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Sample records for pregnant women patients

  1. QT Interval in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

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    Majid Zamani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolongation of QT interval might result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes (TdP, consequently leading to syncope or death. A limited number of studies carried out in this respect to date have shown that QT interval might increase during pregnancy. On the other hand, it has been shown that each pregnancy might result in an increase in the risk of cardiac accidents in patients with long QT interval. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare QT intervals in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women group consisted of 40 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and the non-pregnant control group consisted of healthy women 18-35 years of age. All the patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG. The QT interval was measured for each patient at lead II. The mean corrected QT interval (QTc and QT dispersions (QTd were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean heart rates in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were 98.55±14.09 and 72.53±13.17 beats/minutes (P<0.001. QTd and QTc means were in the normal range in both groups; however, these variables were 49.50±12.80 and 43.03±18.47 milliseconds in the pregnant group and 39.5±9.59 and 40.38±17.20 milliseconds in the control group, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: The QT interval was longer in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women; however, it was in the normal range in both groups. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage risk factors involved in prolongation of QT interval and prevent concurrence of these factors with pregnancy.

  2. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gajer, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSION: We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal......BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case......-control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted...

  3. Why do pregnant women participate in research? A patient participation investigation using Q-Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshaka, Riwa; Jeffares, Stephen; Sadrudin, Farah; Huisman, Nicole; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2017-04-01

    Patient participation in study design is paramount to design studies that are acceptable to patients. Despite an increase in research involving pregnant women, relatively little is known about the motivational factors that govern their decision to be involved in a clinical trial, compared to other patient groups. To better understand the viewpoints of pregnant women who take part in clinical trials. We chose to use Q-Methodology, a method of exploring the structure of opinions surrounding a topic. We developed a set of 40 statements that encompassed the reasons why pregnant women might want to take part in research and 30 research participants from the PRiDE study (an observational trial investigating the role of micronutrients in gestational diabetes) were asked to rank them in order of agreement. The finished matrices from each participant were compared and analysed to produce capturing viewpoints. About 30 women aged 19-40 involved in the PRiDE study completed the questionnaire. There were two overarching motivators that emerged: a willingness to help medical research and improve our knowledge of medical science, and having a personal connection to the disease, therefore a potential fear of being affected by it. A third, less significant viewpoint, was that of a lack of inconvenience being a motivating factor. Understanding what motivates pregnant women to decide to take part in a research study is valuable and helps researchers maximize their uptake and retention rates when designing a trial involving pregnant women. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in pregnant Turkish women compared with non-pregnant women.

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    Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.

  5. Comparison of renal venous blood flow between normal pregnant women and non-pregnant women by colour and duplex doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Butt, R.W.; Masoud, R; Umar, M.; Shakil, U.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether normal pregnancy has a significant effect on intrarenal venous blood flow and to assess whether the physiological maternal pyelocaliectasis causes a measurable change in venous impedance indices in pregnant women. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: Radiology Departments, KRL Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Lahore from Jan 2010 to Jul 2010 Patients and Methods: A total of 50 normal pregnant women in their second and third trimester and 50 controls, i.e. normal non-pregnant married healthy women of childbearing age were included in the study. Confounding variables were controlled by excluding subjects having recent or previous renal calculi, pathological renal conditions or congenital renal anomalies or generalized disorders affecting haemodynamics ruled out by history, clinical examination and ultrasound examination in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Results: After grading the degree of hydronephrosis, venous impedance index was obtained from the interlobar veins. Overall the collecting system dilatation was present in 60 % of 50 right kidneys and 42 % of 50 left kidneys in the pregnant women. The venous impedance indices were significantly lower in 50 pregnant women than the values in non-pregnant subjects (p< 0.001 for the right and the left kidney). The overall difference in venous impedance indices between right and left kidneys was not significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11). There was an inverse correlation between the grade of pelvicalyceal dilatation and the venous impedance indices in both kidneys in 50 pregnant women. Conclusion: Normal pregnancy causes dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and significant reduction in renal venous impedance index values in second and third trimesters. Therefore one should be careful in interpretation of an abnormally reduced venous impedance index and hydronephrosis as a sign of pathological ureteral obstruction in pregnant women

  6. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

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    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  7. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

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    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  8. Anxiety and depression symptoms among sub-fertile women, women pregnant after infertility treatment, and naturally pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih Joelsson, L; Tydén, T; Wanggren, K; Georgakis, M K; Stern, J; Berglund, A; Skalkidou, A

    2017-09-01

    Infertility has been associated with psychological distress, but whether these symptoms persist after achieving pregnancy via assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains unclear. We compared the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms between women seeking for infertility treatment and women who conceived after ART or naturally. Four hundred and sixty-eight sub-fertile non-pregnant women, 2972 naturally pregnant women and 143 women pregnant after ART completed a questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. The Anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A≥8) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS≥12) were used for assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance were applied to explore associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among sub-fertile, non-pregnant women (57.6% and 15.7%, respectively) were significantly higher compared to women pregnant after ART (21.1% and 8.5%, respectively) and naturally pregnant women (18.8% and 10.3%, respectively). History of psychiatric diagnosis was identified as an independent risk factor for both anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of at least one unhealthy lifestyle behavior (daily tobacco smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, BMI≥25, and regular physical exercise<2h/week) was also associated with anxiety (Prevalence Ratio, PR: 1.24; 95%CI: 1.09-1.40) and depressive symptoms (PR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.04-1.49). Women pregnant after ART showed no difference in anxiety and depressive symptoms compared to naturally pregnant women. However, early psychological counseling and management of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors for sub-fertile women may be advisable, particularly for women with a previous history of psychiatric diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. [Eating habits of pregnant and non-pregnant women: are there differences?].

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    Gomes, Caroline de Barros; Malta, Maíra Barreto; Martiniano, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Di Bonifácio, Luiza Pereira; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2015-07-01

    To determine the eating behavior of pregnant women assisted by primary health care and to compare it with women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals. A cross-sectional study conducted on 256 pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation, selected by drawing lots from those assisted by primary health care units of a municipality in the state of São Paulo in 2009/2010. Eating habits were investigated via a questionnaire adapted from the VIGITEL system, consisting of questions about eating habits in general and the frequency and consumption characteristics of food groups/specific foods. For tis comparison, we used the indicators reported by the VIGITEL system for women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals in 2010. The analyses involved the presentation of frequency distribution and descriptive statistics with comparisons according to the age group. Most patients had breakfast every day (86.7%) and 45.7% habitually exchanged a main meal for a snack once or twice a week. A daily consumption of fruit, raw salad and vegetables was not reported by 48.8%, 41.8% and 55.1% of the women, respectively. Fish was reported to never or almost never be consumed by 64.4% of the pregnant women. At least once a week, 69.9% of them reported the consumption of soda, and 86.4% of wafers/cookies. The comparison between the pregnant women and women at childbearing age in capitals showed a close similar prevalence of overweight, and no difference in the regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. Meat containing excess of fat and whole milk were more consumed by pregnant women, with differences reported in all the age groups analyzed. On the other hand, the pregnant women reported a less regular intake of soft drinks. The actions that need to be performed in prenatal care are various and very important, promoting the consumption of specific foods and providing guidelines about eating behavior, while reinforcing healthy eating habits already present.

  10. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  11. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

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    Marquis Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  12. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  13. Mental status in pregnant women with brain injury sequels

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    A. A. Volynkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate emotional disturbances in pregnant women with sequels of brain injury (BI.Patients and methods. A total of 47 pregnant women with a history of BI, who had been admitted to the Department of Obstetric Physiology, Moscow Regional Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in 2013-2015, were examined. All the patients underwent a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological examination using the Miltidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 (MFI-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Spielberg-Hanin Situational and Personal Anxiety Scale.Results. The pregnant women with BI sequels were found to have emotional changes involving asthenic, anxiety, and depressive components. In these women, anxiety symptoms were most common (53.3%; psychoemotional disturbance and asthenic and depressive manifestations were identified in 23.4 and 14.9% of cases. This investigation first verified the structural (situational and personal components of post-traumatic anxiety syndrome in the pregnant women. It revealed that an increased level of situational anxiety and physical symptoms of fatigue was observed in brain concussion sequels; and after brain contusion (BC, alarm acquired personality traits, asthenia was of a mental nature. In the pregnant women with BI sequels, depression was diagnosed only at the subclinical level and more often noted after BC (p=0.0473. 

  14. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The present report clearly states that radiosensitivity is highest during intrauterine development and that the possibility of different types of effects depends on the state of pregnancy and on the dose. The decision whether an examination of the abdomen or pelvis of pregnant or potentiably pregnant women should be carried out is made clear that a delay of examinations due to dose reduction is only warranted if no danger to the patient and/or the unborn child is involved. (orig.) [de

  15. Determination of plasma adrenomedullin in normal pregnant women and pregnancy-induced hypertension patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Lihong; Li Jingbo; Zhu Fengquan; Pan Yu; Yuan Aijun; He Kai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships between plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) and normal pregnancy and pathogenesis of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Methods: ADM concentrations in the plasma from 10 normal non-pregnant women, 36 normal pregnant women (12 first, 12 second, 12 third trimester, respectively) and 30 cases of PIH (10 mild, 10 moderate, 10 severe, respectively) were determined by radioimmunoassay, and data were analyzed statistically. Results: ADM concentrations in the first, second and third trimester of normal pregnancy increased significantly than that of normal non-pregnant women (P<0.05). ADM concentration in the plasma of patients with PIH was higher than that of third trimester pregnancy (P<0.01). There were significant differences between mild, moderate, and severe PIH groups (P<0.05). In the PIH groups, significant positive correlation was found between plasma ADM concentration and mean arterial pressure (r=0.822, P<0.05). Incidence of low birth weight infants was related to serious degree of PIH. Conclusion: ADM may involve in maintaining normal human pregnancy. ADM may increase compensatorily in the pathogenesis of PIH

  16. Nigerian dentists and oral health-care of pregnant women: Knowledge, attitude and belief

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    Agnes O Umoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women seek preventive, interventional and rehabilitative oral health-care for their oral health and protection of their fetus and babies after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the Nigerian Dentist′s knowledge, attitude and belief pertaining to the oral health-care of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional of Nigerian dentist was conducted between June and December, 2011 using Huebner et al., modified dentist′s attitude to the pregnant women questionnaire Results: The overall response rate of 92.5% (149/160. Receipt of continuing medical education (CME was reported among the participants on periodontal disease of pregnant patients (22.1%, oral hygiene of pregnant patients (20.1%, early childhood caries (35.6% and general dental problem (51.0%. The majority (92.6% agreed that Dentists have the skill to counsel pregnant patients, But only 73.8% of them provided oral hygiene instruction frequently to pregnant patients and even fewer (6.0% were involved in educational advice on oral health for young women. Many of the participants agreed that counseling pregnant patients about periodontal disease and its effect on the developing baby is of utmost importance. Participants also dominantly agreed that dental treatment should be part of prenatal care and 97.3% of them opined that physician recommendation will increase the likelihood of pregnant seeking dental care. More than half (56.4% of the participants reported that Dentists should be concerned about being sued if something goes wrong with the pregnancy. The recommended ways to improve oral health-care of pregnant women among the participants were through CME (92.6%, provision of educational materials on oral health-care of pregnant women (93.3% and information on ways to counsel pregnant women (98.0%. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed high preparedness, positive attitude and favorable disposition in dental care provision for

  17. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  18. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria have higher rates of antiretroviral treatment initiation, but similar loss to follow-up as non-pregnant women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H

    2015-11-01

    We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both pPregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; pPregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Prevalence of trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City

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    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis has been recognized as a cosmopolitan parasite of male and female genital tract. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City, Edo State. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients and subjects consisting of 250 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 50 non-pregnant apparently healthy subjects who served as controls were recruited in this study. The age ranged from 20 to 40 years. High vaginal swab was collected from each participant and T. vaginalis was diagnosed by microscopy. Results: An overall prevalence of 2.8% of trichomoniasis was observed among pregnant women. Gestational age and educational status of pregnant women were significantly associated with the prevalence of trichomoniasis. Conclusion: Asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection is common in pregnancy. We recommend routine screening for this infection in order to reduce the potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

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    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  1. HIV shedding in cervico-vaginal secretions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Maccabruni, Anna; Mariani, Bianca; Panzeri, Lucia; Zara, Francesca; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of HIV-1 in cervico-vaginal secretions of pregnant as compared to non-pregnant HIV-seropositive women. We compared 43 known HIV seropositive pregnant patients versus 241 age-matched (± 2 years) control non-pregnant HIV-seropositive subjects. In pregnant patients blood and cervico-vaginal samples were obtained during each trimester of pregnancy. In control subjects the same samples were obtained at enrolment. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma; proviral HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in cervico-vaginal secretion by competitive polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genital shedding of HIV-DNA (22/43 as compared to 79/241, p = 0.02), and cell-free HIV-RNA detection (26/43 as compared to 72/241, p pregnant than in non pregnant women. Pregnancy correlated with a significant positive trend in the cervico-vaginal load of HIV-DNA (Spearman Rho= 0.149, p= 0.012), and cell-free HIV-RNA (Spearman Rho= 0.253, p HIV-RNA transcripts (Spearman Rho = 0.06, p= 0.31). After correction for potential confounders, first trimester pregnant women had increased rates of genital HIV- DNA (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 3.78) and cell-free HIV-RNA (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.97 8.41) detection compared to nonpregnant controls. The shedding of genital HIV was increased in pregnant compared to non pregnant subjects, even in patients with undetectable viremia. In this low-risk HIV-positive population the risks of vertical or horizontal transmissions should not be underestimated.

  2. [Serological Investigation of Toxoplasma gondii on Pregnant Women and Toxoplasmosis Suspected Patients Between 2012-2014 Years on a Tertiary Training Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Mehmet Burak; Bektöre, Bayhan; Baylan, Orhan; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease which is still an important health issue in both developing and developed countries. We aimed to evaluate Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) seropositivity on toxoplasmosis suspected patients and pregnant women, retrospectively. Blood samples taken from toxoplasmosis suspected patients (n=1296) and pregnant women (1737) on our tertiary training hospital between 2012-2014 years. Anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM seropositivity analyzed with chemiluminescent microparticle immunological assay (CMIA) method. Also IgG avidity index were evaluated on patients who had both antibodies. Of 1269 toxoplasmosis suspected patients, 37% (n=479) had only T. gondii IgG positive while 1.9% (n=25) had both IgG and IgM antibodies. Of 1737 pregnant women, 24.2% (n=421) had only T. gondii IgG positive while 0.7% (n=13) of women were found positive for both antibodies. None of the total 3033 patients were seropositive for sole IgG antibody. Avidity tests were applied to the double positive patients and low avidity were detected on only one person from each group. Nationwide, high throughput, systemic seroprevalance studies is needed in order to take precautions for the public health to protect sensitive groups and pregnant women especially because of congenital toxoplasmosis risk.

  3. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  4. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  5. Serum markers thrombophilia in pregnant women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the frequency of serum markers for hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and their association with pregnancy in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Methods: a case-control study was conducted among 25 pregnant women with SLE (study group and 32 pregnant women without known disease and with at least one previous pregnancy (control group. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and hereditary thrombophilia were examined in both groups. We used the y2 Test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test to verify the associations and calculate the relative risk. Results: thrombophilia was present in 72.0% of pregnant women with SLE and in 6.0% of patients in the control group. A significant association was found between the presence of SLE and serum markers for hereditary thrombophilia / antiphospholipid antibodies (p<0.05. The relative risks for antiphospholipid antibodies were 13.20 (ICR95%= 1.81 - 96.46 in pregnant women with SLE, 7.26 (CI95%= 1.77 - 29.86 for the presence of serum markers of hereditary thrombophilia and 7.92 (CI95%= 2.62 - 3.94 for the presence of hereditary thrombophilia and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. Conclusions: the identification of markers for hereditary and/or acquired thrombophilia in pregnant women with lupus may be clinically useful to determine which patients have a higher risk of obstetric complications.

  6. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same

  7. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Nikulina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties of the vaginosis pathogens isolated from 255 pregnant patients of the Pregnancy Pathology Department of the Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospital were studied. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by the Candida yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Leptotrix vaginalis. The yeasts of genus Candida were the most common isolated pathogens of the vaginosis in pregnant women. The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration of circulating immune complexes.

  8. Use of a patient decision aid for prenatal screening for Down syndrome: what do pregnant women say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portocarrero, Maria Esther Leiva; Giguère, Anik M C; Lépine, Johanie; Garvelink, Mirjam M; Robitaille, Hubert; Delanoë, Agathe; Lévesque, Isabelle; Wilson, Brenda J; Rousseau, François; Légaré, France

    2017-03-20

    Patient decision aids (PtDAs) help people make difficult, values-sensitive decisions. Prenatal screening for assessing the risk of genetic conditions in the fetus is one such decision and patient decision aids are rarely used in this clinical context. We sought to identify factors influencing pregnant women's use of a patient decision aid for deciding about prenatal screening for Down syndrome (DS). This qualitative study was embedded in a sequential mixed-methods research program whose main aim is to implement shared decision-making (SDM) in the context of prenatal screening for DS in the province of Quebec, Canada. We planned to recruit a purposive sample of 45 pregnant women with low-risk pregnancy consulting for prenatal care at three clinical sites. Participating women watched a video depicting a prenatal care follow-up during which a pregnant woman, her partner and a health professional used a PtDA to decide about prenatal screening for DS. The women were then interviewed about factors that would influence the use of this PtDA using questions based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). We performed content analysis of transcribed verbatim interviews. Out of 216 eligible women, 100 agreed to participate (46% response rate) and 46 were interviewed. Regarding the type of health professional responsible for their prenatal care, 19 participants (41%) reported having made a decision about prenatal screening for DS with an obstetrician-gynecologist, 13 (28%) with a midwife, 12 (26%) with a family physician, and two (4%) decided on their own. We identified 54 factors that were mapped onto nine of the 12 TDF domains. The three most frequently-mentioned were: opinion of the pregnant woman's partner (n = 33, 72%), presentation of the PtDA by health professional and a discussion (n = 27, 72%), and not having encountered a PtDA (n = 26, 57%). This study allowed us to identify factors influencing pregnant women's use of a PtDA for prenatal screening for

  9. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  10. CARDIOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN THE UDMURT REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Gaisin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the efficacy of specialized management of pregnant women with cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the Udmurt Republic (UR of Russia.Material and methods. In prospective and retrospective study we investigated pregnancy outcomes in all 17948 women in management system created for pregnant patients with CVD in the UR from 2000 to 2007. The system comprises specialized outpatient and inpatient departments and an obstetric hospital within the regional cardiological centre. Pregnant women had different CVD including hypertension, congenital and rheumatic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, noncoronary myocardial disease, disorders and autoimmune diseases of connective tissue, etc.Results. Perinatal mortality decreased by 41,1% from 11,2‰ in 2000 to 6,6‰ in 2007. During 8 years, no one woman died.Conclusion. The management system for pregnant women with CVD within the regional cardiological clinic makes it possible to reduce of maternal and perinatal mortality rates significantly. 

  11. Nutritional status among women with pre-eclampsia and healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women in a Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura; Garcia, Ronald; Ruiz, Silvia; Dehghan, Mahshid; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2012-03-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has been proposed that, among other risk factors, the nutritional status of women can lead to the endothelial dysfunction that characterizes this entity. The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional status of women with PE with healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women. A multicenter case-control study was carried out. Between September 2006 and July 2009, 201 women with PE were compared with 201 pregnant, and 201 non-pregnant aged-matched women without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases. A clinical history and physical examination was performed. Fasting blood samples were drawn to measure serum glucose and lipid profile. The nutritional status of participants was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The average age of women was 26.6 ± 7.2 years. Compared to healthy pregnant controls, women with PE had a higher body mass index, higher fasting blood glucose levels, higher triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Women with PE had a higher intake of carbohydrates, energy intake and cereal compared to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant controls. A conditional logistic regression demonstrated that carbohydrate and sodium intake are associated with PE development. Diets of women with PE were characterized by higher energy and carbohydrate intake compared to normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. This suggests that higher carbohydrate and sodium intake increases the risk of PE among women in Colombia. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  13. Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Balzan, S.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Fruzzetti, F.; Bernardini, G.; Fioretti, P.

    1988-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3 H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p 3 Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

  14. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... RESULT: Pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant had significantly increased .... addition, study participants who were smokers, drinkers and chewers of ..... physiology. a clinical perspective 4th ed. Maryland Heights ...

  15. Frequency and pattern of urinary complaints among pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency pattern of presentation and causative agents of lower urinary tract symptoms in pregnant females. One thousand consecutive pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinics of Fatima Memorial Hospital, were included in the study. Women with renal pathology, postrenal transplant and those on immunosuppressive agents were excluded. All women underwent complete examination of urine. Those who had one or more urinary complaints had culture and sensitivity test of urine. Other variables studied were the symptomatology. Out of one thousand pregnant women, 426 (42.6%) complained of one or more urinary symptoms. Diurnal and nocturnal frequency was the most commonly encountered symptom (87.32%), followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Complete urine examination of symptomatic patients revealed < 5 pus cells /HPF (high power field) in 322 cases and 6-20 pus cell/HPF in the remaining 104 cases. The urine culture of the symptomatic patients (426 cases) showed growth in only 37 cases (8.69%). Escherichia (E.) coli was the commonest organism (89.1%) followed by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (8.1%) and candidiasis (2.7%). (author)

  16. [Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. An underestimated threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Feuchter, Germán; Robles-Torres, Rosa Evangelina; Ruelas-Morán, Andrés; Gómez-Alcalá, Alejandro V

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common pregnancy complication. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) can trigger the development of serious complications affecting both the mother and the fetus. Determine the frequency of AB among pregnant women attending to antenatal care at the family medicine clinic number 1 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, located in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. A longitudinal study was carried out from September to December 2004. Seventy-two 72 pregnant women with gestational age of 24 weeks or less were followed up during four months. All pregnant women were selected by a non-probabilistic method. Every patient had a monthly urine culture during the follow up period. Among the 72 pregnant women, 16.7% developed symptomatic urinary infections during the follow-up and 25% had at least one positive urine culture without urinary symptoms, being classified as AB, thus receiving treatment. Frequency of positive urine cultures was common at first and fourth months of follow-up. Urine culture is an important component of prenatal care, and helps in identifying a significant number of urinary tract infections that would go otherwise undetected.

  17. Endoglin in pregnancy complicated by fetal intrauterine growth restriction in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnant women: a comparison between preeclamptic patients with appropriate-for-gestational-age weight infants and healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Marzena; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the maternal serum endoglin concentration in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the presence or absence of preeclampsia and to compare the results with preeclamptic pregnant women with appropriate-for-gestational-age weight infants and with healthy pregnant controls. The study was performed on 52 normotensive pregnant patients with pregnancy complicated by isolated IUGR, 33 patients with preeclampsia complicated by IUGR and 33 preeclamptic patients with appropriate-for-gestational-age weight infants. The control group consisted of 54 healthy normotensive pregnant patients with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies. The maternal serum endoglin concentrations were determined using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assay. Our study revealed increased levels of endoglin in the serum of women with normotensive pregnancy complicated by isolated IUGR, and in both groups of preeclamptic patients with and without IUGR. The levels of endoglin were the highest in pregnancy complicated by fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the course of preeclampsia. The mean values were 12.2 ± 4.3 ng/ml in the IUGR group, 14.1 ± 3.6 ng/ml in preeclamptic patients with normal intrauterine fetal growth, 15.1 ± 3.2 ng/ml in preeclamptic pregnant women with IUGR and 10.6 ± 3.7 ng/ml in the healthy controls. We also found positive correlations between serum endoglin levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and inverse correlations between maternal endoglin and infant birth weight. Our results suggest that increased endoglin concentration may be at least responsible for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and/or intrauterine fetal growth restriction. It seems that the pathomechanism underlying the development of preeclampsia and isolated IUGR is similar, but that their beginning or intensity may be different in these two pregnancy complications. The positive correlation between endoglin and

  18. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in pregnant women with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstündağ, Yasemin; Demirci, Hakan; Balık, Rifat; Erel, Ozcan; Özaydın, Fahri; Kücük, Bilgen; Ertaş, Dilber; Ustunyurt, Emin

    2017-11-27

    Repetitive episodes of hypoxia and reoxygenation during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) resemble an ischemia-reperfusion injury. We aimed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in pregnant women with OSAS. We also aimed to compare thiol/disulfide homeostasis with ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as markers of ischemia-reperfusion injury in pregnant women with and without OSAS and healthy control. This study included 29 pregnant women with OSAS, 30 women without OSAS in the third trimester applying for periodic examinations, and 30 healthy women. Serum IMA and TAC (using the ferric reducing power of plasma method) were measured. Serum thiol/disulfide homeostasis was determined by a novel automated method. The mean age of the pregnant women with OSAS was 31.0 ± 4.7 years with a mean gestational age of 36.5 ± 3.0 weeks. The mean age of pregnant women without OSAS was 29.8 ± 4.9 years with a mean gestational age of 36.9 ± 2.7 weeks. The mean age of the nonpregnant control group was 29.7 ± 6.4 years. Both native thiol (291 ± 29 μmol/L versus 314 ± 30 μmol/L; p = .018) and total thiol (325 ± 32 versus 350 ± 32, p = .025) levels were lower in pregnant women with OSAS compared to pregnant women without OSAS, respectively (p total thiol levels were lower in pregnant women with OSAS compared to those without OSAS. However, dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis parameters cannot provide valuable information to discriminate OSAS in pregnant women.

  19. A comparison of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in pregnant and non pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ikechebelu, J I; Okafor, C I

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and the mean parasite density in pregnant women at first antenatal visit with those of the control subjects at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. A case control prospective survey using a structured questionnaire to collect data from pregnant women attending antenatal clinic between 1 April and 30 September 2001 and matched controls at the GOPD during the same period. Peripheral blood smears were examined in 420 pregnant women at their first antenatal visit and 200 control subjects to compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women and controls. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 79.3 percent (i.e. 333 of 420) for pregnant women and 31.5 percent (or 63 of 200) for the control. For both pregnant women and controls, an overall prevalence of 63.1 percent was observed. The study found the mean parasite density for the pregnant women to be 1978 +/- 1531 (Mean +/- SD), while that of the controls was 766 +/- 1923. This study demonstrates the higher prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women when compared with the matched controls.

  20. Comparison of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in second trimester pregnant women and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, I J; Jun, J; Kim, E M; Lee, K Y; Kim, N; Chung, M H; Choi, Y R; Choi, E M

    2018-05-01

    This study set out to compare the onset and duration of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in second trimester pregnant women and non-pregnant women receiving general anesthesia. Forty-seven pregnant (Group P) and forty-seven non-pregnant (Group C) women were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.0 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, and neuromuscular blockade was assessed with an accelerometric sensor using train-of-four stimulation (TOF-Watch® SX). Tracheal intubation was performed at maximum depression of the first twitch (T1) and anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2.5% and 50% oxygen in air. We recorded the times to maximum T1 depression and 5% and 25% T1 recovery, as well as the mean arterial pressure and heart rate at baseline, injection of rocuronium, intubation, and 5% and 25% T1 recovery. The onset of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (time to maximum T1 depression) did not differ significantly between the groups. The duration (time to 25% T1 recovery) was significantly longer in Group P than in Group C (45.7 ± 12.9 min vs 40.6 ± 10.4 min, P rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade did not significantly differ in onset but lasted significantly longer in second trimester pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cryosurgery for the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis in four pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichman, Vivian; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do; de Macedo, Priscila Marques; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista de; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2018-04-01

    Pregnant women with sporotrichosis should not receive systemic antifungal therapy except in severe cases when amphotericin B is recommended. Thermotherapy is the most reported treatment described in this group of patients. It entails weeks of daily self-application of heat to the lesions, requires that the patient faithfully apply it, and it could cause skin burns. Cryosurgery is a useful therapeutic tool for many cutaneous infectious diseases, safe for pregnant women, but not well evaluated for sporotrichosis treatment in this group. The authors conducted a retrospective study describing epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic data related to four pregnant patients with sporotrichosis treated with cryosurgery. The authors reviewed the clinical records of four pregnant patients diagnosed with cutaneous sporotrichosis and treated with cryosurgery. The sessions were carried out monthly up to clinical cure. Molecular identification of the Sporothrix species was performed in two cases using T3B PCR fingerprinting assays. All patients were in the second trimester of pregnancy and their age ranged from 18 to 34 years. With regard to clinical presentation, two patients had lymphocutaneous and two had the fixed form. S. brasiliensis was identified in two cases as the causative agent. Cryosurgery was well tolerated and the number of sessions ranged from 1 to 3. All the patients reached a complete clinical cure. Cryosurgery was a safe, easy to perform and well tolerated method, and therefore it is suggested to be a suitable option for the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis in pregnant women.

  2. Plasmatic levels of N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in preeclamptic patients and healthy normotensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia; Mayner-Tresol, Gabriel; Herrera-Moya, Pedro; Fernández-Ramírez, Andreina; Rondón-Tapía, Marta

    2018-05-11

    To compare plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations in preeclamptic patients and healthy normotensive pregnant women. A cases-controls study was done with 180 patients at Hospital Central Dr. Urquinaona, Maracaibo, Venezuela, that included 90 preeclamptic patients (group A; cases) and 90 healthy normotensive pregnant women selected with the same age and body mass index similar to group A (group B; controls). Blood samples were collected one hour after admission and prior to administration of any medication in group A to determine plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and other laboratory parameters. Plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations in group A (mean 1.01 [0.26] pg/mL) showed a significant difference when compared with patients in group B (mean 0.55 [0.07] pg/mL; P<.001]. There was no significant correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in preeclamptic patients (P=ns). A cut-off value of 0.66ng/mL had an area under the curve of 0.93, sensitivity of 87.8%, specificity of 83.3%, a positive predictive value of 84.0% and a negative predictive value of 87.2%, with a diagnostic accuracy of 85.6%. Preeclamptic patients have significantly higher concentrations of plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide compared with healthy normotensive pregnant women, with high predictive values for diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  4. Depression in perinatally HIV-infected pregnant women compared to non-perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrand, Ruth C; Sperling, Rhoda; Roccobono, Kinga; Osborne, Lauren M; Jao, Jennifer

    2018-05-18

    "Depression (as noted in chart by a physician)" was compared between HIV infected pregnant women and controls. Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV), non-perinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV), and HIV-uninfected (HIV-U) pregnant women were all compared using a logistic regression model. Overall, HIV-infected women had higher rates of depression than HIV-U, with PHIV women demonstrating a clinically and statistically significant increased risk compared to HIV-U women [adjusted OR: 15.9, 95% CI = 1.8-143.8]. Future studies in larger populations are warranted to confirm these findings and further elucidate mental health outcomes of PHIV and NPHIV pregnant women.

  5. Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Yoe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy and malaria infected Karen pregnant women attending weekly antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 75,000/μL was the threshold at 2 standard deviations below the mean for healthy pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts in non-pregnant and pregnant women were compared after matching for age, symptoms, malaria species and parasitaemia. Results In total 974 pregnant women had 1,558 CBC measurements between February 2004 and September 2006. The median platelet counts (/μL were significantly lower in patients with an episode of falciparum 134,000 [11,000–690,000] (N = 694 or vivax malaria 184,000 [23,000–891,000] (N = 523 compared to healthy pregnant women 256,000 [64,000–781,000] (N = 255, P Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax caused a 34% (95% CI 24–47 and 22% (95% CI 8–36 reduction in platelet count, respectively. Pregnant compared to non pregnant women were at higher risk OR = 2.27 (95%CI 1.16–4.4 P = 0.017, for thrombocytopaenia. Platelets counts were higher in first compared with subsequent malaria infections within the same pregnancy. Malaria associated thrombocytopaenia had a median [range] time for recovery of 7 234567891011121314 days which did not differ by antimalarial treatment (P = 0.86, or species (P = 0.63 and was not associated with active bleeding. Conclusion Pregnant women become more thrombocytopenic than non-pregnant women with acute uncomplicated malaria. Uncomplicated malaria associated thrombocytopaenia is seldom severe. Prompt

  6. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  7. Possibilities for the early detection of hypertensive disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. B. Savinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate morphofunctional changes in the cardiovascular system of pregnant women with arterial hypertension (AH to detectchronic AH - hypertensive disease.Subjects and methods. 126 pregnant women with AH (at 28–34 weeks gestation; mean age 26.1 ± 1.7 years were examined. All the pregnantwomen underwent assessment of risk factors for AH, double measurement of office blood pressure, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, electrocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, a microalbumin urine test, and eyeground examination. The pattern of AH was specified 12 weeks after childbirth.Results. Chronic AH – hypertensive disease – was diagnosed in 51 % of the examined pregnant women with AH. There was a considerable spread of risk factors for AH in this patient group. 26 % of them were found to have lesions of target organs (heart and/or arterial vessels; the rate of microalbuminuria registration was 41 %.Conclusion. Among our examined group of pregnant patients with AH, the prevalence of hypertensive disease is 51 %. In the identified patientgroup, cardiac and arterial vascular changes that could be considered as target organ lesions were found in almost a third of cases. Pregnant women with AH need to be meticulously examined and followed up by a therapist and a cardiologist in the postpartum period.

  8. Cryosurgery for the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis in four pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Fichman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women with sporotrichosis should not receive systemic antifungal therapy except in severe cases when amphotericin B is recommended. Thermotherapy is the most reported treatment described in this group of patients. It entails weeks of daily self-application of heat to the lesions, requires that the patient faithfully apply it, and it could cause skin burns. Cryosurgery is a useful therapeutic tool for many cutaneous infectious diseases, safe for pregnant women, but not well evaluated for sporotrichosis treatment in this group.The authors conducted a retrospective study describing epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic data related to four pregnant patients with sporotrichosis treated with cryosurgery. The authors reviewed the clinical records of four pregnant patients diagnosed with cutaneous sporotrichosis and treated with cryosurgery. The sessions were carried out monthly up to clinical cure. Molecular identification of the Sporothrix species was performed in two cases using T3B PCR fingerprinting assays.All patients were in the second trimester of pregnancy and their age ranged from 18 to 34 years. With regard to clinical presentation, two patients had lymphocutaneous and two had the fixed form. S. brasiliensis was identified in two cases as the causative agent. Cryosurgery was well tolerated and the number of sessions ranged from 1 to 3. All the patients reached a complete clinical cure.Cryosurgery was a safe, easy to perform and well tolerated method, and therefore it is suggested to be a suitable option for the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis in pregnant women.

  9. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... sample was collected from 139 pregnant and 139 age matched ... have major consequences for fetal growth. ... metabolic disorder in pregnancy is gestational ... expected to be 23.4 %, and the child mortality rate ... diabetic pregnant women and her unborn infant ... hemorrhage, fetal obesity, miscarriage,.

  10. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri Municipal council area in Imo State, Nigeria between December 2001 and October 2002. Of 250 women examined, 200 women were pregnant. Of the 200 pregnant women examined, 22 (11.0%) had malaria parasitaemia. Prevalence ...

  11. Health literacy in pregnant women facing prenatal screening may explain their intention to use a patient decision aid: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoë, Agathe; Lépine, Johanie; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Esther; Robitaille, Hubert; Turcotte, Stéphane; Lévesque, Isabelle; Wilson, Brenda J; Giguère, Anik M C; Légaré, France

    2016-07-11

    It has been suggested that health literacy may impact the use of decision aids (DAs) among patients facing difficult decisions. Embedded in the pilot test of a questionnaire, this study aimed to measure the association between health literacy and pregnant women's intention to use a DA to decide about prenatal screening. We recruited a convenience sample of 45 pregnant women in three clinical sites (family practice teaching unit, birthing center and obstetrical ambulatory care clinic). We asked participating women to complete a self-administered questionnaire assessing their intention to use a DA to decide about prenatal screening and assessed their health literacy levels using one subjective and two objective scales. Two of the three scales discriminated between levels of health literacy (three numeracy questions and three health literacy questions). We found a positive correlation between pregnant women's intention to use a DA and subjective health literacy (Spearman coefficient, Rho 0.32, P = 0.04) but not objective health literacy (Spearman coefficient, Rho 0.07, P = 0.65). Hence subjective health literacy may affect the intention to use a DA among pregnant women facing a decision about prenatal screening. Special attention should be given to pregnant women with lower health literacy levels to increase their intention to use a DA and ensure that every pregnant women can give informed and value-based consent to prenatal screening.

  12. Cholestatic hepatosis in pregnant women: obstetrical and therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidova Iu.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study the effectiveness and safety of the use of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy in pregnant women with cholestatic hepatosis. Patients and methods. A total of 42 pregnant women, who were under outpatient and inpatient treatment in the department of obstetric problems of extragenital pathology for the period of 2013–2015 years were comprehensively examined. All pregnant at the time of observation were at the end of the II and III trimester of pregnancy. All 42 pregnant were divided into three groups. Results. For the end of the treatment by Ursonost preparation in the first and second group of pregnant was marked a general improvement of well-being such as reduction of fatigue, weakness, dyspepsia and pruritus. Also, was noted a normalization of blood biochemical parameters. Conclusions. As a result of the inclusion of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy was observed a significant improvement in overall well-being and normalization of blood biochemical parameters in women of the first and second test groups. Application of the proposed medical complex in the present groups of pregnant women allowed to seize the results of the pregnancy outcomes and almost avoiding premature delivery. Effectiveness and safety of the use of preparation during the pregnancy allow recommend inclusion of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy to the treatment regimen of cholestatic hepatosis in pregnant.

  13. Prognosis of Pregnant Women with One Abnormal Value on 75g OGTT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuma, Yutaka; Inoue, Shigeru; Horinouchi, Takashi; Shinagawa, Takaaki; Nakayama, Hitomi; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Hori, Daizo; Kamura, Toshiharu; Yamada, Kentaro; Ushijima, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors to allow us to detect patients at high risk of requiring insulin therapy, among Japanese pregnant women with one abnormal value (OAV) on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75-g OGTT). A total of 118 pregnant women with OAV on a previous 75-g OGTT between 1997 and 2010 were studied. We identified the factors which can predict patients at high risk of requiring insulin therapy among Japanese pregnant women with OAV, by comparing severe abnormal glucose tolerance (insulin treatment; n=17) with mild glucose tolerance patients (diet only; n=101). The following factors were examined; plasma level of glucose (PG) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) at fasting, 0.5, 1 and 2 hours after loading glucose, insulinogenic index, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity index-composite (ISI composite), and HbA1c at the time of the 75-g OGTT. Univariate analysis showed a positive correlation between insulin therapy and 2-h PG value, 0.5-h and 1-h IRI values, AUC-IRI and insulinogenic index (pinsulin therapy. A 2-h PG ≥153 mg / dl and an insulinogenic index of insulin therapy among pregnant women with OAV. These results suggest that a level of 2-h PG ≥153 mg/dl and an insulinogenic index of insulin therapy in Japanese pregnant women with OAV.

  14. Analysis of pregnancy and childbirth course in pregnant women with excessive weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duka Yu.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Under supervision there were 233 pregnant women with excessive weight aged 18-43 years. Patients were under observation and gave birth on the basis of obstetric units of municipal establishment "Dnepropetrovsk regional perinatal center with in-patient unit of" Dnepropetrovsk regional council". When performing research 2 groups were formed: 120 (51,5% pregnant women with miscarriage threat against excessive weight being at in-patient treatment since early terms of pregnancy. They underwent in-depth study. 113 (48,5% pregnant women with obesity with gestation course estimated retrospectively at the time of delivery. As a result of the obtained data in women of prospective group treatment algorithm was developed. This algorithm represented a complex treatment including antiagregant and anticoagulant therapy, co-factor vitamin therapy. Despite a more mature age of women of prospective group, adverse anamnesis by missarriage, high frequency of miscarriage in its first half, low placentation level, this complex allowed to improve course of the second half of pregnancy and to reduce number of gestational complications and perinatal losses.

  15. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.

  16. The self-prescribed use of aromatherapy oils by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbritt, David W; Catling, Christine J; Adams, Jon; Shaw, Andrea J; Homer, Caroline S E

    2014-03-01

    While some studies have reported effectiveness of aromatherapy oils use during labour there is no reported evidence of efficacy or risks of aromatherapy oils use for pregnancy-related symptoms or conditions. A number of aromatherapy oils are unsafe for use by pregnant women yet there is currently no research examining the prevalence and characteristics of women who use aromatherapy oils during pregnancy. To conduct an empirical study of the prevalence and characteristics of women who use aromatherapy oils during pregnancy. The research was conducted as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), focusing on the nationally representative sample of Australian women aged 31-36 years. Data were collected via a cross-sectional questionnaire (n=8200) conducted in 2009. Self-prescribed aromatherapy oils were used by 15.2% of pregnant women. Pregnant women were 1.57 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.43) times more likely to self-prescribe use of aromatherapy oils if they have allergies or hayfever, and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.34, 3.79) times more likely to self-prescribe use of aromatherapy oils if they have a urinary tract infection (UTI). Our study highlights a considerable use of aromatherapy oils by pregnant women. There is a clear need for greater communication between practitioners and patients regarding the use of aromatherapy oils during pregnancy, as well a need for health care practitioners to be mindful that pregnant women in their care may be using aromatherapy oils, some of which may be unsafe. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... my unborn child against toxoplasmosis? Cat owners and women who are exposed to cats should follow the ...

  18. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tobacco use during their pregnancy. Of the pregnant women, 70% lived with at least one smoker in the house. Conclusions. Few black and Indian pregnant women in. South Africa smoke, while coloured pregnant women smoke heavily. QUitting programmes should be targeted at them when they attend antenatal services.

  19. Heparin and Aspirin in Pregnant Sudanese women with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... prophylaxis against pregnancy loss in 58 pregnant Sudanese women with recurrent (>3) miscarriages associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Three (5.1%) patients had early miscarriages, three (5.1%) patients developed pre-eclamptic toxaemia and forty-seven (81%) of the 58 patients had cesarean delivery.

  20. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  1. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective ...

  2. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15 N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

  3. Local treatment of chloasma in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shperling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To assess the efficacy and safety of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration for the treatment of chloasma in pregnant women. Materials and methods. The study involved 28 pregnant women aged 18-36 (mean age: 24.7 with a normal course of pregnancy. The patients consulted a doctor in the spring, summer or fall complaining of focal skin hyperpigmentation on the face, chin and chest area. Ten patients (35.7% developed hyperpigmentation prior to their pregnancy and 18 women (64.3% - during the pregnancy. As of the consultation date, the pregnancy terms in all of the patients were 18-20 weeks. Chloasma was diagnosed by using dermatoscopy and skin examination with the Wood’s lamp. The patients were informed about the content and procedure of the study and gave their consent to take part in the study. Thin layers of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration were applied to the hyperpigmented skin of the patients and gently rubbed twice a day (in the morning and evening as topical treatment for four months. The treatment results were assessed taking into consideration the patient’s subjective assessment, study group structure depending on the clinical efficacy, percentage of adverse events, and survey results based on the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire. To reveal any potential general toxicological effects of the treatment, hepatic samples, total blood count and coagulogram results were analyzed as a part of obstetrical and gynecologic care for pregnant women. Key findings. Positive dynamics of the following characteristics was revealed: subjective assessment of treatment results by the patients, clinical efficacy of treatment and life quality index. Therapeutic results were observed as early as after one month but not later than three months after the treatment began. The therapeutic efficacy was recorded in 92.9-96.4% of all cases after four months of treatment: pigment spots disappeared or

  4. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Wellbeing of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N

    African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.

  5. Serum Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Omentin Compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. Methods: There were 40 pregnant and 33 non-pregnant women classified by body mass index (BMI into non-obese or obese subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected in the morning for the non-pregnant group and before delivery for the pregnant group. Results: Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, but plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in pregnant when compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese women (p<0.05 all. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly higher, but the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was significantly lower only in obese pregnant when compared to obese non-pregnant women (p<0.01 all. However, in non-obese women, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin were significantly lower in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese groups (p<0.05 all. In pregnant women, serum adiponectin and omentin levels were significantly lower in obese compared to non-obese pregnant women while serum visfatin levels were comparable in both groups. Serum adiponectin levels were highest followed by omentin and visfatin, respectively in both non-obese and obese pregnant groups. These results indicated that lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might contribute to higher insulin resistance in pregnancy. Furthermore, serum adiponectin and omentin were reduced in increasing adiposity similarly to non-pregnant women. Conclusion: Lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might lead to decreased insulin sensitivity in these women.

  6. Monitoring HIV Epidemic in Pregnant Women: Are the Current Measures Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkate, Purva; Paranjpe, Supriya; Ingole, Nayana; Mehta, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Burden of HIV in pregnant women follows overall epidemic in India. Hence, it is imperative that prevalence calculations in this group be accurate. The present study was carried out to determine prevalence of HIV in pregnant women attending our hospital, to determine trend of HIV infection and to compare our results with reported prevalence. Methods. All pregnant women are routinely counselled for HIV testing using opt-out strategy. Year-wise positivity and trend were determined in these patients over a period of five years. The positivity in different age groups was determined. Results. 31,609 women were tested of which 279 (0.88%) were positive. Positivity showed a declining trend over study period and significant quadratic trend (biphasic, P program data is critical for HIV programming and resource allocation.

  7. [Species and quantitative characteristics of pharyngeal mucosa microflora in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheriakova, A K; Kostinov, M P; Magarshak, O O; Zaĭtseva, E V

    2014-01-01

    Species and quantitative characteristics of upper respiratory tract (URT) mucosa microflora in women at gestation period. The results of a bacteriological study of 68 samples of mucus from posterior pharyngeal wall in women at gestation period (from 14 weeks), 52 of those--from pregnant women with acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms and 16--from women without signs of disease, are presented. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora was studied by a generally accepted bacteriological method. During primary bacteriological study 111 microorganism cultures were isolated. 88 (79.3%) of strains belonged to Gram-positive flora, 20 (18.0%)--to Gram-negative, and Candida genus fungi constituted 3 (2.7%) isolates. Streptococcus pyogenes and Moraxella catarrhalis were isolated from pregnant women with ARI signs at 23.1% and 5.8% frequency of occurrence, respectively. A higher detectability of Staphylococcus aureus--in 31.3% and Candida spp.--in 6.3% of women who did not complain as opposed to patients with URT lesions (in 21.2 and 3.9%, respectively) was determined. In patients without ARI signs the amount of bacteria did not exceed 10(5)--10(6) CFU/ml, in pregnant women with ARI diagnosis in 8 of 52 cases semination of pharyngeal mucuswas observed--10(7)--10(8) CFU/ml. Prevalence of S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans in composition of pharyngeal mucus microflora of pregnant women both with URT lesion signs and without them was shown, however the degree of semination by pathogens in the groups was different that determined the severity of disease manifestations.

  8. Psychosocial correlates of patient-provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Violeta J; Cook, Ryan R; Weiss, Stephen M; Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-01-01

    Patient-provider family planning discussions and preconception counseling can reduce maternal and neonatal risks by increasing adherence to provider recommendations and antiretroviral medication. However, HIV-infected women may not discuss reproductive intentions with providers due to anticipation of negative reactions and stigma. This study aimed to identify correlates of patient-provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected women in rural South Africa, an area with high rates of antenatal HIV and suboptimal rates of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Participants were N=673 pregnant HIV-infected women who completed measures of family planning discussions and knowledge, depression, stigma, intimate partner violence, and male involvement. Participants were, on average, 28 ± 6 years old, and half of them had completed at least 10-11 years of education. Most women were unemployed and had a monthly income of less than ~US$76. Fewer than half of the women reported having family planning discussions with providers. Correlates of patient-provider family planning discussions included younger age, discussions about PMTCT of HIV, male involvement, and decreased stigma ( p family planning discussions through male involvement ( b = -0.010, bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [bCI] [-0.019, -0.005]). That is, depression decreased male involvement, and in turn, male involvement increased patient-provider family planning discussions. Therefore, by decreasing male involvement, depression indirectly decreased family planning discussions. Study findings point to the importance of family planning strategies that address depression and facilitate male involvement to enhance communication between patients and providers and optimize maternal and neonatal health outcomes. This study underscores the need for longitudinal assessment of men's impact on family planning discussions both pre- and postpartum. Increasing support for provision of mental

  9. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    N. B. Gordovskaya; I. V. Korotchaeva

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.

  10. Improvement of perinatal outcome in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I

    2001-01-01

    Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.

  11. Impact of Vaccination History on Serological Testing in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie

    2018-04-01

    Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  13. The comparative clinical course of pregnant and non-pregnant women hospitalised with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle P Dolan

    Full Text Available The Influenza Clinical Information Network (FLU-CIN was established to gather detailed clinical and epidemiological information about patients with laboratory confirmed A(H1N1pdm09 infection in UK hospitals. This report focuses on the clinical course and outcomes of infection in pregnancy.A standardised data extraction form was used to obtain detailed clinical information from hospital case notes and electronic records, for patients with PCR-confirmed A(H1N1pdm09 infection admitted to 13 sentinel hospitals in five clinical 'hubs' and a further 62 non-sentinel hospitals, between 11th May 2009 and 31st January 2010.Outcomes were compared for pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years, using univariate and multivariable techniques.Of the 395 women aged 15-44 years, 82 (21% were pregnant; 73 (89% in the second or third trimester. Pregnant women were significantly less likely to exhibit severe respiratory distress at initial assessment (OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.30-0.82, require supplemental oxygen on admission (OR = 0.40 (95% CI: 0.20-0.80, or have underlying co-morbidities (p-trend <0.001. However, they were equally likely to be admitted to high dependency (Level 2 or intensive care (Level 3 and/or to die, after adjustment for potential confounders (adj. OR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.46-1.92. Of 11 pregnant women needing Level 2/3 care, 10 required mechanical ventilation and three died.Since the expected prevalence of pregnancy in the source population was 6%, our data suggest that pregnancy greatly increased the likelihood of hospital admission with A(H1N1pdm09. Pregnant women were less likely than non-pregnant women to have respiratory distress on admission, but severe outcomes were equally likely in both groups.

  14. Breastfeeding knowledge among working pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanci, Gülsah; Yenal, Kerziban

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breastfeeding knowledge of pregnant working women and explore factors that affected their knowledge. This Turkish study included 260 healthy, working women in the last trimester of pregnancy. Two separate questionnaires developed by the researcher were used to collect data. The average knowledge score of pregnant women respondents for all questions were 6.03 ± 2.99 (range: 0 to 14). Pregnant women had the least knowledge about duration of expressing breast milk (21.9%) and safe storage conditions for breast milk (27.2%). They knew the most about methods to express breast milk (87.3%) and features of containers used to store expressed milk (80%). Study results indicated that working pregnant women need better prenatal education to continue safe breastfeeding after returning to work. Occupational health nurses should inform working pregnant women about expression and storage of breast milk during prenatal education. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Gordovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.

  16. Colpocytological abnormalities in HIV infected and uninfected pregnant women: prevalence, persistence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, Carmine; Fascilla, Fabiana Divina; Cramarossa, Paola; Lepera, Achiropita; Bettocchi, Stefano; Vimercati, Antonella

    2018-02-01

    In this retrospective case-control study, we analyse data of 48 HIV-positive pregnant patients, versus a control group of 99 HIV-negative pregnant women, followed as outpatients by our department from 2009 to 2014. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence, persistence and progression of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in each group and to correlate colpo-cytological lesions to the socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory findings in the HIV + pregnant women. In our study we observed that immunosuppression, HPV infection and vaginal coinfections were predictive of cervical lesions. Pap smear and colposcopy should be part of routine care for HIV-infected pregnant women because these lesions behave aggressively in these patients. Success of prevention depends on massive access of patients to screening. HAART reduces viral load and maintains CD4 count and can affect progression of SIL. Multidisciplinary services on the same site appear to be one promising strategy to improve compliance in patients. Impact Statement What is already known on this subject: Our study provided novel information on a highly vulnerable population of young HIV + pregnant women. What the results of this study add: We observed that immunosuppression, HPV infection and vaginal coinfections were predictive of cervical lesions remarkable with colposcopy. We could consider these important risk factors to evaluate to establish an appropriate strategy of management for these patients. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Association of the risk between SIL presence and HIV and HPV infection also deserves additional investigation. We believe that Pap smears and colposcopies should be part of the routine care for HIV-infected women because these lesions behave particularly aggressively in these patients.

  17. Exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kristine E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-11-01

    The lack of human data available to inform evidence-based treatment for illness during pregnancy has led to calls for greater inclusion of pregnant women in research, but the extent of their current representation is poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the current exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials as a baseline for future comparison. We compiled data from studies enrolling women of childbearing potential posted on www.ClinicalTrials.gov between 1 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The review was limited to open United States-based phase IV interventional studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry evaluating treatment of conditions that may be experienced by but are not limited to pregnant women and did not involve a medication classified as potentially teratogenic. If there was no mention of pregnancy in the inclusion or exclusion criteria, we contacted a study representative to confirm that pregnant women could be enrolled. Of 558 qualifying industry-sponsored studies, five (1%) were designed specifically for pregnant women. Of 367 phase IV clinical trials with verified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 348 (95%) excluded pregnant women and 19 (5%) did not. We found the exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials to be common practice. Moving beyond reflexive exclusion and developing thoughtful criteria for inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research would likely advance the evidence base to inform treatment decisions during pregnancy and lead to better health outcomes for women and children.

  18. Rabies Vaccine Hesitancy and Deaths Among Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women - Vietnam, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong T T; Tran, Cuc H; Dang, Anh D; Tran, Huong G T; Vu, Thiem D; Pham, Thach N; Nguyen, Hoang V; Nguyen, Anh N K; Pieracci, Emily G; Tran, Duong N

    2018-03-02

    Human rabies deaths are preventable through prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine after exposure to a rabid animal (1); there are no known contraindications to receiving PEP (1,2). Despite widespread availability of PEP in Vietnam, in 2015 the Ministry of Health (MoH) received reports of pregnant and breastfeeding women with clinically diagnosed rabies. MoH investigated factors associated with these rabies cases. MoH found that, during 2015-2016, among 169 cases reported in Vietnam, two probable cases of rabies were reported in breastfeeding mothers and four in pregnant women, all of whom had been bitten by dogs. All six patients died. Three of the four pregnant women had cesarean deliveries. One of the three newborns died from complications believed to be unrelated to rabies; the fourth pregnant woman contracted rabies too early in pregnancy for the fetus to be viable. Two of the patients sought care from a medical provider or traditional healer; however, none sought PEP after being bitten. In each case, families reported the patient's fear of risk to the fetus or breastfed child as the primary barrier to receiving PEP. These findings highlight the need for public health messaging about the safety and effectiveness of PEP in preventing rabies among all persons with exposures, including pregnant and breastfeeding women.

  19. An analysis of the feelings of pregnant women at risk of preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulima, Magdalena; Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Lewicka, Magdalena; Wiktor, Krzysztof; Kanadys, Katarzyna; Wiktor, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was an analysis of the feelings of pregnant women at risk ofpreterm labour. 313 expectant mothers aged between 18 to 44 years (ranges: 18-25, 26-30 and 31-44 years) with no psychological disorders, hospitalized and treated due to the risk of preterm labour were surveyed. All the examined pregnant women expressed voluntary and informed consent for the participation in the survey. Each of the questionnaires given to the examined pregnant women contained: a questionnaire form devised by the authors, to establish the characteristics of the surveyed expectant mothers, and the following research standardized tool - Negative and Positive Feelings Scale by P. Brzozowski. The value of the mean level of positive feel- ings state in the group of patients aged 31-44 years with higher education was significantly higher (p feelings as a condition of pregnant women in the study group (p > 0.05). There were no significant statistical differences (p > 0.05) between the level of negative feel- ings trait and age. It was found, however, that the level of negative feelings trait was significantly lower (p = 0.0009) in pregnant women with higher education than in pregnant women who had completed secondary education. 1. Among pregnant women at risk of pre- term labour, higher levels of positive feelings were found in pregnant women aged 31-44 years with higher education, being married and residents of a provincial city. 2. In order to reduce negative feelings in pregnant women at risk of preterm labour it seems important to implement appropriate psychological and prophylactic management, provide adequate care in the pregnancy pathology department, as well as support from the medical staff and the family. These activities should be targeted particularly at younger women with primary education or vocational training, not being married and living in rural areas.

  20. Reducing ionizing radiation doses during cardiac interventions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Elizabeth; Dix, Sarah; Wilson, Neil; Mackillop, Lucy; Ormerod, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    There is concern over ionizing radiation exposure in women who are pregnant or of child-bearing age. Due to the increasing prevalence of congenital and acquired heart disease, the number of women who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy has increased. We have developed protocols for cardiac interventions in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, aimed at substantially reducing both fluoroscopy duration and radiation doses. Over five years, we performed cardiac interventions on 15 pregnant women, nine postpartum women and four as part of prepregnancy assessment. Fluoroscopy times were minimized by simultaneous use of intracardiac echocardiography, and by using very low frame rates (2/second) during fluoroscopy. The procedures most commonly undertaken were closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 16 women, coronary angiograms in seven, right and left heart catheters in three and two stent placements. The mean screening time for all patients was 2.38 minutes (range 0.48-13.7), the median radiation dose was 66 (8.9-1501) Gy/cm(2). The median radiation dose to uterus was 1.92 (0.59-5.47) μGy, and the patient estimated dose was 0.24 (0.095-0.80) mSv. Ionizing radiation can be used safely in the management of severe cardiac structural disease in pregnancy, with very low ionizing radiation dose to the mother and extremely low exposure to the fetus. With experience, ionizing radiation doses at our institution have been reduced.

  1. [Frequency of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) for pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufloth, Rozany Mucha; Vieira, Luiz Fernando Fonseca; Xavier Júnior, José Candido Caldeira; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2015-05-01

    To compare the frequency of an ASCUS Pap Smear result in pregnant and non-pregnant women, stratified by age group. We analyzed the results of 1,336,180 cytopathologyc exams of Pap smears performed between 2000 and 2009 (ten years) with the purpose of screening for cervical carcinoma. Comparisons were made between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the sample was stratified into three age groups (20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 years). The χ2 test was used and the magnitude of association was determined by the by Odds Ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). A Total of 447,489 samples were excluded on the basis of the criteria adopted, for a total final sample of 37,137 pregnant women and 851,554 non-pregnant women. An ASCUS result was detected in 1.2% of cases, with a significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women in the age groups of 20-24 years (OR=0.85; 95%CI 0.75-0.97) and 25-29 years (OR=0.78; 95%CI 0.63-0.96). There was no difference in the group between 30-34 years (OR=0.76; 95%CI 0.57-1.03). This study suggested that non-pregnant women have a higher frequency of ASCUS, most evident in the age group of 20 to 29 years. The collection of cervical cancer screening should not be a compulsory part of the prenatal routine.

  2. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghong; Luo, Jie; Li, Lijun; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jinqian; Shen, Yingjie; Li, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Yao, Kaihu

    2018-03-15

    Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital. Rubella-specific IgG antibody was determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) kits. International assigned cut-off values of ≥10 IU/ml were used to assess the percentage of pregnant women with protective IgG concentrations. The total rate of protected individuals was 83.3% (95% CI: 78.9%-87.0%). The protective rates of pregnant women in 17-26 years group, 27-36 years group and 37-46 years group were 84.0% (95% CI: 75.3%-90.1%), 81.9% (95% CI: 74.9%-87.4%) and 84.9% (95% CI: 75.8%-90.9%) respectively. No significant difference in protective rates among the three age groups was found (P = 0.83). There were also no statistically significant correlations between protective rates and gravidity (P = 0.84), parity (P = 0.84), birth place (P = 0.16), residence area (P = 0.58), education (P = 0.40) or occupation (P = 0.65). Despite the generally low vaccination coverage for rubella, most of Chinese pregnant women had potent rubella immunity. However, at least 16.7% of pregnant women were susceptible to rubella, which suggested rubella immunization in Chinese women at or before child-bearing age.

  3. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Castro Crivellenti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  4. Presence and resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in vaginal specimens of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women and association with other aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanović, Fatima; Smajlović, Jasmina; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Bektaš, Sabaheta; Halilović, Emir; Nurkić, Jasmina

    2017-02-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S. agalactiae and other aerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion and microdilution method(VITEK 2/AES instrument). Results Among 200 vaginal swabs, 17 (8.50%) were positive for S. agalactiae, e. g., 7% (7/100) of pregnant and 10% (10/100) of adult non-pregnant women. In the pregnant group, 71.4% (5/7) of S. agalactiae isolates were susceptible to clindamycin and 85.7%(6/7) to erythromycin. In the adult non-pregnant group, only resistance to clindamycin was observed in one patient (1/10; 10%). S. agalactiae as single pathogen was isolated in 57.14% (4/7) of pregnant and 60% (6/10) of adult non-pregnant S. agalactiae positive women. In mixed microbial cultures S. agalactiae was most frequently associated with Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Conclusion The rate of S. agalactiae positive women in the population of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women of Tuzla Canton, B&H is comparable with other European countries. Large studies are needed to develop a common national strategy for the prevention of S. agalactiae infection in B&H, especially during pregnancy. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  5. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  6. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  7. Caries risk assessment in pregnant women using cariogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolić Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. “Cariogram” takes into account interactions between caries-related factors and expresses a graphic assessment of the caries risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caries risk and different variables of Cariogram in pregnant women. Methods. This study included 96 pregnant women. At baseline, data on general health, diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure were obtained. DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was calculated by clinical examination. Saliva analyses included mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, buffer capacity, and secretion rate. Scores were entered and caries risk was assessed. The women were divided into five groups according to their Cariogram caries risk. Results. The results of the study showed that 29.17% (28 of the pregnant women had high caries risk, 21.88% (21 – medium, 17.71% (17 – low, 16.67% (16 – very high, and 14.58% (14 – very low caries risk. In an average caries risk profile of pregnant women, the dominant sector was “Bacteria” (18.85% of the risk structure profile, followed by “Diet” (17.97%, “Circumstances” (15.68%, and “Susceptibility” sector (14.65%. Conclusion. Cariogram shows that pregnant women in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, had 46.14% chance of avoiding caries in the future. The Cariogram model can successfully determine caries risk profiles for pregnant women.

  8. Unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, Euzebus C; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Nkwo, Peter O; Ezegwui, Hygenius U; Akabueze, Jude C; Agu, Polycap U

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was performed of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving prenatal care at two tertiary health institutions in Enugu between March 1 and August 31, 2012. The women were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Overall, 180 HIV-positive pregnant women were recruited, 67 (37.2%) of whom declared that their pregnancy was unintended. Overall, 174 (96.7%) patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy and 99 (55.0%) had future fertility intensions. Participants with regular partners (married or cohabiting) had a significantly higher rate of unintended pregnancy than those with unstable partners (40.3%, n=64/159 vs 14.3%, n=3/21 P=0.029). Age, parity, educational level, and current treatment with antiretroviral therapy did not significantly affect the prevalence of unintended pregnancy. A substantial number of HIV-positive pregnant women declared their pregnancies to be unintended. Modern contraceptives should be made readily available and accessible to HIV-positive women to help eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and subsequent new pediatric HIV infections. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Domestic Violence Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.

  10. Oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Aguilar-Cordero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum. Aim: To analyze the main studies on the level of oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Method: The systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have selected 18 studies that analyze the subject matter. Results: The studies reviewed did not present similar samples at the time of assessing the level of knowledge of the oral health of pregnant women. This can create problems comparing studies with each other. The issue addressed to measure the knowledge of pregnant women served to determine this discernment, and thus orient the research towards those aspects that presented difficulties. Conclusions: All of the studies reviewed show that the level of knowledge of pregnant women about their oral health is regular. This result that the surveys show, is not validated by a unified protocol, this means that there is no unanimity when verifying the knowledge of pregnant women, in relation to their oral health, as a health problem in general.

  11. Excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiya Raisovna Alimetova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus depending on gestational ageand albuminuria level. Materials and methods. A total of 60 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus were examined. Proximal and distal tubular function was estimatedfrom daily excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia respectively. Results. Daily excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus was lower than in healthycontrols in the 2nd trimester regardless of albuminuria and in the 3rd trimester in patients with microalbuminuria (MAU and proteinuria (PU.Ammonia excretion was twice lower than normal in the 2nd trimester in women with MAU and PU, and in the 3rd trimester in patients with PU.Healthy pregnant women showed significant correlation between ammonia and amine nitrogen excretion throughout pregnancy (r?0.833,p

  12. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's population encompassed of 1900 pregnant women in selected hospitals. Proportional ... Internet, friends/relatives, persons at the workplace or professional advisors. Despite the ... city is an important trade and educational centre. It also houses one of .... This study was restricted to pregnant women registered for ...

  13. Designing a Pregnancy Care Network for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Khanum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All pregnant women need easy access to pregnancy-related personalized information, on-time quality healthcare services and effective communication links with healthcare providers. Smartphone-based devices, communication systems and eHealth applications can play an important role in facilitating some of these services to pregnant women in a fast and efficient way and can thus prevent most of the pregnancy-related complications. The objective of this work is to propose and design a pregnancy care network for pregnant women and healthcare providers. The network model, an eHealth application based on smartphone-based devices and communication systems, is designed to strengthen communication links between health professionals and pregnant women and increase education, awareness and quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth.

  14. Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stek Alice

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal immunity in HIV pathogenesis and the lack of previous studies, we here tested for differences in immunomuodulatory factors in cervico-vaginal secretions between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We compared concentrations of 39 immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal lavages (CVL from 21 pregnant women to those of 24 non-pregnant healthy women from the US. We used Bonferroni correction to correct for multiple testing and linear regression modeling to adjust for possible confounding by plasma cytokine concentration, cervical ectopy, total protein concentration, and other possible confounders. Cervical ectopy was determined by planimetry. Concentration of immunomodulatory factors were measured by a multiplex assay, protein concentration by the Bradford Method. Results Twenty six (66% of the 39 measured immunomodulatory factors were detectable in at least half of the CVL samples included in the study. Pregnant women had threefold lower CVL concentration of CCL22 (geometric mean: 29.6 pg/ml versus 89.7 pg/ml, p = 0.0011 than non-pregnant women. CVL CCL22 concentration additionally correlated negatively with gestational age (Spearman correlation coefficient [RS]: -0.49, p = 0.0006. These associations remained significant when corrected for multiple testing. CCL22 concentration in CVL was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with time since last coitus and the size of cervical ectopy. However, none of these associations could explain the difference of CCL22 concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study, which remained significant in adjusted analysis. Conclusions In this study population, pregnancy is associated with reduced concentrations of CCL22 in cervicovaginal secretions

  15. Activity Behaviours in Lean and Morbidly Obese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Caterina; Mohd-Shukri, Nor; Denison, Fiona C; Saunders, David H; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2018-05-17

    Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (lean pregnant women. No differences were observed in the proportion of energy expended sedentary between lean and morbidly obese pregnant women. The greater total energy expenditure in morbidly obese pregnant women was corroborated by Actical accelerometer in early (n=14 per group, obese 1167.7 (313.6) Kcal; lean 781.1 (210.1) Kcal, plean 893.7 (175.9) Kcal, plean pregnant. Further studies are needed to determine whether sedentary behaviours are a suitable target for intervention in morbidly obese pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. IMMUNOGENICITY OF ADJUVANT INFLUENZA VACCINE FOR PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Kostinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological events showed that pregnant women are the most vulnerable part of population if there is the flu in the country and they die much more often than the rest part of people. That is why influenza vaccination of population including pregnant women is one of the priorities of public health service in our state. Worldwide experience of influenza vaccination of either adults or children by new adjuvant vaccine has caused our research of its efficiency among pregnant women. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of antibodies to influenza virus strain A/H1N1/v, A/H3N2 and B in pregnant women vaccinated adjuvant trivalent subunit vaccine. Our research is randomized and comparative on parallel groups. It was carried out within the demands of Russian Federation and International ethic norms adapted to such kind of researches. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the vaccine was conducted in 27 pregnant women in the II trimester of gestation, and in 23 pregnant women in the III trimester of gestation, 19 non-pregnant women was in the control group. The level of antibodies in the serum was determined using a reaction of hemagglutination inhibition before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the vaccination. Revealed that influenza vaccination of pregnant women in the II and III trimester, causes the increase in titers of antibodies to vaccine influenza strains A and B, to fully meet the required criteria CPMP, and does not differ from the nonpregnant group. In a month after vaccination the level of seroprotective against A/H1N1/v was 77.0%, A/H3N2 — 88.9%, B — 85.2% after vaccination in II trimester, and 87.0; 87.0; 91.35% in III trimester of gestation. The factor of seroconversion after vaccination in II trimester for A/H1N1/v was equal to 6.5, A/H3N2 — 7.2, B — 6.5, after vaccination in III trimester of pregnancy: 7.1, 6.5 and 5.1 correspondingly. At the same time revealed accelerated decline in antibody titer against

  17. Treatment of the Pregnant Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Rachel; Nørgård, Bente M; Friedman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    a pregnant patient with a disease flare. The best way to manage women with IBD who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy is a multidisciplinary approach. Team members often include a gastroenterologist, a high-risk obstetrician, an infertility specialist, a colorectal surgeon, and a pediatrician...

  18. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. (orig.)

  19. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. (orig.)

  20. Iron status of some pregnant women in Orlu town-Eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: High prevalence of anaemia has been reported among pregnant women especially in developing nations. This paper considers maternal haemoglobin (Hb) level, serum total iron, iron binding capacity, and serum ferritin in antenatal women in Orlu- Imo State Nigeria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ...

  1. Pattern of vitamin D among Pakistani pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, J.A.; Zaidi, S.A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is an emerging health concern around the world, highly prevalent in south Asian population, despite abundant sunlight. In Pakistan, all age groups are vulnerable to Vitamin D deficiency including pregnant women. This systematic review aimed to determine the pattern of Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women as well as exploring the causes and possible interventions that have had a substantial effect on improving the vitamin D level. Three databases (PubMed, Pub Get and Google Scholar), for the present review up to 2016, were used for the identification of published peer reviewed original relevant studies regarding Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women with the keywords Vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D in combination with pregnant women. Five studies were included for the final analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was common and highly prevalent among Pakistani pregnant women and their neonates. The main reasons for this were found to be avoiding sun exposure, quality of diet, and lower intake of calcium. Maternal vitamin D supplementation was found to be a key intervention to improve the maternal and neonatal vitamin D status. These review findings can be emerging in ensuring the adequate vitamin D level for Pakistani pregnant women during pregnancy, ultimately to achieve positive maternal and neonate's health outcomes. (author)

  2. Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about Caesarean section and ... decision‑making in a specialist health facility in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. ... was administered to 200 pregnant women, following an oral informed consent.

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

  4. Changes of insulin resistance and β-cell function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and normal pregnant women during mid- and late pregnant period: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Hui; Wu, Hui-Hua; Ding, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Li, Feng; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to observe insulin resistance and β-cell function changes among women diagnosed with gestational impaired glucose tolerance or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in mid-pregnancy. Sixty-four pregnant women receiving prenatal care underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at 20-24 weeks of gestation and an insulin release test. The GDM group included 34 pregnant women diagnosed with gestational impaired glucose tolerance or GDM, and the subjects with normal blood glucose were the control group. Insulin resistance and islet β-cell function changes were observed with the oral glucose tolerance test and insulin release test. The homeostatic model assessment-β levels in late pregnancy were higher than those in mid-pregnancy for both groups, and the primary time effect was statistically significant. The early insulin secretion index (ΔI(30)/ΔG(30)) values in mid- and late pregnancy were lower in the GDM group. The values of the area under the curve of blood glucose in mid- and late pregnancy were higher in the GDM group than those in the control group. Insulin resistance was higher in GDM patients than in normal pregnant women. Insulin resistance was aggravated, and β-cell's ability to compensate for the increased insulin resistance by modulating insulin secretion was aggravated, as gestational week increased in women with gestational diabetes and normal pregnant women. Insulin resistance in women with GDM is higher than in pregnant women with normal metabolism of glucose. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  6. Review of toxoplasmosis in Morocco: seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women and HIV- infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboudi, Majda

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by a protozoal parasite: Toxoplasma gondii . This infection can cause severe illness when the organism is contracted congenitally or when it is reactivated in immunosuppressed people. In this paper we review for the first time prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii among pregnant women and HIV-infected adults in Morocco. A systematic review methodology was used to consult three databases: Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar dated until 2015, regarding prevalence data and risk factors of infection among pregnant women and people living with HIV. Data collection and eligibility criteria were established in this paper. No statistical method was employed in this study. Our review resulted in a total of 6 publications meeting the inclusion criteria of prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in Morocco. Seropositive rates of T. gondii infection reach up to 51% in pregnant women. Risk factors that were reported included contact with soil, lack of knowledge about toxoplasmosis, and a low educational level. For HIV-infected adults, the limited data show a 62.1% prevalence rate of T. gondii .According to our review, there is still very little information on toxoplasmosis disease in pregnant women and HIV infected patients in Morocco. Further research on toxoplasmosis is needed to better ascertain the human disease burden in Morocco.

  7. Evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea symptoms in pregnant women with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Mevlüt; Sarı, Oktay; Aydoğan, Umit; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Semiz, Altuğ; Yılanlıoğlu, Necip Cihangir; Keskin, Uğur

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disease which is estimated to be undiagnosed to a large extent. Hence, the prevalence of OSAS in pregnant women is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in pregnant women with chronic diseases. In the study, 97 pregnant women with chronic diseases and 160 healthy pregnant women were included. A form questioning socio-demographic characteristics and pregnancy characteristics, Epworth scale and the Berlin questionnaire to evaluate the risk of OSAS were applied to participants. It has been determined that 10-12.5% of healthy pregnant women, 34-45.4% of pregnants with chronic diseases and 20.6-23.3% of all pregnant women had a high risk of OSAS, the pregnants with chronic disease compared to healthy pregnant women had statistically significant higher risk of OSAS. The risk of OSAS was found to be significantly higher especially in pregnant women with hypertension and diabetes. OSAS can lead to the adverse consequences in pregnancy, should be questioned for all pregnants especially those with chronic diseases. Pregnant women with OSAS should be monitored more carefully in terms of diabetes and hypertension in antenatal care.

  8. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care.

  9. [An innovative policy for supporting pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stéphanie

    2015-04-01

    Improving working conditions for pregnant women can boost their feeling of wellbeing in their job. As a result of its innovative work in this area, Seclin general hospital, in the north of France, has received special recognition for its policy in supporting pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  11. Clinical needs of in-treatment pregnant women with co-occurring disorders: implications for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee King, Patricia A; Duan, Lei; Amaro, Hortensia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated social vulnerability and behavioral health clinical profiles (symptom severity) of pregnant women with co-occurring disorders, defined as substance abuse, mental illness, and trauma at treatment entry compared to their nonpregnant counterparts and the role of interpersonal abuse in clinical presentation among pregnant women. Our objective was to provide primary health care providers with insight into the needs of pregnant patients with high behavioral health risks to serve them better during the critical window of opportunity for long-term impact. We conducted cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from women enrolled in treatment programs in the Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study from nine sites across the United States. We used analysis of variance and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical analyses to compare means and frequencies of social vulnerability indicators and baseline Addiction Severity Index, Brief Symptom Inventory of mental health, and Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale scores between 152 pregnant and 2,577 nonpregnant women, and between pregnant women with and without current interpersonal abuse. Compared to nonpregnant women, pregnant women evidenced more social vulnerability but better behavioral health clinical profiles at treatment entry. Current interpersonal abuse was associated with increased mental health and trauma symptomatology but not with alcohol or drug abuse severity among pregnant women. The prenatal period is an important time for screening and intervention for factors such as social vulnerability and co-occurring disorders, known to affect pregnancy and infant outcomes; social and behavioral health services are particularly essential among pregnant women with co-occurring disorders.

  12. Levels of neopterin and C-reactive protein in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkenekli, K; Keskin, U; Uysal, B; Kurt, Y G; Sadir, S; Çayci, T; Ergün, A; Erkaya, S; Danişman, N; Uygur, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pregnant women with fetal growth restriction (FGR) have higher plasma neopterin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations compared with those with uncomplicated pregnancy. A total of 34 pregnant women with FGR and 62 patients with uncomplicated pregnancy were included. Neopterin and CRP levels were measured at the time of diagnosis. The primary outcome of this study was to compare the neopterin and CRP levels in pregnant women with FGR and those with uncomplicated pregnancies. The secondary outcome of our study was to evaluate the correlation between fetal birth weight and maternal neopterin levels. The serum neopterin levels were significantly elevated in pregnant women with FGR (22.71 ± 7.70 vs 19.15 ± 8.32). However, CRP was not elevated in pregnant women with FGR (7.47 ± 7.59 vs 5.29 ± 3.58). These findings support the hypothesis that pregnancy with FGR is associated with a marked increase in macrophage activation and the natural immune system.

  13. Healthcare professionals experience with motivational interviewing in their encounter with obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina Louise; Rubak, Sune; Mogensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to explore and describe how healthcare professionals in the Southern Region of Denmark experienced motivational interviewing as a communication method when working with pregnant women with obesity. DESIGN: a qualitative, descriptive study based on face-to-face interviews with 11...... a descriptive analysis methodology. FINDINGS: motivational interviewing was found to be a useful method when communicating with obese pregnant women. The method made the healthcare professionals more aware of their own communication style both when encountering pregnant women and in their interaction...... awareness of the healthcare professionals communication method with the patients and increased their ability to handle a difficult workload. Overall, lack of time restricted the use of the motivational interviewing method on a daily basis....

  14. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. • Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used in emergency settings. • Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. • Magnetic resonance imaging is widely used in pregnant population. • T1 bright appendix sign can be a specific sign representing normal appendix.

  15. Features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonatsky A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Research Goal was to study features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency. Materials. 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Research of personal psychological characteristics was carried out by Minnesota multidimensional personal index (MMPI, adapted by F. B. Berezina and V. P Miroshnikova (1989. Personal and reactive anxiety was defned by method of self-appraisal according to D. Spilberger and Yu. L. Khalin. Results. Psychoveg-etative changes lead to unequal mobilization of various visceral systems, which can promote development of different complications of pregnancy course along with other factors, including fetoplacental insuffciency. Pregnant women with increased level of reactive anxiety more often have isolated decrease of uteroplacental blood fow; at hyperdepression combined disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was revealed; at hypochondria disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was also marked. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuf-fciency demonstrated increase of anxiety and psychasthenia. As gestation period extended, patients with fetoplacental insuffciency marked high level of lability and reactivity of vegetative nervous system in combination with increased anxiety and presence of depression. Taking into consideration psychovegetative basis of occurrence of functional disturbances in the system mother-placenta-fetus, determination of personal psychoemotional features and state of vegetative nervous system, with future correction of reveled disturbances, should be obligatory.

  16. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  17. Elevated levels of protein AMBP in cerebrospinal fluid of women with preeclampsia compared to normotensive pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Van Den Berg (Caroline); J.J. Duvekot (Hans); C. Güzel (Coşkun); Hansson, S.R. (Stefan R.); T.G. de Leeuw (Tom); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Versendaal, J. (Johannes); T.M. Luider (Theo); M.P. Stoop (Marcel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To investigate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome of patients with preeclampsia (PE) and normotensive pregnant women, in order to provide a better understanding of brain involvement in PE. Experimental design: Ninety-eight CSF samples (43 women with PE and 55 normotensive

  18. Pregnant women's choice of birthing hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lou, Stina; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    design was used and women were recruited during their first pregnancy-related visit to a general practitioner. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, and a thematic analysis of the data was carried out. RESULTS: Women made their hospital choice decision independently......OBJECTIVE: To investigate pregnant women's decision making in relation to their choice of birthing hospital and, in particular, their priorities regarding hospital characteristics. METHODS: The focus of this study was the choice of birthing hospital among pregnant women. A qualitative interview...... and they relied extensively on their own or peers' experiences. Travel distance played a role, but some women were willing to incur longer travel times to give birth at a specialized hospital in order to try to reduce the risks (in case of unexpected events). The women associated the presence of specialized...

  19. The management of HCV-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Guillermo; Chacaltana, Alfonso; Sjogren, Maria H

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C is, at present, a worldwide health problem and is the most common cause of liver transplantation. Its prevalence in pregnant women is similar to that of the general population. In the absence of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, most HCV-infected pregnant women do not have obstetric complications. Screening of pregnant women that are asymptomatic and do not have risk factors is not cost effective. A high hepatitis C viral load reportedly increases vertical transmission and is higher in women who are coinfected with HIV or who are intravenous drug users. Prolonged rupture of the membrane for more than 6 h, amniocentesis, and perineal lacerations increase the potential risk of perinatal transmission. Although the hepatitis C virus can be transmitted intrapartum, prevention by caesarean delivery is not generally indicated. The HCV virus can be found in maternal milk; however, breast feeding is not contraindicated. In conclusion, there are no antiviral treatment recommendations for HCV-infected women during pregnancy, or guidelines for the prevention of vertical transmission.

  20. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R

    2018-04-11

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Pregnant women and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: knowledge, perception and drug consumption pattern during pregnancy in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaw, Chalelgn; Wabe, Nasir Tajure

    2012-02-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the widely used drugs and are often used by pregnant women. However, they can have significant teratogenic effects. The aim of the study was to investigate pregnant women's knowledge about NSAIDs use during pregnancy and their perception and consumption pattern. The study was a cross sectional study on women waiting for a consultation in the selected maternity hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The pregnant women were selected randomly and then interviewed by using standardized questionnaires. A total of 224 pregnant women were involved in the study. Out of those, 203 (90.6%) of them have taken NSAIDs since the beginning of their pregnancy. About 201 (89.7%), 198 (88.4%) and 189 (84.4%) of the pregnant women considered that ibuprofen, diclofenac and aspirin are not NSAIDs respectively. Regarding analgesic effect of NSAIDs, 97 (43.3%) of the pregnant women believed that NSAIDs are effective for treating pain. Acetaminophen was considered as the most effective treatment for pain by 84 (37.50%) of the patients. Acetaminophen is the most common analgesic that was taken by most pregnant women. The knowledge of pregnant women about NSAIDs is poor.

  2. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  3. Changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in early pregnant women undergone artificial abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Suping; Wu Xiaohua; Li Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in pregnant women undergone artificial abortion with drug (mifepristone) or surgery (curettage). Methods: Serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), E 2 , progesterone levels changes as well as chorion-villi EGF contents were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with drug abortion (before and after mifepristone 25mg bid x 3 days), 30 pregnant women undergone curettage (determined twice, 3 days apart) and 32 controls (serum only). Results: Serum EGF, E 2 , and progesterone contents in all pregnant women were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The chorion-villi contents of EGF in patients undergone drug abortion were significantly lower than those in patients undergone curettage (P<0.05). Both serum EGF and progesterone contents dropped after 3 days treatment with mifepristone (vs those in curettage group, P<0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone might exert the effect of abortion through decrease of EGF levels, which was detrimental to fetus growth. (authors)

  4. Characteristics of pregnant and lactating women with leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sacha Frota Nogueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics of women who conceive during leprosy and the association between leprosy and pregnancy are not well known. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 49 pregnant or lactating women diagnosed with leprosy in 2011. RESULTS: The patients had a clinical dimorphous form of leprosy (44.9%, no physical incapacity at diagnosis (87.5%, and no complications in either the patient or infant (33.4%. In 36.3% of cases, leprosy symptoms were presented in the last trimester of pregnancy, and in 31.9% of patients were in the first trimester of lactation. CONCLUSIONS: The association between leprosy and pregnancy should be routinely investigated, particularly in endemic areas.

  5. Assessment of Iron Deficiency and Anemia in Pregnant Women: An Observational French Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Thierry; Zkik, Asmaa; Auges, Marie; Clavel, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We explored the prevalence and management of iron deficiency and anemia among pregnant women in France. Patients & methods: In this prospective, observational, multicenter registry study, randomly selected investigators (gynecologists/obstetricians/midwives registered in the CEGEDIM® database) assessed pregnant women presenting for a consultation. Participants completed a questionnaire at study inclusion. Results: A total of 1506 patients were enrolled by 95 investigators. Overall, investigators estimated a moderate or significant risk of iron deficiency in almost 60% of women. The overall prevalence of anemia (15.8%) increased with longer pregnancy duration. Medication (mainly iron-based) was prescribed to 57.3% of patients. Conclusion: In French clinical practice, the estimated risk of iron deficiency and prevalence of anemia during pregnancy align with expectations and are managed according to national/international recommendations. PMID:26693881

  6. Tuberculosis care for pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Pandolfini, Chiara; Chiodini, Peter; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-11-19

    Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy may lead to severe consequences affecting both mother and child. Prenatal care could be a very good opportunity for TB care, especially for women who have limited access to health services. The aim of this review was to gather and evaluate studies on TB care for pregnant women. We used a combination of the terms "tuberculosis" and "pregnancy", limited to human, to search for published articles. Studies reflecting original data and focusing on TB care for pregnant women were included. All references retrieved were collected using the Reference Manager software (Version 11). Thirty five studies were selected for review and their data showed that diagnosis was often delayed because TB symptoms during pregnancy were not typical. TB prophylaxis and anti-TB therapy appeared to be safe and effective for pregnant women and their babies when suitable follow up and early initiation were present, but the compliance rate to TB prophylaxis is still low due to lack of follow up and referral services. TB care practices in the reviewed studies were in line in principle with the WHO International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Integration of TB care within prenatal care would improve TB diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women. To improve the quality of TB care, it is necessary to develop national level guidelines based on the ISTC with detailed guidelines for pregnant women.

  7. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131...

  8. Intestinal Worm Infestation and Anaemia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bahadur Raut

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed

  9. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  10. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  11. Assessment of iron status of Sudanese pregnant women by serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, E.A.; Khangi, F.A.; Satti, G.M.; Abu Salab, A.

    2004-03-01

    Eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester. Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured. The weights of the subjects were under iron-supplementation throughout the gestation period. Sixty four normal non-parentage women were included in the study to serve as controls. Iron status was assessed for the groups with following parameters, haemoglobin (Hb), packed corpuscular volume (PCV), red blood cells count, peripheral blood film, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH C), serum iron (Si), total iron binding capacity (T IBC), serum transferrin saturation (Ts) and serum ferritin (Sf). No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). MCV, MCH and MCH C values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the of the pregnant at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women, this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16-18) and (22-24) (p<0.05). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continuously during the pregnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter that could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementation s corrected for haemoglobin but not for iron status, but more studies were needed to cover this issue using different parameters.(Author)

  12. Research with Pregnant Women: New Insights on Legal Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Anna C; Henry, Leslie Meltzer; Robinson, David; Bailey, Theodore; Faden, Ruth R; Little, Margaret O; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2017-05-01

    U.S. researchers and scholars often point to two legal factors as significant obstacles to the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research: the Department of Health and Human Services' regulatory limitations specific to pregnant women's research participation and the fear of liability for potential harm to children born following a pregnant woman's research participation. This article offers a more nuanced view of the potential legal complexities that can impede research with pregnant women than has previously been reflected in the literature. It reveals new insights into the role of legal professionals throughout the research pathway, from product conception to market, and it highlights a variety of legal factors influencing decision-making that may slow or halt research involving pregnant women. Our conclusion is that closing the evidence gap created by the underrepresentation and exclusion of pregnant women in research will require targeted attention to the role of legal professionals and the legal factors that influence their decisions. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  13. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2018-01-29

    Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach renders research with pregnant women fair. This paper analyzes and evaluates when research with pregnant women can be considered as fair and what constitutes scientific reasons for exclusion. Conceptual ethical and methodological analysis and evaluation of fair inclusion. Fair inclusion of pregnant women means (1) that pregnant women who are eligible are not excluded solely for being pregnant and (2) that the research interests of pregnant women are prioritized, meaning that they ought to receive substantially more attention. Fairness does not imply that pregnant women should be included in virtually every research project, as including only a few pregnant women in a population consisting only of women will not help to determine the effectiveness and safety of a treatment in pregnant women. Separate trials in pregnant women may be preferable once we assume, or know, that effects of interventions in pregnant women differ from the effects in other subpopulations, or when we assume, or know, that there are no differences. In the latter case, it may be preferable to conduct post-marketing studies or establish registries. If there is no conclusive evidence indicating either differences or equivalence of effects between pregnant and non-pregnant women, yet it seems unlikely that major differences or exact equivalence exist, the inclusion of pregnant women should be sufficient. Depending on the research question, this boils down to representativeness in terms of the proportion of pregnant and non-pregnant women, or to oversampling pregnant women. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in research implies that separate trials in pregnant women should be promoted. Inclusion of pregnant women has to

  14. Sero-epidemiology of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in relation to exposure to infection risk, age and pregnancy-related risk factors. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 294 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Accra who consented to participate. Personal and Toxoplasma ...

  15. Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Republic of Congo. ... Introduction: HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women ... Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with. HIV and ...

  16. Quality of Life of Pregnant Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; Müller, Cristina Heloisa

    2016-05-01

    Objective to evaluate the quality of life of HIV positive (HIV+) pregnant women using the HIV/AIDS Target Quality of Life (HAT-QoL) instrument. Methods cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2014 and November 2015, with HIV+ pregnant women selected by convenience sampling. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected through interviews, and the HAT-QoL questionnaire was applied. Clinical and laboratorial data were collected from medical records. Results twenty-seven pregnant women participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years (standard deviation - SD: 7.3). The majority (59%) had up to 8 years of education, 52% identified themselves as white, 56% were unemployed, and 59% had a household income higher than the minimum wage. The mean infection time by the virus was 68.4 months (5.7 years). The majority (74%) were contaminated with HIV through sexual intercourse, and 67% declared not having a HIV+ relative. Regarding the use of condoms, 41% reported using them sporadically, and the same number did not have proper knowledge about them. Only 23 patients (85%) reported having been prescribed antiretrovirals. Fourteen (64%) had a CD4 count higher than 500 cells/mm(3), and 13 pregnant women (59%) had an undetectable viral load. The scores from the quality of life questionnaire dimensions that were more affected are: infection "disclosure concerns" (mean: 39.8; SD: 27.1), followed by "financial concerns" (mean: 49.1; SD: 36), and "HIV acceptance" (mean: 49.1; SD: 35.8). The dimension with the best score was "medication concerns" (mean: 80.8; SD: 26.5). Conclusion quality of life has been increasingly used as a clinical outcome evaluation parameter. The results of this study contribute to the establishment of interventions based on the needs of HIV+ pregnant women. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  17. [Pregnant diabetic patients: institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Héctor Israel; Carrillo Iñiguez, Mayra Judith; Pestaña Mendoza, Silvia; Santamaría Ferreira, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus complicates 3-5% of all pregnancies and is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The diet and insulin have revolutionized the care related with pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus. To report the management experience in patients with diabetes and pregnancy at the Instituto Materno Infantil, Estado de Mexico. A descriptive, retrospective, observational and cross-sectional study of pregnant women with diabetes and pregnancy was conducted from 2003 to 2004. We included 55 pregnant women who had: gestational diabetes 30 (54.4%), pregestational diabetes 24 (43.6%), and carbohydrate intolerance 1 (1.8%); every one of them were controlled either with diet, insulin or both. The mean age was 30.6, 80% with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 9% gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 33.3% by abnormal 50 g glucose screening and 46.6% with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The main complications among the patients were urinary disease (61.3%) and the major fetal malformation were those related with cardiovascular disease (9.09%). The most frequent mode of delivery was cesarean section (58%) and birth weight was of 3,146 g. The main risk factors identified among women in the study group were as follow: More than 25 years of age and family history of diabetes mellitus. We observed a progressive increase in the insulin dosage. The most consistent complications among the patients were urinary infection and the major fetal malformation was cardiovascular disease.

  18. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pimportance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  19. Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Filiz; Akdemir, Nermin; Ozden, Selcuk; Cevrioglu, A Serhan; Bilir, Cemil

    2013-09-05

    Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p 0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important result revealed that high procalcitonin level can predict the further urinary tract infection risk. Finally, serum procalcitonin levels were normal in healthy pregnant women while other inflammatory markers such as WBC, ESR and CRP levels were higher.

  20. Perception and understanding of dental practitioners in provision of dental treatment to pregnant women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Wali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to that assess the perceptions and understanding of dental practitioners in the provision of dental treatment to pregnant women. Materials and Methods: The study was a quantitative, cross-sectional type. A sample size of 200 dental practitioners were included in the study between the period of 6 months, i.e. June–December. A cluster sampling technique was employed covering four different dental institutes. A structured questionnaire was designed to assess the perception and understanding of dental practitioners in providing treatment to the pregnant women. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19. Chi-square test was done to analyze the association of perception of dental practitioners in treating pregnant women in relation to gender. Results: A total of 200 dental practitioners filled the questionnaire out of which 43% (86 were males and 57% (114 were females. Eighty-two percent of the total participants said that it is safe to provide dental treatment during pregnancy, almost 90.4% of the total dentist interviewed was aware of the special position in which to place a pregnant woman on a dental chair. 85.5% of the study population do not prefer taking radiographs of a pregnant woman, 63% of the entire dentist surveyed prefers to use local anesthesia before any dental procedure on a pregnant patient. 96.5% care to educate their pregnant patient about improving dental health care. 59.5% of the dental practitioners said that they would consult the patient's gynecologist as a mandatory requirement before treating the patient. 57% of the dental practitioners answered with gingivitis. 70.5% agreed on scaling. The majority of the dentists prescribed paracetamol 85.5%. Conclusion: Little is known about the perception and utilization of dental practitioners in providing dental treatment to pregnant women in Pakistan. The present survey concluded that dental practitioners lack

  1. Vitamin D Levels Among Pregnant and Lactating Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, S.; Farasat, T.; Fazal, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)

  2. Vitamin D levels among pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Saima; Farasat, Tasnim; Shoaib, Hamna; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal, Sabiha

    2013-12-01

    To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Case-control study. Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 ± 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 ± 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 ± 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 ± 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 ± 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 ± 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group.

  3. Raltegravir in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women: Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonk, Maren I; Colbers, Angela P H; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Kabeya, Kabamba; Weizsäcker, Katharina; Haberl, Annette E; Moltó, José; Hawkins, David A; van der Ende, Marchina E; Gingelmaier, Andrea; Taylor, Graham P; Ivanovic, Jelena; Giaquinto, Carlo; Burger, David M

    2015-09-01

    The use of raltegravir in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women is important in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, especially in circumstances when a rapid decline of HIV RNA load is warranted or when preferred antiretroviral agents cannot be used. Physiological changes during pregnancy can reduce antiretroviral drug exposure. We studied the effect of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir and its safety and efficacy in HIV-infected pregnant women. An open-label, multicenter, phase 4 study in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving raltegravir 400 mg twice daily was performed (Pharmacokinetics of Newly Developed Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Network). Steady-state pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained in the third trimester and postpartum along with cord and maternal delivery concentrations. Safety and virologic efficacy were evaluated. Twenty-two patients were included, of which 68% started raltegravir during pregnancy. Approaching delivery, 86% of the patients had an undetectable viral load (HIV-infected. Exposure to raltegravir was highly variable. Overall area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and plasma concentration at 12 hours after intake (C12h) plasma concentrations in the third trimester were on average 29% and 36% lower, respectively, compared with postpartum: Geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) were 0.71 (.53-.96) for AUC0-12h and 0.64 (.34-1.22) for C12h. The median ratio of raltegravir cord to maternal blood was 1.21 (interquartile range, 1.02-2.17; n = 9). Raltegravir was well tolerated during pregnancy. The pharmacokinetics of raltegravir showed extensive variability. The observed mean decrease in exposure to raltegravir during third trimester compared to postpartum is not considered to be of clinical importance. Raltegravir can be used in standard dosages in HIV-infected pregnant women. NCT00825929. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  4. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P dream-associated behaviors (P dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation

  5. Skewed risk perceptions in pregnant women: the case of influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Birte; Betsch, Cornelia; Wichmann, Ole

    2015-12-29

    Pregnant women and their newborns have an increased risk of developing severe influenza and influenza-related complications. In Germany, seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for pregnant women since 2010. However, little is known about pregnant women's vaccination-related knowledge and attitudes, as well as their risk perceptions. This study therefore assessed pregnant women's vaccination-related knowledge, risk perceptions related to influenza disease and influenza vaccination during pregnancy, and aimed to identify determinants of influenza vaccination uptake during pregnancy in Germany. Between 2012 and 2014, a nationwide web-based prospective cohort study with follow-up interviews was conducted in initially pregnant women who gave birth over the study period. Control groups were set up in a cross-sectional fashion during the follow-up interviews. Women who participated in both, the baseline interview before giving birth and in the 1st interview after giving birth were included in the analysis. Univariate and multiple logistic regression were used to identify associations between influenza vaccination uptake and sociodemographic characteristics as well as items assessing attitude and knowledge. In total, 838 women were included in the analyses. Pregnant women had a positive attitude towards vaccination in general, but only modest vaccination knowledge. Overall, 10.9 % of women were vaccinated against seasonal influenza during pregnancy. While pregnant women perceived classical childhood diseases to be more risky than the respective vaccinations, this relation reversed for influenza: The risk of vaccination was perceived higher than the risk of the disease. These two types of risk perceptions independently determined influenza vaccination uptake-higher perception of disease risk and lower perceptions of vaccination-related risks increased uptake. Additionally, knowledge about the vaccination recommendation for pregnant women and a positive gynaecologist

  6. The Effect of Media on Body Image in Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Liechty, Toni; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D; Davis, Emilie J; Kroff, Savannah L

    2018-07-01

    Much research has found that exposure to certain types of media portrayals of women can be related to body image concerns among women. The current paper focuses on the impact of certain messages on pregnant and postpartum women. These women are rarely examined in a media research context but are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. This experimental study involved 192 pregnant or postpartum women who read a magazine containing glamorized media portrayals of pregnant/postpartum women or a control magazine. Pregnant women reported lower body image after only five minutes of exposure to the magazine with pregnant/postpartum women compared to the control group. There was no immediate effect on postpartum women. Implications for the media industry, health professionals, and women are discussed.

  7. Comparative proteomics analysis of placenta from pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yueshuai; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Zhou, Zuomin

    2013-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) usually occurs in the third trimester and associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. In this study we aim to investigate the potential proteins in placenta, which may participate in the molecular mechanisms of ICP-related fetal complications using iTRAQ-based proteomics approach. The iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to separate differentially expressed placental proteins from 4 pregnant women with ICP and 4 healthy pregnant women. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three apoptosis related proteins ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO that resulted from iTRAQ-based proteomics were further verified in placenta by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Placental apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL assay. Proteomics results showed there were 38 differentially expressed proteins from pregnant women with ICP and healthy pregnant women, 29 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in placenta from pregnant women with ICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed most of the identified proteins was functionally related to specific cell processes, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism. The expression levels of ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO were consistent with the proteomics data. The apoptosis index in placenta from ICP patients was significantly increased. This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of placenta from pregnant women with ICP and may provide us some new insights into the pathophysiology and potential novel treatment targets for ICP.

  8. Differences in pandemic influenza vaccination policies for pregnant women in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnoch Gordon J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centers for Disease Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. Methods Questionnaires were sent to European competent authorities of 27 countries via the European Medicines Agency and to leaders of registries of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in 21 countries. Results Replies were received for 24 out of 32 European countries of which 20 had an official pandemic vaccination policy. These 20 countries all had a policy targeting pregnant women. For two of the four countries without official pandemic vaccination policies, some vaccination of pregnant women took place. In 12 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate only second and third trimester pregnant women and in 8 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate pregnant women regardless of trimester of pregnancy. Seven different vaccines were used for pregnant women, of which four contained adjuvants. Few countries had mechanisms to monitor the number of vaccinations given specifically to pregnant women over time. Vaccination uptake varied. Conclusions Differences in pandemic vaccination policy and practice might relate to variation in perception of vaccine efficacy and safety, operational issues related to vaccine manufacturing and procurement, and vaccination campaign systems. Increased monitoring of pandemic influenza vaccine coverage of pregnant women is recommended to enable evaluation of the vaccine safety in pregnancy and pandemic vaccination campaign effectiveness.

  9. Insulin resistance in first-trimester pregnant women with pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Xie, Q X; Chen, C Y; Yang, C; Li, Y Z; Chen, D M; Xie, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been reported to play an important role in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, scanted materials exist regarding the independent effect of IR on RSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of IR in first trimester pregnant patients with normal pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of RSA. This two-center case-control study enrolled totally 626 first trimester pregnant women including 161 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, who were pre-pregnantly glucose-tolerant according to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and 465 women with no history of abnormal pregnancies of any kind. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were simultaneously measured in all participants. Serum beta-HCG, estradiol, progesterone, fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels, as well, the calculated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose/insulin ratio(G/I) and pregnancy outcome were analyzed and compared. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were found to be significantly lower in RSA group compared to controls. Subjects in RSA group were found to have higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I ratio than those in control group. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, and positively with G/I ratio even after adjustment for BMI. The spontaneous abortion rate within first trimester pregnancy of RSA patients was significantly higher than that in controls. In conclusion, woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion and normal pre-pregnant glucose metabolism tends to be more insulin resistant during first trimester pregnancy than healthy controls, no matter whether she has PCOS or not. Insulin resistance might be one of the direct causes that lead to recurrent abortion.

  10. The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess physical activity intervention assessed by a pedometer with or without dietary intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese pregnant women by comparing with a control group. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial...... of 425 obese pregnant women comparing 3 groups: (1) PA plus D, physical activity and dietary intervention (n = 142); (2) PA, physical activity intervention (n = 142); and (3) C, a control group receiving standard care (n = 141). All participants routinely in gestational weeks 11-14 had an initial dietary......-up reduced GWG compared with controls in obese pregnant women....

  11. Fair Inclusion of Pregnant Women in Clinical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, I.S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has always been a reluctance to include pregnant women in clinical research, due to a fear of harm to the foetus. At the same time, there is a need for evidence-based information on medications and treatments for pregnant women who are or become ill during their pregnancy, which

  12. Specific features of cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant women with benign cervix uteri pathology in anamnesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bysaha, Nataliya Yu

    2016-01-01

    a tendency of increasing incidence of the cervix uteri precancer and cancer in women of reproductive age is noticed recently being related to the growth of number of the sexually-transmitted infections. The cervix uteri pathology incidence in women of fertile age is 20-25%. to study the specific features of the cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant patients with benign cervix uteri pathology in the anamnesis and the character of its change post partum. we have examined 195 women during their pregnancy and 3-5 months post partum. All pregnant women, alongside with generally accepted clinical and laboratory examinations, were subjected to the simple and extended colposcopy, cytology of the targeted smears and, according to indications, the histological studies of bioptate. according to the results of the colcoscopical studies and the signs of the cervix uteri pathology found, the patients were divided into several groups. A control group included 49 pregnant women. The clinical and instrumental examination of 146 women with cervix uteri pathology has been carried out both during pregnancy and post partum. the structure of the clinical forms of benign and premalignant changes in the cervix uteri epithelium in pregnant patients has been found. Specific features of the cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant patients with benign cervix uteri pathology in anamnesis have been studied. The relationship between the parity of pregnancy, delivery, route of delivery and regress of both benign and premalignant changes in the cervix uteri epithelium 3-5 months post partum has been determined.

  13. Psychiatric Co-Morbidities in Pregnant Women with Opioid Use Disorders: Prevalence, Impact, and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudo, Camila L; Andraka-Christou, Barbara; Allgood, Kacy

    2017-01-01

    This review seeks to investigate three questions: What is the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD)? How do comorbid psychiatric illnesses impact pregnant women with OUD? And how do comorbid psychiatric illnesses affect the ability of pregnant women with OUD to adhere to and complete OUD treatment? Based on this literature review, 25-33% of pregnant women with OUD have a psychiatric comorbidity, with depression and anxiety being especially common. However, of the 17 studies reviewed only 5 have prevalence rates of dual diagnosis in pregnant women with OUD as their primary outcome measures, their N's were typically small, methods for determining psychiatric diagnosis were variable, and many of the studies were undertaken with women presenting for treatment which carries with its implicit selection bias. Of the women enrolled in treatment programs for SUD, those with psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to have impaired psychological and family/social functioning than those without psychiatric comorbidity. Greater severity of comorbid psychiatric illness appears to predict poorer adherence to treatment, but more research is needed to clarify this relationship with the psychiatric illness is less severe. While cooccurrence of psychiatric disorders in pregnant women with opioid use disorder appears to be common, large population-based studies with validated diagnostic tools and longitudinal assessments are needed to obtain definitive rates and characteristics of cooccurring illnesses. Integrated prenatal, addiction, and psychiatric treatment in a setting that provides social support to pregnant patients with OUD is most effective in maintaining women in treatment. More research is still needed to identify optimal treatment settings, therapy modalities, and medication management for dually diagnosed pregnant women with OUD.

  14. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.

  15. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Klepacz-Szewczyk, Justyna; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek

    2015-01-01

    The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  17. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brooker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence.One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected.Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in pregnant women in poor countries

  18. [The course of recurrent urinary tract infections in non-pregnant women of childbearing age, the consequences for daily life and the ideas of the patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, S.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women of childbearing age and to gain insight into their consequences and the ideas of the patients. DESIGN: Historical cohort-study and interviews with patients. METHOD: All non-pregnant women in the age-range

  19. Health-related behaviors among pregnant women with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maria Bień

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The healthy and unhealthy behaviors of a pregnant woman influence both her own health and that of her unborn child, affecting its future development. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension.   Material i method. The study was performed between November 2011 and February 2012 and included 80 hypertensive pregnant women hospitalized in a high risk pregnancy ward. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. Results. Statistical analyses showed a correlation between the respondents’ health-related behaviors and their socio-demographic characteristics: exercise was correlated with age (p=0.01, and rest during the day was correlated with support in everyday responsibilities (p<0.00001, and with the respondents’ socio-economic standing (p=0.03. Correlations were also found between healthy eating habits and residence (0.006, education (p=0.05, and sodium intake (p=0.0003, as well as between education and substance use (p=0.0003. Conclusion. Health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension are influenced by their education, support they receive in daily responsibilities, and their socio-economic standing. The diagnosis of hypertension in pregnant women does not necessarily prompt them to discontinue all unhealthy behaviors.

  20. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Shi

    Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  1. Nutrition information-seeking behaviour of low-income pregnant Maghrebian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Anik; Marquis, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition information-seeking behaviour was explored among low-income pregnant Maghrebian women living in Montreal. Environmental factors likely to influence nutrition information-seeking behaviour during pregnancy are discussed. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews with 14 primigravid pregnant women recruited via the Montreal Diet Dispensary, a nonprofit agency with the mission of promoting health among low-income pregnant women. Data collection was part of a larger project on pregnant women's nutrition decision-making. Environmental factors likely to influence information-seeking behaviour were identified. They were grouped within two major themes: culture and interactions with individuals from the social environment. The culture theme was divided into three minor themes: eating habits, food beliefs, and religious beliefs. The interactions with individuals from the social environment theme was divided into two minor themes: interactions with health care providers and interactions with family members. Understanding the influence of these environmental factors should help registered dietitians tailor communication strategies to pregnant immigrant women's specific information needs.

  2. Vaginal flora alterations and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Fausto; da Silva, Márcia G; Polettini, Jossimara; Tristao, Andréa da R; Peracoli, José C; Witkin, Steven S; Rudge, Marilza V C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%), vaginal candidosis (10.2%), intermediate vaginal flora (5.2%), aerobic vaginitis (2.9%), mixed flora (2.9%) and other abnormal findings (2.9%). The percentage of women with or without clinical signs or symptoms was not significantly different between these categories. The presence of vaginal odor or vaginal discharge characteristics was not diagnostic of any specific flora alteration; pruritus was highly associated with candidosis (p vaginal odor was associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of atypical vaginal flora is common in our low-risk pregnant population and is not always associated with pathology. The occurrence of specific signs or symptoms does not always discriminate between women with different types of atypical vaginal flora or between those with abnormal and normal vaginal flora. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Clinical and biochemical manifestations of undifferentiated forms of connective tissue dysplasia in pregnant women with varicose veins of small pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Shibelgut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is to define the pathogenesis of varicous veins of small pelvis in women. at Ultrasonic investigation of venous system of small pelvis has been carried out in 290 pregnant women. It revealed 190 patients with varicose veins of small pelvis (VVSP. By means of V.M. Jakovleva's technique phenotypic menifestation of connective tissue dysplasia was determined in all pregnant women. Biochemical manifestations of connective tissue dysplasia were identified by sialic acid level in blood serum, daily excretion of glycosaminoglycans and oxyproline. High frequency of clinical and biochemical manifestations of undifferentiated forms of connective tissue dysplasia was revealed in pregnant women with VVSP. Patients with VVSP developed tooth and jaw, facial and locomotor damages. Patients with VVSP characterized by visceral undifferentiated forms of connective tissue dysplasia demonstrated by refraction involvement, ventral hernias, flat feet, varicous veins of lower extremities, hypermobile syndrome, mitral valve prolapse of different degree. Biochemical manifestations of undifferentiated forms of connective tissue dysplasia in pregnant women with VVSP were insignificant

  4. Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Rehle, Thomas M; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B

    2014-11-01

    National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15-49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0-8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9-8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI -9-38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P>0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15-24 years while increasing significantly among women 35-49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility.

  5. HIV Risk Factors among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant High-Risk Women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Sherry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared high-risk pregnant (n=55) and nonpregnant (n=598) women from Harlem on human immunodeficiency virus-related drug and sexual risk behaviors. Found higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) among nonpregnant women and no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant IVDUs in terms of needle risk behaviors. Pregnant…

  6. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  7. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Campos Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  8. Asymptomatic plasmodial infection in Colombian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Agudelo, Olga M; Arango, Eliana M

    2017-08-01

    Information about asymptomatic plasmodial infection is scarce in the world, and the current antimalarial program goals (control, elimination, and eradication) demand this evidence to be well documented in different populations and malaria transmission settings. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women at delivery. A retrospective prevalence survey was used. Women were recruited at hospital obstetric facility in each of the municipalities of Turbo, Necoclí in Antioquia department, and Puerto Libertador in Córdoba department. Malaria infection was tested by thick blood smear (TBS) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety-six pregnant women at delivery were studied: 95% were asymptomatic (91/96), 45% had asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) by qPCR (41/91), and only 8% (7/91) had API by microscopy. The prevalence of submicroscopic infections (TBS negative and qPCR positive) was very high, 37% (34/91) in asymptomatic women and 41% (39/96) in total women studied (91 asymptomatic and 5 symptomatic). The prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women is much higher than which is expected for a country that does not have the level of malaria transmission as Sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafurt, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

  10. Validity of Self-Reported Periodontal Disease Questionnaire among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiga, Sakura; Ohba, Takashi; Tanoue, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromi; Katoh, Takahiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Kumamoto RAINBOW Project, a multifaceted implementation of the prevention of premature labor, we investigated pregnant women's oral health status and assessed the validity of a self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire. We examined the oral health status of pregnant women and asked them for subjective descriptions of symptoms of periodontitis both in the first and the second half of their pregnancy in Kumamoto Prefecture from August 2012 to January 2014. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal condition, and women having periodontal pockets with depths of ≥4 mm were catecogorized as having periodontitis. The results were the scores of the self-questionnaire for periodontal disease prepared by the Japan Dental Association. Of the 9,527 pregnant women who received periodontal check- ups during the first half of pregnancy, 32 percent were diagnosed as having periodontitis. The self-questionnaire had a sensitivity of 51.2% and a specificity of 62.9% for pregnant women to predict their periodontal disease. Then, we evaluated the importance of each question by logistic regression analysis and extracted the useful items. An increased sensitivity (79.9%) was obtained with the best of the modified questionnaire. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the evaluation of the usefulness of the self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire for pregnant women. The current self-questonnaire used for the general adult population was less sensitive for pregnant women. Our modified questionnaire showed an improved sensitivity for diagnosing periodontitis, but its specificity remained low. A specialized self-questionnaire for periodontal disease in pregnant women should be designed.

  11. Advancing HIV research with pregnant women: navigating challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D

    2016-09-24

    Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  13. Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women

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    Ali Gholami

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor′s advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.

  14. Occurrence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Young Pregnant Women

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    Juliane Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although acute leukaemia is rare in pregnancy its importance lies in its life-threatening potential, both to the child and the mother. The possibility of vertical transmission of leukemic cells increases the attention devoted to these patients and their offspring. Three cases of pregnant young women (15-17 years of age with AML are presented. This series of cases is the first report where gene abnormalities such as ITD mutations of the FLT3 gene and AML1/ETO fusion genes were screened in pregnant AML patients and their babies, so far. Unfortunately, very poor outcomes have been associated to similar cases described in literature, and the same was true to the patients described herein. Although very speculative, we think that the timing and possible similar exposures would be involved in all cases.

  15. Governing the conduct of health of overweight pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    for overweight pregnant women. Methods: The theory of social construction and the concept of governmentality are applied in a discourse analysis on the prevention of overweight among pregnant women in Denmark. This study draws on a documentary analysis of the discourse in central governmental documents...

  16. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women.

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    Marijke M Faas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. RESULTS: We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it's LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.

  17. PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND AETIOLOGY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Prem Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection in pregnant women. It is responsible for range of complications causing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. AIM To assess the associated risk factors, aetiology and their antibiogram of UTI among pregnant women. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Department of Microbiology & Department of Obstetrics from March 2015 to February 2016. The patient details and risk factors were recorded. Midstream & catheter urine specimens from pregnant women with symptoms of UTI were collected and sent for routine microscopy, culture and sensitivity. RESULTS In 550 pregnant women, 122(22.18% had significant bacteriuria and 72(17.72% had low colony count UTI. The most affected number age group was 25-35 years (58.85% followed by 15-25 years. Of the associated risk factors, multiparity 45.31%, low socioeconomic status 42.18%, anaemia 39.06% etc. were important. Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated with a percentage of 29.14%, followed by Klebsiella species (17.49%, S. aureus (14.34% etc. Other isolated micro-organisms included Enterococci, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter species. The antibiotics with more than 50% sensitivity against Gram-negative isolates were Imipenem (74.7%, Levofloxacin (73.17%, Ciprofloxacin (69.10%, Amikacin (57.72%, Amoxiclav (55.28%, and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam (50.40%. The antibiotics for Gram-positive isolates were Linezolid (88.46%, Cefoxitin (78.84%, Teicoplanin (69.23% and Vancomycin (65.22%. CONCLUSION We found associated risk factors such as multiparity, low socioeconomic status, etc. E. coli was the most common bacteria isolated in our setting. Therefore, pregnant women should be assessed for associated risk factors and evaluated for the pathogenic organism during their regular follow-up. The drug sensitivity should be taken into consideration with their side effects related to pregnancy.

  18. Examining the safety of dental treatment in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowicz, Bryan S; DiAngelis, Anthony J; Novak, M John; Buchanan, William; Papapanou, Panos N; Mitchell, Dennis A; Curran, Alice E; Lupo, Virginia R; Ferguson, James E; Bofill, James; Matseoane, Stephen; Deinard, Amos S; Rogers, Tyson B

    2008-06-01

    Although clinicians generally consider it safe to provide dental care for pregnant women, supporting clinical trial evidence is lacking. This study compares safety outcomes from a trial in which pregnant women received scaling and root planing and other dental treatments. The authors randomly assigned 823 women with periodontitis to receive scaling and root planing, either at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation or up to three months after delivery. They evaluated all subjects for essential dental treatment (EDT) needs, defined as the presence of moderate-to-severe caries or fractured or abscessed teeth; 351 women received complete EDT at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation. The authors used Fisher exact test and a propensity-score adjustment to compare rates of serious adverse events, spontaneous abortions/stillbirths, fetal/congenital anomalies and preterm deliveries ( .05) between women who received EDT and those who did not require this treatment, or between groups that received both EDT and periodontal treatment, either EDT or periodontal treatment alone, or no treatment. Use of topical or local anesthetics during root planing also was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. EDT in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing serious medical adverse events or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data from larger studies and from groups with other treatment needs are needed to confirm the safety of dental care in pregnant women. This study provides evidence that EDT and use of topical and local anesthetics are safe in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates From Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women at Yazd University Hospital, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregnant and non-pregnant women seems very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the GBS ‎molecular capsular serotype ‎and genotype distribution of pregnant and non-pregnant carrier ‎women at Yazd university hospital, in Iran.‎. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 GBS strains isolated from 237 pregnant and 413 non-pregnant women were investigated for molecular capsular serotypes and surface protein genes using the multiplex PCR assay. The Chi-square method was used for statistical analysis. Out of 650 samples, 100 (15.4%) were identified as GBS, with a predominance of capsular serotypes III (50%) [III-1 (49), III-3 (1)], followed by II (25%), Ia (12%), V (11%), and Ib (2%), which was similar with another study conducted in Tehran, Iran, but they had no serotype Ia in their report. The surface protein antigen genes distribution was rib (53%), epsilon (38%), alp2/3 (6%), and alpha-c (3%). The determination of serotype and surface proteins of GBS strains distribution would ‎be ‎relevant ‎for the future possible formulation of a GBS vaccine.

  20. Endoscopic management and outcomes of pregnant women hospitalized for nonvariceal upper GI bleeding: a nationwide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Dinani, Amreen M; Pivovarov, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    Upper GI endoscopy has an important diagnostic and therapeutic role in the management of nonvariceal upper GI bleeding (NVUGB). To characterize nationwide patterns of utilization of upper GI endoscopy in pregnant women with NVUGB and to assess health outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Participating hospitals from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1998-2007. Pregnant and age-matched nonpregnant women admitted for NVUGB. The study population was classified as pregnant women with NVUGB (n = 1210) and nonpregnant women with NVUGB (n = 6050). Rate of upper GI endoscopy, maternal mortality, fetal death/complications, and premature delivery. Pregnant women were less likely than nonpregnant women to undergo upper GI endoscopy (26% vs 69%; P < .0001) even after adjustment for comorbidities, transfusion requirement, and the presence of hypovolemic shock (adjusted odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.22). Among those who underwent endoscopy, pregnant women were less likely to undergo the procedure within 24 hours of admission (50% vs 57%; P = .02). Mortality was lower among pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women (0% vs 0.6%; P = .006). In comparing outcomes between those who did and did not undergo endoscopy, there was no difference in fetal loss (0.2% vs 0.6%), fetal distress/complications (2.7% vs 2.6%), or premature delivery (7.3% vs 6.4%). The study was based on administrative data. A conservative nonendoscopic approach is common in the management of pregnant women with NVUGB and is not associated with worse maternal or fetal outcomes. Upper GI endoscopy is, however, safe when judiciously implemented in the actively bleeding patient. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

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    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  2. Hamatological parameters and malaria parasite infection among pregnant women in Northwest Nigeria

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    Anigo Kola Matthew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate some hematological and anthropometric parameters, malaria infection at different trimesters in pregnancy. Methods: Fifty pregnant women (6 in first trimester, 28 in second trimester and 16 in third trimester between ages of 15-40 years with ten age-matched non-pregnant women used as control were enrolled in the study. Consent were obtained from the subjects after which semi-structured questionnaires were administered to obtain data on demographic and socio-economic variables, reproductive and medical history. Anthropometric variables, and hematology were carried out using standard procedures. Results: Anthropometric characteristics showed no significant difference in weight, height and BMI when compared with non-pregnant control. Hematological values indicated higher values for non-pregnant women but not statistically significant. Prevalence of malaria infection in pregnant women showed that 40% of pregnant women examined were infected compared to 30% non-pregnant with those with first pregnancy (primagravid recording the highest infection (47.62% with pregnant women within age 15-18 years least infected (16.7%. Pregnant women in the third trimester had the highest (50% malaria infection and there was increase in prevalence with increase education status and those with first pregnancy (primagravid recorded the highest infection (47.62%. Treatment used when infected showed 36.8% and 42.9% used malaria drug and both drug/herbs respectively. Conclusions: Higher prevalence rate of malaria infection in pregnant women with the highest prevalence recorded in those with first conception (primigravidae. There is a need for continuous monitoring of hematological parameters and malaria parasite infection for better outcome of pregnancy.

  3. Determinants of good oral hygiene among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in ...

  4. The second wave: Toward responsible inclusion of pregnant women in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Little, Margaret Olivia; Faden, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Though much progress has been made on inclusion of non-pregnant women in research, thoughtful discussion about including pregnant women has lagged behind. We outline resulting knowledge gaps and their costs and then highlight four reasons why ethically we are obliged to confront the challenges of including pregnant women in clinical research. These are: the need for effective treatment for women during pregnancy, fetal safety, harm from the reticence to prescribe potentially beneficial medication, and the broader issues of justice and access to benefits of research participation. Going forward requires shifting the burden of justification from inclusion to exclusion and developing an adequate ethical framework that specifies suitable justifications for excluding pregnant women from research.

  5. Urinary tract infections in pregnant women with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olén, Ola; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders; Bollgren, Ingela; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2007-02-01

    Previous research has indicated a link between coeliac disease (CD) and urinary tract infection (UTI). The objective of this study was to assess the risk of UTI and repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy in women with diagnosed or undiagnosed CD. A national registry-based cohort study restricted to pregnant women was used in this investigation, with linkage between the Swedish National Medical Birth Registry and the National Inpatient Registry. We analysed the risk of UTI during pregnancy from 1973 to 1989 in 212 pregnancies to women who had received a diagnosis of CD prior to giving birth and in 786 pregnancies to women diagnosed after giving birth. We also assessed the risk of repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy according to data in the national birth records of 1990-2001 in 617 women with CD diagnosed prior to giving birth and 109 women diagnosed after giving birth. UTI during pregnancy: UTI occurred during 19,139/1,678,304 pregnancies to women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, compared with in 12/786 pregnancies to women with undiagnosed CD (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=0.78-2.43; p=0.276) and in 0/212 pregnancies to women with diagnosed CD (AOR=0.06; 95% CI=0.00-8.94; p=0.277) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality and calendar period). Repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy: among 692,991 women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, 74,776 reported repeated episodes of UTI, compared with 14/101 women with undiagnosed CD (AOR=1.39; 95% CI=0.79-2.45; p=0.255) and 69/566 women with diagnosed CD (AOR=1.02; 95% CI=0.79-1.32; p=0.864) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality, calendar period and civil status). Adjustment for smoking in a subset of patients with available data did not change the risk estimates. It cannot be ruled out that undiagnosed CD in pregnant women is associated with a small, increased risk of UTI. In pregnant women with diagnosed CD, there seems to be no

  6. Oral health Knowledge and behavior among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The present study was carried out to assess the level of oral health knowledge, behavior, experience and sources of oral health knowledge among pregnant women attending Kyela district hospital. Study participants and Methods: This was a hospital based Cross-sectional study among 380 pregnant women attending ...

  7. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bobo-Dioulasso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections are the first infections in pregnant women and can cause serious complications during pregnancy. In order to improve its management in low income country like Burkina Faso, we conducted a prospect cross-sectional study, to describe its epidemiological and biological aspects in pregnant women at ...

  8. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of serious flu complications, such as pregnant women. Treatment should begin as soon as possible because antiviral drugs work best when started early (within 48 hours after symptoms start). Antiviral drugs can make your ...

  9. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Daniel E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

  10. Healthcare utilisation of pregnant women who experience sciatica, leg cramps and/or varicose veins: A cross-sectional survey of 1835 pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Helen; Lauche, Romy; Adams, Jon; Steel, Amie; Broom, Alex; Sibbritt, David

    2016-02-01

    Common discomforts of pregnancy experienced in the lower extremity include sciatica, leg cramps and varicose veins. Whilst research attention has focused on aetiology and outcomes, the health service utilisation of pregnant women suffering from these complaints has been largely overlooked. To examine the health status and health service utilisation profile of pregnant women experiencing sciatica, leg cramps or varicose veins. Linear and logistic regression was applied to a cross-sectional survey of a pregnant women drawn from the 1973 to 1978 cohort (aged 31-36 years in 2009), of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n=1835). Participant's demographics, health status and health service utilisation were compared for all three complaints based upon three subgroups (yes, sought help; yes, did not seek help; no). A number of women experienced sciatica (22.1%), leg cramps (18.2%) or varicose veins (9.4%). Of these, a greater proportion of women with sciatica (79.3%) or varicose veins (71.5%) sought help for their condition compared with women with leg cramps (46.7%). Comparisons between women with the conditions of interest who did seek help and those who did not only found that women with a university degree were 0.29 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.85) times less likely to seek help for their condition compared to women with a school only education. Further research examining all health seeking behaviour and treatment use of pregnant women who experience lower extremity problems is required in order to facilitate safe, effective and coordinated maternity care to further support these women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention of hypoxic fetal complications in pregnant women with congenital heart disease and anemia

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    Iu. Davydova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is — to develop a strategy of prevention of hypoxic fetal abnormalities in pregnant women with congenital heart disease, heart failure and iron deficiency anemia. Materials and methods. The study included 86 pregnant women with CHD and NYHA II–III. 68 women in the third trimester of pregnancy is diagnosed anemia (group I, 18 pregnant women with CHD, NYHA II–III without anemia (II group, the control group consisted of 24 pregnant women without cardiac disease, with physiological pregnancy. All pregnant with information registration consent studied the concentration of ferritin, hemoglobin level, morphological study of the placenta. All pregnant women were assigned to iron supplements, oral iron (III hydroxide polymaltose complex (Maltofer when hemoglobin levels above 95 g/l and the expected delivery date more than 40 days of starting treatment. When the hemoglobin level below 95 g/l of intravenously administered iron (III hydroxide sucrose complex (Venofer followed by transfer to oral iron (III. Results. In groups of pregnant I and II did not have perinatal losses, births in gestation less than 28 weeks, with a score Apgar at birth of less than 4 points. Pregnant women with cyanotic heart defects and the need for early delivery in less than 37 weeks are not included in the study. Also, there is a correlation between the degree of severity of anemia in women with CHD with HF and prematurity, and the presence of IUGR child birth asphyxia able to varying degrees (respectively, r=0.8, r=0.75 and r=0.85. Conclusions. Formation of fetoplacental unit in women with CHD on a background of heart failure occurs with complications associated with the presence of tissue hypoxia, as well as the possible impact on the process of oxidative stress. The development of iron deficiency anemia in this group is an additional risk factor for placental dysfunction, which is confirmed by morphometric and morphological studies of placentas

  12. Patient-centered Care to Address Barriers for Pregnant Women with Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mary Beth; Gopman, Sarah; Leeman, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Pregnant women affected by substance use often encounter barriers to treatment, including housing insecurity, poverty, mental health issues, social stigma, and access to health care. Providers may lack the resources needed to provide quality care. Clinicians offering prenatal care to women with substance use disorder are encouraged to support family-centered, multidisciplinary care to women and their infants, focusing on harm reduction. Collaboration between providers of maternity care, substance abuse treatment, case management, family primary care, and pediatric developmental care can improve outcomes during pregnancy and through the early years of parenting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. cd4 changes in haart-naïve hiv positive pregnant women on haart

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This study thus attempt an assessment of the pattern of immunologic (CD4) changes in naïve. HIV positive pregnant women, in the first two months of commencing HAART, with a view to possibly postulate CD4 response rate and recommend the ideal time to initiate HAARTin HIV positive pregnant patients. METHODOLOGY.

  14. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Renström, Frida; Wright, Antony; Gradmark, Anna; Catt, Michael; Chen, Kong Y; Löf, Marie; Bluck, Les; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Franks, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK) to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. Non-pregnant (N = 73) and pregnant (N = 35) Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs) wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs) wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable). There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR) acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10) and 9(7-10), respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001). A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  15. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability.Non-pregnant (N = 73 and pregnant (N = 35 Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable.There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10 and 9(7-10, respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001.A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM PE AND PI BETWEEN PREGNANT AND NO-PROGNANT WOMEN AND PREGNANT OF DIFFERENT GESTATIONAL PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Graziele Dias de Almeida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This research had how his objectives to investigate if there is difference between the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant women and no-pregnant women of period different of pregnancy. To get the informations necessary, we use the machine manuvacuômetro MVD 500 Mycrohard Globalmed , how the instrument to have the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant and no- pregnant women that have similar age. We use how criterion to select the informer this research to be pregnant in one group and not to be pregnant in another group. The women that participate of this research were choose aleatorialy through of the indications of the another persons. We went to their houses to collect data of the insp. and exp. maxim pressure and afterward, we organize, understand, pass to the category and, finely, to find the medium of the value. The value of the insp. and exp. maxim pressures that were found in the pregnant group was the follow: PE Max= 51,3 cm H20 and PIMax= 48,3 cm H20; the averages found in the not- pregnant were: PEMax= 73 cm H20, PIMax = 69,2 cm H20. The pregnants that were in the subgroup of the 1o to 5o month had a average of PE= 56 cm H20 and PI= 60 cm H20, while the pregnant of subgroup above the 6o month had the averages of PE and PI = 56 cm H20 and 43 cm H20, respective. Based in the results we conclude that have difference between the insp. and exp. pressures between pregnant and no-pregnant women, as well as in the pregnant of different period of pregnance.

  17. Mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms among pregnant women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byatt, Nancy; Xiao, Rui S; Dinh, Kate H; Waring, Molly E

    2016-02-01

    We examined mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) ≥ 10) among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012. Logistic regression models estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios for mental health care use in the past year in relation to depressive symptoms. While 8.2 % (95 % CI 4.6-11.8) of pregnant women were depressed, only 12 % (95 % CI 1.8-22.1) of these women reported mental health care use in the past year.

  18. Serum Neuropeptide Y and Leptin Levels compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study was to compare serum NPY and leptin levels between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. The secondary objective was to compare these peptides between non-obese and obese pregnant women. Methods: Fasting venous blood was collected from non-pregnant women before open abdominal surgery and from pregnant women when admitted to the delivery room during the latent phase of labor. Results: There were 12 non-obese and 14 obese subjects in the non-pregnant group and 9 non-obese and 30 obese subjects in the pregnant group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was comparable, but heart rate (HR was higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. Mean±S.E.M serum NPY levels were lower in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant group in overall (0.54±0.02 and 1.34±0.08, respectively, non-obese (0.53±0.05 and 1.23±0.14, respectively, and obese (0.54±0.03 and 1.43±0.09, respectively subjects (p<0.01 for all, but these were comparable between obese and non- obese pregnant subjects. Serum NPY was positively correlated with SBP (R=0.281, p<0.05, but negatively correlated with HR (R=-0.324, p<0.01. Serum leptin levels were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant groups, but were significantly higher in obese than non-obese pregnant subjects (p<0.001. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences in overall and pregnant subjects (p<0.001 all. Conclusion: In pregnancy, decreased NPY levels might be associated with inhibition of SBP rising as well as increased HR. Leptin levels might not be associated with pregnancy, but associated mainly with obesity.

  19. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  20. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  1. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  2. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was collected by venipuncture from 180 women attending the antenatal clinic in Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Sera samples were screened in a qualitative study using CMV IgG ELISA kit (Dialab, Austria). Results: Out of 180 pregnant women, 164 (91.1%) were seropositive.

  3. Pregnant women in vehicles: Driving habits, position and risk of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriault, F; Brandt, C; Chopin, A; Gadegbeku, B; Ndiaye, A; Balzing, M-P; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to broadly examine vehicle use by pregnant women in order to improve realism of accident simulations involving these particular occupants. Three research pathways were developed: the first consisted in a questionnaire survey examining the driving habits of 135 pregnant women, the second obtained measurements of 15 pregnant women driving position in their own vehicle from the 6th to the 9th month of pregnancy by measuring distances between body parts and vehicle parts, and the third examined car accidents involving pregnant occupants. Results obtained indicate that between 90% and 100% of pregnant women wore their seat belts whatever their stage of pregnancy, although nearly one third of subjects considered the seat belt was dangerous for their unborn child. The measurements obtained also showed that the position of the pregnant woman in her vehicle, in relation to the various elements of the passenger compartment, changed significantly during pregnancy. In the studied accidents, no correlation was found between the conditions of the accident and the resulting fetal injury. Results reveal that pregnant women do not modify significantly the seat setting as a function of pregnancy stage. Only the distance between maternal abdomen and steering wheel change significantly, from 16 cm to 12 cm at 6 and 9 month respectively. Pregnant women are mainly drivers before 8 months of pregnancy, passengers after that. Car use frequency falls down rapidly from 6 to 9 months of pregnancy. Real crashes investigations indicate a low rate of casualties, i.e. 342 car accidents involving pregnant women for a period of 9 years in an approximately 1.7 million inhabitants area. No specific injury was found as a function of stage of pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of spiritual/religious coping with depressive symptoms in high- and low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciano M; Chiaradia, Raíssa; Low, Gail; Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Pargament, Kenneth I; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of spiritual/religious coping (SRC) on depressive symptoms in high- and low-risk pregnant women. Spiritual/religious coping is associated with physical and mental health outcomes. However, only few studies investigated the role of these strategies during pregnancy and whether low- and high-risk pregnant women have different coping mechanisms. This study is a cross-sectional comparative study. This study included a total of 160 pregnant women, 80 with low-risk pregnancy and 80 with high-risk pregnancy. The Beck Depression Inventory, the brief SRC scale and a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic and obstetric aspects were used. General linear model regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with positive and negative SRC strategies in both groups of pregnant women. Positive SRC use was high, whereas negative SRC use was low in both groups. Although we found no difference in SRC strategies between the two groups, negative SRC was associated with depression in women with high-risk pregnancy, but not in those with low-risk pregnancy. Furthermore, positive SRC was not associated with depressive symptoms in both groups. Results showed that only the negative SRC strategies of Brazilian women with high-risk pregnancies were associated with worsened mental health outcomes. Healthcare professionals, obstetricians and nurse midwives should focus on the use of negative SRC strategies in their pregnant patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hepatitis C virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Mbituyumuremyi, Aimable; Remera, Eric; Malamba, Samuel S; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-02-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a pandemic causing disease; more than 185 million people are infected worldwide. An HCV antibody (Ab) prevalence of 6.0% was estimated in Central African countries. The study aimed at providing HCV prevalence estimates among pregnant women in Rwanda. HCV surveillance through antibody screening test among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics was performed in 30 HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Rwanda. Among 12,903 pregnant women tested at antenatal clinics, 335 (2.6% [95% Confidence Interval 2.32-2.87]) tested positive for HCV Ab. The prevalence of HCV Ab in women aged 25-49 years was 2.8% compared to 2.4% in women aged 15-24 years (aOR = 1.3; [1.05-1.59]); This proportion was 2.7% [2.37-2.94] in pregnant women in engaged in non-salaried employment compared to 1.2% [0.24-2.14] in those engaged in salaried employment (aOR = 3.2; [1.60-6.58]). The proportion of HCV Ab-positive co-infected with HIV was estimated at 3.9% (13 cases). Women in urban residence were more likely to be associated with HCV-infection (OR = 1.3; 95%CI [1.0-1.6]) compared to those living in rural setting. HCV is a public health problem in pregnant women in Rwanda. Few pregnant women were co-infected with HCV and HIV. Living in urban setting was more likely to associate pregnant women with HCV infection.

  6. V/P SPECT as a diagnostic tool for pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajc, Marika; Olsson, Berit; Joegi, Jonas [Skaane University Hospital and Lund University, Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Lund (Sweden); Gottsaeter, Anders [Skaane University Hospital, Vascular Diseases, Malmoe (Sweden); Hindorf, Cecilia [Skaane University Hospital, Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and other lung diseases among pregnant women with suspected PE and to calculate the radiation exposure to patient and fetus in this population. As a secondary aim, we evaluated the negative predictive value of a normal ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/P SPECT) examination in pregnancy. We studied all 127 pregnant women who had suspected PE and had undergone V/P SPECT at our institution in the course of a 5-year period. Radiation exposure to patient and fetus and the negative predictive value of a normal V/P SPECT examination were also measured. V/P SPECT identified PE in 11 women (9 %). Moreover, in 15 women (12 %) the examination revealed pneumonia (in 2 cases in addition to PE) and in 1 woman signs of airway obstruction were revealed. Among the 116/127 women (91 %) where PE was ruled out by V/P SPECT, none was diagnosed subsequently with PE or deep venous thrombosis (DVT) during the same pregnancy or puerperal period. For P SPECT, the calculated fetal absorbed dose was < 0.6 mGy,and the calculated breast absorbed dose 0.6 mGy. For V SPECT, the calculated fetal absorbed dose was < 0.014 mGy and the breast absorbed dose 0.25 mGy. The prevalence of PE was low (9 %) among pregnant women with suspected disease. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 12 % of patients. The negative predictive value of V/P SPECT was high, and the radiation exposure from V/P SPECT was low both for fetus and patient. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of the quality of life of pregnant women from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, M; Vayssiere, C; Claris, O; Irague, F; Mallah, S; Molinier, L; Matillon, Y

    2017-07-01

    Over the past two decades, quality of life has become an essential preoccupation in the care of patients. Many measuring instruments are available to assess physical, psychological and social quality of life. These tools allow healthcare professionals to determine the best quality of their patients. However, the quality of life for the pregnant woman seems to be little studied. This article presents the results of a bibliographic review of publications between 2005 and 2015 - referenced in PUBMED and COCHRANE - on the quality of life of pregnant women giving birth after the 22nd week of amenorrhea. The articles were selected by a reading committee. 195 publications responding to keywords were identified. 75 articles on the problem were selected. The main countries that have published on this subject are Iran (n=11) and Brazil (n=9). France ranks 17th with only one publication. 74% of articles deal with quality of life for pathological pregnancies (gestational or pre-existing pathologies). 23 pathologies were identified, mainly depression (20% of items). This review reveals a growing global interest in quality of life in pregnant women. However, few studies evaluate the impact of care in terms of quality of life in pregnant women, contrary to the recommendations of different health authorities. Finally, the analysis of the various articles shows that, in general, few measurements are made to evaluate the quality of life, not requiring a standardized curve of quality of life during pregnancy. There is thus a significant lack of data to establish a standardized curve for the quality of life of pregnant women, which allows a simple comparison of quality of life measures according to the different clinical management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment.

  9. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  10. Vitamin D status in Moroccan pregnant women and newborns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: vitamin D insufficiency to pregnant women has been associated with a number of adverse consequences, and has been recognized as a public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of Morrocan pregnant women and their newborns. Our study is being the first of its kind in ...

  11. Sonography of acute appendicitis in pregnant women: diagnostic accuracy by the stage of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, Sang Wook; Rho, Myung Ho

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women according to the trimester. A retrospective review was performed on 103 pregnant women who underwent sonography with clinically suspected acute appendicitis. The sonographic technique used involved either the graded compression or a non-compression method. All the sonograms were obtained after changing the patient's position and identifying the diseased appendix. The criterion for a sonographic diagnosis of acute appendicitis was the visualization of a non-compressible appendix with a maximal diameter ≥ 6 mm. The sonographic findings were correlated with the surgical findings and clinical follow-up. Acute appendicitis was confirmed by both the surgical and pathological findings in 48 out of 103 pregnant women. Ultrasound established the diagnosis in 34 of the 48 patients with proven appendicitis. There were false-positives in 2 patients and false-negatives in 14 patients. Among the 55 patients who had a normal appendix, 30 patients improved at the clinical follow-up and 25 patients had other intra-abdominal disorders. The diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasound was 94% in the first trimester, 81% in the second trimester, and 76% in the third trimester. The overall accuracy was found to be 84%, with a 71% sensitivity and a 96% specificity. No significant difference was found in the diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasound according to the trimester in which the acute appendicitis occurred. Therefore, regardless of the stage of gestation, sonography is a valuable procedure for diagnosing acute appendicitis

  12. Pilates workouts can reduce pain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviani, Ika

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises for a decreasing pain in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women were divided into two groups, a control group (followed a standard pregnancy exercise regimen) and a Pilates group (completed a Pilates exercise regimen). A pain assessment was carried out after exercise, using a visual analog scale. The Pilates group workout program lasted 70-80 min per day, once a week, for 8 weeks. The reduction in the level of pain was found to be significantly greater in the group of pregnant women who completed the Pilates workout (p Pilates is an effective, healthy, and feasible method of reducing pain in pregnancy, and is therefore a beneficial alternative workout for the suppression of pain in the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Submicroscopic malaria infections in pregnant women from six departments in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Raccurt, Christian P; Lemoine, Jean F; Existe, Alexandre; Boncy, Jacques; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A

    2017-08-01

    To describe the epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy in Haiti. Cross-sectional study among pregnant women in six departments of Haiti. After obtaining informed consent, whole blood samples and demographic surveys were collected to investigate malaria prevalence, anaemia and socio-behavioural risk factors for infection, respectively. A total of 311 pregnant women were screened for Plasmodium falciparum infection using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy and a novel, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR). Overall, 1.2% (4/311) of pregnant women were tested positive for malaria infection by both microscopy and RDT. However, using the qRT-PCR, 16.4% (51/311) of pregnant women were positive. The prevalence of malaria infection varied with geographical locations ranging between 0% and 46.4%. Additionally, 53% of pregnant women had some form of anaemia; however, no significant association was found between anaemia and submicroscopic malaria infection. The socio-behavioural risk factors identified to be protective of malaria infection were marital status (P < 0.05) and travel within one month prior to screening (P < 0.05). This study is the first to document the high prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infections among pregnant women in Haiti and identify social and behavioural risk factors for disease transmission. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Subtle differences in selective pressures applied on the envelope gene of HIV-1 in pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransy, Doris G; Lord, Etienne; Caty, Martine; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc; Diallo, Abdoulaye Baniré; Soudeyns, Hugo

    2018-04-17

    Pregnancy is associated with modulations of maternal immunity that contribute to foeto-maternal tolerance. To understand whether and how these alterations impact antiviral immunity, a detailed cross-sectional analysis of selective pressures exerted on HIV-1 envelope amino-acid sequences was performed in a group of pregnant (n = 32) and non-pregnant (n = 44) HIV-infected women in absence of treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Independent of HIV-1 subtype, p-distance, dN and dS were all strongly correlated with one another but were not significantly different in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant patients. Differential levels of selective pressure applied on different Env subdomains displayed similar yet non-identical patterns between the two groups, with pressure applied on C1 being significantly lower in constant regions C1 and C2 than in V1, V2, V3 and C3. To draw a general picture of the selection applied on the envelope and compensate for inter-individual variations, we performed a binomial test on selection frequency data pooled from pregnant and non-pregnant women. This analysis uncovered 42 positions, present in both groups, exhibiting statistically-significant frequency of selection that invariably mapped to the surface of the Env protein, with the great majority located within epitopes recognized by Env-specific antibodies or sites associated with the development of cross-reactive neutralizing activity. The median frequency of occurrence of positive selection per site was significantly lower in pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Furthermore, examination of the distribution of positively selected sites using a hypergeometric test revealed that only 2 positions (D137 and S142) significantly differed between the 2 groups. Taken together, these result indicate that pregnancy is associated with subtle yet distinctive changes in selective pressures exerted on the HIV-1 Env protein that are compatible with transient modulations of maternal

  15. A survey-based study of Zika virus communication preferences among pregnant women in Georgia, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Mallory K; Bonk, Catherine M; Chamberlain, Allison T

    2017-09-26

    Because of the particularly severe perinatal outcomes associated with antenatal Zika virus infection, it is important for prenatal care providers to communicate Zika virus risks and strategies for prevention to their patients. Although face-to-face communication is ideal, clinic visits may not allow for in-depth discussion of all concerns. While previous studies have shown prenatal providers to be pregnant women's most trusted sources of health information, there is little knowledge on what secondary communication modalities pregnant women prefer for receiving information from their providers about an evolving public health emergency. A cross-sectional, descriptive anonymous 27-item survey was distributed to pregnant women at four clinics around Atlanta, Georgia from May 5th to June 20th, 2016. The survey assessed women's interest in and communication preferences about prenatal topics, including Zika virus. Descriptive statistics were calculated and chi-square tests were used to evaluate associations between the primary outcomes and patient characteristics. Four-hundred and eight women completed the survey. The most popular resource for obtaining Zika virus information was the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website (73.0%). While their prenatal provider's own website for Zika information ranked 5th among sources currently accessed for Zika information, it ranked third behind educational brochures and emails for ways in which women wanted to receive information. The characteristics of Zika virus information deemed most important were: evidence-based (87.5%), endorsed by the CDC (74.1%), and endorsed by their own provider (67.9%). In any public health emergency affecting pregnant women, women are going to seek advice from their obstetric providers. Because providers may lack sufficient time to discuss concerns with every patient, they may consider providing patient education in other ways. For the women included in this study, educational brochures

  16. Levothyroxine liquid solution versus tablet form for replacement treatment in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Carlo; Negro, Roberto; Pirola, Ilenia; Gandossi, Elena; Agosti, Barbara; Castellano, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the need and the magnitude of levothyroxine (LT4) increase in hypothyroid pregnant women on liquid compared to tablet formulations. Patients were recruited by searching our "thyroid patients" database. The selection criteria were as follows: a) pregnant women on treatment for hypothyroidism (both liquid and tablet LT4) who gave birth at our hospital between February 2012 and January 2014; b) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels obtained at least 3 months before missed menstrual cycle, with a TSH value less than 2.5 mIU/L and c) TSH and FT4 obtained within 12 weeks of pregnancy, and each month subsequently. During pregnancy, 8/31 (25.5%) of the women had to increase the dosage of LT4. Of these, 7/17 (41.2%) were on LT4 replacement therapy with tablets, and 1/14 (7.1%) with liquid formulation (p = 0.038). Daily LT4 was significantly increased in the liquid group only (52.9 ± 19.5 versus 67.5 ± 19.2 mcg/day (p = 0.013). A logistic regression analysis showed that the treatment with LT4 tablets was the only predictor of LT4 increase (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.04-0.83; p = 0.031). Pregnant women on optimal replacement therapy before pregnancy require an increase of LT4 dosage more often when on a tablet than liquid formulation.

  17. Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise J. Jamieson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug use by the woman was the factor most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among 48 infants tested for HCV who were born to HIV/HCV coinfected women, two infants were HCV infected for an HCV transmission rate of 4.2% (95% 0.51–14.25%. Conclusions. HCV seroprevalence and perinatal transmission rates were low among this Thai cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.

  18. Evaluation of oral health among pregnant women in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluates the oral health knowledge and practise among pregnant women in a Nigerian population. Consecutive pregnant women attending three tertiary level of care were recruited. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to assessing socio-demographic variables, dental visiting habits, ...

  19. Seroprevalence of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies Among Lebanese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahouli, Hasan; El Arnaout, Nour; Chalhoub, Elias; Anastadiadis, Elie; El Hajj, Hiba

    2017-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is a zoonotic obligate intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for the infection of almost one-third of the world's population. T. gondii is particularly threatening for primo-infected pregnant women and may lead, following vertical transplacental transmission, to spontaneous abortion, miscarriage, or severe manifestations in the newborn. The aim of this study was to provide an updated estimate of the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies among a group of Lebanese pregnant women and its seroconversion rate. This is a retrospective cohort study, in which medical records of 11,000 pregnant women were screened. These women visited a private Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic located in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon, during the period of January 1994 till September 2015. Serological results of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) results of 2456 Lebanese pregnant women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Seropositivity and seroconversion rates for women with repeated tests were reported according to age and area of residence. The overall anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM seropositivity among 2456 Lebanese pregnant women was 82.6% and 1.8% respectively. The highest IgG seropositivity is among the age group of 35-44 years (87.81%) and at the governorate of "Mount Lebanon" (82.95%). Sixty-four seroconversions were detected and two abortions due to T. gondii infection during pregnancy were recorded. The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG among the screened pregnant women in Lebanon is the highest in the Arab region. These results highlight the importance of running a national sample survey to estimate the real potential burden of this infection and its impact on maternal and fetal health.

  20. Venous thromboembolism in pregnant and puerperal women in Denmark 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virkus, R.A.; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    and in the postnatal period as compared to non-pregnant women. This was a historical controlled national cohort study. The National Registry of Patients identified relevant diagnoses. These data were linked to The National Registry of Medical Products Statistics for information about current use of oral contraceptives...

  1. Brucellosis in pregnant women from Pakistan: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Scherag, André; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; El-Adawy, Hosny; Azam, Asima; Qadeer, Saima; Ali, Qurban

    2016-09-02

    Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art.

  2. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  3. Monitoring of iodine intake and thyroid status of pregnant women in Saratov region from 1999 till 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumova Yu.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of monitoring of iodine intake and thyroid status in pregnant women in Saratov region according to the two cross-sectional studies in 1999 and 2008. The study involved 229 pregnant women. It has been established that there is a decrease in frequency of endemic goiter in pregnant women from 52,8 to 23,6% and increase in median urinary ioduria from 33,0 to 115,5 ug/l. However, iodine intake in pregnancy remains insufficient, as currently the median urinary ioduria is 150-249 ug/l (WHO, 2007. The frequency of maternal hypothyroxinemia, the most significant iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women, has not changed in a 10-year period (1999 - 46,3%; in 2008 - 55,7%; p>0,1. The research has not obtained significant differences in the frequency of interrelated with pregnancy and delivery complications within two groups of patients

  4. [THE ORGANIZATION OF PREVENTION OF RENAL PATHOLOGY IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN BAKU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadimova, Sh G

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing of renal pathology, especially of its chronic forms characterized by long clinical duration and frequent exacerbations is observed in pregnant women. The study was carried out to analyze prevalence and structure of renal pathology in pregnant women with further development of social economic basics of its prevention. The epidemiological analysis established that during 2009-2011 in Baku prevalence of renal pathology in pregnant women amounted to 11%. The analysis of structure and dynamics of renal pathology in pregnant women during the same period revealed that leading positions are taken by chronic pyelonephritis (27.2%), hydronephrosis (14.8%) and eclampsia (12%). The percentage of cystitis amounted to 4.8%, urolithiasis - 3.2%, renal colic - 2.4% and renal anomalies - 0.8%. The study established that under application of scientifically valid preventive measures an effective prevention of disease is achieved. In particular risk of morbidity is decreased up to 4.18 times. After 10-12 months after implementation of explanatory work degree of implementation of preventive measures among female patients with close adherence to these measures attained maximal level (88.6±2.8%) and among female patients attaching no importance to them in many ways implementation remained low (41±5.6%). At the same time, organization and implementation of developed complex of preventive measures are available. They have no requirement in an additional manpower and material technical resources and are applied using sanitary agitation among population. The task-oriented and permanent explanatory work increases responsibility of population for one's own health, activates population to implement complex of preventive measure. On the whole, workable premises both to stabilize level of morbidity of renal pathology and its consistent decreasing are established.

  5. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of a hospital affiliate to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between 2011 and 2012. Data were collected through interview using a questionnaire. Although 70% of the pregnancies were planned, but 70.5% of pregnant women had not taken folic acid before conception or in necessary time. There was found a significant relationship between level of education, history of abnormalities in children and the number of abortions and taking folic acid before pregnancy (P=0.005, P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively.

  6. [The influencing factors of anemia for pregnant women between 2010-2012 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Pang, X H; Duan, Y F; Bi, Y; Wang, J; Yin, S A; Yang, L C; Yang, Z Y

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of anemia and related risk factors for pregnant women in China. Method: Based on Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2012, a total of 3 501 pregnant women were investigated from 150 counties of 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China, using a multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method. General information of pregnant women, health status, and food intake during the gestation, was collected through a questionnaire investigation. 6 ml fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of hemoglobin concentration. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to investigate the prevalence of anemia and the related influencing factors. Results: The 605 of 3 501 pregnant women had anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 17.2%; and mild anemia accounted for about 61.0% (369/605). Compared with the pregnant women living in the large cities, the OR (95% CI ) of those living in the poor rural areas was 1.46 (1.08-1.98). Compared with the pregnant women living in the south area of China, the OR (95% CI ) of those living in the north area of China was 1.39 (1.15-1.68); Compared with the pregnant women in the first trimester, the OR (95% CI ) of those in the second trimester and the third trimester were 1.79 (1.33-2.43) and 2.11 (1.56-2.85), respectively. The OR (95% CI ) of pregnant women who had used folic acid supplementation within the 6 months prior to gestation was 0.76 (0.63-0.93) compared with those who had not used. Conclusion: From 2010 to 2012, the epidemic characteristics of anemia was mild for the pregnant women in China, and pregnant women residential areas, periods of pregnancy and whether to take folic acid were related to anemia.

  7. HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIESOF PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Krivonogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is aimed to investigate the influence of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive capabilities of pregnant women in different trimesters of gestation.The estimation of adaptive capabilities of the pregnant women organism was carried out on the basis of functional tests on breath-holding duration – Stange’s test (for inhalation and Ghencea’s test (for exhalation in the initial period, 11–19, 21–29 and 31–39 weeks periods of pregnancy.To identify the adaptation strategies for pregnant women the method proposed by Ya.S. Pekker and A. Rotov was used, namely, the consideration of information measure as a measure of biological object preference behavior. Analysis of the results with information criterion of curve types using cluster analysis allowed to identify 4 standard types of adaptation strategies for pregnant women: adaptive, compensatory, compensatory-adaptive and maladaptive compensatory type of response. To estimate the adaptive capabilities of the respiratory system the ratio between the level of respiratory system functioning, its functional reserve and the degree of stress regulation mechanisms was considered.The intensity of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO in the blood serum of pregnant women was assessed by determining malondialdehyde (MDA in the reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid. Determination of vitamin D content in blood serum was estimated by fluorimetric method using spectrophotometer «Hitachi-85» (Japan at an excitation wavelength of 295 nm and 320 nm fluorescence. Determination of the level of stress hormones (cortisol, insulin in the blood serum of pregnant women was performed by radio ligand assay.The following somatic diseases were registered among pregnant women applying to hospital: chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, vasomotor rhinitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, hay fever, chronic pyelonephritis, atopic dermatitis. The next prenatal risks were revealed: morning sickness in I

  8. Optimisation of the MR protocol in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ilah; Chung, Yong Eun; An, Chansik; Kim, Honsoul; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Sun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Research Affairs, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    To investigate the optimal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol in pregnant women suspected of having acute appendicitis. One hundred and forty-six pregnant women with suspected appendicitis were included. MR images were reviewed by two radiologists in three separate sessions. In session 1, only axial single-shot turbo spin echo (SSH-TSE) T2-weighted images (WI) were included with other routine sequences. In sessions 2 and 3, coronal and sagittal T2WI were sequentially added. The visibility of the appendix and diagnostic confidence of appendicitis were evaluated in each session using a 5-point grading scale. If diseases other than appendicitis were suspected, specific diagnosis with a 5-point confidence scale was recorded. Diagnostic performance for appendicitis and other diseases were evaluated. Twenty-five patients (17.1%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. Among the patients with normal appendix, 28 were diagnosed with other disease. Diagnostic performance including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the curve values for diagnosing appendicitis and other diseases showed no significant difference among sets for both reviewers (p>0.05). Diagnostic performance of MR in pregnant patients with suspected appendicitis can be preserved with omission of sagittal or both coronal and sagittal SSH-T2WI. (orig.)

  9. Optimisation of the MR protocol in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ilah; Chung, Yong Eun; An, Chansik; Kim, Honsoul; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Lee, Hye Sun

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the optimal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol in pregnant women suspected of having acute appendicitis. One hundred and forty-six pregnant women with suspected appendicitis were included. MR images were reviewed by two radiologists in three separate sessions. In session 1, only axial single-shot turbo spin echo (SSH-TSE) T2-weighted images (WI) were included with other routine sequences. In sessions 2 and 3, coronal and sagittal T2WI were sequentially added. The visibility of the appendix and diagnostic confidence of appendicitis were evaluated in each session using a 5-point grading scale. If diseases other than appendicitis were suspected, specific diagnosis with a 5-point confidence scale was recorded. Diagnostic performance for appendicitis and other diseases were evaluated. Twenty-five patients (17.1%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. Among the patients with normal appendix, 28 were diagnosed with other disease. Diagnostic performance including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the curve values for diagnosing appendicitis and other diseases showed no significant difference among sets for both reviewers (p>0.05). Diagnostic performance of MR in pregnant patients with suspected appendicitis can be preserved with omission of sagittal or both coronal and sagittal SSH-T2WI. (orig.)

  10. Haematological effects of multimicronutrient supplementation in non-pregnant Gambian women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.; Bailey, R.; Prentice, A. M.; Brabin, B. J.; Owens, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The use of multimicronutrient (MMN) supplementation to reduce the burden of anaemia in non-pregnant women of reproductive age has been little studied, particularly in Africa. The objective of the study was to evaluate haematological outcomes in non-pregnant, rural Gambian women

  11. The Prevalence of Pleural Effusion in Pregnant Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    DİKENSOY, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusions are very common in general population. There are more than 50 reasons for the etiology. There is limited data on the prevalence of pleural effusions in a population of pregnant women. We prospectively screened 45 pregnant women between May and October 2006. All the pregnant women underwent thoracic ultrasonography during their routine check. Five out of 45 subjects (11%) had minimal and bilateral pleural effusion. None of the subjects was symptomatic. All of the effusions re...

  12. Physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2012-03-01

    To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and depression symptoms among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women to provide a more accurate understanding of the relationship between physical activity and depression symptoms. We employed a cross-sectional study design. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were used for this study. One-hundred and forty-one pregnant women wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess depression status. More than 19% of the participants experienced some depression symptoms, and compared to their counterparts not having depression symptoms, they were less physically active. An inverse association was found between physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women. When feasible, nurses are encouraged to help facilitate physical activity among pregnant women, assuming an uncomplicated pregnancy. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Abnormal vaginal flora in symptomatic non-pregnant and pregnant women in a Greek hospital: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansarli, G S; Skalidis, T; Legakis, N J; Falagas, M E

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, and trichomoniasis were the three established types of vaginal conditions until aerobic vaginitis (AV) was defined in the early 2000s. We sought to study the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) with inflammation in our hospital and to correlate it with AV. We prospectively collected vaginal smear specimens originated from symptomatic women who were examined at Iaso Obstetrics, Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Athens from April 2014 until September 2015. Amsel's criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The presence of leukocytes and lactobacillary grade were evaluated to classify a condition as AVF with inflammation; subsequently, bacterial cultures were performed. A total of 761 women were included. Five hundred and seventy-nine women were diagnosed with candidiasis, BV, trichomoniasis, or other types of vaginitis in which no pathogenic bacterial growth occurred in cultures. One hundred and eighty-two women (23.9 %) were diagnosed with AVF with inflammation (116 non-pregnant, 66 pregnant). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen among these women (non-pregnant: 45.7 %, pregnant: 34.8 %). Other common pathogens were Group-B-Streptococcus (non-pregnant: 20.7 %, pregnant: 22.7 % respectively), Enterococcus faecalis (14.7 %, 18.2 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.9 %, 12.1 %). The prevalence of AVF with inflammation may be high. Since inflammation criteria were applied, most cases of BV were eliminated and the majority of cases of AVF are AV. Therefore, clinicians should include AV in the differential diagnosis of vaginitis, while microbiologists should take into account the growth of aerobic bacteria in vaginal cultures originating from women with microscopic findings of AV.

  14. Determinants of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women in Valencia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vila-Candel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries the coverage of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women is low. We investigated the acceptance, reasons for rejection and professional involvement related to vaccine information in pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Methods Observational retrospective study in 200 pregnant women, 100 vaccinated and 100 unvaccinated, were interviewed during the 2014/2015 vaccination campaign. Electronic medical records, immunization registry and telephone interviews were used to determine reasons for vaccination and immunization rejection. Results 40.5% of pregnant women in the health department were vaccinated. The midwife was identified as source of information for 89% of women. The vaccine was rejected due to low perceptions of risk of influenza infection (23%, lack of information (19%, considering the vaccine as superfluous (16%, close proximity of delivery date (13% and fear of side effects (12%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Spain declined to be vaccinated due to under-estimation of the risk of contracting or being harmed by influenza, and lack of information. Interventions aiming to optimize vaccination coverage should include information addressing the safety and effectiveness of the current vaccine together with improved professional training and motivation.

  15. The Effectiveness of Counseling in Reducing Anxiety Among Nulliparous Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Parsa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effectiveness of counseling in reducing anxiety of nulliparous pregnant women.Materials and methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 nulliparous pregnant women were selected out of all pregnant women referring to Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Then, the subjects were divided into two groups in experimental and control (55 women in each. The data were collected through a questionnaire covering demographic and obstetric characteristics and Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The experimental group participated in four weekly sessions of group counseling about mother-infant attachment behaviors. Whereas, the control group only receive routine cares. Two groups were compared in terms of anxiety before and after the study.Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference in anxiety level was observed between the two groups; however, state and trait anxiety levels of pregnant women in the experimental group significantly decreased after the intervention (p < 0.001. There was also significant difference in the mean score of state and trait anxiety levels between the two groups after the intervention (p < 0.001.Conclusion: The results showed the effectiveness of prenatal counseling in reducing state and trait anxiety levels of pregnant women

  16. Antibiotics Dispensed to Privately Insured Pregnant Women with Urinary Tract Infections - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Elizabeth C; Summers, April D; Tran, Emmy L; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Arnold, Kathryn E; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2018-01-12

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate (4). To assess the effects of these recommendations, CDC analyzed the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Database* to examine antibiotic prescriptions filled by pregnant women with UTIs. Among 482,917 pregnancies in 2014, 7.2% of women had an outpatient UTI diagnosis during the 90 days before the date of last menstrual period (LMP) or during pregnancy. Among pregnant women with UTIs, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics during the first trimester were nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Given the potential risks associated with use of some of these antibiotics in early pregnancy and the potential for unrecognized pregnancy, women's health care providers should be familiar with the ACOG recommendations and consider the possibility of early pregnancy when treating women of reproductive age.

  17. Heart failure in pregnant women with cardiac disease: Data from the ROPAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P.E. Ruys (Titia); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); R. Hall (Ruth); M.T. Subirana-Domèlnech (Maria); J. Grando-Ting (Jennifer); M. Estensen (Mette); R. Crepaz (Roberto); V. Fesslova (Vlasta); M. Gurvitz (Michelle); J. de Backer (Julie); M.R. Johnson (Mark); P.G. Pieper (Petronella)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective Heart failure (HF) is one of the most important complications in pregnant women with heart disease, causing maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Methods This is an international observational registry of patients with structural heart disease during pregnancy. Sixty

  18. A qualitative study on acceptable levels of risk for pregnant women in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Indira S E; van der Graaf, Rieke; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2017-05-15

    There is ambiguity with regard to what counts as an acceptable level of risk in clinical research in pregnant women and there is no input from stakeholders relative to such research risks. The aim of our paper was to explore what stakeholders who are actively involved in the conduct of clinical research in pregnant women deem an acceptable level of risk for pregnant women in clinical research. Accordingly, we used the APOSTEL VI study, a low-risk obstetrical randomised controlled trial, as a case-study. We conducted a prospective qualitative study using 35 in-depth semi-structured interviews and one focus group. We interviewed healthcare professionals, Research Ethics Committee members (RECs) and regulators who are actively involved in the conduct of clinical research in pregnant women, in addition to pregnant women recruited for the APOSTEL VI case-study in the Netherlands. Three themes characterise the way stakeholders view risks in clinical research in pregnant women in general. Additionally, one theme characterises the way healthcare professionals and pregnant women view risks with respect to the case-study specifically. First, ideas on what constitutes an acceptable level of risk in general ranged from a preference for zero risk for the foetus up to minimal risk. Second, the desirability of clinical research in pregnant women in general was questioned altogether. Third, stakeholders proposed to establish an upper limit of risk in potentially beneficial clinical research in pregnant women in order to protect the foetus and the pregnant woman from harm. Fourth and finally, the case-study illustrates that healthcare professionals' individual perception of risk may influence recruitment. Healthcare professionals, RECs, regulators and pregnant women are all risk adverse in practice, possibly explaining the continuing underrepresentation of pregnant women in clinical research. Determining the acceptable levels of risk on a universal level alone is insufficient

  19. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  20. Sexual dysfnction in Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Jamali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ≥26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy

  1. Health information needs of pregnant women: information sources, motives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Sudabeh; Ahmadian, Leila; Khajouei, Reza; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2018-03-01

    Pregnant women should be provided with relevant and useful information to manage this specific period of their lives. Assessing information needs of this group is a prerequisite for providing this information. The aim of this study was to assess the information needs of pregnant women during their pregnancy and childbirth. This descriptive study was conducted on the pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics and obstetricians/gynaecologists' offices in Kerman, Iran, in 2015. Data were collected using a self-administered, valid and reliable questionnaire. A total of 400 women participated in the study. Most pregnant women needed information about care of the foetus (n = 344, 86%), physical and psychological complications after delivery (n = 333, 83%), development and growth of the foetus (n = 330, 82.5%), pregnancy nutrition (n = 327, 82%) and special tests during pregnancy (n = 326, 81.5%). They mostly (n = 195, 49%) looked for information when they were suffering from a disease or pregnancy complications. As pregnant women need extensive information to be able to take care of themselves and their babies, their information needs should be identified and taken into consideration when planning educational programmes for this group of women. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  2. Working memory in pregnant women: Relation to estrogen and antepartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Phillips, Shauna-Dae; Duff-Canning, Sarah J; Evans, Kelly L; Merrill, Mia; Pinsonneault, Julia K; Sadée, Wolfgang; Soares, Claudio N; Steiner, Meir

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Subjective changes in concentration and memory are commonly reported by women during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy, but the nature of the problem is poorly understood. We hypothesized that these self-reports might reflect difficulties in working memory (WM). It was further hypothesized that antepartum depression (depression arising during pregnancy) may play an etiological role, either on its own or due to secondary changes in endocrine function or sleep. Using WM tasks that emphasized executive control processes mediated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) we compared pregnant women tested at 34-36 weeks of gestation (n = 28) with age- and education-matched non-pregnant controls (n = 26). All pregnant women were screened for depression. Evidence of a WM disturbance was found, and was evident only among pregnant women showing depressive symptoms. In contrast, pregnant women who were not depressed showed WM performance that equalled, or even significantly exceeded, non-pregnant controls. No significant differences were observed on control tests of other cognitive functions. Multiple regression revealed that serum estradiol concentrations, along with severity of depressive affect but not sleep disruption, significantly predicted variation in the WM scores. In agreement with studies of estradiol and WM in other contexts, higher estradiol was associated with better WM, while higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted poorer WM. We conclude that memory disturbance during gestation might not be as widespread as commonly believed, but can be seen among women experiencing antepartum depression. The high level of WM performance found in healthy, non-depressed, pregnant women is discussed from an adaptationist perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnant women of South Asian ethnicity in Canada have substantially lower vitamin B12 status compared with pregnant women of European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Theresa H; Sinclair, Graham; Mattman, Andre; Jung, Benjamin; Barr, Susan I; Vallance, Hilary D; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-09-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been inversely associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and positively with fetal growth and infant development. South Asians, Canada's largest ethnic minority, are prone to B12 deficiency. Yet, data are lacking on B12 status in South Asian pregnant women in North America. We sought to determine B12 status, using multiple biomarkers, in 1st and 2nd trimester pregnant women of South Asian and, for comparison, European ethnicity living in Vancouver, Canada. In this retrospective cohort study, total B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine concentrations were quantified in two routinely collected (mean gestational week: 11·5 (range 8·3-13·9) and 16·5 (range 14·9-20·9)), banked serum samples of 748 healthy pregnant South Asian (n 371) and European (n 377) women. South Asian pregnant women had significantly lower B12 status than European pregnant women at both time points, as indicated by lower serum total B12 and holoTC concentrations, and higher MMA concentrations (all P≤0·001). The largest difference, which was substantial (Cohen's d≥0·5), was observed in mean serum total B12 concentrations (1st trimester: 189 (95 % CI 180, 199) v. 246 (95 % CI 236, 257) pmol/l; 2nd trimester: 176 (95 % CI 168, 185) v. 226 (95 % CI 216, 236) pmol/l). Further, South Asian ethnicity was a significant negative predictor of B12 status during pregnancy. South Asian women living in Vancouver have substantially lower B12 status during early pregnancy. Future research identifying predictors and health consequences of this observed difference is needed to allow for targeted interventions.

  4. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women - approved 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Sensitivity to ionizing radiation is greater during intrauterine stages of development than at other stages in the life of the mammalian organism. For this reason, the NCRP recommends special care in patient selection in certain cases of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. For women of child-bearing capacity, the physician requesting a radiological or nuclear medicine examination involving the lower abdominal or pelvic region should ascertain whether the patient is, or could be, pregnant. Further, the NCRP recommends that physicians tell their premenopausal patients that, if they are likely to have nuclear medicine studies or x-ray examinations of the lower abdomen, it is generally advisable that they not run a risk of pregnancy until two months after the studies are carried out. Modification of an examination for dose reduction is warranted only if it reasonably can be done without significant jeopardy to the medical care of the patient and/or her unborn child

  5. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  6. Reporting of HIV-infected pregnant women: estimates from a Brazilian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Saraceni, Valéria; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the coverage of the reporting of cases of HIV-infected pregnant women, to estimate the increase in the coverage of the reporting with the routine search of data in other Brazilian health information systems, and to identify missed opportunities for identification of HIV-infected pregnant women in Brazilian maternity hospitals. This is a descriptive study on the linkage of Brazilian databases with primary data from the "Nascer no Brasil" study and secondary database collection from national health information systems. The "Nascer no Brasil" is a national-based study carried out in 2011-2012 with 23,894 pregnant women, which identified HIV-infected pregnant women using prenatal and medical records. We searched for cases of HIV-infected pregnant women identified in the "Nascer no Brasil" study in the Information System of Notifiable Diseases, the Control System for Laboratory Tests of the National CD4+/CD8+ Lymphocyte Count and HIV Viral Load Network, and the Logistics Control System for Medications. We used the OpenRecLink software for the linkage of databases. We estimated the notification coverage, with the respective confidence interval, of the evaluated Brazilian health information systems. We estimated the coverage of the reporting of HIV-infected pregnant women in the Information System of Notifiable Diseases as 57.1% (95%CI 42.9-70.2), and we located 89.3% of the HIV-infected pregnant women (95%CI 81.2-94.2) in some of the Brazilian health information systems researched. The search in other national health information systems would result in an increase of 57.1% of the reported cases. We identified no missed opportunities for the diagnosis of HIV+ in pregnant women in the maternity hospitals evaluated by the "Nascer no Brasil" study. The routine search for information in other Brazilian health information systems, a procedure carried out by the Ministry of Health for cases of AIDS in adults and children, should be adopted for cases of HIV in

  7. ANEMIA PREVALANCE AND RELATED FACTORS IN PREGNANT WOMEN ADMITTED TO STATE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Citil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to determine the prevalance of anemia and related nutrition and other risk factors in pregnant women who admitted to the hospital for prenatal care. Material and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study to receive prenatal care to the hospital admitted 311 women participated. The data on socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women, pregnancy information and dietary habits using a questionnaire that was collected using face to face interviews. To determine anemia in pregnant women in the hospital laboratory records made during routine pregnancy examination hemoglobin (Hb values were used. Hb values of 0.05. Similarly, pregnancy, abortion and curettage with the numbers there is no significant difference between the prevalance of anemia (p> 0.05. Using iron-multivitamin preparations in pregnant women (32.9% than those using (20.4% were seen significantly more anemia, and anemia among pregnants who drank dark tea was more prevalent than pregnants who drank light tea and the difference was significant (33,9% vs 17,2% (p<0,05. Conclusion: As a conclusion, admitted to the hospital for routine prenatal care, anemia seen in one of every four pregnant women, and not taking iron-multivitamin preparations regularly and consumption of dark tea seemed to be related with gestational anemia. Thus, anemia should be diagnosed earlier in pregnant and iron and vitamin supplements must be started; and women must be informed about the risk factors of anemia by the health stuff. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 76-83

  8. Hepatitis B virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Malamba, Samuel S; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Remera, Eric; Riedel, David J; Kanters, Steve; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-09-11

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects people worldwide but the local burden especially in pregnant women and their new born babies is unknown. In Rwanda HIV-infected individuals who are also infected with HBV are supposed to be initiated on ART immediately. HBV is easily transmitted from mother to child during delivery. We sought to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) in Rwanda and to determine factors associated with HBV and HIV co-infection. This study used a cross-sectional survey, targeting pregnant women in sentinel sites. Pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HIV infection. A series of tests were done to ensure high sensitivity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of HBV-HIV co-infection among those collected during ANC sentinel surveillance, these included: age, marital status, education level, occupation, residence, pregnancy and syphilis infection. The prevalence of HBsAg among 13,121 pregnant women was 3.7% (95% CI: 3.4-4.0%) and was similar among different socio-demographic characteristics that were assessed. The proportion of HIV-infection among HBsAg-positive pregnant women was 4.1% [95% CI: 2.5-6.3%]. The prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection was higher among women aged 15-24 years compared to those women aged 25-49 years [aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.8-27.0)]. Women residing in urban areas seemed having HBV-HIV co-infection compared with women residing in rural areas [aOR = 4.3 (95% CI: 1.2-16.4)]. Women with more than two pregnancies were potentially having the co-infection compared to those with two or less (aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.7-27.8). Women with RPR-positive test were seemed associated with HBV-HIV co-infection (aOR = 24.9 (95% CI: 5.0-122.9). Chronic HBV infection is a public health problem among pregnant women in Rwanda. Understanding that HBV-HIV co-infection may be more prominent in younger women from urban

  9. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Drewery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish, was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n=221 chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women, followed by beef (71%, pork (65%, and fish (22%, respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations.

  10. Serum urea and uric acid concentration in pregnant women in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnant blackAfrican women. Uric acid levels for the pregnant women were significantly raised, and the relationship between uric acid elevation and gestational proteinuric hypertensionwas discussed. In conclusion, we recommend that uric acid ...

  11. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    : A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  12. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  13. Health insurance, alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Qiana L; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Fink, David S; Ravenell, Orson; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women can provide important insight into the role of access to care in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. We examined the association between health insurance coverage and both past month alcohol use and past month tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of women age 12-44 years old, by pregnancy status. The women (n=97,788) were participants in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in 2010-2013. Logistic regression models assessed the association between health insurance (insured versus uninsured), past month tobacco and alcohol use, and whether this was modified by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status significantly moderated the relationship between health insurance and tobacco use (p-value≤0.01) and alcohol use (p-value≤0.01). Among pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27-0.82), but not associated with tobacco use (AOR=1.14; 95% CI=0.73-1.76). Among non-pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of tobacco use (AOR=0.67; 95% CI=0.63-0.72), but higher odds of alcohol use (AOR=1.23; 95% CI=1.15-1.32). Access to health care, via health insurance coverage is a promising method to help reduce alcohol use during pregnancy. However, despite health insurance coverage, tobacco use persists during pregnancy, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention during prenatal visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Pregnant Women in Beheshti Hospital of Kashan, Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Hasan; Momen Heravi, Mansooreh; Moravveji, Seyyed Alireza; Poorrahnama, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    The transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is parenteral, sexual and prenatal. Prevention of vertical transmission of HBV is extremely important, because HBV infection in early life usually results in a chronic carrier state. There has been so much debate about hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg+ among pregnant women referred to Beheshti hospital in Kashan in 2012. This descriptive study was carried out on 768 pregnant women, hospitalized in Beheshti Hospital of Kashan in 2012. After obtaining consent forms, the questionnaires including demographic and HBV infection-associated risk factors were filled through interview and then 5 mL blood was taken from each patient and HBsAg was examined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. These data were analyzed by statistical package for the social science (SPSS) software. A total of 12 (1.56%) out of 768 pregnant women were HBsAg+. The mean age of HBsAg+ cases was 24.5 ± 4 years. Most of the HBsAg+ cases (66.6%) were uneducated; 17.7% of the pregnant women were not Iranian, of which 7.4% were HBsAg+. There was no high-risk job, recent dentistry interruption or skin tattoo among the HBsAg+ cases. In this study, 1.56% of pregnant women were HBsAg+, which was higher than the previous studies. This increasing prevalence may be due to the increase of non-Iranians' migrations to Iran. Control of migration and screening and vaccination of these groups should be considered by health policy makers.

  15. Heart failure in pregnant women with cardiac disease : data from the ROPAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, Titia P. E.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Hall, Roger; Subirana-Domenech, Maria T.; Grando-Ting, Jennifer; Estensen, Mette; Crepaz, Roberto; Fesslova, Vlasta; Gurvitz, Michelle; De Backer, Julie; Johnson, Mark R.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Heart failure (HF) is one of the most important complications in pregnant women with heart disease, causing maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Methods This is an international observational registry of patients with structural heart disease during pregnancy. Sixty hospitals in 28

  16. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Soluble CD30 in normotensive pregnant women with isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction: a comparison with preeclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Marzena; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the serum concentration of soluble CD30 (sCD30) in pregnant women with isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction, in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with and without accompanying intrauterine growth restriction, and in normotensive healthy pregnant controls. Lower serum concentrations of sCD30 were observed in the group of normotensive pregnant women with a growth-restricted fetus in comparison with the group of healthy pregnant controls, and also in comparison with both preeclamptic groups of pregnant women with and without fetal growth restriction. The concentration of sCD30 in maternal serum from preeclamptic women did not differ in comparison with values from healthy controls or pregnancies complicated by isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute headache diagnosis in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282

  19. Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural ... Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and ... Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at ...

  20. Anxiety during pregnancy among Sudanese pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many women suffer psychological symptoms during pregnancy but few studies have examined anxiety among pregnant ladies in relation to the level of education, previous bad obstetrical history and female circumcision. Aims: To determine frequency of anxiety among Sudanese women as related to pregnancy and ...

  1. Risk factors for syphilis and hiv infection in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, K.; Bano, K.A.; Sherwani, M.I.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease which seemed to have disappeared or had been controlled over the years, has now been re-emerged as a major public health problem in many communities. It can complicate the pregnancies with serious consequences. Appropriate treatment of pregnant women often prevents such complications. Aims: To study the frequency of syphilis in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital, and see the positivity for HIV/AIDS among syphilis positive women. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional and interventional study was conducted among pregnant women attending Sir Ganga Ram hospital for antenatal care at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore. Blood samples from 2000 women were collected after taking consent. The blood was tested for syphilis by Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination. History of the subjects for risks factors was also taken. Syphilis positive women were further screened for human immunodeficiency virus positivity. Results: The treponemal antibodies were detected in less than one percent (9) pregnant women. The highest positivity was observed among age group of 21-26 years. Women in third trimester were significantly more infected with syphilis. Risk factors included husband's history with frequent traveling and drug abuse. All husbands of syphilis positive women were also positive. All syphilis positive women and their husbands were negative for Human immunodeficiency virus /Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Conclusions: Less than 1% of pregnant women were infected with syphilis, and most of the spouses of these positive women were either travelers or drug addicts.(author)

  2. Vaccination of HIV-infected pregnant women: implications for protection of their young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangor, Ziyaad; Nunes, Marta C; Kwatra, Gaurav; Lala, Sanjay G; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers. This could be mitigated by vaccinating pregnant women to boost antibody levels; although vaccine responses among HIV-infected pregnant women might differ compared to HIV-uninfected women. We reviewed studies that compared natural and vaccine-induced antibody levels to different epitopes between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Most studies reported lower baseline/pre-vaccination antibody levels in HIV-infected pregnant women, which may not be reversed by antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. There were only few studies on vaccination of HIV-infected pregnant women, mainly on influenza virus and group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccines. Immunogenicity studies on influenza vaccines indicated that HIV-infected pregnant women had lower vaccine induced hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers and a decreased likelihood of seroconversion compared to HIV-uninfected women; and while higher CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels were associated with better immune responses to vaccination, HIV viral load was not associated with responses. Furthermore, infants born to influenza vaccinated HIV-infected pregnant women also had lower antibody levels and a lower proportion of HIV-exposed infants had titers above the putative correlate of protection compared to HIV-unexposed infants. The immunogenicity of a CRM 197 -conjugated trivalent GBS vaccine was also lower in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to HIV-uninfected women, irrespective of CD4+ T

  3. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN A SEMI-URBAN POPULATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi Ramalingam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Anaemia is a serious and prominent problem in the developing countries. This study evaluates the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic in a semi-urban hospital for a period of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data from a sample of 500 pregnant women was collected and the patients were screened for anaemia on their booking visit in KFMS&R for a period of six months from March-August 2015. Haemoglobin was estimated by cyanmethaemoglobin method using Systronic photocolorimeter on their first antenatal visit. The degree of anaemia was categorised according to ICMR datamild (10-10.99 g/dL, moderate (7-9.99 g/dL, severe (<7 g/dL. RESULTS It was observed that the prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% in the population under study. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 18.53%, that of moderate anaemia was 63.70% and that of severe anaemia was 17.76%. It was also noticed that the prevalence of anaemia was higher in young pregnant women between 17-21 years of age (63.26%. CONCLUSION Anaemia continues to be a major health problem in India and prevention and early diagnosis will significantly reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  4. Iron status of pregnant Filipino women as measured by serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlas, L A; Kuizon, M D; Tajaon, R T; Desnacido, J A

    1992-12-01

    Iron status of pregnant women at different stages of pregnancy was evaluated by comparing values for hemoglobin (Hb), red cell indices, serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS) and serum ferritin (SF) values with those of a group of non-pregnant women of comparable age and socio-economic status. Mean SF values on the second and third trimesters (9.3 +/- 2.60 ng/ml and 7.1 +/- 2.19 ng/ml) were significantly lower compared to that in the first trimester (22.6 +/- 2.20 ng/ml). These levels were also lower than that found in the non-pregnant controls. The trend was the same for TS. Hemoglobin levels of the pregnant subjects were significantly lower than those of the non-pregnant women. Prevalence of iron deficiency based on SF < 12.0 ng/ml and TS < 16.0% was highest at term and lowest during the first trimester indicating a decrease in iron stores as pregnancy progressed. Sensitivity for each of the iron parameters was computed, and it was found that for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in pregnant women, SF has a greater sensitivity than TS, SI, MCV and MCH.

  5. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Bozkurt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tMETHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tRESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 27.5±4.08. When they were asked about contraceptive methods, 61.2 % had knowledge about oral contraceptives, 78.7 % about preservatives, and 38 % had knowledge about tube ligation. 96.1 % of patients cited AIDS, 39.2 % hepatitis B and C, 29.4 % gonorrhea, 3.9 % chlamydia, 9.8 % herpes virus, 11.8 % HPV (genital wart and 27.5 % syphilisis as sexually transmitted diseases.\tCONCLUSION: The reason why this study is performed with pregnant women is that they have a sexual life, they are under the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and they need contraception. Finding out that pregnant women don’t have enough knowledge is important in regard to education of the population and preventive medicine.

  6. [Assessment of self-esteem in pregnant women using Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations. Pregnant women who had low scores for self-esteem were 60% of all subjects. As for the sociodemographic data, women with fewer years of education presented higher frequency of lower self-esteem scores, which disagrees with other studies. Pregnant women who report having an unplanned pregnancy presented higher prevalence of low self-esteem than those who reported having planned their pregnancy. The lack of support from the partner to look after the baby was also associated to the pregnant women's low self-esteem. Other associations between variables were not statistically significant.

  7. Pregnant Women Diet Quality and Its Sociodemographic Determinants in Southwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Ferdous, Tarana; Tegenfeldt, Kathrin; Roy, Sumitro; Rahman, A K M Fazlur; Rashid, Iftekhar; Haque, Raisul; Rahman, Zakia; Hossen, Kabir; Siddiquee, Saydur Rahman; Rahman, Mosiqure; Sanghvi, Tina G; Shaheen, Nazma

    2016-03-01

    Diet diversity of pregnant women is associated with nutrition sufficiency, micronutrient adequacy, and pregnancy outcomes. However, the sociodemographic determinants of diet diversity among pregnant women in low-income countries are not well studied. The analysis was undertaken to study the determinants of high dietary diversity and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods by pregnant women from rural Bangladesh. Pregnant women (508) were randomly selected from southwestern Bangladesh and interviewed to collect data about diet and sociodemographic characteristics. A 24-hour recall was used to collect information about diet. Diet diversity score was calculated for 9 major food groups. All analyses were conducted using STATA SE 12. The overall mean diet diversity score was low at 4.28 and was significantly high among pregnant women who have higher educational achievement, whose husbands' occupation was business, who live in households of 4 or more family members, and who were dwelling in a house with more than 1 room. Highest gap on knowledge and consumption was reported for 3 food groups including dairy foods, eggs, and dark green leafy vegetables. Consumption of dairy and eggs was lower among women from low socioeconomic status, but no significant association was found between sociodemographic characteristics and consumption of leafy vegetables. Our analysis has shown that diet quality of pregnant women was poor and intake of micronutrient-rich foods was low despite having knowledge about the importance of these foods, underscoring the need for promoting the diet quality in developing countries through behavior change communication programs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Risk factors for Chagas disease among pregnant women in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Corado, Edith Y; Cuyuch, Blanca L; Hernández, Marta A; Guevara, Ana V; Romero, José E; Ramos, Hector M; Cedillos, Rafael A; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Chagas disease among pregnant women and estimate the risk factors for Chagas disease during pregnancies. Community-based serological tests on Trypanosoma cruzi and structured interviews on socio-demographic and socio-economic status were conducted with pregnant women registered at three health centres in Sonsonate province, El Salvador. Of 797 pregnant women participating in the study, 29 (3.6%) were infected with Chagas disease. None had clinical symptoms. The results of bivariate analyses showed the significant association between seropositivity and maternal age ≥35 years, anaemia, illiteracy, having no formal school education and having knowledge on Chagas disease (P < 0.05). The results of multivariate analysis indicate that age ≥35 years and anaemia were significantly associated with being infected with Chagas disease among pregnant women (OR = 3.541 and 5.197, respectively). We recommend that the national Chagas disease control programme be better coordinated with the national maternal and child health programme to introduce blood screening for T. cruzi during antenatal visits. If financial constraint allows systematic blood screening to be only partially implemented, resources should be focused on pregnant women ≥35 years and women who have anaemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Maternal and Neonatal Complications of Substance Abuse in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.

  10. Assessment of iron deficiency in pregnant women by determining iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, N.; Munazza, B.; Ayub, M.; Sarwar, I

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women constitute a high risk group for iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency and particularly iron deficiency anaemia may be associated with detrimental effects on maternal and infant function and particularly with a higher risk of preterm delivery and delivery of low birth weight neonates. Objective of this study was to assess and compare the iron status of normal healthy non-pregnant women with that of pregnant women of Hazara Division. Methods: This study was conducted at Faculty of Health Sciences, Hazara University, and Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from first March to /31 August 2006. Altogether 120 women, 90 pregnant at various stages of pregnancy and 30 non-pregnant women as control group were included in this study by convenience sampling. Their iron status was assessed by determination of haemoglobin (Hb), Serum ferritin, Serum-iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), and Percentage saturation of transferrin. Data generated on these variables were subjected to ANOVA and correlation analysis. Results: The salient finding of this study is a significant decrease in Hb, Serum ferritin, Serum iron, percentage saturation of transferrin and a significant increase in values of TIBC and a pronounced increase in UIBC in second and third trimester compared to first trimester in iron deficient pregnant women. The mean values of Hb, SF, and Fe/TIBC% were significantly lower in the cases than in the control and significantly higher values of TIBC and UIBC were observed in the cases compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed for TIBC, UIBC and Fe/TIBC% against serum iron in different trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion: A high percentage of the pregnant women are iron deficient due to factors such as high parity, poor dietary habits and socioeconomic status. (author)

  11. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Outpatient Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral G. Nogayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up.

  12. [Pregnancy-related and work-related sick leave of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophøj, A; Mortensen, J T

    1999-09-06

    Pregnant women are allowed sick leave (SL) due to obstetrical or occupational risk factors. The aim was to describe reasons for SL during pregnancy. Pregnant women in a Danish county applying for SL were consecutively included in the study during 12 months in 1991-92. Data were obtained by questionnaires mailed to the women and their medical doctors. Of 1483 pregnant women on SL, 994 participated. Approximately 96% were on SL due to obstetrical risk factors. Occupational factors contributed to SL in at least 50% of the cases, mainly when working in a standing or walking position or when lifting. The women were rarely replaced in other jobs before leaving work. On average the women were absent for 83 days before official pregnancy leave started. Although SL during pregnancy is overwhelmingly due to obstetrical risk factors, occupational factors often contribute. Occupational Health and Safety Organizations are rarely involved at the workplace before issuing a sick leave certificate.

  13. Oral changes in pregnant and nonpregnant women: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The numerous changes occurring during pregnancy affect every body system, resulting in localized physical alterations in almost all parts of the body, including the oral cavity. The aim of the present study was to find the incidence of oral conditions seen particularly in the pregnant women than in the nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: The oral health condition of 120 pregnant women referred to the outpatient department of Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital from a gynecology clinic were examined and compared with 120 nonpregnant women. The pregnant women were divided in a 3 groups of 40 each, according to the stage of pregnancy. The common oral conditions seen during pregnancy were assessed. Results: Pregnant women had a higher incidence of gingivitis and pyogenic granuloma. Gingivitis and erosion of teeth due to vomiting was seen commonly in the 3 rd trimester. The results indicated that pregnancy had an effect on the oral condition, which was mainly due to the hormonal changes seen during this period rather than other factors. Conclusion: Women planning a pregnancy or those already pregnant should be informed about the role of oral health during pregnancy and the possible outcomes of these conditions for the welfare of their foetus. They should be referred to the dental clinician for necessary counselling for preventive oral self-care and treatment, if required.

  14. [Analysis on iodine nutritional status and thyroid function in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Wang, Yanling; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yancai; Huang, Dahong; Liang, Liping; Ren, Xudong; Dou, Yugui; Zhu, Xiaonan

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the iodine nutritional status and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 90 pregnant women in Wuwei City from April 2009 to January 2010. The morning blood samples and random urine samples were collected, and the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroid hormone (FT4), thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), thyroid microsomal antibodies (TMAb) in blood samples and iodine in urine samples were detected. The medians of urinary iodine were 231.49, 158.25 and 328.35 microg/L for women in early, middle and late period of pregnancy, The ratio of urinary iodine below 150 microg/L were 39.29%, 45.16% and 25.81%, respectively. The FT3, FT4 levels in the first trimester were higher than those in the third trimester (P 0.05). The positive rate of TGAb and TMAb antibody of pregnant women in different period of time were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The incidence of thyroid function disorder was significantly different in different gestation periods. Generally, the iodine nutritional status of these pregnant women was appropriate, but there was a tendency towards hypothyroid in some women. Monitoring urinary iodine and thyroid function in pregnant women should be carried out regularly.

  15. Knowledge about Iodine in Pregnant and Lactating Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Henjum, Sigrun

    2017-05-13

    Lack of knowledge about iodine may be a risk factor for iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about iodine and predictors of iodine knowledge scores among pregnant and lactating women. The study also examined whether iodine knowledge scores were associated with iodine status. A cross-sectional study was performed on 804 pregnant women and 175 lactating women from 18 to 44 years of age in 2016 in the Oslo area, Norway. Knowledge about iodine was collected through a self-administered, paper-based questionnaire. Iodine concentrations in urine and breast milk were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). 74% of the pregnant women and 55% of the lactating women achieved none to low iodine knowledge scores. Higher educated pregnant women and those who had received information about iodine had significantly higher knowledge scores. In lactating women, increased age was associated with higher knowledge scores. Knowledge scores were not associated with participants' iodine status. This study revealed a lack of knowledge about the importance of iodine in pregnant and lactating women, as well as about the most important dietary sources. Public education initiatives are required to increase the awareness about iodine in these population groups.

  16. The state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Lyoshenko

    2016-05-01

    Abstract Purpose. To determine the state of various stages of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion as a risk factor for premature detachment of the placenta. Results. There was investigated the state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion by low piezoelectric thromboelastography (LPTEG and standard coagulogram. According to the LPTEG results this group of women was found to have increased plasma coagulation potential manifested in elevated constant thrombin activity (TAC by 76.8%, the intensity of coagulation drive (ICD by 74.9%, maximum clot density (MA by 16.8%, shortening of coagulation time (T3 by 7.8% and inhibition of fibrinolysis manifested by decrease in retraction intensity and clot lysis (RICL by 67.7% (p<0.05. Conclusions. The state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion is characterized by increased plasma coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis potential that are factors of preparing the woman’s body for the upcoming birth to control and minimize blood loss.   Keywords: pregnancy, hydramnion, hemostasis, thromboelastography.

  17. Pregnant women models analyzed for RF exposure and temperature increase in 3T RF shimmed birdcages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Manuel; Neufeld, Esra; Samaras, Theodoros; Córcoles, Juan; Robb, Fraser J; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2017-05-01

    MRI is increasingly used to scan pregnant patients. We investigated the effect of 3 Tesla (T) two-port radiofrequency (RF) shimming in anatomical pregnant women models. RF shimming improves B 1 + uniformity, but may at the same time significantly alter the induced current distribution and result in large changes in both the level and location of the absorbed RF energy. In this study, we evaluated the electrothermal exposure of pregnant women in the third, seventh, and ninth month of gestation at various imaging landmarks in RF body coils, including modes with RF shimming. Although RF shimmed configurations may lower the local RF exposure for the mother, they can increase the thermal load on the fetus. In worst-case configurations, whole-body exposure and local peak temperatures-up to 40.8°C-are equal in fetus and mother. Two-port RF shimming can significantly increase the fetal exposure in pregnant women, requiring further research to derive a very robust safety management. For the time being, restriction to the CP mode, which reduces fetal SAR exposure compared with linear-horizontal polarization modes, may be advisable. Results from this study do not support scanning pregnant patients above the normal operating mode. Magn Reson Med 77:2048-2056, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Time to viral load suppression in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced HIV-infected pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy: implications for pregnant women presenting late in gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N; Sokoloff, A; Kornak, J; Leva, N V; Mendiola, M L; Levison, J; Feakins, C; Shannon, M; Cohan, D

    2013-11-01

    To compare time to achieve viral load HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV) -naive versus ARV-experienced pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Retrospective cohort study. Three university medical centers, USA. HIV-infected pregnant women initiated or restarted on HAART during pregnancy. We calculated time to viral load HIV-infected pregnant women on HAART who reported at least 50% adherence, stratifying based on previous ARV exposure history. Time to HIV viral load HIV-infected pregnant women, comprising 76 ARV-naive and 62 ARV-experienced. Ninety-three percent of ARV-naive women achieved a viral load HIV log10 viral load was associated with a later time of achieving viral load HIV log10 viral load was associated with a longer time of achieving viral load Pregnant women with ≥50% adherence, whether ARV-naive or ARV-experienced, on average achieve a viral load HIV log10 viral load were all statistically significant predictors of earlier time to achieve viral load <400 copies/ml and <1000 copies/ml. Increased CD4 count was statistically significant as a predictor of earlier time to achieve viral load <1000 copies/ml. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  19. Dental caries status and its associated factors in pregnant women, Shiraz, Iran, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Shaghaghian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Dental caries is a common problem in pregnant women which has negative impacts on their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnant women’s dental caries status and its associated risk factors in Shiraz, Iran, in 2014. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we selected 423 pregnant women attending Shiraz governmental health centers for routine obstetric examinations by randomized cluster sampling. The women's dental caries status was assessed using decayed, missed, and filled tooth (DMFT index. The women’s demographic characteristics and their oral hygiene habits were evaluated using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The relationship between women's DMFT index and their demographic and oral hygiene characteristics was evaluated using Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, independent sample t-tests, and multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: The mean DMFT index was 5.8 ± 3.6. We found lower scores of DMFT index in women who were younger (P < 0.001, brushed their teeth more (P = 0.014, and used home preventive measures such as mouthwash (P = 0.003 and toothpick (P = 0.006. CONCLUSION: Dental caries status of the pregnant women was unacceptably lower than optimal. Interventions focusing on holding educational programs and taking office-based preventive measures for pregnant women or women who intend to be pregnant are recommended. The interventions are more necessary for older pregnant women and those who use fewer home preventive measures.

  20. Decision-making about prenatal genetic testing among pregnant Korean-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Myunghee; Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Choi, Jeeyae; Sook Choi, Kyung; Anderson, Gwen

    2018-01-01

    to understand the prenatal genetic testing decision-making processes among pregnant Korean-American women. a qualitative, descriptive research design. referrals and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 Korean-American women who had been recommended for amniocentesis during pregnancy in the United States (U.S.). All participants were born in Korea and had immigrated to the U.S. The number of years living in the U.S. ranged from 4 to 11 (M=5.7). various regional areas of the U.S. the researchers conducted face-to-face or phone interviews using semi-structured interview guides. The interviews were conducted in the Korean language and lasted approximately 50-100minutes. The interview guides focused on the decision-making process and experiences with prenatal genetic testing, as well as reflections on the decisions. Four core themes emerged related to the participants' decision-making processes, according to their descriptions. These themes are (1) facing the challenges of decision-making, (2) seeking support, (3) determining one's preferred role in the decision-making process, and (4) feeling uncomfortable with the degree of patient autonomy in U.S. health care. researchers concluded that many distinctive factors influence the decision-making processes used by pregnant Korean-American women. The results have the potential to improve shared decision-making practices regarding prenatal genetic testing. clinicians need to understand the sociocultural underpinnings of pregnant Korean-American immigrants regarding prenatal genetic screening and testing as an initial step to engage these patients in shared decision-making. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  2. Peculiarities of the colon microflora condition in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Vasylivna Rynzhuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation deals with studying of species content and population level of the colon microflora in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in comparison with practically healthy pregnant women. A significant disorder of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the colon microflora content has been found to occur in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria, which in combination with physiological factors associated with pregnancy may result in the development of asymptomatic bacteriuria.

  3. Are pregnant and postpartum women: at increased risk for violent death? Suicide and homicide findings from North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandari, Ghazaleh; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L; Schiro, Sharon; Norwood, Tammy; Avery, Matt

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate rates of suicide and homicide death among pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant/non-postpartum women ages 14-44, and to determine comparative rates of violent death for pregnant and/or postpartum women compared to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. North Carolina surveillance and vital statistics data from 2004 to 2006 were used to examine whether pregnant or postpartum women have higher (or lower) rates of suicide and homicide compared to other reproductive-aged women. The suicide rate for pregnant women was 27% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio= 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11-0.66), and the suicide rate for postpartum women was 54% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.31-0.95). Homicide rates also were lower for pregnant and postpartum women, with the homicide rate for pregnant women being 73% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.39-1.37), and the homicide rate for postpartum women being half the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.98). Although pregnant and postpartum women are at risk for homicide and suicide death, the highest risk group is non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. Violence prevention efforts should target all women of reproductive age, and pay particular attention to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women, who may have less access to health care services than pregnant and postpartum women.

  4. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - ... Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors .... items and incorrect knowledge regarding their benefits can ..... 2003;28:183‑9. 33. Ngozi PO. Pica practices of pregnant women in Nairobi,.

  5. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial: a qualitative case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben Willem

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific enrolment

  6. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial : a qualitative case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Mol, Ben Willem; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific

  7. Problem of administering radioactive substances to pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Ryznar, V.; Klener, V.

    1987-01-01

    Based on a critical analysis of a large amount of data from the literature, a table was prepared of radiation loads of the fetus after administration of radiopharmaceuticals to pregnant women. Briefly mentioned are recent findings on the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the fetus and the radiation risk was evaluated of radiopharmaceuticals administered during the third trimester of pregnancy. The possibility is discussed to evaluate the benefit of radionuclide examinations of pregnant women in relation to the radiation risk. (author). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs

  8. Options Counseling for the Pregnant Adolescent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Laurie L

    2017-09-01

    Each year, more than 500 000 girls and young women younger than 20 years become pregnant. It is important for pediatricians to have the ability and the resources in their offices to make a timely pregnancy diagnosis in their adolescent patients and provide them with nonjudgmental pregnancy options counseling. Counseling includes an unbiased discussion of the adolescent's legal options to either continue or terminate her pregnancy, supporting the adolescent in the decision-making process, and referring the adolescent to appropriate resources and services. Pediatricians who choose not to provide such discussions should promptly refer pregnant adolescent patients to a health care professional who will offer developmentally appropriate pregnancy options counseling. This approach to pregnancy options counseling has not changed since the original 1989 American Academy of Pediatrics statement on this issue. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Pregnant women's attitudes toward influenza vaccination while breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Gorman

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Pregnant women and postpartum women who are breastfeeding could benefit from receiving information and recommendations specific to vaccination from their healthcare providers, with a focus on discussing known risks and benefits to the baby's health.

  10. So near, yet so far: tobacco dependence treatment for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Dianne; Orleans, Tracy; Halpin, Helen; Barry, Matthew

    2004-04-01

    Almost one-half million babies in the United States are born yearly to women who report smoking while pregnant. Almost all of these pregnant women have access to prenatal care, through federally financed health clinics, state and county health programs, or private providers. However, many pregnant smokers are unlikely to receive any type of counseling or assistance to help them stop smoking--despite the availability of evidence-based treatment and the considerable return on investment. This article recommends four next steps to ensure that tobacco dependence treatment is available for all pregnant women. These steps are (a). expanding Medicaid coverage for, and promotion of, effective counseling services for pregnant smokers, (b). improving health care systems by building the capacity of prenatal providers and health care systems to deliver effective treatments, (c). encouraging purchasers of private and public health benefit packages to demand coverage for, and promotion of, effective counseling services for pregnant smokers, and (d). redirecting state resources to ensure a statewide system of care for pregnant smokers. Implementation of these steps requires leadership, diligence, and action by the public health community--as well as ongoing monitoring to assess progress in improving coverage, capacity, and coordination.

  11. [Information seeking on the internet: what information are pregnant women seeking?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Jeangros, C; Hammer, R

    2013-04-24

    In the literature, uses of the internet by patients are interpreted either as a resource supporting their autonomy, or as a source of perturbation in the doctor-patient relationship. Analysing 50 interviews with pregnant women, this article aims at describing the different uses made during pregnancy. Some women mostly aim at sharing their experience in their use of internet. Others are looking for specialised information, by curiosity, to complement the information received in medical visits or, more rarely, as a result of a lack of information in their exchanges with professionals. Uses of internet by patients will develop in the future and it is important that professionals take into account these different forms of internet use in their practices.

  12. Analysis of Health Behaviors and Personal Values of Childless Women, Pregnant Women and Women Who Recently Delivered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Grzegorz Józef; Misztal-Okońska, Patrycja; Ślusarska, Barbara; Rudnicka-Drożak, Ewa; Młynarska, Magdalena; Czekierdowski, Artur

    2018-02-27

    Preconception lifestyle modifications and reduction of several known risk factors may have an influence on future pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to analyze health behaviors and personal values as well as to assess the relationship between these factors in women without children, in pregnant women and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), the Personal Value List (PVL) and sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into three groups: women who had recently delivered ( n = 235), pregnant women ( n = 121) and childless women ( n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviors, and also, they rated higher on the subscales values "positive mental attitude" and "health practices", in comparison to women who had recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups, the highest rated personal value was "a successful family life", while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was "love and friendship". Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women's health behaviors. Positioning "health" in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate the introduction of healthy behaviors. This, in turn, could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlight areas where new research is needed.

  13. Level of biogenic amines in pregnant women with psycho-emotional disorders stipulated by anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Syusyuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Object of research – to determine level of biogenic amines in pregnant women with psycho-emotional disorders stipulated by anxiety. Group of examined women and methods of research. 90 Pregnant women were examined in ІІ and ІІІ trimester of pregnancy. The main group includes 58 pregnant women with the medium and high level of state anxiety and 32 pregnant women with anxiety level of 30 points and less that indicates the low level of SA (control group. For estimation of the state anxiety and trait anxiety the scale of Spielberger-Hanin was used. Level of serotonin and melatonin was measured with fluorometric method in blood hemolysate of pregnant women. Results. According to the obtained results of biochemical research of hemolysate of packed red cells of blood of examined women it was stated that increase of state anxiety was accompanied by statistically reliable (p < 0.05 rise of serotonin level and decrease of melatonin level. Thus, special features have direct influence on increase (p < 0.05 of serotonin/melatonin index. Pregnant women of the main group have the index which was 2.5 times higher than the same index in women of the control group. Conclusions. Results of performed research among pregnant women have indicated that increase of state anxiety is accompanied by statistically reliable (p < 0.05 rise of serotonin content in blood and statistically reliable (p < 0.05 decrease of melatonin. Such results have direct influence on increase (p < 0.05 of serotonin/melatonin index in pregnant women with medium and high levels of state anxiety comparing to the certain index in women with the low level of anxiety.

  14. Amniocentesis in HIV Pregnant Women: 16 Years of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A—women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B—women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population. PMID:23970821

  15. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection and Associated Risk Factors in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Alijahan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection, as a risk factor for adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes, is one of the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of urinary tract infection and its associated risk factors in pregnant women. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional analytical study a total 2496 pregnant women who were underwent prenatal care through July 2011 in three rural and six urban health centers of Ardabil city, were selected by multistage sampling. Data collection was performed using a self designed questionnaire from women's prenatal care records, 240 pregnant women with positive urine culture were considered as a case group and the remaining as a control group. Data were analyzed through Kruskal – Wallis, Chi-square and Stepwise Logistic Regression statistical tests using SPSS version 16. Results: The incidence of urinary tract infection was 9.7%. Low socioeconomic status ( p=0.021, OR= 2/338, CI= 1/138-4/766,distance between pregnancies less than 3 years( p=0.026, OR= 2/137, CI= 1/093-4/141,and hyperemesis gravidarum( p=0.039, OR=2/06, CI= 1/038-4/098were determined as risk factors that significantly contribute to urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Conclusion: We conclude that appropriate distance between pregnancies, intensive care of pregnant women with low socioeconomic status and hyperemesis gravidarum may significantly prevent urinary tract infection and its related adverse health effects among pregnant women. K

  16. Periodontal disease in pregnant patients with rheumatic valvular disease: clinical and microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Walkiria Samuel; Timerman, Lilia; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Marcelino, Sílvia Linard; Neves, Itamara Lúcia Itagiba; Zugaib, Marcelo; Grinberg, Max

    2011-04-01

    The periodontal disease during pregnancy of women with rheumatic valve disease imply infective endocarditis risks and higher rate of preterm birth and low birth weight. To study the periodontal disease rate of women with rheumatic valve disease during pregnancy. We studied 140 pregnant women who included 70 patients with rheumatic valve disease and 70 healthy women. The periodontal examination included: 1) periodontal clinical exam regard the follow variables: a) probing depth; b) gingival margin; c) clinical attachment level; d) bleeding on probing; e) plaque index and f) gingival index; and 2) microbiological test was performed in samples serum and gingival crevicular fluid and considered positive controls to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsithia e Aggregobacter actinomycetemcomitans. Age and parity were similar between groups; as single or combined the mitral valve disease was prevalent among the rheumatic valve lesion in 45 (32.1%) e 20 (28.5%) cases, respectively. Among the periodontal variables gingival margin (p=0.01) and plaque index (p=0.04) were different between groups. The periodontal disease was identified in 20 (14,3%) pregnant women, seven (10%) of them were patients with valve rheumatic disease and the remain 13 (18,6%) were healthy women, its percentual was not different between groups (p=0,147). Microbiological analyses of oral samples showed higher percentual of P. gingivalis in healthy pregnant women (p=0.004). The clinical and microbiological study during pregnancy showed comparable incidence of periodontal disease between women with rheumatic valve disease and healthy women.

  17. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels throughout pregnancy: a longitudinal study in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Agudelo-Zapata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide there is a high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD deficiency and has been associated with adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Objective: This is a nested, case–control study in a longitudinal cohort to compare the serum 25OHD levels and other biomarkers throughout pregnancy in a group of 20 preeclamptic women and 61 healthy pregnant women. An additional group of 29 healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Mean 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were 31.9 ng/mL and 34.9 ng/mL during follicular and luteal phase, respectively (P < 0.01. Mean serum 25OHD levels in healthy pregnant women were 26.5, 30.1 and 31.9 ng/mL, at first, second and third trimester, respectively (P < 0.001. The first trimester levels of 25OHD were lower than those of healthy non-pregnant women (P < 0.001, showing a significant recovery at third trimester. In the group of healthy pregnant women, the 25OHD levels were 25.7 ng/mL and 27.2 ng/mL at 3 and 6 months postpartum, respectively; both values were lower than those observed in the non-pregnant women (P < 0.001. In preeclamptic women, 25OHD serum levels were similar to those of healthy pregnant women; nevertheless, they remained almost unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women in terms of 25OHD levels throughout the pregnancy. Serum 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were higher during luteal phase compared with follicular phase. The 25OHD levels of non-pregnant women tended to be higher than those of pregnant women.

  18. Safety and pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in HIV-positive pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Clayden, Polly; Thorne, Claire; Christie, Rachel; Zash, Rebecca

    2018-04-01

    The integrase strand transfer inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) is being introduced into low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as an alternative to first-line treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, DTG is not yet widely recommended for use in pregnant women. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse all available data on birth outcomes and congenital anomalies in the infants of pregnant women treated with DTG. A PubMed and Embase search was conducted using the terms "dolutegravir" or "DTG" and "pregnancy" or "pregnant" from the earliest available date on the database to 26 July 2017. Any reports involving women who were pregnant, HIV positive and taking DTG were included. The percentage of pregnant women with adverse birth outcomes or congenital anomalies in their infants after taking dolutegravir was compared with five historical control databases. There were six databases included in the main analysis of birth outcomes and congenital anomalies, with a total of 1200 pregnant women. The percentage of pregnant women taking DTG with adverse birth outcomes and congenital abnormalities was similar to results from historical control studies of HIV-positive women. However, there was significant heterogeneity among the six databases - the percentage of infants with congenital anomalies ranged from 0.0% in Botswana (0/116 infants) to 13.3% in IMPAACT P1026S (2/15 infants). Up to 15 million people could be on treatment with DTG in LMICs within the next 5 years, of whom a substantial percentage is likely to be women of child-bearing potential. In many countries with large HIV epidemics, unplanned pregnancies are common and access to antenatal clinic facilities may be limited. Continued pharmacovigilance is essential, but it is reassuring that no clear safety signals have been detected, to date, for pregnant women treated with DTG in terms of birth outcomes or congenital anomalies.

  19. Smoking behavior in pregnant Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Smiley, Karen; Devine, Susan

    2007-01-01

    To determine the smoking behavior in pregnant Arab American women who attended a Women, Infant and Children (WIC) program at a local county public health clinic and compare the incidence of smoking behaviors of pregnant Arab American women with pregnant women who were not Arab Americans. Data were extracted from a computer database that contained information from health history charts of pregnant Arab and non-Arab American women. The study sample was 830 women, 823 of whom were Arab American participants enrolled in the WIC program in Michigan. Approximately 6% of pregnant Arab Americans smoked during pregnancy. The prevalence of smoking behavior among pregnant Arab American women was similar to that of smoking behaviors of Hispanics and Asian Americans in the United States. Although smoking behavior is a serious problem among Arab American immigrants in general and in the Arab world in particular, cultural factors that support healthy behavior during pregnancy in the Arab culture seem to limit the use of tobacco in pregnant women. Nurses who care for Arab American pregnant women can use this information to better inform their care of these patients.

  20. Analysis of Health Behaviors and Personal Values of Childless Women, Pregnant Women and Women Who Recently Delivered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal-Okońska, Patrycja; Rudnicka-Drożak, Ewa; Młynarska, Magdalena; Czekierdowski, Artur

    2018-01-01

    Preconception lifestyle modifications and reduction of several known risk factors may have an influence on future pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to analyze health behaviors and personal values as well as to assess the relationship between these factors in women without children, in pregnant women and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), the Personal Value List (PVL) and sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into three groups: women who had recently delivered (n = 235), pregnant women (n = 121) and childless women (n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviors, and also, they rated higher on the subscales values “positive mental attitude” and “health practices”, in comparison to women who had recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups, the highest rated personal value was “a successful family life”, while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was “love and friendship”. Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women’s health behaviors. Positioning “health” in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate the introduction of healthy behaviors. This, in turn, could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlight areas where new research is needed. PMID:29495488

  1. Dietary assessment of vitamin A and iron among pregnant women at

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chege

    Consumption Report indicated that 30% of pregnant women in Nyanza do not meet ... Poverty, lack of nutrition knowledge and poor attendance to MCH by ... Sixty-five percent (64.8%) pregnant women had iron consumption levels of 25cm. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70.

  2. The prevalence of toxoplasma igG and IgM in pregnant women residing in Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, N.; Akhtar, S.; Ikram, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG/IgM) among pregnant women visiting Military Hospital Rawalpindi and to develop a relationship between various risk factors and disease prevalence. Methods: One thousand pregnant women reporting in out patient Gynaecology department of Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi from October 2008 through January 2009 for antenatal check up were included in the study. Their serum samples were tested for the presence of Toxoplasma IgM and IgG immunoglobulins. Enzyme Linked immunosorbent assay test kits for both IgG and IgM were used to detect 1: gondii immunoglobulins in serum samples. Rest of the serum was stored at -20 degree C. Results: Of the 1000 women sampled at hospital, 46 (4.6%) had evidence of past infection and were seropositive for immunoglobulins of T. gondii IgG, while none of them were seropositive for IgM immunoglobulin, suggesting absence of recent infections during pregnancy. Conclusion: In twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, the sero prevalence of T. gondii IgG in pregnant women is relatively high (4.6%) as compared to other areas nearby. Consequently, the risk of, primary infection during pregnancy and the potential for congenital infection of foetus remains there as a large number of pregnant women were sero-negative for both the antibodies.

  3. Prevalence of alcohol use in pregnant women with substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Shrestha, Shikhar; Garrison, Laura; Leeman, Lawrence; Rayburn, William F; Stephen, Julia M

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal care programs for women with opioid use disorder (OUD) often focus treatment/counseling plans around illicit substances, while concurrent use of alcohol might present an equal or greater risk to the fetus. This study evaluated self-reported prevalence of alcohol use in patients participating in a comprehensive prenatal care program for women with substance use disorder (SUD; n = 295), of which 95% are treated for OUD, and pregnant women being served through general obstetrical clinics at the University of New Mexico (n = 365). During the screening phase of a prospective study, patients were asked to report alcohol use in the periconceptional period, and between the last menstrual period and pregnancy recognition. The screening interview was conducted at 22.3 (median = 22; Q1 = 16; Q3 = 29) gestational weeks. Among patients screened at the SUD clinic, 28.8% and 24.1% reported at least one binge drinking episode in the periconceptional period and in early pregnancy, respectively. The prevalence of binge drinking was similar in the general obstetrics population (24.7% and 24.4%, respectively). Among those who reported drinking in early pregnancy, median number of binge drinking episodes was higher among patients screened at the SUD clinic (median = 3; Q1 = 1; Q3 = 10) compared to the general obstetrics group (median = 1; Q1 = 1; Q3 = 3; p < 0.001). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of prenatal alcohol use in early pregnancy in both groups, while patients with SUD/OUD consume more alcohol. These findings underscore the need for targeted screening and intervention for alcohol use in all pregnant women, especially those with SUD/OUD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pregnant Women’s View on Their Relationship: A Comparison With Nonpregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlijn Massar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive effects of partner support on pregnancy outcomes and maternal (mental health are well established in the literature. Less is known about pregnant women’s perceptions of their partner and relationship, and whether these differ from those of nonpregnant women. Therefore, in the current study, data were collected through an online questionnaire among pregnant (n = 66 and nonpregnant (n = 59 women with similar demographic profiles. The results show that pregnant women reported feeling significantly more happy with both their partner and their relationship than nonpregnant women. Importantly, we did not find any differences in self-esteem or mate value between groups. Although the present study is mainly exploratory, we suggest that pregnant women may show a positive bias in the way they view their partner and their relationship, which in turn may be beneficial to her own as well as her child’s mental and physical health.

  5. TORCH Screening Test in Pregnant Women of Kirkuk City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiro M. Obaid

    2017-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma are prevalent among pregnant women in Kirkuk city and probably they are the causative agents of abortion and infertility found among them, therefore it's better for pregnant woman or those planning to become pregnant to be tested for TORCH infections, and vaccinated against Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus and Toxoplasma to grantee her health  as well as her baby.

  6. Change of lifestyle habits - Motivation and ability reported by pregnant women in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Eurenius, Eva; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Pregnant women are generally more motivated to change their lifestyle habits compared with non-pregnant women. However, the ability to change these habits depends on the motivation to change. This study describes pregnant women's self-reported motivation and ability to change lifestyle habits and their relation to body mass index (BMI), self-rated health, educational level and country of origin. This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R). Data were collected from 3,868 pregnant residents in Västerbotten County (northern Sweden) between 2011 and 2012. Chi-square test, two independent samples t-test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Most of the pregnant women (61.3%) were satisfied with their self-reported lifestyle habits irrespective of BMI, self-rated health, educational level, and country of origin. Many reported that they wanted to increase their physical activity, improve their dietary habits, and reduce their weight. In general, they estimated their ability to change their lifestyle habits as equal to their motivation of change. Women who reported a large or very large motivation to change their lifestyle habits were characterized by higher BMI and higher educational level. Most of the participating pregnant women were satisfied with their lifestyle habits, although they reported being further motivated to change some of them. Health care professionals encountering fertile and pregnant women may have a unique opportunity to support and promote lifestyle changes, taking into account women's motivation for change. Future research should focus on factors that motivate pregnant women to change their lifestyle, explore barriers for change of lifestyle and how support best may be provided to pregnant women. In addition, studies on lifestyle and motivation for lifestyle change from non-Nordic countries are called for. Copyright

  7. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in pregnant women with gestational diabetes and diabetes type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkoska Nakova, V; Krstevska, B; Dimitrovski, Ch; Simeonova, S; Hadzi-Lega, M; Serafimoski, V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal thyroid function and antithyroid antibodies during pregnancy in women with diabetes type 1 and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study group included 83 pregnant women who attended the Outpatient Department of the Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Clinic in the period from 05.2009 to 11.2009. The one hundred-g. oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted on the pregnant women except for women with diabetes type 1. Thyroid functions were evaluated in all the pregnant women. After routine screening for GDM, thirty of the pregnant women were healthy and GDM was diagnosed in forty of them. The rest, thirteen women, had diabetes type 1. The women who developed GDM showed a mean free thyroxin concentration (fT4) significantly lower than that observed in the healthy pregnant women and women with diabetes type 1. Among the pregnant women with GDM, 10 women or 25% had fT4 concentrations below the lower cut-off with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (TSH). A statistically significant difference was found in the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO) between the (30%) women with diabetes type 1 and (10%) healthy pregnant women (p<0.05). In the women positive for anti-TPO, TSH was significantly higher (p<0.05). The significantly higher prevalence of hypothyroxinemia in GDM pregnancies and anti-TPO titres in pregnancies with diabetes type 1, than in healthy pregnant women warrants routine screening for thyroid abnormalities in these groups of pregnant women.

  8. Perception of male gender preference among pregnant igbo women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohagwu, Cc; Eze, Cu; Eze, Jc; Odo, Mc; Abu, Po; Ohagwu, Ci

    2014-03-01

    Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. The study was a cross-sectional survey, which targeted pregnant women who presented for prenatal ultrasound at four selected hospitals in Anambra State. A convenience sample size of 790 pregnant women constituted the respondents. The data collection instrument was a 13-item semi-structured self-completion questionnaire designed in line with the purpose of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out with statistical significance being considered at P < 0.05. Most of the women (88.4%, 698/790) were aware that fetal gender can be determined during the prenatal ultrasound while just over half of them (61.0%, 482/790) wanted fetal gender disclosed to them during prenatal ultrasound. More than half (58.6%, 463/790) of the women desired to have male babies in their present pregnancies while 20.1% (159/790) desired female babies and 21.3% (168/790) did not care if the baby was male or female. Some of the women (22.2%, 175/790) wanted to have male babies in their present pregnancies for various reasons predominant of which was protecting their marriages and cementing their places in their husbands' hearts. Male gender preference was strongly perceived. There was considerable anxiety associated with prenatal gender determination and moderate loss of interest in the pregnancy associated with disclosure of undesired fetal gender. Socio-demographic factors had significant influence on perception of male gender preference. Male gender preference is strongly perceived among Igbo women and its perception is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors. Male gender preference may be responsible for Igbo women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound.

  9. Use of herbal medicines among pregnant women a attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Kiryandongo general hospital. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Kiryandongo general hospital in Masindi District, mid-western Uganda. Subjects: Four hundred (400) pregnant ...

  10. First Trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  11. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  12. Prevalence of HIV and syphilis in pregnant women in Leon, Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Carlijn E L; Riedijk, Martiene; Matute, Armando J; Hak, Eelko; Delgado, Edgar; Alonso, Rosa E; Benavides, Maria D; van Loon, Anton M; Hoepelman, Ilja M

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis and to identify risk factors among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics in León, Nicaragua. During February to April 2004, blood samples from pregnant women were collected after written consent had been obtained.

  13. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  14. Iron status in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Nils; Taylor, Christine L; Merkel, Joyce; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the iron status in pregnant women in Europe provides a foundation for considering the role of iron screening and supplementation. However, available reports and studies have used different approaches that challenge the devising of overall summaries. Moreover, data on pregnant women are limited, and thus, data on women of reproductive age provide useful background information including baseline iron stores in pregnant women. This review considered data that are available from >15 European countries including national surveys and relevant clinical studies. In European women of reproductive age, median or geometric mean serum ferritin (SF) concentrations were estimated at 26-38 μg/L. Approximately 40-55% of this population had small or depleted iron stores (i.e., SF concentration ≤30 μg/L), and 45-60% of this population had apparently replete iron stores. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 10-32% and 2-5%, respectively, depending on the cutoffs used. Approximately 20-35% of European women of reproductive age had sufficient iron stores (SF concentration >70 μg/L) to complete a pregnancy without supplementary iron. During pregnancy, European women in controlled supplementation trials who were not receiving iron supplements displayed increasing prevalences of ID and IDA during pregnancy, which peaked in the middle to late third trimester. Available evidence has suggested that, in gestational weeks 32-39, the median or geometric mean SF concentrations were 6-21 μg/L, and prevalences of ID and IDA were 28-85% and 21-35%, respectively. Women who were taking iron supplements had higher iron status and lower prevalences of ID and IDA, which were dependent on the dose of iron and compliance. The data suggest that, in Europe, the iron status of reproductive-aged women varies by region and worsens in pregnancy without iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Establishing a Timeline to Discontinue Routine Testing of Asymptomatic Pregnant Women for Zika Virus Infection - American Samoa, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, W Thane; Soeters, Heidi M; Hills, Susan L; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Evans, Mary E; Daley, W Randolph; Piercefield, Emily; Anesi, Magele Scott; Mataia, Mary Aseta; Uso, Anaise M; Sili, Benjamin; Tufa, Aifili John; Solaita, Jacqueline; Irvin-Barnwell, Elizabeth; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Wilken, Jason; Weidle, Paul; Toews, Karrie-Ann E; Walker, William; Talboy, Phillip M; Gallo, William K; Krishna, Nevin; Laws, Rebecca L; Reynolds, Megan R; Koneru, Alaya; Gould, Carolyn V

    2017-03-24

    The first patients with laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease in American Samoa had symptom onset in January 2016 (1). In response, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) implemented mosquito control measures (1), strategies to protect pregnant women (1), syndromic surveillance based on electronic health record (EHR) reports (1), Zika virus testing of persons with one or more signs or symptoms of Zika virus disease (fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) (1-3), and routine testing of all asymptomatic pregnant women in accordance with CDC guidance (2,3) . All collected blood and urine specimens were shipped to the Hawaii Department of Health Laboratory for Zika virus testing and to CDC for confirmatory testing. Early in the response, collection and testing of specimens from pregnant women was prioritized over the collection from symptomatic nonpregnant patients because of limited testing and shipping capacity. The weekly numbers of suspected Zika virus disease cases declined from an average of six per week in January-February 2016 to one per week in May 2016. By August, the EHR-based syndromic surveillance (1) indicated a return to pre-outbreak levels. The last Zika virus disease case detected by real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) occurred in a patient who had symptom onset on June 19, 2016. In August 2016, ASDoH requested CDC support in assessing whether local transmission had been reduced or interrupted and in proposing a timeline for discontinuation of routine testing of asymptomatic pregnant women. An end date (October 15, 2016) was determined for active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus and a timeline was developed for discontinuation of routine screening of asymptomatic pregnant women in American Samoa (conception after December 10, 2016, with permissive testing for asymptomatic women who conceive through April 15, 2017).

  16. Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toher, C

    2013-08-24

    Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

  17. Potential unintended consequences of smoke-free policies in public places on pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Lee, Anita H; Mao, Zhengzhong

    2009-08-01

    Smoke-free policies in public places have become more common in China. Little is known, however, about the potential unintended consequences of such policies on pregnant women. The study was conducted in 2006 in Chengdu, China. Nonsmoking pregnant women (N=55) whose husband were smokers participated in a study of their knowledge about secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies, their exposure to secondhand smoke, and their husbands' smoking status at home. This study presents descriptive statistics, analyses based on family income and pregnant women's education level, and the findings of focus group discussions that examined the potential unintended consequences of the smoke-free policies on pregnant women. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home was reported by 69.1% of the pregnant women. Both family income and the education level of the pregnant women had a significant (ppolicies were: (1) increased exposure of pregnant women to secondhand smoke at home; (2) reduced work efficiency; (3) adverse effect on family harmony; and (4) poor air quality at home. Education is needed to increase knowledge of secondhand smoke among smokers and nonsmokers alike. When the smoking location is shifted from public places and workplaces to home, women, and in particular pregnant women, become the victims. Policymakers should recognize such potential unintended consequences and take necessary measures to increase awareness about the harms of secondhand smoke.

  18. Exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, S.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational health physicians often face the problem of whether to keep pregnant women at work in hospitals where they risk exposure to ionizing radiation. Current legislation requires that doctors ensure a certain level of safety for the embryo and the fetus. The current rules are unsatisfactory, however, because women are not obliged to declare that they are pregnant until the third month, which is one month past the period when he fetus is most sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author). 15 refs

  19. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Improves Endothelial Function in Pregnant Women at High Risk of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kelsey; Baczyk, Dora; Potts, Audrey; Hladunewich, Michelle; Parker, John D; Kingdom, John C P

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been investigated for the prevention of severe preeclampsia, although the mechanisms of action are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of LMWH in pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia. Pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia (n=25) and low-risk pregnant controls (n=20) at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation underwent baseline cardiovascular assessments. High-risk women were then randomized to LMWH or saline placebo (30 mg IV bolus and 1 mg/kg subcutaneous dose). Cardiovascular function was assessed 1 and 3 hours post randomization. The in vitro endothelial effects of patient serum and exogenous LMWH on human umbilical venous endothelial cells were determined. High-risk women demonstrated a reduced cardiac output, high resistance hemodynamic profile with impaired radial artery flow-mediated dilation compared with controls. LMWH increased flow-mediated dilation in high-risk women 3 hours after randomization compared with baseline and increased plasma levels of placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and myeloperoxidase. Serum from high-risk women impaired endothelial cell angiogenesis and increased PlGF-1 and PlGF-2 transcription compared with serum from low-risk controls. Coexposure of high-risk serum with LMWH improved the in vitro angiogenic response such that it was equivalent to that of low-risk serum and promoted placental growth factor secretion. LMWH improves maternal endothelial function in pregnant women at high risk of developing preeclampsia, possibly mediated through increased placental growth factor bioavailability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. [IMPORTANCE OF SHEAR WAVE ELASTOGRAPHY OF LIVERS IN PRACTICALLY HEALTHY PREGNANT WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyeva, E; Salahova, S; Bayramov, N

    2017-01-01

    Pulse-wave elastography (SWE) that is one of the mostly used methods in the recent years holds important place in assessment of liver fibrosis. However there is no exact information on the results of liver elastography in healthy pregnant women in the world literature. The aim of the study was to investigate theSWE parameters of liver elastography in practically healthy pregnant women. The subject of the research was 50 practically healthy pregnant women within 18-45 years old (mean age 27.7±0.7). The pregnant women with genital and extragenital diseases were not included to the research. The research work was executed in the II Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Azerbaijan Medical University. SWE of liver in pregnant women was conducted in the I Department of Surgical Diseases of Azerbaijan Medical University through Supersonic Aixplorer Multi Wave device presented by the Scientific Development Foundation under the President of the Azerbaijan Republic. The obtained tissue hardness indicators are assessed under METAVIR scale. The results of the research showed that the measures of liver in practically healthy pregnant women are normal, edges flat, its echogenicity mainly normal, echostructure of its parenchyma homogenous, hardness was F0-F1 (normal) under METAVIR scale, fibrosis not observed. The obtained results were processed by variational (power average, percentile distribution) and correlation (ρ-Spearman) analyzes using the statistical package SPSS-20. A statistical study of the distribution of liver density in healthy women showed that the average density was 4,43±0,01 with 95% confidence interval (4,23 - 4,63). The histogram of distribution of liver density in practically healthy women belongs to the family of normal distributions with coefficients of variation coefficient (16.3%), asymmetry (-0.861±0.337) and excess (-0.068±0.662). Correlation analysis in healthy women did not reveal a reliable relationship between age and liver density (ρ=0

  1. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women with sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    98) and gentamicin 100% (98/98) for HbAS and HbAA women respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of ASB in pregnant women with HbAS in Enugu, Nigeria was high and did not vary significantly from that of woman with HbAA.

  2. "It's Just Not Very Realistic": Perceptions of Media Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Toni; Coyne, Sarah M; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D

    2018-07-01

    Although research has documented a connection between media and body image for women, little research has explored this connection among pregnant or postpartum women. The purpose of this study was to explore women's perceptions of media and body image during the perinatal period. Fredrickson's objectification theory provided a theoretical framework for the study. Data collection involved semi-structured in-depth interviews with 50 pregnant or postpartum women in which they were asked to describe their perceptions of media depictions of pregnant or postpartum women and its impact on their body image. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Four major themes emerged: (1) participants questioned the realism of media depictions of pregnant and postpartum women, (2) participants described complex reactions to media messages including negative impacts on body image and strategies for mitigating negative impacts, (3) participants desired changes in media messages to be more realistic and to depict a more complex portrayal of the life stage, and (4) participants discussed the unique and complex role of social media including both negative and positive impacts. Implications of the findings for pregnant and postpartum women, communication scholars, and healthcare professionals are discussed.

  3. Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, S.; Garcia, B.; Torres, R.; Larrabure, G.; Lucen, A.; Pernaz, G.; Gonzales, L.; Miranda, G.; Davalos, E.; Galarza, C.; Camasca, N.; Jara, R.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total

  4. Drug use behaviour of pregnant women in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)

  5. Health risk factors and mental health among US women with and without chronic physical disabilities by whether women are currently pregnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Yu, Jun; Wint, Amy J; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Ecker, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Growing numbers of reproductive-age US women with chronic physical disabilities (CPD) raise questions about their pregnancy experiences. Little is known about the health risks of women with versus without CPD by current pregnancy status. We analyzed cross-sectional, nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey data from 2006 to 2011, which includes 47,629 civilian, noninstitutionalized women ages 18-49. NHIS asks about specified movement difficulties, current pregnancy, and various health and health risk indicators, including tobacco use and body mass index (BMI). We used responses from eight movement difficulty and other questions to identify women with mobility difficulties caused by chronic physical health conditions. Across all women regardless of CPD, women reporting current pregnancy are significantly less likely to currently smoke tobacco and report certain mental health problems. Among currently pregnant women only, women with CPD are more likely to smoke cigarettes every day (12.2 %) versus 6.3 % for pregnant women without CPD (p ≤ 0.001). Among currently pregnant women, 17.7 % of women with CPD have BMIs in the non-overweight range, compared with 40.1 % of women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). Currently pregnant women with CPD are significantly more likely to report having any mental health problems, 66.6 % compared with 29.7 % among women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). For all women, currently pregnant women appear to have fewer health risks and mental health concerns than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, women with CPD have higher rates than other women of health risk factors that could affect maternal and infant outcomes.

  6. Prevalence and typing of HPV DNA in atypical squamous cells in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Danielle W; Pirog, Edyta C; Zhu, Xiaopei; Wang, Hanlin L; Pinto, Karen R

    2003-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and typing of HPV DNA in pregnant women with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells (ASC) and to assess whether pregnancy-related changes contribute to the diagnosis of ASC. HPV testing was performed on residual specimens from the ThinPrep Pap test (Cytyc Corp., Boxborough, Massachusetts, U.S.A.) in pregnant women diagnosed as ASC (study group, n = 105), low and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL and HSIL) (positive control, n = 33) and negative for epithelial cell abnormality (negative control, n = 20). All cases were reviewed by 2 cytopathologists to obtain consensus diagnoses using the Bethesda System 2001 criteria. The study group cases were further subcategorized into ASC of undetermined significance (ASCUS, n = 99) and ASC cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H, n = 6). HPV testing was also performed on an ASC control group consisting of 68 consecutive ASC cases in nonpregnant women, matched by age. Mean patient age was 23.7 years for the study group and 25.6 years for the ASC control group. HPV DNA was detected in 88.6% of cases in the study group, including 87.9% of ASC-US and 100% of ASC-H cases. Of the HPV positive cases, 79.6%, 4.3%, 5.4% and 10.8% had high-risk, mixed high- and low-risk, low-risk and unknown HPV types, respectively. The most frequent HPV types detected were: types 52 (31.2%), 16 (15.1%), 39 (11.8%), 53 (10.8%), and 18 and 58 (9.7% each). Multiple viral types were detected in 43.0% of cases. The prevalence of HPV DNA in the positive and negative controls in pregnant women was 100% and 55%, respectively. HPV DNA was detected in 83.8% of the ASC control group. Regardless of pregnancy-related changes, the prevalence of HPV DNA in pregnant women (88.6%) was similar to that found in ASC in nonpregnant women of the same reproductive-age group (83.8%), and the high-risk types accounted for the vast majority of cases (83.9%). These findings demonstrate that pregnancy-related changes do not contribute to the

  7. "It's like a puzzle": Pregnant women's perceptions of professional support in midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Caroline A; Mårtensson, Lena B; Golsäter, Marie H; Thorstensson, Stina A

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant women are not always satisfied with the professional support they receive during their midwifery care. More knowledge is needed to understand what professional support pregnant women need for childbirth and parenting. Childbearing and the transition to becoming a parent is a sensitive period in one's life during which one should have the opportunity to receive professional support. Professional support does not always correspond to pregnant women's needs. To understand pregnant women's needs for professional support within midwifery care, it is crucial to further illuminate women's experiences of this support. To explore pregnant women's perceptions of professional support in midwifery care. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Fifteen women were interviewed during gestational weeks 36-38. Data was analysed using phenomenography. The women perceived professional support in midwifery care to be reassuring and emotional, to consist of reliable information, and to be mediated with pedagogical creativity. The professional support facilitated new social contacts, partner involvement and contributed to mental preparedness. The findings of the study were presented in six categories and the category Professional support contributes to mental preparedness was influenced by the five other categories. Pregnant women prepare for childbirth and parenting by using several different types of professional support in midwifery care: a strategy that could be described as piecing together a puzzle. When the women put the puzzle together, each type of professional support works as a valuable piece in the whole puzzle. Through this, professional support could contribute to women's mental preparedness for childbirth and parenting. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

  9. [Pathogenic mechanisms of proatherogenic changes in pregnant women with concomitant obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, K V; Mamontova, T V

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and indices of lipid metabolism (concentrations of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, cholesterol of low density lipoproteins and cholesterol of very low density lipoproteins) in women with concomitant obesity in the second trimester of pregnancy were studied. Changes of the lipid profile in the pregnant women with concomitant obesity indicate development of type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. Concentrations of insulin and CRP in the blood serum of the pregnant women with obesity were respectively 92.1% and 62.5% higher than in the control group. On the basis of literature data and our own research it was concluded that the complex of the metabolic changes (insulin resistance, dislipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation) in pregnant women with obesity promotes development of proatherogenic changes.

  10. Knowledge and attitudes of pregnant women towards antenatal care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to explore pregnant women`s knowledge ... A qualitative, exploratory approach was used. ... Trustworthiness was ensured by considering the criteria of credibility, dependability, applicability and transferability.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates From Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women at Yazd University Hospital, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregna...

  12. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbalibulha, Yona; Muwanguzi, Enoch; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Natukunda, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen) blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%); A: 190 (26.%); B: 152 (21%); and AB: 28 (4%). A total of 28 (3.86%) pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1%) of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8%) were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of anti-D alloantibody formation among RhD-positive women, we recommend additional research studies on the role of autoimmunity among antigen-positive women, as well as the occurrence of RhD variants plus their implications on hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, in Uganda.

  13. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Espinola, Janice A; Moss, Kevin; Beck, Jim; Offenbacher, Steven; Camargo, Carlos A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is found in pregnancy outcomes. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in periodontal disease and tooth loss, and insufficient vitamin D status is common among pregnant women. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and periodontal disease. A case-control study was conducted. Cases were defined as pregnant women with clinical moderate to severe periodontal disease; controls were pregnant women who were periodontally healthy. Maternal data were chart abstracted and serum was collected between 14 and 26 weeks of gestation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Median serum 25(OH)D levels and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (defined as periodontal disease among women with vitamin D insufficiency was calculated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal race, season of blood draw, and other potential confounders. A total of 117 cases were compared to 118 controls. Cases had lower median 25(OH)D levels than controls (59 versus 100 nmol/l; P periodontal disease among women with vitamin D insufficiency was 2.1 (0.99 to 4.5). Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25[OH]D periodontal disease during pregnancy. Vitamin D supplementation represents a potential therapeutic strategy to improve maternal oral health.

  14. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women aged 45 and older.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Grotegut

    Full Text Available The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35-44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes.Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35.Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these

  15. Breast-feeding intentions among low-income pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman; Arnett, Dennis B; Mauk, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    Provide a better understanding of the process used by low-income pregnant/postpartum women when deciding whether to breast-feed or not. Pregnant/postpartum women admitted to an obstetrics floor completed a survey to determine breast-feeding intention (n=88). Subjects were primarily Hispanic and African American women. Beliefs and referent other were related positively to attitude and subjective norm, respectively. Subjective norm was related positively to intention to breast-feed. Breast-feeding knowledge was low. Others' opinions clearly influence feeding intentions among this population of low-income women. Inclusion of these significant others, family, and friends within the breast-feeding education process is warranted.

  16. Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes Among Medicaid-Eligible Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Miller, Alana; Assef, Sara; Ashford, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    To describe perceptions and beliefs about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use during pregnancy among pregnant and newly postpartum women. An exploratory, qualitative descriptive study. University-affiliated prenatal clinics. Twelve pregnant or recently postpartum women who reported use of tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Semistructured focus groups were audio recorded and professionally transcribed. The transcripts were coded to consensus and analyzed with MAXQDA software (version 11) using content analysis. Four overarching themes emerged: (a) Attraction to E-Cigarettes as a Harm Reduction Strategy, (b) Uncertainty Regarding the Health Effects of E-Cigarettes; (c) Ambivalence Regarding Novel Product Characteristics; and (d) Behaviors Reflected Dual Use and Often Complete Relapse to Traditional Cigarettes. Pregnant women are initially attracted to e-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy, but they often return to traditional cigarettes in the postpartum period. Nurses should counsel pregnant women on the adverse effects of fetal exposure to nicotine. Evidence-based nursing interventions are needed to prevent relapse during the postpartum period. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serodiscordance and disclosure among HIV-positive pregnant women in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacius, Lori A; Levison, Judy; Minard, Charles G; Fasser, Carl; Davila, Jessica A

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV-positive pregnant women in relationships with HIV-negative men in the United States is unclear. The purpose of this study was to calculate the prevalence of HIV-positive pregnant women with a serodiscordant (HIV-negative) partner within a single clinic population, assess disclosure of their HIV status, and examine factors associated with disclosure. All HIV-positive pregnant women who received prenatal care at the Harris County Hospital District Women's Program at Northwest Health Center in Houston TX between 1/1/2006 and 4/1/2011 were identified. Data were obtained from electronic medical records. Prevalence of serodiscordance and disclosure was calculated, and predictors of disclosure were evaluated. We identified 212 HIV-positive pregnant women. About 40% had a serodiscordant partner, and 34% had a partner with an unknown HIV status. Disclosure occurred in over 90% of women with a serodiscordant partner and in 68% of women with partners whose HIV status was unknown. Among pregnant women who knew their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and had a serodiscordant partner, 92% reported disclosing their status prior to conception. Our data indicated that serodiscordant relationships are common in our clinic population. Suboptimal disclosure rates were observed, especially among women who have a partner with an unknown HIV status. Further research is needed to evaluate the prevalence of serodiscordance and disclosure in other United States populations.

  18. Thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism: US national assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraka, Spyridoula; Mwangi, Raphael; McCoy, Rozalina G; Yao, Xiaoxi; Sangaralingham, Lindsey R; Singh Ospina, Naykky M; O'Keeffe, Derek T; De Ycaza, Ana E Espinosa; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Coddington, Charles C; Stan, Marius N; Brito, Juan P; Montori, Victor M

    2017-01-25

     To estimate the effectiveness and safety of thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism.  Retrospective cohort study.  Large US administrative database between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014.  5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as untreated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration 2.5-10 mIU/L.  Thyroid hormone therapy.  Pregnancy loss and other pre-specified maternal and fetal pregnancy related adverse outcomes.  Among 5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, 843 with a mean pre-treatment TSH concentration of 4.8 (SD 1.7) mIU/L were treated with thyroid hormone and 4562 with a mean baseline TSH concentration of 3.3 (SD 0.9) mIU/L were not treated (Ptreatment TSH concentration was 4.1-10 mIU/L (odds ratio 0.45, 0.30 to 0.65) but not if it was 2.5-4.0 mIU/L (0.91, 0.65 to 1.23) (Ptreatment was associated with decreased risk of pregnancy loss among women with subclinical hypothyroidism, especially those with pre-treatment TSH concentrations of 4.1-10 mIU/L. However, the increased risk of other pregnancy related adverse outcomes calls for additional studies evaluating the safety of thyroid hormone treatment in this patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio

    2016-04-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  20. Vaccines in pregnancy: The dual benefit for pregnant women and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H; McMillan, M; Andrews, R M; Macartney, K; Edwards, K

    2016-04-02

    Maternal immunization has the potential to reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the pregnant woman and her infant. Many countries now recommend immunization against influenza at any stage of pregnancy and against pertussis in the third trimester. Despite evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these vaccines when administered during pregnancy, uptake generally remains low for influenza and moderate for pertussis vaccine. Enhancing confidence in both immunization providers and pregnant women by increasing the evidence-base for the safety and effectiveness of vaccines during pregnancy, improving communication and access by incorporating immunization into standard models of antenatal care are likely to improve uptake. Developing a framework for implementation of vaccines for pregnant women which is cognizant of local and national cultural, epidemiological, behavioral and societal factors will enable a smooth transition and high uptake for new vaccines currently in development for pregnant women.

  1. AN ETHNOGRAPHY STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN BANTEN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyowati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality in childbirth in developing countries is still high. The study describes the qualitative methods used to examine the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and behaviour related to nutrition and nutritional supplementation of pregnant women. The role of village midwives and cadres’ in relation to nutrition education resulted in improving nutritional behaviour of pregnant women to some extent, but poverty and culture restricted the ability of pregnant women to access better food. The study shows that the position of pregnant woman is low within the hierarchy of both the health care system and the power structures of the broader community. Husbands, mothers-in-law, village midwives, cadres and village leaders all have more power in determining nutrition during pregnancy. However, some women tried to eat better and more nutritious food in secret, thereby subverting culture and the authority of husbands and mothers-in-law.

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-04-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boarder were treated with a standard fixed oral 3-day treatment, and venous plasma concentrations of both drugs were measured frequently for pharmacokinetic evaluation. Population pharmacokinetics were evaluated with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The main pharmacokinetic finding was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but reduced exposure to dihydroartemisinin in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Piperaquine was best described by a three-compartment disposition model with a 45% higher elimination clearance and a 47% increase in relative bioavailability in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but a shorter terminal elimination half-life. Dihydroartemisinin was best described by a one-compartment disposition model with a 38% lower relative bioavailability in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was a decreased total exposure to dihydroartemisinin. The shorter terminal elimination half-life of piperaquine and lower exposure to dihydroartemisinin will shorten the posttreatment prophylactic effect and might affect cure rates. The clinical impact of these pharmacokinetic findings in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria needs to be evaluated in larger series.

  3. Epidemiology and risk factors HTLV virus infection in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  4. Effect of a gymnastics program on sleep characteristics in pregnant women

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    Ildikó Kocsis

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The 10-week training program designed for pregnant women has an overall beneficial effect on sleep characteristics, not by improving them but by attenuating their general deterioration related to the progression of pregnancy. Our data strengthen the general recommendation regarding participation of pregnant women in specific exercise programs, mainly for maintaining their psycho-emotional and general well-being.

  5. Childhood abuse and suicidal ideation in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Wells, Anne; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A; Barrios, Yasmin V; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu

    2016-10-01

    Childhood abuse is a major global and public health problem associated with a myriad of adverse outcomes across the life course. Suicide is one of the leading causes of mortality during the perinatal period. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between experiences of childhood abuse and suicidal ideation in pregnancy. We sought to examine the association between exposure to childhood abuse and suicidal ideation among pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2964 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse Questionnaire. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale. Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for potential confounders. Overall, the prevalence of childhood abuse in this cohort was 71.8% and antepartum suicidal ideation was 15.8%. The prevalence of antepartum suicidal ideation was higher among women who reported experiencing any childhood abuse compared to those reporting none (89.3% vs 10.7%, P suicidal ideation. Women who experienced both physical and sexual childhood abuse had much higher odds of suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio, 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 2.88-5.68). Women who experienced any childhood abuse and reported depression had 3.44-fold (3.44, adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 1.84-6.43) increased odds of suicidal ideation compared with depressed women with no history of childhood abuse. Finally, the odds of suicidal ideation increased with increased number of childhood abuse events experienced (P value for linear trend suicidal ideation. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential increased risk of suicidal behaviors among pregnant women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Insulin receptor binding and tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle from normal pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Handberg, A.; Kühl, C.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the decreased glucose tolerance and insulin resistance found in normal and gestational diabetic pregnancy might be associated with changes in insulin receptor function. METHODS: Eight nonpregnant healthy women (nonpregnant controls), eight healthy pregnant women...... (pregnant controls), and eight women with gestational diabetes were investigated. All were non-obese. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle, and insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activities in partially purified skeletal muscle insulin receptors were studied. The pregnant controls...... with gestational diabetes compared to nonpregnant controls (P pregnant women did not differ from the other two groups. Postpartum, no differences in insulin binding were found between the groups. Basal and maximal tyrosine kinase activities toward the exogenous substrate poly(Glu4Tyr1) were...

  7. Internet usage among pregnant women for seeking health information: A review article

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    Marzieh Javanmardi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the Internet has become one of the most popular sources of health information for users, and pregnant women are no exception. This study aimed to investigate Internet usage among pregnant women for achieving health information on the finding of related studies. Materials and Methods: This review study was conducted by searching databases such as IranMedex, Magiran, Scientific Information Database, Irandoc, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Scopus in December 2016. Restrictions were placed on publication to within 16 years and language of publication was restricted to English and Persian. Keywords used in the search included information-seeking behavior, information-seeking, information needs, access to information, pregnancy, and pregnant women. Results: This search resulted in 106 related publications and among them sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. This review showed that the use of the Internet by pregnant women was driven by information needs, ease, and speed of access and finding people with the same situation. Fetal development, symptoms, and complications of pregnancy, prenatal tests and nutrition, activities during pregnancy, and stages of delivery were the most often mentioned topics of interest. The benefits of internet use include reduced anxiety, personal support, creating an emotional connection and an increased confidence. Conclusions: Health providers must have sufficient ability for interpreting the achieved information from the Internet and should allocate efficient amount of time for discussing information-seeking manners with pregnant women. Furthermore, they must try to respond to the doubts of pregnant women and provide valid and reliable online educational resources.

  8. Clinical features and risk factors for severe and critical pregnant women with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza infection in China

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    Zhang Peng-jun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 influenza posed an increased risk of severe illness among pregnant women. Data on risk factors associated with death of pregnant women and neonates with pH1N1 infections are limited outside of developed countries. Methods Retrospective observational study in 394 severe or critical pregnant women admitted to a hospital with pH1N1 influenza from Sep. 1, 2009 to Dec. 31, 2009. rRT-PCR testing was used to confirm infection. In-hospital mortality was the primary endpoint of this study. Univariable logistic analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the potential factors on admission that might be associated with the maternal and neonatal mortality. Results 394 pregnant women were included, 286 were infected with pH1N1 in the third trimester. 351 had pneumonia, and 77 died. A PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 (odds ratio (OR, 27.16; 95% confidence interval (CI, 2.64-279.70 and higher BMI (i.e. ≥ 30 on admission (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.47 were independent risk factors for maternal death. Of 211 deliveries, 146 neonates survived. Premature delivery (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.19-14.56 was associated neonatal mortality. Among 186 patients who received mechanical ventilation, 83 patients were treated with non-invasive ventilation (NIV and 38 were successful with NIV. The death rate was lower among patients who initially received NIV than those who were initially intubated (24/83, 28.9% vs 43/87, 49.4%; p = 0.006. Septic shock was an independent risk factor for failure of NIV. Conclusions Severe hypoxemia and higher BMI on admission were associated with adverse outcomes for pregnant women. Preterm delivery was a risk factor for neonatal death among pregnant women with pH1N1 influenza infection. NIV may be useful in selected pregnant women without septic shock.

  9. Preventing abuse to pregnant women: implementation of a "mentor mother" advocacy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, J; Wiist, W

    1997-01-01

    Abuse to pregnant women is common and can result in complications to maternal and child health. Although screening and detection of abuse in primary health care settings is becoming more commonplace, intervention models that include community outreach have not been developed or tested. An advocacy model was developed and tested for pregnant abused women by melding research on advocacy programs for abused women exiting shelters with the principles of home visitation used to improve outcomes to pregnant women. Advocacy was offered by "mentor mothers," who were residents of the project's service area. The advocacy consisted of weekly social support, education, and assisted referrals to pregnant women identified as abused as part of routine screening offered at the first prenatal visit to a public health clinic. Effectiveness of the advocacy intervention was measured as contact success rate, number and type of advocacy contacts, and number and type of referrals made to the first 100 women to complete the advocacy program. The mentor mother advocates were successful in contacting the abused woman 33% of the time, regardless of whether a telephone call, home visitation, or in-person meeting was attempted. The average number of advocacy contacts was 9.2 (SD = 7.6) with the majority (74%) being via the telephone. The average number of referrals per woman was 8.6 (SD = 7.6) with the largest percentage (38%) being for medical services. Outreach advocacy as an intervention model for pregnant abused women is recommended.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in Nigerian pregnant women and risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; Fadipe, Olamide; Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa T

    2016-11-01

    Trichomoniasis poses a public health threat to pregnant women and neonatal health. This study evaluated Trichomonas vaginalis and other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) status in pregnant women, and risk factors associated with them. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive and a total of 198 pregnant women were recruited for T. vaginalis screening by microscopic examination. Questionnaires were also administered to 108 pregnant women to access information related to socio-demography and other factors associated with STI transmission. The overall prevalence of T. vaginalis was 18.7%. While prevalence of T. vaginalis was neither age nor parity dependent (p > 0.05), women in their first trimester showed significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis compared to women in their second and third trimesters (p vaginalis in pregnant women, with those at an early gestational age at greater risk. The improved education of women on safe sex and the need to know partners' STI status are advocated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Plantar Pressure During Gait in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-11-01

    During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.

  12. Low prevalence of renal dysfunction in HIV-infected pregnant women: implications for guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Landon; Kamkuemah, Monika; Kaplan, Richard; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2013-11-01

    Emerging international guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection across sub-Saharan Africa call for the initiation of a triple-drug antiretroviral regimen containing tenofovir, a potentially nephrotoxic agent, in all HIV-infected pregnant women at the first antenatal clinic visit. While there are significant benefits to the rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy, there are few data on the prevalence of pre-existing renal disease in HIV-infected pregnant women and in turn, the potential risks of this approach are not well understood. We analysed data on renal function in consecutive patients eligible for ART at a large primary healthcare clinic in Cape Town. All individuals were screened for renal dysfunction via serum creatinine and estimation of creatinine clearance via the Cockroft-Gault equation. Over a 2-year period, 238 pregnant women, 1014 non-pregnant women and 609 men were screened to initiate ART. Pregnant women eligible were significantly younger, in earlier stages of HIV disease, had higher CD4 cell counts and lower HIV viral loads, than non-pregnant adults. The median serum creatinine in pregnant women (46 µmol/L) was significantly lower and the median creatinine clearance (163 ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) was significantly higher than other groups (P pregnant women had moderate renal dysfunction before ART initiation, with no instances of severe dysfunction observed, compared to 7% moderate or severe renal dysfunction in non-pregnant women or men (P HIV-infected pregnant women is significantly less common than in other HIV-infected adults eligible for ART. The risks associated with initiating tenofovir immediately in pregnant women before reviewing serum creatinine results may be limited, and the benefits of rapid ART initiation in pregnancy may outweigh possible risks of nephrotoxicity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Missed Opportunities For Immunization In Children And Pregnant Women

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    Benjamin A I

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of immunization in reducing childhood mortality cannot be over-emphasised, yet many opportunities for immunization are missed when children and pregnant women visit a health facility. Reducing missed opportunities is the cheapest way to increase immunization coverage. The present study discusses the extent of the problem of missed opportunities for immunization in children and pregnant women and the factors contributing to the problem, in spatiality and community outreach clinics of Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Recommendations are made regarding ways and means of reducing missed opportunities.

  14. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

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    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55, pregnant (n=51, and postmenopausal (n=52] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI, obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed.RESULTS: The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05. The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women (P >0.05. Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

  15. Scolders, carers or friends: South African midwives' contrasting styles of communication when discussing smoking cessation with pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett-Murphy, Katherine; Paijmans, Jeske; Steyn, Krisela; Matthews, Catherine; Emmelin, Maria; Peterson, Zaino

    2011-08-01

    to investigate how midwives are currently communicating with women about smoking during pregnancy with a view to involving them in a smoking cessation intervention in antenatal clinics. a qualitative study using individual, in-depth interviews for data collection. 24 nurses providing antenatal care to pregnant smokers attending public sector clinics in five major cities in South Africa. three archetypes of midwives, characterised by different styles of communication and approaches to smoking cessation, emerged from the analysis of the interview data. These were described as the 'Angry Scolders', the 'Benign Carers' and the 'Enthusiastic Friends'. The first type conformed to the traditional, authoritarian style of communication, where the midwife assumed a dominant, expert role. When women failed to comply with their advice, these midwives typically became angry and confrontational. The second type of midwife used a paternalistic communication style and emphasised the role of education in changing behaviour. However, these midwives had little confidence that they could influence women to quit. The third type embraced a patient-centred approach, consciously encouraging more interaction with their patients and attempting to understand change from their point of view. These midwives were optimistic of women's capacity to change and more satisfied with their current health education efforts than the first two types. The Benign Carers and Enthusiastic Friends were more open to participation in the potential intervention than the Angry Scolders. the prevailing traditional, authoritarian style of communication is inappropriate for smoking cessation education and counselling as it provokes resistance and avoidance on the part of pregnant smokers. The paternalistic approach appears to be largely ineffectual, whereas the patient-centred approach elicits the most positive response from pregnant women and enhances the possibility of a trusting and cooperative relationship with

  16. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are lacking the necessary preventive behavior. A sizable portion have no sufficient knowledge for primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, health education at primary care is

  17. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in South-East China, 1993-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Yeung, Lorraine F; Cogswell, Mary E; Ye, Rongwei; Berry, Robert J; Liu, Jianmeng; Hu, Dale J; Zhu, Li

    2010-10-01

    To report the prevalence of anaemia by demographic characteristics and its secular trend over 13 years for south-east Chinese pregnant women, and to determine the focus of anaemia prevention in Chinese pregnant women. Prospective study of the data on Hb concentration and other demographic information from a large-scale population-based perinatal health surveillance system in south-east China. Fourteen cities or counties in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. A total of 467 057 prenatal women who had participated in the perinatal health-care surveillance system and delivered babies from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2005 and had a record of Hb in all three pregnancy trimesters. The overall prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women was 39.6 % from 1993 to 2005. Anaemia prevalence increased from the first (29.6 %) to the second (33.0 %) and third (56.2 %) trimesters. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in villagers, in women with less education and in women with higher gravidity or parity. The prevalence of anaemia in all of the trimesters was higher in the spring, summer and autumn and lower in the winter. The prevalence decreased from 1993 to 2005, from 53.3 % to 11.4 % for the first trimester, 45.6 % to 22.8 % for the second trimester and 64.6 % to 44.6 % for the third trimester. The prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces decreased substantially from 1993 to 2005. However, anaemia in the third trimester is still a severe public health problem among pregnant women in these areas.

  18. CLINICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SPECIALIZED FOOD PRODUCT FOR PREGNANT WOMEN

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    I. V. Salimova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated specialized product «Celia Mama» for pregnant women nutrition. 15 women on 31–32 week of pregnancy took part in the study. The duration of the product intake was 6,5 ± 1,5 wk. Tolerability was evaluated according to a personal attitude towards it and impartial clinical parameters such as — skin and mucosa condition, presence of allergy, presence or worsening of gastrointestinal dysfunction (heartburn, flatulence, stomach ache, stools (amount, consistency, digestibility, pathological inclusions, colour, smell. It has been shown that this product possesses adequate organoleptic qualities and is well tolerated by pregnant women. This product has passed hygienic expertise in our Scientific Research Centre and judging upon results of our study we can conclude that it can be used as a food supplement for pregnant women..

  19. Comparative Evaluation of C-reactive Proteins in Pregnant Women with and without Periodontal Pathologies: A Prospective Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannava, Padmakanth; Gokhale, Sunil; Pujari, Sudarshan; Biswas, Krishna P; Kaliappan, Satish; Vijapure, Shashank

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation of tooth supporting structures is referred to as periodontitis. C-reactive proteins (CRP) levels are usually increased in case of chronic inflammatory process like periodontitis. Association of CRP with pregnancy has been observed in the past, which includes most commonly preterm delivery, preeclampsia, etc. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that CRP may act as a link between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hence, we aim to evaluate the plasma CRP levels in pregnant women with and without periodontal pathologies. The study included 210 pregnant women who reported to the hospital with periodontal problems and for routine checkups. All the patients were divided into three groups based on the presence and absence of periodontal pathologies. Russell's Periodontal Index Score was used for the evaluation of periodontal status of the subjects. While comparing the mean CRP levels in all the three study groups, statistically significant results were obtained. Statistically significant results were obtained while comparing the mean CRP levels in group C patients before treatment and after treatment therapy. The CRP levels were estimated by taking blood samples. Paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance was used to assess the correlation between the two parameters. Casual association might exist between the CRP levels and periodontal diseases in pregnant women and the CRP levels may also get elevated in pregnant women.

  20. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

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    Mbalibulha Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yona Mbalibulha,1 Enoch Muwanguzi,1 Godfrey R Mugyenyi,2 Bernard Natukunda1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods: Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT. Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results: Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%; A: 190 (26.%; B: 152 (21%; and AB: 28 (4%. A total of 28 (3.86% pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1% of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8% were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion: Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of

  1. Do Pregnant Women Report Use of Dispensed Medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy often draws on administrative prescription registries. Noncompliance in the use of prescribed medication may be frequent among pregnant women owing to their fear of fetotoxic side effects. To estimate compliance in the use of prescription drugs dispensed...... during pregnancy, we compared prescription data from the North Jutland Prescription Database with information on drug use provided by pregnant women to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which is a health interview survey. We used the North Jutland Prescription Database to identify all prescription...... drugs dispensed during pregnancy for the 2,041 women who were enrolled in the DNBC in the County of North Jutland, Denmark. Compliance was defined as the probability of reporting drug use in DNBC after purchasing a dispensed prescription drug. The overall compliance to drugs purchased within 120 days...

  2. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

  3. Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bei-bei; Ling, Li; Hua, Chen; Ren, Shu-yan

    2014-09-01

    The effects of soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were investigated. Ninety-seven pregnant women with GDM were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (51 cases) and the SBOS group (46 cases). Before the group separation, the blood sugar level in patients was maintained stable by regular diet and insulin treatment. The control group was continued with the insulin treatment, while the SBOS group was treated with the combination of insulin and SBOS. Results showed that SBOS were able to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate insulin resistance in pregnant women with GDM, which indicates that SBOS may play an important role in the control of GDM complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. State of peroxidation processes in pregnant women with somatoform dysfunction of vegetative nervous system

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    V. G. Syusyuka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extragenital pathology of pregnant women continues to be one of the main reasons of the serious complications of gestation which promotes increase of maternal and prenatal disease incidence. In accordance with International Classification of Diseases-10 neurocirculatory dystonia (NCD refers to the section “Somatoform vegetative dysfunction of heart and cardiovascular system”. Today a relationship between peroxidation intensity and severity level of the disease is proved and important role of the emotional stress in the development of NCD is determined. Object of the work – to estimate oxidative modification of proteins and antioxidative system of protection of the pregnant women with neurocirculatory dystonia. Group of examined persons and methods of investigations The main group consisted of 43 pregnant women with somatoform dysfunction of vegetative nervous system (SDVNS and 32 somatically healthy pregnant women who were improving their health and getting rehabilitation in a special department for pregnant women in sanatorium “Velikiy Lug”. Level of trait anxiety (TA and state anxiety (SA was objectified by means of technique of Ch. D. Spielberg which had been adapted by Yu. L. Hanin. Investigations of markers of oxidative modification of proteins (OMP were estimated in the blood serum with spectrophotometric method when length of the wave was 270nm (aliphatic aldehyde dinitrophenylhydrazones –APH and 363 nm (carbonyl dinitrophenylhydrazones – CPH. State of antioxidative system of protection was determined in accord with level of activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD. Results of investigations and their discussion Investigation of parameters of oxidative modification of proteins in groups under research permits to determine the highest content of spontaneous APH definitely, that the pregnant women with SDVNS have in comparison with women of control group (p<0.05. During estimation of metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins the

  5. Possibilities for transparency and trust in the communication between midwives and pregnant women: the case of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Zaino; Nilsson, Maria; Everett, Katherine; Emmelin, Maria

    2009-08-01

    to explore barriers to and possibilities for interactive communication between midwives and pregnant women regarding smoking behaviour during pregnancy. the study was based on a qualitative research design aiming at a Grounded Theory analysis of interviews with pregnant women. public sector antenatal clinics in Cape Town, South Africa predominantly providing care to women of mixed ancestry. in-depth interviews with 12 pregnant women purposively selected on the basis of smoking behaviour, age and marital status to reach maximum variation. the findings indicated low levels of transparency and trust in antenatal visits. Lack of trust was related to categories such as conflicting personal capabilities and socio-cultural and medical expectations, combined with a didactic approach from caregivers. The unworthy woman was identified as the core category of the interviews describing how women feel in their relationship with midwives. A theoretical model illustrates possibilities for change in relation to an ideal situation where a supportive caregiver, congruent expectations and capabilities result in women feeling visible. culturally appropriate smoking cessation interventions should be of high priority. Training in patient-centred counselling for midwives is necessary for creating an open dialogue with pregnant mothers about their smoking habits. The time constraint experienced by midwives also suggests that other methods apart from midwife counselling should be investigated for inclusion in the clinical setting.

  6. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  7. Detection of Zika virus infection among asymptomatic pregnant women in the North of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilg, Claudia; Troyes, Lucinda; Villegas, Zoila; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Mazulis, Fernando; Febres, Ammy; Troyes, Mario; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana

    2018-05-18

    To report an outbreak of ZIKV infection among asymptomatic pregnant women during 2016 in the city of Jaen, Cajamarca. Zika virus RNA was detected in 3.2% (n = 36) of cases by RT-PCR. The mean age of patients positive for ZIKV infection was 29.6 years. 7 patients (19.4%) infected with ZIKV were in their first-trimester of gestation, 13 (36.1%) were in their second-trimester, and 16 (44%) were in their third-trimester. All of the infected pregnant women were asymptomatic. ZIKV infection remains a major public health issue that calls for constant epidemiological surveillance. It can cause the congenital Zika virus syndrome in the newborns of infected mothers. The lack of molecular diagnostic methods in isolated localities and the similarity of symptoms to other arboviral infections, lead to an under-diagnosis of this disease in endemic areas.

  8. Frequency of Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, S. I.; Waheed, K.; Khanum, A.; Iqbal, R.; Eusaph, A. Z.; Hanif, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of Group B Streptococci (GBS) in pregnant patients in third trimester in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore. Study Design: Cross-sectional, prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Lady Willingdon Hospital, Lahore, from October 2014 to March 2015. Methodology: Sterile lower vaginal swabs were taken from 200 women aged 20 years and over, in third trimester, with no history of vaginal bleeding, ruptured membrane, recent intake of antibiotics or chronic illness. These swabs were cultured for detection of GBS. The risk factors of GBS and its frequency were noted in the pregnant population. Quantitative and qualitative data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was applied to see association between diagnosis of GBS and other categorical variables. P-value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In this study, the mean age of all the females was 26.36 ±4.32 years and mean duration of pregnancy was 35.54 ±2.65 weeks. Frequency of GBS in pregnant women was found as 14 percentage. We observed significant association of GBS with parity and previous history of miscarriage (p-value = 0.033 and 0.010 respectively). Moreover, significant association between vaginal discharge and GBS was also found (p = 0.027). Conclusion: GBS is present in a small but significant number of pregnant women in our setting and it has association with multiparity, vaginal discharge during pregnancy, and previous history of miscarriage. (author)

  9. Zika and Pregnancy: What Pregnant Women Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-13

    As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy.  Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 6/13/2016.

  10. Predictors of prenatal care satisfaction among pregnant women in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyinka, Oluwaseyi; Jukic, Anne Marie; McGarvey, Stephen T; Muasau-Howard, Bethel T; Faiai, Mata'uitafa; Hawley, Nicola L

    2017-11-16

    Pregnant women in American Samoa have a high risk of complications due to overweight and obesity. Prenatal care can mitigate the risk, however many women do not seek adequate care during pregnancy. Low utilization of prenatal care may stem from low levels of satisfaction with services offered. Our objective was to identify predictors of prenatal care satisfaction in American Samoa. A structured survey was distributed to 165 pregnant women receiving prenatal care at the Lyndon B Johnson Tropical Medical Center, Pago Pago. Women self-reported demographic characteristics, pregnancy history, and satisfaction with prenatal care. Domains of satisfaction were extracted using principal components analysis. Scores were summed across each domain. Linear regression was used to examine associations between maternal characteristics and the summed scores within individual domains and for overall satisfaction. Three domains of satisfaction were identified: satisfaction with clinic services, clinic accessibility, and physician interactions. Waiting ≥ 2 h to see the doctor negatively impacted satisfaction with clinic services, clinic accessibility, and overall satisfaction. Living > 20 min from the clinic was associated with lower clinic accessibility, physician interactions, and overall satisfaction. Women who were employed/on maternity leave had lower scores for physician interactions compared with unemployed women/students. Women who did not attend all their appointments had lower overall satisfaction scores. Satisfaction with clinic services, clinic accessibility and physician interactions are important contributors to prenatal care satisfaction. To improve patient satisfaction prenatal care clinics should focus on making it easier for women to reach clinics, improving waiting times, and increasing time with providers.

  11. Frequency of anti-HCV, Hbsag and related risk factors in pregnant women at Nishtar Hospital, Multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taseer, I.H.; Ishaq, F.; Hussain, L.; Safdar, S.; Mirbahar, A.M.; Faiz, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Viral hepatitis is a global issue. Among the hepatitis viruses hepatitis B and C are important in South Asia including Pakistan. There are various modes of transmission of these viruses. Vertical transmission is also gaining importance. Antepartum screening for HBV and HCV would help the infected women for appropriate antiviral therapy at appropriate time as well as for taking proper care of the newborns. The present study was designed to see the frequency of HBsAg and anti-HCV in pregnant women at Nishtar Hospital, Multan. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out using non-probability purposive sampling technique. The period of the study was from June 2006 to August 2007. Five hundred (500) pregnant women attending outpatient department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics were included. Informed consent was taken. A specially designed proforma was filled in. Anti-HCV and HBsAg were tested by device method. Data were analyzed on SPSS-11. Results: Out of 500 pregnant women 35 (7.00%) were found to be anti-HCV positive and 23 (4.60%) were positive for HBsAg. Mean age was 26.7+-4.8 years. Majority of the patients 263 (52.60%) were in the age group 26-35 years. 138 (27.60%) women were nulliparous and 282 (56.40%) were para 1-4 and anti-HCV and HBsAg were common in this parity group. Only 80 (16.00%) women were para 5 or more. All anti-HCV and HBsAg positive women were house-wives. Most of them were belonging to rural areas having poor socio-economic status. Among 35 anti-HCV positive women, 20 (57.14%) had history of previous surgery, while 13 (37.14%) had history of multiple injections, 5 (14.28%) received blood transfusion, 4 (11.42%) had ear/nose piercing while tattooing was seen in only 2 (5.71%). Among 23 HBsAg positive women, 10 (43.47%) had history of previous surgery. History of multiple injections was present in 6 (26.08%) patients, 4 (17.39%) patients had history of blood transfusion, tattooing, ear/nose piercing, history of dental

  12. Association of low-protein supplemented diets with fetal growth in pregnant women with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina B; Leone, Filomena; Attini, Rossella; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Deagostini, Maria Chiara; Ferraresi, Martina; Clari, Roberta; Ghiotto, Sara; Biolcati, Marilisa; Giuffrida, Domenica; Rolfo, Alessandro; Todros, Tullia

    2014-05-01

    Women affected by CKD increasingly choose to get pregnant. Experience with low-protein diets is limited. The aim of this study was to review results obtained from pregnant women with CKD on supplemented vegan-vegetarian low-protein diets. This was a single-arm, open intervention study between 2000-2012 of a low-protein diet in pregnant patients with stages 3-5 CKD or severe proteinuria (>1 g/d in the first trimester or nephrotic at any time). Stages 3-5 CKD patients who were not on low-protein diets for clinical, psychologic, or logistic reasons served as controls. The setting was the Obstetrics-Nephrology Unit dedicated to kidney diseases in pregnancy. The treated group included 24 pregnancies--21 singleton deliveries, 1 twin pregnancy, 1 abortion, and 1 miscarriage. Additionally, there were 21 controls (16 singleton deliveries, 5 miscarriages). The diet was a vegan-vegetarian low-protein diet (0.6-0.8 g/kg per day) with keto-acid supplementation and 1-3 protein-unrestricted meals allowed per week. Treated patients and controls were comparable at baseline for median age (35 versus 34 years), referral week (7 versus 8), eGFR (59 versus 54 ml/min), and hypertension (43.5% versus 33.3%); median proteinuria was higher in patients on the low-protein diet (1.96 [0.1-6.3] versus 0.3 [0.1-2.0] g/d; Pdiet group. Incidence of small for gestational age babies was significantly lower in the diet group (3/21) versus controls (7/16; chi-squared test; P=0.05). Throughout follow-up (6 months to 10 years), hospitalization rates and prevalence of children below the third percentile were similar in both groups. Vegan-vegetarian supplemented low-protein diets in pregnant women with stages 3-5 CKD may reduce the likelihood of small for gestational age babies without detrimental effects on kidney function or proteinuria in the mother.

  13. Guidelines for the Management of a Pregnant Trauma Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Venu; Chari, Radha; Maslovitz, Sharon; Farine, Dan; Bujold, Emmanuel; Gagnon, Robert; Basso, Melanie; Bos, Hayley; Brown, Richard; Cooper, Stephanie; Gouin, Katy; McLeod, N Lynne; Menticoglou, Savas; Mundle, William; Pylypjuk, Christy; Roggensack, Anne; Sanderson, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Physical trauma affects 1 in 12 pregnant women and has a major impact on maternal mortality and morbidity and on pregnancy outcome. A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to optimize outcome for both the mother and her fetus. The aim of this document is to provide the obstetric care provider with an evidence-based systematic approach to the pregnant trauma patient. Significant health and economic outcomes considered in comparing alternative practices. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library from October 2007 to September 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., pregnancy, Cesarean section, hypotension, domestic violence, shock) and key words (e.g., trauma, perimortem Cesarean, Kleihauer-Betke, supine hypotension, electrical shock). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English between January 1968 and September 2013. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to February 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). This guideline is expected to facilitate optimal and uniform care for pregnancies complicated by trauma. Summary Statement Specific traumatic injuries At this time, there is insufficient evidence to support the practice of disabling air bags for pregnant women. (III) Recommendations Primary survey 1. Every female of reproductive age with significant injuries should be considered pregnant until proven otherwise by a definitive pregnancy test or ultrasound scan. (III

  14. Use of Over-the-Counter Medication among Pregnant Women in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abduelmula R. Abduelkarem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over-the-counter medications are widely available in pharmacies Their safety profile, however, does not extend to pregnant women. Accordingly, there should be educational programs developed for pregnant women to protect them from the harms of the side effects. Aim. This study was planned and designed with the aim of exploring the awareness and assessing the usage of OTC medications among pregnant women in Sharjah, UAE. Method. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Results. More than three-quarters (75.7% reported that they are familiar with the term “over-the-counter drugs.” Interestingly, 40% of the respondents reported that they took OTC drugs during pregnancy, and the majority (94.2% agreed with the survey statement “not all OTC medications are safe to be taken during pregnancy.” Constipation was the most frequent side effect that most of the participants reported during the study period. Folic acid (36%, calcium (28.6%, and iron (35.1% were the most common supplements used by the pregnant women responding. Conclusion. The reported 40% usage of OTC medications among pregnant women in this study is worrisome and calls for the need to educate, counsel, and increase awareness among pregnant women regarding the dangers of OTC drugs usage while pregnant in Sharjah, UAE.

  15. Self-monitoring Lifestyle Behavior in Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women: Qualitative Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Draucker, Claire Burke

    Excessive maternal gestational weight gain increases pregnancy and infant complications. Self-monitoring has been shown to be an effective strategy in weight management. Literature, however, is limited in describing pregnant women's engagement in self-monitoring. This qualitative study explored the experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women who self-monitored their eating, walking, and weight as participants in an intervention for excessive gestational weight gain prevention. Thirteen overweight and obese pregnant women participated in semistructured interviews. Reflexive iteration data analysis was conducted. Five themes were identified: making self-monitoring a habit, strategies for self-monitoring, barriers to self-monitoring, benefits of self-monitoring, and drawbacks of self-monitoring. The women viewed self-monitoring as a "habit" that could foster a sense of self-control and mindfulness. Visual or tracing aids were used to maintain the self-monitoring habit. Forgetting, defective tracking aids, complexities of food monitoring, and life events could impede self-monitoring. Being unable to keep up with self-monitoring or to achieve goals created stress. Self-monitoring is a promising approach to weight management for overweight and obese pregnant women. However, healthcare providers should be aware that, although women may identify several benefits to self-monitoring, for some women, consistently trying to track their behaviors is stressful.

  16. Social justice and equal treatment for pregnant women in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    LL.D. This thesis critically evaluates the position of pregnant women (and women who have recently given birth) in the context of South African Labour Law and social security law, from both a comparative and a South African perspective. The fact that women fall pregnant and give birth to children, while men do not, raises issues of theoretical and practical importance in regard to equality issues. Pregnancy has historically been both the cause of and the occasion for the exclusion of many ...

  17. Population Pharmacokinetics of Dihydroartemisinin and Piperaquine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women with Uncomplicated Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J.; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boar...

  18. Relation of salivary antioxidant status and cytokine levels to clinical parameters of oral health in pregnant women with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdacka, Anna; Ciężka, Edyta; Pioruńska-Stolzmann, Maria; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa; Korybalska, Katarzyna; Kawka, Edyta; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Witowski, Janusz

    2011-05-01

    Both pregnancy and diabetes are thought to predispose to the impairment of oral health. As saliva contributes to oral homeostasis, we have characterised its properties and flow rate in pregnant women with or without diabetes. Unstimulated whole mixed saliva was collected from 63 women in the first trimester of pregnancy and analysed for the concentration of selected antioxidants, cytokines, and growth factors. Pregnant women with diabetes were found to have markedly increased indexes of caries activity, plaque formation, gingival and periodontal status, as well as increased salivary antioxidant capacity and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. These changes were more pronounced in patients with long-term disease and systemic diabetic complications, but only partly correlated with the level of blood glycated haemoglobin. Of the cytokines examined, salivary VEGF and HGF concentrations in diabetic pregnant women correlated in a positive and negative manner, respectively, with the prevalence of caries. Moreover, VEGF levels in this group correlated inversely with the probing depth and clinical attachment levels. All such associations did not occur in healthy individuals. In contrast, the salivary pH and flow rate correlated inversely with several parameters of caries and plaque formation irrespectively of whether the pregnant women were diabetic or not. Diabetes in pregnant women significantly changes saliva properties, which may contribute to accelerated deterioration of the oral status in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial Adaptation and Depressive Manifestations in High-Risk Pregnant Women: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskin, Gamze; Kaydirak, Meltem Mecdi; Oskay, Umran Yesiltepe

    2017-02-01

    High-risk pregnancy research has focused primarily on psychological well-being. The aim is to determine psychosocial adaptation and depression levels of pregnant women who were admitted to hospital with diagnosis of high-risk pregnancy. This study was descriptive. Sampling was composed of 122 high-risk pregnant women who were hospitalized in the perinatology service of Istanbul University Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between January 1, 2014, and May 31, 2014, and met the study criteria. The Pregnant Introduction Form, Psychosocial Adjustment of Illness Scale-Self Report, and CES Depression Scale were used. Of high-risk pregnant women, 47% were found to have a poor level of psychosocial adaptation and 57% presented with depressive symptoms. There were statistically significant difference found between the levels of psychosocial adaptation and status of depressive manifestations. The difference between the average scores increased as the adaptation levels weaken and the pregnant women with a poor level of psychosocial adaptation showed more depressive manifestations. The results of this study indicate that, depending on the high-risk pregnancy status, pregnant women experience difficulty in adaptation to their current status and pregnant women with a poor level of psychosocial adaptation showed more depressive manifestations. Nurses should deliver care in high-risk pregnancies with the awareness of physiological needs as well the psychosocial needs of pregnant women, and information meetings should be held in order to increase the psychosocial support of their families and decrease their tendency toward depression. Nursing initiatives should be developed with further studies for the psychosocial adaptation of high-risk pregnancy and reduction of the depressive manifestations. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Hostile and benevolent reactions toward pregnant women: complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebl, Michelle R; King, Eden B; Glick, Peter; Singletary, Sarah L; Kazama, Stephanie

    2007-11-01

    A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) customers. A second experiment revealed that pregnant women are especially likely to encounter hostility (from both men and women) when applying for masculine as compared with feminine jobs. The combination of benevolence toward pregnant women in traditional roles and hostility toward those who seek nontraditional roles suggests a system of complementary interpersonal rewards and punishments that may discourage pregnant women from pursuing work that violates gender norms. (c) 2007 APA

  1. [Interventions on the exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ting-ting; Chen, Xue-yun; Hu, De-wei; Mao, Zheng-zhong

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the extent of exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking; to undertake interventions on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those women toward passive smoking; and to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions. A total of 128 non-smoking pregnant women participated in the survey. Their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards passive smoking were measured by a self-administered questionnaire. A sixteen-week intervention was undertaken. The knowledge and attitudes of the non-smoking pregnant women towards passive smoking improved significantly, as well as their attempts to avoid exposure to the passive smoking brought by their smoking husbands or other family members. Telephone counseling, booklets and doctors' advices were the most acceptable approaches of health education. The comprehensive interventions are effective for improving the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of non-smoking women toward passive smoking.

  2. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  3. Distribution of HIV among pregnant women visiting a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Rijal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the distribution of HIV among the pregnant women visiting a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu. Methods: A total of 1 440 blood samples from pregnant women were collected and tested for antiHIV antibodies using rapid screening assay kits and ELISA in Paropakar Maternity and Women ’s Hospital during May to November, 2011. Results: The overall sero-prevalence of HIV among pregnant women was 0.62%, the prevalence being highest (1.4% in age group 35-39 years old, and during second trimester of gestation (0.75%. Similarly, it was found to be highest among the illiterates (1.92%, commercial sex worker (10.00% and those having multiple sexual partners (30.00%. Conclusions: Sero-prevalence of HIV infection was higher among the pregnant women of Kathmandu.

  4. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chin Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy.We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP, of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4, free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG.Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%, MnBP (81% and MECPP (86%. Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = -5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97 in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction.We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations.

  5. Development and validation of a new tool to measure Iranian pregnant women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, N S; Taghipour, A; Roudsari, R Latifnejad; Keramat, A

    2016-03-15

    Empowering pregnant women improves their health and reduces maternal mortality, but there is a lack of suitable tools to measure women's empowerment in some cultures. This study aimed to design and validate a questionnaire for measuring the dimensions of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. After a literature review, and face and content validity testing, a 38-item questionnaire was developed and tested on a sample of 161 pregnant women. Factor analysis grouped the items into 3 subscales: educational empowerment (e.g. prenatal training), autonomy (e.g. financial independency and mental ability) and sociopolitical empowerment (e.g. involvement in social and political activities). Criterion validity testing showed a strong positive correlation of the total scale and subscales scores with the Kameda and the Spritzer empowerment scales. Cronbach alpha was 0.92 for total empowerment. A total of 32 items remained in the Self-Structured Pregnancy Empowerment Questionnaire, which is a valid new tool to measure the dimensions of pregnant women's empowerment.

  6. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS HTLV VIRUS INFECTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is Epidemiologia e fatores de risco da infecção do vírus HTLV em gestantes important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  8. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  9. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  10. Effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on Streptococcus mutans counts in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Flavia Cristina; Jeremias, Fabiano; Spolidório, Denise Madalena Palomari; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Valsecki Junior, Aylton; Rosell, Fernanda Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral environment stabilization (OES) on the counting of Streptococcus mutans in high-caries-risk pregnant women participants of a prevention program in a public teaching institution. The sample was composed of 30 pregnant women aged 18 to 43 years, who looked for treatment at the Preventive Dentistry Clinic of the Araraquara Dental School, UNESP. Saliva samples were collected before and after the OES procedures and were forwarded to the pathology for observation and quantification of S. mutans CFU. There was a decrease in the number of S. mutans CFU, which was significantly different (pmutans CFU in the saliva of high-caries-risk pregnant women. This management is simple and effective, corresponding to the basic treatment needs of pregnant women that search dental care in this public service.

  11. Pathogenetic Substantiation of the Usability of the Natural Anticoagulant Sulodexide in a Combine Treatment of Pregnant Women with Premature Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Mielikova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical effectiveness of the Natural Anticoagulant Sulodexide at violations in system of a hemostasis at pregnant women with threat of premature births is studied. 57 pregnant women with threat of premature births are examined. At 31 women in a combine of treatment applied Sulodexide, at 26 – a heparin, at 20 the physiological current of a gestation is noted. Conducted all-clinical examination of pregnant women, estimated a condition of system of a hemostasis before combine treatment. At patients at threat of premature births essential have significant changes in the hemostatic system, manifested in thrombocyte hyper-aggregation and hyper-coagulation in the plasma link of hemostasis, as well as appearance of markers of activating the intravascular blood coagulation. Use of the natural anticoagulant sulodexide for pregnant women provided the high antithrombotic potential  and moderate anti-coagulative activity, contributed to normalization of rheological behavior of blood by influence on all links of a hemostasis, to improvement of the course of the gestational period and the functional state of the fetus.

  12. Exposure of pregnant women working on cathodic screen VDTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, G.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the rapid proliferation of the use of video display units for data processing, we have investigated the levels of the personnel exposure to parasit X-rays emission from these devices. The case of pregnant women was investigated because the greater part of the staff involved is female. In the worst case, the dose equivalent received by the foetus at the most exposed point is estimated at 0,01 μSv. This level is too low to cause any pathology. There is, therefore, no reason to discard pregnant women from the use of video display units [fr

  13. The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and its associated risk factors in North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.; Martina, S. J.; Syarifah, S.

    2018-03-01

    The gestation period is the period that determines the quality of human resources in the future because the development of the child is determined from the time of the fetus in utero. The most common nutrition problems suffered by pregnant women in Indonesia is Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) and anemia. The aim of this research to determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and the risk factors associated with anemia in urban and rural areas of North Sumatera Province. This research is as descriptive analyticwith cross-sectional approach. Total sample 140 pregnant women from the Medan City, Langkat District and South Labuhan Batu District, and was from June to October 2016. Data collected by using interviews, hemoglobinometer tool and analyzed with Chi-square test. Anemia was in 40.7% of pregnant women, and the incidence of anemia is more common in pregnant women in urban areas than in rural areas. The factors associated with anemia in pregnant women is parity, knowledge of nutrition, diet and the risk of chronic energy deficiency (p anemia in pregnant women in North Sumatra was higher than the national prevalence.

  14. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Mumbai, India: Experience from 1993-2004 and 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ira; Lala, Mamatha; Damania, Kaizad

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother–to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. Materials and Methods: All pregnant women referr...

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Oral and Dental Healthcare in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bamanikar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal child health clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, Brunei, Darussalam.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternal child health center in Brunei, Darussalam. The study group was comprised of 95 pregnant women attending the MCH clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, September 2010, using convenience sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used, after it was pre-tested and validated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version16.Results: Of the total study group, 97.9% responded to the questionnaire and participated in the study. All the women brushed at least twice daily. However, only 40.9% flossed daily, 31.2% brushed after meals and 26.9% had a dental check-up at least twice a year. The knowledge related to dental care was also poor among the pregnant women. Though the majority of them (96.8% agreed that women should have a dental check-up during pregnancy, only 55.9% actually practiced this. This raises serious concern since pregnant women may need extra oral and dental care due to susceptibility to gum diseases during pregnancy, which may contribute to low birth weight babies and premature births.Conclusion: This study highlights important gaps in dental knowledge and practices related to oral and dental healthcare among pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. More intense dental health education, including oral health promotion in maternal child health centers can lead to

  16. Oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    María José Aguilar-Cordero; Tania Rivero-Blanco; Norma Mur-Villar; Raquel Rodríguez-Blanque; María Dolores Moraleda-Hurtado; Luis Emilio Fernández-Curbero; Antonio Manuel Sánchez-López

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth...

  17. Food insecurity and alcohol use among pregnant women at alcohol-serving establishments in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N

    2014-06-01

    South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women.

  18. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan T. Ramlal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, arm muscle area (AMA, arm fat area (AFA, and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.

  19. Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD are widespread in China. Presently, IDD have been put under control by Universal Salt Iodisation (USI in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on whether the iodine status in adults, pregnant women and lactating women is optimal. This study was therefore conducted to assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women residing in areas where the USI program is fully established. DESIGN: Six areas were selected according to the geographical regions in China. In each of these areas, we selected 4 distinct groups of subjects (children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in regions where the coverage rate of iodised salt was more than 95% and the levels of iodine and fluoride in drinking water were less than or equal to 10 µg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. We tested the iodine content of salt, urinary iodine (UI, free thyroxin (FT4, thyrotropin (TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab and antimicrosomal antibody (TM-Ab in the 4 groups, and examined the thyroid volume in children. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine (MUI concentrations were 271.4 μg/L, 260.2 μg/L, 205.9 μg/L and 193.9 μg/L in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively; MUI in children and adults were more than adequate. The goitre prevalence (GP in children was 6.70%. The odds ratios (OR of subclinical hypothyroidism in the Tg-Ab- or TM-Ab-positive groups were 3.80, 7.65, 2.01 and 7.47 for children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively, compared with the negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in children and adults is above the requirement, we should reduce their iodine intake. Subclinical hypothyroidism easily occurs in the Tg-Ab or TM-Ab positive groups.

  20. Selenium deficiency and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with HIV in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Kehinde S; Olowoselu, Olusola F; Osanyin, Gbemisola E; John-Olabode, Sarah; Akanmu, Sulaimon A; Anorlu, Rose I

    2018-04-16

    To investigate the prevalence of maternal selenium deficiency and its effects on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with HIV in Lagos, Nigeria. The present descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled women aged 15-49 years with HIV who were at 14-26 weeks of a singleton pregnancy and were attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, between August 1, 2016, and April 30, 2017. Participants were selected by consecutive sampling and baseline data were collected through interviews. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure selenium concentrations, and associations between low maternal selenium concentrations (defined as <0.89 μmol/L) and pregnancy outcomes were examined using bivariate and multivariate analysis. The final analysis included 113 patients; selenium deficiency was recorded in 23 (20.4%) patients. Women with selenium deficiency had an approximately eight-fold higher risk of preterm delivery (adjusted odds ratio 7.61, 95% confidence interval 4.37-18.89; P=0.031) and of delivering a term neonate with a low delivery weight (adjusted odds ratio 8.11, 95% confidence interval 3.27-17.22; P=0.012), compared with women with a normal selenium concentration. The prevalence of selenium deficiency among pregnant women with HIV in Lagos was relatively high. The significant associations observed between maternal selenium deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes could have implications for the future management of HIV in pregnancy. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. Venous thromboembolism in pregnant and puerperal women in Denmark 1995-2005. A national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virkus, Rie Adser; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    -11 up to 59.0 (95% CI: 46.1 to 76.4) in week 40 and decreased in the puerperal period from 60.0 (95% CI:47.2-76.4) during the first week after birth to 2.1 (95% CI:1.1 to 4.2) during week 9-12 after birth. Compared with non-pregnant women, the incidence rate ratio rose from 1.5 (95% CI:1.1 to 1...... and in the postnatal period as compared to non-pregnant women. This was a historical controlled national cohort study. The National Registry of Patients identified relevant diagnoses. These data were linked to The National Registry of Medical Products Statistics for information about current use of oral contraceptives...

  2. Impact of a Counseling Program on Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Spiritual Intelligence in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batul Khodakarami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Recent studies showed that spirituality and spiritual intelligence in pregnant women are associated with mental reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of spiritual counseling on pregnant women's spiritual intelligence and common mental reactions during pregnancy. Methods: Inthis quasi-experimental study, 80 multiparous and nulliparous pregnant women were randomly selected from among pregnant women referring to our clinic. The patients were screened and then randomly assigned to intervention (n=40 and control (n=40 groups. The intervention group was divided into four groups of ten and then received spiritual counseling during eight sessions. The control group only received the routine care. The data was collected by using a demographic form, Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21, and King spiritual intelligence scale. Both groups were followed immediately and two months after the intervention. To analyze the data, descriptive and analytical statistics were used in SPSS, version 16. Results: Before the intervention, there was no significant difference in mean scores of depression, anxiety, stress, spiritual intelligence, and its components between the two groups (P>0.05. However, immediately and two month after the intervention, the results showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean scores of depression, anxiety, stress, spiritual intelligence, and its components (P0.05. The mean scores of spiritual intelligence and its components significantly increased over time (before, immediately, and two months after the intervention in the intervention group (P

  3. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, N.; Munir, A.A.; Majeed, R.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

  4. Intradermal injection of PPD as a novel approach of immunotherapy in anogenital warts in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Bayoumy I; Abou-Bakr, Amany A; El-Khalawany, Mohamed A

    2011-01-01

    Immunotherapy for treatment of recalcitrant warts was used through different modalities including intralesional injection of purified protein derivative (PPD), which is an extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, used for testing exposure to tuberculin protein, either from a previous vaccination or from the environment. This method is used to evaluate the efficacy of a new approach of intradermal injection of PPD in the treatment of anogenital warts in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women, aged 20-35 years, and presented with anogenital warts were enrolled in this study. Human papillomavirus (HPV) typing was done using the GP5+/GP6+ PCR assay. The patients were treated with weekly injections of PPD given intradermally in the forearms, and evaluated for the response regularly. HPV type-6 was the predominant genotype (67.5%). Overall, the improvement in this study was 85% and was related to the extent of tuberculin reactivity. Nineteen (47.5%) patients demonstrated complete clearance, 15 (37.5%) had partial response, and three (7.5%) had minimal response. Three (7.5%) cases did not respond to treatment. Side effects were minimal and insignificant. Treatment of anogenital warts in pregnant women with intradermal injection of PPD was found to be a unique, safe, and effective modality of immunotherapy. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nutritional Patterns in Pregnant Women Referred to Yasuj Health Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Amin Rezaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality and quantity of nutrition during pregnancy is very important. This study aimed at determining the nutritional patterns in pregnant women referred to Yasuj Health Care Centers. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 360 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy referred to Yasuj Health Care Centers were enrolled. FFQ questionnaire was used to determine the nutritional patterns. Results: The mean age was 26.4±4.9 years. Totally, 67.2% of pregnant women used frying as the method of cooking. Solid oils were used for cooking in 21.7% of participants. Monthly consumption of carbonated beverages was higher than milk and 67.5% of women received more and 24.2% received less calories than needed and only 8.3% received calories equivalent to their need. Totally, 81.1%, 63.3%, 55% 48.9%, and 83.9% iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and folate were less than recommendation by the RDA, respectively. Conclusion: The result of the present study revealed that the intakes of fruits, vegetables and some micronutrients such as iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and folate were less than recommendations in pregnant women in Yasuj. But fat intake and the intakes of food items in miscellaneous group were more than the recommendations. Nutritional educational programs seems necessary in order to create a healthy and desirable food pattern in this group.

  6. Low back pain in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic: The Aminu Kano teaching hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Mustapha Ibrahim; Abubakar, Muhammad Kabir; Muhammad, Shamsuddeen; Rabiu, Ayyuba; Garba, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The profound physiologic effects of pregnancy affect the musculoskeletal system. Pregnant women are at increased risks of low back/pelvic girdle pains. To determine the incidence of low back/pelvic girdle pains among pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May 1 to June 30, 2016, among consenting pregnant women at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Ethical approval was obtained from the Hospital Ethics Committee. Information was obtained in a questionnaire on consecutive pregnant women. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2012). Fisher's exact test was used for categorical data, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 309 pregnant women were recruited from May 1 to June 30, 2016. The mean age ± standard deviation was 28.4 ± 5.86 years. The incidence of low back pains (LBPs) and pelvic girdle pains among the pregnant women was 106 (34.3%) and 178 (57.6%), respectively. The pain was severe among 26 (9.2%) pregnant women, which warranted analgesic usage. Pain radiation was reported in> 50% of cases. There was an incidental finding of urinary incontinence in 36 (12.6%) cases. Low back/pelvic girdle pain was not associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.390). The incidence of LBPs and pelvic girdle pains was high and found to be 34.3% and 57.6%, respectively. Analgesics were used especially among those with severe pains. There was an incidental finding of urinary incontinence among pregnant women with complaints of low back/pelvic girdle pains. There was no statistically significant association between LBPs and maternal BMI.

  7. Impact of Extended Combination Antiretroviral Therapy on the Decline of HIV Prevalence in Pregnant Women in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Giuseppe; Chimbwandira, Frank; Wouters, Kristien; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Jere, Haswell; Mancinelli, Sandro; Ceffa, Susanna; Erba, Fulvio; Palombi, Leonardo; Marazzi, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce HIV transmission and incident infections. In recent years, Malawi has significantly increased the number of individuals on combination antiretroviral drugs through more inclusive treatment policies. Using a retrospective observational cohort design, records with HIV test results were reviewed for pregnant women attending a referral hospital in Malawi over a 5-year period, with viral load measurements recorded. HIV prevalence over time was determined, and results correlated with population viral load. A total of 11 052 women were included in this analysis, with 440 (4.1%) HIV infections identified. HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women in Malawi halved from 6.4% to 3.0% over 5 years. Mean viral loads of adult patients decreased from 120 000 copies/mL to less than 20 000 copies/mL. Results suggest that community viral load has an effect on HIV incidence rates in the population, which in turn correlates with reduced HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The efficacy of metformin in pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Shan, P F; Gu, W

    2013-11-01

    The role of metformin in the treatment of pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is controversial. Therefore, we evaluated whether the use of metformin during pregnancy in women with PCOS could reduce pregnancy-related complications. MEDLINE was searched to retrieve relevant trials. In addition, reviews and reference lists of the retrieved articles were scanned for further appropriate studies. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of complications of pregnancy, which included early pregnancy loss (EPL), gestational diabetes (GDM), pre-eclampsia (PE), and pre-term delivery (PD). In total, eight studies with 1106 patients were included. The pooled odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) of outcome for pregnant women with PCOS prescribed metformin were 0.32 (0.19-0.55) for EPL, 0.37 (0.25-0.56) for GDM, 0.53 (0.30-0.95) for PE and 0.30 (0.13-0.68) for PD. Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy decreased the OR of EPL, GDM, PE, and PD in pregnant PCOS women with no serious detrimental side effects.

  9. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  10. Malaria parasitemia amongst pregnant women attending selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...

  11. Correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jane Catherine; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen Jane; Crawford, David Andrew; Wilkinson, Shelley Ann

    2017-06-01

    to investigate correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain (GWG) knowledge commensurate with GWG guidelines. cross sectional quantitative study. an Australian tertiary level maternity hospital. pregnant women (n=1032) following their first antenatal visit. survey to assess GWG knowledge and a range of potential correlates of knowledge including socio-economic characteristics, pregnancy characteristics (parity, gestation, pre-pregnancy BMI) and GWG information procurement and GWG attitudinal variables. participants (n=366; 35.4% response) averaged 32.5 years of age with 33% speaking a language other than English. One third of women reported GWG knowledge consistent with guidelines. Women overweight prior to pregnancy were less likely to underestimate appropriate GWG (RRR 0.23, 95% CI=0.09-0.59). Conversely, women in the overweight (RRR 8.80, 95% CI=4.02-19.25) and obese (RRR 19.62, 95% CI=8.03-48.00) categories were more likely to overestimate GWG recommendations, while tertiary educated women were less likely to overestimate GWG (RRR 0.28, 95% CI=0.10-0.79). No associations were found between GWG knowledge and pregnancy, GWG information source or attitudinal variables. the findings highlight women's lack of GWG knowledge and the role of pre-pregnancy body mass index and women's education as correlates of GWG knowledge. Women susceptible to poor GWG knowledge should be a priority target for individual and community-based education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Suicidal behavior-related hospitalizations among pregnant women in the USA, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women.

  13. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in 2014, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Getaneh, Zegeye

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a cesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labor or in the puerperium. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was used to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital from January to April 2015. A total of 217 pregnant women were included in the study and a structured pretested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information, nutritional factors, obstetrics and gynecological factors, history and clinical condition. Blood samples were collected for platelet count and other platelet parameters, which were determined by using SysmexKX 21 automation. The data were entered to Epi info version 6 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariable and multivariable statistical analyses were used to evaluate the effect of independent variable over the dependent variable. A p -value of women receiving antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital participated in the study. Thrombocytopenia among 19 pregnant women showed a prevalence of 8.8%. The mean ± standard deviation platelet count was 238.85×10 9 /L (±74.57). Thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with patients who lived rurally (crude odds ratio =4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.48-12.76). The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 8.8% predominantly with mild type of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia was higher among pregnant women who lived rurally. Therefore, health care providers should screen routinely for thrombocytopenia to avoid excessive bleeding during pregnancy, especially in women who live

  14. [Quality of life of pregnant women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the city of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Maria do Carmo Braga do Amaral; Bortoletti, Fátima Ferrreira; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Souza, Eduardo de; Soárez, Patrícia Coelho de; Castelo Filho, Adauto; Amed, Abês Mahmed

    2014-05-01

    It was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of HIV-infected pregnant women using the HIV/AIDS - Targeted Quality of Life (HAT-QoL) questionnaire. A descriptive study of 60 pregnant women attended at the Multidisciplinary Nucleus of Infectious Diseases During Pregnancy (NUPAIG) - UNIFESP/EPM and in the referral network of the Municipal Office of São Paulo, conducted from February 2011 to October 2012. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected from 60 HIV-infected pregnant women who answered the HAT-QoL questionnaire, which included 34 questions about quality of life. The average age was 30 years and the average period of HIV infection was 5.7 years. Only 8.3% of patients had a CD4 cell score of ≤200 cells/mm³ and 45% showed undetectable viral load. The average domain scores ranged from 47.5 to 83.7. The domains with the lowest scores were financial concerns and concerns about secrecy. The domains with the highest scores and lower impact on quality of life were concerns about medication and confidence in the professional. In this initial study with 60 pregnant women, we concluded that the HAT-QOL can contribute to the assessment of quality of life in the population of HIV-infected pregnant women in Brazil.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  16. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine for the assessment of renal dysfunction in healthy pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewska, A. K.; Ronin-Walknowska, E.; Plonka, T.; Borowiak, K. S.; Janus, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy is associated with adaptive alterations affecting almost all organs and systems of the female body and is also a time when pathologies appear which would otherwise remain asymptomatic for many years. 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1H -MRS) of urine, a modern diagnostic method, can disclose discrete changes in organ function. It seemed interesting to search for pregnancy-dependent renal pathology in healthy women and thus prognosticate progression to overt disease after pregnancy. Objectives. To determine whether physiological pregnancy is accompanied by alterations in renal structures detectable by 1H-MRS of urine and to assess the type and reversibility of alterations. Material and Methods. Eighty women were enrolled in two groups: a study group (B) consisting of 40 healthy pregnant women and a control group (K) of 40 healthy nulligravida women. Enrollment criteria included normal health status, unrevealing physical and gynecological examination, and normal results of laboratory tests (complete blood count, urea, creatinine, uric acid, urinalysis). MRS of urine and laboratory tests were done in group B during each trimester (B1, B2, and B3, i.e. the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd trimesters, respectively) and six weeks after delivery (BP). In group K, the tests were done only once. The spectra were processed with MestReC software and then multidimensional statistical analysis using Unscrambler software was performed. The results were presented as the distribution of the variables in multidimensional space. Results. The patterns in multidimensional space revealed a clustering of points when comparing the first and third trimesters of pregnancy and comparing the third trimester and the healthy non-pregnant women. Also, a partial clustering of points comparing healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women after the puerperium was noticeable. Conclusions. Differences in 1H -MRS profiles of urine between healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women reflect

  17. Mobile Application for Pregnant Women: What Do Mothers Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Janine; Daus, Mariana; Smith, María; Luna, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Today, health information technologies are constantly expanding and changing, allowing more and more people to use different mobile applications to receive information and control their health condition. Based on the need to implement an application for pregnant women in the Personal Health Record (PHR) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA), an Australian survey was carried out to measure the use and utility of a pregnancy application (pregnancy app). Our results were broadly in agreement with the reference values. The survey was distributed through social networks (Facebook and Twitter) during September 2016. We obtained 235 responses from Spanish-speaking women, mostly Argentinian. In conclusion, it could be observed that a pregnancy app offers the possibility of a greater follow-up and provides reassurance to the pregnant women who use it.

  18. Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ, 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ≥900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women.

  19. Lead Level in Pregnant Women Suffering from Pre- Ec-lampsia in Baghdad City- Iraq

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    Assala G. H. Al-Shammery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on the number of pregnant women suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia who live in different areas in Baghdad city. These areas were suffering from air pol-lution by different pollutants in high rates and it was chosen from among these pollutants lead metal which is a high percentage of air pollution where it was observed by measuring the level of lead in blood serum which taken from pregnant women by 40 pregnant women suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia and 20 pregnant women don't suffering from any abnormal symptoms during pregnancy period and classified as control group , so we found marked a significant rise in lead level in comparison with control group reaching ratio of lead in blood of pregnant women which suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia 38.44 mg/dl ± 3.0 mg/dl in comparison with con-trol group which 14.56 mg/d l± 2.50 mg/dl,this increase may refer to the amount of lead which found in the air and in excess of the normal limit which exposed pregnant women like all people through the overcrowding of roads and use fuel non-environmentally friendly through breathing which effect on pregnant women health, it has been shown on symptoms of preeclampsia from measuring systolic and diastolic blood pressure and measuring of urea in blood, T-test was used at possibility of(0.001to see the difference between infected samples and control group, therefore this study suggested that a lead is one of the causes of preeclampsia because live in polluted and unhealthy environment. (pt space line

  20. Estimating Rate of Insulin Resistance in Patients with Preeclampsia Using HOMA-IR Index and Comparison with Nonpreeclampsia Pregnant Women

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    Farideh Rezaei Abhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P < 0.001, P = 0.021. Insulin-resistance of the group with preeclampsia was higher in first trimester prior to diagnosis as well as the third trimester after diagnosis compared to natural pregnancy under similar conditions. Measurement of insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  1. Estimating rate of insulin resistance in patients with preeclampsia using HOMA-IR index and comparison with nonpreeclampsia pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Farideh Rezaei; Ghanbari Andarieh, Maryam; Farokhfar, Asadollah; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2014-01-01

    Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR) revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P < 0.001, P = 0.021). Insulin-resistance of the group with preeclampsia was higher in first trimester prior to diagnosis as well as the third trimester after diagnosis compared to natural pregnancy under similar conditions. Measurement of insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  2. Parity implications for anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, L; Cuervo, M; Santiago, S; Zazpe, I; Martínez, J A

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining an adequate health status and appropriate lifestyles during pregnancy is of great importance to prevent adverse outcomes for both mother and baby. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status, socio-demographic features, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits of pregnant women in Spain, and to identify the influence of parity on these profiles. This cross-sectional study included pregnant women from regions all over Spain. The information was collected through a 40 item questionnaire, previously validated by community health professionals. The 5,087 pregnant women analyzed had an average age of 31.9 years with an adequate nutritional status. The distribution of the sample was 56% nulliparous and 44% multiparous. The nulliparous reported a better self-perceived health status and nutritional balance, and a lower incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the multiparous showed healthier lifestyle habits (lower rates of smoking and alcohol consumption) and more physically active patterns. Regarding diet, nulliparous pregnant women consumed more dairy products, fresh fruit and nuts, and less bread, rice/pasta/potatoes, meat, sausage and buns/pastries than multiparous pregnant women. Differences between analyzed patterns were observed in anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits, which may require different nutritional messages to nulliparous as compared to multiparous from a public health point of view.

  3. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester , third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These

  4. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. Materials and Methods A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Results Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third

  5. Oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Urlaub, Diana M; Massey, Katie E; Moos, Merry-K; Matheson, Matthew B; Lorenz, Carol

    2010-05-01

    Daily oral hygiene and regular dental visits are important components of oral health care. The authors' objective in this study was to examine women's oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. The authors developed a written oral health questionnaire and administered it to 599 pregnant women. They collected demographic information, as well as data on oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. They used chi2 and multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between oral hygiene practice and dental service use during pregnancy and to identify maternal predictor variables. Of the 599 participants, 83 percent (n=497) reported brushing once or twice per day. Twenty-four percent (n=141) reported flossing at least once daily; Hispanic women were more likely to floss than were white or African American women (28 percent [52 of 183] versus 22 percent [54 of 248] versus 19 percent [23 of 121], respectively, Pdental care during pregnancy. Hispanic women were significantly less likely than were black or white women to receive routine dental care during pregnancy (13 percent versus 21 percent versus 36 percent, respectively, Pdental care when not pregnant were significantly associated with lack of routine dental care during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratios, 95 percent confidence intervals: 2.56 [1.33-4.92]; 2.19 [1.11-4.29]; 2.02 [1.12-3.65]; 1.86 [1.13-3.07]; and 4.35 [2.5-7.69], respectively). A woman's lack of receiving routine dental care when not pregnant was the most significant predictor of lack of receiving dental care during pregnancy. Racial, ethnic and economic disparities related to oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization during pregnancy exist. Medical and dental care providers who treat women of reproductive age and pregnant women need to develop policy strategies to address this population's access barriers to, and use of, dental care services.

  6. Seatbelt use by pregnant women: a survey of knowledge and practice in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W C; To, W Wk; Ma, E Sk

    2016-10-01

    The use of motor vehicles is common during pregnancy. Correct seatbelt use during pregnancy has been shown to protect both the pregnant woman and her fetus. This survey aimed to evaluate the practices, beliefs, and knowledge of Hong Kong pregnant women of correct seatbelt use, and identify factors leading to reduced compliance and inadequate knowledge. A self-administered survey was completed by postpartum women in the postnatal ward at the United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong, from January to April 2015. Eligible surveys were available from 495 women. The primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant women who maintained or reduced seatbelt use during pregnancy. Secondary outcomes were analysed and included knowledge of correct seatbelt use, as well as contributing factors to non-compliance and inadequate knowledge. There was decreased compliance with seatbelt use during pregnancy and the decrease was in line with increasing gestation. Pregnant women's knowledge about seatbelt use was inadequate and only a minority had received relevant information. Women who held a driving licence and had a higher education level were more likely to wear a seatbelt before and during pregnancy. Women with tertiary education or above knew more about seatbelt use. Public health education for pregnant women in Hong Kong about road safety is advisable, and targeting the lower-compliant groups may be more effective and successful.

  7. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-27

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  8. Study of peripheral circulation in non-pregnant, pregnant and pre-eclamptic women using applied potential tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Badreldeen

    2004-08-01

    Profound changes are known to occur in the cardiovascular system during pregnancy, involving an increase in cardiac output and a fall in peripheral resistance. In some women these adaptations may be inappropriate and this may result in pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia. The aims of the study were to evaluate the relatively new, non-invasive technique of applied potential tomography (APT) in measurements of peripheral blood flow, to study peripheral blood flow in a sample of non-pregnant, pregnant and pre-eclamptic women, and to investigate whether the adaptive changes in the peripheral circulation are different in pre-eclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. Applied potential tomography was used to assess peripheral vascular reactivity, by monitoring fluid distribution in calf muscles during postural change. The APT technique was able to detect peripheral vasoconstriction in response to an increase in intramural pressure brought about by passive lowering of the leg (peripheral mechanisms). The peripheral vasoconstriction response was found to be more prominent in woman with pre-eclampsia. The presence of a local reflex in the lower limb had been postulated and the effect of this reflex on the peripheral circulation could be detected using APT, regardless of how it was initiated. In normal pregnant women this reflex was diminished when compared to non-pregnant women, which might contribute to the reduction in peripheral vascular resistance seen in normal pregnancy. This reflex was defective in pre-eclampsia and this lack of adaptation may be a local reflex contributing to the raised peripheral resistance, which in turn may be a factor in high blood pressure in pre-eclampsia.

  9. Iron status in pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Wallace, Julie M W; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Robson, Paula J; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Thomas W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J

    2010-03-01

    To establish the Fe status of pregnant women and their neonates in the Republic of Seychelles. A prospective study. Republic of Seychelles. Pregnant women were recruited and blood samples taken at enrolment and post-delivery along with cord blood samples. Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in maternal (n 220) and cord blood (n 123) samples. Maternal Fe deficiency (ferritin 28 nmol/l) was present in 6 % of subjects at enrolment and in 20 % at delivery. There was no significant decrease in maternal ferritin. A significant increase in sTfR was observed between enrolment and delivery (P < 0.001). Maternal BMI and use of Fe supplements at 28 weeks' gestation were associated with improved maternal Fe status at delivery, whereas parity had a negative effect on sTfR and ferritin at delivery. Fe status of pregnant Seychellois women was, on average, within normal ranges. The incidence of Fe deficiency throughout pregnancy in this population was similar to that in a Westernised population. Increased awareness of the importance of adequate Fe intake during pregnancy, particularly in multiparous women, is warranted.

  10. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Batista Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby–Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients’ age, colony count, type(s of identified bacterial(s and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coli and S. aureus were the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.

  11. [Marital status and the severity of perinatal depression among pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolska, Magdalena; Sipak-Szmigiel, Olimpia

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation existing for ages in all human cultures is becoming more common since the 1960s due to complex changes in postmodern societies. These societies have made the phenomenon of cohabitation the object of adequate theoretical reflection. The aim of this work was to determine whether the marital status of pregnant women affects the severity of perinatal depression. We enrolled 117 gravida hospitalized in 2006 and 2007 at the Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University. The gestational age ranged from week 32 to 40. The clinical condition of each gravida was assessed during routine obstetric history taking. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale by Cox, Holden, and Sagovski was used as the screening test for perinatal depression. 1. The marital status of the gravida with emphasis on cohabitation is a significant correlate of perinatal depression and its risk. 2. Clinical examination should concentrate not only on the physical and medical condition but also on the psychosocial status of the patient as the predictor of perinatal depression. 3. All pregnant women living in informal partnerships should be offered psychological support.

  12. Risk factors of development of inflammatory diseases of parodentium in pregnant women

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    Dubrovskaya M.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affect inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnant women. The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. Material and methods: The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 240 women with physiological pregnancy and 360 with pregnancy complicadet by gestosis. Re-sults: Freguency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnancy were defined. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Conclusion: Violations of immune homeostasis at the pregnancy, complicated gestosis, authentically are more expressed that contributes to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease. The imbalance of cytokines can serve in oral liquid as additional diagnostic and predictive marker of severity of a course of inflammatory periodontal disease.

  13. Depression and Treatment Among U.S. Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Reproductive Age, 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jean Y.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Robbins, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is often undiagnosed and untreated. It is not clear if differences exist in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among pregnant and nonpregnant women. We sought to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed depression, treatment by modality, and treatment barriers by pregnancy status among U.S. reproductive-aged women. Methods We identified 375 pregnant and 8,657 nonpregnant women 18–44 years of age who met criteria for past-year major depressive episode (MDE) from 2005–2009 nationally representative data. Chi-square statistics and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated. Results MDE in pregnant women (65.9%) went undiagnosed more often than in nonpregnant women (58.6%) (aPR 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–1.3). Half of depressed pregnant (49.6%) and nonpregnant (53.7%) women received treatment (aPR 1.0, 95% CI 0.90–1.1), with prescription medication the most common form for both pregnant (39.6%) and nonpregnant (47.4%) women. Treatment barriers did not differ by pregnancy status and were cost (54.8%), opposition to treatment (41.7%), and stigma (26.3%). Conclusions Pregnant women with MDE were no more likely than nonpregnant women to be diagnosed with or treated for their depression. PMID:22691031

  14. [Factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12,112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gestational weeks in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa. Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases (98.30%, 11,906/12,112). It was found that 10,354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11,906) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11,906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11,906) with low grade squamous intraepithelial (LSIL), 74 women (0.62%, 74/11,906) with high grade squamous intraepithelial (HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR(ASCUS) = 2.90, OR(AGUS) = 7.32), number of sex partners (OR(ASCUS) = 1.49, OR(AGUS) = 2.02), number of abortion (OR(ASCUS) = 1.68, OR(AGUS) = 3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR(LSIL) = 6.34, OR(HSIL) = 9.26), number of sex partners (OR(LSIL) = 1.69, OR(HSIL) = 1.65), number of abortion (OR(LSIL) = 1.53, OR(HSIL) = 5.33), smoking (OR(LSIL) = 1

  15. Determinants of pregnant women's compliance with alcohol guidelines: a prospective cohort study

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    Anderson Amy E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, Australian alcohol guidelines for pregnancy changed from low to no alcohol intake. Previous research found a high proportion of pregnant Australian women drank during pregnancy; however, there has been limited investigation of whether pregnant women comply with 2009 alcohol guidelines. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of pregnant women’s compliance with 2009 Australian alcohol guidelines and identify predictors of such compliance, including previous drinking behaviour. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of prospective data from the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health was conducted. Women aged 30–36 years who were pregnant at the 2009 survey and had data on alcohol use were included (n = 837. Compliance with 2009 alcohol guidelines for pregnancy was defined as no alcohol intake. Predictors of compliance were analysed using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for area of residence, in three separate models to account for multicollinearity between measures of previous alcohol intake (compliance with 2001 guidelines; frequency and quantity; bingeing. Private health insurance, household income, and illicit drug use were entered into all models and retained if significant. Results 72% of pregnant women did not comply with the 2009 alcohol guidelines and 82% of these women drank less than seven drinks per week, with no more than one or two drinks per drinking day. The odds of complying with abstinence increased by a factor of 3.48 (95% CI 2.39-5.05 for women who previously complied with the 2001 alcohol guidelines and decreased by a factor of 0.19 (95% CI 0.08-0.66 if household incomes were $36,400 or more. In other models the odds of complying were lower for women who consumed alcohol before pregnancy at least weekly (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.63 or binged (OR ≥ 0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.31 and were higher for those who abstained (OR

  16. Health-related quality of life of pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'alba, Valesca; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Krahe, Cláudio; Bruch, Juliana Paula; Alves, Bruna Cherubini; Barros, Sérgio Gabriel Silva de

    2015-01-01

    Heartburn and regurgitation frequently occur in the third trimester of pregnancy, but their impact on quality of life has not been thoroughly investigated. To measure health-related quality of life of third-trimester pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation. Methods Data on obstetric history, heartburn and regurgitation frequency and intensity, history of heartburn and regurgitation and health-related quality of life were collected of 82 third-trimester pregnant women. Sixty-two (76%) women had heartburn, and 58 (71%), regurgitation; 20 were asymptomatic. Mean gestational age was 33.8±3.7 weeks; 35 (43%) women had a family history of heartburn and/or regurgitation, and 57 (70%) were asymptomatic before pregnancy. The following quality of life concepts were significantly reduced: physical problems and social functioning for heartburn; physical problems and emotional functioning for regurgitation. There was agreement between heartburn in present and previous pregnancies. Heartburn and/or regurgitation affected health-related quality of life of third trimester pregnant women.

  17. HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH HEARTBURN AND REGURGITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valesca DALL'ALBA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Heartburn and regurgitation frequently occur in the third trimester of pregnancy, but their impact on quality of life has not been thoroughly investigated. Objective To measure health-related quality of life of third-trimester pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation. Methods Data on obstetric history, heartburn and regurgitation frequency and intensity, history of heartburn and regurgitation and health-related quality of life were collected of 82 third-trimester pregnant women. Results Sixty-two (76% women had heartburn, and 58 (71%, regurgitation; 20 were asymptomatic. Mean gestational age was 33.8±3.7 weeks; 35 (43% women had a family history of heartburn and/or regurgitation, and 57 (70% were asymptomatic before pregnancy. The following quality of life concepts were significantly reduced: physical problems and social functioning for heartburn; physical problems and emotional functioning for regurgitation. There was agreement between heartburn in present and previous pregnancies. Conclusion Heartburn and/or regurgitation affected health-related quality of life of third trimester pregnant women

  18. Are pregnant women of non-Northern European descent more anaemic than women of Northern European descent? A study into the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, S. M. P. J.; Daemers, D. O. A.; de Vos, R.; Lagro-Jansen, A. L. M.

    2009-01-01

    to investigate the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy according to the cut-off points used in the national clinical guideline 'Anaemia in Primary Care Midwifery Practice', and to investigate a possible difference in prevalence between pregnant women of Northern European descent compared with women

  19. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital. Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. Setting: Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe between June 1996 and June ...

  20. Pharmacokinetics of total and unbound darunavir in HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbers, Angela; Moltó, José; Ivanovic, Jelena; Kabeya, Kabamba; Hawkins, David; Gingelmaier, Andrea; Taylor, Graham; Weizsäcker, Katharina; Sadiq, S Tariq; Van der Ende, Marchina; Giaquinto, Carlo; Burger, David

    2015-02-01

    To describe the pharmacokinetics of darunavir in pregnant HIV-infected women in the third trimester and post-partum. This was a non-randomized, open-label, multicentre, Phase IV study in HIV-infected pregnant women recruited from HIV treatment centres in Europe. HIV-infected pregnant women treated with darunavir (800/100 mg once daily or 600/100 mg twice daily) as part of their combination ART were included. Pharmacokinetic curves were recorded in the third trimester and post-partum. A cord blood sample and maternal sample were collected. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under number NCT00825929. Twenty-four women were included in the analysis [darunavir/ritonavir: 600/100 mg twice daily (n=6); 800/100 mg once daily (n=17); and 600/100 mg once daily (n=1)]. Geometric mean ratios of third trimester versus post-partum (90% CI) were 0.78 (0.60-1.00) for total darunavir AUC0-tau after 600/100 mg twice-daily dosing and 0.67 (0.56-0.82) for total darunavir AUC0-tau after 800/100 mg once-daily dosing. The unbound fraction of darunavir was not different during pregnancy (12%) compared with post-partum (10%). The median (range) ratio of darunavir cord blood/maternal blood was 0.13 (0.08-0.35). Viral load close to delivery was HIV-negative and no congenital abnormalities were reported. Darunavir AUC and Cmax were substantially decreased in pregnancy for both darunavir/ritonavir regimens. This decrease in exposure did not result in mother-to-child transmission. For antiretroviral-naive patients, who are adherent, take darunavir with food and are not using concomitant medication reducing darunavir concentrations, 800/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir once daily is adequate in pregnancy. For all other patients 600/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir twice daily is recommended during pregnancy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.