendar and erection of the great pyramids as an eternal sanctuary for their mental triumph. In the first half of 14 century B.C. the Egyptian pharaoh Ekhnaton (Amenhotep 1V) attempted to inaugurate a new four constellation set to fixate the Sun track. The attempt was in vain but it seems the knowledge to go via Moses and the tribes left Egypt for Canaan. According our precessional dating the final design of the Zodiac with 12 houses appeared at 1,200 +/- 400 years B.C. In opposite to the figure 7 which was from the Paleolithic, the first great opus where figure 12 appeared as a sacred one was the Holy Bible. Many other details of the concept proposed are discussed.

  17. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  18. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  19. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  20. Fish and other faunal remains from a Late Iron Age site on the Letaba River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Plug

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish remains from Late Iron Age sites in the Transvaal are relatively scarce. It seems as if the people did not utilize the riverine resources extensively. Therefore the unique assemblage of large numbers of fish bones on a Late Iron Age site, provides some insight into the fish population of a section of the Letaba River a few hundred years ago. The presence of other faunal remains provides some information on prehistoric utilization of the environment in general. Hunting strategies and aspects of herding can also be deduced from the faunal remains.

  1. Cultural Resources Survey, Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir Project, Missouri. Volume 8. Archeological Test Excavations: 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Analysis Euro-American Settlement Site Testing Rock Shelters Environmental Studies Osage River Sac River Pomme de Terre River Grand River...interpretation of the Euro-American settlement of the lower Pomme de Terre River valley. Volume VII is a study of the re- sults of preliminary testing at...several sites in the lower Pomme de Terre River valley. Volume VITI contains the results of excavations in rock shelters along the Osage River. Volume

  2. The mills of Asunción and San Miguel in Tecamachalco and Acatzingo, Puebla (Evidence from Industrial Archeology)

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Moreno, Humberto; Centro de Investigación de Historia Económica y Social, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows examples of recording and partial archaeological survey of two Mexican wheat mills in the centralplateau and the archaeological evidence following the ticcih-Mexico methodology to register and protect these agroindustrialhistorical sites. We make a short historical description of each site and then an architectural registrationin order to rescue and protect as according to ticcih rules. Este ensayo muestra dos ejemplos de registro y rescate parcial de dos molinos de trigo ...

  3. Regional, holocene records of the human dimension of global change: sea-level and land-use change in prehistoric Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Andrew

    1997-02-01

    Regional, Holocene records hold particular relevance for understanding the reciprocal nature of global environmental change and one of its major human dimensions: "sustainable agriculture", i.e., food production strategies which entail fewer causes of and are less susceptible to environmental change. In an epoch of accelerating anthropogenic transformation, those records reveal the protracted regional causes and consequences of change (often agricultural) in the global system as well as informing models of prehistoric, intensive agriculture which, because of long tenures and high productivities, suggest strategies for sustainable agricultural in the present. This study employs physiographic analysis and the palynological, geochemical record from cores of basin fill to understand the reciprocal relation between environmental and land-use change in the Gulf of Mexico tropical lowland, focusing on a coastal basin sensitive to sea-level change and containing vestiges of prehistoric settlement and wetland agriculture. Fossil pollen reveals that the debut of maize cultivation in the Laguna Catarina watershed dates to ca. 4100 BC, predating the earliest evidence for that cultivar anywhere else in the lowlands of Middle America. Such an early date for a cultivar so central to Neotropical agroecology and environmental change, suggests the urgency of further research in the study region. Moreover, the longest period of continuous agriculture in the basin lasted nearly three millennia (ca. 2400 BC-AD 550) despite eustatic sea-level rise. Geochemical fluxes reveal the reciprocity between land-use and environmental change: slope destabilization, basin aggradation, and eutrophication. The consequent theoretical implications pertain to both applied and basic research. Redeploying ancient agroecologies in dynamic environments necessitates reconstructing the changing operational contexts of putative high productivity and sustainability. Adjusting land use in the face of global

  4. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  5. Archeologies of Globalization. European Reflections on Two Phases of Accelerated Globalization in Cornelius de Pauw, Georg Forster, Guillaume-Thomas Raynal and Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette, Ottmar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In our present globalized world, an attempt to reflect on the “Archeology of Globalization” confronts us with a decisive question: Globality seems to be a singular phenomenon, the inevitable outcome of a teleological history which conforms our present. But can we think it as a plurality? Can we retrace this history in other form as a linear progression? By exploring European discussions that took place between the last third of the eighteenth and the mid-nineteenth centuries and which reflected on globalization, I will try to expose another development of this phenomenon. My focus emphasizes the very specific dynamics, modes of representation, and reflections that set up not an archeology but archaeologies of globalization: a world-consciousness that recognizes the patterns of movement and relationality that constitutes it, transforming itself into knowledge about how to live together in difference.

    En nuestro mundo actual globalizado, el intento de reflexionar sobre la “arqueología de la globalización” nos confronta con una pregunta fundamental: la Globalidad parece ser un fenómeno singular, el resultado inevitable de una historia teleológica que conforma nuestro presente, pero, ¿podemos pensarla como una pluralidad? ¿podemos reconstruir su historia de otra forma que en una progresión lineal? Al explorar discusiones europeas que ocurrieron entre el ultimo tercio del siglo XVIII y la primera mitad del siglo XIX y en las cuales se reflexionó sobre la globalización, intentaré exponer otro desarrollo de este fenómeno. Mi enfoque enfatiza precisamente las dinámicas específicas, los modos de representación y las reflexiones que constituyen no una arqueología, sino arqueologías de la globalización: una conciencia mundial que reconoce los patrones de movimiento y de relacionalidad que la constituyen, transformándose en un conocimiento sobre cómo vivir juntos en diferencia.

  6. The preliminary study on the alluvial stratigraphy of Peinan archaeological site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan; Yeh, Changkeng

    2015-04-01

    Many of the activities of prehistoric people who lived in Taiwan were concentrated around river terrace environments and seldom in alluvial environments which are resulting from the rapid tectonic uplift and high erosion rate of the late Cenozoic mountain belt. However, the Peinan archaeological site, one of the most important Neolithic sites in Taiwan because of the great amount of slate slab coffins and nephrite artifacts unearthed, is located at the bottom of Peinan Hill which is formed by the activity of Lichi and Luyeh Faults. According to the radioactive carbon dating results, the Peinan alluvial fan used as cemetery was lasted over 3,700 years (5700-2000 yr BP) but the related cultural formation was only lasted 400 years (3500-3100 yr BP). What have happened to the prehistoric people? As the stratigraphic record allows archaeologists to ascertain the effects of geological processes on the preservation of the archaeological record, determining which parts of the archaeological records are absent, which have potentially been preserved, and how fragmentary are the preserved portions of the records. The limitations that geologic processes impose on the archaeological record must be recognized and understood before meaningful interpretations of prehistory can be made. Therefore, the reconstruction of the landscape and stratigraphic records in archaeological site not only provides the paleo-environmental context but also helps to explain changes that occurred to human cultures over time.

  7. Two Brazilian archaeological sites investigated by GPR: Serrano and Morro Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cezar, Glória; Ferrucio da Rocha, Paula Lucia; Buarque, Angela; da Costa, Ariovaldo

    2001-07-01

    The application of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) at two archaeological sites, Serrano and Morro Grande, situated in Araruama County, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, aids the study of a prehistoric indigenous culture, associated with the "Tupinambá" that inhabited the region during prehistoric times. The archaeological remains of the study area are mainly characterized by pottery artifacts for several uses, including funerary urns, which were buried within layers of sand and clay. Several profiles were acquired using a RAMAC system, with a 200 and 400 MHz frequency antennae. At the Serrano site, the profiles were acquired around some partially exposed pottery shards, due to sand exploitation. The resultant profiles provided a response model to guide the interpretation of new profiles acquired at other sites in the area, which present similar characteristics. The results showed the great importance of the dielectric permittivity contrast which exists between the targets and the host media, in order for possibly significant features to be identified in radar data.

  8. Establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    This is not a talk about archaeoastronomy per se, but rather about how the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative helps us deal with archaeoastronomical sites as potential World Heritage.In 2011, an attempt to nominate a prehistoric “observatory” site onto the World Heritage List proved unsuccessful because UNESCO rejected the interpretation as statistically and archaeologically unproven. The case highlights an issue at the heart of archaeoastronomical methodology and interpretation: the mere existence of astronomical alignments in ancient sites does not prove that they were important to those who constructed and used the sites, let alone giving us insights into their likely significance and meaning. Advances in archaeoastronomy over several decades have resulted in the development of a substantial body of theory and practice (Ruggles 2014) where the most favoured interpretations depend upon integrating methods from astronomy, anthropology and other disciplines, but individual cases can still engender considerable controversy.The fact that more archaeoastronomical sites are now appearing on national tentative lists prior to their WHL nomination means that this is no longer just an academic issue; establishing the credibility of the archaeoastronomical interpretations is crucial to any assessment of their value in heritage terms.In this talk I shall describe progress that has been made within the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative towards establishing broadly acceptable measures of archaeoastronomical credibility that make sense in the context of the heritage evaluation process. I will focus particularly, but not exclusively, on sites that are included in the Thematic Studies and/or are already included on national Tentative Lists, such as the Portuguese/Spanish seven-stone antas (Neolithic dolmens) and Chankillo in Peru (solar observation device dating to c. 300BC). I will also mention how the recognition of astronomical attributes of potential

  9. 内蒙古赤峰市兴隆沟聚落遗址2002~2003年的发掘%2002-2003 Excavation on the Settlement-site at Xinglonggou in Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所内蒙古第一工作队

    2004-01-01

    In 2002- 2003, the First Inner Mongolian Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, carried out two seasons of excavation on the Xinglonggou site. The work resulted in the confirmation of the first locality as a large-sized settlement of the middle Xinglongwa culture (8000-7500 BP). The significant findings in dwelling form, settlement layout, burial custom, primitive religion, economic formation and environmental archaeology represent a new type in the Xinglongwa culture. The second locality is left over from a small-sized ditch-surrounded settlement of the Hongshan culture (5500-5000 BP). Its discovery made up the gap of late Hongshan Culture sites in the prehistoric data. The third locality remains of a small-sized ditch-surrounded settlement of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (4000-3500BP), which offers new material for studying the civilizing course and early state form of the West Liaohe River valley. The excavation of the Xinglonggou site will forcefully promote the deep-going study of prehistoric archaeological cultures in Northeast China and exert active influence upon the research on Sino-Japanese cultural relations in prehistoric times.

  10. Studying Prehistoric Dryland Agricultural Systems in Central Arizona through Aerial LiDAR, Pedology, Hydrology, and Paleobotany

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle L. Wienhold; Richard Ciolek-Torello; Martin Gojda; Axel G Posluschny; Robert Wegener

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Research Inc. (SRI) conducted phased data recovery at two large dryland agricultural fields and associated Hohokam habitation sites along U.S. Highway 60 in central Arizona. The agricultural fields consisted of cross channel and contour rock alignments and rock piles covering many acres within and outside of a newly proposed highway right-of-way along Queen Creek. Nearby were small, seasonal habitation sites occupied between AD 400 and 1350. Aerial 3-Dimensional Laser Range ...

  11. 36 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 801 - Special Procedures for Identification and Consideration of Archeological Properties in an Urban...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cities may be important both to science and to an understanding of each city's history, however, and... scientific or historical research problems; or b. Historical or ethnographic data, or discoveries of material... project site or in the area of the project's environmental impact, and where the project is likely to...

  12. Archaeological study of ostrich eggshell beads collected from SDG site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChunXue; ZHANG Yue; GAO Xing; ZHANG XiaoLing; WANG HuiMin

    2009-01-01

    Ostrich eggshell beads and fragments collected from SDG site reflect primordial art and a kind of symbolic behavior of modern humans.Based on stratigraphic data and OSL dating,these ostrich eggshell beads are probably in Early Holocene (<10 ka BP).Two different prehistoric manufacturing pathways are usually used in the manufacture of ostrich eggshell beads in Upper Paleolithic.According to statistic analysis of the characteristics of ostrich eggshell beads,Pathway 1 is identified from these collections.In pathway 1,blanks are drilled prior to being trimmed to rough discs.They exhibit great potential for the study of the origin of primordial art and the development of ancient cultures and provide important data for studying behavioral options adopted by hominids in SDG area.In addition,they bear important implications for the origin of modern humans in East Asia.

  13. A GIS-BASED MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR SELECTION OF LANDFILL SITES: a case study from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Issa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Landfill sites receive 92% of total annual solid waste produced by municipalities in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill location for the Abu Dhabi municipal area are determined by integrating geographic information systems (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE analysis. To identify appropriate landfill sites, eight input map layers including proximity to urban areas, proximity to wells and water table depth, geology and topography, proximity to touristic and archeological sites, distance from roads network, distance from drainage networks, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identified potential areas showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. Results revealed that 30% of the study area was identified as highly suitable, 25% as suitable, and 45% as unsuitable. The selection of the final landfill site, however, requires further field research.

  14. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  15. LAS HERRAMIENTAS PREHISTÓRICAS DE LAS MINAS DE VARISCITA DE PALAZUELO DE LAS CUEVAS (ZAMORA) Y PICO CENTENO (HUELVA). ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO/Prehistoric mining tools of the variscite mines of Palazuelo de las Cuevas (Zamora) and Pico Centeno (Huelva). A comparative analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigo Villalobos García; Carlos P Odriozola Lloret

    2016-01-01

    ... (Aliste disctrict, Zamora) and Pico Centeno (Encinasola, Huelva). Knapped stone mining tools are not absent of the Iberian prehistoric mines, but they appear in low frequency and, probably for that reason, had not attracted scholars' attention...

  16. Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir. Archeological Survey and Reconnaissance within the Ten-Year Flood Pool. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    and McMillan 1976). This rock shelter was formed by the partial weathering of Ordovician dolomite along the Pomme de Terre . North of this site, along...the Pomme de Terre , Chomko (1977:70-15*) reported on excavations at 23H1246, a small unnamed shelter and 23HI2*7, Beck Shelter. Both occur as the...Haynes (1976, 1977) has investigated depositional history in portions of the Pomme de Terre . Broad regional summaries of geomorphological development may

  17. The presence of Fasciola hepatica (Liver-fluke in humans and cattle from a 4,500 Year old archaeological site in the Saale-Unstrut Valley, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmar K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During an excavation of a site of the corded ware culture in the Saale-Unstrut-Valley (ca. 3000 BC in Germany, a soil sample from the pelvis of a human skeleton was studied under palaeoparasitological aspects. Eggs of the trematode Fasciola hepatica and of the nematode genus Capillaria were found. This is the first case of a direct association of a F. hepatica-infestation to both a prehistoric human skeleton and domesticated animal remains. Sheep and cattle bones were present at the same site and F. hepatica eggs were found in bovine samples. This strongly points toward an existing infection cycle, involving humans as a final host.

  18. Distinctive Features and Evolution of the Prehistoric Settlement Pattern in the Liyang Plain%澧阳平原史前聚落形态的特点与演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴安平

    2004-01-01

    A large number of Neolithic settlements have been discovered in the Liyang Plain of northwestern Hunan. Based upon investigation on the distribution and size of settlements and study into their entire pattern, house forms, burial ranks and organization modes, the evolution of the prehistoric settlement pattern in this region can be divided into three stages represented by ditch-surrounded settlements, walled ones and settlement groups. This developmental course reflects the influence of natural environments, agricultural production, the origination and growth of private ownership and the development and organization structure of human society upon the evolution of the settlement pattern. It also demonstrates the stages and distinctive features of the advance of prehistoric local settlements towards civilized society.

  19. Geophysical exploration for preserving archaeological site in construction projects; Kokudo no kaihatsu to iseki hozon no tame no butsuri tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    When considering more harmonious ways of mutual existence of development and preservation of buried cultural assets subjected to today`s social demand, how far can exploration of archeological sites make a contribution. This paper discusses the possibility thereof while introducing some examples of explorations done in recent years. The geophysical exploration includes the following groups of ancient tombs (field improvement operations using underground radar), remains of ditches around ancient temples (construction of golf courses using underground radar and electric exploration), castles in the modern period (urban redevelopment using electric exploration and underground radar), castles in the medieval period (improvement of parks in hilly areas using underground radar), moated settlements (improvement of historic site parks using underground radar and electric exploration), remains of settlements (land improvement operations using underground radar), two kiln remains (highway construction using magnetic exploration), bronze wares (road construction using electromagnetic method and metal exploration), and remains of stream sluices in the modern period (development of four rivers using underground radar, specific resistance imaging method, and gravity exploration). It is intended to take up as a theme for the future development issues that how archeological conceptions should be `fused` into scientific technologies. 5 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. 76 FR 28068 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah State University/College of Eastern Utah Prehistoric Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico... were removed from ``Frank's Place,'' site 42Cb770, reported to be located on private land in Carbon...; Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico; Pueblo of...

  1. An atlas of paste fabrics and supplemental paste compositional data from late middle preclassic-period ceramics at the Maya site of Holtun, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Michael G; Pierce, Daniel; Kovacevich, Brigitte; Glascock, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    This data article contains an atlas of paste fabrics and supplemental paste compositional data generated from Late Middle Preclassic-period ceramics at the Maya site of Holtun, Guatemala. The data include maps showing locations of archeological contexts, excavation profiles, photographs and photomicrographs of sherds and paste fabrics, and compositional data produced by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Research Reactor, University of Missouri (MURR). The NAA data include a biplot and table of canonical discriminant analyses, Mahalonobis distance calculations, and Euclidian distance searches between the samples.

  2. The Seaplane Base Ivo Monti at S. Nicola Varano (fg): a Monument of Military Archeology, Between History and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, F.; Saracco, M.; Petetta, L.

    2017-05-01

    Built in the years between 1915 and 1918, and located on the west bank of the "Varano" Lake, a bay running along the village of "Cagnano Varano", the "Ivo Monti" seaplane base was erected on a pre-existing medieval settlement which belonged to the Benedictine Monks from the town of "San Nicola Imbuti". During WWI, this seaplane base was turned, from a simple water airport, into a strategic military base for floatplanes. As a matter of fact, the large lagoon could be used as landing spot for the planes sent off to patrol the dalmatic coast, one of the historical regions of Croatia, then controlled by the Austrians. After WWI, after the seaplane became an outdated technology, the "Ivo Monti" base was progressively dismantled and then totally abandoned at the beginning of the 1950s. In 2014, considering the historical relevance of this site and the unmistakable architectural value of its elements, a research framework agreement was signed between the "DICEA" Department of Marche Polytechnic University and the city council of the town hosting the site, aimed at the development of shared scientific research projects revolving around the study, the valorisation, and the restoration of the military complex in question, which had been in a complete state of decay and neglect for too long. The still ongoing research project mentioned presents two main missions: the first is the historical reconstruction, the geometric mapping, and the robustness analysis of the ruins, by studying and faithfully representing the state of deterioration of the building materials and of the facilities; the second is the identification and the testing of potential architectural solutions for the conversion and the reuse of the site and of its facilities.

  3. Changing Obsidian Sources at the Lost Dune and McCoy Creek Sites, Blitzen Valley, Southeast Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, William H; Thomas, Scott P; Skinner, Craig E

    2001-01-01

    Seventeen known and four unknown sources among 90 obsidian artifacts were identified from the Lost Dune and McCoy Creek sites on the east side of Blitzen Valley, Harney County, Oregon. Changing distributions and abundances of obsidian sources identified in four prehistoric periods (3,500-2,000 B.P, 2,000-500 B.P., A.D. 1400s and A.D. 1500s) suggest eastern Blitzen Valley people used a limited resource area in the middle two periods. For the period from 2,000 to 500 B.P, obsidian was identifie...

  4. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  5. Prevalence of feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites over a large landscape in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M.; Meyer, Joseph S.; Allen, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Feral swine are globally known as one of the most destructive invasive vertebrates, damaging native habitats, native plants and animals, agriculture, infrastructure, spreading diseases. There has been little quantification on their disturbance to archaeological sites across a broad landscape. Over 6 years we inspected 293 significant archaeological sites for swine disturbance across a vast area. We found a 42% prevalence of swine disturbance among all sites, with prevalence not distinguishable among prehistoric sites, historic sites, and sites with both components. The areas of disturbance mapped within three historic homestead sites showed 5–26% of total site surface area rooted. Disturbance was not evident upon re-inspection of one of these sites after 18 months, indicating how evidence of disturbance can be obscured in this environment. Thus, our observed 42% prevalence of disturbance should be considered a minimum for disturbance occurring through time. Artifacts depths were <10 cm of the surface at 85% of the sites and <20 cm of the surface for 90% of the sites. Feral swine rooting commonly exceeds 20 cm in depth, especially in soft sandy substrates typical of Florida, making the great majority of the studied sites highly vulnerable to artifact damage or displacement.

  6. Fiscal year 1992 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    During FY 1992, the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted a field survey of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit (600 Area) and tested three sites near the 100 Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. These efforts were conducted in compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and are part of a cultural resources review of 100 Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization studies.The results of the FY 1992 survey and test excavation efforts are discussed in this report. 518 ha in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and conducted test excavations at three prehistoric sites near the 100-F and 100-K reactors to determine their eligibility for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.

  7. Comparative investigations on the lead content of human bones from prehistoric and historical times from Bavaria and Peru. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zum Bleigehalt praehistorischer und historischer menschlicher Knochen aus Bayern und Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabender von Lossberg, I.

    1982-05-25

    The lead content of human bones of 129 individuals from different prehistoric and historical populations of Bavaria and Peru was determined by means of flameless absorption spectroscopy. By the same method the lead content of human tissue was determined in 12 Peruvian mummy heads, and that of the hair in two individuals. The results were compared with each other and with those of other investigations on prehistoric, historical and modern populations and were interpreted. The comparative investigation confirmed the assumption that intensive exposure to lead in a population leads to higher lead concentration in the bones. The lead concentration in the bones of the late mediaeval series of Niedermuenster 4 was comparable to the one in the bones of modern populations and amounted to about 10 times the average one in prehistoric Peruvians. The lead accumulation was not found to be sex-dependent. The chronic lead intoxication of the late Middle Ages described by the history of medicine was confirmed by the relatively high lead contents in bones of Niedermuenster 4. In the framework of an epidemiological survey the problem of chronic lead intoxication was traced back to pre and early history.

  8. Environmental change indicated by grain-size variations and trace elements: An example from the sandy-loess sediments from the Doroshivtsy site (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Schulte, Philipp; Loibl, Christa; Klasen, Nicole; Hauck, Thomas; Kels, Holger

    2014-05-01

    The recently discovered loess section of Doroshivtsy became famous due to archeological findings of the Gravettian. The profile represents a about 9 m sequence of sandy loess, intercalated by more humic horizons. It is situated in a flat gully and at an undercut slope of the Dniester River close to the village Doroshivtsy in the south-western Ukraine. Radiocarbon dating and luminescence ages are conclusive within the expected age range of the Gravettian period (22-28 ka). The loess section is composed mainly of sandy silt and covers the time span from about 26 to 16 ka. This is one of the very few sections in Europe which provides a high resolution sedimentary record including prehistoric finds of the cooling maximum of the last glacial cycle. Based on the field description and the grain size distribution obtained by Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer (Beckman Coulter LS 13 320 PIDS), the profile can be divided into three main genetic units representing changes during the deposition. The upper part (1-3 m) of the profile is characterized by aeolian loess and sand deposition intercalated with a few gravel lines. The middle part (3-6.5 m) of the profile is influenced by aeolian, denudative and weak soil forming processes. The lower part (6.5-9 m) of the section represents a combination of aeolian loess, re-deposited slope material. Additionally, the whole part is affected by hydromorphic conditions. As the sediment is rather homogeneous sandy silt U-ratio and GSI did not show any distinct variations. However, calculations with different grain-size ratios show that a fine silt to fine sand ratio (SiS-ratio) of 3.5 to 8.1 µm and 69.6 to 161.1 µm provide clear peaks. These variations of the SiS-ratio represent environmental changes which are also observed by structures and weak soil formations in the section during field work and fit also to the different archeological layers. In addition, geochemical analysis show comparable results to the SiS-ratio and provide

  9. Aspect of human food ecology; Development of carbon and nitrogen isotope method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minagawa, Masao (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic dietary analysis was applied for some prehistoric human populations from East Asia, Latin America, and Oceania region. Most samples were from archeological sites from 1000 to 6000 year's bp. Some modern ethnological groups including Tibet, Kurud, Shelpa and Tlingit were also studied for evaluating prehistoric human food habit. Carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of gelatin fractions have been analyzed for prehistoric bone samples. Analytical procedure for isotopes and data analyses for reconstructing dietary composition was developed and tested by a modern human food system. A stochastic method based on the Monte Carlo model was applied to estimate dependency of major food resources having unique isotope compositions in carbon and nitrogen, and has showed consistent results to the statistic food consumption record in Japan. Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of human tissues showed distinct difference among human groups in both prehistoric and modern samples. These data were evaluated by difference of dietary patterns: contributions of marine food, terrestrial food, meat, C3 and C4 plant, which are characterized by the difference of [sup 13]C and [sup 15]N content. On the basis of the stochastic feeding simulation, dietary consumption patterns were estimated for Jomon fisher-hunter-gatherers, historic Ainu, prehistoric east Siberian, prehistoric Latin American farmers in Mexico and Peru, and prehistoric fisheres in Cook island. Results showed a remarkable relationship between animal protein dependence and marine food usage. This result will be discussed from following two possibilities; the human adaptation on marine resources would be one of the important direction to upgrade animal protein uptake, or marine food could be used as alternative protein source for terrestrial game animals. (author).

  10. The function of prehistoric lithic tools: a combined study of use-wear analysis and FTIR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Lemorini, Cristina

    2012-02-01

    The application of combined use-wear analysis and FTIR micro spectroscopy for the investigation of the flint and obsidian tools from the archaeological sites of Masseria Candelaro (Foggia, Italy) and Sant'Anna di Oria (Brindisi, Italy) aiming to clarify their functional use is described. The tools excavated in the former site showed in a very high percentage spectroscopically detectable residues on their working edges. The identification of micro deposits is based on comparison with a great number of replicas studied in the same experimental conditions. FTIR data confirmed in almost all cases the use-wear analysis suggestions and added details about the material processed and about the working procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Preliminary Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Architectural and Archeological Resources in the Historic Strawbery Banke District of Portsmouth, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routhier, M.; Curran, B.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Jefferson, M.; Hall, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Over the course of the last 100 years the global (eustatic) mean sea level has increased at an average rate of 1 to 3 millimeters per year and is expected to further rise by at least 0.9m to 1.6m from 1990 to 2100 due to the effects of climate change. This fact will have profound impact on coastal communities because much of the world's population currently lives within Low Elevation Coastal Zones accounting for only 2% of continental land mass. This trend of populations to establish communities around coastal areas is not just a modern phenomenon. Throughout history people have created communities around coastal areas because they provided easy access to transportation, trade, and sustenance. Numerous historic sites around the world today can be identified as being coastal and thus susceptible to the effects of sea level rise. This is an important fact because these sites are linked to our cultural heritage, a legacy of cultural artifacts and knowledge which tie us to our past. To better understand the vulnerability of our coastal cultural heritage relative to the effects of climate change induced sea-level rise, we are in the process of developing a set of assessment protocols that will provide preservationists, archeologists, and policy-makers with the necessary information to begin developing adaption strategies for coastal sites of cultural significance locally, nationally, and internationally. With funding through the National Geographic Society Waitt Foundation, our preliminary research has focused on the historic Strawbery Banke area of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, a settlement which dates back to the 1600s. Through the use of historical research, topographic and hydrologic surveys, in conjunction with modern data, tools, analysis techniques, and 3D geographic information system models, a "proof of concept" assessment is being established. This assessment, that includes the dynamic interactions between tidal movements and storm surges relative to the additive

  12. Biocultural interpretations of trauma in two prehistoric Pacific Island populations from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rachel M; Buckley, Hallie R

    2010-08-01

    Two Pacific Island skeletal samples originating from the inland site of Nebira, Papua New Guinea (1230-1650) and a coastal site on the small island of Taumako, Solomon Islands (1530-1698) were examined for evidence of skeletal trauma using a biocultural approach. The types of trauma identified were cranial trauma, postcranial fractures, and piercing and sharp force trauma. Both samples exhibit trauma (Nebira, n = 9/28, 32.1%; Taumako, n = 17/133, 12.8%). Postcranial fractures are significantly higher in males from Nebira (Fisher Exact P value = 0.025). The prevalence of cranial trauma (n = 6/28, 21.4%) is significantly higher in Nebira individuals (Fisher Exact P value = 0.007). There is no conclusive evidence of piercing trauma at Nebira unlike Taumako, which has four individuals with evidence of piercing or sharp force trauma. Both samples show evidence of interpersonal violence and warfare. The results suggest the environment may have contributed to the pattern of trauma at these sites. These patterns are discussed within their cultural and environmental contexts. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Climate change and human occupations in the Lake Daihai basin, north-central China over the last 4500 years: A geo-archeological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lichen; Liu, Yan; Sun, Qianli; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Zhongyuan

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution climate variations since the last 4500 years in the monsoonal-arid transition zone of north-central China were revealed through the integration of proxies from sediment cores in the Lake Daihai basin. Human occupations in the lake basin deduced from archeological findings and historical literatures were then incorporated into the climate sequence to demonstrate the patterns of human responses to the climate changes, and the recent anthropogenic effects. It indicated that: (1) Climate dominated human-environment adaptations prevailed prior to ∼2700 cal yr BP. An amicable climate setting before ∼4100 cal yr BP would facilitate the growth of the Laohushan Culture (LC) in the lake basin, while a pronounced deterioration of water thermal condition after that had led to human exodus and the collapse of the LC. The reduced human activity in the lake basin indicated at ∼3800-3500 cal yr BP and a subsequent cultural blank at ∼3500-2700 cal yr BP, were both in response to the climate and lake level fluctuations during ∼3800-2800 cal yr BP. (2) Transition to a positive human adaptation was seen at ∼2700-1100 cal yr BP, represented by the exploitation of arable land for cultivation and animal husbandry as the lake contracted. (3) An increasing human presence that affected environmental processes became more severe over the last ∼1100 cal yr BP. This was basically due to the ongoing lake shore reclamation for cropping, and more recently heavy metals emissions from fossil fuel combustion and local industries.

  14. Evidence on climatic variability and prehistoric human activities between 165 B.C. and A.D. 1400 derived from subfossil Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L. found in a lake in Utsjoki, northernmost Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetterberg, P.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 1265 subfossil pines have been collected from small lakes and peat deposits in the forest-limit zone of northern Fennoscandia in order to study past variations of climate. Many of the subfossils have been dated by dendrochronology and the chronology constructed from the measured ring-width data extends as a continuous master curve from the present back until 165 B.C. and after a short gap until about 7000 years before the present time. This material has greatly increased the number of dated pine megafossils in northern Finland which had previously been restricted only to radiocarbon-dated samples. In addition to the year-by-year information provided by tree-ring width data, the temporal distribution of pine megafossils found in the vicinity of the forest-limit zone also provides information on past climatic changes. The 102 pine subfossils collected from Lake Ailigas, in Utsjoki, form part of the above material. They provide information about past variations in pine growth caused, to a large degree, by changing climate at this one site, but they also give glimpses of the local activities of Prehistoric Man. The data from 90 of these trees have been successfully dated using dendrochronological techniques and the results show that all of them grew during the time period beginning 3000 years before present, and that 79 pines lived during the time span 165 B.C. to A.D. 1952. In several lakes in the forest-limit zone, some subfossil trees are much older than those in Lake Ailigas. The relatively young ages of the subfossils at this site indicates that the lake has been in existence probably only during the past 3000 years, forming when climate turned more humid than in earlier times. The present continuous master curve is about 600 years longer than the earlier published pine chronology for northern Sweden, though this has recently been extended to A.D. 1. In the present study, the life spans of individual dated pines are considered in

  15. The Study on Beginning of Martial Arts during the Prehistoric Period%史前时期武术的萌芽探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震; 周广瑞; 张继合; 王军伟

    2011-01-01

    采用文献法、历史与逻辑分析法对史前时期的武术萌芽进行了深入探究。认为:原始人进化完成、手足分工,是武术萌芽产生的契机;由本能到自觉再到自保意识的演进是武术萌芽产生的内在诉求;原始战争频发成为推动武术萌芽的轴心力量;武与舞"联姻"的运动形式,实现了萌芽期武术的发展历程。%With the methods of literature review and history and logic analysis,this paper made deep research on the beginning of martial arts during the prehistoric period and concludes that the completion of primitive evolution and the division of labour for hand and foot provide the martial arts an opportunity to sprout;The evolution from instinctive self-protection to the conscious self-protection to self-protection is the martial arts' intrinsic appeal;The breakout of the original wars is the axis force to promote the beginning of martial arts;The martial arts and dance's "marriage" form of exercise achieve the development of the martial arts.

  16. Contribution of bioanthropology to the reconstruction of prehistoric productive processes. The external auditory exostoses in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Vázquez, Javier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an approach to the role of bioanthropological studies in the reconstruction of the productive processes of past societies. This objective is obtained starting from the survey and valuation of the prevalence of bone exostoses in the auditory canal among the prehistoric inhabitants of Gran Canaria. The auditory exostose is a bone wound well documented through clinical and experimental studies, closely related to the exposure of the auditory canal to cold water. The estimation of this bone anomaly among the analysed population, leads to the definition of outstanding territorial variations in the economic strategies of these human groups.

    En el presente trabajo se pretende abordar el papel de los estudios bioantropológicos en la reconstrucción de los procesos productivos de las sociedades del pasado. Esta finalidad es perseguida a partir del examen y valoración de la prevalencia de exostosis óseas en el canal auditivo en la población prehistórica de Gran Canaria. Las exostosis auditivas constituyen una lesión ósea, bien documentada en trabajos experimentales y clínicos, estrechamente relacionada con la exposición del canal auditivo al agua fría. La estimación de esta anormalidad ósea en el conjunto poblacional analizado permite la definición de importantes variaciones territoriales en las estrategias económicas emprendidas por estos grupos humanos.

  17. Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Jin, Li; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing

    2010-07-01

    The regional distribution of an ancient Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 (Hg C) in Asia provides an ideal tool of dissecting prehistoric migration events. We identified 465 Hg C individuals out of 4284 males from 140 East and Southeast Asian populations. We genotyped these Hg C individuals using 12 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 8 commonly used Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and performed phylogeographic analysis in combination with the published data. The results show that most of the Hg C subhaplogroups have distinct geographical distribution and have undergone long-time isolation, although Hg C individuals are distributed widely across Eurasia. Furthermore, a general south-to-north and east-to-west cline of Y-STR diversity is observed with the highest diversity in Southeast Asia. The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal 'Out-of-Africa' route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. The northward expansion of Hg C in East Asia started approximately 40 thousand of years ago (KYA) along the coastline of mainland China and reached Siberia approximately 15 KYA and finally made its way to the Americas.

  18. Shallow geophysical investigations at the Akhmim archaeological site, Suhag, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Mahfooz A.; Atya, Magdy A.; Hassan, Azza M.; Sato, Motoyuki; Wonik, Thomas; El-Kenawy, Abeer A.

    2008-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic terrain conductivity, and electric tomography have proven to be effective tools if they are combined together to investigate archeological sites. We have conducted a geophysical survey at the Akhmim archaeological site, the main objective of our survey is to locate additional buried structures for further excavation. Geophysical data were acquired in the area using the GEM-300 multi-frequency terrain conductivity profiler, the SIR 2000 ground penetrating radar, and the Syscal R2 resistivity meter systems. The results of the integrated interpretation show a number of buried features and a strong linear zone about 1 m wide that coincides with the suspected trend of a buried wall. There appears to be two parallel ridges of strong reflections on either side, indicating two parallel walls extended East-West and a room is identified at the bottom left corner of the site. Moreover, the interpretation results of some selected GPR and dipoledipole resistivity profiles adjacent to the open-air museum suggest the existence of a second statue of Ramses II to the right of the previously discovered statue which could still be buried in the sand.

  19. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  20. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  1. Archeologi educatori. Attuali tendenze per un’archeologia educativa in Italia, tra heritage education e public archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brunelli

    2013-05-01

    In Italy, in recent years there has been a perspective-shift in archaeological education and communication, showing how current educational activities for the many publics of archaeology have incorporated practices and approaches that belong to different disciplinary ambits, although partially overlapping: the heritage education field with its theoretical-pedagogical reflection (especially at European level as well as educational practices on the one hand; and the new ‘global’ approach to heritage, which is expressed by the public archaeology sector of Anglo-Saxon matrix. Actually a real ‘educational archaeology’ is emerging, i.e. an archaeological activity, not delegated to other mediators, but personally conducted by archaeologists with educational, social and cultural objectives and aims: first, to transmit knowledge and skills enabling visitors to understand the archaeological evidence and the meaning itself of the dig, of the archaeological sites and heritage; second, to implement innovative and diversified educational and communication strategies, able to reach wider audiences and, consequently, to meet the new demands of social inclusion and cultural participation; third, but not least, to reassert the meaning of archaeological heritage as well as of the discipline and its actors, as a shared value and a potential of growth for citizens, communities and society as a whole.

  2. How Dry was too Dry? Evaluating the Impact of Climatic Stress on Prehistoric Human Populations in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, V. E.; Asrat, A.; Cohen, A. S.; Junginger, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Schaebitz, F.; Trauth, M. H.; Vogelsang, R.

    2016-12-01

    What role did abrupt climate shifts play in human evolution and the dispersal of Homo sapiens within and beyond the African continent? How did gradual climatic transitions on the other hand affect cultural and technological innovations in the source region of modern humans? In order to evaluate the effect of environmental instability on human evolution, with their cultural and technological innovations, and with their expansion out of Africa, it is essential to understand how the east African climate switches from dry to wet and back to dry. Determining the timespan of both long-term transitions and climate flickers eventually provides the much needed environmental information how much time early humans had to react (evolution, migration, adaption) to the profound changes in their living environment. As a contribution to providing an environmental context to these central questions on human-climate interaction, the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) has successfully completed coring five fluvio-lacustrine archives of climate change during the last 3.5 Ma in East Africa. The five high-priority areas in Ethiopia and Kenya are located in close proximity to key paleoanthropological sites covering various steps in evolution. Here we present a comparison between the youngest part of our continuous climate reconstruction (temporal resolution of up to 3 years) from the Chew Bahir site in southern Ethiopia and the available archaeological record of human presence in the source region of modern humans for the past 20 ka. The results contribute to test hypotheses on the impact of climatic stress on migration, the role of human decision-making and environmental thresholds (Foerster et al., 2015, 2016). Furthermore, we match key technological innovations in the area with the profound environmental changes during the highly debated mid-Holocene wet-dry transition. Finally, we give a first overview over possible phases of climatic stress during the last >500 ka

  3. The study of size-grade of prehistoric settlements in the Circum-Songshan area based on SOFM network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Peng; TIAN Yan; YANG Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Choosing site area,cultural layer thickness,significant relics and significant remains as the variables,we applied cluster analysis to the ancient settlements of four cultural periods,respectively,which were Peiligang,Yangshao,Longshan and Xiashang,in 9000-3000 a BP,around Songshan Mountain.Through application of the SOFM (self-organizing feature map) networks,every type of ancient settlements was classified into different size-grades.By this means,the Peiligang settlements were divided into two grades,Yangshao and Longshan settlements were divided into three grades,respectively,and Xiashang settlements were divided into four grades.The results suggested that the size-grade diversity of ancient settlements was not significant during the Peiligang period in this area.Around the middle-late Yangshao period (5000 a BP),the size-grade diversity of ancient settlements began to appear,a process that continued during the Longshan period and finally matured in the Xiashang period.Moreover,the results reflected the regional differences in cultural characteristics in a particular period,which were mainly represented in that there were three Peiligang cultural systems distributed in different areas.Such differences also existed in the spatial distributive characteristics between the Xia and Shang cultures.Based on the size-grade study of ancient settlements in the Circum-Songshan area,it was found that the SOFM networks method was very suitable for size-grade classification of ancient settlements,since,using this method,adjacent cells would compete and learn from each other,a benefit that reduced the effect on classification by the inaccuracy of site acreages.

  4. Origin and diet of the prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the mediterranean island of Favignana (Egadi Islands, Sicily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello A Mannino

    Full Text Available Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d'Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP. Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d'Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d'Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of

  5. Astronomical Alignments of the Sun Temple site in Mesa Verde National Park

    CERN Document Server

    Towers, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Summer 2015 marked the 100th anniversary of the excavation by J.W. Fewkes of the Sun Temple in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado; an ancient ceremonial complex of unknown purpose, prominently located atop a mesa, constructed by the Pueblo Indians approximately 1000 years ago. In this analysis we perform a digital survey of the site, and examine the possibility that four key tower-like elements of the complex were used for observation of the rise or set of celestial bodies known to be sacred to the Pueblo Indians. We find statistically significant evidence that the site was used for astronomical observation of the rise and/or set of nearly all such bodies. The Sun Temple appears to represent the most comprehensive prehistoric astronomical observatory yet uncovered.

  6. CPT site characterization for seismic hazards in the New Madrid seismic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, T.; Mayne, P.W.; Tuttle, M.P.; Schweig, E.S.; Van Arsdale, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    A series of cone penetration tests (CPTs) were conducted in the vicinity of the New Madrid seismic zone in central USA for quantifying seismic hazards, obtaining geotechnical soil properties, and conducting studies at liquefaction sites related to the 1811-1812 and prehistoric New Madrid earthquakes. The seismic piezocone provides four independent measurements for delineating the stratigraphy, liquefaction potential, and site amplification parameters. At the same location, two independent assessments of soil liquefaction susceptibility can be made using both the normalized tip resistance (qc1N) and shear wave velocity (Vs1). In lieu of traditional deterministic approaches, the CPT data can be processed using probability curves to assess the level and likelihood of future liquefaction occurrence. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antigüedades portátiles: transportes, ruinas y comunicaciones en la arqueología del siglo XIX Portable antiquities: transportation, ruins, and communications in nineteenth-century archeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Podgorny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un problema de la arqueología del siglo XIX: la transformación de las ruinas de la antigüedad americana en evidencia científica. Tomando el caso de la exploración arqueológica de Palenque luego de la independencia centroamericana y mexicana, analizaremos los intentos por hacer portátil las ruinas de una ciudad hallada en la selva a fines del siglo XVIII, analizando algunos de los medios creados y utilizados para resolver su transporte.The article addresses an issue in nineteenth-century archeology: the transformation of ancient American ruins into scientific evidence. It focuses specifically on the case of Palenque, a city discovered in the jungle in the late eighteenth century. The archeological exploration of this find, which occurred shortly after Central American and Mexican independence, entailed efforts to make these ruins portable. The article analyzes some of the means devised and used in their transportation.

  8. A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION OF THE ANCIENT JEWELS FOUND IN THE IBIDA SITE, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica VASILACHE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A scientific investigation of objects discovered in archaeological dig sites involves a high interdisciplinary intake of methods and techniques of related disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, archeology, art history, geology, biology, etc. The present paper presents the results of the analysis, carried out by corroborating SEM-EDX and micro-FTIR techniques, of jewels discovered during the archaeological excavations from Ibida in the village Slava Rusa, the city of Tulcea, Romania. These studies helped establish the characteristics of the materials the jewelry were made of, to identify the type of alloy, in order to determine the area of origin of the raw materials and the processing technology, based on which one can evaluate the economic and social changes over time, with their integration into the cultural space.

  9. Maximum likelihood estimate of life expectancy in the prehistoric Jomon: Canine pulp volume reduction suggests a longer life expectancy than previously thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical progress potentially refutes past claims that paleodemographic estimations are flawed by statistical problems, including age mimicry and sample bias due to differential preservation. The life expectancy at age 15 of the Jomon period prehistoric populace in Japan was initially estimated to have been ∼16 years while a more recent analysis suggested 31.5 years. In this study, we provide alternative results based on a new methodology. The material comprises 234 mandibular canines from Jomon period skeletal remains and a reference sample of 363 mandibular canines of recent-modern Japanese. Dental pulp reduction is used as the age-indicator, which because of tooth durability is presumed to minimize the effect of differential preservation. Maximum likelihood estimation, which theoretically avoids age mimicry, was applied. Our methods also adjusted for the known pulp volume reduction rate among recent-modern Japanese to provide a better fit for observations in the Jomon period sample. Without adjustment for the known rate in pulp volume reduction, estimates of Jomon life expectancy at age 15 were dubiously long. However, when the rate was adjusted, the estimate results in a value that falls within the range of modern hunter-gatherers, with significantly better fit to the observations. The rate-adjusted result of 32.2 years more likely represents the true life expectancy of the Jomon people at age 15, than the result without adjustment. Considering ∼7% rate of antemortem loss of the mandibular canine observed in our Jomon period sample, actual life expectancy at age 15 may have been as high as ∼35.3 years. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, D.K.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    The project area for the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility on the Savannah River Site includes a six-acre tract along Fourmile Branch and 18 mi of trunk line corridors. Archaeological investigations of the six-acre parcel resulted in the discovery of one small prehistoric site designated 38AK465. This cultural resource does not have the potential to add significantly to archaeological knowledge of human occupation in the region. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) therefore recommends that 38AK465 is not eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and further recommends a determination of no effect. Archaeological survey along the trunk line corridors implicated previously recorded sites 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK415, 38AK417, 38AK419, and 38AK436. Past disturbance from construction had severely disturbed 38AK92 and no archaeological evidence of 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 was recovered during survey. Lacking further evidence for the existence of these sites, the SRARP recommends that 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 are not eligible for nomination to the NRHP and thus warrant a determination of no effect. Two of these sites, 38Ak415 and 38AK417, required further investigation to evaluate their archaeological significance. Both of the sites have the potential to yield significant data on the prehistoric period occupation of the Aiken Plateau and the SRARP recommends that they are eligible for nomination to the NRHP. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program recommends that adverse effects to sites 38AK415 and 38AK417 from proposed construction can be mitigated through avoidance.

  11. Site Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahedi, Haseebullah

    2016-01-01

    different practices in the construction phase. The research is based on an ethnographic study of a case in Denmark. The empirical data were collected through direct observations and semi-structured interviews with site managers, contract managers, foremen and craftsmen. Findings revealed...... that the construction phase comprises several communities and practices, leading to various uses of the drawings. The results indicated that the craftsmen used drawings to position themselves in the correct location, and that the site managers and contract managers used them as management tools and legal documents...

  12. Site formation and chronology of the new Paleolithic site Sima de Las Palomas de Teba, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Martin; Burow, Christoph; Cantalejo, Pedro; Domínguez-Bella, Salvador; Durán, Juan José; Henselowsky, Felix; Klasen, Nicole; Linstädter, Jörg; Medianero, Javier; Pastoors, Andreas; Ramos, José; Reicherter, Klaus; Schmidt, Christoph; Weniger, Gerd-Christian

    2016-03-01

    The newly identified Paleolithic site Sima de Las Palomas de Teba hosts an almost seven-m-thick sediment profile investigated here to elucidate the rock shelter's chronostratigraphy and formation processes. At its base, the sediment sequence contains rich archeological deposits recording intensive occupation by Neanderthals. Luminescence provides a terminus ante quem of 39.4 ± 2.6 ka or 44.9 ± 4.1 ka (OSL) and 51.4 ± 8.4 ka (TL). This occupation ended with a rockfall event followed by accumulation of archeologically sterile sediments. These were covered by sediments containing few Middle Paleolithic artifacts, which either indicate ephemeral occupation by Neanderthals or reworking as suggested by micromorphological features. Above this unit, scattered lithic artifacts of undiagnostic character may represent undefined Paleolithic occupations. Sediment burial ages between about 23.0 ± 1.5 ka (OSL) and 40.5 ± 3.4 ka (pIRIR) provide an Upper Paleolithic chronology for sediments deposited above the rockfall. Finally, a dung-bearing Holocene layer in the uppermost part of the sequence contains a fragment of a human mandible dated to 4032 ± 39 14C yr BP. Overall, the sequence represents an important new site for studying the end of Neanderthal occupation in southern Spain. Supplementary Figure S2: Preheat-plateau and dose-recovery test results for OSL on fine-grained quartz of samples CP7. Aliquots for the dose-recovery test were administered a dose of 40 Gy after removing the natural signal by blue stimulation for 150 s at 125°C and 80% optical power. Supplementary Figure S3: Dependence of equivalent dose on prior IR stimulation temperature for samples CP1, CP3 and CP7. For each sample and pIRIR protocol six aliquots were used while increasing the first IR stimulation temperature in steps of 30°C from 50°C to 140°C and to 180°C. Data are normalized to the pIRIR De obtained with a first IR stimulation at 50°C. Supplementary Figure S4: Regenerative TL glow

  13. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  14. Using Geoarchaeology to Predict the Presence of Offshore Sites in Southern California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, J.; York, A.

    2013-12-01

    During the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, the continental shelves off southern California were exposed and available for occupation by prehistoric peoples. Subsequent sealevel rise and marine transgression of the continental shelf resulted in both submergence and potentially reworking of site materials. A model has been developed and tested for continental shelf site locations, using geoarchaeological methods including seismic reflection imaging, coring, and invertebrate fossil identification. In this model, such factors as topography, rate of sea level rise, sediment thickness and context of deposition are all applied to the assessment of potential for site presence and preservation. The most desirable locations for site preservation are found in offshore valley floors and flanks, whereas adjacent uplands are prone to site erosion. Cultural materials from the La Jollan Complex were recovered from two separate offshore sites by large-scale dredging operations. Transgression at these sites occurred prior to about 8000 B.P.. The relation of these cultural materials to the offshore site location model will be discussed.

  15. 原始文化中的二元逻辑与史前考古艺术形象%Dual Logic in Primitive Culture and Artistic Figures in Prehistoric Archaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤惠生; 田旭东

    2001-01-01

    Using the theory of dual opposites, the present paper studies archaeological data incombination with early man's thinking and ideas. From the angle of Shaman cosmogony, the thought ofdual opposites and their cultural concepts, its puts forward new interpretations on numerous commonly-seen designs, such as the depiction of a bird pecking a fish, tao-tie mask, hooked-cloud pattern, birddesign, human face design, and the depiction of the Royal lord of the East and the Royal lady of theWest. Furthermore, the author summarizes the three developmental stages of dual logic and the significance of the thought of dual opposites in primitive culture and prehistoric archaeology.

  16. Lapita diet in remote oceania: new stable isotope evidence from the 3000-year-old Teouma site, Efate Island, Vanuatu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kinaston

    Full Text Available Remote Oceania was colonized ca. 3000 BP by populations associated with the Lapita Cultural Complex, marking a major event in the prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Islands. Although over 250 Lapita sites have been found throughout the Western Pacific, human remains associated with Lapita period sites are rare. The site of Teouma, on Efate Island, Vanuatu has yielded the largest burial assemblage (n=68 inhumations of Lapita period humans ever discovered, providing a unique opportunity for assessing human adaptation to the environment in a colonizing population. Stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S of human bone collagen from forty-nine Teouma adults were analyzed against a comprehensive dietary baseline to assess the paleodiet of some of Vanuatu's earliest inhabitants. The isotopic dietary baseline included both modern plants and animals (n=98 and prehistoric fauna from the site (n=71. The human stable isotope data showed that dietary protein at Teouma included a mixture of reef fish and inshore organisms and a variety of higher trophic marine (e.g. marine turtle and terrestrial animals (e.g. domestic animals and fruit bats. The domestic pigs and chickens at Teouma primarily ate food from a C3 terrestrial environment but their δ15N values indicated that they were eating foods from higher trophic levels than those of plants, such as insects or human fecal matter, suggesting that animal husbandry at the site may have included free range methods. The dietary interpretations for the humans suggest that broad-spectrum foraging and the consumption of domestic animals were the most important methods for procuring dietary protein at the site. Males displayed significantly higher δ15N values compared with females, possibly suggesting dietary differences associated with labor specialization or socio-cultural practices relating to food distribution.

  17. Lapita diet in remote oceania: new stable isotope evidence from the 3000-year-old Teouma site, Efate Island, Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaston, Rebecca; Buckley, Hallie; Valentin, Frederique; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew; Hawkins, Stuart; Herrscher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Remote Oceania was colonized ca. 3000 BP by populations associated with the Lapita Cultural Complex, marking a major event in the prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Islands. Although over 250 Lapita sites have been found throughout the Western Pacific, human remains associated with Lapita period sites are rare. The site of Teouma, on Efate Island, Vanuatu has yielded the largest burial assemblage (n=68 inhumations) of Lapita period humans ever discovered, providing a unique opportunity for assessing human adaptation to the environment in a colonizing population. Stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) of human bone collagen from forty-nine Teouma adults were analyzed against a comprehensive dietary baseline to assess the paleodiet of some of Vanuatu's earliest inhabitants. The isotopic dietary baseline included both modern plants and animals (n=98) and prehistoric fauna from the site (n=71). The human stable isotope data showed that dietary protein at Teouma included a mixture of reef fish and inshore organisms and a variety of higher trophic marine (e.g. marine turtle) and terrestrial animals (e.g. domestic animals and fruit bats). The domestic pigs and chickens at Teouma primarily ate food from a C3 terrestrial environment but their δ15N values indicated that they were eating foods from higher trophic levels than those of plants, such as insects or human fecal matter, suggesting that animal husbandry at the site may have included free range methods. The dietary interpretations for the humans suggest that broad-spectrum foraging and the consumption of domestic animals were the most important methods for procuring dietary protein at the site. Males displayed significantly higher δ15N values compared with females, possibly suggesting dietary differences associated with labor specialization or socio-cultural practices relating to food distribution.

  18. Instrumental Techniques in Archeological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    leather, amber, and mummified material. Evidently this is preliminary work. Schwarcz , H. P., 1986, "ESR Dating of Tooth Enamel," Abstracts of the 1984...Radiocarbon dating Contact: H. P. Schwarcz Technique(s): ESR 79 Illinois State Geological Survey McCrone Associates Inc. State Geological Survey

  19. Marine archeology: The hidden history

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Chandore, Gopakapattana, and Ela, which were the port capitals at different times of the long history. Four stone anchors from Goa waters indicate an active maritime activity during the pre-Portuguese period. An important aspect of marine archaeology...

  20. Relationship between archaeological sites distribution and environment from 1.15 Ma BP to 278 BCin Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lan; WU Li; ZHU Cheng; LI Feng; MA Chunmei

    2011-01-01

    A total of 1362 archaeological sites from the Paleolithic Age to the Warring States time in Hubei Province increase gradually from west to east and from high land to low land.The number of Paleolithic sites with altitude of 50-500 m account for 78% of the whole,while 71%-95% of sites from the Neolithic Age to the Warring States time mainly distribute at the areas of 0-200 m.The temporal-spatial distribution of archeological sites in this area is affected by two factors.For one thing,the human beings of every period need to choose the first or the second terrace as living sites which are near water source and are easy to withstand flood.Additionally,affecting by the regional tectonic uplift since the Holocene,down cutting of rivers can form new river valley,and lateral erosion and accumulation of river in stable time of tectonic movement can result in increasing of many new terraces.So,the human beings migrated to adapt to the change of terrace location,leading to the sites increase gradually in the lower areas of the central and eastern parts of this province.For other things,the temporal-spatial distribution of archeological sites in this area is affected by the climate condition.The Paleolithic sites mostly distribute in the Hanshui River Valley in northeastern Shiyan,southeast of Jinzhou and east of Jinmen,which is because rivers distributed in higher areas in this period.During the Chengbeixi Culture period,the sites are rare in the quondam Paleolithic sites distribution area,but increase obviously along the Yangtze River near the southwest Yichang.The spore-pollen record of Dajiuhu Basin indicates that only 23 Chengbeixi cultural sites may be related to more precipitation and flood during the Holocene wet and hot period.The Daxi Culture,Qujialing Culture and Shijiahe Culture are corresponding to middle and top of the Dajiuhu spore-pollen Zone Ⅳ,during which the climate is in order as a whole and is propitious to agricultural development.In the Qujialing

  1. The Hitory Development,Archeological Findings and History Features of the Shangqiu Section of Sui Tang Canal%隋唐运河商丘段的历史沿革、考古发现及历史风貌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清森

    2011-01-01

    The Shangqiu Section of Sui Tang Canal, the important part of Yongji Ditch, with the length of.199. 7km, is mostly buried underground and kept well. The study of its history development, archeological findings and history features provide rich material for its rich culture history and important history value.%隋唐运河商丘段是隋唐运河通济渠的重要渠段,全长约199.7公里,大多埋藏于地下,保存基本完好。对隋唐运河商丘段的历史沿革、考古发现、历史风貌等方面进行初步探讨,可以为研究隋唐运河商丘段的文化底蕴和历史文化价值提供珍贵的资料。

  2. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  3. Prehistoric chronology of Madhya Pradesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    , Jabalpur, Rewa, Sidhi, Bastar, Raipur, Bilaspur, Raisen, Sehore, Guna, Gwalior etc. by Archaeological Survey of India and many universities. An attempt has been made in this paper to give a clear picture of Stone Age succession in Madhya Pradesh from Lower...

  4. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  5. Prehistoric settlements in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Drewett

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamerican archaeology has focused mainly on the ancient civilizations of the mainland, but knowledge of early settlement, society and economy in the Caribbean islands is essential for our understanding of the prehistory of the region as a whole. Institute staff and students are currently working in three islands: Puerto Rico, Tortola and Barbados.

  6. Technologies for Prehistoric & Historic Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Archaeological remains and historic structures and landscapes are important tangible reminders of the United States' rich and diverse cultural heritage. In recent years the stresses on these unique, nonrenewable cultural resources have increased dramatically. This report presents the primary findings of an assessment requested by the House of…

  7. Six new examples of the bipartite trapezoid bone: morphology, significant population variation, and an examination of pre-existing criteria to identify bipartition of individual carpal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Scott E; Stojanowski, Christopher M; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2015-03-01

    Carpal bone bipartition is a developmental variant resulting in the division of a normally singular carpal into two distinct segments. Cases involving the scaphoid are best known, though many other carpals can be affected, including the trapezoid. Six new examples of bipartite trapezoids, identified in African and Asian anatomical and archeological samples, are reported here and compared with the eight previously known. While the site of bipartition is consistent, the resulting segments exhibit variability in their articulations with neighboring carpals. Five of the six affected trapezoids were identified in African or African-derived samples, yielding a significantly higher frequency (0.323%) of bipartite trapezoid than seen in anatomical or archeological series of European origin. Bilateral bipartite trapezoids in archeological remains from the Mid Holocene site of Gobero (Niger) are potentially the oldest bipartite carpals yet identified in humans. Their discovery may indicate that trapezoid bipartition is a condition that has been present in African populations since prehistoric times, though more data are needed. Because bipartite carpals may be symptomatic and can occur as part of syndromes, the significant population variation in frequency identified here has potential utility in both anatomical and clinical contexts. However, a comparison of the morphological appearance of bipartite trapezoids with the suggested criteria for bipartite scaphoid diagnosis indicates that these criteria are not equally applicable to other carpals. Fortunately, due to the rarity of fracture, identification of the bipartite trapezoid and separating it from pathological conditions is considerably easier than diagnosing a bipartite scaphoid.

  8. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites) Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  9. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  10. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  11. A descriptive catalog of 1971 archeological collections bearing on the later prehistory of the Afognak River estuary, Kodiak Island Group, Alaska: Report to the National Forest Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brief descriptions of sites collected due to endangerment by subsistence after 1964 Good Friday earthquake. Enumeration and classification of collection with brief...

  12. Identification of plant cells in black pigments of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art by means of a multi-analytical approach. A new method for social identity materialization using chaîne opératoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Montalvo, Esther; Roldán, Clodoaldo; Badal, Ernestina; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Villaverde, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses. During the first stage of our research protocol, in situ and non-destructive analyses were carried out by means of portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); during the second stage, samples were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Two major conclusions have been drawn from these analyses: first, charred plant matter has been identified as a main component of these prehistoric black pigments; and second, angiosperm and conifer charcoal was a primary raw material for pigment production, identified by means of the archaeobotanical study of plant cells. For the second goal, black charcoal pigments were replicated in the laboratory by using different raw materials and binders and by reproducing two main chaînes opératoires. The comparative study of the structure and preservation of plant tissues of both prehistoric and experimental pigments by means of SEM-EDX underlines both a complex preparation process and the use of likely pigment recipes, mixing raw material with fatty or oily binders. Finally, the formal and stylistic analysis of the motifs portrayed at Les Dogues allowed us to explore the relationship between identified stylistic phases and black charcoal pigment use, raising new archaeological questions concerning the acquisition of know-how and the

  13. Protection of the cultural heritage of the Guarani Jesuit Missions. Interventions in the missionary archeological sites of São João Batista and São Lourenço Mártir

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas Jaramillo, Maria Matilde

    2014-01-01

    During the settlement process of the jesuitic-guarani missions in the XVII century seven reductions were founded in the Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) and just four of them show visible remains nowadays. Because of the decay of the reduccional system by the end of the XVIII century, the missionary towns were abandoned and their architecture fell into ruin. The first preservation work of the National Historical Artistic Patrimony Institute was done on the remains of São Miguel Arcanjo from ...

  14. The Traversella mining site as Piedmont geosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emanuele; Benna, Piera; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Rossetti, Piergiorgio

    2017-04-01

    room and canteens, etc..); such signs are the tangible trace of a remarkable industrial activity, which can be considered as cultural heritage of historical industrial activities ("industrial archeology"). To enrich such cultural heritage, a museum for minerals and mining tools exposition is still active. Furthermore, to evidence the importance of Traversella mining site, outstanding mineralogical samples coming from Traversella area are displayed in the most famous museum all over the world. The present research aims at emphasize the extraordinary importance of this mining site both from a scientific and a historical point of view, examining the methods and the amount of production during the last three centuries, and highlighting how these activities contributed to the industrial development of the surrounding area and of the whole Piedmont Region. We also want to illustrate the sociological and environmental impact of mining activities at regional level, highlighting the importance of the site from a geoturistic point of view, thanks to of the cultural exploitation of the mining site remains, the developing and upgrade of the already existing mining museum, and the organization of geoturistic itinerary.

  15. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  16. Characterization of Roman glass tesserae from the Coriglia excavation site (Italy) via energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donais, Mary Kate; Van Pevenage, Jolien; Sparks, Andrew; Redente, Monica; George, David B.; Moens, Luc; Vincze, Laszlo; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The combined use of handheld energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry permitted the characterization of Roman glass tesserae excavation from the Coriglia (Italy) archeological site. Analyses of ten different glass colors were conducted as spot analyses on intact samples and as both spot analyses and line scans on select cross-sectioned samples. The elemental and molecular information gained from these spectral measurements allowed for the qualitative chemical characterization of the bulk glass, decolorants, opacifiers, and coloring agents. The use of an antimony opacifier in many of the samples supports the late Imperial phasing as determined through numismatic, fresco, ceramics, and architectural evidence. And dealinization of the exterior glass layers caused by the burial environment was confirmed.

  17. Characterization of Roman glass tesserae from the Coriglia excavation site (Italy) via energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donais, Mary Kate; Sparks, Andrew; Redente, Monica [Saint Anselm College, Department of Chemistry, Manchester, NH (United States); Pevenage, Jolien van; Moens, Luc; Vincze, Laszlo [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent (Belgium); George, David B. [Saint Anselm College, Department of Classics, Manchester, NH (United States); Vandenabeele, Peter [Ghent University, Department of Archaeology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-12-15

    The combined use of handheld energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry permitted the characterization of Roman glass tesserae excavation from the Coriglia (Italy) archeological site. Analyses of ten different glass colors were conducted as spot analyses on intact samples and as both spot analyses and line scans on select cross-sectioned samples. The elemental and molecular information gained from these spectral measurements allowed for the qualitative chemical characterization of the bulk glass, decolorants, opacifiers, and coloring agents. The use of an antimony opacifier in many of the samples supports the late Imperial phasing as determined through numismatic, fresco, ceramics, and architectural evidence. And dealinization of the exterior glass layers caused by the burial environment was confirmed. (orig.)

  18. Archeological and Palynological Analysis of Specimens and Materials Recovered in Two Historic Period Privies and a Well in Saint Alice Revetment, Saint James Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    rest of the treeline zone; this is reflected by the herbaceous vegetation which is mostly "wet site" species such as sedges ( Cyperaceae ), lizard’ tail...Amaranthaceae, since their grains are too similar to separate into taxa. Cyperaceae pollen, another wind pollinated type, comes from weeds of the sedge (rush...smartweed, lizard’s tail and sedges . In drier areas, the vege- tation is much the same as that on the levee being composed mostly of grasses, clovers

  19. Survey of the black howler monkey, alouatta pigra, population at the Mayan site of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro; Castellanos, Lucia; Garcia, Yasminda; Franco, Berenice; Munoz, David; Ibarra, Ana; Rivera, Andromeda; Fuentes, Eugenio; Jimenez, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the population of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) present at the Mayan site of Palenque was conducted during 2000. A total of 911 man/hours, spread over 112 days were spent surveying the 600 ha area of pristine forest at the site for howler troops. We detected the presence of 136 individuals of which 131 were members of 20 troops, the rest were 3 solitary adult males and 2 adult males travelling as a pair. Ecological density was estimated at 23 individuals/km(2). Mean troop size was 7.0 individuals and it ranged from 2 - 12 individuals; 60% of the troops were multimale. All sighting of howler monkeys were in evergreen rain forest and 75% were in trees > or = 20 m in height. The reported densities and mean troop size are higher than those reported for the species in Guatemala and in central Quintana Roo, Mexico. The vegetation of the forest contains tree species reported to be used by species of Alouatta in the Moraceae, Sapotaceae, Leguminosae, and Lauraceae plant families. Protection of a large perimeter area (ca 1700 ha) around the archeological site by the Mexican government ensures the conservation of the forest and of the black howler monkey population present at the site.

  20. Archaeomagnetic Study of Limeplasters from Pre-hispanic Sites from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueda, Y. T.; Soler, A. M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J. H.; Rebolledo, M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Caballero, C. I.; Tarling, D. H.

    2001-05-01

    In this work, we report the new archeomagnetic data from limeplasters of the archeological sites Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, Xochicalco and Templo Mayor, which correspond to Classical, Epi-Classical and Post-Classical periods of Mesoamerica, respectively. The results obtained allowed us to improve the existing paleosecular variation reference curve for Mesoamerica. The previously reported results, we used for our database belongs to Latham et al., 1986, (stalagmite with a time span from 750 A.D. to 1941 A.D.), and from Urrutia-Fucugauchi, 1996, (historic eruptions). We also incorporated some declination data from explorers and mexican scientists during 1587 to 1869. The observatory data used in this study come from the Teoloyucan magnetic observatory, run by UNAM in central Mexico since 1923. Results of unburned limeplasters permit date the time of elaboration of the limeplasters. Moreover, we were able to discriminate between different construction steps for studied archaeological sites. From the study of burned samples it is possible to date the re-occupation of Teotihuacan culture by the Aztecs.

  1. The Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP): a high-resolution drill core record from a hominin site in the East African Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommain, R.; Potts, R.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The East African rift valley contains an outstanding record of hominin fossils that document human evolution over the Plio-Pleistocene when the global and regional climate and the rift valley itself changed markedly. The sediments of fossil localities typically provide, however, only short time windows into past climatic and environmental conditions. Continuous, long-term terrestrial records are now becoming available through core drilling to help elucidate the paleoenvironmental context of human evolution. Here we present a 500,000 year long high-resolution drill core record obtained from a key fossil and archeological site - the Olorgesailie Basin in the southern Kenya Rift Valley, well known for its sequence of archeological and faunal sites for the past 1.2 million years. In 2012 two drill cores (54 and 166 m long) were collected in the Koora Plain just south of Mt. Olorgesailie as part of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP) to establish a detailed climate and ecological record associated with the last evidence of Homo erectus in Africa, the oldest transition of Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology, and large mammal species turnover, all of which are documented in the Olorgesailie excavations. The cores were sampled at the National Lacustrine Core Facility. More than 140 samples of tephra and trachytic basement lavas have led to high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating. The cores are being analyzed for a suite of paleoclimatic and paleoecological proxies such as diatoms, pollen, fungal spores, phytoliths, ostracodes, carbonate isotopes, leaf wax biomarkers, charcoal, and clay mineralogy. Sedimentological analyses, including lithological descriptions, microscopic smear slide analysis (242 samples), and grain-size analysis, reveal a highly variable sedimentary sequence of deep lake phases with laminated sediments, diatomites, shallow lake and near shore phases, fluvial deposits, paleosols, interspersed carbonate layers, and abundant volcanic ash deposits. Magnetic

  2. 76 FR 40925 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Characterization Activities on the Atlantic Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ..., geotechnical, archeological, and biological surveys--on those leases) in identified Wind Energy Areas (WEAs...-Atlantic WEAs (76 FR 7226), which requested public input with regard to the identification of the...

  3. 3D VIRTUAL RECONSTRUCTIONS OF MINOAN RURAL SITES: THE CASE OF LIVARI CHEROMYLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alusik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of 3D sophisticated visualizations and reconstructions is still not common during the process of reconstruction or recreation of the appearance of any preserved architecture of prehistoric (Bronze Age Crete. However, the author believes that in modern archaeology the use of the up-to-date computer technologies and sophisticated software is necessary. In their opinion, in case of presenting of sites with preserved architecture a creation of ideal 3D reconstruction should become a standard feature of final publications in the near future. The author deals with the study of Minoan architecture, settlement pattern and rural aspect of Minoan Crete in the last years. In this paper, the author – in cooperation with an architect and a specialist in technical modelling – is presenting an ideal 3D virtual reconstruction of the small rural site of Livari Cheromylia (consisting of 4 main structures and several terrace walls, situated on the southern coast in the Bay of Livari, between Goudouras and Aghia Irini. The 3D reconstruction of the individual structures and the site as a whole based on the up-to-date scholarship on Minoan architecture and the actual archaeological/architectural parallels in situ as well as on the iconographical sources, is presented below.

  4. D Virtual Reconstructions of Minoan Rural Sites: the Case of Livari Cheromylia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alusik, T.; Chalupka, M.; Kopernicky, D.

    2011-09-01

    The use of 3D sophisticated visualizations and reconstructions is still not common during the process of reconstruction or recreation of the appearance of any preserved architecture of prehistoric (Bronze Age) Crete. However, the author believes that in modern archaeology the use of the up-to-date computer technologies and sophisticated software is necessary. In their opinion, in case of presenting of sites with preserved architecture a creation of ideal 3D reconstruction should become a standard feature of final publications in the near future. The author deals with the study of Minoan architecture, settlement pattern and rural aspect of Minoan Crete in the last years. In this paper, the author - in cooperation with an architect and a specialist in technical modelling - is presenting an ideal 3D virtual reconstruction of the small rural site of Livari Cheromylia (consisting of 4 main structures and several terrace walls), situated on the southern coast in the Bay of Livari, between Goudouras and Aghia Irini. The 3D reconstruction of the individual structures and the site as a whole based on the up-to-date scholarship on Minoan architecture and the actual archaeological/architectural parallels in situ as well as on the iconographical sources, is presented below.

  5. 博物馆化的想象--锡拉史前博物馆的展览语境的构建%The imagination of the museum--The case of the constructing exhibition context in the museum of prehistoric Thira

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖沙泥

    2014-01-01

    this paper tries to take the prehistoric Museum of Thira on the island of Santorini for example, analyzing the progress of constructing historical context in exhibition.%本文以圣托里尼岛上的锡拉史前博物馆为例,试图分析在博物馆展览中历史性展览语境的构建。

  6. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  7. Identification of plant cells in black pigments of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art by means of a multi-analytical approach. A new method for social identity materialization using chaîne opératoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Badal, Ernestina; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Villaverde, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses. During the first stage of our research protocol, in situ and non-destructive analyses were carried out by means of portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); during the second stage, samples were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Two major conclusions have been drawn from these analyses: first, charred plant matter has been identified as a main component of these prehistoric black pigments; and second, angiosperm and conifer charcoal was a primary raw material for pigment production, identified by means of the archaeobotanical study of plant cells. For the second goal, black charcoal pigments were replicated in the laboratory by using different raw materials and binders and by reproducing two main chaînes opératoires. The comparative study of the structure and preservation of plant tissues of both prehistoric and experimental pigments by means of SEM-EDX underlines both a complex preparation process and the use of likely pigment recipes, mixing raw material with fatty or oily binders. Finally, the formal and stylistic analysis of the motifs portrayed at Les Dogues allowed us to explore the relationship between identified stylistic phases and black charcoal pigment use, raising new archaeological questions concerning the acquisition of know-how and the

  8. 江苏宜兴市骆驼墩新石器时代遗址的发掘%Excavation on the Neolithic Luotuodun Site in Yixing City, Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南京博物院考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    In November 2001-July 2002, the Institute of Archaeology, Nanjing Museum, carried out a large-scale excavation on the Luotuodun site in Yixing City, Jiangsu Province. They revealed a large number of tombs, ash-pits, house-foundations, shell deposits and sacrificial vestiges of the Majiabang culture and a few tombs and ash-pits of the Songze and Liangzhu cultures. The urn-burials of the Majiabang culture are the first discovered remains of this kind in the lower Changjiang River valley. The site yielded lots of stone implements, pottery vessels, bone artifacts, jade objects, animal bones and carbonized rice grains. The discoveries on the site made up a gap in our understanding of the prehistoric culture in the western Taihu Lake area and have great significance to the study of the Neolithic Age and civilizing course in the lower Changjiang River valley.

  9. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  11. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  12. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  13. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  14. Entre dos mundos: los grabados al aire libre de Pena Bicuda de Loureiro (Teo, Galicia, España = Between two worlds: prehistoric open-air petroglyphs from Pena Bicuda de Loureiro (Teo, Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Fábregas Valcarce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abordamos el estudio de un interesante petroglifo prehistórico registrado recientemente, que muestra las habituales combinaciones circulares pero también motivos menos usuales como espirales o un posible ídolo. Por otra parte, no es frecuente que una estación rupestre, situada lejos de la costa, posea un número relativamente alto de representaciones zoomorfas (en su mayoría ciervos, algunas de ellas aparentemente en estrecha asociación con el motivo idoliforme. Hemos hecho uso de la cartografía LIDAR y aplicamos análisis SIG para determinar los patrones espaciales básicos de ubicación de los petroglifos y su eventual relación con otros monumentos cercanos, específicamente túmulos.We deal with an interesting prehistoric petroglyph recently recorded, displaying the common circular combinations and also less usual motifs such as spirals or a possible idol. Otherwise, it is by no means frequent that a decorated stone, located away from the coastline, should show a relatively high number of zoomorphic representations (mostly deer, a number of them apparently in close association with the idol-like motif. We have made use of LIDAR cartography and applied GIS techniques to ascertain the basic spatial patterns of location of the petroglyph and its eventual relationship with other monuments found nearby, namely funerary mounds.

  15. Excavation of the Settlement of Early Yangshao Culture on the Dadiwan Site in Qin'an County, Gansu%甘肃秦安县大地湾遗址仰韶文化早期聚落发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘肃省文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    The remains of Stage I of early Yangshao culture discovered on the Dadiwan site include 37 house-foundations, 12 fireplaces, 22 ash-pits, 20 tombs, one kiln-site and one moat (six sections), which combine to show a prehistoric settlement rather clear an layout. The main part of the settlement is built on the second terrace by the river, surrounded with a moat In the center, a little to the west, there is a square nearly one thousand sq m in area, with a common cemetery within it. On the western side of the square lies a large-sized house-foundation, round which and round the square mediumand small-sized house-foundations are spread like a folding fan. The whole settlement displays a strong cohesion. The present paper reports mainly the moat G100, large-sized house-foundation F229, medium-sized F310 and F360, small-sized F5, adult tombs M222 and M1 and urn-burial M213. Being the first discovered early Yangshao settlement in the Gansu region, this is again a noteworthy achievement following the revelation of the Banpo, Jiangzhai and Beishouling sites. It provides valuable material for studying the social organization of prehistoric China and the evolution of then settlements.

  16. SCHOOL SITE STANDARDS AND SITE SELECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL SITE DEVELOPMENT DATA COMPILED BY THE DIVISION OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES PLANNING, NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. ENROLLMENT FIGURES USED REPRESENT THE ULTIMATE SIZE OF THE SCHOOLS. THE STANDARDS ARE MINIMUM FOR THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SITES BASED ON THREE ACRES PLUS…

  17. Valuing Ecotourism of a Recreational Site in Ciamis District of West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Saptutyningsih

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism, as an alternative tourism, involves visiting natural areas in order to learn, to study or to carry out activities environmentally friendly, that is a tourism based on the nature experience which enables the economic and social development of local communities. Ecotourism encourages rural economics and provides benefits to income and employment generation. It is considered as an alternative for enhancing rural lifestyle and for leading positive changes in the distribution of income. One of the area which has ecotourism site in Indonesia is Karangkamulyan site, Ciamis District of West Java. There is a tourist attraction that not only offers natural beauty, history and cool atmosphere, it also serves as a place of education and research on the history in the field of archeology. This attraction should receive special attention from the local government so that the tourists and local people also get the benefits. Ecotourism can be classified as possessing public goods-type characteristics, and as such, welfare benefit estimates must utilize non-market valuation techniques. This study employs the travel cost method and contingent valuation method. Travel cost and contingent valuation methods are applied to the problem of estimating the potential consumer surplus available to tourists from ecotourism in Ciamis. The results are compared with contingent valuation analysis of willingness-to-pay of tourists in their current trip to ecotourism sites of Ciamis. The result of travel cost method indicates that tourists’ average travel cost is estimated at no more than one hundred thousand rupiahs. The contingent valuation method concludes that the tourists’ average willingness to pay in their trip to ecotourism sites of Ciamis is are about IDR 6,800 in average. 

  18. THE RUPESTRIAN PLACES OF ALUNIŞU – POSSIBLE TOURISMGEOMORPHOLOGICAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. IRIMUŞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Rupestrian Places of Alunişu – Possible Tourism Geomorphological Sites. The existence of sandstones on very large areas in this region, corroborated with the fact that it appears in daylight in many places, has allowed man to make it profitable. The Kliwa sandstones specific to this area have been used in two different ways: firstly in a traditional manner, where the rock is used as a construction material and secondly, shaping it in situ. The friability of the sandstone deposits and the moderate compaction degree has enabled man to mould it even in a rudimentary manner specific to the Paleolithic or the Neolithic era. During the Middle Ages, on the background of the religious and political strains, a rather religious use of these places is recorded, also sustained by the climate and the morphology of the region. The low erosion rate, the isolation and a very difficult access have allowed great preservation in time and their turning into historical sites of great value. The anthropogenic factor completes, by its presence and by the activities deployed in the perimeter of this archeological site, the matrix of interactions between the physical and the environment made human in this way; man has changed the structure and the function of some of these religious places (churches and others from the sandstone deposits, and this fact enabled us to identify the evolution of this site by geomorphological criteria, a process simultaneous with the historical research. Due to the anthropogenic influence and the natural one, these geosites have gained a scientific, social, cultural, economic and tourism value as well as other additional values, which have turned them into geomorphosites.

  19. Mapping archaeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from Potaissa to Napoca

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    FLORIN FODOREAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping archeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from potaissa to Napoca. We aim to analyze and correct several archaeological and historical data regarding some settlements included in an official document, issued by the Ministry of Culture from Romania, entitled the List of Historical Monuments (Lista Monumentelor Istorice / LMI. We focused our attention on the Roman road from Potaissa to Napoca, the main imperial road of Dacia. We described the route of the Roman road and corrected the old information in the list of historical monuments regarding the discoveries within the territory of the village of Aiton. Methodologically, we used data from the old literature, the modern Austro-Hungarian maps from the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries, information from regional gazetteers and different journals. We aimed to offer new insights regarding the accurate location of these settlements and to debate upon the spatial relations of these settlements and their position within the landscape of Dacia. At the beginning of the study, we presented the present situation concerning the databases in Romania covering archaeological sites. The second part of our study discusses how the archaeological sites are recorded in the list of historical monuments. Then we offered several case studies This type of methodological approach will be applied in the future for other areas, in order to reconstruct the former landscape of the province of Dacia, as accurately as possible, using digital tools and modern maps. Our contribution also improved the quality of the data sets used for the topographical descriptions of archaeological sites in Romania.

  20. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

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    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a