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Sample records for pregnant women high

  1. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

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    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  2. Fibrinolytic changes in pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

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    Osime, Odaburhine E; Ese-Onakewhor, Joseph U; Kolade, Samson O

    2015-02-01

    To report on the changes in fibrinolytic activity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected pregnant women who are undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Blood was collected from 50 HIV positive women on HAART (test subjects), and 50 HIV positive women not on HAART (controls). These women were attending the prevention of mother to child clinic (PMTCT) of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Standard manual techniques were used to estimate plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma viscosity (PV). The mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) of PFC was 4.02±0.13 g/l and ELT from the test subjects was 378±15 mins was significantly higher (p0.05). There were differences in the various parameters investigated when the various trimesters were compared. These differences did not, however, follow a particular pattern. Highly active antiretroviral therapy can cause changes in fibrinolytic activity that may predispose pregnant women to hyperfibrinogenemia and anemia.

  3. PREGNANT WOMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women attending an antenatal clinic and gynaeco- logical clinic ... Other observa- tions are less specific and may be part of the gen- .... be due to the high levels of corticosteroids though there is no direct proof ... Scully C, Cawson RA. Medical ...

  4. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

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    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  5. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  6. Nutrient intake of pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes

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    Jelena Meinilä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design: Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n=394 were examined at baseline (≤20 weeks of pregnancy of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study. Results: The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7, saturated fatty acids (SFA 12 en% (SD 3, and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6. Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3, which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4 (p<0.001. Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions: The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take.

  7. High protein and iron-folate crackers supplementation on the iron status of pregnant women

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    Faisal Anwar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that several factors influenced the relatively low success of iron supplementation for pregnant women. The factors included poor distribution, low coverage and compliance, as well as low absorption. The aim of this study is to measure the iron status of pregnant women after consuming crackers containing fish powder and iron-folate. This study was carried out in the Purworejo district (Central Java from February through October 2002. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT design, 70 pregnant women in their second-third month of pregnancy were recruited, and divided into two groups. Ten women dropped out during the study. The first group consisted of 28 women were given protein – iron enriched crackers (PIEC group, while the second group of 32 women were given iron–enriched crackers (IEC group for a total of 12 weeks. The results showed that the hemoglobin (Hb levels and serum transferrin receptors (sTfR of both groups were increased. Serum ferritins (SF of both groups were decreased. At the end of the study, the increase in Hb and sTfR levels between the two groups were significantly different, while the decrease in SF was not significantly different. Animal protein from fish powder tended to improve absorption of non-heme iron among pregnant women, resulting in improved Hb and sTfR levels. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 243-6Keywords: pregnant women, anemia, iron deficiency, high protein crackers

  8. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Improves Endothelial Function in Pregnant Women at High Risk of Preeclampsia.

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    McLaughlin, Kelsey; Baczyk, Dora; Potts, Audrey; Hladunewich, Michelle; Parker, John D; Kingdom, John C P

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been investigated for the prevention of severe preeclampsia, although the mechanisms of action are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of LMWH in pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia. Pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia (n=25) and low-risk pregnant controls (n=20) at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation underwent baseline cardiovascular assessments. High-risk women were then randomized to LMWH or saline placebo (30 mg IV bolus and 1 mg/kg subcutaneous dose). Cardiovascular function was assessed 1 and 3 hours post randomization. The in vitro endothelial effects of patient serum and exogenous LMWH on human umbilical venous endothelial cells were determined. High-risk women demonstrated a reduced cardiac output, high resistance hemodynamic profile with impaired radial artery flow-mediated dilation compared with controls. LMWH increased flow-mediated dilation in high-risk women 3 hours after randomization compared with baseline and increased plasma levels of placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and myeloperoxidase. Serum from high-risk women impaired endothelial cell angiogenesis and increased PlGF-1 and PlGF-2 transcription compared with serum from low-risk controls. Coexposure of high-risk serum with LMWH improved the in vitro angiogenic response such that it was equivalent to that of low-risk serum and promoted placental growth factor secretion. LMWH improves maternal endothelial function in pregnant women at high risk of developing preeclampsia, possibly mediated through increased placental growth factor bioavailability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Clinical risk factors for gestational hypertensive disorders in pregnant women at high risk for developing preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Tsz Y.; Groen, Henk; Faas, Marijke M.; van Pampus, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate clinical risk factors for the development of gestational hypertensive disorders in a group of pregnant women at high risk for developing preeclampsia. Secondly we evaluated the incidence and recurrence rate of preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Study design: A

  10. Clinical risk factors for gestational hypertensive disorders in pregnant women at high risk for developing preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Tsz Y.; Groen, Henk; Faas, Marijke M.; van Pampus, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate clinical risk factors for the development of gestational hypertensive disorders in a group of pregnant women at high risk for developing preeclampsia. Secondly we evaluated the incidence and recurrence rate of preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Study design: A p

  11. QT interval changes in term pregnant women living at moderately high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmaz, G; Aksoy, A N; Aydın, S; Ay, N K; Dane, B

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the QT interval changes in women with term pregnancy living at moderately high altitude (1890 m in Erzurum, Turkey) with those of women living at sea level (31 m in İstanbul, Turkey). One-hundred ten women (n = 55, for each group) with full-term and single child pregnancies. Two different locations in that state were selected: İstanbul, Turkey, which is at 31 m above sea level (Group 1) and Erzurum, Turkey, at 1890 m above sea level (Group 2). Physicians from the two locations participated in the study. We estimated QTc, QTc Max, QTc Min, QT, and QTcd intervals. Moderately high altitude group had significantly longer QT parameters (QTc, QTc Max, QTc Min, QT, and QTcd intervals) compared with sea level group (P anges occur in term pregnant women living moderately high altitude. These changes may be associated with pregnancy-related cardiovascular complications in moderately high altitude.

  12. Eating behavior and body image perception of pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center

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    Raquel Guimarães Nobre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256

  13. [Study on the iodine status of pregnant women and thyroid function of neonate in high iodine area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Qin; Sang, Zhong-Na; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Shu-Fen; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Na; Tan, Long; Zhang, Wan-Qi

    2012-03-01

    To reveal the iodine status of pregnant women and its impact on thyroid function of neonates in high iodine area. A total of 210 pregnant women were chosen from a hospital in Haixing county, Hebei province. Pregnant women's random urinary and neonates' cord blood were collected. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was examined by arsenic-cerium catalytic spectrophotometry. The levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (sTSH) in serum were measured by chemiluminescence. The age of 210 pregnant women was (27.69 +/- 4.73) years old, whose urinary iodine median (inter-quartile range ) was 1240.70 (1292.68) microg/L. 84.3% (177/210) of the pregnant women had excessive iodine intake (UIC > or = 500 microg/L), 13.8% (29/210) had more than adequate iodine intake( UIC within 250 - 499 microg/L), 0.5% (1/210) had adequate iodine intake (UIC within 150 - 249 microg/L) and 1.4% (3/210) had insufficient iodine intake (UIC pregnant women's urinary iodine level and neonates' serum FT3 and sTSH level (P > 0.05), but there was a positive correlation between pregnant women's urinary iodine level and neonates' serum FT4 level (P pregnant women in high iodine area were excessive for iodine nutrition, but still a few pregnant women had insufficient iodine nutrition. The level of neonates' serum sTSH were relatively high and monitoring of risk of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism should be strengthened.

  14. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  15. High prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women in South India

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    Nabhi VR. Murty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid dysfunction is one of the commonest endocrinopathies seen in pregnancy and affects both maternal and fetal outcomes. There is little data available on its prevalence in Indian pregnant women. This study was conducted at Bhaskar medical college and hospital situated in a rural/suburban area near Hyderabad, Telengana, India. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of thyroid disease among pregnant women. Methods: All consecutive pregnant women registered from January 2014 to December 2014 were included in the study. Morning samples of serum were tested for T3, T4 and TSH. Results: A total of 1340 women were included in the study. 260 pregnant women (19.41% had TSH values more than 3.0 mIU/L, the cut-off value used for upper limit of normal in this study. Out of these, 216 had normal T4 value, hence labeled as subclinical hypothyroidism and 44 had low T4, hence termed overt hypothyroidism. Three pregnant women had overt hyperthyroidism and 11 had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Nine women had low T4 values-Isolated hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Prevalence of thyroid disease in pregnancy was found to be higher in our patients, more so the sub clinical hypothyroidism. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 453-456

  16. High uptake of HIV testing in pregnant women in Ontario, Canada.

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    Robert S Remis

    Full Text Available In 1999, Ontario implemented a policy to offer HIV counseling and testing to all pregnant women and undertook measures to increase HIV testing. We evaluated the effectiveness of the new policy by examining HIV test uptake, the number of HIV-infected women identified and, in 2002, the HIV rate in women not tested during prenatal care. We analyzed test uptake among women receiving prenatal care from 1999 to 2010. We examined HIV test uptake and HIV rate by year, age and health region. In an anonymous, unlinked study, we determined the HIV rate in pregnant women not tested. Prenatal HIV test uptake in Ontario increased dramatically, from 33% in the first quarter of 1999 to 96% in 2010. Test uptake was highest in younger women but increased in all age groups. All health regions improved and experienced similar test uptake in recent years. The HIV rate among pregnant women tested in 2010 was 0.13/1,000; in Toronto, the rate was 0.28 per 1,000. In the 2002 unlinked study, the HIV rate was 0.62/1,000 among women not tested in pregnancy compared to 0.31/1,000 among tested women. HIV incidence among women who tested more than once was 0.05/1,000 person-years. In response to the new policy in Ontario, prenatal HIV testing uptake improved dramatically among women in all age groups and health regions. A reminder to physicians who had not ordered a prenatal HIV test appeared to be very effective. In 2002, the HIV rate in women who were not tested was twice that of tested women: though 77% of pregnant women had been tested, only 63% of HIV-infected women were tested. HIV testing uptake was estimated at 98% in 2010.

  17. Validation of the High-Risk Pregnancy Stress Scale in a sample of hospitalized Greek high-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Karpathiotaki, Natassa; Karapanou, Vassiliki; Antzaklis, Panos; Daskalakis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the authors in this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Greek adaptation of the High-Risk Pregnancy Stress Scale (HRPSS) in a sample of high-risk hospitalized pregnant women. The sample consisted of 133 high-risk pregnant women with gestational age from 9 to 37 weeks. Data were collected between February and June of 2014. HRPSS was "forward-backward" translated from English to Greek. Principal axis factoring with promax rotation was used to test the factor structure of the HRPSS. Measures of state anxiety (STAI) and depressive symptoms (EPDS) were used to assess the convergent validity of the HRPSS. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three factors: concerns of pregnancy, movement restriction, and isolation and restriction of external activities. Construct validity was confirmed by computing correlations between the HRPSS and constructions of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory (α = 0.813). The original factor structure of the HRPSS was only partly replicated. The results of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor solution instead of a two-factor solution would be the most adequate. The HRPSS is an appropriate measure for assessing the levels of concerns regarding pregnancy outcome, movement restriction, isolation, and external activity restrictions in Greek high-risk pregnant women.

  18. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  19. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  20. Clinical study of skin changes in low and high risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lana Bezerra; Amaral, Waldemar Naves do

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy there is immunological, metabolic, endocrine and vascular changes responsible for physiological and pathological skin changes. determine the prevalence of specific physiological changes and pregnancy, comparing the period of gestation of their appearances and compare type of prenatal care as the skin changes. A cross-sectional study with 905 pregnant women. The prevalence of physiological skin changes was 88.95% and the most common was pigment. The prevalence of specific dermatoses was 8.72% and atopic eruption was the most common. Physiological changes were seen more in the 3rd quarter, as well as the specific dermatoses. No statistical difference in prenatal low risk compared to high risk was observed, whereas the cutaneous physiological changes and specific pregnancy dermatoses.

  1. Correlates of high perceived stress among pregnant Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. We conducted this analysis among 1,426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean = 12.4 weeks gestation), mid (mean = 21.3 weeks gestation) and late (mean = 30.8 weeks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score >30. Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.6; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for 12 drinks/month vs. none) and smoking (OR = 2.2; 95 % CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR = 0.4; 95 % CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR = 1.8; 95 % CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk.

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis is highly prevalent in adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucitti, Tania; Jespers, Vicky; Mulenga, Chanda; Khondowe, Shepherd; Vandepitte, Judith; Buvé, Anne

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Trichomonas sp. infection among adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 girls attending school, 307 pregnant women, and 197 commercial sex workers. Self-collected specimens from the vagina, rectum, and mouth were tested by polymerase chain amplification assays for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Pentatrichomonas hominis, and Trichomonas tenax. Genotyping was performed on specimens that tested positive for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of vaginal infection with T. vaginalis was 24.6% among the adolescents, 32.2% among the pregnant women, and 33.2% among the commercial sex workers. Trichomonads other than T. vaginalis were rarely found in the vagina, rectum, and mouth. The presence of T. vaginalis in the rectum was associated with T. vaginalis in the vagina. T. tenax was also detected in the vagina. A total of 9 actin genotypes of T. vaginalis were identified. The distribution of the actin genotypes of T. vaginalis was similar in the 3 study groups. We detected high prevalence rates of trichomoniasis among women in Ndola, Zambia. Prevalence among adolescent girls was lower than among pregnant women and commercial sex workers but was still high. We were not able to detect differences in T. vaginalis actin genotypes among the 3 study groups.

  3. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis study of 2782 cases of high-risk pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lin; ZHANG Xiao-hong; LIANG Mei-ying; REN Mei-hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal diagnoses are extremely advantageous for pregnant women with high-risk indicators and can help prevent the birth of malformed infants. However, no large-scale statistical study analyzing the correlation between fetal chromosome disorders and abnormal indicators during pregnancy has been done in China. The objectives of this study were to diagnose and analyze fetal chromosome abnormalities, determine the feasibility of the various prenatal test methods and establish diagnostic guidelines for the early, middle, and late trimesters.Methods From January 2004 to May 2009, 2782 pregnant women at high-risk underwent prenatal diagnoses. Categorized data expressed as either actual counts or percentages were analyzed by the chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Chorionic villus sampling was performed in the early-trimester (10-12 weeks of gestation), amniocentesis in mid-trimester (16-28 weeks of gestation), and umbilical cord blood collection in mid- or late-trimester (16-37 weeks of gestation). In 51 cases either autopsy samples from intrauterine fetal deaths or placental tissues from aborted fetuses were tested.Results Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 3.99% (111/2782) of the samples. Overall, the success rate of cytogenetic analysis for high-risk pregnancy groups was 98.17% (2731/2782). It was significantly less successful when used to analyze data from the chorionic villus sampling compared with that from amniocentesis and umbilical cord blood (P=0.000). Abnormal chromosome carriers had the highest percentage of abnormal chromosomes (67.86%) when compared with chromosomal abnormalities in patients with ultra-sonographic "soft markers" (11.81%), advanced maternal age (4.51%) and those who had positive serum screening results (P=0.000).Conclusions Invasive prenatal diagnostic techniques are feasible tools for confirming fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Abnormal chromosomes detected in one of the parents carrying abnormal chromosome, ultrasound

  4. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  5. Risk factors associated with Chagas disease in pregnant women in Santander, a highly endemic Colombian area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Domínguez, Yeny Z; Cucunubá, Zulma M; Orozco, Luis C; Valencia-Hernández, Carlos A; León, Cielo M; Florez, Astrid C; Muñoz, Lyda; Pavía, Paula; Montilla, Marleny; Uribe, Luz Marina; García, Carlos; Ardila, William; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Puerta, Concepción J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chagas disease in pregnant women in an endemic area of Santander, Colombia. Cross-sectional study included 23 municipalities of Santander, Colombia. Serological IFAT and ELISA tests were undertaken to detect IgG anti- Trypanosoma cruzi. A questionnaire was conducted for assessing the risk factors of each participant. Newborns were evaluated at birth and followed up to 1 year of age to determine congenital infection. An overall prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI 2.4-4.2) among 1518 pregnant women was detected. Prevalences by provinces were as follows: Guanentina: 6.0% (95% CI 4.1-8.5), García Rovira: 2.9% (95% CI: 1.5-4.8) and Comunera: 0.4% (0.4-2.3). The main risk factors identified were age >32 years old (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9); currently having a thatched roof (OR: 11.8; CI95% 2.2-63.2) and a thatched roof during childhood (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.4-6.6); having below primary school education level (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 2.2-9.5); and a history of a close contact with the vector (triatomine bugs) at least once during their lifetime (OR: 6.9; 95% CI: 3.7-12.9). No congenital cases were detected by parasitological or serological techniques. Prevalence of Chagas disease in pregnant women is a potential source of infection in this Colombian endemic area. The main risk factors associated with seropositivity were related to conditions favouring the contact with the vector. The results show that it is necessary to continue an active surveillance in order to offer diagnosis and treatment to mothers and their newborns in addition to screening to pregnant women from endemic areas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High Rate of Partner Treatment Among Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Pregnant Women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh; Cabeza, Jeanne; Segura, Eddy; García, Patricia J; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    This was a substudy of 60 Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women from a larger study of pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Participants were encouraged to bring their partners in for concurrent patient-partner treatment. The alternative partner treatment was expedited partner therapy. Partner treatment uptake was 91.7%. Twenty-one partners (38.2%) received treatment through concurrent patient-partner treatment, and 34 (61.8%) through expedited partner therapy. Living with the partner was significantly associated with having the partner treated (P=0.0028).

  7. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  8. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.

  9. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjautdinova S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component includes an understanding of the child as a value. Some results of the research of value orientations of pregnant women in the structure of psychological readiness for parenthood. To identify the value system of pregnant women, the method of “Value Orientations” by M. Rokich was applied. The analysis of empirical data was performed using factor analysis and U criterion of Mann-Whitney. Respondents were distributed into two age groups: first group of 21-25 years (56 persons, second group of 26-30 years (44 persons. All women are nulliparous. The younger age group of pregnant women is characterized by values that are directed at the outside world. Emotional component dominates in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood. Values of women in the second group are aimed at children. Cognitive and behavioral components dominate in the structure of their psychological readiness for motherhood. Knowledge of the structure of psychological readiness of women to parenthood will help to diagnose disorders of maternal behavior, to design methods of its correction and prevention.

  10. Who is telling pregnant women about listeriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Anne E; MacLaurin, Tanya L

    2011-01-01

    During pregnancy, a woman's immune system is compromised and she is at an increased risk of infection and illness. In particular, the risk of contracting foodborne listeriosis is 20 times greater for pregnant women than for other women of reproductive age. Considering the negative effects of listeriosis on the developing fetus and that more than 380,000 babies were born in Canada in 2010, listeriosis is an important public health concern. And yet, in Canada, it is not clear who is responsible for educating pregnant women on the importance of safe food handling and the avoidance of high-risk foods. Not all women attend prenatal education classes and the circle of care during pregnancy is highly variable. Physicians, however, are very often included in the care circle and may represent a consistent, reliable and trustworthy source of food safety information. At present, only one province has prenatal records that prompt physicians to counsel pregnant women on food safety issues, though all include some assessment of nutrition, diet or supplement use. Improving provincial and territorial prenatal records may be one important way of helping to ensure that critical food safety information is reaching pregnant Canadians.

  11. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... es minimal disability, allowing infected individuals to re- ... to evaluate the role of maternal education on CMV and the role ... Conclusion: Seroprevalence of pregnant women to CMV Ig G is high, hence the need for CMV - IgM ...

  12. 539 Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... parity and is significantly higher in pregnant women who are in their first or .... highly educated women with tertiary education and the others. ... albicans is highly sensitive; there is considerable maternal disability and neonatal ...

  13. The Effects of Coping Therapy on General Health of Pregnant Women with High Risk of Genetics Abnormalities in their Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nazmiye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physiological changes in pregnancy lead to the psychological pressures. Therefore, there is a need for applying cognitive behavioral and emotional confronting to encounter these problems. The present research investigated the effect of coping therapy on general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Methods: The present study was a semi experimental research. Pre and post tests were used to investigate coping therapy between 30 pregnant women who were referred to Khatomolanbia Genetic Clinic, Yazd, Iran. All the women had pregnancy screening test with high risk of genetics abnormalities in their fetus. They were divided randomly into two groups of case and controls. The test of GHQ was performed in both groups, then the case groups went under 8 sessions of teaching coping therapy each lasting 120 min. After finishing the sessions, post test was performed and analyzing the data using descriptive statistical index and covariance analysis test. Results: Teaching coping therapy to case group caused improvement in their GHQ mark, and this change was significantly different from the change in the GHQ mark of control group. In addition, there was a significant decrease in anxiety, depression and physical signs and an improvement of social function in case group compare to the control group. Discussion: Teaching coping therapy can improve the general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Therefore, presenting educational courses to the women can improve their general health indices in addition to preventing the probable effects of stress on fetus.

  14. Use of high doses of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Spain: an INMA cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manoli; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the use of low (<400 μg/day, including no use) and high folic acid supplement (FAS) dosages (≥1000 μg/day) among pregnant women in Spain, and explored factors associated with the use of these non-recommended dosages. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Spain. Participants We analysed data from 2332 pregnant women of the INMA study, a prospective mother-child cohort study in Spain. Main outcome measures We assessed usual dietary folate and the use of FAS from preconception to the 3rd month (first period) and from the 4th to the 7th month (second period), using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate relative risk ratios (RRRs). Results Over a half of the women used low dosages of FAS in the first and second period while 29% and 17% took high dosages of FAS, respectively. In the first period, tobacco smoking (RRR=1.63), alcohol intake (RRR=1.40), multiparous (RRR=1.44), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=4.20) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.58, lower use of high FAS dosages among those with previous abortions) were significantly associated with low FAS dosages. Alcohol consumption (RRR=1.42), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=2.66) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.68) were associated with high dosage use. In the second period, only tobacco smoking was significantly associated with high FAS dosage use (RRR=0.67). Conclusions A high proportion of pregnant women did not reach the recommended dosages of FAS in periconception and a considerable proportion also used FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/day. Action should be planned by the Health Care System and health professionals to improve the appropriate periconceptional use of FAS, taking into consideration the associated factors. PMID:26603248

  15. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  16. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  19. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  20. Should HIV testing for all pregnant women continue? Cost-effectiveness of universal antenatal testing compared to focused approaches across high to very low HIV prevalence settings

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Dalal, Shona; Johnson, Cheryl; Hogan, Daniel R; Shimbo, Takuro; Shaffer, Nathan; Pendse, Razia N; Lo, Ying-Ru; Ghidinelli, Massimo N.; Baggaley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV testing is the entry point for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Decreasing external funding for the HIV response in some low- and middle-income countries has triggered the question of whether a focused approach to HIV testing targeting pregnant women in high-burden areas should be considered. This study aimed at determining and comparing the cost-effectiveness of universal and focused HIV testing approaches for pregnant women across high to very low HIV...

  1. Should HIV testing for all pregnant women continue? Cost-effectiveness of universal antenatal testing compared to focused approaches across high to very low HIV prevalence settings

    OpenAIRE

    Naoko Ishikawa; Shona Dalal; Cheryl Johnson; Hogan, Daniel R; Takuro Shimbo; Nathan Shaffer; Pendse, Razia N; Ying-Ru Lo; Ghidinelli, Massimo N.; Rachel Baggaley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: HIV testing is the entry point for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Decreasing external funding for the HIV response in some low- and middle-income countries has triggered the question of whether a focused approach to HIV testing targeting pregnant women in high-burden areas should be considered. This study aimed at determining and comparing the cost-effectiveness of universal and focused HIV testing approaches for pregnant women across high to very low HI...

  2. High-throughput discovery and characterization of fetal protein trafficking in the blood of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Jill L; Alterovitz, Gil; Ramoni, Marco; Johnson, Kirby L; Bianchi, Diana W

    2009-12-01

    Although the measurement of fetal proteins in maternal serum is part of standard prenatal screening for aneuploidy and neural tube defects, attempts to better understand the extent of feto-maternal protein trafficking and its clinical and biological significance have been hindered by the presence of abundant maternal proteins. The objective of this study was to circumvent maternal protein interference by using a computational predictive approach for the development of a noninvasive, comprehensive, protein network analysis of the developing fetus in maternal whole blood. From a set of 157 previously identified fetal gene transcripts, 46 were classified into known protein networks, and 222 downstream proteins were predicted. Statistically significantly over-represented pathways were diverse and included T-cell biology, neurodevelopment and cancer biology. Western blot analyses validated the computational predictive model and confirmed the presence of specific downstream fetal proteins in the whole blood of pregnant women and their newborns, with absence or reduced detection of the protein in the maternal postpartum samples. This work demonstrates that extensive feto-maternal protein trafficking occurs during pregnancy, and can be predicted and verified to develop novel noninvasive biomarkers. This study raises important questions regarding the biological effects of fetal proteins on the pregnant woman.

  3. Risk factors for congenital anomalies in high risk pregnant women: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tella Sunitha

    2016-05-14

    May 14, 2016 ... Conclusion: High prevalence of CAs was found in HRP women compared to general population. ... consanguinity, BOH, gravida, religion, parental education, ..... dation, seizures to severe neurological disability i.e., deafness,.

  4. Correlates of anemia in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during pregnancy is a global public health challenge facing the world today. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in all the age groups is higher in India as compared to other developing countries. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the magnitude and to explore the socio-demographic and other correlates of anemia among pregnant women. Methodology: This descriptive study with cross-sectional design was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Pregnant who were attending antenatal clinic for a period of one year were comprised the study material. Correlation between variables was analyzed using the chi-square and odd ratio. Results: Three hundred and thirty eight pregnant women were registered for the present study, whose age ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean age of 26.08 years. Majority (81.95% participants were found to be anemic. It was observed that anemia was more prevalent in pregnant women age groups i.e. 25-29 years and 30+years i.e. 86.67% and 86.21% respectively. Anemia was 82.92% in women were belonging to Hindu and others religion and 82.24% in women having vegetarian diet. Maximum prevalence (83.93% of anemia was observed in women who were booked for antenatal care in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of anemia is higher (>85% in women having parity two or more, but this association was not statistically significant. Very few (6.21% were found to be severely anemic as compared to women who were moderately anemic (43.19%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of these factors showed that possibility of anemia is less in women who belong to rural area and it is highly significant. Analysis further showed significant association between anemia and type of diet and other factors like women having parity 1 and 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia amongst the pregnant participants was very high. The socio-demographic and obstetrics factors were found to be associated with anemia. To prevent

  5. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  6. Effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on serum cholecalciferol concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitris, Michelle C; Perumal, Nandita; Craig-Barnes, Hayley A; Leadley, Michael; Mahmud, Abdullah A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Roth, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D status is conventionally defined by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, it has been proposed that the serum cholecalciferol concentration (D3) also determines functional vitamin D sufficiency. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on inter-dose serum D3 in pregnant women. We conducted a sub-study of a completed randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (35,000 IU/week) supplementation in late pregnancy (AViDD trial) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study included pregnant women enrolled at 26-29 weeks gestation who fully adhered to the prenatal supplement intervention for ≥8 consecutive weeks and for whom serum samples were available for D3 analysis (n=65). Serum D3 was uniformly low at enrolment. Mean D3 increased and was maximal at 1 day after vitamin D dose administration (152.09nmol/L, SD 25.11nmol/L) and remained significantly higher in VitD vs. Pl at 7 days (29.59nmol/L vs. 1.92nmol/L, p=0.007). Daily average of the group mean D3 during the week following dosing was 66.97nmol/L in VitD versus 2.13nmol/L in Pl. In conclusion, serum D3 remained significantly elevated throughout the week following ≥8 consecutive weekly doses of 35,000 IU D3 in pregnant women. However, the clinically significant minimum threshold of serum D3 remains to be established.

  7. Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247. The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025 higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 - 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006. Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004 affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.

  8. Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age. Eighty-four consecutive pregnant women with a midwife consultation were included in the period 25-28 August 2008. All filled in a unified questionnaire. 82% had knowledge of FA supplementation and 89% received FA supplementation. 51% followed national recommendations. We found a statistically significant correlation between higher educational level and knowledge about FA supplementation, actual supplementation of FA and FA supplementation in accordance with national recommendations. No statistical associations were found between number of pregnancies or age and any FA-related parameters. Family, friends, general practitioner (GP) and the internet were the main information sources. Correct FA supplementation is quite low; conversely, knowledge about and actual FA supplementation are fairly high. Further intervention is necessary to increase the level of correct FA supplementation. Women with a low educational level--which may herald low socio-economic status--seem to form a suitable target group for information campaigns. Multiple pregnancies or higher age should not be perceived as indicators of a higher information level. Dissemination of information to the pregnant women including family, friends, GPs or the internet is recommended.

  9. High HIV incidence and sexual behavior change among pregnant women in Lilongwe, Malawi: implications for the risk of HIV acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Maria A; Hamela, Gloria; Miller, William C; Moses, Agnes; Hoffman, Irving F; Hosseinipour, Mina C

    2012-01-01

    HIV incidence is higher among pregnant women than their non-pregnant counterparts in some sub-Saharan African settings. Our aims were (1) to estimate HIV incidence during pregnancy and (2) to compare sexual activity between pregnant, postpartum, and non-pregnant women. We examined a retrospective cohort of 1087 women to identify seroconverters using antenatal and labor ward HIV test results. We also conducted a cross-sectional survey, including a quantitative questionnaire (n = 200) and in-depth interviews (n = 20) among women in early pregnancy, late pregnancy, postpartum, and non-pregnancy. Outcomes included measures of sexual activity, reported spouse's risky behavior, and beliefs about abstinence. 11 of 1087 women seroconverted during pregnancy yielding a 1% seroconversion risk and an incidence rate of 4.0/100 person years (95% CI 2.2-7.2). The reported sexual activity of the early pregnancy and non-pregnancy groups was similar, but significantly higher than the late pregnancy and postpartum groups (psexual activity decreases during pregnancy and postpartum. Pregnant women need to be informed of their increased risk for HIV and the importance of using condoms throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  10. Clinical Study on Risk Factors of High - risk Pregnant Women%高危妊娠孕妇的危险因素临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To strengthen the management of pregnant women with high-risk pregnancy to ensure the safety of mother and infant. Methods All the pregnant women who were enrolled in the examination were enrolled and the high risk factors were screened and their follow - up investigation and management were carried out. Results From March 2010 to May 2015, a total of 1,547 pregnant women were enrolled, including 256 cases of high risk pregnant women, tracking to delivery, early detection and early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion There is a positive effect of high risk management on decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality of pregnant women.%目的:加强高危妊娠孕妇管理,以保证母婴安全。方法对所有参加产检的孕妇登记在册,筛查高危因素并对其进行跟踪调查及管理。结果2010年3月至2015年5月,共登记孕妇1547例,其中高危孕妇256例,追踪至分娩,及早发现及早诊治。结论参加高危管理对降低围产儿病死率及孕妇病死率有积极作用。

  11. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  12. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.

  13. Approaches to the vaccination of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David

    2013-01-01

    For the 2010/11 influenza season the prenatal vaccination program was extended to all women in England and Wales irrespective of gestational age—this was a considerable shift in practice for both pregnant women and healthcare providers where the emphasis previously had been only on targeted vaccination for pregnant women with adverse risk factors for influenza infection. This paper will describe the program’s operation in Stockport, UK during this season when uptake was among the highest in t...

  14. Gastroesophagial reflux disease and asthma in pregnant women with dyspnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Bidad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD are two common problems in pregnancy and they affect pregnancy in several ways. In this study, we aimed to evaluate GERD and asthma in pregnant women who referred for prenatal care visits. One-hundred and seventy three pregnant women with a complaint of dyspnea were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled and lung function tests were performed. All patients were visited by a respiratory specialist and questionnaires were evaluated by a gastroenterologist. Out of the total number of women studied, 37% were diagnosed to have asthma and 36.4% were non-asthmatics. Twenty six percent of the pregnant women who had symptoms and signs of asthma with normal spirometry were classified as probable to have asthma. GERD was diagnosed in 80.9% of the pregnant women, but it was not significantly higher in asthmatic or probable asthmatic women compared to non-asthmatic ones. However, severity of GERD was significantly higher in asthmatic pregnant women compared to the others. In conclusion, the prevalence of GERD was quite high in pregnant women, irrespective of the fact that they were asthmatic or non-asthmatic. Further studies evaluating women throughout pregnancy will inform us more about this relationship.

  15. High prevalence of maternal hypothyroidism despite adequate iodine status in Indian pregnant women in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Nidhi; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Thomas, Tinku; Basavaraj, Chetana; Sharma, Surjeet Kaur; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy to maintain maternal and fetal euthyroidism. There have been recent improvements in iodized salt coverage in India, but whether iodized salt is sufficient to sustain iodine requirements during pregnancy remains uncertain. Our aims were to measure thyroid status in first trimester pregnant women in southern India and assess potential determinants of thyroid function, including iodine status, thyroid autoimmunity, dietary patterns, body weight, and anemia. This was a cross-sectional study among 334 pregnant women of ≤ 14 weeks' gestation, in Bangalore, India. We measured anthropometrics, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), maternal thyroid volume (by ultrasound), and thyroid function. We applied a thyrotropin (TSH) upper limit of 2.5 mIU/L to classify thyroid insufficiency. Using a questionnaire, we obtained sociodemographic and dietary data, obstetric history, and use of iodized salt and iodine supplements. Among the women, the mean (standard deviation) gestational age was 10.3 (2.5) weeks, 67% were nulliparous, 21% were vegetarian, 19% were anemic, and 23% were overweight or obese. Iodized salt was used by 98% of women, and they were iodine sufficient: median UIC (range) was 184.2 μg/L (8.1-1152 μg/L) and all had a normal thyroid volume. However, 18% of the women had thyroid insufficiency: 3.7% had overt hypothyroidism (83% with positive TPO-Ab), 9.2% had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 5.2% had hypothyroxinemia. Women consuming vegetarian diets did not have significantly lower iodine intakes or higher risk of hypothyroidism than those consuming mixed diets, but overweight/obesity and anemia predicted thyroid insufficiency. In this urban population of southern India, pregnant women have adequate iodine status in the first trimester. Despite this, many have thyroid insufficiency, and the prevalence of overt hypothyroidism is more than fivefold higher than reported in other iodine sufficient populations of

  16. Prevalence of rhesus negativity among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi Nagamuthu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of Rh D negative women is low when compared to Rh D positive women.There is a need for adequate counselling of pregnant women on the importance of Rh D negative factor during the antenatal period in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3305-3309

  17. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  18. Experiences of high-risk pregnant women who were offered a choice between non-invasive prenatal testing, invasive testing or no follow-up test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schendel, Rachel; Page-Christiaens, Lieve; Beulen, Lean; Bilardo, Katia; De Boer, Marjon; Coumans, Audrey; Faas, Brigitte; Van Langen, Irene; Lichtenbelt, Klaske; Van Maarle, Merel; Macville, Merryn; Oepkes, Dick; Pajkrt, Eva; Henneman, Lidewij

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The TRIDENT study (Trial by Dutch laboratories for Evaluation of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing) evaluates the implementation of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in the Dutch healthcare system. Here we report on the preferences and experiences of pregnant women at high risk for fetal

  19. Physical activity of pregnant Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kristine E; Landsbaugh, Jill R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Pekow, Penny; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity during pregnancy can reduce risk of pregnancy complications. However, factors influencing activity in pregnant Hispanic women, who have high rates of sedentary activity as compared to non-Hispanic whites, are not well characterized. To assess patterns and correlates of physical activity among 1355 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort of pregnant Hispanic women in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2011. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Pre-, early-, mid-, and late-pregnancy physical activity were assessed using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Women reported the frequency and duration of household/caregiving, occupational, sports/exercise, and transportation activities and were classified according to compliance with American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for physical activity. Household/caregiving activity was the primary mode of pregnancy activity ranging from 56% to 60% of total activity while sports/exercise contributed the least (<10%). Compared to nulliparous women, women with two or more children were 85% less likely to become inactive at any time during pregnancy (OR=0.15, 95% CI=0.04, 0.56, p-trend <0.01). Women with one or more children increased their total physical activity on average 9.73±2.04 MET-hours/week and 12.04±2.39 MET-hours/week, respectively, with the onset of pregnancy (p<0.01). Those with the highest levels of total physical activity prior to pregnancy were 87% less likely to become inactive with the onset of pregnancy than those who were inactive prior to pregnancy (OR=0.13, 95% CI= 0.05, 0.29). Findings can inform culturally appropriate interventions designed to reduce pregnancy complications through the promotion of physical activity during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  1. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  2. Married men’s perceptions of barriers for HIV-positive pregnant women accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duff P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Putu Duff,1 Tom Rubaale,2 Walter Kipp1,21School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; 2Community ARV Project, Fort Portal, UgandaBackground: The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of married men about barriers to accessing and accepting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART by pregnant/postnatal women positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and registered in Kabarole District’s Program for the Prevention of HIV from Mother to Child (PMTCT-Plus.Materials and methods: Our study was a qualitative descriptive exploratory study using thematic analysis. Four focus group discussions were held with a convenience sample of 40 married men.Results: Lack of disclosure of a positive HIV diagnosis to the partner and stigmatization of persons with HIV were two major obstacles for women in accessing HAART. In addition, men felt that their low knowledge of HAART and their low HIV testing rate also constituted important barriers to these women taking treatment. Men complained that they were not sufficiently involved in the reproductive care of women and that couples’ counseling could be a step towards addressing this problem.Conclusion: Barriers to HAART experienced by pregnant/postnatal women need to be addressed in order to improve their uptake of treatment, increase their low treatment coverage, improve their survival, and at the same time dramatically reduce HIV transmission from mother to child.Keywords: men, highly active antiretroviral therapy, pregnant women, Uganda

  3. Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy.

  4. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees.

  5. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  6. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  7. Co-infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in pregnant women from southern Brazil: high rate of intraepithelial cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tornatore

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-positive pregnant women require specific prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. The efficacy of established approaches is further challenged by co-infection with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infections in pregnant women infected with different HIV-1 subtypes and to relate these findings, together with additional demographic and clinical parameters, to maternal and infant outcomes. Blood samples from pregnant women were collected and tested for syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Human papillomavirus (HPV diagnosis was evaluated by the presence of alterations in the cervical epithelium detected through a cytopathological exam. Medical charts provided patient data for the mothers and children. Statistical analyses were conducted with STATA 9.0. We found a prevalence of 10.8% for HCV, 2.3% for chronic HBV, 3.1% for syphilis and 40.8% for HPV. Of those co-infected with HPV, 52.9% presented high-grade intraepithelial lesions or in situ carcinoma. Prematurity, birth weight, Apgar 1' and 5' and Capurro scores were similar between co-infected and non-co-infected women. The presence of other STDs did not impact maternal and concept outcomes. More than half of the patients presenting cervical cytology abnormalities suggestive of HPV had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer, evidencing an alarming rate of these lesions.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U; Böni, R; Danko, J; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1995-02-01

    The beta 2-sympathomimetic drug fenoterol (fenoterol hydrobromide, CAS 1944-12-3, Partusisten) is routinely used to inhibit uterine contractions (tocolysis). Investigations of plasma concentrations of those receiving i.v. or oral tocolysis often show different results, both within particular groups of pregnant women and in comparison with non-pregnant persons. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women, an important factor which so far had not been known. Four healthy pregnant women with similar weight and gestational age and all with premature labor were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 4 micrograms fenoterol/min. During and up to 24 hours after the end of the infusion, venous blood samples were taken in order to determine the fenoterol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay. From a steady state concentration (css) of 2242 +/- 391 pg/ml (x +/- S.E.), a non-linear two-phased plasma elimination was seen with half-lives t1/2 of 11.40 min and 4.87 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) was 6.27 ng/ml x h. The total clearance (Cltot) was 114.8 l/h. These data are nearly the same as the data already known for healthy non-pregnant (male) volunteers. The deviations which are seen in the plasma concentrations in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant persons during or after continuous i.v. infusion can therefore not be caused by differences in the pharmacokinetics. Other factors, however, such as body weight and/or gestational age, might influence the results.

  9. High prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis but low sensitivity of symptom screening among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Symptom screening is a recommended component of intensified case-finding (ICF for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB among HIV-infected individuals. Symptomatic individuals are further investigated to either exclude or diagnose pulmonary TB, thus reducing the number of individuals requiring costly laboratory investigation. Those with laboratory evaluations negative for pulmonary TB or who lack symptoms may be eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART and/or TB isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT. A four-part symptom screen has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO for identifying TB suspects and those unlikely to have TB. A meta-analysis of studies among HIV-infected individuals calculated a sensitivity of 90.1% for the four-part symptoms screen--of any of cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss--among patients in clinical care, making it an effective tool for identifying most patients with TB. An important population for intensified case-finding not included in that meta-analysis was HIV-infected pregnant women. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among HIV-infected pregnant women receiving prenatal care at community clinics in South Africa. We obtained a four-symptom review and sputum smear microscopy and mycobacterial culture on all participants. Among 1415 women, 226 (16% had a positive symptom screen, and 35 (2.5% were newly diagnosed with culture-positive TB. Twelve were on TB treatment at the time of screening, yielding 47 (3.3% women with prevalent TB. Symptom screening among women without known TB had a sensitivity of 28% and specificity of 84%. The poor performance of symptom screening to identify women with TB suggests that other approaches may be needed for intensified case-finding to be effective for this population.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of directly observed highly-active antiretroviral therapy in the third trimester in HIV-infected pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J McCabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In HIV-infected pregnant women, viral suppression prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission. Directly observed highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART enhances virological suppression, and could prevent transmission. Our objective was to project the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of directly observed administration of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A mathematical model was created to simulate cohorts of one million asymptomatic HIV-infected pregnant women on HAART, with women randomly assigned self-administered or directly observed antiretroviral therapy (DOT, or no HAART, in a series of Monte Carlo simulations. Our primary outcome was the quality-adjusted life expectancy in years (QALY of infants born to HIV-infected women, with the rates of Caesarean section and HIV-transmission after DOT use as intermediate outcomes. Both self-administered HAART and DOT were associated with decreased costs and increased life-expectancy relative to no HAART. The use of DOT was associated with a relative risk of HIV transmission of 0.39 relative to conventional HAART; was highly cost-effective in the cohort as a whole (cost-utility ratio $14,233 per QALY; and was cost-saving in women whose viral loads on self-administered HAART would have exceeded 1000 copies/ml. Results were stable in wide-ranging sensitivity analyses, with directly observed therapy cost-saving or highly cost-effective in almost all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the best available data, programs that optimize adherence to HAART through direct observation in pregnancy have the potential to diminish mother-to-child HIV transmission in a highly cost-effective manner. Targeted use of DOT in pregnant women with high viral loads, who could otherwise receive self-administered HAART would be a cost-saving intervention. These projections should be tested with randomized clinical trials.

  11. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  12. Pregnant women become insensitive to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glover Vivette

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is known to be altered during pregnancy, but it has not been tested with a natural stressor. Methods A group of pregnant women (n = 10 were tested towards the end of pregnancy (mean 36.8 ± 2.5 weeks gestation and about 8 weeks postpartum (mean 7.8 ± 1.5 weeks, together with a matched control group, with a one minute cold hand stressor test. Saliva samples were collected before and 10 and 20 minutes after the test, and stored for later radioimmunoassay of cortisol. Results The control group showed a highly significant response to the test. The pregnant group showed no response, and the postpartum group a variable but non significant one Conclusions This shows that the HPA axis becomes hypofunctional to a natural stressor at the end of pregnancy. It is suggested that one possible evolutionary function for this is to protect the fetus from the stress responses of the mother.

  13. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  14. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  15. More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162444.html More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed All ... and her baby. And while the percentage of pregnant American women who got the vaccine has doubled ...

  16. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Dec. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women should avoid traveling to a south Texas ...

  17. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for 12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  18. Breastfeeding Attitudes of Pregnant Women and Some Factors Which Effect the Breastfeeding Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This research is carried out as analitical to determine the breastfeeding attitudes of pregnant women who applied Hacettepe University Hospital Gynecologic and Obstetric Department during the month of December 2001 and some factors effecting breastfeeding attitude. Most of the women who taken the research was between 25-29 age group and graduated high school and university. About 39.8% of the pregnant women was in the period of first pregnancy. 96.1% of pregnant women who delivered live ...

  19. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Castro Crivellenti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  20. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Shi

    Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  1. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  2. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Bruni, Laia; Romagosa, Cleofé; Sanz, Sergi; Mabunda, Samuel; Mandomando, Inacio; Aponte, John; Sevene, Esperança; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2008-01-30

    There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129) were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129) of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4%) presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27-30), 29% (28-31), and 33% (31-35), respectively]. Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be unnecessarily receiving antimalarial drugs, often those with unknown

  3. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aponte John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. Methods A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. Results In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129 were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129 of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4% presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27–30, 29% (28–31, and 33% (31–35, respectively]. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be

  4. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  5. Airway changes in pregnant women before and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydas, A D; Basaranoglu, G; Ozdemir, H; Dooply, S L S; Muhammedoglu, N; Kucuk, S; Saidoglu, L

    2015-06-01

    High incidence of difficult or failed intubation in obstetric patients is still a major problem to challenge anaesthesiologists. Although the probability of difficult intubation is impossible to predict preoperatively, some simple, practical bedside tests may help. This study used five simple tests in an attempt to better evaluate airway changes in pregnant women before and after delivery. Pregnant women from the ASA I-II group who were planning to undergo a normal vaginal delivery were evaluated as to the possibility of experiencing difficult intubation. Mallampati scores, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, mouth opening, and the degree of neck extension were recorded just before delivery and 24 h after delivery. Significant differences were seen in the pre- and post-delivery measurements (p changed in one-third (n 21, 36.6%) of the patients. Significant differences between the two measurements of thyromental and sternomental distances, mouth opening, and the degree of neck extension confirm difficult airway management in pregnant women.

  6. Iron supplementation studies among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Platon, T P; Ancheta, L P; Angeles, J C; Nunez, C B; Macapinlac, M P

    1979-12-01

    The effect of iron supplementation alone or in combination with ascorbic acid as a preventive and or corrective measure against anemia were tested using pregnant women seeking pre-natal consultation at various health centers in Greater Manila Area. One tablet containing 65 mg iron alone or in combination with ascorbic acid per day during a supplementation period which varied from 16.5 to 17.8 weeks maintained initial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in non-anemic women. Three tablets of the same iron preparation (total of 195 mg iron) daily resulted in significant increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit in anemic women. Ascorbic acid had no apparent beneficial effect. Considering the positive response to iron treatment, it is recommended that a nationwide program of iron supplementation of pregnant Filipinos be undertaken.

  7. [Concentration of heavy metals in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacyszyn, K; Walas, J; Malinowski, A; Latkowski, T; Cwynar, L

    1982-01-01

    Copper, zinc, and lead concentrations were measured in two groups 72 pregnant women. Twenty-one of them, making up the control group, lived and worked in Wrocław. The other 51 women, the second group, had lived more than five years in Lubin-Polkowice and worked in the local non-ferrous metal plants. They were particularly endangered by their exposure to copper, zinc, and lead concentrations. Pregnancy was normal in all cases. Maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, placenta homogenate, and amniotic fluid were examined by techniques of atom-absorption spectrometry. The metals tested were conspicuously absorbed by placental tissue, but no danger to the pregnant women could be established.

  8. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  9. ‘I’ve Changed My Mind’, Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) for pregnant women with a high level of fear of childbirth and their partners : study protocol of the quasi-experimental controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veringa, I.K.; de Bruin, E.I.; Bardacke, N.; Duncan, L.G.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 25 % of pregnant women suffer from a high level of Fear of Childbirth (FoC), as assessed by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ-A, score ≥66). FoC negatively affects pregnant women’s mental health and adaptation to the perinatal period. Mindfulness-Based

  10. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  11. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  13. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. ... Hence, 0.8% of the entire study population was found to be at high risk of transmitting ... status, may be the most effective approach to HBV prevention and control in Zimbabwe.

  14. Should HIV testing for all pregnant women continue? Cost-effectiveness of universal antenatal testing compared to focused approaches across high to very low HIV prevalence settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Ishikawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV testing is the entry point for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Decreasing external funding for the HIV response in some low- and middle-income countries has triggered the question of whether a focused approach to HIV testing targeting pregnant women in high-burden areas should be considered. This study aimed at determining and comparing the cost-effectiveness of universal and focused HIV testing approaches for pregnant women across high to very low HIV prevalence settings. Methods: We conducted a modelling analysis on health and cost outcomes of HIV testing for pregnant women using four country-based case scenarios (Namibia, Kenya, Haiti and Viet Nam to illustrate high, intermediate, low and very low HIV prevalence settings. We used subnational prevalence data to divide each country into high-, medium- and low-burden areas, and modelled different antenatal and testing coverage in each. Results: When HIV testing services were only focused in high-burden areas within a country, mother-to-child transmission rates remained high ranging from 18 to 23%, resulting in a 25 to 69% increase in new paediatric HIV infections and increased future treatment costs for children. Universal HIV testing was found to be dominant (i.e. more QALYs gained with less cost compared to focused approaches in the Namibia, Kenya and Haiti scenarios. The universal approach was also very cost-effective compared to focused approaches, with $ 125 per quality-adjusted life years gained in the Viet Nam-based scenario of very low HIV prevalence. Sensitivity analysis further supported the findings. Conclusions: Universal approach to antenatal HIV testing achieves the best health outcomes and is cost-saving or cost-effective in the long term across the range of HIV prevalence settings. It is further a prerequisite for quality maternal and child healthcare and for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

  15. Domestic violence against pregnant women in iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS Questionnaire.A total of 338 participants (56.3% declared to experience domestic violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form of violence against these women in postpartum (51.3%, and followed by physical violence (5%. Prevalence rate of premature labor was 37.7% among all women in this study which 63.3% of this rate belongs to abuse women.It is noted that healthcare providers with screening violence during pregnancy and assessing the prevalence, consequences, and possible interventions may help to reduce domestic violence against pregnant women.

  16. Features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonatsky A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Research Goal was to study features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency. Materials. 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Research of personal psychological characteristics was carried out by Minnesota multidimensional personal index (MMPI, adapted by F. B. Berezina and V. P Miroshnikova (1989. Personal and reactive anxiety was defned by method of self-appraisal according to D. Spilberger and Yu. L. Khalin. Results. Psychoveg-etative changes lead to unequal mobilization of various visceral systems, which can promote development of different complications of pregnancy course along with other factors, including fetoplacental insuffciency. Pregnant women with increased level of reactive anxiety more often have isolated decrease of uteroplacental blood fow; at hyperdepression combined disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was revealed; at hypochondria disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was also marked. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuf-fciency demonstrated increase of anxiety and psychasthenia. As gestation period extended, patients with fetoplacental insuffciency marked high level of lability and reactivity of vegetative nervous system in combination with increased anxiety and presence of depression. Taking into consideration psychovegetative basis of occurrence of functional disturbances in the system mother-placenta-fetus, determination of personal psychoemotional features and state of vegetative nervous system, with future correction of reveled disturbances, should be obligatory.

  17. Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

    2011-06-01

    In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood.

  18. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  19. Cholinesterase and self-reported pesticide exposure among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Peyster, A; Willis, W O; Molgaard, C A; MacKendrick, T M; Walker, C

    1993-01-01

    Ascertainment of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in pregnant subjects is complicated by altered enzyme activity that results from metabolic changes associated with pregnancy. Nevertheless, this study found a high correlation (Pearson chi-square = 13.67, p = .008) between classification of pesticide exposure using self-reported interview information and plasma cholinesterase activity for 203 pregnant women for whom three trimester cholinesterase values were available. All plasma cholinesterase activity values were referenced, by trimester, to a larger sample of 1,050 plasma cholinesterase values from 535 pregnant women. Subjects who lived nearest to agricultural land and who reported that they worked with pesticides in agricultural and other occupations tended to have lower plasma cholinesterase activity than those who reported use of household pesticides only.

  20. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  1. Evaluation of ventricular repolarization in pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Ozgur; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ayse; Daglar, Korkut; Kurmus, Ozge; Danisman, Nuri; Biberoglu, Kutay

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids can induce arrhythmia by altering cardiomyocyte contractility or electrical conduction. The aim of this study was to investigate, by means of QT dispersion parameter detected by simple standard electrocardiogram (ECG), ventricular repolarization changes in pregnant women with and without intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). In this case-control study including 75 pregnant women with cholestasis and 35 healthy, uncomplicated pregnancy cases, electrocardiographic QT interval durations and QT dispersion (QT-disp) parameters, corrected for the patients' heart rate using the Hodges formula, were investigated. Maximum corrected QT interval values were significantly higher in the severe ICP group than in the control group (p cholestasis when compared to the normal ones. This simple ECG parameter can be used to screen high-risk women, in order to better target counseling regarding lifestyle modifications and to conduct closer follow up and management of women with a history of ICP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Martínez José Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women from several regions of Mexico, as well as the risk factors associated with its occurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2000. It included 9 992 pregnant women attending the health services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social-IMSS in five cities: Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Acapulco, Cancun, and Mexico City (northeast and southeast regions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence for confirmed cases was 1.65% (165/9 992. The prevalences for individual cities were as follows: Tijuana, 1.27%; Ciudad Juarez, 1.46%; Acapulco, 2.47%; Cancun, 0.93%; northeastern Mexico City, 1.20%, and southeastern Mexico City, 2.52%. The risk factors found to be associated with HBsAg were: age, age at first sexual intercourse, city (Acapulco and southeastern Mexico City, and marital status (single or divorced. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women (1.65% was greater than that reported in previous studies and showed geographical differences. This high prevalence suggests that a considerable amount of cases of hepatitis B occurs perinatally and through contact with carriers in the general population. Vaccination of newborns of high-risk pregnant women should be considered.

  3. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  4. Medication interest in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Antolič

    2011-12-01

    Medication interest is comparable to literature data: relatively high for acute problems, relatively low for iron supplementation and extremely low for preventative folic acid intake. As to our knowledge, we were the ones to introduce the term »medication interest« into professional literature in Slovenia.

  5. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Blood Glucose (FBS) and Total Cholesterol (TC) in pregnant women (PW) in the three trimesters and in non-pregnant .... carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids metabolism, .... Total Cholesterol Determination. Journal of.

  6. Comparison between Olfactory Function of Pregnant Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... study was carried out to investigate and compare olfactory function of pregnant women with non-pregnant ..... Prevalence and assessment of qualitative olfactory dysfunction in different ... A qualitative and quantitative review.

  7. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abort...

  8. [The expectancy-stress factor in pregnant refugee women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol', K N; Gotsiridze, E G; Guruli, Z V; Kintraia, N P; Tsaava, F D

    2006-09-01

    Our study revealed that refugee status increases the risks and worsens the outcome of pregnancy among Georgian refugees. 125 Georgian refugee women participated in this study. The study included examinations of the psychological status of expecting mothers, clinical development of pregnancy, complications of labor, functional status of the fetus, and EEG and neuro-ultrasound data of newborns. The control group comprised 125 pregnant women who experienced no stress during pregnancy. An examination of the psycho-emotional status of pregnant refugee women revealed high percentage indicators (82%) for hypochondria, depression, psychopathy, hysteria and psychoastenia in contrast to the control group. The deterioration of psycho-emotional status and biochemical indicators in pregnant refugee women was directly proportional to the worsening of functional and clinical conditions in fetuses. Prolonged stress is the cause of increased morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and child birth in refugee women. Infants born to refugee women also faced increased risks and belong to the group of special premature care and observation.

  9. [Vaginal colonization by genital mycoplasmas in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida

    2007-12-01

    To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.

  10. Estimating Benzathine Penicillin Need for the Treatment of Pregnant Women Diagnosed with Syphilis during Antenatal Care in High-Morbidity Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie M Taylor

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis continues to be a preventable cause of global stillbirth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Shortages of injectable penicillin, the only recommended treatment for pregnant women and infants with syphilis, have been reported by high-morbidity countries. We sought to estimate current and projected annual needs for benzathine penicillin in antenatal care settings for 30 high morbidity countries that account for approximately 33% of the global burden of congenital syphilis.Proportions of antenatal care attendance, syphilis screening coverage in pregnancy, syphilis prevalence among pregnant women, and adverse pregnancy outcomes due to untreated maternal syphilis reported to WHO were applied to 2012 birth estimates for 30 high syphilis burden countries to estimate current and projected benzathine penicillin need for prevention of congenital syphilis.Using current antenatal care syphilis screening coverage and seroprevalence, we estimated the total number of women requiring treatment with at least one injection of 2.4 MU of benzathine penicillin in these 30 countries to be 351,016. Syphilis screening coverage at or above 95% for all 30 countries would increase the number of women requiring treatment with benzathine penicillin to 712,030. Based on WHO management guidelines, 351,016 doses of weight-based benzathine penicillin would also be needed for the live-born infants of mothers who test positive and are treated for syphilis in pregnancy. Assuming availability of penicillin and provision of treatment for all mothers diagnosed with syphilis, an estimated 95,938 adverse birth outcomes overall would be prevented including 37,822 stillbirths, 15,814 neonatal deaths, and 34,088 other congenital syphilis cases.Penicillin need for maternal and infant syphilis treatment is high among this group of syphilis burdened countries. Initiatives to ensure a stable and adequate supply of benzathine penicillin for treatment of maternal syphilis

  11. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: Population characteristics showed that 43.3% had pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m(2), 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women ... and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women...... in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were...

  12. Obstetric care providers are able to assess psychosocial risks, identify and refer high-risk pregnant women: validation of a short assessment tool - the KINDEX Greek version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridou, Andria; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina

    2015-02-21

    Prenatal assessment for psychosocial risk factors and prevention and intervention is scarce and, in most cases, nonexistent in obstetrical care. In this study we aimed to evaluate if the KINDEX, a short instrument developed in Germany, is a useful tool in the hands of non-trained medical staff, in order to identify and refer women in psychosocial risk to the adequate mental health and social services. We also examined the criterion-related concurrent validity of the tool through a validation interview carried out by an expert clinical psychologist. Our final objective was to achieve the cultural adaptation of the KINDEX Greek Version and to offer a valid tool for the psychosocial risk assessment to the obstetric care providers. Two obstetricians and five midwives carried out 93 KINDEX interviews (duration 20 minutes) with pregnant women to assess psychosocial risk factors present during pregnancy. Afterwards they referred women who they identified having two or more psychosocial risk factors to the mental health attention unit of the hospital. During the validation procedure an expert clinical psychologist carried out diagnostic interviews with a randomized subsample of 50 pregnant women based on established diagnostic instruments for stress and psychopathology, like the PSS-14, ESI, PDS, HSCL-25. Significant correlations between the results obtained through the assessment using the KINDEX and the risk areas of stress, psychopathology and trauma load assessed in the validation interview demonstrate the criterion-related concurrent validity of the KINDEX. The referral accuracy of the medical staff is confirmed through comparisons between pregnant women who have and have not been referred to the mental health attention unit. Prenatal screenings for psychosocial risks like the KINDEX are feasible in public health settings in Greece. In addition, validity was confirmed in high correlations between the KINDEX results and the results of the validation interviews. The

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

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    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  14. Food safety: correct information for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ausilia Grassi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.

  15. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women.

  16. Rubella immunity among pregnant women aged 15–44 years, Namibia, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jonas

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In the absence of a routine rubella immunization program, the high level of rubella seropositivity suggests rubella virus transmission in Namibia, yet 15% of pregnant Namibian women remain susceptible to rubella. The introduction of rubella vaccine will help reduce the risk of rubella in pregnant women and CRS in infants.

  17. Proximity to goat farms and Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence among pregnant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, W. van der; Meekelenkamp, J.C.; Dijkstra, F.; Notermans, D.W.; Bom, B.; Vellema, P.; Rietveld, A.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van; Leenders, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    During 2007-2009, we tested serum samples from 2,004 pregnant women living in an area of high Q fever incidence in the Netherlands. Results confirmed that presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii is related to proximity to infected dairy goat farms. Pregnant women and patients with certain c

  18. Acute HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Cynthia L.; Mwapasa, Victor; Murdoch, David M.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data on acute HIV infection (AHI) prevalence during pregnancy. Methods Malawian pregnant women admitted in the third trimester and meeting eligibility criteria underwent dual HIV rapid antibody testing. AHI prevalence was retrospectively detected through HIV RNA pooling of seronegative plasma. Results Among 3825 pregnant women screened, dual HIV rapid testing indicated that 30.2% were HIV positive, 69.7% were HIV negative and 0.1% were indeterminate. Sensitivity and specificity of dual rapid testing was 99.0% and 98.7%, respectively. Of 2666 seronegative specimens, 2327 had samples available for HIV RNA pooling; 5 women (0.21%) (95% CI: 0.03, 0.40%) had AHI with a median peripartum viral load of 1,324,766 copies/mL. Discussion Pregnant women are at risk for AHI, warranting counseling of all women and their sexual partners about incident HIV during pregnancy. Dual HIV rapid tests have high sensitivity and specificity. HIV testing should be repeated in the third trimester and/or at delivery. PMID:20226326

  19. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant versus non-pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.

  20. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  1. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  2. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  3. Leisure-time physical activity patterns and correlates among pregnant women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Anca; Vamos, Cheryl A

    2013-04-01

    Physical activity significantly impacts public health as it reduces the risk of chronic diseases and provides numerous protective factors during pregnancy. Although Canadian guidelines recommend regular physical activity for healthy pregnant women, little is known about their leisure-time physical activity patterns. This study compared the physical activity levels of pregnant and non-pregnant women and examined socio-demographic and health correlates of physical activity during pregnancy. Canadian Community Health Survey data (2005-2008) from 623 pregnant women and 20,392 non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years in Ontario, Canada were examined. The prevalence of regular physical activity (15 or more minutes on at least 3 days of the week) was 58.3 % [95 % CI 52.9, 63.4], among pregnant women and 66.9 % [95 % CI 65.8, 68.0] among non-pregnant women. However, the prevalence of meeting Canadian guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy (30 or more minutes on at least 4 days of the week) was only 23.3 %, [95 % CI 19.4, 27.7] among pregnant women and 33.6 % [95 % CI 32.7, 34.6] among non-pregnant women. Pregnant women were less likely to be meeting guidelines if they were single, divorced, separated or widowed, a visible minority, had a household income between $20,000 and $79,999, and reported being in good or fair/poor health; when it came to education, women who had completed high school were more likely to be meeting guidelines. Few pregnant women in Ontario are meeting guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy. Results indicate that promoting physical activity during pregnancy should remain a public health priority.

  4. Anxiety levels, health behaviors, and support systems of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S A; Rankin, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational descriptive study was to assess health behaviors, anxiety levels, and social support of pregnant women, ages 20 to 40, who were without complications and were patients of four private obstetrical practices in a large metropolitan city. Although sampling was a nonprobability approach, various socioeconomic, racial, and religious groups were represented. The three instruments used to test the hypotheses included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) and a detailed Health Behavior Demographic Questionnaire. Results of the data indicated no significant differences between pregnant smokers' and pregnant nonsmokers' STAI or PRQ scores. Significant positive correlations were revealed between the following variables: Trait anxiety with increased age of pregnancy (r = .77, p = .008); trait anxiety with high educational level (r = .72, p = .001); trait anxiety with state anxiety (r = .64, p = .001); trait anxiety with years married (r = .68, p = .018); trait anxiety with numbers of children (r = .82, p = .005); trait anxiety with high occupation level (r = .68, p = .001), increased age with PRQ support (r = -.88, p = .001); caucasian women examined breast more frequently (r = .47, p = .005); pregnant women who were smokers also were more likely to drink (r = .66, p = .03). Significant negative correlations were: Increased state anxiety with decreased social support (r = -.28, p = .05); higher trait anxiety with lower PRQ (r = -.59, p = .001), and more drinks of alcohol per day with decreased social support (r = .88, p = .04). The study indicated that the subjects who continue to smoke while pregnant were highly educated. All had at least two years of college with 45% having completed graduate school. All were working in managerial or professional jobs. This has implications for nursing interventions focused on enhancing health coping strategies at the workplace and specific health promotion

  5. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Çankaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.

  6. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, A; Bemrah, N; Veyrand, B; Pollono, C; Merlo, M; Desvignes, V; Sirot, V; Marchand, P; Berrebi, A; Cariou, R; Antignac, J P; Le Bizec, B; Leblanc, J C

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination valueshigh freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals.

  7. Ocular changes in pregnant Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N; Ighoroje, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy results in a lot of hormonal changes in the body and the eyes are no exception. These ocular changes could be physiologic, pathologic or a modification of a pre-existing condition. The aim of this study was to determine physiologic ocular changes that are associated with pregnancy in healthy Nigerian women. A total of 100 women were followed longitudinally through out the course of their pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. The women were recruited at 8 weeks of pregnancy at the anti-natal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The women were aged between 20 and 35 years. Tests carried out included visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, retinoscopy, and tonometry. The tests were carried out in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. There was a fall in intraocular pressure across the trimesters and this was very significant (Pchanges associated with pregnancy are transient and most tend to resolve postpartum, with values returning to near pre-pregnant state.

  8. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-06-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM.

  9. Ethnic differences in resistance artery contractility of normotensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, L M; Taherzadeh, Z; Volger, S; Clark, J F; Rolf, T; Wolf, H; Vanbavel, E; van Montfrans, G A

    2010-08-01

    Black women are at a greater risk to develop hypertension during pregnancy, with a 4.5 times higher rate of fatal preeclampsia than white women. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that may affect this risk. Our group previously proposed that high activity of the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, creatine kinase (CK), may increase ATP-buffering capacity and lead to enhanced vascular contractility and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability. Therefore, we assessed microvascular contractility characteristics in isolated resistance arteries from self-defined black and white normotensive pregnant women using a Mulvany-Halpern myograph. Additionally, morphology was assessed with electron microscopy. Resistance-sized arteries obtained from omentum donated during cesarean sections (11 black women and 20 white women, mean age: 34 yr) studied in series showed similar morphology but significantly greater maximum contractions to norepinephrine (10(-5) M) in blacks [14.0 mN (1.8 SE)] compared with whites [8.9 mN (1.4 SE), P = 0.02]. Furthermore, we found greater residual contractility after the specific CK inhibitor dinitrofluorobenzene (10(-6) M) in black women [55% (6 SE)] compared with white women [28% (4 SE), P = 0.001] and attenuated vasodilation after bradykinin (10(-7) M) in black women [103% (6 SE)] compared with white women [84% (5 SE), P = 0.023], whereas responses to sodium nitroprusside (10(-4) M) and amlodipine (10(-6) M) were similar. We conclude that compared with white women, normotensive pregnant black women display greater resistance artery contractility and evidence of higher vascular CK activity with attenuated nitric oxide synthesis. These findings in normotensives may imply that the black population is at risk for a further incline in pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders.

  10. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  11. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIV- positive women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal clinic at a health centre in Balaka, Malawi. Methods. This was a ... pregnant women enroled in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. A sample size of thirty-five ..... Some women reported suffering the physical and psychological ...

  12. Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease Multiple specialists may be needed to care for ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many more American women with heart disease are choosing to have babies, a new study ...

  13. Preparedness of pregnant women for childbirth and the postpartum period: their knowledge and fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugut, N; Tirkes, D; Demirel, G

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify knowledge and fear related to childbirth and the postpartum period in pregnant women. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women. It was determined that pregnant women had insufficient levels of knowledge related to childbirth and the postpartum period. The Fear of Childbirth and Postpartum Anxiety Scale score for childbirth and the postpartum period related to 'fear regarding the action of childbirth', was found to be the highest. The highest causes for concern were determined to be 'infant-related anxiety' and 'fear regarding infant and puerperal health'. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the perceived sufficiency of the knowledge of pregnant women in terms of maintaining their own health and care, and their mean childbirth and postpartum period concern score. These findings indicate that the level of concern among pregnant women with relation to the postpartum period and childbirth is rather high.

  14. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  15. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  16. Predicting length of stay of substance-using pregnant and postpartum women in day treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K; Cramer-Benjamin, D; Anastas, J

    1997-01-01

    Pregnant and postpartum substance-using women are a special population whose needs do not reflect those of the general substance-using communities. This study examined length of stay in a federally funded day treatment demonstration program in order to identify predictor variables that may help identify pregnant and postpartum substance-using women at high risk for dropping out of treatment. Variables from intake and exit questionnaires on a sample of 163 women were analyzed using multiple regression on both days in treatment and the logarithmic transformation of days in treatment. Few predictor variables were identified, although findings suggest that if a women is younger and self-referred, she may leave treatment sooner. As one of the first sets of published data on pregnant and postpartum women and retention in treatment, this study lays the groundwork for future research on the retention of pregnant and postpartum women in treatment, thereby facilitating the success of these women in overcoming their addiction.

  17. High prevalence of HTLV-1 and 2 viruses in pregnant women in São Luis, state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Guimarães de Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is endemic in the Caribbean, Japan, South America and regions of Africa. HTLV-2 is present in Native American populations and associated with IV drug use in Europe and North America. In Brazil, it is estimated that 1.5 million people are infected with HTLV-1/2. The study objective was to determine HTLV-1/2 prevalence in pregnant women in the prenatal care from three public services in São Luis, State of Maranhão, Brazil, and to counsel seropositive women to reduce viral transmission. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to December 2008; women with age of 18 to 45 years, with low risk for sexually transmitted disease (STD were invited to participate. Blood samples were collected in filter paper, and HTLV-1/2 immunoenzymatic test (ELISA was performed as a screening test. Women with reactive results were submitted to peripheral venous blood collection for ELISA repetition, followed by Western blot (WB and real-time PCR to confirm and discriminate the infection between virus types 1 and 2. RESULTS: Of the 2,044 women tested, seven (0.3% were ELISA reactive and confirmed positive (four were HTLV-1, and three were HTLV-2. All positive women were oriented not to breastfeed their newborns. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the virus is present in high prevalence in that population. Further studies covering other segments of the population are necessary to better characterize the presence of HTLV-1/2 in Maranhão and to elicit measures to prevent its spread.

  18. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijen-de Jong Esther I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

  19. Obstetricians and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2007-05-01

    At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.

  20. Pertussis vaccine in pregnant women: safety and uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munoz FM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flor M Munoz Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Pertussis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, particularly among infants too young to be vaccinated or who are unvaccinated and unprotected by naturally acquired passive antibodies from their mothers. Vaccination of women during pregnancy with an adult formulation of acellular pertussis vaccine in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Tdap [tetanus, reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine] is recommended in several industrialized countries to boost the levels of maternal antibodies that are transferred transplacentally and protect infants during the period of life when they are more likely to succumb to pertussis. Data from clinical and epidemiologic studies are supportive of the safety and effectiveness of maternal immunization with pertussis vaccines. Tdap is safe and well tolerated in pregnant women. Local and systemic reactogenicity is similar to that observed in nonpregnant adults, and no serious adverse events have been attributed to Tdap vaccination during pregnancy. Maternal antibodies elicited by the vaccine are efficiently transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and studies have consistently found that infants born to vaccinated mothers have significantly higher concentrations of pertussis antibodies than infants of nonvaccinated mothers. Although a correlate of protection against pertussis is unknown, higher concentrations of antibodies are likely to result in protection of young infants. A reduction in infant pertussis has been shown to occur when high vaccine coverage rates are achieved by pregnant women, as reported in the UK vaccination program. Furthermore, as more vaccine programs incorporate Tdap vaccination during pregnancy, prospective and epidemiologic data will be available to continuously assess the safety and efficacy of

  1. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdoubi Jamila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s. Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117

  2. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  3. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  4. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendjo Eric

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

  5. Malaria associated symptoms in pregnant women followed-up in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Massougbodji Achille; Mévo Blaise; Borgella Sophie; Gbaguidi Gildas; Fievet Nadine; Huynh Bich-Tram; Deloron Philippe; Cot Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is generally agreed that in high transmission areas, pregnant women have acquired a partial immunity to malaria and when infected they present few or no symptoms. However, longitudinal cohort studies investigating the clinical presentation of malaria infection in pregnant women in stable endemic areas are lacking, and the few studies exploring this issue are unconclusive. Methods A prospective cohort of women followed monthly during pregnancy was conducted in three rura...

  6. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  7. Risky health seeking practice among pregnant women in rural Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørby, Laila

    2007-01-01

    delays, Culture, Field and Capital, Democratic Republic Congo (DRC). Title: Risky health seeking practice, among pregnant women in rural Congo (DRC). Background Statement: Worldwide more than half a million women still die each year of pregnancy and childbirth related reasons. Most of these women live...... about 60 % of the women have a professional help at birth, and even fewer delivers in a health centre, which is far from the Unicef and WHO goal trying to combat high Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). In the southern and rural part of DRC, is a small well equipped and well staffed dispensary and maternity...... professional assistance for normal pregnancy and delivery; delay in reaching an adequate medical facility, which includes accessibility, availability and cost of transportation and conditions of roads; and delays in obtaining the care needed to manage the situation. Following that I have analysed...

  8. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Rasmussen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group, older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

  9. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, A., E-mail: ami.s.yamada@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Bemrah, N., E-mail: nawel.bemrah@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Veyrand, B., E-mail: bruno.veyrand@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Pollono, C., E-mail: charles.pollono@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Merlo, M., E-mail: mathilde.merlo@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Desvignes, V., E-mail: virginie.desvignes@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Sirot, V., E-mail: sirotv@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis.

  10. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  11. The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraei M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

  12. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  13. Factors influencing brain natriuretic peptide levels in healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayama, Michinori; Yoshihara, Masato; Uno, Kaname; Tano, Sho; Takeda, Takehiko; Ukai, Mayu; Kishigami, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Hidenori

    2017-02-01

    The normal range of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in pregnant women is still unclear. Moreover, pregnant women experience dynamic body weight changes and suffer from anemia, but effects on maternal BNP have not been investigated. This study aimed to reveal the normal plasma BNP range and examine the effects of physiological changes on BNP among pregnant women. Plasma BNP, hemoglobin, plasma creatinine and BMI were measured in 58 non-pregnant control women and in 773 normal pregnant women at late pregnancy, early postpartum and 1-month postpartum. Mean plasma BNP (in pg/mL) was 11.8 (95% confidence interval: 0-27.5) in non-pregnant women, 17.9 (0-44.7, pchange during pregnancy (p=0.001) and post-delivery creatinine (p=0.010) but negatively associated with body weight loss at delivery (pchanges, creatinine and hemoglobin levels; therefore, these factors should be considered when analysing cardiac function and the physiological implications of BNP levels in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bari, Ornella; Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have found that gallstone prevalence is twice as high in women as in men at all ages in every population studied. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy put women at higher risk. The incidence rates of biliary sludge (a precursor to gallstones) and gallstones are up to 30 and 12%, respectively, during pregnancy and postpartum, and 1-3% of pregnant women undergo cholecystectomy due to clinical symptoms or complications within the first year postpartum. Increased estrogen levels during pregnancy induce significant metabolic changes in the hepatobiliary system, including the formation of cholesterol-supersaturated bile and sluggish gallbladder motility, two factors enhancing cholelithogenesis. The therapeutic approaches are conservative during pregnancy because of the controversial frequency of biliary disorders. In the majority of pregnant women, biliary sludge and gallstones tend to dissolve spontaneously after parturition. In some situations, however, the conditions persist and require costly therapeutic interventions. When necessary, invasive procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy are relatively well tolerated, preferably during the second trimester of pregnancy or postpartum. Although laparoscopic operation is recommended for its safety, the use of drugs such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the novel lipid-lowering compound, ezetimibe would also be considered. In this paper, we systematically review the incidence and natural history of pregnancy-related biliary sludge and gallstone formation and carefully discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the lithogenic effect of estrogen on gallstone formation during pregnancy. We also summarize recent progress in the necessary strategies recommended for the prevention and the treatment of gallstones in pregnant women.

  15. Circulating Fatty Acid Synthase in pregnant women: Relationship to blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carreras-Badosa, Gemma; Prats-Puig, Anna; Puig, Teresa; Vázquez-Ruíz, Montserrat; Bruel, Monserrat; Mendoza, Ericka; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bassols, Judit

    2016-01-01

    .... FASN is highly expressed in the human placenta. We aimed to investigate the relationship circulating FASN has with blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters in healthy pregnant women...

  16. Rubella Immune Status in Pregnant Women in a Northern Mexican City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in northern Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM anti-rubella virus in 279 pregnant women (mean age 29.17 ± 5.96 years; range 15 - 43 years) attending in a clinic of family medicine using enzyme-linked fluorescent assays. A questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women. The association of rubella seropositivity and characteristics of the women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-rubella IgG antibodies (≥ 15 IU/mL) were found in 271 (97.1%) of the 279 pregnant women examined. None of the 279 pregnant women were positive for anti-rubella IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral variables showed that seroreactivity to rubella virus was positively associated with national trips (OR = 7.39; 95% CI: 1.41 - 38.78; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with age (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.99; P = 0.04). Conclusions Rate of rubella immunity in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango is high. However, nearly 3% of pregnant women are susceptible to rubella in our setting. Risk factors associated with rubella seropositivity found in this study may be useful for optimal design of preventive measures against rubella and its sequelae. PMID:27540439

  17. Maternity perception by pregnant women living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Spindola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the perceptions of pregnant women living with HIV about motherhood and understand the expectations and feelings experienced by these women. Methodology. Study with descriptive design and qualitative approach, carried out with 10 pregnant women living with HIV who attend the prenatal service of a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The participants answered a semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Results. Pregnant women in their descriptions revealed that motherhood gives them different perspectives on the present and future. They see it as a good thing, a responsibility to care for the child, and consider bearing a child to be a gift. Conclusion. For pregnant women living with HIV, motherhood is a positive experience in their lives. Nurses must be sensitive to the needs of this group and aware of their role in health care and preventing any possible complications that may affect the mother and her baby.

  18. Efficacy and safety of telbivudine in preventing mother-to-infant transmission of HBV in pregnant women with high HBV DNA load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Weihui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of telbivudine given from the 12th week of gestation in preventing mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV in pregnant women with high HBV DNA load. MethodsEighty pregnant women (at 12 weeks of gestation with chronic hepatitis B, who had a HBV DNA load higher than 1.0×107 copies/ml, were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups according to their personal preferences: treatment group (n=38 and control group (n=42. The treatment group received oral telbivudine (600 mg once daily until 12 weeks after delivery and was administered compound glycyrrhizin for liver protection, while the control group was given compound glycyrrhizin for liver protection alone. All infants in both groups were vaccinated with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (200 IU and HBV vaccine (20 μg after birth. The mother-to-infant transmission of HBV was indicated by the presence of HBsAg and HBV DNA in infants at 7 months after birth. The HBV DNA levels in these women were measured, and the positive rate of HBsAg in infants was determined. The difference in positive rate of HBsAg was analyzed by chi-square test; the between-group comparison was analyzed by group t(t′-test, and the before-after comparison was analyzed by paired t-test. ResultsThe treatment group showed significantly decreased HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase levels before delivery. The HBV DNA load of treatment group dropped rapidly after 2 weeks of treatment and then decreased slowly until delivery. The treatment group had significantly decreased HBV DNA levels beforedelivery and at 12 weeks after delivery (t=29.15, P<0.01; t=40.06, P<0.01, but the control group showed no significant changes (P>0.05. The treatment group had significantly lower HBV DNA levels than the control group before delivery and at 12 weeks after delivery (P<0.01. No infants in the treatment group were HBV-positive, versus a positive rate of 14.3% in the

  19. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  20. Gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Sarah Oluwatayo Ajibola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopaenia is a common haematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a caesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labour or in the puperium. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women reporting for antenatal care at tertiary health care centres in Lagos. Materials and Methods: Platelet count was analyzed in 274 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and 70 non-pregnant female staff of the hospitals. Platelet count was performed on each sample using the Sysmex KN-21N automated haematology analyzer. The study design was cross-sectional, proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the chi-square, and Odds ratio was also calculated. Thrombocytopaenia is classically defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 10 [9] /L. [3],[4] Counts from 100 to 150 × 10 [9] /L are considered mildly depressed, 50 to 100 × 10 [9] /L are moderately depressed and less than 50 × 10 [9] /L are severely depressed. Results: Thirty-four (13.5% pregnant women were thrombocytopaenic compared with three (4.3% non-pregnant women. This was statistically significant; P = 0.03; Odds ratio: 3.5 (95% CI 1.03-11.82. Out of the 37 pregnant women who were thrombocytopaenic, most of them (78% had mild thrombocytopenia, only 6% had severe thrombocytopaenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia in this study was 13.5%. Although majority of the pregnant women had mild thrombocytopaenia, healthcare providers should screen all pregnant women routinely for thrombocytopaenia to avoid excessive bleeding during or after childbirth.

  1. Frequency and types of human papillomavirus among pregnant and non-pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Recife determined by genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vírginia da Conceição Ribes Amorim Bezerra Brandão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer. To determine HPV genotypes and frequencies among HIV-positive women, an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 147 women (51 were pregnant and HIV-positive, 45 pregnant and HIV-negative and 51 HIV-positive and not pregnant, who were attended at a maternity hospital in Recife between April 2006-May 2007. They answered a questionnaire and underwent a gynaecological examination, with samples collected for HPV investigation by PCR, hybrid capture II, oncotic colpocytology (Papanicolau and colposcopy. The frequency of HPV DNA was 85.3% (122/143, with a high proportion of HPV types that have been identified as high risk for cervical cancer. Among HIV-positive pregnant women, there was an HPV prevalence of 96% (48/50, of whom 60.4% (29/48 were high-risk. HPV 16, 58, 18, 66 and 31 were the most frequent types. Colpocytological abnormalities were observed in 35.3% (18/51 of HIV-positive non-pregnant women, 21.6% (11/51 of HIV-positive pregnant women and 13.3% (6/45 of HIV-negative pregnant women with a predominance of low-level lesions. A high prevalence of HPV infection was identified, especially with the high-risk types 16, 58, 18 and 66. This study identified high-risk HPV types in all three groups examined (HIV-positive pregnant women, HIV-negative pregnant women and HIV-positive not pregnant, characterising its distribution in this setting.

  2. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  3. Zika and Pregnancy: What Pregnant Women Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-13

    As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy.  Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 6/13/2016.

  4. Assessment of dietary diversity and nutritional status of pregnant women in Islamabad, Pakistan. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fatima; Thaver, Inayat; Khan, Shahzad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition is one of the most important causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Maternal nutrition has direct association with foetal nutrition. This study aimed to identify dietary diversity and determine any relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Rawalpindi Islamabad region. It was a cross sectional survey involving 350 pregnant women in their second and third trimesters, conducted in outpatient department of Maternal and Child health centre at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad. A semi qualitative questionnaire was used that contained structured questions regarding socio-demographic features, socioeconomic status, nutritional status, and three day dietary recall. A second section comprising of questions regarding dietary perceptions was also Out of total, 47% of pregnant women had normal pre-gestational BMI while, 22% were overweight, 17% obese, and only 12% of pregnant women were under weight. Similarly 28.1% were anaemic. Medium dietary diversity was observed in 89% of pregnant women, while only 5% showed low, and high dietary diversity. Dietary diversity was not associated with sociodemographic, or socioeconomic status of pregnant women. Even though weight gain during second (p=0.2) and third trimesters (p=0.049) had a positive relationship with dietary diversity, more than 74% of pregnant women gained less than recommended level of weight gain. No association could be proven between haemoglobin and dietary diversity (p=0.51). Dietary diversity is a good proxy indicator for micronutrient adequacy in pregnant women, however if quantity of food consumed is added it can give better indication of determinants of nutritional status of pregnant women.

  5. Prevalence of fetal heart disease in high-risk pregnant women admitted in the public health service of Sorocaba/SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carrel Silveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: several pregnancy disorders (both maternal and fetal that behave as risk factor for fetal heart diseases have been described. Objective: to study such relation among pregnant women admitted in the public health service of Sorocaba and presenting pregnancy related diseases considered as risk factors for fetal heart disease. Methods and casuistic: 104 fetal echocardiograms were performed in the 28.9th week of gestation (average in 102 pregnant women with gestational diseases considered as risk factors for fetal heart disease and were grouped as follows: diabetes, hypertension, diabetes and hypertension, diabetes, hypertension and maternal age greater than 35 years, multiple births, fetal abnormalities detected by ultrasound in obstetrics, maternal age less than 17 years, maternal age greater than 35 years and pregnant women suffering from other diseases (lupus erythematosus, congenital heart disease, complicated obstetric past and use of teratogenic drugs. A morphofunctional analysis of fetal hearts was performed using conventional cuts ultrasound Doppler spectral analysis and color flow mapping. Results: mean maternal age was 30.05 years (ranging from 14 to 46 years. The most common fetal heart disease identified was interventricular communication (23%, and among the groups of pregnancy pathologies, the group of pregnant women with twin pregnancy and fetal abnormalities in the highest incidence of fetal heart disease (35%, in spit of the group of diabetic women being the most frequent (48%. Conclusion: the prevalence of fetal heart disease in our study was 16.34%. The sum of risk factors during pregnancy was not related to a greater frequency of fetal heart disease.

  6. Thyroid disease in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus: increased preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro-Green, A; Akhter, E; Yim, C; Davies, Terry F; Magder, Ls; Petri, M

    2011-06-01

    Thyroid disease is common in pregnancy and is associated with miscarriage, preterm delivery and postpartum thyroiditis (PPT). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with miscarriage and preterm delivery. The hypotheses of the study are (1) pregnant women with SLE will have a high prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism and a high prevalence of PPT, and (2) women with SLE and thyroid disease will have an increased incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes as compared with pregnant women with SLE who do not have thyroid disease. This was a retrospective study of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. All women had thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid antibodies assayed on frozen sera. In total, 63 pregnant women who met the ACR classification for SLE were evaluated. Outcome measures were the prevalence of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum, and pregnancy outcomes. Some 13% of the women were on thyroid hormone prior to becoming pregnant, 11% were diagnosed with hypothyroidism during pregnancy, and 14% developed PPT. The prevalence of preterm delivery was 67% in women with thyroid disease and 18% in women who were thyroid disease free (p = 0.002). The presence of thyroid antibodies was not correlated with preterm delivery. Pregnant women with SLE have an increased prevalence of thyroid disease. Women with SLE and thyroid disease have an increased prevalence of preterm delivery.

  7. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  8. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.

  9. Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Zimmermann, Ivan R.; Lopes, Luiz Antonio B.; Bernardo, Eneida F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effects of the inactivated influenza virus vaccine on influenza outcomes in pregnant women and their infants. Methods. We performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies in the MEDLINE, Embase, and other relevant databases (inception to September 2013). Two researchers selected studies and extracted the data independently. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Results. We included eight studies out of 1,967 retrieved records. Influenza vaccination in pregnant women significantly reduced the incidence of influenza-like illness in mothers and their infants when compared with control groups (high-quality evidence) and reduced the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants (moderate-quality evidence). No difference was found with regard to influenza-like illness with fever higher than 38°C (moderate-quality evidence) or upper respiratory infection (very-low-quality evidence) in mothers and infants. Conclusions. Maternal vaccination against influenza was shown to prevent influenza-like illness in women and infants; no differences were found for other outcomes. As the quality of evidence was not high overall, further research is needed to increase confidence and could possibly change these estimates. PMID:24971194

  10. Amniocentesis in HIV pregnant women: 16 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A--women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B--women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population.

  11. Central sleep apnea in pregnant women with sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjeily, Ghada; Sharkey, Katherine M; Mazer, Jeffrey; Moore, Robin; Martin, Susan; Millman, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Physiologic changes in the cardiac, respiratory, and renal systems in pregnancy likely impact ventilatory control. Though obstructive sleep apnea and snoring are common in the pregnant population, the predisposition to central respiratory events during sleep and the prevalence of such events is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of central apneas during sleep in pregnant women and non-pregnant controls suspected of sleep disordered breathing. Twenty-five pregnant women referred for polysomnography for sleep disordered breathing were compared with non-pregnant controls matched for age, body mass index, gender, and apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Central apnea index was defined as the number of central apneas per hour of sleep, and mixed apnea index was defined as the number of mixed apneas per hour of sleep. Sixty-four percent of pregnant women had a respiratory disturbance index >5 events per hour of sleep. Mean body mass index was 44.1 ± 6.9 kg/m(2) pregnant compared to 44.0 ± 7.3 kg/m(2) in controls. The total number of central apneas observed during sleep in the pregnant group consisted of two central apneas in one patient, and of 98 central apneas in 11 patients in the control group (p = 0.05). Median central apnea index was low in both groups (pregnant 0, interquartile range (IQR) 0, 0 vs. non-pregnant 0, IQR 0, 0.2, p = 0.04). Mixed apnea index was similarly low in both groups. Despite some physiologic changes of pregnancy that impact ventilatory control, the prevalence of central sleep apnea was low in our sample of overweight pregnant women with sleep-disordered breathing.

  12. A halfway house for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z; Jaafar, R; Hassan, M H; Awang, C W

    1998-01-01

    For a number of reasons, it is common for rural women in Malaysia who are experiencing high-risk pregnancy to choose to give birth at home rather than in a hospital. In so doing, these women usually agree to enter the hospital only upon the development of birth complications, a behavior which tends to raise the incidence of maternal morbidity and mortality. The records were analyzed of 171 women who received care in the low-risk birth center of Bachok district in Kelantan between June 1995 and September 1996. 93 of the women delivered uneventfully and were discharged within 24 hours, with no case of postpartum hemorrhage. The remaining 78 women were referred to hospital for delivery for a range of reasons. All women interviewed in Bachok felt that a low-risk birth center should be part of every health clinic. Many of the drawbacks of hospitalization were reduced or eliminated in the new facilities, and all of the doctors, nurses, and midwives saw the establishment of the low-risk birth center as beneficial.

  13. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pnutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  14. Medical advice seeking behaviors of pregnant women in imo state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical advice seeking behaviors of pregnant women in imo state, nigeria. ... instrument was ensured through constructive criticisms of seven health professionals. ... safe motherhood and family life education concepts that would sensitize the ...

  15. Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUIDELINE Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women This is one of a series of statements discussing the ... text. This guide- line updates a previously issued guideline on this topic. 1 In preparing this guideline, ...

  16. Tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected pregnant women in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... settings, and 15 - 34% of indirect obstetric maternal mortality.10. In SA between 2008 and ... TB prevention, diagnosis and treatment in HIV-infected pregnant women should be ..... Bothamley G. Drug treatment for tuberculosis.

  17. RESEARCH Safety of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11 SAMJ. In January 2005, the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration ... therapy (ART) for pregnant women with CD4 ≤350 cells/µl,7 based on their ... Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand and.

  18. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y. Y. Nikulina; I. E. Sokolova; A. I. Vinnikov

    2012-01-01

    .... The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration...

  19. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively ... due to the anatomical and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. ... by bacteria species that are part of the normal body.

  20. FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162543.html FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under ... agency news release. She is director of the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "Parents and ...

  1. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi, Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical. Student. Research. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi,. Namibia ... Julia Thomson, medk:aJ student. In recognition of this ..... College of General Practitioners, the Commonwealth ... Maternal nutritional status in pregnancy.

  2. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather: Wildfires Ready.gov (U.S. Department of Homeland Security) Are You Ready? (FEMA) American Red Cross Family Preparedness Guide (Florida Department of Health) Preparedness Information for Pregnant Women Pregnancy and Disaster Information from ...

  3. 120例高危型HPV感染孕妇心理状况分析%Psychological Condition Analysis of 120 Pregnant Women with High-risk HPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽萍; 庾静雯; 黄春英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the psychological condition of pregnant women with high-risk HPV infection and the effects after cognitive nursing intervention and psychological support. Methods 120 cases of pregnant women diagnosed with high-risk type HPV were randomly selected from the hospital and were randomly divided into intervention group and control group, with 60 cases in each group. Patients in the intervention group were given cognitive intervention and psychological support, and the control group were only given traditional nursing. Intervention effects were evaluated. Results Among the 120 cases, psychological abnormality rate was 90. 83% (109/120), including anxiety (35. 83%), guilt and remorse (24. 17%), shame (20%), doubt (10. 83%), psycho-logical abnormality rate was 56. 67% in the intervention group after intervention and psychological support, significantly lower than that of the control group. Treatment compliance rate was raised to 96. 67%. Pressure rating score was obviously lowered and was statistical-ly significant from that of the control group (P<0. 05). Conclusion Pregnant women with high-risk HPV bear observable psychologi-cal maladjustment, such as anxiety, guilt and remorse, shame and suspect. Cognitive intervention and psychological support could ef-fectively improve their psychological condition, reduce pressures and enhance their quality of life.%目的:探讨高危型HPV感染孕妇心理状况及给予认知护理干预和心理支持后的效果。方法随机选取我院确诊感染高危型HPV孕妇120例,并随机分为干预组和对照组各60例,干预组患者给予认知干预和心理支持,对照组仅给予传统护理,比较两组干预前后治疗依从性。结果120例感染高危型HPV孕妇心理状况异常率为90.83%(109/120),其中焦虑不安占35.83%、内疚自责心理占24.17%、羞耻心理占20%、怀疑心理占10.83%;认知干预和心理支持后干预组心理异常率为56.67%,明显低于对

  4. Smoking habits of pregnant women in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsilman, J J; Mackay, E V

    1985-11-01

    A survey of postpartum women in Brisbane revealed that many gave up smoking just before or shortly after becoming pregnant, and that many of the remainder reduced their rate of consumption. Husbands who smoked showed no comparable changes in behaviour. Thus apparently many couples were aware of the dangers to the fetus of active smoking by the woman, but not of the dangers of her passive inhalation of smoke. Other significant findings included (i) increasing rates of consumption during successive pregnancies, (ii) high degrees of conformity for most habits (e.g. use of filters), and (iii) stronger addiction and earlier starting ages among heavy smokers than light smokers.

  5. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods) and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from f...

  6. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    : A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  7. Serum HSV-1 and -2 IgM in pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonko, I O; Cookey, T I; Okerentugba, P O; Frank-Peterside, N

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken for the purpose of finding IgM antibodies against HSV-1 and 2 infections among pregnant women and also to evaluate correlation of Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in these pregnant women. A total of 180 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria were consecutively recruited, after they had given consents to participate in the study. Serum of each sample was assayed for HSV-1&2 IgM antibody using a commercial ELISA. Five (2.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for IgM antibody against HSV-1&2. Marital status mainly correlated (χ(2) = 221.5, P HSV-2 infection and HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection. Age, educational level, occupation, and gestation were not consistently associated (P>0.05) with HSV-1/HSV-2 infection and co-infection. We also observed a high overall anti-HSV-1&2 IgM seronegativity of 97.2% among these pregnant women. Group-specific seronegativity was also high ranging from 93.3-100%. Although the age-groups significantly differed, none of their variables showed statistical association with the seronegativity. This represents the first analysis of HSV IgM antibody reported in Port Harcourt, Nigeria and has important public health implications, particularly for pregnant women. Consideration of this information would benefit physicians providing primary gynecological and obstetric care to this population of women.

  8. Posture analysis of lifting a load for head carriage and comparison between pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G A; Preston, D; Beaucage-Gauvreau, E; Lawani, M

    2014-01-01

    In Western Africa, women continue performing heavy physical work that includes carrying loads on their heads during pregnancy. Women may adapt to pregnancy related body changes by modifying their postures to perform such tasks. The objectives of this biomechanical task analysis study were to 1) determine sagittal plane postures of the trunk and upper extremities at specific events during the task of lifting and lowering a load to be carried on the head, 2) compare postures of pregnant and non-pregnant participants, 3) evaluate risk for musculo-skeletal disorders (MSD) with the rapid entire body assessment (REBA) criteria. Twenty-six pregnant (26 ± 5 years, 159 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 15 kg, 25 ± 9 weeks of pregnancy) and 25 paired non-pregnant retail merchants were recruited in Porto-Novo (Benin). Participants were recorded on video in a laboratory setting while they lifted a tray (20% body weight) from a stool to their head and then put it back down. Trunk inclination and knee, shoulder and elbow flexion angles were determined using Dartfish® software. The trunk was bent by more than 80° at pick-up and set-down and knees were moderately flexed, significantly less (pregnant women, possibly because it was harder to lift the trunk, or for stability. For all postures analysed, the majority of trials were classified as "high" risk or "very high risk" for MSD. Future research should investigate prevalence of MSDs in this population to confirm the results of this study.

  9. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Nikulina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties of the vaginosis pathogens isolated from 255 pregnant patients of the Pregnancy Pathology Department of the Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospital were studied. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by the Candida yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Leptotrix vaginalis. The yeasts of genus Candida were the most common isolated pathogens of the vaginosis in pregnant women. The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration of circulating immune complexes.

  10. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashshapova, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear of childbirth (FOC is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications. As internal (psychological factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined. The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of

  11. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ventricular dyssynchrony in pregnant women: A tissue Doppler study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ragab A; El-Awady, Waleed S; Dewedar, Ashraf

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the left ventricular (LV) synchronicity in pregnant women and to identify the main determinants of LV dyssynchrony in asymptomatic pregnant women. One hundred sixty-seven pregnant women consecutively and 48 age-matched nonpregnant controls were enrolled. For the assessment of LV systolic dyssynchrony, the standard deviation of the time from QRS onset to peak systolic (Tps-LV- standard deviation [SD]) velocity and the maximal difference of the time from QRS onset to peak systolic velocity (Tps-LV) from 12 segments at the apical views. For the LV diastolic dyssynchrony, the standard deviation of the time from QRS onset to peak diastolic (Tpe-LV-SD) velocity and the maximal difference of the time from QRS onset to peak diastolic velocity (Tpe-LV) were calculated. Both systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony indexes were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the normal controls (Tps-LV; Ppregnant women had a dyssynchrony index above the accepted value for LV dyssynchrony (>34.4 msec). There was a significant correlation between LV dyssynchrony indexes with, multiparty, multifetal pregnancies, systolic blood pressure in pregnant women with LV dyssynchrony. Additionally LV dyssynchrony was significantly associated with elevated E/e" and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Both systolic synchronicity and diastolic synchronicity were affected in pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. LV dyssynchrony was significantly correlated with age, multiparity, and BNP level. Early detectable changes in systolic and diastolic synchrony may be present in pregnant women at higher risk of peripartum cardiomyopathy. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation and plasma total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant Indian women with low B12 and high folate status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katre, Prachi; Bhat, Dattatray; Lubree, Himangi; Otiv, Suhas; Joshi, Suyog; Joglekar, Charudatta; Rush, Elaine; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2010-01-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia predict poor pregnancy outcome, foetal adiposity and insulin resistance. In India amongst practicing clinicians and policy makers there is little appreciation of widespread vitamin B12 deficiency. We investigated 163 (86 rural, 77 urban) pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural health centre and a referral hospital in the city of Pune, at 17, 28, and 34 weeks gestation for vitamin supplements, and circulating concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, and total homocysteine. At enrolment 80% rural and 65% urban women had low vitamin B12 but only two rural women had low folate concentrations. During pregnancy 85% rural and 95% of urban women received folic acid; 12% rural and 84% urban women also received vitamin B12. In women receiving no supplementation (n=17) plasma vitamin B12 and folate did not change from 17 to 34 weeks gestation, but homocysteine increased (pHomocysteine concentrations at 34 weeks gestation in women receiving only folic acid (n=71, mean 8.4 (95% CI 7.8, 9.1) micromol/L) were comparable to the unsupplemented group (9.7 (7.3, 12.7), p=0.15), but women who received a total dose of >1000 microg of vitamin B12 up to 34 weeks (n=42, all with folic acid) had lower concentrations (6.7 (6.0, 7.4), phomocysteine concentration. In vitamin B12 insufficient, folate replete pregnant women, vitamin B12 supplementation is associated with a reduction of plasma total homocysteine concentration in late pregnancy.

  14. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  15. Epidemiological Investigation of Mycosis Infection Among Full-term Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘植华; 邓英; 李晴

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find out the basic conditions of mycosis infection of full-term pregnant women. Methods: Fungus isolation and identification from the vaginal secretions and oral specimens from 208 full-term pregnant women were carried out by fungi culture and identified following standard biological practice. Results: The positive detection rate for vaginal fungi was 51.92% and for oral fungi it was 47.59%. 20.19% had fungi in both the vaginal and oral cavity. The fungi found were mainly of the species Candida albicans. Conclusion: The prevalence of fungal mycosis infection in full-term pregnant women was higher than that usually found in non-pregnant women. In order to prevent further complications and materal-child transmission, serious attention should be paid to this high prevalence finding.

  16. AN ETHNOGRAPHY STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN BANTEN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyowati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality in childbirth in developing countries is still high. The study describes the qualitative methods used to examine the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and behaviour related to nutrition and nutritional supplementation of pregnant women. The role of village midwives and cadres’ in relation to nutrition education resulted in improving nutritional behaviour of pregnant women to some extent, but poverty and culture restricted the ability of pregnant women to access better food. The study shows that the position of pregnant woman is low within the hierarchy of both the health care system and the power structures of the broader community. Husbands, mothers-in-law, village midwives, cadres and village leaders all have more power in determining nutrition during pregnancy. However, some women tried to eat better and more nutritious food in secret, thereby subverting culture and the authority of husbands and mothers-in-law.

  17. Intraocular Pressure in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Nigerian Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    hormones are steroids and steroids have an effect on salt and water ... antenatal clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and. Gynaecology of the ... women were part of the study. One hundred .... Castro-Mesa C, Castilla-López-Madridejos F and.

  18. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  19. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  20. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions among Indian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman’s body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. Method. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Results. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%, low back pain (42%, and pelvic girdle pain (37%. Conclusion. Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure.

  1. Prevalence of musculoskeletal dysfunctions among Indian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Preetha; Maiya, Arun G; Kumar, Pratap; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman's body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%), low back pain (42%), and pelvic girdle pain (37%). Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure.

  2. Awareness of Pregnant Women about Folic Acid Supplementation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Riazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of folic acidsupplementation amongst Iranian pregnant women.Materials and methods: We selected 322 women through simple randomized method in a cross sectionstudy. Data was gathered on the base of questionnaire and interview. Statistical analysis was performedusing SPSS software. The value of p<0.05 was considered as significant level.Results: The obtained information revealed that 7.8% with high level of knowledge, 43.8% withintermediate level, 30.4% with low level knowledge, and 18% with no knowledge. Hospitals and healthcenters are two major sources for promoting popular awareness about folic acid. There is a significantrelationship between the knowledge, education, employment, time of prenatal care beginning, age,gravidity, and sources of health information. The number of women with high level of knowledge wasmore among those with lower parity, higher level of education, employment, young age and looking forhealth information.Conclusion: Awareness of folic acid is low among Iranian women. The different strategies are required toelevate the knowledge about folic acid among the women in reproductive age and provide them withsome information about the benefits of this supplement.

  3. Molecular Detection of Malaria at Delivery Reveals a High Frequency of Submicroscopic Infections and Associated Placental Damage in Pregnant Women from Northwest Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Eliana M.; Samuel, Roshini; Agudelo, Olga M.; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Maestre, Amanda; Yanow, Stephanie K.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium infection in pregnancy causes substantial maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. In Colombia, both P. falciparum and P. vivax are endemic, but the impact of either species on pregnancy is largely unknown in this country. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 96 pregnant women who delivered at their local hospital. Maternal, placental, and cord blood were tested for malaria infection by microscopy and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A high frequency of infection was detected by qPCR (45%). These infections had low concentrations of parasite DNA, and 79% were submicroscopic. Submicroscopic infections were associated with placental villitis and intervillitis. In conclusion, the overall frequency of Plasmodium infection at delivery in Colombia is much higher than previously reported. These data prompt a re-examination of the local epidemiology of malaria using molecular diagnostics to establish the clinical relevance of submicroscopic infections during pregnancy as well as their consequences for mothers and newborns. PMID:23716408

  4. Clostridium difficile carriage in healthy pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guang-yong; Li, Na; Chen, Yun-Bo; Lv, Tao; Shen, Ping; Gu, Si-Lan; Fang, Yun-Hui; Li, Lan-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Infection with Clostridium difficile has been shown to have particularly poor outcomes for pregnant women, including an increased risk of death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypic distribution, and characterization of C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant women without diarrhea in China. As part of this study, 3.7% (37 out of 1009) of samples acquired from pregnant females tested positive for C. difficile. Of these positive samples, 27.0% (10) were toxigenic isolates containing both toxin A and toxin B genes (A+B+), 13.5% (5) of the variant strains contained the toxin B gene (A-B+) only, while the rest were non-toxigenic isolates (59.5%, 22 isolates). Among the non-pregnant women without diarrhea tested, 1.4% (9 of 651) contained toxigenic isolates (all of which were A+B+). Sixteen different sequence types (STs) were isolated during the course of this study. ST-37 (ribotype 017) and ST-54 (ribotype 012) were the most frequent toxigenic types observed in pregnant women. All strains showed susceptibility to the antibiotics metronidazole and vancomycin. The resistance rates of toxigenic C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant females to clindamycin, erythromycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and rifampicin were 20%, 46.7%, 13.6%, 46.7% and 13.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference between resistance rates of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains with respect to their susceptibility to these antibiotics. However, when compared with the same data from non-pregnant women, toxigenic strains from pregnant women showed lower resistance rates to clindamycin (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  6. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  7. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abort...... be considered appropriate for childbirth. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was low and might reflect that these women were not entirely against the thought of having a child, although they did not actively plan to have one....

  8. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...

  9. Association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Paschoal Esteves Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for periodontitis. However, it is possible that periodontitis induces a systemic inflammatory process which could initiate and propagate an insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1 and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2 in pregnant women. Methods: The sample consisted of studying 20 pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, 20 women with GDM and 40 pregnant women without any endocrinopathy. Periodontal examination included analysis of bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Periodontitis was defined as the presence of four or more teeth with at least one site with PD ≥ 4 mm and CAL ≥ 3 mm with BOP associated in the same site. Results: Results demonstrated an association between GDM and high maternal age, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The prevalence of periodontitis observed was 55%, 40% and 42,5% for women with DM 1 or DM 2 (p=0,360, with GDM (p=0,853 and in the control group, respectively. Conclusions: The sample showed high prevalence of periodontitis; however, there was no significant difference between pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, women with GDM or pregnant women in the control group.

  10. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen;

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  11. Seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic, apparently healthy, pregnant women in Dakahlya Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Yahia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major public health problem in the developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and fatal in the third trimester. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 asymptomatic pregnant women divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included 56 pregnant women with HCV positive serology and group 2 included 60 pregnant women with negative HCV serology were included in this study. Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and anti-HCV were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was highly significant among pregnant women with chronic HCV infection 40/56 (71.42% than pregnant women free from chronic HCV infection 28/60 (46.7% (P = 0.006. Chronic HCV infection in pregnant women appeared to be a risk factor associated with HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.24-6.6. The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was significantly high in rural areas than urban areas (62.5% vs. 37.5% in group 1 and (78.58% vs. 21.42% in group 2 (P = 0.15 and OR = 2.2, CI = 0.65-7.7. A decrease in albumin level (P = 0.047 and an increase in bilirubin (P = 0.025, ALT (P = 0.032, and AST (P = 0.044 in pregnant women with positive HCV and IgG anti-HEV than the second group with negative HCV serology. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in pregnant women is high in Egypt especially in rural areas. With chronic HCV coinfection, a marked increase in anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and significant worsening of the biochemical liver indices were noted. Increased public awareness about the sound hygienic measures for a less prevalence of HEV is strongly advised. The need for HEV vaccination for those at risk, especially pregnant ladies, should be considered.

  12. High mobile phone ownership, but low Internet and email usage among pregnant, HIV-infected women attending antenatal care in Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H; Pettifor, Audrey E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n = 50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month-6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month-13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

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    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  14. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

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    Heminger CL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Christina L Heminger, Jennifer M Schindler-Ruwisch, Lorien C AbromsDepartment of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Background: Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods: A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results: Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion: Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. Keywords: mHealth, smoking cessation, pregnancy, text messaging

  15. Group B Streptococcal Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S

    2017-07-01

    Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.

  16. Zika virus and pregnant women: A psychological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras Meireles, Juliana Fernandes; Neves, Clara Mockdece; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Caputo Ferreira, Maria Elisa

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus presents risk of physical harm to pregnant women, but the fear of infection is also affecting women around the world. There is a gap in the research on Zika virus in the areas involving the impact on the psychosocial well-being of pregnant women. Therefore, this study is aimed at the investigation of the psychosocial adjustment of pregnant women to the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. We investigated 14 pregnant women who were classified in three different groups: six in the first trimester, five in the second trimester and three in the third trimester, aged from 28 to 40 years (33.43 ± 3.76 years). Content analysis was used to interpret data. Our results show that the psychosocial adjustment of participants was significantly negative and included five aspects: (1) negative feelings, (2) changes in family planning, (3) adopting new customs (avoiding places of risk, use of specific clothes and use of repellent), (4) changed attitudes regarding body image and (5) feeling of external demand regarding prevention. The fear of Zika virus infection and all its associated risks have a negative biopsychosocial impact on the pregnant women in this study.

  17. Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 μg/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ≥ 45 μg/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning.

  18. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Anubhuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is one of the diseases comprising the TORCH [ Toxoplasma gondii , Rubella virus , Cytomegalovirus , Herpes simplex virus] infections . It is known to cause perinatal death if the organism is acquired during pregnancy . Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause congenital infection which may result in mental retardation and blindness in the infant . The present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and it i s associated risk facto rs among the women with history of spontaneous abortion . MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 60 women with past or present history of spontaneous abortion and another 60 pregnant women without any bad obstetric history as control attending our hospital were in cluded in the study . All the serum samples were tested for the presence of specific Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies using the On Site Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test strip , a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay . RESULTS: Total seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the study was 12 . 5% . Total seropositivity in women with history of spontaneous abortion was 12 ( 20% and 3 ( 5% among control group . More number of seropositivity was observed among women between 26 to 30 years ( 60% . Risk factor of having cat a s pet animal had greater association of getting toxoplasmosis . CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly high in the study population than in control group . There should be routine screening for antenatal wo men with bad obstetric history .

  19. Urinary Tract Infections among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in Mwanza City, Tanzania, Are High and Predicted by Low CD4+ Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaula, Tito; Seni, Jeremiah; Ng'walida, Nhandi; Kajura, Alphaxaid; Mirambo, Mariam M; DeVinney, Rebekah; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women can lead to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. UTI has been widely studied in the general obstetric population in Tanzania; the present study evaluated the magnitude, antimicrobial resistance, and predictors of UTI among HIV-positive pregnant women. Methods. Between March and May 2016 midstream urine samples from 234 women attending prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) clinics were analyzed using standard methods. Data was analyzed by STATA version 11.0. Results. The prevalence of UTI was 21.4%, 50/234 [95% CI: 16.1-26.6]. The asymptomatically significant bacteriuria was higher than symptomatically significant bacteriuria (16.6% versus 4.7%, p < 0.001). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, single marital status (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.1, and p = 0.026), low CD4+ counts of <200/μL (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-7.7, and p = 0.031), and having UTI symptoms (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-6.0, and p = 0.03) were independent predictors of UTI. Escherichia coli predominated (57.7%) and exhibited a low prevalence of resistance to nitrofurantoin (16.7%), gentamicin (10.0%), and ceftriaxone (13.3%). Four (13.3%) of these were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Conclusions. A considerable proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza have significant bacteriuria which calls for the need to introduce routine UTI screening at PMTCT clinics to guide specific treatment and prevent associated complications.

  20. Urinary Tract Infections among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in Mwanza City, Tanzania, Are High and Predicted by Low CD4+ Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaula, Tito; Ng'walida, Nhandi; Kajura, Alphaxaid; Mirambo, Mariam M.; DeVinney, Rebekah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women can lead to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. UTI has been widely studied in the general obstetric population in Tanzania; the present study evaluated the magnitude, antimicrobial resistance, and predictors of UTI among HIV-positive pregnant women. Methods. Between March and May 2016 midstream urine samples from 234 women attending prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) clinics were analyzed using standard methods. Data was analyzed by STATA version 11.0. Results. The prevalence of UTI was 21.4%, 50/234 [95% CI: 16.1–26.6]. The asymptomatically significant bacteriuria was higher than symptomatically significant bacteriuria (16.6% versus 4.7%, p < 0.001). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, single marital status (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.1, and p = 0.026), low CD4+ counts of <200/μL (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1–7.7, and p = 0.031), and having UTI symptoms (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1–6.0, and p = 0.03) were independent predictors of UTI. Escherichia coli predominated (57.7%) and exhibited a low prevalence of resistance to nitrofurantoin (16.7%), gentamicin (10.0%), and ceftriaxone (13.3%). Four (13.3%) of these were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Conclusions. A considerable proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza have significant bacteriuria which calls for the need to introduce routine UTI screening at PMTCT clinics to guide specific treatment and prevent associated complications.

  1. Submicroscopic malaria infections in pregnant women from six departments in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Raccurt, Christian P; Lemoine, Jean F; Existe, Alexandre; Boncy, Jacques; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A

    2017-08-01

    To describe the epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy in Haiti. Cross-sectional study among pregnant women in six departments of Haiti. After obtaining informed consent, whole blood samples and demographic surveys were collected to investigate malaria prevalence, anaemia and socio-behavioural risk factors for infection, respectively. A total of 311 pregnant women were screened for Plasmodium falciparum infection using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy and a novel, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR). Overall, 1.2% (4/311) of pregnant women were tested positive for malaria infection by both microscopy and RDT. However, using the qRT-PCR, 16.4% (51/311) of pregnant women were positive. The prevalence of malaria infection varied with geographical locations ranging between 0% and 46.4%. Additionally, 53% of pregnant women had some form of anaemia; however, no significant association was found between anaemia and submicroscopic malaria infection. The socio-behavioural risk factors identified to be protective of malaria infection were marital status (P < 0.05) and travel within one month prior to screening (P < 0.05). This study is the first to document the high prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infections among pregnant women in Haiti and identify social and behavioural risk factors for disease transmission. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  3. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  4. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  5. Maraviroc Pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbers, A.; Best, B.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Wang, J; Stek, A.; Tenorio, C.H.; Hawkins, D.; Taylor, G.; Kreitchmann, R.; Burchett, S.; Haberl, A.; Kabeya, K.; Kasteren, M.E.E. van; Smith, E.; Capparelli, E.; Burger, D.M.; Mirochnick, M.; Ven, A. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women during pregnancy and post partum. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women receiving maraviroc as part of clinical care had intensive steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic profiles performed

  6. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, N.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Best, B.M.; Colbers, A.; Wang, J; Capparelli, E.V.; Molto, J.; Stek, A.M.; Taylor, G.; Smith, E.; Tenorio, C.H.; Chakhtoura, N.; Kasteren, M. van; Fletcher, C.V.; Mirochnick, M.; Burger, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. METHODS: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women.

  7. [Prevalence of malaria in Dakar, Senegal. Comparative study of the plasmodial indices in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, S; Ndir, O; Dieng, Y; Ba, F D; Bah, I B; Diop, B M; Gaye, O; Dieng, T

    1995-01-01

    The comparison of the prevalence of malaria in pregnant and non pregnant women living in Dakar has interested 1819 women among whom 950 pregnant and 869 non pregnant. For all the examined women, the global plasmoidic index was 2.6% and the gametocytic index 0.1%. Plasmodium falciparum was the only observed species. According to the obtained results, pregnant women, with a plasmoidic index of 4.5% are more often parasited than the non pregnant women, only affected in a proportion of 0.5% Whatever the age, the number of previous pregnancy, the place of residence, the duration of the stay in Dakar may be, the pregnant women are always more often parasited than the non pregnant women and the registered differences are statistically significant. That situation could come from a greater receptivity of the pregnant women what is admitted by some authors. But a more important proportion of natives from rural area was observed among the pregnant women, from where a difference in the exposure to the risk of impaludation between the two groups that could explain the registered results. The global plasmoidic index of 2.6% obtained in the examined women, reflects well the present situation of the malaria endemy in Dakar, a weak hypo-endemic area.

  8. Hemoglobin values for pregnant women residing at middle altitude

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    Mercedes Jatziri Gaitán-González

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine maternal hemoglobin behavior during pregnancy for middle altitude residents and to compare it with that reported in other populations with or without iron supplementation. Materials and methods. Hematological values from 227 pregnant women residing at 2 240 m altitude (Mexico City, with low obstetric and perinatal risk, and receiving supplementary iron, were compared with reference values obtained from other populations of pregnant women residing at different altitudes, after correcting for altitude. Results. While the hemoglobin values for the first and second trimester of pregnancy in our studied population were similar to those reported for iron-supplemented populations (p mayor que 0.05, the third trimester values were similar to those reported for a population without this supplement (p mayor que 0.05. Conclusions. Despite receiving supplementary iron, hemoglobin values during pregnancy from women residing at middle altitude show similar behavior to that reported for pregnant women without iron supplementation.

  9. Anxiety and Depressed Mood in Obese Pregnant Women: A Prospective Controlled Cohort Study

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    Annick.F.L. Bogaerts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The psychological health in obese women during pregnancy has been poorly studied. Objective: To compare levels of anxiety and depressed mood during pregnancy in obese versus normal-weight women. Methods: 63 obese pregnant women and 156 normal-weight controls were included prospectively before 15 weeks of gestation. Levels of state and trait anxiety and depressed mood were measured during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. A linear mixed-effect model with repeated measures was used to evaluate group differences. Results: The levels of state anxiety significantly increased from trimester 1 to trimester 3 in obese pregnant women (beta = 3.70; p = 0.007, while this parameter remained constant throughout pregnancy in normal-weight women. Levels of trait anxiety and depressed mood significantly decreased from trimester 1 to trimester 2 in controls, but not in obese pregnant women. Variables such as maternal education, ethnicity, marital state, psychological history and miscarriages, parity and smoking behaviour had significant effects on anxiety and/or depressed moods during pregnancy. Obese pregnant women show higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptomatology compared to normal-weight pregnant women. Conclusion: Interventional programmes aiming at preventing the deleterious influence of maternal obesity on perinatal outcomes should include a psycho-educational program specifically tailored to this high-risk group.

  10. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999-2006

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US.Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non...

  11. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Razzaghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ≥3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion: There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week.

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

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    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  13. Psychotherapeutic correction and rehabilitation of mental disorders in pregnant women with threatened miscarriage

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    I. E. Kupriyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the efficiency of psychotherapeutic correction of mental disorders in pregnant women with threatened miscarriage.Patients and methods. Psychotherapy for mental disorders and prenosological conditions was performed in 84 pregnant women aged 18 to 41 years with threatened miscarriage. The efficiency of performed measures was evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire, Spielberger–Hanin’s scale, and a therapy efficiency assessment scale in patients with borderline states. Delivery outcomes were analyzed in relation to management tactics in this cohort of pregnant women. The health status of newborn infants was assessed by the neonatologists of maternity hospitals.Results and discussion. After psychotherapeutic correction, the quality-of-life indicators in the pregnant women with threatened miscarriage from the study group were significantly higher than in those from the comparison group. The level of reactive and personality anxiety significantly decreased in the pregnant women in the study group. The pregnant women with the asthenic variant of prenosological conditions and those who had ICD-10 diagnoses F40-48 were most successful in the context of psychotherapeutic rehabilitation. Sporadic cases of incomplete recovery were noted when psychotherapeutical support was got. In the study group, pregnancy resulted in full-term babies in 100% of the women. In the pregnant women with prenosological conditions and mental disorders from the study group, parturition proceeded significantlymore rapidly than in those from the comparison study. Significantly higher physical quotients were found in the newborn babies from the study group parturients. The psychotherapy that supplements the complex system of therapeutic measures has been shown to be highly effective in the women with threatened miscarriage accompanied by mental disorders.

  14. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

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    M. L. Drewery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish, was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n=221 chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women, followed by beef (71%, pork (65%, and fish (22%, respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations.

  15. Heart failure in pregnant women: is it peripartum cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alicia Therese

    2015-03-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women with peripartum cardiomyopathy often present with symptoms and signs of heart failure. The diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy is made after all other causes of heart failure are excluded. Emphasis is on the immediate recognition of an unwell pregnant or recently pregnant woman, early diagnosis with the use of echocardiography, and the correct treatment of heart failure.

  16. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithia...

  17. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

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    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  18. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-14

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  19. Evaluation of sexual functions of the pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun Güleroğlu, Funda; Gördeles Beşer, Nalan

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women may avoid sexual intercourse or may unavoidably undergo problems in their sexual lives because of various complaints they suffer from. The study aims to evaluate sexual functions of the pregnant women and to determine the factors that negatively affect their sexual health. This is a descriptive research study conducted to evaluate sexual functions of pregnant women. Three hundred six pregnant women admitted to the Women Birth Polyclinics within the Women Birth and Children's Hospital between October 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011 were included in the study. The data were gathered using a personal information form and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Kruskall-Wallis variance analysis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for the statistical analysis. The main outcome is an assessment of the FSFI domains in pregnancy and relationships between pregnancy complaints and sexual functions. The results indicated that the mean age of the pregnant women was 25.6 ± 5.4 and their length of marriage was 5.93 ± 5.4 years. The study revealed that 88.9% of the pregnant women had sexual desire disorders, 86.9% had sexual arousal disorder, 42.8% had lubrication disorders, 69.6% had orgasm disorders, and 48% had sexual satisfaction disorders. Statistically significant differences were found in correlations between FSFI medians and the characteristics of the pregnant women in terms of age, educational level, length and type of marriage, and gestational week. There were also statistically significant differences in correlations between the pregnancy characteristics in terms of backache, constipation, respiratory difficulty, leg ache, and cramp problems (P sexual lives of the pregnant women were negatively affected not only by factors such as old age, low educational status, arranged marriages lasting for more than 10 years, undesired pregnancy, and gestational week but also by health problems such as backache, constipation, respiratory difficulty, leg ache

  20. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

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    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  1. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthoj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women.......3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p neonates in the general population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p

  2. Innovative Demand Creation for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Targeting a High Impact Male Population: A Pilot Study Engaging Pregnant Women at Antenatal Clinics in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeere, Aggrey S.; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Bbaale, Denis S.; Kiragga, Agnes N.; Kigozi, Joanita; Muganzi, Alex M.; Coutinho, Alex G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Circumcision has been shown to be an effective method of HIV prevention; however, only 28% of Ugandan men aged 15–49 years are circumcised. There is a paucity of data on the role of intimate partners in generating demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of a partner-focused intervention targeting males >25 years. Methods: Among pregnant women in their third trimester attending antenatal care we evaluated the impact of a pilot behavior change intervention on VMMC through a quasi-experimental approach. We observed VMMC numbers among spouses of women as per standard practice (comparison phase), and after introducing a behavioral change communication package (intervention phase). Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of VMMC uptake between comparison and intervention phases. We used qualitative methods to evaluate the casual chain using a thematic approach. Results: Of the 601 women studied, 90% articulated the health benefits of VMMC and 99% expressed interest in their spouse getting circumcised. Women's knowledge was not increased by the intervention. Four men were circumcised in the comparison and 7 in the intervention phase. The intervention was not associated with higher odds of circumcision (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI: 0.3 to 6.0, P = 0.65). We interviewed 117 individuals overall with the main enablers for VMMC being: free VMMC, transport reimbursement, and health benefits. Deterrents included misconceptions, lost wages and fear of pain. Most of the uncircumcised men interviewed reported interest in VMMC. Conclusions: Our pilot intervention had no significant impact on increasing VMMC demand. The study demonstrated the feasibility of pregnant women engaging their spouses to discuss VMMC. PMID:27404008

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Hamadan City

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    M. Fallah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in the human beings and other warm-blooded animals that can cause chronic infection in adults, fatal illness in immunodeficient patients and abortion in pregnant women or congenital abnormalities in fetus. The aim of this study was determination of the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in primigrvida women in Hamadan.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 576 primigravida women, who admitted to the health centers were selected by cluster random sampling method. Data for epidemiological factors was collected by a questionnaire and serum samples were collected for detection of total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The titer of ≥ 1:20 regarded as positive. The relationship between variables analyzed by chi² test.Results: In this study seroprevalence was 33.5%. Higher seropositivity observed in illiterate subgroup and lower infection rate was found in high school educated subgroup. Our study showed statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and age, fresh and undercooked meat and rate of vegetables consumption (P0.05. Conclusion: This study indicated that seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in this area is lower than northern parts and higher than central and eastern parts of Iran. Our study showed that about one-third of individuals were seropositive and because of the importance of toxoplasmosis in primigravida women and immonucompromized patients, health education is necessary for prevention of toxoplasmosis.

  4. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

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    Lakshmi. D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth and development. These plants are easily available and are affordable to the majority of poor women living in slums of the city dwellers and those who live in villages. Due to lack of knowledge, money, palatability issues, improper storage and consumption irregularities the expectant mothers in this category do not consume prescribed prenatal nutrients, affecting the mother and the foetus. Though prescribed prenatal nutrients are still very essential, same from the food sources have many benefits like they are from the complex mixture of many phytochemicals which act synergistically and provide known and unknown benefits to them. Apart from this, most of the plants listed here can be easily grown in pots or plots near their homes, manuring with kitchen wastes and without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Plants that provide all the prenatal nutrients and easily accessible for daily consumption by the pregnant women at an affordable cost in developing countries are Cowpea, Tomatoes, Turnip greens, Garlic, Wheat, Drumstick leaves, Cauliflower, purslane and Guava fruits.

  5. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  6. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...... subgroups informed in different ways about prenatal examinations. METHODS: Data stem from a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire study including 15 multiple-choice questions assessing knowledge of different screening aspects. Included were 6,427 first trimester pregnant women from three Danish...

  7. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

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    Simon Brooker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. METHODS: Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence. FINDINGS: One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with

  8. High detection rate of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum but low prevalence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in healthy pregnant women in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christian; Krüger, Andreas; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Derschum, Henri; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pothmann, Daniela; Veit, Alexandra; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jürgen; Girmann, Mirko; Kramme, Stefanie; Fleischer, Bernhard; Poppert, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Madagascar, the endemicity of tick-borne rickettsiae and their vectors has been incompletely studied. The first part of the present study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to identify potential anthropophilic tick vectors for SFG rickettsiae on cattle from seven Malagasy regions, and to detect and characterize rickettsiae in these ticks. Amblyomma variegatum was the only anthropophilic tick species found on 262 cattle. Using a novel ompB-specific qPCR, screening for rickettsial DNA was performed on 111 A. variegatum ticks. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 96 of 111 ticks studied (86.5%). Rickettsia africae was identified as the only infecting rickettsia using phylogenetic analysis of ompA and ompB gene sequences and three variable intergenic spacers from 11 ticks. The second part of the study was a cross-sectional survey for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae in plasma samples taken from healthy, pregnant women at six locations in Madagascar, two at sea level and four between 450 and 1300m altitude. An indirect fluorescent antibody test with Rickettsia conorii as surrogate SFG rickettsial antigen was used. We found R. conorii-seropositives at all altitudes with prevalences between 0.5% and 3.1%. Our results suggest that A. variegatum ticks highly infected with R. africae are the most prevalent cattle-associated tick vectors for SFG rickettsiosis in Madagascar. Transmission of SFG rickettsiosis to humans occurs at different altitudes in Madagascar and should be considered as a relevant cause of febrile diseases.

  9. Bile Acid Determination after Standardized Glucose Load in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Jacobs, Katherine; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Lupo, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a rare liver disorder, usually manifesting in the third trimester and associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. The hallmark laboratory abnormality in ICP is elevated fasting serum bile acids; however, there are limited data on whether a nonfasting state affects a pregnant woman's total bile acids. This study assesses fasting and nonfasting bile acid levels in 10 healthy pregnant women after a standardized glucose load to provide insight into the effects of a glucose load on bile acid profiles. Study Design Pilot prospective cohort analysis of serum bile acids in pregnant women. A total of 10 healthy pregnant women from 28 to 32 weeks' gestation were recruited for the study before undergoing a glucose tolerance test. Total serum bile acids were collected for each subject in the overnight fasting state, and 1 and 3 hours after the 100-g glucose load. Results There was a statistically significant difference between fasting versus 3-hour values. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting versus 1-hour and 1-hour versus 3-hour values. Conclusion There is a difference between fasting and nonfasting total serum bile acids after a 100-g glucose load in healthy pregnant women. PMID:26495178

  10. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  11. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. HCMV seroprevalence and associated risk factors in pregnant women, Havana City, 2007 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, C B; Kourí, V; Verdasquera, D; Martínez, P A; Alvarez, A; Alemán, Y; Pérez, L; Viera, J; González, R; Pérez, E; Moro, I; Navarro, M A; Melin, P

    2010-09-01

    To prenatally identify pregnant women at risk of developing congenital infection due to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). One thousand one hundred and thirty-one pregnant women from three municipalities from Havana City were serologically screened for HCMV infection (IgM/IgG, IgG avidity) from January 2007 to January 2008. Demographical, epidemiological, and clinical variables were correlated to serologic status to identify predictors of seroconversion in pregnancy. The majority of women were seropositive to HCMV (92.6%); 27 women (2.4%) developed HCMV active infection during pregnancy, defined by the detection of IgG+ and IgM+ (7 women), IgM+ and IgG- (2 women), and IgG seroconversion (18 women). Susceptibility of active HCMV infection during pregnancy was associated with maternal age < 20 years and nulligravidity. Primary infection was detected in 20 pregnant women (1.8%), whereas 7 patients (0.6%) had active non-primary infection. Although pregnant women in Cuba have high seroprevalence rates for HCMV, those younger than 20 years and nulligravidae are at risk of acquiring infection during pregnancy. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, Palcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, Ppsilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of unplanned pregnancies, increases the risk of fetal exposure to potentially harmful substances. It is important to account for the range of confounding risk factors among women who use MDMA in order to define possible direct effects of MDMA in pregnancy.

  14. Sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jian Tao; Lin, Chao Ling; Wan, Gwo Hwa; Liang, Ching Chung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of women during pregnancy. The authors sampled pregnant women (N = 215) from outpatients registered at the antepartum clinic of a medical center in northern Taiwan. The authors gathered data on recent sexual satisfaction, general sexual satisfaction, and sexual position using a self-report, structured questionnaire. The results showed that coital frequency decreased from the first to third trimester (p sexual position for pregnant women (67.6%) was man on top, face-to-face. Sexual position did not change significantly by trimester. More women with more sexual satisfaction than women with poor sexual satisfaction tended to adopt the woman-on-top, face-to-face, and abdominal-supportive sexual positions.

  15. Virological profile of pregnant HIV positive women with high levels of CD4 count in low income settings: Can viral load help as eligibility criteria for maternal triple ARV prophylaxis (WHO 2010 option B?

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    Anne Esther Njom Nlend

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to determine HIV-1 RNA load profile during pregnancy and assess the eligibility for the maternal triple antiretroviral prophylaxis. It was an observational cohort of pregnant HIV positive women ignorant of antiretroviral therapy with CD4 cell count of > 350/mm3. METHODS:Routine CD4 cell count assessment in HIV positive pregnant women completed by non exclusive measurement of the viral load by PCR /ARN in those with CD4 cell count > 350/mm3. Exclusion criteria: highly active antiretroviral therapy prior to pregnancy. RESULTS:Between January and December 2010, CD4 cell count was systematically performed in all pregnant women diagnosed as HIV-infected (n=266 in a referral center of 25 antenatal clinics. 63% (N=170 had CD4 cell count > 350/mm3, median: 528 (IQR: 421-625. 145 underwent measurement of viral load by PCR/RNA at a median gestational of 23 weeks of pregnancy (IQR: 19-28. Median viral load 4.4log10/ml, IQR (3.5-4.9.19/145(13% had an undetectable viral load of=1.8log10/ml. 89/145(61% had a viral load of = 4 log10/ml and were eligible for maternal triple ARV prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: More than 6 in 10 pregnant HIV positive women with CD4 cell count of > 350/mm3 may require triple antiretroviral for prophylaxis of MTCT. Regardless of cost, such results are conclusive and may be considered in HIV high burden countries for universal access to triple antiretroviral prophylaxis in order to move towards virtual elimination of HIV MTCT.

  16. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  17. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Stephen; Altice, Frederick L; Paltiel, A David

    2005-02-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated on a prenatal basis in HIV-infected pregnant women is a highly effective method for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. We developed a decision analytic model to project the clinical and economic outcomes of alternative HIV screening strategies (voluntary prenatal screening [VPS], routine prenatal screening [RPS], and mandatory newborn screening [MNS]) for a high-risk population of incarcerated pregnant women. Data for the decision model came from the HIV voluntary counseling and testing program at Connecticut's sole correctional facility for women and a comprehensive anonymously linked serosurvey of all inmates who entered the facility during the 2-year period beginning in October 1994. Based on serosurvey results, in the absence of any HIV screening program, 2.5 cases of pediatric HIV infection would be expected per 1000 pregnancies. Multiplied by the discounted lifetime cost per case of $247,000, this translates to a cost of $624 per testing-eligible prison entrant. Entrants were considered eligible if they were pregnant and their HIV status was unknown. MNS would save money, cost $364 per eligible entrant, and simultaneously reduce the rate of infections to 1.1 per 1000 pregnancies. Doing both MNS and RPS is most effective in reducing the rate of new infections (down to 0.2 per 1000 pregnancies). It would, however, increase costs to $430 per eligible entrant. This would result in an incremental cost of $73,603 per additional pediatric HIV case averted when compared with MNS alone. If mandatory newborn testing was not considered a feasible option, RPS would dominate VPS and would be cost-saving compared with no screening. RPS compares favorably with alternative uses of HIV prevention and treatment resources. In correctional facilities where voluntary newborn screening is already in place, our findings show that there remains a small marginal benefit to be realized from switching to RPS. In settings where HIV

  19. [Ultrasonic study of deep-vein diameter and blood flow spectrum changes in full-term pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu-wen; Chen, Cui-hua; Wang, Li-ping; Sun, Gui-qin; Su, Gui-dong; Song, Tian-rong; Li, Jing; Li, Ying-jia; Wang, Chen; Zhong, Mei

    2009-01-01

    To explore the changes in lower limb deep vein diameters, blood flow velocity and blood biochemistry in full-term pregnant women for early diagnosis and treatment of prothrombotic state. One hundred and twenty-eight full-term pregnant women at high risk of thrombosis (Group A), 61 healthy full-term pregnant women (Group B), and 42 healthy non-pregnant women (Group C) underwent high-resolution color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) for examining the deep veins of the lower limbs. The hematological indexes such as D-D, PLT, HGB, HCT, TT, APTT, PT, and FbgC were also observed in these 3 groups. Compared to Group B, the women in group A showed significantly increased diameters of the common femoral veins (CFV) and left superficial femoral vein (SFV), HCT and DD, but with significantly decreased peak blood flow in the bilateral popliteal veins (POPV) (Pchanges in groups A and B (Ppregnant women are at higher risk of prothrombotic state than non-pregnant women, and the full-term pregnant women with the high risk factors for thrombosis are more likely to have prothrombotic state than healthy full-term pregnant women. CDU examination of the lower limb deep veins can be of value in the diagnosis of prothrombotic state.

  20. [Impact of nutritional deficiencies on anemia in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, L; Kremp, D

    1989-12-01

    Dietary deficiency in iron and to a lesser extent folic acid is the principle cause of anemia in the world. Reproductive aged women and growing children are the principle groups at risk of anemia. About half of nonpregnant reproductive aged women in tropical countries have hemoglobin levels lower than 12 g/100 ml, the level used by the World Health Organization to define anemia. Nutritional anemia is even more widespread among pregnant and lactating women because of the increased needs for iron during those periods. Pregnant women need almost 500 mg of iron for their increased red blood cell mass, 220 mg for routine iron loss through the urine, bile, sweat, and other routes; 290 mg for the fetus, and almost 25 mg for the placenta. In all, the pregnant women theoretically requires over 1000 mg of iron through diet or bodily reserves. Healthy, well-nourished women have total iron reserves of 2500 mg, but according to published data almost 2/3 of pregnant women even in favorable circumstances end their pregnancies with no remaining iron reserves. In tropical regions the lack of iron reserves is aggravated by parasites and infections, closely spaced pregnancies that do not allow restoration of reserves, and poor dietary availability of iron. Anemia during pregnancy is associated with elevated risks of maternal morbidity and mortality. Fatigue, dyspnea, palpitations and tachycardia, vertigo, loss of appetite and cravings for soil or other inappropriate substances are frequently observed in anemic women. The risks of prematurity and low weight are increased for infants of anemic women. Fetal malformation may be associated with folic acid deficiency. Nutrition education is needed for pregnant women. Local foods may be enriched with iron, and pregnant women may be given iron and vitamin B12 supplements directly. Iron supplements may rapidly increase iron reserves, but they are poorly tolerated by many women. The supplements should be avoided if possible early in the

  1. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella in pregnant women attending antenatal private clinic at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laure Stella Ghoma Linguissi; Bolni Marius Nagalo; Cyrille Bisseye; Thrse S Kagon; Mahamoudou Sanou; Issoufou Tao; Victoire Benao; Jacques Simpor; Bibiane Kon

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella among pregnant women at Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. Methods: All patient sera were tested for rubella and toxoplasmosis anti-IgG using commercial ELISA kits (PlateliaTM Rubella IgG and Platelia™Toxo IgG). The presence of anti-rubella and anti-toxoplasmosis IgM in serum samples was tested using commercial ELISA kits Platelia Rubella IgM and Platelia Toxo IgM. Results:Among all the pregnant women tested for toxoplasmosis and rubella, their prevalence were 20.3%and 77.0%, respectively. Pregnant women in the age group of 18-25 years showed the highest frequency of anti-toxoplasmosis (34.5%) and anti-rubella IgG (84.6%). The prevalence of anti-toxoplasma and anti-rubella IgG decreased between 2006 and 2008 from 32.7%to 12.1%and 84.6%to 65.0%, respectively. There was no significant association between age and the mean titer of anti-toxoplasmosis IgG among pregnant women. Conclusions: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and rubella is necessary in pregnant women in Burkina Faso because of the low immunization coverage rate of rubella and the high level of exposure to these two infections which can be harmful to the newborn if contracted by women before the third trimester of pregnancy.

  2. CORRELATION OF PROGRESSION RISK OF FETOPLACENTAL INSUFFICIENCY WITH VEGETATIVE STATUS DISTURBANCE IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshkova E.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Research Goal was to compare probability of risk progression of chronic fetoplacental insuffciency with various disturbances of vegetative nervous system (VNS in pregnant women. Materials. Basic group consisted of 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; control group included 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Status of VNS was determined with the purpose to estimate initial vegetative tone in various functional systems and forming concept of general vegetative status in the sample. Results. Presence of fetoplacental insuffciency in pregnant women was extensively associated with increase of sympathetic section tone and VNS lability. Occurrence frequency of critical indices of hemodynamics disturbances in the system mother- placenta-fetus revealed reliable correlation dependence on VNS lability and index of vegetative supply of activity. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency had 25 – 30 % increased tone and lability indices of VNS sympathetic section in contrast to physiological course of pregnancy. Progression of fetoplacental insuffciency was more often revealed in pregnant women in case of replacement of sympathicotonia by vagotonia, and against a background of high VNS lability and reactivity.

  3. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  4. [Pathogenic mechanisms of proatherogenic changes in pregnant women with concomitant obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, K V; Mamontova, T V

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and indices of lipid metabolism (concentrations of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, cholesterol of low density lipoproteins and cholesterol of very low density lipoproteins) in women with concomitant obesity in the second trimester of pregnancy were studied. Changes of the lipid profile in the pregnant women with concomitant obesity indicate development of type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. Concentrations of insulin and CRP in the blood serum of the pregnant women with obesity were respectively 92.1% and 62.5% higher than in the control group. On the basis of literature data and our own research it was concluded that the complex of the metabolic changes (insulin resistance, dislipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation) in pregnant women with obesity promotes development of proatherogenic changes.

  5. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-04-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world's population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential.

  6. Thyroid dysfunction during late gestation is associated with excessive iodine intake in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, ZhongNa; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Na; Zhang, GuiQin; Chen, Wen; Liu, Hua; Shen, Jun; Liu, JiaYu; Yan, Yuqin; Zhang, WanQi

    2012-08-01

    Adequate iodine intake during pregnancy is essential for both the synthesis of maternal thyroid hormones and the maintenance of normal fetal brain development. Scant evidence is available on the effects of excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. The study assesses the relationship between iodine nutritional status and thyroid function of pregnant women with excessive iodine intake during late gestation. A cross-sectional study of 384 pregnant women was carried out in Tianjin and Haixing from April to October in 2010. Morning urine samples and blood samples were obtained from all subjects. Serum levels of free T(3), free T(4), and sensitive TSH and urinary iodine concentration were measured. The median urinary iodine concentration of pregnant women with excessive iodine intake was significantly higher than those with adequate iodine intake (P hypothyroidism, in pregnant women with excessive iodine intake was significantly higher than in those with adequate iodine intake (P hypothyroidism was the most frequent pattern of thyroid disease for pregnant women and those with positive or negative thyroid autoantibodies. Living with high water iodine content and having urinary iodine concentration higher than 250 μg/liter are associated risk factors for subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women (OR(1) = 41.822, OR(2) = 6.202; P hypothyroidism and OR(2) is the odds ratio for urinary iodine concentration >250 μg/liter and hypothyroidism). Excessive iodine intake during late pregnancy may lead to maternal thyroid dysfunction, particularly subclinical hypothyroidism. The appropriate measurements should be performed to monitor the onset of hypothyroidism in pregnant women with excessive iodine intake.

  7. Urinary metabolomics revealed arsenic exposure related to metabolic alterations in general Chinese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Wang, Mu; Liang, Qiande; Jin, Shuna; Sun, Xiaojie; Jiang, Yangqian; Pan, Xingyun; Zhou, Yanqiu; Peng, Yang; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Zhang, Yiming; Chen, Zhong; Cao, Jiangxia; Zhang, Hongling; Xia, Wei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2017-01-06

    Arsenic exposure is considered a major environmental threat to human health. It is already known that high-level arsenic exposure has adverse effects on human health. Since the pregnant women are known to be more susceptible to some chemical exposures than ordinary people, the understanding regarding the health effects of low-level arsenic exposure on pregnant women is critical and remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the urinary metabolic changes of pregnant women exposed to low-dose arsenic, and to identify biomarkers from metabolomics analysis. Urine samples of 246 pregnant women were collected in the first trimester of pregnancy and were divided into three groups based on the tertile distribution of urinary arsenic concentrations which were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Changes in the metabolite profile were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). Arsenic- related metabolic biomarkers were investigated by comparing the samples of the first and third tertiles of arsenic exposure classifications using a partial least-squares discriminant model (PLS-DA). Nine urine potential biomarkers were putatively identified, including LysoPC (14:0), glutathione, 18-carboxy-dinor-LTE4, 20-COOH-LTE4, cystathionine ketimin, 1-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-1,4-dihydronicotinamide, thiocysteine, p-cresol glucuronide and vanillactic acid. The obtained results showed that environmental arsenic exposure, even at low levels, could cause metabolite alterations in pregnant women which might be associated with adverse health outcomes. This is the first report on metabolic changes in pregnant women for arsenic exposure. The findings may be valuable for the arsenic risk assessment for pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  9. Photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminata in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-guang; ZOU Xian-biao; ZHAO Hua; ZHANG Yun-jie; LI Heng-jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an emerging technique for the treatment of genital human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced benign and premalignant lesions.We report here in a case series of condyloma acuminata (CA) in pregnancy successfully treated with ALA-PDT.Methods Five pregnant patients with CA received three to four times treatment respectively.Patients were followed up for 6-23 months after treatment.Results The clearance rate of genital warts was 100%.No recurrence was found during the follow-up period.Major adverse events reported were mild erosion,pain,and local edema.All pregnancies resulted in healthy live births without delivery complications.Conclusions PDT with topical ALA seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of CA in pregnancy.It demonstrated high clearance rate of warts,was well-tolerated by patients,and showed no adverse effects on mothers or fetuses.ALA-PDT may be an ideal strategy of treatment for pregnant women with CA.

  10. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O.; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Kerry J Ressler; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n=207) and non-pregnant w...

  11. Prevalence and Characteristics of Pregnant Syphilis among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Shenzhen (China) in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Fan(杨帆); Zhou Hua(周华); Hong Fuchang(洪福昌); Luo Bin(罗斌); Cai Yumao(蔡于茂); Wen Lizhang(文立章); Zhang Chunlai(张春来)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background: The Nnewly reported cases of congenital syphilis have been increaseding substantially over the past few years. To control the epidemic, a municipal program aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission of syphilis was introduced in July, 2001,which was designed aimed to screen all pregnant women for syphilis at their first visit to antenatal clinics or at admission to hospitals in Shenzhen.Objectives: The aim of the study is tTo determine the prevalence of syphilis among women attending antenatal clinics and other medical institutions in Shenzhen and identifies its patterns of infection.Methods: Upon giving informed consent, w Women who attended antenatal care centers in Shenzhen from January to December 2003 were included in this study subject to obtaining informed consent. A blood sample was harvested for syphilis screened for syphilising by using rapid plasma reagent test (RPR) and confirmed by TPHA for those who were RPR positive. The women with pregnant syphilispositive serology were systematically interviewed to obtain. During the interview, their demographic detailsinformation, patterns of risk behaviors and other data. Data were collected andwere analyzed retrospectively.Results: Among Of 118,235 pregnant women surveyed,555 pregnant women were confirmed to have syphilis (prevalence of 4.69%), with a incidence of 4.69‰. 123women were excluded from the analysis because of incomplete medical records. Of 432 infected subjects with complete medical records, the average age was 26.8, with a range of 19 to 41. 7.41% (32/432) of them suffered from primary syphilis, 3.24% (14/432) were ofhad secondary syphilis, and 89.35%(386/432) had latent syphilis. Without any conspicuous clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusions: The prevalence of syphilis among the pregnant women in our series was high an most of them were asymptomatic. Screening for syphilis among pregnant women in Shenzhen is of importantce for the prevention of mother

  12. Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Intervention for Methadone-Maintained Women: A Comparison of Pregnant and Parenting Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. Holbrook

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women in substance abuse programs have high rates of smoking. Pregnancy represents a unique opportunity for intervention, but few data exist to guide tailoring of effective interventions. In this study, 44 pregnant and 47 nonpregnant opioid-dependent women enrolled in comprehensive substance abuse treatment received a 6-week smoking cessation intervention based on the 5A's counseling model. The number of daily cigarettes decreased by 49% for pregnant patients and 32% for nonpregnant patients at the 3-month followup. Length of time in substance abuse treatment did not correlate with smoking cessation or reduction for either group. Factors predicting reduction of cigarette smoking differed for pregnant versus nonpregnant patients. For pregnant patients, lower levels of nicotine use prior to intervention and self-reported cigarette cravings predicted successful reduction in smoking. For nonpregnant patients, lower affiliative attachment to cigarettes, reliance on cigarettes for cognitive enhancement, and greater sense of control predicted more successful outcomes.

  13. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  14. Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Amongst Pregnant Women Attending an Antenatal Clinic, Volta Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassah, Sylvester; Lokpo, Sylvester; Ameke, Louise; Noagbe, Mark; Adatara, Peter; Hagan, Oheneba; Binka, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global challenge, although there is currently a safe and effective vaccine available. HBV prevalence in Ghana is not well documented, but vary regionally from 4.8% to 12.3% in the general population, 10.8% to 12.7% in blood donors and about 10.6% in pregnant women. This puts Ghana among the high endemic countries in Africa. The study objective was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBs antigen (Ag) and HBeAg among pregnant women in the Ho municipality. Two hundred and eigh participants (pregnant women), attending Ho Municipal antenatal clinic were enrolled into the study. This study recorded a HBsAg sero-prevalence rate of 2.4% among the pregnant women, with primigravida pregnant women recording (0.98%) and multigravida (1.42%). The prevalence of HBsAg among the pregnant women can be classified as Low Intermediate; therefore there is still the need for routine screening of pregnant women during antenatal visits. Amongst HBsAg positives, HBeAg positivity was significantly high (40% of all HBsAg positive women), which suggests high chances of carrier and vertical transmission (mother to child) state. PMID:28299162

  15. Clinical study on screening, monitoring and management of high risk pregnant women in Duanzhou district%端州区高危妊娠孕妇筛查、监测和管理的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡叶萍; 黄书炜; 吴爱芳; 彭飞玲; 胡劲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To screen, monitor and manage high risk pregnant women in Duanzhou district of Zhaoqing city by information management network system, reduce maternal mortality, perinatal mortality and birth rate of disabled children. Methods: The pregnant women receiving prenatal examination in Duanzhou district of Zhangqing city from March 2007 to September 2008 were selected as primary group, information management network system was used to screen, monitor and manage high risk pregnant women in Duanzhou district of Zhaoqing city in March 2009; the pregnant women receiving prenatal examination in Duanzhou district from March 2009 to September 2010 were selected as control group, the data in primary group and control group were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The prevalence rate, follow - up rate and hospital delivery rate of high risk pregnant women in control group were higher than those in primary group, the rate of cesarean section, birth rate of disabled children, maternal mortality and perinatal mortality in control group were lower than those in primary group. Conclusion: Screening, monitoring and management of high risk pregnant women in Duanzhou district of Zhangqing city by information management network system can increase the prevalence rate, follow-up rate and hospital delivery rate of high risk pregnant women significantly,reduce the delivery complications of high risk pregnancy, the rate of cesarean section, birth rate of disabled children, maternal mortality and perinatal mortality effectively.%目的:应用信息管理网络系统对肇庆市端州区高危妊娠孕妇进行筛查、监测和管理;对降低孕产妇死亡率、围产儿死亡率和病残儿出生率有重要的意义.方法:将2007年3月~2008年9月在端州区产检的孕妇设为原发组,2009年3月应用信息管理网络系统对端州区高危妊娠孕妇进行筛查、监测和管理;将2009年3月~2010年9月在端州区产检的孕妇设为对照组,对原发组和

  16. Willingness among obese pregnant women to accept MRI scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, H; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...... therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women...

  17. Willingness among Obese Pregnant Women to Accept MRI Scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women......Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...

  18. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lynfield

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.

  19. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    OpenAIRE

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-01-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-de...

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women and Their Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Maryam; Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Ajami, Mohammad Esmaeil; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Rohani, Hossein; Taghavi-Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Sadeghi, Erfan; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Studies have reported prevalence ranged 18-84% in pregnant women. Receiving adequate calcium and vitamin D during pregnancy period is necessary for calcium homeostasis, fetal growth and bone mineralization. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in Shahroud city in the northeast Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 284 pregnant women and their neonates referred to Fatemiyeh Hospital of Shahroud were included. Blood samples of mothers and umbilical cords were collected during the delivery and were sent to laboratory in order to measure calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Findings: Amounts of Vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL) and deficiency (vitamin D (r=0.12, p=0.053). Conclusion: More than half of the mothers and their neonates had some degrees of vitamin D deficiency. It is recommended to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin D in pregnant women along with public health interventions to be carried out. PMID:27157170

  1. Do Pregnant Women Report Use of Dispensed Medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy often draws on administrative prescription registries. Noncompliance in the use of prescribed medication may be frequent among pregnant women owing to their fear of fetotoxic side effects. To estimate compliance in the use of prescription drugs dispensed...

  2. Copper and selenium status of healthy pregnant women in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary intake should be modified to ensure optimal selenium levels during pregnancy. Key words: Copper ... common practice to routinely supplement iron and folic acid with the aim of ... pregnant women to assist in the optimal formulation of micronutrient needs .... trend has been shown in many other studies from different.

  3. Governing the conduct of health of overweight pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    2016-01-01

    -making, responsibility-making and disciplinary technologies, to govern people to promote physical health. Conclusion: Public health programmes conjure up an image of overweight individuals as strongly burdened subjectivities. The implications for overweight pregnant women are the formation of new subjectivities...

  4. Assessment of Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Swaziland. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... It is estimated that iodine intake from salt is between 113 to 225 mg per day assuming salt iodization levels of 20 to ...

  5. Beliefs and Perceptions of Pregnant Women at Ileşa About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beliefs and Perceptions of Pregnant Women at Ileşa About Caesarean Section. ... it is the devil's work; punishment for marital infidelity or out of doctors self interest. ... Conclusion: More pregnant women supported caesarean section than were ...

  6. Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163680.html Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say Better prevention ... action, should be the focus when dealing with pregnant women who use opioids, a leading pediatricians' group ...

  7. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  8. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-09-01

    Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women's power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy.

  9. Prevalence of hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinopathies among the pregnant women attending a tertiary hospital in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranbir S. Balgir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anemia in pregnancy is one of the causes of maternal morbidity and, maternal and fetal mortality in India. Hemoglobin transports oxygen to different parts of the body. Any defect in hemoglobin structure leads to its adverse functions. Screening of pregnant women for hemoglobinopahties helps in early intervention for reducing morbidity and mortality. Although the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies especially of the sickle cell disorders is high in Madhya Pradesh but any study on pregnant women is lacking. This study had set the objectives to find the prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin disorders in pregnant women, and to determine the health status through hematological indices profile in central India. Hospital based a cross-sectional study showed 12.26% prevalence of hemoglobinopathies among 416 pregnant women, the sickle cell trait being 7.45%, followed by β-thalassemia trait (2.89%, hemoglobin E trait (0.24%, and sickle cell disease (1.68%. About 88% of the pregnant women were found free of hemoglobinopathies. Of the 9.13% pregnant women included in the study were suffering from sickle cell disorders. However, the overall 47.11% anemia was observed in pregnant women, ranging in between 45% to 66% and seemed to show a reduction in anemia after nutritional supplementations and improvement in maternal health care at antenatal check up due to accessibility to medical health facilities. A comparison of hematological indices of pregnant women afflicted with and without sickle cell disorders have revealed much reduced hemoglobin level, red blood cells count, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin; and raised leucocytosis in sickle cell disorder cases than among the normal pregnant women. A more vigorous and realistic campaign of prophylactic regime of supplementations for these pregnant women and child health care is suggested.

  10. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing information seeking were attributed mainly to ... India, being a developing country, contributes ... required by rural women. 79 ... identified family and friends, local herb hawkers, local drug sellers (hawkers) .... Lack of Radio.

  11. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong-Atome, Guy-Roger; Makuwa, Maria; Njouom, Richard; Branger, Michel; Brun-Vézinet, Francoise; Mahé, Antoine; Rousset, Dominique; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2008-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947) were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. The prevalence was evaluated by two ELISA tests, and the circulating genotypes were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Twenty pregnant women (2.1%) were infected with HCV. The seroprevalence differed significantly by region (p = 0.004) and increased significantly with age (p = 0.05), being 1.3% at 14–20 years, 1.1% at 21–25 years, 1.9% at 26–30 years, 4.1% at 31–35 years and 6.0% at > 35 years. Sequencing in the 5'-UTR and NS5B regions showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 4 (4e and 4c). Conclusion We found that the HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Gabon is almost as high as that in other African countries and increases with age. Furthermore, only genotype 4 (4e and 4c) was found. More extensive studies aiming to evaluate the prevalence and heterogeneity of HCV genotypes circulating in the general population of the country are needed. PMID:18559087

  12. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahé Antoine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947 were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. The prevalence was evaluated by two ELISA tests, and the circulating genotypes were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Twenty pregnant women (2.1% were infected with HCV. The seroprevalence differed significantly by region (p = 0.004 and increased significantly with age (p = 0.05, being 1.3% at 14–20 years, 1.1% at 21–25 years, 1.9% at 26–30 years, 4.1% at 31–35 years and 6.0% at > 35 years. Sequencing in the 5'-UTR and NS5B regions showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 4 (4e and 4c. Conclusion We found that the HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Gabon is almost as high as that in other African countries and increases with age. Furthermore, only genotype 4 (4e and 4c was found. More extensive studies aiming to evaluate the prevalence and heterogeneity of HCV genotypes circulating in the general population of the country are needed.

  13. Hurricane Katrina experience and the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily W; Mattison, Donald R; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen; Pridjian, Gabriella; Buekens, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of disaster exposure and intensity on the development of mental disorders among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exposure to Hurricane Katrina on mental health in pregnant women. Prospective cohort epidemiological study. Tertiary hospitals in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, U.S.A. Women who were pregnant during Hurricane Katrina or became pregnant immediately after the hurricane. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The frequency of PTSD was higher in women with high hurricane exposure (13.8 percent) than women without high hurricane exposure (1.3 percent), with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 16.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-106.6) after adjustment for maternal race, age, education, smoking and alcohol use, family income, parity, and other confounders. The frequency of depression was higher in women with high hurricane exposure (32.3 percent) than women without high hurricane exposure (12.3 percent), with an aOR of 3.3 (1.6-7.1). Moreover, the risk of PTSD and depression increased with an increasing number of severe experiences of the hurricane. Pregnant women who had severe hurricane experiences were at a significantly increased risk for PTSD and depression. This information should be useful for screening pregnant women who are at higher risk of developing mental disorders after a disaster.

  14. Improvement of perinatal outcome in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I

    2001-01-01

    Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.

  15. Pregnant women, body image and self-esteem according to the examination of some of the variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kumcagız

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a natural life of women in crisis. Pregnant women, during pregnancy important psychological, physiological and emotional changes live. These changes also affect body perceptions and subsequent self respect. The purpose of this study, pregnant women and their self-esteem according to some variables to examine the perceptions of the body.The study was carried out using cross-sectional method. Sample of the study, between 15 March 2009 to 15 June 2009 Mayis University Medical Faculty Hospital Outpatient Clinic on 126 pregnant women admitted constituted. Pregnant women in order to collect data, "Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory ',' Body Image Scale 'and' Personal Information Form 'was applied. The data obtained, percentage ratings, the t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann Whitney test and correlation analysis were evaluated using one-way. Results, scores of young age, pregnant women's body image is higher than others (r =- 0,305, p = 0.001, educational level of the relationship between body image and self esteem levels and significantly (p <0.05 that, with the body of pregnant women in marriage is a negative correlation between perceptions of pregnant women, body image scores decreased with increasing years of marriage (r =- 0,297, p = 0.001., pregnant women with high socio-economic level, a higher body image scores (p <0.01, non-pregnant body does not use perception scores were higher. In addition, women who want to become pregnant have a higher self-esteem and body perception, number of pregnancies is higher than others, at least the perception of the body of pregnant women (r =- 0,254, p = 0.01, pregnant women affected by perceptions of physical self-esteem, self-esteem is high pregnant women's body perceptions (those with high body image 139.8 ± 25.2 points, moderate (120.6 ± 30.9 points was higher than in those with a statistically significant difference (t =- 3,819, p = 0.000. was found. The results are discussed.

  16. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial : a qualitative case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Mol, Ben Willem; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific enrolm

  17. Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gholami

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor′s advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.

  18. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  19. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Mandatory Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services...

  20. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    , particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers.......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared...... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...

  1. A randomized cross over trial of tolerability and compliance of a micronutrient supplement with low iron separated from calcium vs high iron combined with calcium in pregnant women [ISRCTN56071145

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couturier Bernard

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal micronutrient combinations with high iron content are associated with high rates of gastrointestinal symptoms. This coupled with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy results in women often discontinuing their multivitamins. A new prescription supplement (PregVit® that separates iron from calcium in two tablets – morning and evening, has lower elemental iron content (35 mg, but results in similar extent of iron absorption when compared to another supplement containing (60 mg of elemental iron (Materna®. The objectives of this study were to compare tolerability and compliance with PregVit® vs. a supplement with high iron content (Materna®, in pregnant women. Methods Randomized, crossover open labeled study in 135 pregnant women attending outpatient clinics in Ontario and Quebec. Results Use of PregVit® was associated with a 30% reduction in constipation rate as compared to Materna®. Both products demonstrated similar compliance rates. Compliance of Materna® was negatively associated with the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. No such correlation was found for PregVvit®. Conclusion PregVit®, a supplement with lower iron content (35 mg, has significantly decreased constipation rates as compared to 60 mg iron- Materna and has similar compliance rates. High iron content in multivitamin supplements is associated with adverse effects in pregnancy.

  2. Melissa Rowland and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2004-12-01

    On March 11, 2004, the State of Utah charged Melissa Rowland with the murder of her stillborn fetus, claiming that the death resulted from her rejection of the advice of her physicians to have a cesarean delivery. Although Ms. Rowland avoided the homicide charge by pleading guilty to lesser child endangerment charges, the approach taken by the State raises important and troubling issues regarding the autonomy rights of pregnant women, as well as their right to speak on behalf their unborn children. We use this case to review relevant ethical principals and legal precedents. We conclude that if Ms. Rowland is to be judged legally culpable for the death of her fetus, then the courts must first create a new and significant exception to the doctrine of informed consent and the common law and constitutional principles upon which it is based. Such a precedent could introduce a substantial disparity between the rights of pregnant women and those of all other persons. We would argue that a better means of assuring the health interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus in similar circumstances is through advocacy by obstetricians for pregnant women's fully realized rights, including the right to informed consent.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

  4. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of a hospital affiliate to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between 2011 and 2012. Data were collected through interview using a questionnaire. Although 70% of the pregnancies were planned, but 70.5% of pregnant women had not taken folic acid before conception or in necessary time. There was found a significant relationship between level of education, history of abnormalities in children and the number of abortions and taking folic acid before pregnancy (P=0.005, P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively.

  5. Hydration status of pregnant women in West Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Erry Yudhya; Hardinsyah; Briawan, Dodik; Santoso, Budi Iman

    2017-06-01

    During pregnancy, the body exhibits dynamic changes in fluid composition. More than 50%of women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester. Studies of hydration status in pregnant women are limited, and not in tropical countries, like in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydration status and appropriate biomarkers for determination of hydration status in pregnant women in West Jakarta. This study was cross-sectional. A total of 35 pregnant women aged (19-35 years) at the early second trimester of pregnancy was recruited. Urine osmolality, urine specific gravity, and serum osmolality were used to determine hydration status. Subjects then were divided into a hydration group (HG) and a dehydration group (DG). We used independent t tests, chi-square and Spearman rank correlation coefficient to analyse the data. The population was comparably divided between dehydration and hydration groups (57.1% and 42.9%, respectively). The proportions by age, parity, gestational age, height, weight, upper arm circumference, waist circumference, pelvic circumference, body temperature, blood pressure, and fundal height did not differ between groups (p>=0.05). There was a relationship between urine colour and hydration status (ppregnant women.

  6. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS (Hillan, 1999 also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba’s method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328

  7. Management of HIV infected pregnant women in Chonburi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchun, P

    1994-04-01

    This study on birth control methods used, and HIV infection protection of the HIV infected pregnant women in the obstetrics-gynecology department of Chonburi Hospital from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 1993 revealed that there were 27 HIV infected women with less than 24 weeks gestational age, using birth control methods as such 12 women (44.44%) had tubal resection after abortion, 8 women (29.62%) oral contraceptive pills, 5 women (15.51%) injectable contraception, and 2 women (7.40%) norplants. The 106 HIV infected women with more than 24 weeks gestational age were allowed to deliver. The birth control methods were as follows: 19 women (17.92%) tubal resection, 38 women (35.84%) oral contraceptive pills, 49 women (46.22%) injectable contraception. They were all encouraged to use a condom while having sexual intercourse. Only 40 women of this group are still seen in the follow-up clinic and all are found to be healthy, the birth control is effective and HIV infection is in the early stage. The new born babies were not allowed to be breast fed and were followed-up periodically to 18 months old. Twenty five babies received HIV blood test; 7 babies (28%) were found to be HIV infected. The birth control and HIV infection protection used in this study demonstrate no adverse effects on the disease, and the unexpected problems of these women, as well as the health personnel concerned are reduced both economically and socially. This study provides the guidelines of good care for HIV infected pregnant women.

  8. Micronutrient Status among Pregnant Women in Zinder, Niger and Risk Factors Associated with Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryan Wessells

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anemia and micronutrient (MN deficiencies in pregnant women are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Niger, 58.6% of pregnant women are anemic; however, MN statuses are unknown. The study objectives were to estimate the prevalence of MN deficiencies among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger and explore associated risk factors. Pregnant women living in randomly selected rural villages (n = 88 were included. Capillary and venous blood samples (n = 770 were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, zinc (pZn, retinol binding protein (RBP, folate and vitamin B12. C-reactive protein and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein were measured to adjust for inflammation. The prevalence of MN deficiencies in pregnant woman was high, indicative of a severe public health problem. Prevalence of iron deficiency was 20.7% and 35.7%, by ferritin (<15 µg/L and sTfR (>8.3 mg/L, respectively. In total, 40.7% of women had low pZn (<50 µg/dL, 79.7% had marginal RBP (<1.32 µmol/L, 44.3% of women had low folate (<10 nmol/L and 34.8% had low B12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L. Common risk factors associated with MN status included gravidity, mid-upper-arm circumference, geophagy, malaria, and result of the woman’s last pregnancy. Interventions to promote the strengthening of antenatal care, and access and adherence to nutrition and health interventions are critical among pregnant women in this population.

  9. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María Del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. A cross-sectional survey. Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; pAguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbalibulha Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yona Mbalibulha,1 Enoch Muwanguzi,1 Godfrey R Mugyenyi,2 Bernard Natukunda1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods: Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT. Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results: Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%; A: 190 (26.%; B: 152 (21%; and AB: 28 (4%. A total of 28 (3.86% pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1% of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8% were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion: Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of

  11. non-pregnant rural women of childbearing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum folate, ferritin, vitamin B12, red blood cell folate and full blood count. Results. The prevalence of low serum folate (<3ng/ml) in the study population was ... acid, iron and other nutrients has been implemented ... women, and those on chronic disease medication, ... the cut-off points before and after fortification were.

  12. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  13. Representation of women and pregnant women in HIV research: a limited systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Rosenberg, Molly; Schwartz, Sheree; Swamy, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    HIV-related outcomes may be affected by biological sex and by pregnancy. Including women in general and pregnant women in particular in HIV-related research is important for generalizability of findings. To characterize representation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in HIV-related research conducted in general populations. All HIV-related articles published in fifteen journals from January to March of 2011. We selected the top five journals by 2010 impact factor, in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and HIV/AIDS. HIV-related studies reporting original research on questions applicable to both men and women of reproductive age were considered; studies were excluded if they did not include individual-level patient data. Articles were doubly reviewed and abstracted; discrepancies were resolved through consensus. We recorded proportion of female study participants, whether pregnant women were included or excluded, and other key factors. In total, 2014 articles were published during this period. After screening, 259 articles were included as original HIV-related research reporting individual-level data; of these, 226 were determined to be articles relevant to both men and women of reproductive age. In these articles, women were adequately represented within geographic region. The vast majority of published articles, 183/226 (81%), did not mention pregnancy (or related issues); still fewer included pregnant women (n=33), reported numbers of pregnant women (n=19), or analyzed using pregnancy status (n=9). Data were missing for some key variables, including pregnancy. The time period over which published works were evaluated was relatively short. The under-reporting and inattention to pregnancy in the HIV literature may reduce policy-makers' ability to set evidence-based policy around HIV/AIDS care for pregnant women and women of child-bearing age.

  14. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  15. Administration of praziquantel to pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, G Richard

    2003-05-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is the safest of all anti-helminthics and now forms the backbone for all national control programs against schistosomiasis (Med. Res. Rev. 3 (1983) 147-200; Bull. WHO 57 (1979) 767-771; Wegner, D.H.G, Therapeutic Drugs (1991), Churchill Livingstone; Adv. Intern. Med. 32 (1987) 193-206; Drugs 42 (1991) 379-405; Pharmac. Ther. 68 (1995) 35-85; Ann. Intern. Med. 110 (1989) 290-296). Despite its lack of known toxicity, the drug was not tested on pregnant or lactating women prior to release. It is currently listed as Pregnancy Category B by the US FDA, which is a drug presumed safe based in animal studies. Unfortunately, this has been interpreted by most national control programs and WHO (1998) to exclude lactating and pregnant women from treatment. In fact, some experts advocate excluding adolescent girls from mass treatment campaigns over this issue. As a result, a large number of women living in endemic countries are currently left untreated or have treatment significantly delayed. A review of the current known toxicology of PZQ, combined with over two decades of clinical experience with this drug, suggest very low potential for adverse effects on either the mother or her unborn child. In contrast, significant animal and human data are presented in this review that suggest both the pregnant woman and her unborn fetus suffer morbid sequella from schistosomiasis. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial that could resolve this issue would require a very large and expensive study and in light of the above facts might not now be ethically appropriate. The author concludes that pregnant women should be treated with PZQ, that women of childbearing age should be included in all mass treatment programs and that lactating women are not systematically excluded from treatment.

  16. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

  17. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Rezaei; Farahnaz Sadat Ahmadi; Shirin Niroomanesh; Shahram Ejtemaee Mehr; Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Atefeh Aminian; Azizeh Ghaseminejad; Soleiman Abbasi; Fariba Yarandi

    2013-01-01

    The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs) is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2...

  18. Willingness among Obese Pregnant Women to Accept MRI Scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women...... were offered MRI scanning in gestational week (GW) 15, 64 in GW 32, and 45 in GW 40. Results: Of 106 women offered MRI scans 102 completed (96%) at least one scan. In total 177 out of 210 possible scans were completed. The proportion of women who completed first, second and third MRI scans were 96%, 83......% and 61% respectively. Primary cause for incomplete MRI scans were no-show (45%); no reported concern for safety as a cause. Conclusion: A majority of the women accepted MRI scans in GW 15, 32 and 40. Thorough, information about the safety of the method, and the applicability of the results, encouraged...

  19. Estimating coverage of a women's group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Younes (Layla); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Costello (Anthony); E. Fottrell (Edward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention c

  20. Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Mélanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.

  1. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015

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    Katherine Neiswanger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women, recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA, assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA, timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood, quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural and Pittsburgh (primarily urban. These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies.

  2. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  3. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  4. Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D

    2014-10-12

    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt.

  5. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-12-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (PBrasil and others.).

  6. EXPERIENCES AND VIEWS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urve Kaasik-Aaslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people, from which 200-250 million  are women, smoke. Based on the Estonian Medical Birth Register data,  in 2010,  7,5% of pregnant women were smokers, and  in 2012, 7% of pregnant women were smoking during their pregnancy. Thus, smoking rates among pregnant women fell only 0,5%. The objective of the research was to find out the views of pregnant women who were smoking during pregnancy of the effect of smoking on the health of them and their babies, and experiences in quitting smoking, changing indicators, e.g. smoking and socioeconomical status (initial exposure to smoking, employment, long-term partnerships etc. in 2009-2013.Methods: This research is a phenomenological study, which was being carried out from October 2009 until January 2013. Data collection methods were semi-structured interviews with 45 pregnant women smoking during their pregnancy and being  registered for antenatal care  in three health care institutions of Republic of Estonia. An inductive approach for qualitative analysis was used.Results: Most women smoking during pregnancy started smoking in their teens, their parents smoked, they were under 30 years old housewives or unemployed. On an average of 11-20 cigarettes were consumed each day, the pregnancy of the research group did not influence frequency and tobacco intake. The participants in the research group reported that tobacco consumption helped them relax, gave them a chance to spend time in a good company, and it was not regarded as a bad habit but a social addiction, being caused by availability of tobacco products. Although most of them had an opinion about  harmful effects of smoking, e.g. a cough, asthma and rapid fatigue,  on the health of them and less on their expected babies, they continued smoking.Conclusions: The smoking and socioeconomical status of women smoking during pregnancy in 2009-2013 has not changed,  health awareness of them is low and has

  7. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

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    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  8. [Iron status in pregnant women and its changes during preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek-mellouli, Monia; Amara, Fethi Ben; Loussaief, Wafa; Reziga, Hédi

    2013-10-01

    Micronutrients or trace elements are minerals essential for growth and development of the body human. To analyze changes in normal pregnancy and during preeclampsia, serum iron and its main proteins: ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors. This is a prospective study of case- control study of 56 pregnant women and 30 non-pregnant women selected as controls. Pregnant women received a quarterly dosing paramètres. The same assays were performed once in controls. The comparative assay of various parameters in normal pregnancy and in control women showed a significant decrease in serum iron from 1 to the third quarter, a slight decline in reserves ferritin in 1st and 2nd quarter increases and becomes significant in the third quarter and an increase of soluble receptors trasferrine during pregnancy, which becomes significant in the third quarter. We noted a disturbance of these parameters in preeclampsia. Iron is essential for fetal development. His involvement in several maternal- fetal complications is not to dismantle .

  9. Cervical stiffness evaluated in vivo by endoflip in pregnant women.

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    Lene Hee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. RESULTS: The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67-422 kPa for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4-15 kPa for those at term. In the early pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05 whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman's rho was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84, between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81, and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85. CONCLUSION: This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix.

  10. The performance of various anthropometric assessment methods for predicting low birth weight in adolescent pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cavalcante de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the performance of various anthropometric evaluation methods for adolescent pregnant women in the prediction of birth weight. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study including 826 adolescent pregnant women. In the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI classification, the recommendations of the World Health Organization were compared with that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the Institute of Medicine (IOM of 1992 and 2006. The gestational weight gain adequacy was evaluated according to the classification of IOM of 1992, of 2006 and of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The newborns were classified as low birth weight (LBW or macrosomic. Multinomial logistic regression was used for statistical analysis and sensibility, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results: The evaluation, according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, showed the best prediction for LBW among pregnant women with low weight gain (specificity = 69.5%. The evaluation according to the IOM of 1992 showed the best prediction for macrosomia among pregnant women with high weight gain (specificity = 50.0%. The adequacy of weight gain according to the IOM of 1992 classification showed the best prediction for LBW (OR = 3.84; 95%CI 2.19 - 6.74, followed by the method of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (OR = 2.88, 95%CI 1.73 - 4.79, among pregnant women with low weight gain. Conclusion: It is recommended the adoption of the Brazilian Ministry of Health proposal, associated with BMI cut-offs specific for adolescents as an anthropometric assessment method for adolescent pregnant women.

  11. Cognitive factors associated with the willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunrong; Yang Liu; Kong Jinwang

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the worldwide trend is not contained effectively.The pregnant women infected HIV seriously in the high HIV epidemic areas in China.The transmission of HIV to child may be cut off if HIV positive mother was found early by HIV testing.Pregnant women mandatorily received the HIV counseling and testing services.Most of them did not know the knowledge about HIV prevention and were not willing to receive HIV testing actively.Willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women was investigated,which can help to promote them to take up HIV testing actively.This study assessed the prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing and cognitive factors associated with it.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to 500 pregnant women via face-to-face interviews with anonymous structured questionnaire guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM).Results The prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing was 58.60%.Perceived higher susceptibility to HIV (multivariateadjusted odds ratio (ORm)=2.02,95% confidence interval (CI):1.40-5.06),more knowledge for HIV (ORm=1.92,95% CI:1.11-3.87) and perceived less social stigma (ORm=0.80,95% CI:0.34-0.91) were associated with higher willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.Conclusion To prevent HIV mother to children transmission,it is necessary to enhance knowledge for HIV,change cognitive factors and increase willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.

  12. Accelerating the paradigm shift toward inclusion of pregnant women in drug research: Ethical and regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amina

    2015-11-01

    Although there has been long-standing reluctance to include pregnant women as clinical trial participants, increasing recognition of profound gaps in research on the safety and efficacy of drugs often prescribed to pregnant women calls into question the practice of routinely excluding them. This article presents compelling reasons for including pregnant women in clinical research, highlights certain regulatory barriers to the inclusion of pregnant women, and proposes that professional societies with expertise in obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine can be instrumental in hastening the paradigm shift from the systematic exclusion of pregnant women in research to a one of responsible and fair inclusion.

  13. Use of herbal product among pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıssal, Aygül; Çevik Güner, Ümran; Batkın Ertürk, Döndü

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the herbal product use of pregnants as there is not adequate information relating to the rate of herbal product use during pregnancy in Turkey and what is thought about effects and side effects thereof. It is a descriptive study consisted of 366 pregnants admitted to hospital for childbirth in gynaecology and obstetrics clinics of a public hospital or a university hospital. Data were collected with individual information form and question form of herbal product use in pregnancy. We conducted number, percentage, chi-square analyses. It was determined that 47.3% of the women had used at least one herbal product during pregnancy; the relationship between education level, working status, family structure, and status of herbal product use is statistically significant (pginger are the first three herbs used due to common cold-influenza frequently in pregnancy during 1st and 2nd trimesters. More than half of the pregnants stated that they had started herbal product use without any suggestions from anyone, and profoundly low healthcare professional suggestion was detected. Our study has showed that almost half of women use at least one herbal product during pregnancy. So few healthcare professionals give information to pregnants thereabout. Thus, providing information in general health education to pregnant women about benefits and damages of herbal product use, planning researchers on effectiveness of herbal products, assessment of healthcare professionals relating to the matter and provision of available guidelines and in-service education relating to herbal products that can be used during pregnancy may be suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of blood lead levels with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms among Chinese pregnant women in Wuhan city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center.BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method.The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78 μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042 and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035 when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc. were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086-0.096, P<0.05.The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation.

  15. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Kris; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Maertens, Kirsten; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2015-08-07

    Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended for some infectious diseases in order to protect both women and offspring through high titres of maternal IgG antibodies. Less is known on the triggering of cellular immune responses by vaccines administered during pregnancy. In an ongoing study on maternal pertussis vaccination (2012-2014) 18 pregnant women were vaccinated with a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) containing vaccine (Boostrix®) during the third pregnancy trimester. Sixteen age-matched nonpregnant women received the same vaccine in the same time period. A blood sample was taken at the moment of, but before vaccination and one month and one year after vaccination. Anti-Pertussis Toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were analyzed using a diluted whole blood assay, measuring proliferation, and cytokine release in response to vaccine antigens PT, FHA, TT, and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as polyclonal stimulus. Antibody levels to all five vaccine components increased significantly and to the same extent after vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant women. One year after vaccination, antibody titres had decreased particularly to PT, but they were still significantly higher to all antigens than before vaccination. In contrast, proliferative and IFN-γ responses were increased to TT, PT, and FHA in nonpregnant women one month after vaccination, whereas in pregnant women only TT specific T cell responses were increased and to a lesser extent than in the control group. One year after vaccination, cellular responses equaled the baseline levels detected prior to vaccination in both groups. In conclusion, a Tdap vaccination can increase vaccine specific IgG antibodies to the same extent in pregnant and in nonpregnant women, whereas the stimulation of vaccine specific Th1 type cellular immune responses with this acellular vaccine

  16. High prevalence of anti-toxoplasma antibodies and absence of Toxoplasma gondii infection risk factors among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woyneshet Gelaye

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is higher than that reported from other countries. Efforts to describe risk factors for toxoplasma infection among Ethiopians should focus in children.

  17. Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural community: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Olurinde A; Tukur, Jamilu

    2012-09-01

    Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and birth outcomes. In many local communities, pregnant women have food taboos with consequent depletion of vital nutrients. To facilitate early identification and prompt counseling, this study aimed at describing pregnant women who are likely to keep food taboos. Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at health facilities in Saki East Local Government of Oyo state, Nigeria. Sociodemographic characteristics of the women were described using means and proportions. Using logistic regression analysis, maternal characteristics significantly associated with adherence to food taboos were identified. The data was analysed using SAS 9.2. Factors associated with food taboos were teen age, primigravidity, low body mass index, lack of formal education, and low monthly family income. Health workers should have a high index of suspicion for food taboos among pregnant women with the identified risk factors.

  18. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Torres-Castorena, A; Liesenfeld, O; García-López, C R; Estrada-Martínez, S; Sifuentes-Alvarez, A; Marsal-Hernández, J F; Esquivel-Cruz, R; Sandoval-Herrera, F; Castañeda, J A; Dubey, J P

    2009-04-01

    The epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico is largely unknown. The seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in 439 pregnant women from 9 communities in rural Durango State, Mexico was investigated. Using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays, sera were tested for T. gondii IgG, IgM, and avidity antibodies. Prevalences of T. gondii IgG antibodies in the communities varied from 0% to 20%. Overall, 36 (8.2%) of the 439 women had IgG T. gondii antibodies. Ten (2.3%) women had also T. gondii IgM antibodies; IgG avidity was high in all IgM-positive women, suggesting chronic infection. None of the women, however, had delivered a known T. gondii-infected child. The seroprevalence was significantly higher (P women from low socio-economic conditions (14%) than in those with higher socio-economic status (6.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with soil floors at home (adjusted OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.12-7.49). This is the first epidemiological study of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico.

  19. The Association between Influenza Vaccination and Other Preventative Health Behaviors in a Cohort of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheminske, Megan; Henninger, Michelle; Irving, Stephanie A.; Thompson, Mark; Williams, Jenny; Shifflett, Pat; Ball, Sarah W.; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Naleway, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although pregnant women are a high-priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination, vaccination rates in this population remain below target levels. Previous studies have identified sociodemographic predictors of vaccine choice, but relationships between preconception heath behaviors and seasonal influenza vaccination are poorly…

  20. First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modh Carin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim: To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results: To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions: The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

  1. Economic Evaluation of Health Services Costs During Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 Pdm09 Infection in Pregnant and Non-Preg¬nant Women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15-44 yr old.Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation costs and indirect (productivity loss costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women.Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women. The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant.Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1 pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. Keywords: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1, Costs, Health services, Pregnant women, Spain

  2. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women.

  4. New generation of antidepressants in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Kashani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Although pregnancy was once thought to protect against psychiatric disorders, gravid and non gravid women have similar risks for major depression, at 10% to 15%. Both depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy have been associated with risks. Few medications have been proved unequivocally safe during pregnancy. Although certain antidepressants have not been linked with an increased risk of birth defects or impaired development including bupropion, citalopram, escitalopram and venlafaxine, the latest studies aren't necessarily reassuring. As researchers continue to learn more about antidepressants, the risks and benefits of taking the drugs during pregnancy must be weighed carefully on a case-by-case basis. This review discusses about the use of new generation of antidepressants in pregnancy

  5. Determinants of pregnant women's compliance with alcohol guidelines: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Amy E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, Australian alcohol guidelines for pregnancy changed from low to no alcohol intake. Previous research found a high proportion of pregnant Australian women drank during pregnancy; however, there has been limited investigation of whether pregnant women comply with 2009 alcohol guidelines. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of pregnant women’s compliance with 2009 Australian alcohol guidelines and identify predictors of such compliance, including previous drinking behaviour. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of prospective data from the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health was conducted. Women aged 30–36 years who were pregnant at the 2009 survey and had data on alcohol use were included (n = 837. Compliance with 2009 alcohol guidelines for pregnancy was defined as no alcohol intake. Predictors of compliance were analysed using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for area of residence, in three separate models to account for multicollinearity between measures of previous alcohol intake (compliance with 2001 guidelines; frequency and quantity; bingeing. Private health insurance, household income, and illicit drug use were entered into all models and retained if significant. Results 72% of pregnant women did not comply with the 2009 alcohol guidelines and 82% of these women drank less than seven drinks per week, with no more than one or two drinks per drinking day. The odds of complying with abstinence increased by a factor of 3.48 (95% CI 2.39-5.05 for women who previously complied with the 2001 alcohol guidelines and decreased by a factor of 0.19 (95% CI 0.08-0.66 if household incomes were $36,400 or more. In other models the odds of complying were lower for women who consumed alcohol before pregnancy at least weekly (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.63 or binged (OR ≥ 0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.31 and were higher for those who abstained (OR

  6. Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Choi-ching; 方賽貞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed with th...

  7. Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze UI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. Objectives: This study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs in Nigeria. A risk classification of the medicines was also determined. Methods: Medical case files of 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria were investigated. Disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. The prescription pattern was assessed using WHO indicators, and the United States Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. Results: A total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. Results indicated that malaria 554 (38% was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, 13% and gastrointestinal disturbances (GIT, 12%. The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43% of medicines were prescribed by generic name. Minerals/ Vitamins 2,396 (42% were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8% of the total medicines. Of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17% were included in the foetal risk category C and 286 (5% in category D. Conclusion: The study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by URTIs and GIT disturbances among the pregnant women. Minerals, vitamins and to a less extent anti-malarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. The average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than WHO standards. The occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.

  8. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  9. Serum metabolic profiles of pregnant women with burdened obstetrical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustova, S A; Senyavina, N V; Tonevitsky, A G; Eremina, O V; Pavlovich, S V

    2013-11-01

    The content of low-molecular-weight components in blood serum was studied by tandem mass-spectrometry in pregnant women. Serum metabolic profiles of patients with a grave obstetrical history were detected. The most significant changes were observed for the concentrations of low-molecular-weight substances involved in glucogenesis and β-oxidation processes and in metabolic chains involving carbohydrates, carnitines, amino acids, and lipids.

  10. A prospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of iron sucrose in pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia in a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    R. Nanthini; K. R. Mamatha; Geetha Shivamurthy; Kavitha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is 58% among pregnant women in India. Oral iron therapy is recommended as first-line therapy in mild anemia. Moderate anemia in pregnancy results in high maternal morbidity and mortality. In India, women become pregnant with low iron stores, where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement and need parenteral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of iron sucrose complex (ISC) in pregnant women with...

  11. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infections among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ose Ugbebor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with high risk of maternal complications and has become a leading cause of foetal death. Aims : This study aimed at determining the prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infections among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Patients and Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study that included 5760 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic of the hospital during the periods of October 2009 - October 2010. Relevant data was gathered and women having history of previous liver diseases, diabetes and pre-eclamptic toxemia were excluded from the study. Rapid diagnostic test kits were used to screen for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and anti-Hepatitis C virus (HCV antibodies. Results : 720 (12.5% and 206 (3.6% out of 5,760 pregnant women included in the study were found to be positive for Serum antibodies to hepatitis B and C respectively. 33 (0.57% were found to have mixed infections of hepatitis B and C. None of the expected risk factors had significant outcome. Conclusion : This study showed that the prevalence of the Hepatitis B virus (HBV among pregnant women in this study area is of intermediate endemicity (12.5%.

  12. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  13. [Modern medico-biological nutritional requirements for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭkova, D; Markov, D; Markov, P; Ivanov, S

    2007-01-01

    This review describes the basic physiological requirements, expert opinions and medico-biological recommendations for the optimal nutritional regime of pregnant women. In the first trimester of pregnancy the nutritional intake should be supplemented by about +68 kcal/24 h (the normal intake is 2000 kcal/24 h for non-pregnant women in the respective age group). In the second trimester the supplementation should be by +266 kcal/24 h, while in the III trimester--by up to +496 kcal/24 h. The requirements of folic acid and vitamin B6 during pregnancy are increased by 50%. The need for vitamin A is augmented up to 60%, while for vitamin C, niacin, vitamin B2 and B12--up to 30%. However, the requirements of iron and iodine are increased at most--100%. The weight gain in pregnant women should normally be in the range of 10-12.5 kg. During the I and II trimester it should be not substantial, while in the III trimester it should be about 350-400 g/per week. The risks associated with obesity and uncontrolled weight gain during pregnancy are discussed. Consulting physicians are provided with expert opinions about the individualization of the nutritional intake according to the specific metabolic changes during pregnancy and with definitions of an adequate in energy supply and nutritional balance diet.

  14. HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIESOF PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Krivonogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is aimed to investigate the influence of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive capabilities of pregnant women in different trimesters of gestation.The estimation of adaptive capabilities of the pregnant women organism was carried out on the basis of functional tests on breath-holding duration – Stange’s test (for inhalation and Ghencea’s test (for exhalation in the initial period, 11–19, 21–29 and 31–39 weeks periods of pregnancy.To identify the adaptation strategies for pregnant women the method proposed by Ya.S. Pekker and A. Rotov was used, namely, the consideration of information measure as a measure of biological object preference behavior. Analysis of the results with information criterion of curve types using cluster analysis allowed to identify 4 standard types of adaptation strategies for pregnant women: adaptive, compensatory, compensatory-adaptive and maladaptive compensatory type of response. To estimate the adaptive capabilities of the respiratory system the ratio between the level of respiratory system functioning, its functional reserve and the degree of stress regulation mechanisms was considered.The intensity of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO in the blood serum of pregnant women was assessed by determining malondialdehyde (MDA in the reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid. Determination of vitamin D content in blood serum was estimated by fluorimetric method using spectrophotometer «Hitachi-85» (Japan at an excitation wavelength of 295 nm and 320 nm fluorescence. Determination of the level of stress hormones (cortisol, insulin in the blood serum of pregnant women was performed by radio ligand assay.The following somatic diseases were registered among pregnant women applying to hospital: chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, vasomotor rhinitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, hay fever, chronic pyelonephritis, atopic dermatitis. The next prenatal risks were revealed: morning sickness in I

  15. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-05-03

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage.

  16. Investigating the Relationship between Mental Health and Insomnia in Pregnant Women Referred to Health Centers in Estahban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naemeh Ali Babaie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is the most sensitive period in women's life which makes many physical and mental changes. Sleep problems are one of the issues that are reported by pregnant women; it appears to be associated with psychological consequences in pregnant women. This study aims to investigate the relationship between mental health and insomnia in pregnant women referred to health centers in estahban. This descriptive-analytic study has been done on 182 pregnant women referred to health centers of Estahban in 2015 by available sampling method. Research tools used in this study were general health questionnaire 28 (GHQ 28 and insomnia severity index (ISI.Data were analyzed using Chi-Square and Pearson Correlation tests in SPSS 22 software. Research findings showed that 46.2% of women were suspected of mental disorders, and 58.8% of them suffered from insomnia. According to Chi-square test, there was a significant relationship between total score of mental health and a total score of insomnia(r=0.58, p<0.05. Also, a significant relationship was observed in all variables of mental health and insomnia (p<0.05. Results indicate a high level of mental disorders as well as insomnia among pregnant women; also, the mutual effect of these diseases on each other. As a result, sleep hygiene education as well as appropriate consideration and counseling to pregnant women to treat disorders for achieving a safe pregnancy are recommended.

  17. Cervical Stiffness Evaluated In Vivo by Endoflip in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lene Hee; Donghua Liao; Puk Sandager; Hans Gregersen; Niels Uldbjerg

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation wi...

  18. Smoking among pregnant women in small towns in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Balwicki, Łukasz; Zarzeczna-Baran, M.; Wierucki, Ł.; Jędrzejczyk, T.; Strahl, M.; Wrotkowska, M.; Goniewicz, M. L.; Zdrojewski, T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the work was to assess among pregnant women from small towns and villages in Poland: the prevalence of smoking, credibility of smoking, and influence of socioeconomic factors on smoking status. Methods The data came from 4512 interviews with women in different trimesters of pregnancy. The interviews were collected in 2007 and 2008 year in towns up to 8000 citizens in 12 voivodeships. Results Prevalence of smoking in the beginning of pregnancy was confirmed by 34.6 % of w...

  19. What do Pregnant Women Know About the Healthy Eating Guidelines for Pregnancy? A Web-Based Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amelia; Belski, Regina; Radcliffe, Jessica; Newton, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Objectives This study explored nutrition knowledge of pregnant women, and how it correlated with participant characteristics, their main sources of information and changes to their diet since becoming pregnant. Methods Pregnant women residing in Australia accessing pregnancy forums on the internet were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire on general nutrition and pregnancy-specific nutrition guidelines. Results Of the 165 eligible questionnaire responses, 114 were complete and included in the analysis. Pregnancy nutrition knowledge was associated with education (r s = 0.21, p pregnant women achieved nutrition knowledge scores over 80 %. Few women received nutrition advice during their pregnancy, of which most were advised by their doctor. Dietary changes adopted since becoming pregnant included consuming more fruit, vegetables, dairy and high fibre foods. Conclusions for Practice Pregnant women in this study had limited knowledge of the dietary guidelines for healthy eating during pregnancy. Furthermore, nutrition counselling in maternity care appears to be infrequent. One approach to optimising maternal diets and subsequently preventing adverse health outcomes is to enhance their knowledge of the pregnancy nutrition guidelines through the provision of nutritional counselling. Furthermore, research exploring the access and use of nutrition resources, and nutrition advice provided to pregnant women is recommended to understand how knowledge impacts on dietary behaviour.

  20. CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL SCREENING AND MANAGEMENT IN PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-fang He; Mei-lu Bian; Ying Wang; Xiao-yan Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine and follow up cervical cytology of pregnant and postpartum women and study their cytopathologic characteristics, so as to determine screening and managing programs for abnormal cervical cytology.Methods Totally 5296 patients in pregnancy and postpartum, in which 3729 by computer-assisted cytology test and 1567 by liquid-based monolayers cytology test, were examined and diagnosed by the Bethesda System made in 2001. Those proven epithelial abnormalities patients were followed up until the lesions regressed to normal. The remaining patients,who exhibited persistent abnormalities or progression, were given further examinations.Results The positive rate of cervical cytological test was 8.72% (462/5296), including squamous carcinoma (SCA) 1case (0.02%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 34 cases (0.64%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 145 cases (2.74%), atypical glandular cells (AGC) 5 cases (0.09%), atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) 14 cases (0.26%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 263 cases (4.97%). The 419 proven cytological abnormality cases were followed up successfully. The total transnegative rate in three months was 73.74% (309/419), in which 303 cases (72.32%) persisted normal status for more than six months after regression. And the transnegative rate of ASC-US, ASC-H, AGC, LSIL, and HSIL were 79.56%, 64.29%, 100%,72.14% and 44.12%, respectively. Forty-six cases received biopsy directed by colposcopy. The distribution of coincidence of cytopathologic and histopathologic diagnosis was: SCA 1 case (100%), HSIL 10 cases (76.92%), LSIL 13 cases (65%), ASC-H 2 cases (50%), ASC-US 3 cases (37.50%), total 29 cases (63.04%).Conclusions We should cast more attention to screening cervix lesions in pregnant and postpartum women. Their cytopathologic characteristics are liable to make the clinician give a false positive diagnosis. So we propose to follow up them closely

  1. High HIV-1 Diversity and Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Pregnant Women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Silva-de-Jesus, Carlos; Couto-Fernandez, José Carlos; Pilotto, Jose H; Morgado, Mariza G

    2017-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may reduce the efficacy of prophylactic therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and future treatment options. This study evaluated the diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions of HIV-1 pol gene among 87 ARV-naive HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2012 and 2015. The viral diversity comprised HIV-1 subtypes B (67.8%), F1 (17.2%), and C (4.6%); the circulating recombinant forms 12_BF (2.3%), 28/29_BF, 39_BF, 02_AG (1.1% each) and unique recombinants forms (4.5%). The overall prevalence of any TDR was 17.2%, of which 5.7% for nucleoside RT inhibitors, 5.7% for non-nucleoside RT inhibitors, and 8% for PR inhibitors. The TDR prevalence found in this population may affect the virological outcome of the standard PMTCT ARV-regimens, reinforcing the importance of continuous monitoring.

  2. CHANGING TRENDS IN HIV SEROPREVALENCE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bama Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Routine antenatal screening for HIV combined with advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to increased detection and effective treatment in pregnancy. AIM To know effectiveness of screening in antenatal mother and their husband for HIV status, seroprevalence rate among them and among their infants from a tertiary care hospital. We aim to outline key interventions which can influence the rate of mother to child transmission and how these are best incorporated into care of pregnant women and her baby including antenatal testing use of antiretroviral medication, management of labour and of breast-feeding. METHOD Retrospective analysis of Data over a period of six years available in Integrated counselling and Testing centre attached to Tertiary Care Government Medical College and Hospital Trichy, from 1 Jan 2010 to 31 Dec 2015. Data of Antenatal mothers screened and diagnosed as HIV Seropositive and its various outcomes related to these pregnancies were analysed. RESULTS Among 29215 women who were screened, 104 were found to be HIV seropositive. Declining seroprevalence rate from 0.66% in 2010 to 0.16% in 2015 noted. Among seropositive mothers, majority were in 25-34 years of age. Maximum incidence was in second gravida during initial years followed by primigravida, In subsequent years, declining seroprevalence rate in spouse and declining mother to child transmission rate were analysed. CONCLUSION Decreasing seroprevalence rate indicates effective counselling and intensive screening of HIV status of Antenatal mothers and their Husbands & their infants with effective Implementation of prevention of mother to child transmission programme and also effective treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  3. Pregnancy Outcomes in Pregnant Women with Subchorionic Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria V. Barinova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of subchorionic hematoma (SCH in the first trimester of pregnancy remains open for discussion. Some authors claim that SCH does not affect the pregnancy; others have found that it is a serious risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. The objective of the present study was to explore the outcomes of pregnancy in patients with SCH diagnosed in the first trimester. Methods and Results: The study involved 194 pregnant women who were in terms of 6 to12 weeks: 115 women with SCH (Group 1 and 79 apparently healthy pregnant women (Group 2. A missed miscarriage was observed in 27/23% women of Group 1 and in 4/5% of Group 2 (P<0.05, recurrent threat of miscarriage in 27/23% and in 4/5%, recurrent bleeding in 14/12% and 2/3%, and the short cervix syndrome in 22/19% and 5/6% women, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study show that the presence of SCH adversely affects the first half of pregnancy, leading to recurrent threatened abortion, recurrent threat of miscarriage, missed miscarriage until 12 weeks of gestation, and the short cervix syndrome.

  4. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

  5. Audit of management of pregnant women with positive VDRL tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, E; Mathai, M; Prakash, J A; Bergström, S

    2001-01-01

    Syphilis is a preventable cause of foetal loss and congenital disease. Although the VDRL test is an integral part of routine antenatal care in India, little is known about the disease burden in pregnancy in India. Therefore, we carried out a study to determine the prevalence of VDRL positivity and syphilis among pregnant women in Vellore and to audit the management and outcome of VDRL-positive pregnancies. A retrospective review of case records. Only 0.98% of pregnant women were positive by the VDRL test. However, foetal loss occurred in 16 (32%) of the 50 seropositive women; 15 of these did not receive antenatal care. Seventeen of the 34 seropositive multiparous women had had previous foetal losses. Only 16 women had received penicillin. Although the seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnancy is low, it is an unrecognized cause of foetal loss in Vellore. An audit of the testing and management of VDRL positivity in pregnancy provides valuable information on the quality of antenatal care in an area.

  6. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-12-22

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women's general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p quality of life and a better perception of one's health.

  7. Clinical needs of in-treatment pregnant women with co-occurring disorders: implications for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee King, Patricia A; Duan, Lei; Amaro, Hortensia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated social vulnerability and behavioral health clinical profiles (symptom severity) of pregnant women with co-occurring disorders, defined as substance abuse, mental illness, and trauma at treatment entry compared to their nonpregnant counterparts and the role of interpersonal abuse in clinical presentation among pregnant women. Our objective was to provide primary health care providers with insight into the needs of pregnant patients with high behavioral health risks to serve them better during the critical window of opportunity for long-term impact. We conducted cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from women enrolled in treatment programs in the Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study from nine sites across the United States. We used analysis of variance and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical analyses to compare means and frequencies of social vulnerability indicators and baseline Addiction Severity Index, Brief Symptom Inventory of mental health, and Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale scores between 152 pregnant and 2,577 nonpregnant women, and between pregnant women with and without current interpersonal abuse. Compared to nonpregnant women, pregnant women evidenced more social vulnerability but better behavioral health clinical profiles at treatment entry. Current interpersonal abuse was associated with increased mental health and trauma symptomatology but not with alcohol or drug abuse severity among pregnant women. The prenatal period is an important time for screening and intervention for factors such as social vulnerability and co-occurring disorders, known to affect pregnancy and infant outcomes; social and behavioral health services are particularly essential among pregnant women with co-occurring disorders.

  8. Effect of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy on Cytokines, Hemorheology and Coagulation Function of Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Cui-ge; LI Lian-xiang; LIU Xiao-qin; SHI Jian-yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) on the cytokines, hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women. Methods: A total of 43 singleton pregnant women with ICP delivered in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital from June 2014 to June 2015 were selected as observation group, and 45 singleton healthy pregnant women accompanied by indications of cesarean section were selected as control group. Automatic Viscometer was used to detect the hematological indexes, Automatic Coagulometer to detect the indexes related to coagulation function and radioimmunoassay to determine the levels of cell inflammatory factors, and the pregnancy outcomes were closely observed. Results:The levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high and low shear rates of whole blood viscosity, hematokrit, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in observation group were all dramatically higher than those in control group, and all the differences were statistically signiifcant (P0.05). When compared with control group, the levels of D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB) in observation group increased dramatically (P0.05). Conclusion: Both the hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women with ICP manifest signiifcantly high viscosity and hypercoagulability, and the release of cell inlfammatory factors increases, which all exert adverse inlfuence on pregnancy outcome.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  10. Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pregnant Women With Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L;

    2015-01-01

    ) and type 2 diabetes (n = 28) who used repeated CGM during pregnancy were recruited from secondary care multidisciplinary obstetric clinics for diabetes in the U.K. and Denmark. LGA was defined as birth weight ≥90th percentile adjusted for sex and gestational age. RESULTS: A total of 54 of 117 (46%) women......OBJECTIVE: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is increasingly used to assess glucose control in diabetes. The objective was to examine how analysis of glucose data might improve our understanding of the role temporal glucose variation has on large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants born to women...... with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional data analysis (FDA) was applied to 1.68 million glucose measurements from 759 measurement episodes, obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials of CGM in pregnant women with diabetes. A total of 117 women with type 1 diabetes (n = 89...

  11. TROPHOBLASTIC β1 – GLYCOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SEROPOSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Bogdanovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The level of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein (SP–1 was determined in the blood sera of 200 healthy pregnant women and 184 women with threatened abortions in term till 20 weeks of pregnancy. In group of women experiencing recurrent abortions in 38 % cases antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin, in 39,5 % cases antibodies to phospholipids, in 25,5 % – antibodies to tireoglobulin were revealed in significant amounts. In 20,65 % lupus anticoagulant was found. The majority of women in this group had changes in homeostasis. The presence of autoantibodies during pregnancy is the unfavourable factor in the development of placental insufficiency. This is proved by the decreased secretion of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein – a marker of the fetal part of placenta. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 1, pp. 85588

  12. PHQ-8 minor depression among pregnant women: association with somatic symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Adrienne B; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J; Harper, Bridgette D; LoBello, Steven G

    2017-06-01

    It was recently reported that pregnant women were more likely to have minor depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 depression scale (PHQ-8), (as reported by Kroenke and Spitzer (Psychiatr Ann 32(9):1-7, 2002), and Kroenke et al. (J Affect 114(1-3):163-173, 2009)) compared to women who were not pregnant (as reported by Ashley et al. (Arch Womens Ment Health 19(2):395-400, 2015)). The present study is designed to investigate if somatic symptoms (energy level, appetite, sleep) associated with both pregnancy and depression were responsible for this increased prevalence of minor depression. A sample of pregnant women (n = 404) was compared to women who were not pregnant (n = 6754). Both groups scored within the minor depression range on the PHQ-8 and comparisons were based on participants' responses to PHQ-8 items. Results indicate that of the somatic symptoms of depression, only changes in energy level accounted for the elevated prevalence of minor depression among pregnant women compared to women who are not pregnant. Removing the decreased energy item from the score determination reduces the prevalence of minor depression among pregnant women to a level significantly below that of women who are not pregnant. Emotional symptoms such as feeling down and feeling like a failure were less likely to be reported by pregnant women compared to women who were not pregnant. Implications for depression screening during pregnancy are discussed.

  13. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. Results The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). Conclusion By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women’s power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy.

  14. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of pregnant women towards antenatal care in primary healthcare centers in Benghazi, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hala K; El Borgy, Mohamed D; Mohammed, Huda O

    2014-12-01

    Many underlying factors influence the capacity of women to survive from complications emerging during pregnancy and childbirth, including women's health and nutritional status starting from childhood and during pregnancy. Also, women's access to and the use of appropriate health services according to their knowledge, attitude, and behavior during pregnancy. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, the attitude, and practices of pregnant women toward antenatal care in primary healthcare centers in Benghazi, Libya. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 300 pregnant women, who were chosen from three primary healthcare centers with the highest attendance rate of pregnant women in Benghazi, Libya, using a structured interview questionnaire. The highest percentage (85.3%) of pregnant women had a high knowledge score regarding antenatal care, and most of them (96.0%) showed a positive attitude; the highest percentage (76.4%) of pregnant women also had good practice scores.The level of overall knowledge had a significant direct correlation with the practices towards antenatal care (r=0.228, P≤0.001), whereas it had an insignificant correlation with the attitude (r=0.029, P=0.619). The majority of the participants of the study tended to have a high level of knowledge and practices. Also, most of them had a positive attitude towards antenatal care. These findings can be used to plan a customized health intervention program aiming to improve maternal health practices regarding antenatal care and eventually improve the health status of Libyan women.

  15. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  16. The Effect of Media on Body Image in Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Liechty, Toni; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D; Davis, Emilie J; Kroff, Savannah L

    2017-05-08

    Much research has found that exposure to certain types of media portrayals of women can be related to body image concerns among women. The current paper focuses on the impact of certain messages on pregnant and postpartum women. These women are rarely examined in a media research context but are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. This experimental study involved 192 pregnant or postpartum women who read a magazine containing glamorized media portrayals of pregnant/postpartum women or a control magazine. Pregnant women reported lower body image after only five minutes of exposure to the magazine with pregnant/postpartum women compared to the control group. There was no immediate effect on postpartum women. Implications for the media industry, health professionals, and women are discussed.

  17. [Reference Intervals of Thyroid Hormones in Normal Pregnant Women and Effects of Thyroid Autoantibodies on Thyroid Hormone Levels in Pregnant Women in Chengdu Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Min; Zeng, Jing; Yan, Yue-Rong; Luo, Dan; Huang, Lu; Huang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    To establish the reference intervals of thyroid hormones in normal pregnant women in Chengdu area of China, and to investigate the effects of thyroid autoantibodies on thyroid function in pregnant women. We included 696 pregnant women who had gestation data from June 2013 to March 2014 in Chengdu Women & Children's Central Hospital. Every subject under went questionnaire survey, physical examination, thyroid ultrasound and measurement of thyroid hormone and thyroid autoantibodies. The normal reference intervals were established according to the percentiles (P2.5-P97.5) of the healthy pregnant women in the same trimester. Another 50 non-pregnant women were selected as the control group. Of the 696 pregnant women, 579 subjects had negative thyroid autoantibodies and 117 subjects had positive thyroid autoantibodies. The positive rate of thyroid autoantibodies was 16.81%. Of the 579 subjects with negative thyroid autoantibodies, 257 were in the first trimester, 202 in the second trimester and 120 in the third trimester. In the first trimester of normal pregnancy, the reference intervals of serum thyrotropin (TSH) , free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were 0.02-4.03 mIU/L, 3.85-6.27 pmol/L and 11.93-21.04 pmol/L respectively. In the second trimester, the reference intervals of serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 were 0.02-4.05 mIU/L, 3.51-5.82 pmol/L and 11.23-19.22 pmol/L respectively. In the thirdtrimester, the reference intervals for serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 were 0.24-5.41 mIU/L, 3.18-4.97 pmol/L and 11.10-17.00 pmol/L, respectively. When compared with non-pregnant women, the median TSH value was increasingly consisted with the progress of pregnancy period, while the median FT4 and FT3 values were decreasing accordingly. The similar tendencies of TSH, FT3, and FT4 were found in pregnant women with positive thyroid autoantibodies, but the trends were more remarkable when compared with those with negative thyroid autoantibodies. In pregnant women with positive

  18. Traditional medicine practitioners’ knowledge and views on treatment of pregnant women in three regions of Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the

  19. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (≥150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

  20. Physical activity level of urban pregnant women in Tianjin, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women.This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18-44 years of age in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders.Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs h/day. They expended 1.76-1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1% met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (≥150 min moderate intensity exercise per week. The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59-10.62, habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39-3.28, and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33-3.67 significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001. A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.87 significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001.Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups.

  1. Health providers’ compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Vajihesadat; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Kohan, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery is one of the most important crises with mental, social, and deep emotional dimensions in women's life. Health providers’ respect to pregnant women's Bill of Rights, as an important component of providing humanistic and ethical care, is of utmost importance. This study aimed to determine health providers’ compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery and some of its related factors in 2013. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on the subjects selected through census sampling (N = 257) from among the healthcare providers working in the labor rooms of four educational hospitals. The data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire whose validity and reliability were established. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights was found to be at a very high level in 22.8% of the midwifery students, 28.6% of the residents of obstetrics and gynecology, 21.9% of the interns, 50% of the obstetrics and gynecology faculty members (professors), and 31.9% of the midwives. There was a significant difference between the five groups of service providers in terms of overall compliance with mothers’ rights (P = 0.002). The results showed that the residents in higher years of education (P = 0.001), midwifery students in higher semesters (P = 0.001), midwives with more work experience (P Bill of Rights. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in compliance with Bill of Rights between labor and age (P = 0.82). Conclusions: The results showed that the health providers’ compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights was not acceptable in the labor room. Therefore, necessary actions are needed to remove the barriers against pregnant women's compliance of Bill of Rights and to facilitate the compliance with it in hospitals. PMID:26457093

  2. Health providers' compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Vajihesadat; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Kohan, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Delivery is one of the most important crises with mental, social, and deep emotional dimensions in women's life. Health providers' respect to pregnant women's Bill of Rights, as an important component of providing humanistic and ethical care, is of utmost importance. This study aimed to determine health providers' compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery and some of its related factors in 2013. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on the subjects selected through census sampling (N = 257) from among the healthcare providers working in the labor rooms of four educational hospitals. The data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire whose validity and reliability were established. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. The compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights was found to be at a very high level in 22.8% of the midwifery students, 28.6% of the residents of obstetrics and gynecology, 21.9% of the interns, 50% of the obstetrics and gynecology faculty members (professors), and 31.9% of the midwives. There was a significant difference between the five groups of service providers in terms of overall compliance with mothers' rights (P = 0.002). The results showed that the residents in higher years of education (P = 0.001), midwifery students in higher semesters (P = 0.001), midwives with more work experience (P Bill of Rights. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in compliance with Bill of Rights between labor and age (P = 0.82). The results showed that the health providers' compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights was not acceptable in the labor room. Therefore, necessary actions are needed to remove the barriers against pregnant women's compliance of Bill of Rights and to facilitate the compliance with it in hospitals.

  3. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A; Voegtline, Kristin M; Costigan, Kathleen A; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-10-01

    The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n=47) and 36 weeks (n=45) of gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30s following stimulation. Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. © 2013.

  4. APPLICATION OF GENETIC DEAFNESS GENE CHIP FOR DETECTION OF GENE MUTATION OF DEAFNESS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Liang; ZHONG Su; ZHAO Nan; LIU Ping; ZHAO Yangyu; QIAO Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study is to identify the carrier rate of common deafness mutation in Chinese pregnant women via detecting deafness gene mutations with gene chip. Methods The pregnant women in obstetric clinic without hearing impairment and hearing disorders family history were selected. The informed consent was signed. Peripheral blood was taken to extract genom-ic DNA. Application of genetic deafness gene chip for detecting 9 mutational hot spot of the most common 4 Chinese deafness genes, namely GJB2 (35delG,176del16bp, 235delC, 299delAT), GJB3 (C538T) ,SLC26A4 ( IVS72A>G, A2168G) and mito-chondrial DNA 12S rRNA (A1555G, C1494T) . Further genetic testing were provided to the spouses and newborns of the screened carriers. Results Peripheral blood of 430 pregnant women were detected,detection of deafness gene mutation carri-ers in 24 cases(4.2%), including 13 cases of the GJB2 heterozygous mutation, 3 cases of SLC26A4 heterozygous mutation, 1 cases of GJB3 heterozygous mutation, and 1 case of mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutation. 18 spouses and 17 newborns took fur-ther genetic tests, and 6 newborns inherited the mutation from their mother. Conclusion The common deafness genes muta-tion has a high carrier rate in pregnant women group,235delC and IVS7-2A>G heterozygous mutations are common.

  5. [Evaluation of fructosamine as a parameter of blood glucose control in diabetic pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Alina Coutinho Rodrigues; Andrade, Flávio Silva

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the alternative parameters to monitor glycemia in pregnant women with diabetes studying the relationship between fructosamine testing and self monitoring of blood glucose in pregnant women with diabetes. Serum fructosamine levels and the self monitoring of blood glucose over 14 days before the collection of fructosamine were evaluated in 47 diabetic pregnant women. Seventy-one fructosamine levels and 2,238 glucose measurements (CGs) were analysed. Levels of fructosamine correlated with high blood glucose index (HBGI) and the standard deviation of glycemias (r = 0.28; p = 0.021 and r = 0.26; p = 0.03, respectively). The comparison between the mothers of the newborns with appropriated or large birthweight and those who gave birth to small newborns for their gestational age (SGA) showed that the latter had a lower glycemic mean (105 vs. 114 and 119 mg/dL), a higher low blood glucose index (5.8 vs. 1.3 and 0.7) and a higher percentage of hyperglycemias (11 vs. 0 and 0%) even when the fructosamine falls within the reference values (242 vs. 218 and 213 μmol/l). The levels of fructosamine can be used as further parameter to aid self monitoring of blood glucose to evaluate hyperglycemias and glycemic variability, however, this can underestimate hypoglycemias in pregnant women carrying small-for-gestational age fetuses.

  6. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care.

  7. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  8. Genetic association study of phosphodiesterase 8B gene with subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Junyu; Fan, Jianxia; Qian, Wei; Shu, Khor

    2015-01-01

    To explore whether phosphodiesterase 8B (PDE8B) gene is involved in the etiology of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnant women. A total of 180 pregnant patients with SCH and 311 healthy, pregnant control subjects were recruited in this study to detect 4 (rs4704397, rs6885099, rs2046045, and rs12514694 in PDE8B) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Univariate associations were studied using Pearson's χ(2) test for categorical variables and Student t/ANOVA tests for continuous ones. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test were used to study the associations of TSH level in different genotypes. Genotyping of SNPs was performed by the MassARRAY(®) iPLEX(®) Gold SNP genotyping analysis technique. The SHEsis program was used to analyze the genotyping data. There was a significant difference in the rate of high TSH in three genotypes of rs4704397 in all pregnant women. After adjusting for multiple testing by the program SNPSpD, allelic frequencies of rs4704397 (p = 0.016, OR = 1.692), rs6885099 (p = 0.031, OR = 0.621), and rs2046045 (p = 0.023, OR = 0.602) in PDE8B gene showed significant differences between patients with SCH and control subjects. There were no significant differences of genotype frequencies between patients and controls at any of the analyzed SNPs (p > 0.05).The haplotypes ''A G C G'' (p = 0.002; OR, 1.533; 95% CI, 1.172-2.006) and "G A A G" (p = 0.014; OR, 0.576; 95% CI, 0.369-0.899) in PDE8B were observed to be significantly associated with SCH in pregnant women. Genetic variation of the PDE8B gene may be involved in the etiology of SCH in pregnant women.

  9. Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastirli, Alexandra; Pasmatzi, Efstathia; Badavanis, George; Tsambaos, Dionysios

    2016-12-01

    Dear Editor, Pityriasis rosea is a common, acute, and self-limiting dermatosis, which is associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and/or HHV-7 (1). It predominantly affects individuals of both sexes in their second or third decade of life and is clinically characterized by the occurrence of an initial erythematosquamous plaque followed by the appearance of disseminated similar but smaller lesions one or two weeks later. Several patients develop systemic symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, malaise, headache, fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy that may precede or accompany the eruption; the latter follows the cleavage lines of the trunk creating the configuration of a Christmas tree and spontaneously resolves within 4 to 8 weeks. Mainly based on the nature of the underlying viral reactivation, pityriasis rosea is classified into five different forms (2): 1) Classic and 2) Relapsing (characterized by sporadic and relapsing HHV-6/7 systemic reactivation, respectively), 3) Persistent (persistence of HHV-6/7 viremia), 4) Pediatric (longer activity of HHV-6/7 infection; recent primary infection) and 5) Gestational (HHV-6/7 reactivation and possible intrauterine transmission). Clearly, the inevitable impairment of immune response in pregnancy favors viral reactivation and possibly also the intrauterine transmission of HHV-6/7. Indeed, it is well known and documented that pityriasis rosea more frequently occurs in pregnant women (18%) as compared to the general population (6%) (3). However, the literature concerning the possible effect of pityriasis rosea on the outcome of pregnancy is surprisingly sparse. Only an Italian group, Drago et al (4,5), has systematically investigated the impact of this disorder on pregnant women. They found that 22 out of 61 women (36%) who developed pityriasis rosea during pregnancy had unfavorable outcomes, whereas 8 others miscarried (13%). None of the latter had any risk factors, other than

  10. Association of Homocysteine, Vitamin and Blood Factors with Preeclampsia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nadafi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Preeclampsia is a disease with worldwide importance to mothers and infants, where it accounts for 20–80% of the strikingly increased maternal mortality. The lack of enzymes added to the homocysteine metabolism or the cofactors necessary for its metabolism (folate, B6 vitamin, B12 vitamin cause hyperhomocysteinemia. Abnormal serum lipid profiles such as cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Recently high levels of B-HCG have been identified as a potential marker for developing preeclampsia. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible association of homocysteine, vitamin and some serum factors levels with preeclampsia in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A case control study was performed prospectively on normotensive healthy pregnant women (80 and pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia (80 referring to Imam Sadjad hospital in Yasuj, between September 2004 to August 2005. In addition to the obstetric evaluation and laboratory examination in the 3rd trimester of gestation, blood samples were taken from all cases for homocysteine and vitamin B12, folic acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, B-HCG analysis. The samples were evaluated by Immunoassay (ELISA. Univariant and logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of outcomes. Results: The mean plasma level of total homocysteine was significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnancy(p0.05. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnant women(p<0/05. LDL and HDL levels were not correlated with preeclampsia. There was no significant association between preeclampsia and B-HCG levels. Conclusion: Homocysteine, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations increase in preeclampsia but decrease of vitamin B12 and folic acid levels was not observed in preeclampsia. LDL, HDL and B-HCG levels were not

  11. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rayis, Duria A

    2010-12-06

    Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ≥ secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ≤ 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ≥ 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

  12. ACTIONS DEVELOPED BY THE HEALTH TEAM FAMILY FOR MAINTENANCE OF MEMBERSHIP OF PREGNANT WOMEN IS LINKED TO THE PROGRA M O F PROTECTION FOR PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Chaves Rondon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the need to capture pregnant women, and find a better way to have her support, the teamhas confronted many difficulties in the execution. This study objective is describe theactivities made with pregnant women at the program SISPRENATAL by the professionals inthe PSF units in Valparaiso deGoiáscity. The results show the professionals profile, thatwork on health family strategyconstituted by 29% of nurses, 4% of doctors, 15% of technicalnursing and 52% of community agents. Most of the staffdidn'treceive the necessary trainingto make a good work.Many aspects was mentioned about the facilities found in the program,especiallyspeed of results and the accessibility. The avoidance of pregnant women is a majordifficulty justifying the lack of time and distance from the unit to her house. The high staffturnover has hindered the development of the actions, demonstratingthe importance ofcontinuing education for the development of new skills for the professional, to implementtheir actions in the pursuit of excellence in customer service

  13. Knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women residing in Qatar and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdelmonem S; Al-Kharusi, Balqees M

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women in Qatar and Oman. Three hundred pregnant women were interviewed during their second trimester based on a questionnaire developed for the study. Results of the survey indicated that 94% of the women knew about folic acid, 41.3% knew it should be taken periconceptionally, 58.5% knew that it prevents birth defects and 34.4% were able to identify five or more food sources of folic acid. The majority (88.7%) of women was taking the supplement, 85.0% were taking it regularly and 13.2% took it before getting pregnant. Knowledge and use were significantly influenced by ethnicity, age, education level, employment and family income. Periconceptional use of supplement was lowest among younger women (4.9%) and illiterate and least educated women (5.3%). It was concluded that high level of knowledge of folic acid was not reflected as successful use of the folic acid supplement.

  14. [Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly

  15. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  16. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathibe-Neke, J M

    2008-09-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328) Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations.

  17. [Simple locomotion and during load carrying in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomer, E; Ducher, D; Arfi, G S; Sud, R

    1991-01-01

    There have been few studies of the way women walk in pregnancy, though some of the causes of low back ache of which they complain have only been partially worked out. This is why this study has been carried out on ten women between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. The speed at which they walk and the parameters of the gait as well as the localization of the centre of gravity when keeping upright have been measured in these pregnant women as well as in twenty control women of the same age. The results show that the speed at which they walk whether with or without carrying a weight usually is identical at the beginning and the end of pregnancy. When walking normally the size of the steps taken are no larger in pregnant women than in the control patients (p less than 0.05). Though the results are not statistically significant the rhythm of the steps is faster as well as their being a reduction in the length of the steps between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. When carrying a weight the length of the steps does not change greatly with pregnancy (p less than 0.05) and it would seem therefore to be a good way of assessing the changes that locomotion undergoes in pregnancy. The fact that women do not walk faster or slower can give evidence that they adapt to the change in posture that happens in pregnancy and they make the best possible biomechanical use of the parameters of walking in order to economise total energy output of the organism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Comparing caring practices between two groups of pregnant women in the city of sincelejo

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In order to compare the care practices that a group of pregnant women exercise in respect of themselves and their unborn child of a group of adolescent pregnant girls andanother of adult pregnant women who attended prenatal check ups in Sincelejo during the months of July and September of 2006, a descriptive, quantitative and transversal study was developed, with a sample of 97 adolescent pregnant girls between 15 and 19 years and of 153 adult pregnant women between 20 and 45 years of age, wi...

  19. Pathophysiological Features of Endogenous Intoxication in Pregnant Women with Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kabanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the nature and specific features of development of endogenous intoxication in pregnant women with arterial hypertension. Subjects and materials. Humoral extracellular fluid volume regulation, partial renal functions, placental hormonal function, membranous lipid peroxidation activity, antiradical defense, the parameters of central hemodynamics, endogenous intoxication, and a biochemical coagulogram were studied and differential blood count with the leukocytic ratio indices was estimated in 172 pregnant females with arterial hypertension and 54 healthy pregnant ones in the third trimester. The statistical package «Stadia» was applied. Results. Arterial hypertension caused by pregnancy was ascertained to involve pathogenetically different types: low-, normal-, and high-renin ones. In pregnant women with arterial hypertension, the general pathogenetic homeostatic changes were placental hormonal imbalance, activated membranous lipid peroxidation, impaired lymph outflow, sodium and water retention, hepatic and renal failure, and endogenous intoxication. Conclusion. Placental ischemia appearing as placental hormonal imbalance (extrarenal pressor system was accompanied by a compensatory humoral response: arterial hypertension and metabolic disturbances. Changes in medium-weight molecule 280, leukocytic intoxication index, erythrocytic sorption capacity, and Paramecium test, by confirming the presence of endogenous intoxication in pregnant females with arterial hypertension, were caused by a type of arterial hypertension (by the hemodynamic profile and the type of impaired partial renal functions. Key words: pregnancy, arterial hypertension, endogenous intoxication.

  20. Prevalence of vaginitis among pregnant women attending Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S; Tuladhar, N R; Basnyat, S; Acharya, G P; Shrestha, P; Kumar, P

    2011-12-01

    Vaginitis is the most prevalent disorder among the pregnant women. The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of common types of vaginitis among the pregnant women visiting Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital in Kathmandu. Among 200 pregnant women included in the study, 78 (39.0%) had vaginitis. Of total 78 positive cases of vaginitis, 29.5% had candidiasis, 52.6% bacterial vaginosis and 1.3% trichomoniasis. Approximately 83% had monomicrobial infection and 16.7% had polymicrobial infection. Vaginitis was common in the age group of 20 to 29 years (41.8%) and 30-39 years (40.0%). Ethnically, Indo-Aryans (40.2%) were mostly infected. The infection rate was the highest among illiterate women (47.6%) and least among the women having education above secondary (23.0%). The positive infection rate was higher in women from rural area (45.2%) than those from urban area (37.3%). Nearly half of the women with agriculture occupation (48.4%) had vaginitis. Vaginitis was common in women with third pregnancy (52.6%). Among 78 vaginitis cases, 53 (67.9%) were asymptomatic cases.

  1. Correlates of vaginal colonization with group B streptococci among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsering Chomu Dechen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study of genital colonization by group B streptococcus (GBS was conducted in pregnant women in their third trimester, which is a known risk factor of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Aims: The present study was undertaken to study the prevalence and the correlates of vaginal colonization by GBS among pregnant women. Setting and Design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2002 to March 2004 on 524 pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Three high vaginal swabs were obtained from all the pregnant women admitted at term and in preterm labor. Two swabs were used for aerobic culture and the third one for gram staining. The first set of swabs was cultured on 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The second set of swabs were inoculated into Todd-Hewitt broth and then subcultured in 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The main outcome measures were the presence of GBS infection in comparison to the age group, gravida, gestational age, premature rupture of membrane (PROM, preterm labor and association with febrile spells of the present pregnancy. Results: The culture positivity rate of GBS was 4.77% and coexistent organisms isolated were Candida species (36%, Staphylococcus aureus (8% and Enterococcus species (8%. Culture positivity in the age group of 18-25 years was 5.71%, of which 5.74% were in their first pregnancy. The correlation between age group and gravida with GBS culture positivity was statistically insignificant. The culture positivity in <36 weeks of gestational age was 6.93%. This relation was statistically significant. Twenty-eight percent developed PROM. Sixty-four percent of culture positives had preterm labor. Conclusion: GBS infection among pregnant women was significantly correlated with the gestational age, PROM and preterm labor. In pregnancy GBS colonization causes asymptomatic bacteriuria or UTI. It is a well known cause of puerperal infections with amnionitis,endometritis and sepsis being

  2. Impact of the Use of Different Diagnostic Criteria in the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Coutinho Rodrigues Feitosa

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is a physiologic elevation of total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG during pregnancy. Some authors define dyslipidemia (DLP in pregnant women when TC, LDL and TG concentrations are above the 95th percentile (p95% and HDL concentration is below the 5th percentile (P5% for gestational age (GA. Objective: To compare the prevalence of DLP in pregnant women using percentiles criteria with the V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemia and the association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Results: Pregnant women with high-risk conditions, aged 18-50 years, and at least one lipid profile during pregnancy was classified as the presence of DLP by two diagnostic criteria. Clinical and laboratorial data of mothers and newborns were evaluated. Conclusion: 433 pregnant women aged 32.9 ± 6.5 years were studied. Most (54.6% had lipid profile collected during third trimester. The prevalence of any lipid abnormalities according to the criteria of the National Guidelines was 83.8%: TC ≥ 200 mg/dL was found in 49.9%; LDL ≥ 160 mg/dL, in 14.3%, HDL ≤ 50 mg/dL in 44.4% and TG ≥ 150 mg/dL in 65.3%. Any changes of lipid according to percentiles criteria was found in 19.6%: elevation above the P95% for TC was found in 0.7%; for LDL, 1.7%; for TG 6.4% and HDL lower than the P5% in 13%. The frequency of comorbidity: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity and preeclampsia was similar among pregnant women when DLP was compared by both criteria. Conclusion: The prevalence of DLP during pregnancy varies significantly depending on the criteria used, however none demonstrated superiority in association with comorbidities.

  3. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  4. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  5. Correlates of Vaginal Colonization with Group B Streptococci among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechen, Tsering Chomu; Sumit, Kar; Ranabir, Pal

    2010-09-01

    A study of genital colonization by group B streptococcus (GBS) was conducted in pregnant women in their third trimester, which is a known risk factor of morbidity and mortality among newborns. The present study was undertaken to study the prevalence and the correlates of vaginal colonization by GBS among pregnant women. This observational cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2002 to March 2004 on 524 pregnant women. Three high vaginal swabs were obtained from all the pregnant women admitted at term and in preterm labor. Two swabs were used for aerobic culture and the third one for gram staining. The first set of swabs was cultured on 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The second set of swabs were inoculated into Todd-Hewitt broth and then subcultured in 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The main outcome measures were the presence of GBS infection in comparison to the age group, gravida, gestational age, premature rupture of membrane (PROM), preterm labor and association with febrile spells of the present pregnancy. The culture positivity rate of GBS was 4.77% and coexistent organisms isolated were Candida species (36%), Staphylococcus aureus (8%) and Enterococcus species (8%). Culture positivity in the age group of 18-25 years was 5.71%, of which 5.74% were in their first pregnancy. The correlation between age group and gravida with GBS culture positivity was statistically insignificant. The culture positivity in preterm labor. GBS infection among pregnant women was significantly correlated with the gestational age, PROM and preterm labor. In pregnancy GBS colonization causes asymptomatic bacteriuria or UTI. It is a well known cause of puerperal infections with amnionitis, endometritis and sepsis being the most commonly reported infections.[5].

  6. VALIDITY OF SELF-REPORTED DRUG USE INFORMATION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Mahek; Garrison, Laura; Leeman, Lawrence; Hamidovic, Ajna; Borrego, Matthew; Rayburn, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study assesses validity of self-report for the use of major classes of illicit drugs and opioid-maintenance therapy among pregnant women at a substance abuse treatment program. Methods Analyses used data collected from 83 pregnant women in a prospective cohort study at the University of New Mexico. Study participants with a history of substance abuse were screened and, if eligible, enrolled during an early prenatal care visit. A follow-up interview was conducted shortly after delivery. Self-reported information about drug use later in pregnancy was compared with urine drug screen (UDS) results collected during the third trimester. Simple kappa (k) and prevalence-and-bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) coefficients were calculated as the measures of agreement. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report for each drug class were estimated using UDS as the ‘gold standard’. Results The sample included a large proportion of ethnic minority (80% Hispanic/Latina and 7% American Indian) and socially disadvantaged (50% < less than high school education and 94% Medicaid-insured) pregnant women. On average, patients had 4.8 ± 3.0 urine drug screens during the third trimester. Sensitivity of self-report was low (<60%) for all classes of illicit drugs; however, marijuana and opioids demonstrated slightly higher sensitivity (57.9% and 58.3%, respectively) than other classes (<47%). Conclusions This study found substantial underreporting for all classes of illicit drugs among pregnant women in a substance abuse treatment program. Rates of underreporting are expected to be higher among the general population of pregnant women. PMID:26175273

  7. Iodine status of pregnant women in a metropolitan city which proved to be an iodine-sufficient area. Is mandatory salt iodisation enough for pregnant women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Engin; Aydogan Mathyk, Begum; Aydogan, Berna Imge; Acıkgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Erenel, Hakan; Celik Acıoglu, Hasniye; Anık Ilhan, Gökce; Dane, Banu; Ozel, Aysegul; Tandogan, Bulent; Cakar, Erbil; Isci, Herman; Kayan, Basak; Aslan, Halil; Ekiz, Ali; Sancak, Seda; Celik, Ayhan; Yoldemir, Tevfik; Uzun, Ozgur; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the iodine status of pregnant women in a metropolitan city which was stated as iodine sufficient area after salt iodination program. This multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out on 3543 pregnant women. Age, gestational weeks, smoking, consumption of iodized salt, dietary salt restriction, history of stillbirth, abortus and congenital malformations were questioned. Spot urine samples were analyzed for urine iodine concentration (UIC). The outcomes were: (a) median UIC in three trimesters of pregnancy and (b) frequency of ID among pregnant women. The median UIC was 73 µg/L. The median UIC was 77 µg/L (1-324), 73 µg/L (1-600) and 70 µg/L (1-1650) in three trimesters of pregnancy, respectively (p: 0.14). UIC <50 µg/L was observed in 36.6% (n: 1295) and UIC<150 µg/L was observed in 90.7% (n: 3214) of pregnant women. Only 1% (n: 34) of the pregnant women had UIC levels higher than 500 µg/L. This study showed that more than 90% of the pregnant women in this iodine-sufficient city are facing some degree of iodine deficiency during their pregnancy. A salt iodization program might be satisfactory for the non-pregnant population, but it seems to be insufficient for the pregnant population.

  8. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women’s daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  9. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  10. THE STUDY OF ANAEMIA & ITS RELATED SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AMONGST PREGNANT WOMEN IN RURAL COMMUNITY OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnant women is one of India’s major public health problems and is a major factor responsible for low birth weight. One fifth of the maternal deaths occurred worldwide due to anemia . OBJECTIVES: To find out prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and it s association with socio demographic factors. Study Design: Cross sectional study. SETTING : The study was conducted in village Khera at RHTC , Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre , G h aziabad. MATERIAL & METHODS: The study was carried from Oct 2012 to June 2013. A total of 321 pregnant women with gestational period between 12 to 20 weeks were registered. H a emoglobin was estimated and peripheral smear examination was carried out. Statistical Analysis: Chi - Squar e test. RESULTS: A high prevalence of anaemia (79.75% was observed in pregnant women. Majority of the primipara were moderately anaemic (58.38% and were less than 20 years of age. 37% of multipara pregnant women were severely anaemic . Occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy was found to be inversely proportional to the socioeconomic class. Statistic ally significant association (P< 0.05 were found amongst anaemic pregnant women with their age , parity and socioeconomic class.

  11. Effect of nurse home visits vs. usual care on reducing intimate partner violence in young high-risk pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Mejdoubi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV. The nurse-family partnership (NFP is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. METHODS: A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223 received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237 received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the child's second birthday. RESULTS: At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%, physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40% and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%, and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%. Furthermore, women in the intervention group reported significantly less IPV perpetration in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 60% vs. I: 46%, level 1 physical assault (C: 65% vs. I: 52%, and level 1 injury (C: 27% vs. I: 17%. At 24 months after birth, IPV victimization was significantly lower in the intervention group for level 1 physical assault (C: 44% vs. I: 26%, and IPV perpetration was significantly lower for level 1 sexual assault (C: 18% vs. I: 3%. Multilevel analyses showed a significant improvement in IPV victimization and perpetration among women in the intervention group at 24 months after birth. CONCLUSION: VoorZorg, compared with the usual care, is effective in reducing IPV during pregnancy and in the two years after birth among young high-risk women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register NTR854 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=854.

  12. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p relationship power (-0.48, p relationship power (0.15, p relationship power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.

  13. PREVALENCE OF OVERT AND SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM AMONG INDIAN PREGNANT WOMEN AND ITS EFFECT ON FOETOMATERNAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha

    2016-06-01

    , mode of delivery, prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction, foetal distress, neonatal intensive care unit admissions were comparable between the two groups. Amongst all foetomaternal variables assessed in SCH and control group, none was significantly different. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, especially overt and subclinical hypothyroidism among Indian pregnant women with associated adverse perinatal outcome. There was no significant association between SCH pregnancy and adverse foetomaternal outcome; however, in overtly hypothyroid pregnant women the incidence of PE, GDM and IUFD was significantly higher as compared to euthyroid controls.

  14. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M Faas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. RESULTS: We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it's LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.

  15. M-cholinoreactivity of erythrocytes of non-pregnant and pregnant women evaluated by changes in the rate of erythrocyte agglutination under the influence of acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, A I; Tsirkin, V I; Krysova, A V; Hlybova, S V; Dmitrieva, S L

    2012-12-01

    Acetylcholine (5.5×10(-10)-5.5×10(-6)M) accelerated erythrocyte agglutination in men, non-pregnant women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and pregnant women in the first trimester. The effect was blocked with atropine (5.5×10(-6)M). Acetylcholine had no effect on the rate of erythrocyte agglutination in non-pregnant women in the luteal phase and pregnant women in the second and third trimesters, which coincided with the development of myometrium refractoriness to acetylcholine in pregnant women. The results indicate that erythrocytes can reflect M-cholinoreactivity of internal organs.

  16. Smoking among pregnant women - epidemiology and health consequences

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    Kjell Haug

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTSmoking during pregnancy is an important, preventable risk factor for late fetal death and even SIDS.There is a strong dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and spontaneous abortion,reduction in birth weight, abruptio placentae, placenta previa and bleeding during pregnancy. Ten yearsago, the prevalence of smoking among Norwegian pregnant women was between 35 and 40%. Duringthe last 8 years there has been a dramatic change and in 1995 the prevalence seems to be around 20%.

  17. DeQuervain tenosynovitis in pregnant and postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schned, E S

    1986-09-01

    DeQuervain tenosynovitis, which involves the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons, is much more common in women than men and is due to repetitive movements of the hand such as grasping and twisting. Housewives and persons involved in manual occupations using the hands and wrists account for most cases in previous series. In this series, six of 24 female patients (25%) were pregnant or postpartum at the time of onset. In five of the six, activities of infant care aggravated symptoms. Both pregnancy, per se, and mechanical factors appear to play a role in causing this condition.

  18. The Haemostatic Effects of Mifepristone in Early Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺昌海; 范倩; 顾江; 桂幼伦; 汪荣卿; 李盛华; 陈俊康

    1994-01-01

    The paper reported the effects of four different regimens of mifepristone on clotting and fibrinolytic systems in pregnant women. Nine parameters (PT,KPTT,Ⅶ: C, Ⅷ: C, VWF , AT Ⅲ = C, AT Ⅱ = Ag , α2-macroglobulin and plasminogen antigen levels) were determined. All the data were analysed on VAX-Ⅱ using SAS software package, The results showed that among the four groups there was no significant.difference in pretreated values of each parameter, and in values of PT、KPTT、 AT

  19. Trends and consequences of consumption of food and non-food items (pica by pregnant women in Western Kenya

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    Lucy Kariuki

    2016-12-01

    Food cravings, aversions and pica practices should be assessed in antenatal care of pregnant women. Attention should be paid to pregnant women who have had a history of child death and women with low education level.

  20. Serum magnesium in healthy pregnant women in a teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main study was a cross-sectional study of healthy antenatal women recruited ... the subjects into two groups of hypomagnesaemic and normomagnesaemic patients. ... is common in teenagers, women of high parity and low social class.

  1. Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toher, C

    2013-08-24

    Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

  2. Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Mari; Nakamura, Yasuka; Atogami, Fumi; Horiguchi, Ribeka; Tamaki, Raita; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant and postpartum women are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. These women suffer from increased risk of physical and mental issues including pregnant related problems. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which hit the Philippines affected a large number of people and caused devastating damages. During and after the typhoon, pregnant women were forced to live in particularly difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine concerns and problems regarding ...

  3. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Can...

  4. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Leidiane De Lucca; Fabiane Rodrigues; Letícia B. Jantsch; Neme, Walter S.; Gallarreta, Francisco M. P.; Gonçalves, Thissiane L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 2...

  5. Anemia among pregnant women in Southeast Ethiopia: prevalence, severity and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kefiyalew, Filagot; Zemene, Endalew; Asres, Yaregal; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Background Anemia is a significant public health problem in developing countries, particularly in pregnant women. It may complicate pregnancy, sometimes resulting in tragic outcomes. There is a lack of information on the magnitude of anemia among pregnant women in Southeast Ethiopia. The aim of this study is, therefore, to determine the prevalence of anemia and assess associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) at Bisidimo Hospital in Southeast Ethiopia. Methods A f...

  6. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  7. Clinical management of pregnant women with the risk of pre-eclampsia developing

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    Loskutova T.O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain important problem of modern obstetrics, their frequency being 2-8% with no tendency of decreasing. To identify pregnant women with high risk and to conduct preventive treatment is very important for the practitioner. The aim of the study was to develop and justify differential management of pregnants depending on the risk of preeclampsia. 131 pregnant women in I trimester were tested to determine the risk of hypertensive disorders. Prediction model allows to identify pregnant women with risk of hypertensive disorders according to the results of testing thrombophilia genes (presence of 455G → A polymorphism in the gene for fibrinogen β and 4G/5G in gene of plasminogen activator inhibitor - type 1, the level of antibodies to β2 glycoprotein-1, the level of D-dimer and the value of atherogenicity coefficient. Pregnant women with high risk of hypertensive disorders, received prophylactic treatment complex. This complex included antiplatelet therapy, correction of hyperho¬mo¬cysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia levels. Etio-pathogenic concept of prediction and prevention of pre-eclampsia associated with thrombophilia was proposed. The proposed scheme of preventive treatment allowed to normalize blood clotting parameters, lipid metabolism, to reduce the number of thrombophilia markers. The necessity of early and long-term administration of prophylactic complex was proved. This management prevents endothelial damage and deve¬lopment of pathological range of pre-eclampsia. The results of prophylactic treatment were the reduction of preeclampsia cases by 6,5 times (p < 0.05, number of complicated deliveries by 3 times (p <0.05, number of preterm birth by 6,57 times (p <0.05, cases of growth retardation by 9,8 times (p = 0.003, increase of newborns’ weight by 1,24 times (p = 0.02.

  8. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in rural India: a longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishu Mangla

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: There is a significantly high prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in rural areas of India. Our study has also enlisted a few socio demographic factors that contribute to such high prevalence of this disease. Programs focused on target population need to be planned and implemented with active participation of locals. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3500-3505

  9. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  10. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  11. Analysis of pregnancy and childbirth course in pregnant women with excessive weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duka Yu.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Under supervision there were 233 pregnant women with excessive weight aged 18-43 years. Patients were under observation and gave birth on the basis of obstetric units of municipal establishment "Dnepropetrovsk regional perinatal center with in-patient unit of" Dnepropetrovsk regional council". When performing research 2 groups were formed: 120 (51,5% pregnant women with miscarriage threat against excessive weight being at in-patient treatment since early terms of pregnancy. They underwent in-depth study. 113 (48,5% pregnant women with obesity with gestation course estimated retrospectively at the time of delivery. As a result of the obtained data in women of prospective group treatment algorithm was developed. This algorithm represented a complex treatment including antiagregant and anticoagulant therapy, co-factor vitamin therapy. Despite a more mature age of women of prospective group, adverse anamnesis by missarriage, high frequency of miscarriage in its first half, low placentation level, this complex allowed to improve course of the second half of pregnancy and to reduce number of gestational complications and perinatal losses.

  12. Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women

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    Christian Mølgaard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 µg per day. In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± SD for vitamin D intake was 9.23 ± 5.60 µg per day (diet: 3.56 ± 2.05 µg per day, supplements: 5.67 ± 5.20 µg per day. 67.6% of the women reported use of vitamin D supplements but only 36.9% reported use of vitamin D supplements of at least 10 µg. Supplements were the primary source of vitamin D for the two higher quartiles of total vitamin D intake, with diet being the primary source for the two lower quartiles. Determinants of sufficient total vitamin D intake were: high maternal age, nulliparity, non-smoking, and filling out of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ during summer or fall. We propose that clinicians encourage vitamin D supplementation among pregnant women, with special focus on vulnerable groups such as the young, smokers and multiparous women, in order to improve maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy.

  13. Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miguel A; Montesinos, Pau; Casale, María F; Díaz-Mediavilla, Joaquín; Jiménez, Santiago; Fernández, Isolda; Fernández, Pascual; González-Campos, José; González, José D; Herrera, Pilar; de Lisa, Elena; Olave, Teresa; Rojas, Rafael; Salamero, Olga; Sayas, María J; Pellicer, Antonio; Perales, Alfredo

    2015-08-01

    The management of pregnant women with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a challenge with limited evidence-based information available. We are reporting a series of 14 consecutive pregnant women with APL who were registered in the PETHEMA Data Centre between 1996 and 2012. APL was diagnosed during early pregnancy in five women, late pregnancy in seven, and two additional patients after delivery in an extremely poor clinical condition (pulmonary and cerebral hemorrhage). Eleven of the 12 patients eligible for induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid and idarubicin achieved complete remission (CR 92 %) and are still in the first CR. All early pregnancies ended in abortion (four induced and one spontaneous), with four of them achieving CR. Eight of nine women in late pregnancy delivered a healthy infant (six cesarean section and two vaginal delivery). All eight babies developed normally. Our results confirm a high cure rate for pregnant women with APL who received all-trans retinoic acid and idarubicin for induction therapy, and an excellent outcome for babies when the disease is diagnosed during late pregnancy.

  14. Agreeableness and pregnancy: Relations with coping and psychiatric symptoms, a longitudinal study on Spanish pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; Rodríguez, Laura; Carmona, Javier; Marín, Dolores

    2017-01-19

    Agreeableness is associated with good mental health during pregnancy. Although different studies have indicated that agreeableness is related to adaptive coping, this relation has scarcely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible differences between high and low agreeableness in relation to coping strategies and psychiatric symptoms in pregnant women. We conducted a longitudinal prospective study between October 2009 and January 2013. Pregnant women (n = 285) were assessed in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 122 of them were assessed during the third. Data were collected using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Symptom Check List 90-R, and the agreeableness subscale of the NEO-FFI. Using the SPSS 21 statistics package, binary logistic regression, two-way mixed analysis of variance, and multiple regression analyses and a Sobel test were conducted. Higher levels of agreeableness were associated with positive reappraisal and problem-solving, and lower levels of agreeableness were associated with overt emotional expression and negative self-focused coping. Women with low agreeableness had poorer mental health, especially in the first trimester. These findings should be taken into account to improve women's experiences during pregnancy. Nevertheless, given the scarcity of data, additional studies are needed.

  15. Malaria associated symptoms in pregnant women followed-up in Benin

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    Massougbodji Achille

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is generally agreed that in high transmission areas, pregnant women have acquired a partial immunity to malaria and when infected they present few or no symptoms. However, longitudinal cohort studies investigating the clinical presentation of malaria infection in pregnant women in stable endemic areas are lacking, and the few studies exploring this issue are unconclusive. Methods A prospective cohort of women followed monthly during pregnancy was conducted in three rural dispensaries in Benin from August 2008 to September 2010. The presence of symptoms suggestive of malaria infection in 982 women during antenatal visits (ANV, unscheduled visits and delivery were analysed. A multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between symptoms and a positive thick blood smear (TBS. Results During routine ANVs, headache was the only symptom associated with a higher risk of positive TBS (aOR = 1.9; p Conclusion The majority of pregnant women were symptomless during routine visits when infected with malaria in an endemic stable area. The only suggestive sign of malaria (fever was associated with malaria only on the occasion of unscheduled visits. The prevention of malaria in pregnancy could be improved by reassessing the design of IPTp, i.e. by determining an optimal number of doses and time of administration of anti-malarial drugs.

  16. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the product and three from the voucher. Our findings suggest

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of Hemoglobin Disorders in Pregnant Women Attending Two Urban Hospitals in Eastern Coast of Odisha, India

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    RS Balgir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are an important segment of the society. They bear the children and provide nourishment to them during the period of gestation of nine months. The health of a mother reflects the health of a child. No such study of prevalence of hemoglobinopathy in pregnant women from India is available. The study objectives were: to find the prevalence (genetic burden of hemoglobin disorders in pregnant women belonging to urban setting; identify the communities at risk, and to determine the hematological profile of native pregnant women of coastal Odisha. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women visiting for antenatal care at two urban hospitals, Bhubaneswar and Berhampur in Coastal Odisha was investigated. A total of 178 pregnant women attending antenatal care check up at two urban hospitals in coastal Odisha were studied. Appropriate statistical tools were used for analysis of data. High prevalence of 13.5% for hemoglobin disorders was observed in urban pregnant women visiting two major hospitals in coastal Odisha. Mild to moderate anemia was recorded. Reduced values of hematological indices in women afflicted with hemoglobin disorders than the normal controls were noted. Major hemoglobinopathies detected were: β-thalassemia trait (5.6%, sickle cell trait (5.6%, hemoglobin E trait (1.1%, sickle cell-E-disease (0.6%, and hemoglobin H disease (0.6%. Mandatory awareness, comprehensive clinical management, and genetic/marriage counseling are highly essential to ameliorate the sufferings of afflicted pregnant women of coastal Odisha.

  18. Toward Earlier Inclusion of Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Tuberculosis Drug Trials: Consensus Statements From an International Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amita; Mathad, Jyoti S; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Albano, Jessica D; Botgros, Radu; Brown, Vikki; Browning, Renee S; Dawson, Liza; Dooley, Kelly E; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kim, Peter; Lyerly, Anne D; Mirochnick, Mark; Mofenson, Lynne M; Montepiedra, Grace; Piper, Jeanna; Sahin, Leyla; Savic, Radojka; Smith, Betsy; Spiegel, Hans; Swaminathan, Soumya; Watts, D Heather; White, Amina

    2016-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15-44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials of promising new tuberculosis drugs exclude pregnant women. To advance inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in tuberculosis drug trials, the US National Institutes of Health convened an international expert panel. Discussions generated consensus statements (>75% agreement among panelists) identifying high-priority research areas during pregnancy, including: (1) preventing progression of latent tuberculosis infection, especially in women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus; (2) evaluating new agents/regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; and (3) evaluating safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of tuberculosis drugs already in use during pregnancy and postpartum. Incorporating pregnant women into clinical trials would extend evidence-based tuberculosis prevention and treatment standards to this special population.

  19. [Detection of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women with different gestational ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luis J O; Cruz, Thomaz; Daltro, Carla; França, Caroline S; Nascimento, Avelina O S

    2005-12-01

    To detect subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Seventy-five pregnant women who resided in the town of Itabuna, state of Bahia, were voluntarily studied. Inclusion criteria were age pregnant women. In 5.4% of them, thyroid ultrasonographic changes were documented. Based on finding of a 4% prevalence of elevated TSH during pregnancy, the authors consider important the inclusion of thyroid function laboratory evaluation in the routine prenatal examination. Further studies appear necessary to establish at what gestational age thyroid function evaluation should be started in pregnant women and how frequently it should be repeated during the course of gestation.

  20. Malaria burden among pregnant women living in the rural district of Boromo, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Gies, Sabine; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2007-12-01

    In two cross-sectional surveys carried out in the rural health district of Boromo, Burkina Faso, malaria infection was evaluated in 295 pregnant women in May 2003 and 288 pregnant women in December 2003. Malaria prevalence, all P. falciparum infection, was higher in December (32.2%) than in May (11.9%) (P pregnant women living in the rural district of Boromo. This requires a major effort by the health authorities to guarantee all pregnant women have access to and use preventive measures.

  1. Characterization of Pregnant Women in the Social Enterprise State Santiago de Tunja, First Half of 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Rebellón, David Esteban; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Parra, Tania Julieth; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Hernández, Fredy; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Linares, Andrés Fernando; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Rodríguez, Ana Yervid; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Vargas, Ludy Alexandra; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    Introduccion: Physicological changes, sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric conditions during pregnancy lead to alterations predispose morbimortality in pregnant women. This study aims to characterize pregnant women attending antenatal care in the ESE Santiago de Tunja between January and June 2013.Materials and methods: Observational-descriptive study, in which databases were reviewed to determine the clinical characteristics and risk factors in 910 pregnant women.Results: Pregnant women ...

  2. Screening pregnant women for group B streptococcus infection between 30 and 32 weeks of pregnancy in a population at high risk for premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Boldizsar; Grasselly, Magdolna; Bödecs, Tamás; Boncz, Imre; Bódis, József

    2013-07-01

    To assess the benefits of a chemoprophylaxis program based on screening women for group B streptococcus (GBS) infection between 30 and 32 weeks of pregnancy in a population with a high rate of premature births. From 1995 to 2011, 24 950 women were screened for GBS infection between 30 and 32 weeks of pregnancy at Markusovszky Teaching Hospital, Szombathely, Hungary. Those who tested positive, and those who tested negative but were at risk of infecting their newborns, underwent intrapartum prophylaxis. Neonatal outcomes were compared with those of a historical cohort that underwent no screening or treatment, and with those published in CDC/ACOG guidelines recommending screening closer to term. There were 63 infected newborns (0.2%) in the study cohort, and 1 of 8 with sepsis died. There were 149 infected newborns (0.7%) in the historical cohort, and 29 of 31 with sepsis died. Screening women early in a population with a high rate of premature births may simplify preterm labor management. It results, however, in a higher incidence of early onset neonatal GBS disease than when screening is done closer to term. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Ukrainian Women: Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Vitamin D Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Charles R; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Chambers, Christina D; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Chan, Priscilla H; Schafer, Jordan J; Wertelecki, Wladimir; Keen, Carl L

    2017-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption can alter vitamin D status; however, the relationships between alcohol consumption and vitamin D concentrations in pregnant women have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the vitamin D status in a population of alcohol-exposed (N = 180) and low/unexposed control (N = 179) Ukrainian pregnant women. Women who attended prenatal care facilities in 2 regions of Ukraine (Rivne and Khmelnytsky) for a routine prenatal visit were screened for the study. At the time of enrollment (20.4 ± 7.0 weeks of gestation), blood samples and alcohol consumption data (during a typical week around conception and the most recent 2 weeks) were collected. Vitamin D status was assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. A high prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant Ukrainian women was observed. Overall, 50.1% and 33.4% of the women were classified as vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D D ≥ 20 ng/mL and ≤30 ng/mL], respectively, based on 2011 Endocrine Society guidelines. Alcohol-exposed women had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations than low/unexposed women in Spring (p = 0.006) and Winter (p = 0.022). When vitamin D concentrations were grouped into sunny season (Summer + Fall) compared to not sunny season (Winter + Spring), there was a significant ethanol by season interaction (p = 0.0028), with alcohol-drinking women having lower circulating vitamin D compared to low/unexposed women in seasons of low sun availability. These data suggest that when vitamin D concentrations are generally low (e.g., during seasons of low sun availability), alcohol consumption during pregnancy has a negative impact on vitamin D status.

  4. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

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    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  5. What do pregnant women know about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damase-Michel, Christine; Christaud, Julie; Berrebi, Alain; Lacroix, Isabelle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2009-11-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use on late pregnancy can be associated with severe adverse neonatal outcomes. Some NSAIDs, available over the counter, can be purchased easily by pregnant women. The present study evaluates pregnant womens' knowledge about NSAID use in pregnancy. The survey includes 250 pregnant women in South-west France. Women have been interviewed about their knowledge on analgesic and NSAID use in pregnancy. A total of 2% pregnant women use aspirin or ibuprofen as self-medication. More than 10% of the women think that it is safe to take NSAIDs on late pregnancy. A majority of them thought that aspirin and ibuprofen are not NSAIDs. NSAID risks in pregnancy are insufficiently known. Adequate information must be provided not only to medical practitioners and pharmacists but also to pregnant women especially for drugs which are available over the counter. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Characteristics of pregnant and lactating women with leprosy

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    Paula Sacha Frota Nogueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics of women who conceive during leprosy and the association between leprosy and pregnancy are not well known. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 49 pregnant or lactating women diagnosed with leprosy in 2011. RESULTS: The patients had a clinical dimorphous form of leprosy (44.9%, no physical incapacity at diagnosis (87.5%, and no complications in either the patient or infant (33.4%. In 36.3% of cases, leprosy symptoms were presented in the last trimester of pregnancy, and in 31.9% of patients were in the first trimester of lactation. CONCLUSIONS: The association between leprosy and pregnancy should be routinely investigated, particularly in endemic areas.

  7. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, K; Bailey, L B; Dimperio, D; Mahan, C S

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the vitamin B6 status of 180 pregnant women and the incidence and degree of morning sickness experienced during the first trimester was investigated. There were no significant differences in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activity, and stimulation of erythrocyte AspAT activity by exogenous PLP between subjects who experienced morning sickness and those who did not. No relationship was found between these indicators of vitamin B6 status and the degree of morning sickness experienced by this group during early pregnancy. There were no differences in the number of women who experienced morning sickness or in the number with different degrees of sickness when plasma levels of PLP, erythrocyte AspAT activity or stimulation by PLP were divided into upper and lower 50th percentile groups and compared. Therefore these data show no relationship between vitamin B6 status and the incidence or degree of morning sickness.

  8. [Maternal outcomes in pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-kun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Yu-mei; Ying, Jun; Chen, Dan-qing

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the maternal outcomes of pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa (PPP). Clinical data of 470 patients with placenta previa admitted in Women's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from August 2012 to August 2014 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into pernicious group(n=101) and non-pernicious group(n=369) according to the history of cesarean section and location of placenta attached to the uterine. The general profiles, maternal outcomes of two groups were compared. The age, gravidity and rate of recurrent cavity surgery of pernicious group [(32.5 ± 4.1) y, 3.4 ± 1.2, 28.7%] were higher than those of non-pernicious group [(30.7 ± 4.5) y, 2.1 ± 1.4,13.6%] (Pplacenta accrete was significantly associated with postpartum massive hemorrhage in pernicious group (Pplacenta previa.

  9. Breastfeeding intention among pregnant Hong Kong Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying

    2010-09-01

    This study set out to (1) estimate the prevalence of three forms of feeding intention among 2,178 pregnant women in six of Hong Kong's regional hospitals and (2) identify the associated demographic, socioeconomic, obstetric and relational correlates. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The Chinese version of a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the demographic, socio-economic, and obstetric characteristics of the women. Couples' relationships were investigated using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. All women in the second trimester of their pregnancies who attended the target antenatal clinics within the data collection period of December 2004 to December 2006 were recruited. The prevalence rates of breastfeeding, mixed feeding and artificial feeding were 53.9%, 14.8%, and 31.3%, respectively. Women who had been born in Hong Kong, lived in accommodation that was > or = 300 feet(2) (approximately 30 m(2)), had made an early antenatal booking, had a planned pregnancy, were experiencing their first pregnancy, and had a lower level of conflict with their partners were significantly more likely to opt for breastfeeding. Women who had been born in Hong Kong and already had children were significantly more likely to choose mixed feeding, compared with the artificial group in a multinomial logistic regression model. These findings suggest that effective promotion of breastfeeding during the prenatal period must target the correlates of feeding intention.

  10. Acceptability of neonatal circumcision by pregnant women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Rogerio Phili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC have provided convincing evidence on its efficacy to provide partial protection against female-to-male HIV transmission in circumcised men. The World Health Organization and UNAIDS subsequently formulated recommendations for VMMC implementation that included implementation of neonatal medical male circumcision (NMMC to all infants up to two months old. Knowledge regarding the acceptability of NMMC by pregnant women who are candidates for granting of consents for NMMC procedures or its ideal placement within health programmes is low.Objectives: We sought to establish NMMC acceptability by pregnant women and the feasibility of its integration within Maternal, Child and Women’s Health (MCWH programmes to inform implementation guidelines.Method: Nurses and counsellors at two public health facilities were trained to provide NMMC counselling and offer NMMC to 1778 pregnant women presenting for antenatal care services. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed on data collected on NMMC acceptance and refusals. Thematic analysis was also performed on qualitative reasons for refusals.Results: Acceptability of NMMC by women was high (82.9%. Refusals resulted from the need for consultations with partners and/or family members prior to consenting (41.3%, fear of the procedure (23.8%, cultural reasons (15.9% and no reasons given (15.3%.Conclusion: The acceptability of NMMC by pregnant women and its integration with MCWH services was feasible. However socio-cultural factors, including the need for further consultation prior to consenting for NMMC procedures and preference of traditional circumcision by some women, need to be addressed in order to increase uptakes.

  11. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Fidelis Agwu; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes; Ibekwe, Perpetus Chudi; Ajah, Monique Iheoma

    2015-01-01

    Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment.

  12. [Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Annaba, Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerer, L; Bouzbid, S; Gourbdji, E; Mansouri, R; Bachi, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the department of Annaba, Algeria. We performed a cross-sectional study with analytical purposes. The study was collaboration between the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine of Annaba and Parasite Biology Department at the Pasteur Institute of Algeria. A total of 1028 pregnant women who underwent prenatal diagnosis/visit were included over a period of 4 years from January 2006 to December 2009. Immunoglobulin G and M were assayed, using the microparticle enzyme method. The avidity test was used to determine the date of contamination according to age of pregnancy. Search for the parasite was made by inoculation of the placenta and cord blood in white mice. The study compared mother-to-child serological profiles using Western Blot (WB) IgG and IgM. Direct (not well-cooked meat) and indirect (presence of cat, gardening) indicators were recorded to search for parasite exposure. Seroprevalence was 47.8 % (95 % CI: 44.8 to 51.0) and the rate of active toxoplasmosis was 1.1 % (95 % CI 0.6 to 1.8). According to their immune status, this was the first serology for 41 % (CI95 %: 38.0-44.0) of women; 12 % (CI95 %: 10.5-14.6) of primiparous women had only one serology test during their entire pregnancy. Major risk factors were consumption of poorly-cooked meat and exposure to cats. Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is a serious issue and an effective prevention program is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Serum homocysteine levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoĭkova, V; Ivanov, S; Mazneĭkova, V; Tsoncheva, A

    2005-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most common and severe pregnancy complications, which ethiology remains unclear. It is certain that endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development of preeclampsia. Homocysteine is an important independent cardiovascular risk factor, which might induce the endothelial dysfunction observed in preeclampsia. 26 pregnant women--14 with preeclampsia (group 1) and 12 healthy term pregnant controls (group 2) were enrolled in the study between December 2003 and August 2004. Six of the women in this group had a superimposed preeclampsia. The mean homocysteine level in the first group was 11,04 mol/l, while in the control group it was 6,24 micromol/l (p homocysteine levels than those with mild form (F = 0.025). Seven of the patients (50%) gave birth before 34th weeks of gestation. The study finds a link between the serum homocysteine as an endothelial dysfunction marker and the development of preeclampsia and a relation between the severity of preeclampsia and the degree of the elevation of the serum homocysteine levels.

  14. Risk factors and risk index of cardiac events in pregnant women with heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hua; HUANG Tao-tao; LIN Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    Background Pregnant women with heart disease are at high risk.Studies of risk factors of these patients are of great significance to improve maternal and fetal outcomes.In this paper,we try to discuss the main risk factors of cardiac events in pregnant women with heart disease and to establish a risk assessment system.Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out for pregnancies in 1741 women with heart disease who delivered in Shanghai Obstetrical Cardiology Intensive Care Center between January 1993 and September 2010.A Logistic regression model was used to identify independent risk factors of cardiac events and calculate the risk index in pregnant women with heart disease.Results The composition of heart disease in pregnant women was arrhythmia (n=662,38.00%),congenital heart disease (CHD; n=529,30.40%),cardiomyopathy (n=327,18.80%),rheumatic heart disease (RHD; n=151,8.70%),and cardiopathy induced by pre-eclampsia (n=53,3.00%).Main cardiac events were heart failure (n=110,6.32%),symptomatic arrhythmia needing medication (n=43,2.47%),cardiac arrest (n=2,0.11%),syncope (n=3,0.17%),and maternal death (n=10,0.57%).Six independent risk factors to predict cardiac events in pregnant women with heart disease were cardiac events before pregnancy (heart failure,severe arrhythmia,cardiac shock,etc.,P=0.000),New York Heart Association (NYHA) class >ll (P=0.000),oxygen saturation <90% (P=0.018),pulmonary artery hypertention (PAH)>50 mmHg (P=0.025),cyanotic heart disease without surgical correction (P=0.015),and reduced left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction <40%,P=0.003).Every risk factor was calculated as 1 score.The incidence of cardiac events in patients with scores 0,1,2,3,and ≥4 was 2.10%,31.61%,61.25%,68.97%,and 100.00% respectively.Conclusions Pregnancy with heart disease could lead to undesirable pregnancy outcomes.The risk of cardiac events in pregnant women with heart disease could be assessed by risk

  15. Changes in hematologic indices in caucasian and non-caucasian pregnant women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Sarah K; Yazer, Mark H; Waters, Jonathan H

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in common red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet concentrations during pregnancy and to establish if any observed differences in these parameters were based on the patient's ethnicity. From an electronic perinatal database which stores laboratory and clinical information on a large number of births at a regional hospital specializing in obstetrical care, RBC index and platelet concentration data were retrospectively analyzed at various time points throughout pregnancy. RBC index data was collected from 8,277 pregnant women (5,802 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,475 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Platelet concentration data was available from 8252 pregnant women (5,784 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,468 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Hemoglobin (HGB) levels were significantly higher amongst Caucasian women compared to non-Caucasian women (P at least pregnant women at any point during gestation. There are ethnic differences in HGB levels, but not the platelet concentrations, during pregnancy. Based on this finding it would be reasonable to conduct formal prospective studies to determine the clinical significance of this difference and to establish the threshold for diagnosing gestational anemia, especially in pregnant non-Caucasian women.

  16. Therapeutic management of pregnant women with intracranial haemorrhage related to most commonly occurring arteriovenous malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Jarych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial haemorrhage in pregnancy poses a serious threat to both the mother and the foetus. It is associated with a high mortality and it is the third among non-obstetric causes of death in this group of patients, accounting for 5–12% of all deaths of the pregnant. Vascular malformations, mainly intracranial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations observed also in the general population, are the most common cause of bleeding in pregnant women. So far, there have been no clear guidelines for the treatment of pregnant women with intracranial haemorrhage in the course of the above mentioned malformations, therefore the objective of this study is to summarize the knowledge about the specificity of therapeutic management in those cases. The study discusses the location of vascular lesions, physiological processes in a pregnant woman that must be taken into consideration during a therapeutic intervention, the problem of selecting the treatment (surgical treatment, endovascular therapy, radiosurgery, method and time of delivery, the use of ionizing radiation and drugs during endovascular procedures. In the available literature a special attention is paid to the mother’s welfare during the undertaken treatment, including the maintenance of normal uteroplacental perfusion, which has an effect on the general condition of the foetus. Therefore, it is essential to know the discussed physiological changes in a pregnant women as they condition specific therapeutic management. The safety of applied endovascular procedures in pregnant women is equally important due to the use of both ionizing radiation and certain medications. It is believed that these procedures are acceptable in pregnant women when appropriate radiological protection is used, radiation doses are reduced and medications are selected properly. However, surgical intervention is still considered to be the main method of treatment in this group of patients. The decision about the

  17. Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosfequr

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes.

  18. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

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    Onu FA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fidelis Agwu Onu,1 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora,1 Perpetus Chudi Ibekwe,1 Monique Iheoma Ajah2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim: To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results: A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, pregnant women, Abakaliki

  19. Quality of life, depression and anxiety among pregnant women with previous adverse pregnancy outcomes

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    Evelyn Regina Couto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous adverse pregnancy outcomes (recurrent spontaneous abortion, fetal death, preterm birth or early neonatal death can affect the quality of life of pregnant women. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of life and the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among pregnant women with and without these antecedents. DESIGN AND SETTING: An analytical cross-sectional study was performed in four settings (two high-risk and two low-risk prenatal clinics in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 240 women were interviewed by a single investigator between the 18th and 24th weeks of gestation: 120 women with prior adverse pregnancy outcomes (group 1 and 120 women with no such history (group 2, matched according to their numbers of living children. Sociodemographic variables were collected and two questionnaires were used: the Short Form-36 quality-of-life questionnaire and the Depression and Anxiety Scale. RESULTS: The women in group 1 had lower scores in all the items on the quality-of-life questionnaire. Depression and anxiety were more frequent in group 1 (P < 0.0001. An inverse correlation was found between the Short Form-36 domains and anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Women with histories of recurrent spontaneous abortion, fetal death, preterm birth or early neonatal death seem to have poorer quality of life and more symptoms of anxiety and depression during their subsequent pregnancy, compared with those without such antecedents.

  20. Maternal red blood cell alloantibodies identified in blood samples obtained from Iranian pregnant women: the first population study in Iran.

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    Shahverdi, Ehsan; Moghaddam, Mostafa; Gorzin, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of alloantibodies among pregnant women in Iran. This was a prospective cross-sectional study, which was carried out in the immunohematology reference laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization in Tehran, Iran, in 2008 to 2015. Screening and identification of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies was done on the sera of 7340 pregnant females using the standard tube method and gel column agglutination technique. Alloantibodies were identified in the serum of 332 of the 7340 (4.5%) pregnant women. A total of 410 antibodies were detected in 332 positive maternal serum samples with no previous history of blood transfusion. Anti-D was the most common antibody accounting for 70.5% of all the antibodies formed in D- women. The incidence of specific alloimmunization other than Rh group was 14.4%. We concluded that the alloimmunization rate was high in comparison with wide pattern in previous studies. In Iran, like other developing countries, alloimmunization screening tests are performed only to detect anti-D in pregnant D- women. This high rate of alloimmunization, quite possibly, is due to the fact that the majority of blood samples came from pregnant women known to have previous obstetric problems. However, we suggest that RBC antibody screening tests should be extended to all D+ women. © 2016 AABB.

  1. Comparison of Lifestyles of Women With Gestational Diabetes and Healthy Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Javid, Fatereh Momeni; Simbar, Masoumeh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes is the most common medical condition in pregnancy and can be a predisposing factor in incidence of type II diabetes in future. Incorrect lifestyles can predispose people to various diseases, including diabetes, which is a serious health risk. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare lifestyles of women with gestational diabetes and healthy pregnant women attending the health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU) in 2...

  2. Evaluation of Inflammatory Markers in Pregnant Women at Risk, for the Prediction of Preeclampsia

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    Oancea Mihaela Daniela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A low degree of inflammation has been associated with complications in pregnancies, including preeclampsia (PE. The aim of our study was to determine the serum values of high sensitivity C Reactive Protein (hs-CRP and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy in pregnant women with risk factors for the development of PE, and to evaluate their relevance for the prediction of this disorder.

  3. Status of pandemic influenza vaccination and factors affecting it in pregnant women in Kahramanmaras, an eastern Mediterranean city of Turkey.

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    Ali Ozer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are a target group for receipt of influenza vaccine because there appears to be an elevated mortality and morbidity rate associated with influenza virus infection in pregnant women. The goal of this study is to determine the factors affecting the decisions of pregnant women in Turkey to be vaccinated or not for 2009 H1N1 influenza. METHODOLOGY: We enrolled 314 of 522 (60.2% pregnant women who attended to the antenatal clinics of the Medical Faculty of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam University's Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics between December 23, 2009, and February 1, 2010. We developed a 48-question survey which was completed in a face-to-face interview at the clinic with each pregnant woman. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 314 pregnant women, 27.4% were in the first trimester, 33.8% were in the second trimester, and 38.8% were in the third trimester. Twenty-eight pregnant women (8.9% got vaccinated. Of all the women interviewed, 68.5% stated that they were comfortable with their decisions about the vaccine, 7.3% stated they were not comfortable, and 24.2% stated that they were hesitant about their decisions. The probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was 3.46 times higher among working women than housewives, 1.85 times higher among women who have a child than those who do not, and 1.29 times higher among women with a high-school education or higher than those with only a secondary-school education and below. Correct knowledge about the minimal risks associated with receipt of influenza vaccine were associated with a significant increase in the probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of pregnant women in the study group who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was very low (8.9% and two-thirds of them stated that they were comfortable with their decisions concerning the vaccine. Our results may have implications for public health measures to increase the currently low

  4. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

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    Anna; Maria; Spera; Tarek; Kamal; Eldin; Grazia; Tosone; Raffaele; Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) affects about 3% of the world’spopulation, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution(highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential.

  5. Adiposity and hyperleptinemia during the first trimester among pregnant women with preeclampsia.

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    Yeboah, Francis Agyemang; Ngala, Robert Amadu; Bawah, Ahmed Tijani; Asare-Anane, Henry; Alidu, Huseini; Hamid, Abdul-Wahab Mawuko; Wumbee, Joshua Dokurugu Kwame

    2017-01-01

    Leptin levels start increasing from the early stages of pregnancy, irrespective of the maternal body mass index. Leptin levels are increased in pregnant women with preeclampsia (PE) and may precede the clinical onset of the disease, with peaks occurring around 28 weeks of gestation. This study was aimed at determining whether serum leptin concentration and body fat percentage are significantly altered during the first trimester in pregnancies that subsequently develop PE and whether such changes are useful in predicting the disease. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted among pregnant women in Ho municipality. A cohort of 314 pregnant women was monitored from the first antenatal visit to delivery period at the Volta Regional Hospital, Ho, Ghana. Maternal serum leptin and lipid profile were analyzed and body fat percentage determined during first trimester. Body mass index was also calculated. First trimester serum leptin level (Pbody fat percentage (P<0.0001) were significantly higher in those who developed PE than those who did not; while triglycerides (P=0.8600), total cholesterol (P=0.5620), high-density lipoprotein (P=0.5880), low-density lipoprotein (P=0.4870) and very low-density lipoprotein (P=0.6540) did not show any significant difference between those with PE and those without PE. Leptin levels are increased significantly during the first trimester of pregnancy in obese women with PE, and these increases precede the onset of PE.

  6. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

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    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection.